WorldWideScience

Sample records for biosynthetic tangos negotiate

  1. Tangoing All the Way: Is Everything Negotiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Bonfield

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available “Negotiation seems like dancing the Tango, two steps forward, two steps back and suddenly three surprising steps forward.” — Margot Wallström Smart, well-intentioned people often have good reasons for saying stupid things. Who hasn’t been swept up in an election, worried that there will be terrible consequences if we put the wrong person in the [...

  2. Tango archiving service status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeille, G.; Pierre-Joseph, S.; Guyot, J.; Ounsy, M.; Rubio, S.; Strangolino, G.; Passuello, R.

    2012-01-01

    In modern scientific instruments like ALBA, ELLETRA or Synchrotron Soleil, the monitoring and tuning of thousands of parameters is essential to drive high-performing accelerators and beamlines. To keep track of these parameters and to easily manage large volumes of technical data, an archiving service is a key component of a modern control system like Tango. To achieve this, a high-available archiving service is provided as a feature of the Tango control system. This archiving service stores data coming from the Tango control system into MySQL or Oracle databases. Tree sub-services are provided: 1) An historical service with an archiving period up to 10 seconds; 2) A short term service providing a few weeks retention with a period up to 100 milliseconds; and 3) A snapshot service which takes 'snapshots' of Tango parameters and can reapply them to the control system on user demand. This paper presents how to obtain a high-performance and scalable service based on our feedback after several years of operation. The deployment architecture in the different Tango institutes will then be detailed. The paper concludes with a description of the next steps and incoming features which will be available in the next future. (authors)

  3. Tango for experiment control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.; Claustre, L.; Petitdemange, S.; Svensson, O.; Götz, A.; Coutinho, T.; Klora, J.; Picca, F.; Ounsy, M.; Buteau, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Tango control system framework allows you to control an accelerator complex as well as single equipment. The framework contains the communication bus with the standard communication modes (synchronous, asynchronous, event driven) as well as the basic hardware access modules, GUI tools and development kits, bindings to commercial products (LabView, Matlab, IgorPro) and services (administration, archiving, access control) to set up a control system. Tango was mainly developed by several synchrotron light sources that have to support not only the accelerator complex but also a lot of experimental end stations. For synchrotron experiments we have to control the whole process from basic hardware access over data taking to data analysis. This paper describes in the first part the special features of Tango allowing flexible experiment control. The dynamic configuration, the rapid hardware interface development and the sequencing and scanning framework are some examples. The second part gives an overview of some packages developed in the Tango community for experiment control: A HKL library for diffraction computation and diffractometer control, a library to control 2D detectors and a data analysis workbench with workflow engine for on-line and off-line data analysis. These packages are not part of Tango and can be used with other control systems. (author)

  4. Tango, senses and sensuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Montes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important contributions of the Peircean paradigm to semiotics consists in its opening the sign to development and modification. Sense, meaning, is no longer a static and fixed property. The Peircean paradigm allows us to wonder about how signs are interpreted, how they make sense in actual reception practices. The purpose of this paper is to address the problem of the relationship between appropriation practices (Montes, 2011 and significance processes from the analysis of an empirical case, observing how signs of sensuality are produced in the ballroom tango dance. Tango has earned international reputation mainly as a sensuality dance thanks to its spectacularization and subsequent mediatization. However, as I expect to demonstrate, at the moment of reception, people put those discourses in interaction with specific appropriation practices that shape very special interpretive habits. I will address the issue from an empirical investigation, especially focused on the production of interpretants (emotional, energetic, and logical, that is to say, looking back to the sign reception from the body to the mind. From a corpus of 25 focused interviews with people who got to know tango through mass media but that afterwards learnt to dance it as a social dance, it is my intention to show what sensuality means to them today, and how that current practice interacts with other external and previous discourses to produce interpretive habits. Finally, I wish to offer a theoretical reflection about the relationship between these three types of interpretants, their interaction with the discourse of the mass media and the place corporality has in the reception processes.

  5. Destino Buenos Aires: tango-turismo sexual cinematografico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savigliano Marta E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Buenos Aires disfruta de un boom turístico internacional y el tango figura predominantemente entre los motivos de atracción. ?(spanishQué buscan los viajeros foráneos en la experiencia tanguera? ?(spanishCómo saben qué les puede brindar específicamente un tango y el mundo del tango en general? ?(spanishQué placeres les ofrece el tango? No conforme con explicaciones sobre el carácter trascendental y universal del arte, este artículo explora los recursos sofisticados empleados en la narrativa cinematográfica para transmitir la seducción tanguera en el marco del erotismo de la diferencia cultural. Con este fin se analizan películas de tango recientes (The Tango Lesson de Potter y Tango de Saura y del pasado (Gilda en las que, en la exótica locación de Buenos Aires, la alteridad cultural se cruza con la alteridad de género (exacerbada por la presencia de femmes fatales para desarrollar dramáticos y peligrosos desencuentros amorosos con final feliz. El tango, entonces, así apropiado, promete violentos huracanes emocionales, eróticamente docilizados por las leyes "universales" de la heterosexualidad y la homosocialidad. Una fórmula cinemática irresistible para el turismo sexual cultural.

  6. First Experiments with the Tango Tablet for Indoor Scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diakite, A.A.; Zlatanova, S.

    During the last two decades, the third dimension took an important place in the heart of every multimedia. While the 3D technologies mainly used to be tools and subject for researchers, they are becoming commercially available to large public. To make it even more accessible, the Project Tango,

  7. Feasibility of Google Tango and Kinect for Crowdsourcing Forestry Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hyyppä

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using the Microsoft Kinect and Google Tango frame-based depth sensors for individual tree stem measurements and reconstruction for the purpose of forest inventory. Conventionally field reference data in forest inventory are collected at tree and sample plot level by means of manual measurements (e.g., a caliper, which are both labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, color (i.e., red, green and blue channels, RGB and range images acquired by a Kinect and Tango systems were processed and used to extract tree diameter measurements for the individual tree stems. For this, 121 reference stem diameter measurements were made with tape and caliper. Kinect-derived tree diameters agreed with tape measurements to a 1.90 cm root-mean-square error (RMSE. The stem curve from the ground to the diameter at breast height agreed with a bias of 0.7 cm and random error of 0.8 cm with respect to the reference trunk. For Tango measurements, the obtained stem diameters matched those from tape measurement with an RMSE of 0.73 cm, having an average bias of 0.3 cm. As highly portable and inexpensive systems, both Kinect and Tango provide an easy way to collect tree stem diameter and stem curve information vital to forest inventory. These inexpensive instruments may in future compete with both terrestrial and mobile laser scanning or conventional fieldwork using calipers or tape. Accuracy is adequate for practical applications in forestry. Measurements made using Kinect and Tango type systems could also be applied in crowdsourcing context.

  8. Negotiation Games

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    Negotiations, a model of concurrency with multi party negotiation as primitive, have been recently introduced by J. Desel and J. Esparza. We initiate the study of games for this model. We study coalition problems: can a given coalition of agents force that a negotiation terminates (resp. block the negotiation so that it goes on forever)?; can the coalition force a given outcome of the negotiation? We show that for arbitrary negotiations the problems are EXPTIME-complete. Then we show that for...

  9. First Experiments with the Tango Tablet for Indoor Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakité, Abdoulaye A.; Zlatanova, Sisi

    2016-06-01

    During the last two decades, the third dimension took an important place in the heart of every multimedia. While the 3D technologies mainly used to be tools and subject for researchers, they are becoming commercially available to large public. To make it even more accessible, the Project Tango, leaded by Google, integrates in a simple Android tablet sensors that are able to perform acquisition of the 3D information of a real life scene. This makes it possible for a large number of applications to have access to it, ranging from gaming to indoor navigation, including virtual and augmented reality. In this paper we investigate the ability of the Tango tablet to perform the acquisition of indoor building environment to support application such as indoor navigation. We proceed to several scans in different buildings and we study the characteristics of the output models.

  10. La pausa e l'infinito. I cardini dell'improvvisazione nel tango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Skalovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a consultation of the literature written by the most important authors in argentine tango history and theory and through the testimonials of some renowned tango dancers and teachers of today, argentine tango is being examined from a technical and executive point of view with the goal to give an explanation to the questions that arise around its authentic aesthetical image and during its concrete realization on the dance floor. After a careful presentation of the rules that determine tango and the frame where the momentary creative expression takes place, a specific attention is dedicated to the notions of corte and quebrada. These elements are considered of fundamental importance in the choreographic construction that is being created by improvisation and in the definition of the argentine tango aesthetical and technical identity.

  11. Negotiation Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Hoffmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Negotiations, a model of concurrency with multi party negotiation as primitive, have been recently introduced by J. Desel and J. Esparza. We initiate the study of games for this model. We study coalition problems: can a given coalition of agents force that a negotiation terminates (resp. block the negotiation so that it goes on forever?; can the coalition force a given outcome of the negotiation? We show that for arbitrary negotiations the problems are EXPTIME-complete. Then we show that for sound and deterministic or even weakly deterministic negotiations the problems can be solved in PTIME. Notice that the input of the problems is a negotiation, which can be exponentially more compact than its state space.

  12. It Takes More Than Two To TANGO: Co-Constructing Situated Accountability Through a Local E-Government Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Ekelin

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of shaping local egovernment policies and practices, by including several actors, such as researchers, official authorities, politicians and software companies as well as ordinary citizens in a joint, sustainable development of a region. One way to provide space and place for this ongoing coconstruction and negotiation work of situated egovernment is the establishment of a regional center of competence on e-government, within a program, partly funded by the European Commission, called Innovative Actions. TANGO (Thematic Arenas Nourish Growth Opportunities is a way to build thematic competence centres and stimulate local research- and development projects (R&D, carried out in co-operation with partners from local business life. The Come on in- project, described in this paper, is an example of such an R&D project. The practices reveal several critical and crucial negotiation situations that are of importance to be put forward and be discussed in relation to what situated accountability could mean for the development of what could be called a new politics production. Situated accountability is therefore of great significance for this discussion.

  13. Poda apical para uniformizar a colheita de flores de ?tango?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho testou a poda apical das hastes de tango 4 e 6 semanas após a roçada, para homogeneizar a colheita que, comercialmente, necessita ser feita por um período de aproximadamente 5 dias numa mesma área. Foram avaliados altura média das plantas no primeiro dia de colheita, número médio de hastes colhidas/planta e a média do peso de matéria seca colhida/haste. Só foi verificada diferença significativa para altura média das plantas no primeiro dia de colheita, não se conseguindo reduzir o número de colheitas necessárias por planta. Existem indicações de que há necessidade de reduzir a variabilidade genética da população para homogeneizar a colheita de inflorescências de tango.

  14. Dime qué tango quieres y te diré quién eres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Montes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] Las músicas populares representan lugares de incalculable valor para la construcción de narrativas identitarias, especialmente en el ámbito de su recepción. Escuchar tango, salsa o cuarteto cordobés es también un modo de decirle al mundo el lugar social que ocupamos o, más exactamente, en qué lugar simbólico queremos ser ubicados, en función de los valores que atribuimos a esas músicas. En el presente trabajo se analiza cómo las opciones realizadas en el ámbito de la recepción del tango por parte de los milongueros de la ciudad de Córdoba, les sirven a estos milongueros a para construir sus identidades sociales, una imagen valorada de sus propias competencias y, con ella, de sí mismos. Es, precisamente, en la puesta en valor de sus propias competencias donde podemos encontrar claves para comprender la selección del tango (y de cuáles tangos, dentro del vasto abanico de músicas populares a su disposición. Esta comunicación ofrece una lectura en clave sociodiscursiva de la recepción del tango en Córdoba, atravesada por cuestiones de clase, de identidad nacional y de género. [en] Popular music represents a place of invaluable importance when it comes to the construction of a narrative identity, particularly, in the field of its reception. Listening to tango, salsa, or the popular music of Córdoba (called “Cuarteto Cordobés is also a way of telling the world the social place we occupy or, more precisely, in which symbolic place we want to be located, depending on the values we confer to that music. In this paper, I analyze the way in which the choices made in the reception of tango by the dancers of the city of Córdoba are used by these milongueros (social tango dancers to build their social identities, an appraised image of their own competences, thus of themselves. It is in that very appraisal of their competences where we can find the key to understand their choosing tango (and which tango songs within a vast

  15. Security negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović, Miroslav M.; Ivaniš, Željko

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary security challenges, risks and threats represent a resultant of the achieved level of interaction between various entities within the paradigm of global security relations. Asymmetry and nonlinearity are main features of contemporary challenges in the field of global security. Negotiation in the area of security, namely the security negotiation, thus goes beyond just the domain of negotiation in conflicts and takes into consideration particularly asymmetric forms of possible sour...

  16. The dialogical dance: self, identity construction, positioning and embodiment in tango dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, Luca

    2014-09-01

    Argentine tango is a complex phenomenon, involving music, dancing and lifestyle, today practiced by hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. This is already a good reason for psychology to make it an object of study. Besides, studying tango could also help to develop a dialogical way of theorizing and a dialogical methodology, taking into account both the genetic historical and eso-systemic dimensions and the individual experiencing. As any other product of human psyche, tango creates an universal and abstract representation of life starting from very situated and individual acts. Such institutionalized representation, which is at the same time epistemological, ethical and aesthetical, becomes a tradition -that is the framework distanced from the individual immediate experience- within which the meaning of the experiences to be make sense in return. To illustrate this epistemological and methodological stance, a history of the development of tango as dialogical social object first is sketched. Then, an ethnographic study about the Self actuation in a community of Italian tango dancers is presented. Results show how participants construct and actuate their identities in a dialogue between their I-positions inside and outside tango community.

  17. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...

  18. O tango e o relógio: dois percursos de leitura em Quando Dio ballava il tango, de Laura Pariani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Horn

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available L´emigrazione italiana vista dalla parte delle donne, il riscatto della memoria al suono del tango. Sedici donne che si incrociano costantmente raccontano le vicende dell´emigrazione italiana in Argentina, in un´arco di anni che comprende due secoli. tutte le sofferenze e dolori degli emigrati e dei loro discendenti. Il riscatto della loro memoria tramite Corazón, che raccoglie le fila del romanzo e ricrea de storie di famiglia per rincontrarsi col suo passato. Il tango pervade le vicende narrate, como sottofondo musicale ed inevitabile passo di danza. Un viaggio a ritroso in cerca della memoria e dell´identità.

  19. 3-Axis magnetic control: flight results of the TANGO satellite in the PRISMA mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasset, C.; Noteborn, R.; Bodin, P.; Larsson, R.; Jakobsson, B.

    2013-09-01

    PRISMA implements guidance, navigation and control strategies for advanced formation flying and rendezvous experiments. The project is funded by the Swedish National Space Board and run by OHB-Sweden in close cooperation with DLR, CNES and the Danish Technical University. The PRISMA test bed consists of a fully manoeuvrable MANGO satellite as well as a 3-axis controlled TANGO satellite without any Δ V capability. PRISMA was launched on the 15th of June 2010 on board DNEPR. The TANGO spacecraft is the reference satellite for the experiments performed by MANGO, either with a "cooperative" or "non-cooperative" behaviour. Small, light and low-cost were the keywords for the TANGO design. The attitude determination is based on Sun sensors and magnetometers, and the active attitude control uses magnetic torque rods only. In order to perform the attitude manoeuvres required to fulfil the mission objectives, using any additional gravity gradient boom to passively stabilize the spacecraft was not allowed. After a two-month commissioning phase, TANGO separated from MANGO on the 11th of August 2010. All operational modes have been successfully tested, and the pointing performance in flight is in accordance with expectations. The robust Sun Acquisition mode reduced the initial tip-off rate and placed TANGO into a safe attitude in MANGO. At the same time, it points its solar panel towards the Sun, and all payload equipments can be switched on without any restriction. This paper gives an overview of the TANGO Attitude Control System design. It then presents the flight results in the different operating modes. Finally, it highlights the key elements at the origin of the successful 3-axis magnetic control strategy on the TANGO satellite.

  20. Email Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bülow, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates a set of email negotiations in order to explain a high number of deadlocks. The paper argues that one reason is the combination of cognitive effort characteristic of the e-mail genre, and the argumentative pattern found when two parties simultaneously try to persuade the other of the justice of their cause. For a negotiation involving the wording of a contract, the evidence suggests that, while there is a distinct advantage in the features of reviewability and revis...

  1. Écrire la danse, danser la vie. 'Ego tango' de Caroline de Mulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Siwek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ego tango is the debut novel by a Belgian writer, Caroline de Mulder. In 2010, it won the most significant literary award in the country. The story is set in a closed circle of the Paris tango dancers. The present study examines the original narration of the novel and the construction of the plot, which are both subordinated to the introvert nature of the tango – a dance that becomes an addiction and an obsession. De Mulder’s text is an interesting example of a theoretical problem of the “correspondence of arts,” their mutual overlapping and co-dependence; in this particular case, literature and dance. This concerns both the music and the lyrics of the tangos, which constitute and integral component of the structure of the musical piece and determine the rhythm of the story being told, its atmosphere, mood and type of the relationship between the protagonists. The novel was inspired by the personal experience of the authoress – a tango dancer and was structured in accordance with the nature and the spirit of this dance.

  2. Applying anodal tDCS during tango dancing in a patient with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, D; Allum, J H; Bronstein, A M; Dominguez, R O

    2014-05-07

    Gait disturbance in patients with Parkinson's disease remains a therapeutic challenge, given its poor response to levodopa. Dance therapy is of recognised benefit in these patients, particularly partnered dance forms such as the tango. In parallel, non-invasive brain stimulation has begun to show promise for the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's disease, although effects on gait, compared to upper limbs, have been less well defined. We applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in a 79 year old male patient with moderate Parkinson's disease during tango dancing to assess its effect on trunk motion and balance. The patient performed a total of four dances over two days, two 'tango+tDCS' and two 'tango+sham' in a randomised double-blind fashion. In a separate experimental session we also assessed the isolated effect of tDCS (and sham) on gait without tango dancing. For the dance session, trunk peak velocity during tango was significantly greater during tDCS compared to sham stimulation. In the gait experiments we observed a modest but significant reduction in the time taken to complete the 3m 'timed up and go' and 6m walk, and an increase in overall gait velocity and peak pitch trunk velocity with tDCS compared to sham. Our findings suggest that tDCS may be a useful adjunct to gait rehabilitation for patients with PD, although studies in a larger group of patients are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of non-invasive brain stimulation during dance therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Negotiating Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Pedersen, Esben; Muniche, Mahad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse how negotiations between the constituencies affect the processes and outcomes of lean projects in Danish public sector organisations. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative analysis of interviews with managers...... projects in the Danish public sector. It cannot be concluded that the findings can be generalised to reflect all types of lean projects across organisational and geographical settings. Originality/value – The paper adds value to the relatively scarce literature on lean management in the public sector...... and employees who have participated in lean projects in the Danish public sector. Negotiated order theory serves as the overarching theoretical framework for the analysis. Findings – The paper concludes that the processes and outcomes of lean depend not only on the technology itself, but also the negotiation...

  4. "Una Emoción": documental sobre el abrazo del tango

    OpenAIRE

    Leal Acosta, Adriana Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Para los aficionados a bailar tango, llamados popularmente milongueros, la experiencia emocional y física que produce el encuentro en el abrazo con la pareja, hace que con el tiempo dicha práctica sea tan significativa dentro de su rutina, que se convierte en un estilo de vida. Para ellos, el tango es un universo complejo que trasciende la acción de bailar o escuchar música, es una actividad introspectiva y transformadora que nace en las pistas de baile y se mantiene viva p...

  5. It takes two to tango! Belgium, Europe and work-life balance

    OpenAIRE

    Reyniers, Philippe; Vielle, Pascale

    2009-01-01

    Today, national and European levels of governance must move in close embrace. This article concerns the usages of European political resources by Belgian actors in the making of family-friendly policies. The history of policy changes that took place in Belgium over the last 20 years in these matters benefit from the analogy with tango. Like tango dancers, Belgium and Europe seem to enjoy a close intimacy. They regularly exchange the roles of leader and follower and there is no room for a rela...

  6. A bottom-up approach to automatically configured Tango control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Manrique, S.; Beltran, D.; Costa, I.; Fernandez-Carreiras, D.; Gigante, J.V.; Klora, J.; Matilla, O.; Ranz, R.; Ribas, J.; Sanchez, O.

    2012-01-01

    Alba is the first synchrotron light source built in Spain. Most of Alba control system has been developed on top of Tango control system. An amount of 5531 devices are controlled in Alba accelerators (linac, booster and storage ring) using 150 Linux PCs. Alba maintains a central repository, so called 'Cabling and Controls database' (CCDB), which keeps the inventory of equipment, cables, connections and their configuration and technical specifications. The valuable information kept in this MySQL database enables some tools to automatically create and configure Tango devices and other software components of the control systems of Accelerators, beamlines and laboratories. This paper describes the process involved in this automatic setup

  7. Extreme negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeff; Donigian, Aram; Hughes, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    CEOs and other senior executives must make countless complex, high-stakes deals across functional areas and divisions, with alliance partners and critical suppliers, and with customers and regulators. The pressure of such negotiations may make them feel a lot like U.S. military officers in an Afghan village, fending off enemy fire while trying to win trust and get intelligence from the local populace. Both civilian and military leaders face what the authors call "dangerous negotiations," in which the traps are many and good advice is scarce. Although the sources of danger are quite different for executives and officers, they resort to the same kinds of behaviors. Both feel pressure to make quick progress, project strength and control (particularly when they have neither), rely on force rather than collaboration, trade resources for cooperation rather than build trust, and make unwanted compromises to minimize potential damage. The authors outline five core strategies that "in extremis" military negotiators use to resolve conflicts and influence others: maintaining a big-picture perspective; uncovering hidden agendas to improve collaboration; using facts and fairness to get buy-in; building trust; and focusing on process as well as outcomes. These strategies provide an effective framework that business executives can use to prepare for a negotiation and guide their moves at the bargaining table.

  8. Negotiating action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    After years of working towards a climate accord, the Paris Agreement of 2015 marked the shift from negotiating to reach consensus on climate action to implementation of such action. The challenge now is to ensure transparency in the processes and identify the details of what is required.

  9. Negotiating choices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    As a child in an academic family, I always had a lot of books around and read ... Overall, though, when I look back, I can see that the dominant influence in shaping my .... many others working in India, I have often felt that one's pub- lished work tends to ... The complexities of negotiating gender and professional roles tend to ...

  10. Email Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie

    the other of the justice of their cause. For a negotiation involving the wording of a contract, the evidence suggests that, while there is a distinct advantage in the features of reviewability and revisablity, the email format allows selective attention to the other party’s arguments, which can be shown...

  11. Negotiations 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bruce; And Others

    Reflecting the management advocacy position taken by school boards in collective bargaining procedures, this report analyzes New Jersey school labor negotiations laws and practices as of 1978. Terms and issues of special interest are defined and explained. Topics include contract language, good faith bargaining, past practice, negotiations…

  12. Vanillin biosynthetic pathways in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Anish

    2017-06-01

    The present review compiles the up-to-date knowledge on vanillin biosynthesis in plant systems to focus principally on the enzymatic reactions of in planta vanillin biosynthetic pathway and to find out its impact and prospect in future research in this field. Vanillin, a very popular flavouring compound, is widely used throughout the world. The principal natural resource of vanillin is the cured vanilla pods. Due to the high demand of vanillin as a flavouring agent, it is necessary to explore its biosynthetic enzymes and genes, so that improvement in its commercial production can be achieved through metabolic engineering. In spite of significant advancement in elucidating vanillin biosynthetic pathway in the last two decades, no conclusive demonstration had been reported yet for plant system. Several biosynthetic enzymes have been worked upon but divergences in published reports, particularly in characterizing the crucial biochemical steps of vanillin biosynthesis, such as side-chain shortening, methylation, and glucoside formation and have created a space for discussion. Recently, published reviews on vanillin biosynthesis have focused mainly on the biotechnological approaches and bioconversion in microbial systems. This review, however, aims to compile in brief the overall vanillin biosynthetic route and present a comparative as well as comprehensive description of enzymes involved in the pathway in Vanilla planifolia and other plants. Special emphasis has been given on the key enzymatic biochemical reactions that have been investigated extensively. Finally, the present standpoint and future prospects have been highlighted.

  13. Should a feminist dance Tango? The experience and politics of passion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Tango, of all popular dances, would seem to be the most extreme embodiment of traditional notions of gender difference. It not only draws on hierarchical differences between the sexes, but also generates a ‘politics of passion’ which transforms Argentineans into the exotic ‘Other’ for consumption by

  14. Transsynaptic Mapping of Second-Order Taste Neurons in Flies by trans-Tango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talay, Mustafa; Richman, Ethan B; Snell, Nathaniel J; Hartmann, Griffin G; Fisher, John D; Sorkaç, Altar; Santoyo, Juan F; Chou-Freed, Cambria; Nair, Nived; Johnson, Mark; Szymanski, John R; Barnea, Gilad

    2017-11-15

    Mapping neural circuits across defined synapses is essential for understanding brain function. Here we describe trans-Tango, a technique for anterograde transsynaptic circuit tracing and manipulation. At the core of trans-Tango is a synthetic signaling pathway that is introduced into all neurons in the animal. This pathway converts receptor activation at the cell surface into reporter expression through site-specific proteolysis. Specific labeling is achieved by presenting a tethered ligand at the synapses of genetically defined neurons, thereby activating the pathway in their postsynaptic partners and providing genetic access to these neurons. We first validated trans-Tango in the Drosophila olfactory system and then implemented it in the gustatory system, where projections beyond the first-order receptor neurons are not fully characterized. We identified putative second-order neurons within the sweet circuit that include projection neurons targeting known neuromodulation centers in the brain. These experiments establish trans-Tango as a flexible platform for transsynaptic circuit analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElShenawy, Eman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

  16. Negotiation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Markets in the Pacific have been relatively stable throughout 1999 compared to its Atlantic counterparts. As a result, the outcome of annual negotiations between Australian suppliers and Japanese steel mills (JSM) and utilities will not be so easy to predict this year. The article discusses factors that will affect the prices of coking coal and thermal coal. The outlook for thermal coal prices in the Pacific market looks much more promising than for coking coal. 2 photos.

  17. Coalitional negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mauleon, Ana; Vannetelbosch, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    We develop a two-stage negotiation model to study the impact of costly inspections on both the coalition formation outcome and the per-member payoffs. In the first stage, the players are forming coalitions and inside each coalition formed the members share the coalition benefits. We adopt the largest consistent set (LCS) to predict which coalition structures are possibly stable. We also introduce a refinement,the largest cautious consistent set (LCCS). In the second stage, the inspection game...

  18. [Anxiety, nostalgia and melancholy. A few remarks on psychoanalysis and tango].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, Jorge; Capello, Osvaldo Jorge; Caso de Leveratto, Beatriz; Neuman, Vera; Retondano, Rafael Alberto; Silvani de Capello, Stella Maris; Etchegoyen, R Horacio

    2004-01-01

    Our work is based on the application of psychoanalytic techniques, in order to unveil this cultural phenomenon called tango, related with sexuality and unconscious processes. As a way of introduction, it deals with a brief theory of the birth of tango, the possible terminological source of its name, its main creators and interpreters, as well as the chronological classification into the first wave tangos, Guardia Vieja, and the newer wave tangos, Guardia Nueva. The former ones were awash with festive themes of the centennial years, expressed in behaviors that denote sexuality and love, whereas the latter ones, expose the great bewilderment of the thirties' crisis, due to the imminent downfall of the country, the denunciation of materialism, the crumbling of ideas; which led up to feelings of utter pessimism, loneliness and abandonment. From this point onwards, through the use of techniques provided by psychoanalysis applied to tango lyrics, we are able to unravel the unconscious processes of the drama of its characters; the immigrant, hopeful and at same time nostalgic for the loss of his mother country; the porteno -urban man from Buenos Aires city- who, overwhelmed by immigrants, has to give way to the new compatriots; the inland inhabitant, who was dragged to the city because of the new conditions of rural work; and finally the conventillo, tenement house, as a melting pot that fulfilled the integration of these groups. Like in a painter's palette, which contains various colors and shades, the interpretations about nostalgia, grief and loneliness become apparent, along with the father-son rivalry, the conflict with the absent mother, the relationship between sexes, male chauvinism, infatuation, identity, the fear of death, the rebirth to a new life, the passage from gaucho to guapo, from a shrewd horseman to a daring, bullying braggart.

  19. Effects of Dance on Movement Control in Parkinson’s Disease: A Comparison of Argentine Tango and American Ballroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Madeleine E.; Earhart, Gammon M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The basal ganglia may be selectively activated during rhythmic, metered movement like tango dancing, which may improve motor control in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). Other partner dances may be suitable and preferable for those with PD. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of tango, waltz/foxtrot and no intervention on functional motor control in individuals with PD. Design This study employed a randomised, between-subject, prospective, repeated measures design. Subjects/Patients Fifty-eight people with mild-moderate PD participated. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to Tango, Waltz/Foxtrot or no intervention (Control). Those in the dance groups attended 1-hour classes 2 times per week, completing 20 lessons within thirteen weeks. Balance, functional mobility, forward and backward walking were evaluated before and after the intervention. Results Both dance groups improved more than the Control group, which did not improve. Tango and Waltz/Foxtrot significantly improved on the Berg Balance Scale, six minute walk distance, and backward stride length. Tango improved as much or more than those in Waltz/Foxtrot on several measures. Conclusions Tango may target deficits associated with PD more than Waltz/Foxtrot, but both dances may benefit balance and locomotion. PMID:19479161

  20. Sibling negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rufus A. Johnstone; Alexandre Roulin

    2003-01-01

    Current discussions of offspring begging typically assume either that it is a signal directed at parents or that it represents a form of scramble competition to gain access to them. However, offspring might also display to inform nest mates that they will contest the next food item to be delivered; in other words, begging (possibly in the absence of parents) might serve purely as a form of negotiation among siblings. Here, we develop a game-theoretical model of this possibility. We assume tha...

  1. Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Gerhards

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergot alkaloids are nitrogen-containing natural products belonging to indole alkaloids. The best known producers are fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, e.g., Claviceps, Epichloë, Penicillium and Aspergillus species. According to their structures, ergot alkaloids can be divided into three groups: clavines, lysergic acid amides and peptides (ergopeptines. All of them share the first biosynthetic steps, which lead to the formation of the tetracyclic ergoline ring system (except the simplest, tricyclic compound: chanoclavine. Different modifications on the ergoline ring by specific enzymes result in an abundance of bioactive natural products, which are used as pharmaceutical drugs or precursors thereof. From the 1950s through to recent years, most of the biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated. Gene clusters from several ergot alkaloid producers have been identified by genome mining and the functions of many of those genes have been demonstrated by knock-out experiments or biochemical investigations of the overproduced enzymes.

  2. Negotiating Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sniezek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from qualitative interviews with 40 engaged heterosexual couples, this paper examines how couples transform their relationship from “serious” to being “engaged to be married.” Social Scientists have developed relationship models designed to explain the transformation, but these models fail to adequately capture how couples transform their relationship and the context in which this behavior occurs. Using a constructionist framework, an alternative process model is offered. The five-process model captures the ongoing and fluid work couples perform to negotiate a redefinition of the relationship. Couples reflexively use a host of complex symbolic interaction including talk, rituals, relationships with others, testing, and use of time to construct their relationship in a new way. By examining the underlying reality construction process, rather than merely looking at the outcome, the social processes and human actions that shape relationships are revealed.

  3. Argentine tango dance compared to mindfulness meditation and a waiting-list control: a randomised trial for treating depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinniger, Rosa; Brown, Rhonda F; Thorsteinsson, Einar B; McKinley, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether tango dancing is as effective as mindfulness meditation in reducing symptoms of psychological stress, anxiety and depression, and in promoting well-being. This study employed analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multiple regression analysis. Ninety-seven people with self-declared depression were randomised into tango dance or mindfulness meditation classes, or to control/waiting-list. classes were conducted in a venue suitable for both activities in the metropolitan area of Sydney, Australia. Participants completed six-week programmes (1½h/week of tango or meditation). The outcome measures were assessed at pre-test and post-test. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale; The Self Esteem Scale; Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Sixty-six participants completed the program and were included in the statistical analysis. Depression levels were significantly reduced in the tango (effect size d=0.50, p=.010), and meditation groups (effect size d=0.54, p=.025), relative to waiting-list controls. Stress levels were significantly reduced only in the tango group (effect size d=0.45, p=.022). Attending tango classes was a significant predictor for the increased levels of mindfulness R(2)=.10, adjusted R(2)=.07, F (2,59)=3.42, p=.039. Mindfulness-meditation and tango dance could be effective complementary adjuncts for the treatment of depression and/or inclusion in stress management programmes. Subsequent trials are called to explore the therapeutic mechanisms involved. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential effects of tango versus Dance for PD in Parkinson disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E McNeely

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over half of the general population does not achieve recommended daily levels of physical activity, and activity levels in people with Parkinson disease (PD are lower than in healthy older adults. Dance can serve as an adjunct to traditional treatments to improve gait, balance, and quality of life in people with PD. This study directly compares a tango dance intervention and a dance intervention based on the Dance for PD model which integrates multiple dance styles. Eleven people with PD participated in a community-based mixed styles dance intervention called Dance for Parkinson’s (D4PD. Participants in the D4PD group were matched to participants in an ongoing community-based exercise study who participated in tango dance. The groups received 12 weeks of intervention, attending one-hour group classes twice a week. Participants were evaluated off anti-PD medication before and after intervention. Measures of balance, repeated sit-to-stand performance and endurance (Mini-BESTest, four square step test, five times sit to stand, six minute walk time improved from pre to post similarly in both groups. Motor sign severity (MDS-UPDRS-III and functional mobility (TUG improved in the tango group and worsened in the D4PD group. Gait velocity was not affected by either intervention. Direct comparisons of different interventions are critical for developing optimal exercise interventions designed to specifically target motor impairments in PD. Tango dance interventions may preferentially improve mobility and motor signs in people with PD, compared to D4PD.

  5. Differential Effects of Tango Versus Dance for PD in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Marie E.; Mai, Marina M.; Duncan, Ryan P.; Earhart, Gammon M.

    2015-01-01

    Over half of the general population does not achieve recommended daily levels of physical activity, and activity levels in people with Parkinson disease (PD) are lower than in healthy older adults. Dance can serve as an adjunct to traditional treatments to improve gait, balance, and quality of life in people with PD. This study directly compares a tango dance intervention and a dance intervention based on the Dance for PD model, which integrates multiple dance styles. Eleven people with PD participated in a community-based mixed styles dance intervention called Dance for Parkinson’s (D4PD). Participants in the D4PD group were matched to participants in an ongoing community-based exercise study who participated in tango dance. The groups received 12 weeks of intervention, attending 1-h group classes twice a week. Participants were evaluated off anti-PD medication before and after intervention. Measures of balance, repeated sit-to-stand performance and endurance (mini-balance evaluation systems test, four square step test, five times sit to stand, 6-min walk time) improved from pre to post similarly in both groups. Motor sign severity (movement disorders society unified Parkinson disease rating scale motor subsection) and functional mobility (timed up and go) improved in the tango group and worsened in the D4PD group. Gait velocity was not affected by either intervention. Direct comparisons of different interventions are ­critical for developing optimal exercise interventions designed to specifically target motor impairments in PD. Tango dance interventions may preferentially improve mobility and motor signs in people with PD, compared to D4PD. PMID:26733865

  6. Lühifilm "Argentiina tango" ja Ants Anderi elujanu / Margus Mikomägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikomägi, Margus, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    Valmivast lühifilmist "Argentiina tango" (Film Tower Kuubis), mille stsenarist, kunstnik ja režissöör on Ervin Õunapuu. Viimasest võttepäevast Tallinnas Vabaduse väljaku kunstigaleriis, kus Margus Mikomägi oli ajakirjaniku rollis. Peaosas Roman Baskin. Kunstiteadlase osa mänginud Ants Anderist. Valik Ervin Õunapuu filme

  7. Meditation and Dance in Creative Society: Contemplative Consciousness in Daoism, Zen and Argentine Tango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieška Juzefovič

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the particularly relevant topic in the contemporary society – Asian meditative practices and methods of self-development. The first chapter deals with the notion of contemplative, enlightened consciousness in Daoism and Zen. The second chapter shows how meditative consciousness could be achieved through social tango. Six theses are argued as appropriate for both Daoism and Zen as well as tango: 1 contemplative, purified consciousness is empty of disturbing thoughts and focused toward the essence; 2 contemplative, purified consciousness is not only empty but also brimming full; 3 contemplative, purified consciousness is identical with everyday mind; 4 contemplative mind is functioning according to the principles of non-action and naturalness; 5 meditation leads toward the unity and integrity of consciousness and body, consciousness and outside world; 6 active meditation is an effective way to obtain aims mentioned above. The argumentation of such thesis helps to show that tango is akin to various meditative practices. So it could not only be successfully used as a form of entertainment but also as a meditative practice, leading toward aims, similar to those of Zen meditations.

  8. Reflexión sobre la noción de autenticidad en el tango rioplatense eflexión sobre la noción de autenticidad en el tango rioplatense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marsili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La noción de autenticidad ocupa un sitio muy importante en el tango rioplatense. Los juicios sobre la tanguidad de ciertas propuestas, es decir, sobre su nivel de autenticidad, existieron de manera permanente desde la Guardia Vieja. En el marco de esta discusión histórica, la música de Astor Piazzolla ha sido encarada desde cuatro posturas primordiales: la primera sostiene que su producción no es tango sino música popular contemporánea de Buenos Aires; la segunda refiere que su música nos lleva de la agonía del tango a la potencia del nombre; la tercera considera que su tango es nómade y la última defiende plenamente su tanguidad. A través del desglose de las referidas visiones se busca analizar su solvencia, aporte al estudio del tango, aplicabilidad actual a las nuevas tendencias, y la eventual complementariedad que pueda existir entre ellas a la hora de encarar un estudio del género y sus compositores

  9. BUSINESS NEGOTIATION IN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trajković

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Every day we are faced with some form of negotiation. Negotiation is a means of communication between two or more persons with the aim of achieving an adequate agreement that will be acceptable to both sides. Successful business negotiation in management is used in organizations of all types and sizes, at all organizational levels and in all sectors of business throughout the world. Management shall in all circumstances to plan, organize, lead and control in different ways according to their managerial position as well as the knowledge, abilities and skills that they possessed. Negotiation is an important part of communication which results should contribute to increasing the efficiency of business organizations. Any experienced negotiator in negotiation process has consciously and deliberately, and has a strategy of negotiation. The strategy represents a proactive approach to the negotiations, and the approach aims to influence the course of negotiations.

  10. Successful international negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerry, G.

    1997-01-01

    These remarks on successful international trade negotiations deal with the following topics: culture and differences in psychology; building friendly relationships and letting both sides appear to win; well written proposals; security of negotiating information; the complexity and length of nuclear negotiations

  11. Negotiation Skill Development Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Gregory E.; Chau, Ngan N.

    2017-01-01

    Conflict occurs naturally in all marketing related activities. When such conflict is handled well through proper negotiation, it helps solve problems and build stronger, deeper relationships between the negotiating parties. Nevertheless, many students feel uneasy about negotiating, yet they know it is a crucial skill that needs to be developed.…

  12. Mango: an online GUI development tool for the Tango control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangolino, G.; Scafuri, C.

    2012-01-01

    Mango is an online tool based on QTango that allows easy development of graphical panels ready to run without need to be compiled. Developing with Mango is easy and fast because widgets are dragged from a widget catalogue and dropped into the Mango container. Widgets are then connected to the control system variables by choosing them from a Tango device list or by dragging them from any other running application built with the QTango library. Mango has also been successfully used during the FERMI-Elettra commissioning both by machine physicists and technicians: about 10 control panels have been designed and run with Mango

  13. The Antenarrative of Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Boje, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Within organizations, there are occasions where a contract negotiation is recognizable, e.g. a job offer. However, that situation is already embedded in other structures and negotiations. This article explores the nature of such embeddedness. We extend negotiation theory by adding an analysis...... of argumentation that underlie negotiation. We study a case of New Public Management in a university, as an organization with several layers of decision-makers and distributed responsibility for resource allocation. By examining the dynamic development of antenarrative, we contribute a theory of embeddedness...... that helps to develop strategic ‘bets on the future’ that practitioners can use as a preparation tool before negotiations....

  14. "Tango Feroz": Teaching a History of Politics and Economics of Argentina through Sex, Drugs, and Rock and Roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Eva Karene

    2015-01-01

    This article directly resulted from the teacher/researcher experience, describing new analyses resulting from subtitling a film for curriculum incorporation: "Tango feroz, la leyenda de Tanguito" (1993). Set in Argentina in the sixties and loosely based on the life of José Alberto Iglesias Correa, also known as Tanguito, this film…

  15. Territorios del tango en Buenos Aires: aportes para una historia de sus formas de inscripción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Cecconi

    2014-06-01

    Urban territories are defined by a complex geography that includes not only the space and its features but also the styles, manners and ways of life of the social groups that take part of and compose it. In the same way, is either possible to speak about musical expressions without consider the atmosphere in which they arise and developed. This implies that a phenomenon like music, specially when it is understood as a performance, a scene and a practice, is framed in defined temporal and spatial axis. That means that music expresses an historical time and –at the same time– a specific geography. There are few cities with a so defined and recognized musical identity as Buenos Aires. The tango is the music of a shaped space, in which cultural traditions and a transforming territory are articulated. Thus, tango implies Buenos Aires and Buenos Aires implies tango. This work describes the territories of the tango throughout its history, showing its geographical migrations around the city and the consequent appropriations and resignifications experimented.

  16. Justice and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic.

  17. del tango argentino desde un estudio de recepción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Montes Argentina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo expone los resultados de una investigación sociosemiótica realizada en Córdoba, Argentina, en torno a las interpretaciones que realizan los actuales consumidores de tango argentino para apropiarse de una poesía popular, edificada sobre una moral que tiene fuertes puntos de contraste con la de la clase media. Para ello, se realizaron dos ruedas de entrevistas a una muestra teórica compuesta de 26 personas, con el fin de indagar sobre sus preferencias y creencias en las que sustentan sus selecciones. Se ofrece, finalmente, una hipótesis que nos permite comprender por qué la poesía romántica del tango es la selección preferencial: el prototipo de amor que han incorporado es, en parte, coherente con estos poemas y, cuando no lo es, les basta juzgar ese caso particular como menos adecuado al tópico —en lugar de revisar el prototipo interpretativo.

  18. Targeting the GPI biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Usha; Khan, Mohd Ashraf

    2018-02-27

    The GPI (Glycosylphosphatidylinositol) biosynthetic pathway is a multistep conserved pathway in eukaryotes that culminates in the generation of GPI glycolipid which in turn anchors many proteins (GPI-APs) to the cell surface. In spite of the overall conservation of the pathway, there still exist subtle differences in the GPI pathway of mammals and other eukaryotes which holds a great promise so far as the development of drugs/inhibitors against specific targets in the GPI pathway of pathogens is concerned. Many of the GPI structures and their anchored proteins in pathogenic protozoans and fungi act as pathogenicity factors. Notable examples include GPI-anchored variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) in Trypanosoma brucei, GPI-anchored merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and MSP2 in Plasmodium falciparum, protein-free GPI related molecules like lipophosphoglycans (LPGs) and glycoinositolphospholipids (GIPLs) in Leishmania spp., GPI-anchored Gal/GalNAc lectin and proteophosphoglycans in Entamoeba histolytica or the GPI-anchored mannoproteins in pathogenic fungi like Candida albicans. Research in this active area has already yielded encouraging results in Trypanosoma brucei by the development of parasite-specific inhibitors of GlcNCONH 2 -β-PI, GlcNCONH 2 -(2-O-octyl)-PI and salicylic hydroxamic acid (SHAM) targeting trypanosomal GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase as well as the development of antifungal inhibitors like BIQ/E1210/gepinacin/G365/G884 and YW3548/M743/M720 targeting the GPI specific fungal inositol acyltransferase (Gwt1) and the phosphoethanolamine transferase-I (Mcd4), respectively. These confirm the fact that the GPI pathway continues to be the focus of researchers, given its implications for the betterment of human life.

  19. Patterns of Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Suresh; Pattinson, Hugh

    Traditionally, face-to-face negotiations in the real world have not been looked at as a complex systems interaction of actors resulting in a dynamic and potentially emergent system. If indeed negotiations are an outcome of a dynamic interaction of simpler behavior just as with a complex system, we should be able to see the patterns contributing to the complexities of a negotiation under study. This paper and the supporting research sets out to show B2B (business-to-business) negotiations as complex systems of interacting actors exhibiting dynamic and emergent behavior. This paper discusses the exploratory research based on negotiation simulations in which a large number of business students participate as buyers and sellers. The student interactions are captured on video and a purpose built research method attempts to look for patterns of interactions between actors using visualization techniques traditionally reserved to observe the algorithmic complexity of complex systems. Students are videoed negotiating with partners. Each video is tagged according to a recognized classification and coding scheme for negotiations. The classification relates to the phases through which any particular negotiation might pass, such as laughter, aggression, compromise, and so forth — through some 30 possible categories. Were negotiations more or less successful if they progressed through the categories in different ways? Furthermore, does the data depict emergent pathway segments considered to be more or less successful? This focus on emergence within the data provides further strong support for face-to-face (F2F) negotiations to be construed as complex systems.

  20. World championship in negotiation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2013-01-01

    for negotiation pedagogy.These benefits include: the high level of student commitment generated by participation in a competition, which enhances the quality of negotiation; the opportunity that the competitions give students to experience authentic cultural diversity; and the networking opportunities......The last decade has seen the emergence of several new negotiation competitions around the world.We think the two major drivers of this development are a general trend toward the increasing internationalization of higher education and a recognition of the specific benefits of competitions...... for students and instructors that the competitions create.This article focuses on the role that negotiation competitions can play in negotiation pedagogy. We first present an overview of the currently most important international negotiation competitions.This is followed by an outline of the specific benefits...

  1. Negotiation and management

    OpenAIRE

    Ademi, Nermin

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations are a means of how to solve conflicts and differences through direct communication. It is a structured process through which parties overcome their differences and conflicts trying to reach an agreement about which solution will be acceptable to all. The basic meaning of negotiations is to obtain what you want from others. In this work the principal aspects of negotiations are being discussed, as one of the key business processes and an essential source of competitive advanta...

  2. Negotiation within labor relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia BĂDOI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is the process we use in order to obtain things that we want and are controlled by others. Any desire we intend to fulfill, any need that we are obliged to meet is a potential bargaining situations. Between groups and individuals, negotiation occurs naturally, as some have one thing that the other wants and is willing to bargain to get it. More or less we are all involved in negotiations: closing a contract, buying a thing, obtaining sponsorships, collective decision making, conflict resolution, agreement on work plans. Within the field of labor relations, negotiation can occur on the occasion of closing / amending employment contracts or in order to regulate employment or work relations. Moreover, used properly, the negotiation can be an effective tool for solving labor disputes, with benefits for both involved parties. This paper aims to present negotiating principles and steps to follow in planning and preparing negotiations and the negotiating techniques that can lead to a successful negotiation based on a well-developed plan.

  3. Intelligence and negotiating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of US intelligence during arms control negotiations between 1982 and 1987. It also covers : the orchestration of intelligence projects; an evaluation of the performance of intelligence activities; the effect intelligence work had on actual arms negotiations; and suggestions for improvements in the future

  4. Preparing for Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Larry

    The school board's negotiating team is all-important in the collective bargaining process, especially in light of the unity and organization of teacher association teams. Upper echelon administrative personnel, not the board members themselves, should compose the board's negotiating team. A board inexperienced in collective bargaining can hire a…

  5. Negotiating with payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joel M

    2010-05-01

    Negotiating with payers for better reimbursement, contract language, support for practice enhancement, or changes in policies and procedures is a critical function that may greatly enhance a practice's success over time. This article discusses keys to successful negotiating and several specific areas beyond reimbursement that deserve the reader's attention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PRESTO-Tango as an open-source resource for interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeze, Wesley K; Sassano, Maria F; Huang, Xi-Ping; Lansu, Katherine; McCorvy, John D; Giguère, Patrick M; Sciaky, Noah; Roth, Bryan L

    2015-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential mediators of cellular signaling and are important targets of drug action. Of the approximately 350 nonolfactory human GPCRs, more than 100 are still considered to be 'orphans' because their endogenous ligands remain unknown. Here, we describe a unique open-source resource that allows interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome via a G protein-independent β-arrestin-recruitment assay. We validate this unique platform at more than 120 nonorphan human GPCR targets, demonstrate its utility for discovering new ligands for orphan human GPCRs and describe a method (parallel receptorome expression and screening via transcriptional output, with transcriptional activation following arrestin translocation (PRESTO-Tango)) for the simultaneous and parallel interrogation of the entire human nonolfactory GPCRome.

  7. Vocal amusia in a professional tango singer due to a right superior temporal cortex infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Yasuo; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Shindoh, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Nagai, Chiyoko; Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Arai, Noritoshi; Okabe, Shingo; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Tsuji, Shouji

    2006-01-01

    We describe the psychophysical features of vocal amusia in a professional tango singer caused by an infarction mainly involving the superior temporal cortex of the right hemisphere. The lesion also extended to the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior aspect of the postcentral gyrus and the posterior insula. She presented with impairment of musical perception that was especially pronounced in discriminating timbre and loudness but also in discriminating pitch, and a severely impaired ability to reproduce the pitch just presented. In contrast, language and motor disturbances were almost entirely absent. By comparing her pre- and post-stroke singing, we were able to show that her singing after the stroke lacked the fine control of the subtle stress and pitch changes that characterized her pre-stroke singing. Such impairment could not be explained by the impairment of pitch perception. The findings suggest that damage to the right temporoparietal cortex is enough to produce both perceptive and expressive deficits in music.

  8. Therapeutic Argentine tango dancing for people living with Parkinson’s disease: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Blandy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals living with Parkinson’s disease (PD can experience a range of movement disorders. Therapeutic dance is enjoyable and thought to improve mobility, balance and well being in some people with PD. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a 4 week Argentine tango dance program for people with PD. Methods: Six community dwelling individuals with mild-moderate PD were recruited from Parkinson’s support groups, movement disorder clinics and the Parkinson’s disease Association in Australia. To minimise falls risk, participants were required to be less than 75 years of age and physically independent (Hoehn and Yahr stages I-III. They were also required to speak English. Participants attended a 1 hour dance class at a dance studio twice per week for 4 weeks. A professional dance instructor led and choreographed the classes. Physiotherapists were present to assist participants during the class and served as dance partners as necessary. The primary outcome was feasibility which was determined by measures of recruitment, adherence, attrition, safety (falls, near misses and adverse events and resource requirements. Secondary measures included the Beck Depression Inventory and the Euroqol-5D, administered at baseline and post intervention. Therapy outcomes pre and post-intervention were analysed descriptively as medians and inter-quartile ranges and using Wilcoxon matched pair signed-rank tests.Results: The Argentine tango dance intervention was shown to be safe, with no adverse events. Adherence to the dance program was 89%. Depression scores improved after intervention (p=0.04. Some challenges were associated with the need to quickly recruitment participants and supplying physiotherapists to act as dance partners. Conclusion: The program was shown to be feasible and safe for people with mild to moderately severe PD.

  9. Development of the 5-HT2CR-Tango System Combined with an EGFP Reporter Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tsujimura, Atsushi; Aoki, Miku; Taguchi, Katsutoshi; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-02-01

    The serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor implicated in emotion, feeding, reward, and cognition. 5-HT2CRs are pharmacological targets for mental disorders and metabolic and reward system abnormalities, as alterations in 5-HT2CR expression, RNA editing, and SNPs are involved in these disturbances. To date, 5-HT2CR activity has mainly been measured by quantifying inositol phosphate production and intracellular Ca(2+) release, but these assays are not suitable for in vivo analysis. Here, we developed a 5-HT2CR-Tango assay system, a novel analysis tool of 5-HT2CR activity based on the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-arrestin interaction. With desensitization of activated 5-HT2CR by arrestin, this system converts the 5-HT2CR-arrestin interaction into EGFP reporter gene signal via the LexA transcriptional activation system. For validation of our system, we measured activity of two 5-HT2CR RNA-editing isoforms (INI and VGV) in HEK293 cells transfected with EGFP reporter gene. The INI isoform displayed both higher basal- and 5-HT-stimulated activities than the VGV isoform. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of 5-HT2CR antagonist SB242084 was also detected by 5-HT2CR-Tango system. This novel tool is useful for in vitro high-throughput targeted 5-HT2CR drug screening and can be applied to future in vivo brain function studies associated with 5-HT2CRs in transgenic animal models.

  10. On the biosynthetic origin of carminic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Silas A.; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Khorsand-Jamal, Paiman

    2018-01-01

    provides solid evidence of a polyketide, rather than a shikimate, origin of coccid pigments. Based on the newly identified compounds, we present a detailed biosynthetic scheme that accounts for the formation of carminic acid (CA) in D. coccus and all described coccid pigments which share a flavokermesic...... distribution suggests a common evolutionary origin for the trait in all coccid dye producing insect species....

  11. Culture and Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Kumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    The literature on cross-cultural negotiation has expanded considerably over the past few decades, but the findings are often ambiguous and sometimes even contradictory. This introduction highlights the critical areas where objections are commonly raised about the relevance of national culture......, the applicability of typologies that treat cultures as static, and the problem of ambiguous terminology. It may not be surprising that studies contradict each other given the ambiguity of the national cultural construct and variations in the context of the negotiating situations that are studied. The articles...... in this issue contribute to deepening our understanding about cross-cultural negotiation processes....

  12. Negotiating through conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormick, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    There are several major causes of conflict over the nuclear waste disposal siting process but conflict should not be ended or avoided merely to have peace. A number of issues are listed that should be addressed to ensure that negotiations can be performed in a manner that will result in agreements. During the negotiation process, participants should not reveal all secrets, but must not appear to be holding things back. The agreements reached as a result of negotiations should be spelled out clearly, in writing. The agreement should tell how to implement the decision and state how all parties will be involved. The agreement should also contain provisions for continued interaction among parties

  13. Business Negotiations Idioms

    OpenAIRE

    Юрченко, С.О.

    2013-01-01

    English idioms or idiomatic expressions have always been one of the trickiest topics. This is because the real meanings of English idioms are so far off their literal meanings. To make things more complicated, idioms are used in business negotiations.

  14. Intelligence and negotiating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper gives some background on how people from the INF went about their jobs during the last two years of negotiations, and also relates some of the goals the INF had in mind and some of their concerns

  15. Complex Business Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholst, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Most scholars agree that engaging in preparation and planning is key to a negotiation’s effectiveness but research has largely focused solely on what happens at the negotiation table, rather than in preparation for it. This thesis addresses the balance by clarifying which preparation and planning activities are undertaken to conduct a complex business negotiation. It examines not only what activities are conducted, but also by whom, and when. One important question for both pra...

  16. Taking two to tango: fMRI analysis of improvised joint action with physical contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Many forms of joint action involve physical coupling between the participants, such as when moving a sofa together or dancing a tango. We report the results of a novel two-person functional MRI study in which trained couple dancers engaged in bimanual contact with an experimenter standing next to the bore of the magnet, and in which the two alternated between being the leader and the follower of joint improvised movements. Leading showed a general pattern of self-orientation, being associated with brain areas involved in motor planning, navigation, sequencing, action monitoring, and error correction. In contrast, following showed a far more sensory, externally-oriented pattern, revealing areas involved in somatosensation, proprioception, motion tracking, social cognition, and outcome monitoring. We also had participants perform a “mutual” condition in which the movement patterns were pre-learned and the roles were symmetric, thereby minimizing any tendency toward either leading or following. The mutual condition showed greater activity in brain areas involved in mentalizing and social reward than did leading or following. Finally, the analysis of improvisation revealed the dual importance of motor-planning and working-memory areas. We discuss these results in terms of theories of both joint action and improvisation. PMID:29324862

  17. Interaction as Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    In this paper we discuss recent developments in interaction design principles for ubiquitous computing environments, specifically implications related to situated and mobile aspects of work. We present 'Interaction through Negotiation' as a general Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) paradigm, aimed...... at ubiquitous/pervasive technology and environments, with focus on facilitating negotiation in and between webs of different artifacts, humans and places. This approach is concerned with the way technology presents itself to us, both as physical entities and as conceptual entities, as well as the relations...... on several extensive empirical case studies, as well as co-operative design-sessions, we present a reflective analysis providing insights into results of the "Interaction through Negotiation" design approach in action. A very promising area of application is exception handling in pervasive computing...

  18. Negotiating Life Chances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    to and negotiate both educational and labour mobility - both of which are associated with the chance of a better life. This thesis is about young people (aged 16-31): How they negotiate their life chances and how they contribute to transformations of the socio-political space of their communities in two villages...... becoming. Aspirations prevail over political interests: young people navigate and negotiate their engagement in party and community politics by making calculations concerning their own mobility, life strategies and obligations to kin. In this way, young men engage in, but also balance and shift......, conversely, can only aspire to educational mobility due to gender norms. Furthermore, many of their hopes of ‘becoming somebody’ collapse upon marriage. Women find that they cannot continue their education, nor use the skills they have acquired in local politics, as they need to follow traditional...

  19. Emergent biosynthetic capacity in simple microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Chao Chiu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbes have an astonishing capacity to transform their environments. Yet, the metabolic capacity of a single species is limited and the vast majority of microorganisms form complex communities and join forces to exhibit capabilities far exceeding those achieved by any single species. Such enhanced metabolic capacities represent a promising route to many medical, environmental, and industrial applications and call for the development of a predictive, systems-level understanding of synergistic microbial capacity. Here we present a comprehensive computational framework, integrating high-quality metabolic models of multiple species, temporal dynamics, and flux variability analysis, to study the metabolic capacity and dynamics of simple two-species microbial ecosystems. We specifically focus on detecting emergent biosynthetic capacity--instances in which a community growing on some medium produces and secretes metabolites that are not secreted by any member species when growing in isolation on that same medium. Using this framework to model a large collection of two-species communities on multiple media, we demonstrate that emergent biosynthetic capacity is highly prevalent. We identify commonly observed emergent metabolites and metabolic reprogramming patterns, characterizing typical mechanisms of emergent capacity. We further find that emergent secretion tends to occur in two waves, the first as soon as the two organisms are introduced, and the second when the medium is depleted and nutrients become limited. Finally, aiming to identify global community determinants of emergent capacity, we find a marked association between the level of emergent biosynthetic capacity and the functional/phylogenetic distance between community members. Specifically, we demonstrate a "Goldilocks" principle, where high levels of emergent capacity are observed when the species comprising the community are functionally neither too close, nor too distant. Taken together

  20. How employees negotiate : job autonomy and negotiation self-efficacy related to integrative negotiation and negotiation results in employment relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.

    2006-01-01

    To assess whether satisfaction with psychological contract breach does more depend on good negotiation skills or on a well-designed job, we first investigated the effect of negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy on integrative negotiation with survey data from employees of a telecom company. We

  1. Negotiations in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    negotiation literature. Subsequently, an empirical case study is presented, which explicitly aims at exploring the role of negotiations between members of a supply chain. Based on the findings, the paper concludes on specific, normative guidelines for negotiations for improved supply chain competitiveness...

  2. Acceptance conditions in automated negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarslag, T.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In every negotiation with a deadline, one of the negotiating parties has to accept an offer to avoid a break off. A break off is usually an undesirable outcome for both parties, therefore it is important that a negotiator employs a proficient mechanism to decide under which conditions to accept.

  3. Negotiation for Strategic Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Afiouni, Einar Nour; Øvrelid, Leif Julian

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to examine the possibilities of using game theoretic concepts and multi-agent systems in modern video games with real time demands. We have implemented a multi-issue negotiation system for the strategic video game Civilization IV, evaluating different negotiation techniques with a focus on the use of opponent modeling to improve negotiation results.

  4. Moments of Negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    'Moments of Negotiation' offers the first book-length and indepth analysis of the New Historicist reading method, which the American Shakespeare-scolar Stephen Greenblatt introduced at the beginning of the 1980s. Ever since, Greenblatt has been hailed as the prime representative of this movement,

  5. Climate negotiators' and scientists' assessments of the climate negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Astrid; Zitzelsberger, Sonja; Tavoni, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    Climate negotiation outcomes are difficult to evaluate objectively because there are no clear reference scenarios. Subjective assessments from those directly involved in the negotiations are particularly important, as this may influence strategy and future negotiation participation. Here we analyse the perceived success of the climate negotiations in a sample of 656 experts involved in international climate policy. Respondents were pessimistic when asked for specific assessments of the current approach centred on voluntary pledges, but were more optimistic when asked for general assessments of the outcomes and usefulness of the climate negotiations. Individuals who were more involved in the negotiation process tended to be more optimistic, especially in terms of general assessments. Our results indicate that two reinforcing effects are at work: a high degree of involvement changes individuals' perceptions and more optimistic individuals are more inclined to remain involved in the negotiations.

  6. La construcción de conocimientos pluriversales en la escena del tango de principios de siglo XXI. La experiencia de la Escuela Orlando Goñi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Horacio Gonnet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se enfoca en la génesis de una escuela cooperativa nacida a partir de necesidades históricas en el tango porteño de los años noventa. En una escena musical dominada por las reglas de juego del neoliberalismo, el tango vivió un renacimiento revitalizado por un «neocontestatarismo» en ambientes públicos con recaudaciones voluntarias. En esa modalidad co-gestiva se vertebró un modo propio de hacer circular el conocimiento. Definida por uno de sus fundadores como «muy poco formal pero muy seria», la Escuela Orlando Goñi constituye una experiencia exitosa en la construcción y circulación de conocimientos en el lenguaje del tango.Este trabajo se propone caracterizar a La Goñi como una experiencia decolonial, a partir del análisis de los rasgos principales de su proceso de génesis, como de la progresiva identidad e institucionalización mediante preceptos y normas, tomando como punto de partida la conversación con Julián Peralta, uno de los fundadores, docente, gestor cultural y músico de renombre en el tango de los últimos veinte años.

  7. Ojalá nunca amaneciera: guapos y homosexuales en el Medellín de Aire de tango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Orrego

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aire de tango (1973 de Manuel Mejía Vallejo presenta al barrio Guayaquil como microcosmos y reflejo de las transgresiones traídas por los procesos de modernización en Medellín durante la primera mitad del siglo XX. Sin embargo, el ambiente desintegrado que aparece en la novela es el trasfondo de otra fragmentación, la del personaje principal, Jairo. Junto con la crisis cultural que se despliega en el espacio de este barrio, aparece también una crisis en que la sexualidad de Jairo queda sometida a esta misma fragmentación, en la que no solo se revela la hombría como algo elusivo e inalcanzable, sino también el deseo homosexual. Manuel Mejía Vallejo’s Aire de tango (1973 presents the Guayaquil neighborhood as a microcosm and a reflection of transgressions brought on by the process of modernization in Medellin during the first half of the twentieth century. However, the disintegrated environment that appears in the novel is the background of another fragmentation, that of Jairo, its main character. Along with the cultural crisis that unfolds in this neighborhood, there is also a crisis in which Jairo’s sexuality is subjected to the same fragmentation that not only reveals manhood as something elusive and unattainable, but also the homosexual desire.

  8. The Waste Negotiator's mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Christian

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the Waste Negotiator is to seek out sites for deep underground laboratories to study their potential for disposal of high level radioactive waste. Although appointed by the government, he acts independently. In 1990, faced by severe public criticism at the way that the waste disposal was being handled, and under increasing pressure to find an acceptable solution, the government stopped the work being carried out by ANDRA (Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs) and initiated a full review of the issues involved. At the same time, parliament also started its own extensive investigation to find a way forward. These efforts finally led to the provision of a detailed framework for the management of long lived radioactive waste, including the construction of two laboratories to investigate possible repository sites. The Waste Negotiator was appointed to carry out a full consultative process in the communities which are considering accepting an underground laboratory. (Author)

  9. Negotiating meaning through artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the domain of strategy making, specifically to unpacking the complexity of sociomateriality in strategy discourse. Scholars have emphasized the potential of artefacts to enhance sensemaking during strategizing. However there is a lack of insight into how artefacts...... and conversational aspects are linked at the micro‑level of discourse, also how artefacts and sensemaking shape one another. This research addresses this gap by empirically analyzing strategy discourse within a facilitated modelling workshop. Considering strategizing as a socially constructed activity, the author...... analyzes a workshop transcript to assess the extent to which stakeholders’ appropriation of artefacts supports them in engaging in negotiation of meaning with action implications. Moreover, how artefacts and negotiation of meaning shape one another is identified. The data suggest that appropriating...

  10. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    . An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  11. Negotiating Family Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Bøge, Ask Risom; Sonne Damkjær, Maja

    This presentation explores the question: What motivates the use of tracking technologies in families, and how does the use transform the relations between parent and child? The purpose is to investigate why tracking technologies are used in families and how these technologies potentially change...... the relation between parents and children. The use of tracking technologies in families implicate negotiations about the boundaries of trust and intimacy in parent-child relations which can lead to strategies of resistance or modification (Fotel and Thomsen, 2004; Rooney, 2010; Steeves and Jones, 2010......). In the presentation, we report from a qualitative study that focuses on intergenerational relations. The study draws on empirical data from workshops with Danish families as well as individual and group interviews. We aim to gain insights about the sharing habits and negotiations in intimate family relations...

  12. Learning as Negotiating Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Keller, Hanne Dauer

    The paper explores the contribution of Communities of Practice (COP) to Human Resource Development (HRD). Learning as negotiating identities captures the contribution of COP to HRD. In COP the development of practice happens through negotiation of meaning. The learning process also involves modes...... of belonging constitutive of our identities. We suggest that COP makes a significant contribution by linking learning and identification. This means that learning becomes much less instrumental and much more linked to fundamental questions of being. We argue that the COP-framework links learning with the issue...... of time - caught in the notion of trajectories of learning - that integrate past, present and future. Working with the learners' notion of time is significant because it is here that new learning possibilities become visible and meaningful for individuals. Further, we argue that the concept of identity...

  13. Suffering Beyond Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we argue that design in therapeutic domains (in a broad sense) depends on an understanding of the background for the engagement of the various users involved. It is specifically argued that an understanding of the life transforming process, or trajectory as opposed to design process...... center stage that is not based in the negotiation between rationalities. The paper draws examples from design based research projects over the last 5 years....

  14. Persuasion through negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Elosua, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    A building about to be demolished near the ancient town of Ciqikou (磁器口). The process of expropriation forces authorities to negotiate with the residents on a case-by-case basis. In this photo, some residents have already left apartments vacant, while others still remain in their homes wishing to better their compensation package. The gentrification of the neighbourhood is guaranteed since high prices will force most, if not all, former residents to move out of the community.

  15. Heterologous Expression of the Oxytetracycline Biosynthetic Pathway in Myxococcus xanthus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, D. Cole; Henry, Michael R.; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Boddy, Christopher N.

    2010-01-01

    New natural products for drug discovery may be accessed by heterologous expression of bacterial biosynthetic pathways in metagenomic DNA libraries. However, a “universal” host is needed for this experiment. Herein, we show that Myxococcus xanthus is a potential “universal” host for heterologous expression of polyketide biosynthetic gene clusters. PMID:20208031

  16. Meeting competition through negotiated pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, D.M.; Raper, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    A fundamental premise of negotiated pricing as a demand-side management (DSM) tool is that price determines cost. As the ultimate objective of energy efficiency is to increase electromotive work while conserving resources, negotiated prices can have a significant impact as a DSM tool to force costs down. Three examples are offered of the effect of negotiated pricing as a DSM tool. The examples are a small hydroelectric company and an electric utility authority owned, a utility-to-customer example of negotiated pricing with the Public Service Company of Oklahoma's (PSO) system, and a large paper mill on PSO's system. Some of the major problems associated with negotiated pricing, outside of the human effort of finding and training knowledgeable and skilled negotiators, are: obtaining enough information about the customer or potential customer to be able to determine that in negotiating prices the utility is not giving away more benefits than the utility will gain; developing a pricing plan that fits both the customer's and utility's existing and potential future mode of operation; assuring that other customers who cannot negotiate on their own behalf are not adversely affected by utility revenue shortfalls; making such negotiated prices available to all similarly situated customers, so as not to inadvertently create unfair competitive advantages among them; and defining the shared benefits before and after the fact as a result of having negotiated prices in the first place

  17. La escritura en danza, un ruego del cuerpo. El caso del tango-danza en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Salazar Ospina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento, procesos de transformación, memoria colectiva y herencia cultural que se centra en la danza son procesos de creación cuya búsqueda se gesta en el dominio técnico de lo corporal, pero no se consolidan en formatos que permitan la transmisión, herencia y reguardo de este saber corporal. Tomando como punto de partida los resultados de entrevistas a diferentes académicos y artistas escénicos de Bogotá, realizadas en la segunda parte del proyecto de investigación Caracterización de la institucionalización y formalización de los procesos de investigación-creación artística en Colombia. Se encontró que la gran producción académica de investigación en danza la realizan profesionales de pedagogía, historia, antropología y filoso - fía, a la vez que los creadores de la ejecución práctica de danza, se distancian de este tipo de producción escrita. Este panorama nos abre la discusión a lo que García Canclini llama el rescate de la cultura desconocida, el cuerpo sin memoria y sin huella. En - tonces, analizando los posibles panoramas de conjunción entre teoría y la creación en danza se revisarán las construcciones académicas que se pueden gestar para la construcción de un puente que dé unidad de sentido a ambas esferas del conocimiento; analizando un caso histórico donde la escritura en danza, la escritura de sus procesos de creación y consolidación fue la base para poder transmitir el conocimiento de una de las técnicas en danza más reconocidas en la actualidad, el tango-danza.

  18. Biosynthetic origin of acetic acid using SNIF-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffo, Elisangela Fabiana; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to describe the use of the technique Site-Specific Natural Isotopic Fractionation of hydrogen (SNIF-NMR), using 2 H and 1 H NMR spectroscopy, to investigate the biosynthetic origin of acetic acid in commercial samples of Brazilian vinegar. This method is based on the deuterium to hydrogen ratio at a specific position (methyl group) of acetic acid obtained by fermentation, through different biosynthetic mechanisms, which result in different isotopic ratios. We measured the isotopic ratio of vinegars obtained through C 3 , C 4 , and CAM biosynthetic mechanisms, blends of C 3 and C 4 (agrins) and synthetic acetic acid. (author)

  19. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  20. Dynamic Communication Resource Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward; Vatan, Farrokh; Paloulian, George; Frisbie, Steve; Srostlik, Zuzana; Kalomiris, Vasilios; Apgar, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Today's advanced network management systems can automate many aspects of the tactical networking operations within a military domain. However, automation of joint and coalition tactical networking across multiple domains remains challenging. Due to potentially conflicting goals and priorities, human agreement is often required before implementation into the network operations. This is further complicated by incompatible network management systems and security policies, rendering it difficult to implement automatic network management, thus requiring manual human intervention to the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints. This process of manual human intervention is tedious, error-prone, and slow. In order to facilitate a better solution, we are pursuing a technology which makes network management automated, reliable, and fast. Automating the negotiation of the common network communication parameters between different parties is the subject of this paper. We present the technology that enables inter-force dynamic communication resource negotiations to enable ad-hoc inter-operation in the field between force domains, without pre-planning. It also will enable a dynamic response to changing conditions within the area of operations. Our solution enables the rapid blending of intra-domain policies so that the forces involved are able to inter-operate effectively without overwhelming each other's networks with in-appropriate or un-warranted traffic. It will evaluate the policy rules and configuration data for each of the domains, then generate a compatible inter-domain policy and configuration that will update the gateway systems between the two domains.

  1. Introduction: Negotiation in intergroup conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoulin, S.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Although conflicts most often occur between groups, research and theory on conflict management and negotiation have largely focused on the interpersonal system and ignored how groups negotiate a solution to their intergroup conflict. Thus we have a thorough understanding of the motivational,

  2. A Multi-Agent Environment for Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Koen V.; Jonker, Catholijn M.; Tykhonov, Dmytro

    In this chapter we introduce the System for Analysis of Multi-Issue Negotiation (SAMIN). SAMIN offers a negotiation environment that supports and facilitates the setup of various negotiation setups. The environment has been designed to analyse negotiation processes between human negotiators, between human and software agents, and between software agents. It offers a range of different agents, different domains, and other options useful to define a negotiation setup. The environment has been used to test and evaluate a range of negotiation strategies in various domains playing against other negotiating agents as well as humans. We discuss some of the results obtained by means of these experiments.

  3. Negotiating Cluster Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacomin, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil was introduced to Malay(si)a as an alternative to natural rubber, inheriting its cluster organizational structure. In the late 1960s, Malaysia became the world’s largest palm oil exporter. Based on archival material from British colonial institutions and agency houses, this paper focuses...... on the governance dynamics that drove institutional change within this cluster during decolonization. The analysis presents three main findings: (i) cluster boundaries are defined by continuous tug-of-war style negotiations between public and private actors; (ii) this interaction produces institutional change...... within the cluster, in the form of cumulative ‘institutional rounds’ – the correction or disruption of existing institutions or the creation of new ones; and (iii) this process leads to a broader inclusion of local actors in the original cluster configuration. The paper challenges the prevalent argument...

  4. Prescribing safety, negotiating expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolina, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their presumed impact on the safety of high-risk installations, the interactions between regulators and the regulated are a major but seldom explored subject of research in risk management. A study by experts on human and organizational factors in nuclear safety sheds light on the various phases (and their effects) of the process whereby experts produce assessments. Light is shed on a 'negotiated expertise' typical of the French style of safety regulations in nuclear installations. It is based on an ongoing technical dialog between experts and operators ('French cooking' for Anglo-Saxons). This analysis of 'expertise' and thus of the 'logics of action' implemented by experts proposes a typology of actions that can be transposed to other sorts of risk or other fields of activity. It hands us the keys for understanding a very contemporary activity. (author)

  5. Identity negotiations in meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuß, Birte; Oshima, Sae

    of the company, and all members know (and display) that he holds some information that the rest don’t have access to. Our analysis shows that the participants evoke various identities of the manager, sometimes orienting to the structure of the organization, and other times orienting to wider social categories......Meetings are places, where identity negotiation is a central activity and where members’ local practices recurrently inform and are informed by larger categories (Antaki and Widdicombe 1998). Correspondingly, the approach to understanding organization (macro) by way of identity work (micro) has...... company, and in the data recorded over 10 days, the employees frequently complain about the many changes that have taken place. Our focus lies in a unique occasion where one of the managers makes an unusual appearance at the lunchroom. In this situation, he is the only one that is on the business side...

  6. Negotiation Decision Support Systems: Analysing Negotiations under the Conditions of Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Nipun Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Negotiation Theory is a research area with emphasis from three different research streams being game theory, psychology and negotiation analysis. Recently, negotiation theory research has moved towards the combination of game theory and psychology negotiation theory models that could be called Integrated Negotiation Theory (INT). As, negotiations are often impacted by external factors, there is risk associated with achieving the expected outcomes. Prospect theory and Negotiation theory are co...

  7. LabVIEW interface with Tango control system for a multi-technique X-ray spectrometry IAEA beamline end-station at Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrobel, P.M. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Bogovac, M. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Sghaier, H. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Institut Superieur d’Informatique et de Mathematiques de Monastir (ISIMM), Departement de technologie, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Leani, J.J. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); IFEG – CONICET, Facultad de Matematica Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Migliori, A.; Padilla-Alvarez, R. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Czyzycki, M. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Osan, J. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Environmental Physics Department, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33., H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Kaiser, R.B. [Physics Section, Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); and others

    2016-10-11

    A new synchrotron beamline end-station for multipurpose X-ray spectrometry applications has been recently commissioned and it is currently accessible by end-users at the XRF beamline of Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste. The end-station consists of an ultra-high vacuum chamber that includes as main instrument a seven-axis motorized manipulator for sample and detectors positioning, different kinds of X-ray detectors and optical cameras. The beamline end-station allows performing measurements in different X-ray spectrometry techniques such as Microscopic X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (µXRF), Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (TXRF), Grazing Incidence/Exit X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (GI-XRF/GE-XRF), X-Ray Reflectometry (XRR), and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). A LabVIEW Graphical User Interface (GUI) bound with Tango control system consisted of many custom made software modules is utilized as a user-friendly tool for control of the entire end-station hardware components. The present work describes this advanced Tango and LabVIEW software platform that utilizes in an optimal synergistic manner the merits and functionality of these well-established programming and equipment control tools. - Highlights: • A new methodology for control of a synchrotron beamline end-station is shown. • The new control system comprises a novel binding of Tango control system with LabVIEW interface. • The reliability of the control system is demonstrated by examples of analytical applications.

  8. Molecular evolution of the lysine biosynthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, A M; Leguina, J I; Lazcano, A

    2002-10-01

    Among the different biosynthetic pathways found in extant organisms, lysine biosynthesis is peculiar because it has two different anabolic routes. One is the diaminopimelic acid pathway (DAP), and the other over the a-aminoadipic acid route (AAA). A variant of the AAA route that includes some enzymes involved in arginine and leucine biosyntheses has been recently reported in Thermus thermophilus (Nishida et al. 1999). Here we describe the results of a detailed genomic analysis of each of the sequences involved in the two lysine anabolic routes, as well as of genes from other routes related to them. No evidence was found of an evolutionary relationship between the DAP and AAA enzymes. Our results suggest that the DAP pathway is related to arginine metabolism, since the lysC, asd, dapC, dapE, and lysA genes from lysine biosynthesis are related to the argB, argC, argD, argE, and speAC genes, respectively, whose products catalyze different steps in arginine metabolism. This work supports previous reports on the relationship between AAA gene products and some enzymes involved in leucine biosynthesis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (Irvin and Bhattacharjee 1998; Miyazaki et al. 2001). Here we discuss the significance of the recent finding that several genes involved in the arginine (Arg) and leucine (Leu) biosynthesis participate in a new alternative route of the AAA pathway (Miyazaki et al. 2001). Our results demonstrate a clear relationship between the DAP and Arg routes, and between the AAA and Leu pathways.

  9. Modeling and Negotiating Service Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbernou, Salima; Brandic, Ivona; Cappiello, Cinzia; Carro, Manuel; Comuzzi, Marco; Kertész, Attila; Kritikos, Kyriakos; Parkin, Michael; Pernici, Barbara; Plebani, Pierluigi

    In this chapter the research problems of specifying and negotiating QoS and its corresponding quality documents are analyzed. For this reason, this chapter is separated into two main sections, Section 6.1 and 6.2, with each dedicated to one of the two problems, i.e., QoS specification and negotiation, respectively. Each section has a similar structure: they first introduce the problem and then, in the remaining subsections, review related work. Finally, the chapter ends with Section 6.3, which identifies research gaps and presents potential research challenges in QoS modelling, specification and negotiation.

  10. Multilateral Mediated Negotiation Protocols with Feedback (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydogan, R.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to bilateral negotiation in which the dispute is between only two parties. However, automated multilateral negotiation in which more than two negotiating parties need to reach a joint agreement, has received relatively less attention, even though such negotiations are

  11. 48 CFR 15.405 - Price negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price negotiation. 15.405... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.405 Price negotiation. (a) The purpose of performing cost or price analysis is to develop a negotiation position that permits the...

  12. 32 CFR 644.544 - Negotiated sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Negotiated sales. 644.544 Section 644.544... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.544 Negotiated sales. (a) To private parties. Negotiated sales to private parties are not viewed with favor. Generally, such negotiated sales will be approved...

  13. The Embodied Self in Parkinson's Disease: Feasibility of a Single Tango Intervention for Assessing Changes in Psychological Health Outcomes and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sabine C.; Mergheim, Katja; Raeke, Judith; Machado, Clarissa B.; Riegner, Eliane; Nolden, Joachim; Diermayr, Gudrun; von Moreau, Dorothee; Hillecke, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dance is an embodied activity with benefits for mobility, balance, and quality of life (QoL) of persons affected by Parkinson's Disease (PD). It is enjoyable and likely to support adherence to movement prescriptions. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring changes in psychological outcomes, specifically well-being, body self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and experienced beauty after a single Argentine Tango intervention in a workshop format. To anchor experienced beauty in a theory, the article introduces a model of embodied aesthetics featuring active art-making as a central aspect of healing in arts-based interventions. Methods: In a single-group pre–post design, we tested the feasibility of measuring psychological changes of 34 PD patients from Southern Germany after an introductory workshop in Argentine Tango. They participated in a 90 min Tango for PD intervention and completed the Heidelberg State Inventory (HSI-24; (Koch et al., 2007)), the Body Self-Efficacy Scale (BSE; (Fuchs and Koch, 2014)) with a sub-dimension on aesthetic experience, and the Credibility-Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ; (Devilly and Borkovec, 2000)) before and after the intervention. A subgroup completed the therapeutic factors of arts therapies-scale, a new measure to elaborate on the aesthetic experience. We analyzed pre–post-differences with a t-test for paired samples. Results and Discussion: The study supports the feasibility of measuring health-related psychological changes from a single Argentine Tango intervention for PD patients, as well as acceptance and appropriateness of the intervention for the patient group. After the tango intervention, well-being, body self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies increased. Participants also experienced an increase in beauty of their movements and other aesthetic aspects. We suspect that, in addition to the functional and psychological factors identified so far, the aesthetic experience in dance

  14. EFL Learners’ Negotiation of Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Saeed Rashid Al Hosni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating EFL learners’ frequency of negotiation of meaning when performing focused and unfocused communication tasks. The sample consists of thirty learners divided into ten groups. Three research instruments were used to collect data; communication tasks, field notes and interviews. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in the frequency of negotiation of meaning between the two task types. This is due to the fact that, learners performed both task types as unfocused tasks and they were able to use some communication strategies to keep communication flowing and to go round the target structure. Amazingly, despite the existence of the trigger of negotiation, the indicator of misunderstanding, an important negotiation phase, was absent in many cases from the conversations in both task types. Subsequently, the research findings suggest providing learners with opportunities that urge them to perform as language users rather than language learners.

  15. Negotiation platform for personalised advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Luís Ventura de; Malheiro, Benedita; Foss, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-agent brokerage platform for near real time advertising personalisation organised in three layers: user interface, agency and marketplace. The personalisation is based on the classification of viewer profiles and advertisements (ads). The goal is to provide viewers with a personalised advertising alignment during programme intervals. The enterprise interface agents upload new ads and negotiation profiles to producer agents and new user and negotiation profiles to ...

  16. Negotiation without Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Hoyos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El artículo propone una reflexión filosófica inspirada en la actual situación de fragilidad institucional colombiana. Se arguye en él: (1 Que hay un elemento pragmático y uno normativo en la idea de que las instituciones políticas y sociales establecen y aseguran la vida humana y la hacen duradera. (2 Que la tradición de la negociación con agentes armados en Colombia en los últimos años se ha caracterizado por la ruptura del equilibrio entre este elemento pragmático y el normativo.Abstract:The paper presents a philosophical reflection inspired by Colombia’s ongoing institutional fragility. It argues: (1 that the idea of political and social institutions for establishing and safeguarding human life contains both a pragmatic and a normative element, and (2 that Colombia’s tradition of negotiation with armed actors has been characterized in the last years by a breakdown in the balance between these pragmatic and normative elements.

  17. Bioengineering natural product biosynthetic pathways for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Cheng; Law, Brian; Wilkinson, Barrie; Micklefield, Jason

    2012-12-01

    With the advent of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, the number of microbial genome sequences has increased dramatically, revealing a vast array of new biosynthetic gene clusters. Genomics data provide a tremendous opportunity to discover new natural products, and also to guide the bioengineering of new and existing natural product scaffolds for therapeutic applications. Notably, it is apparent that the vast majority of biosynthetic gene clusters are either silent or produce very low quantities of the corresponding natural products. It is imperative therefore to devise methods for activating unproductive biosynthetic pathways to provide the quantities of natural products needed for further development. Moreover, on the basis of our expanding mechanistic and structural knowledge of biosynthetic assembly-line enzymes, new strategies for re-programming biosynthetic pathways have emerged, resulting in focused libraries of modified products with potentially improved biological properties. In this review we will focus on the latest bioengineering approaches that have been utilised to optimise yields and increase the structural diversity of natural product scaffolds for future clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. It takes two to tango: defining an essential second active site in pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Moccand

    Full Text Available The prevalent de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B6 involves only two enzymes (Pdx1 and Pdx2 that form an ornate multisubunit complex functioning as a glutamine amidotransferase. The synthase subunit, Pdx1, utilizes ribose 5-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, as well as ammonia derived from the glutaminase activity of Pdx2 to directly form the cofactor vitamer, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Given the fact that a single enzyme performs the majority of the chemistry behind this reaction, a complicated mechanism is anticipated. Recently, the individual steps along the reaction co-ordinate are beginning to be unraveled. In particular, the binding of the pentose substrate and the first steps of the reaction have been elucidated but it is not known if the latter part of the chemistry, involving the triose sugar, takes place in the same or a disparate site. Here, we demonstrate through the use of enzyme assays, enzyme kinetics, and mutagenesis studies that indeed a second site is involved in binding the triose sugar and moreover, is the location of the final vitamin product, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Furthermore, we show that product release is triggered by the presence of a PLP-dependent enzyme. Finally, we provide evidence that a single arginine residue of the C terminus of Pdx1 is responsible for coordinating co-operativity in this elaborate protein machinery.

  19. Natural Product Biosynthetic Diversity and Comparative Genomics of the Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Elke; Gugger, Muriel; Sivonen, Kaarina; Fewer, David P

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of slow-growing photosynthetic bacteria and a prolific source of natural products with intricate chemical structures and potent biological activities. The bulk of these natural products are known from just a handful of genera. Recent efforts have elucidated the mechanisms underpinning the biosynthesis of a diverse array of natural products from cyanobacteria. Many of the biosynthetic mechanisms are unique to cyanobacteria or rarely described from other organisms. Advances in genome sequence technology have precipitated a deluge of genome sequences for cyanobacteria. This makes it possible to link known natural products to biosynthetic gene clusters but also accelerates the discovery of new natural products through genome mining. These studies demonstrate that cyanobacteria encode a huge variety of cryptic gene clusters for the production of natural products, and the known chemical diversity is likely to be just a fraction of the true biosynthetic capabilities of this fascinating and ancient group of organisms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. It Takes Two to Tango: Customization and Standardization as Colluding Logics in Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David; Eljiz, Kathy; Butler-Henderson, Kerryn

    2018-01-01

    The healthcare context is characterized with new developments, technologies, ideas and expectations that are continually reshaping the frontline of care delivery. Mannion and Exworthy identify two key factors driving this complexity, ‘standardization’ and ‘customization,’ and their apparent resulting paradox to be negotiated by healthcare professionals, managers and policy makers. However, while they present a compelling argument an alternative viewpoint exists. An analysis is presented that shows instead of being ‘competing’ logics in healthcare, standardization and customization are long standing ‘colluding’ logics. Mannion and Exworthy’s call for further sustained work to understand this complex, contested space is endorsed, noting that it is critical to inform future debates and service decisions. PMID:29524942

  1. Optimization of Multiple Related Negotiation through Multi-Negotiation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fenghui; Zhang, Minjie; Miao, Chunyan; Shen, Zhiqi

    In this paper, a Multi-Negotiation Network (MNN) and a Multi- Negotiation Influence Diagram (MNID) are proposed to optimally handle Multiple Related Negotiations (MRN) in a multi-agent system. Most popular, state-of-the-art approaches perform MRN sequentially. However, a sequential procedure may not optimally execute MRN in terms of maximizing the global outcome, and may even lead to unnecessary losses in some situations. The motivation of this research is to use a MNN to handle MRN concurrently so as to maximize the expected utility of MRN. Firstly, both the joint success rate and the joint utility by considering all related negotiations are dynamically calculated based on a MNN. Secondly, by employing a MNID, an agent's possible decision on each related negotiation is reflected by the value of expected utility. Lastly, through comparing expected utilities between all possible policies to conduct MRN, an optimal policy is generated to optimize the global outcome of MRN. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can improve the global outcome of MRN in a successful end scenario, and avoid unnecessary losses in an unsuccessful end scenario.

  2. ADSLANF: A negotiation framework for cloud management systems using a bulk negotiation behavioral learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    RAJAVEL, RAJKUMAR; THANGARATHINAM, MALA

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in cloud computing is the development of a service-level agreement (SLA) negotiation framework using an intelligent third-party broker negotiation strategy. Current frameworks exploit various negotiation strategies using game theoretic, heuristic, and argumentation-based approaches for obtaining optimal negotiation with a better success rate (negotiation commitment). However, these approaches fail to optimize the negotiation round (NR), total negotiatio...

  3. Evolutionary systems biology of amino acid biosynthetic cost in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Barton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a fitness advantage to the organism. Quantifying the cost of amino acid biosynthesis presents challenges, since energetic requirements may change across different cellular and environmental conditions. We developed a systems biology approach to estimate the cost of amino acid synthesis based on genome-scale metabolic models and investigated the effects of the cost of amino acid synthesis on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression and protein evolution. First, we used our two new and six previously reported measures of amino acid cost in conjunction with codon usage bias, tRNA gene number and atomic composition to identify which of these factors best predict transcript and protein levels. Second, we compared amino acid cost with rates of amino acid substitution across four species in the genus Saccharomyces. Regardless of which cost measure is used, amino acid biosynthetic cost is weakly associated with transcript and protein levels. In contrast, we find that biosynthetic cost and amino acid substitution rates show a negative correlation, but for only a subset of cost measures. In the economy of the yeast cell, we find that the cost of amino acid synthesis plays a limited role in shaping transcript and protein expression levels compared to that of translational optimisation. Biosynthetic cost does, however, appear to affect rates of amino acid evolution in Saccharomyces, suggesting that expensive amino acids may only be used when they have specific structural or functional roles in protein sequences. However, as there appears to be no single currency to compute the cost of amino acid synthesis across all cellular and environmental

  4. Negotiation skills for clinical research professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Hake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors.

  5. Negotiation skills for clinical research professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, Sanjay; Shah, Tapankumar

    2011-01-01

    Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors. PMID:21897886

  6. Utilization of the Tango beta-arrestin recruitment technology for cell-based EDG receptor assay development and interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Justin A; Revankar, Chetana; Hanson, Bonnie J

    2009-10-01

    Cellular assay development for the endothelial differentiation gene (EDG) family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and related lysophospholipid (LP) receptors is complicated by endogenous receptor expression and divergent receptor signaling. Endogenously expressed LP receptors exist in most tissue culture cell lines. These LP receptors, along with other endogenously expressed GPCRs, contribute to off-target signaling that can complicate interpretation of second-messenger-based cellular assay results. These receptors also activate a diverse and divergent set of cellular signaling pathways, necessitating the use of a variety of assay formats with mismatched procedures and functional readouts. This complicates examination and comparison of these receptors across the entire family. The Tango technology uses the conserved beta-arrestin-dependent receptor deactivation process to allow interrogation of the EDG and related receptors with a single functional assay. This method also isolates the target receptor signal, allowing the use of tissue culture cell lines regardless of their endogenous receptor expression. The authors describe the use of this technique to build cell-based receptor-specific assays for all 8 members of the EDG receptor family as well as the related LPA receptors GPR23, GPR92, and GPR87. In addition, they demonstrate the value of this technology for identification and investigation of functionally selective receptor compounds as demonstrated by the immunosuppressive compound FtY720-P and its action at the EDG(1) and EDG(3) receptors.

  7. Mnemosyne o el imperio de los sentidos. Literatura e imagen en Almudena Grandes: Malena es un nombre de tango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Teresa García-Abad García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Si bien los códigos de la imagen han acompañado a la escritura desde sus orígenes, la irrupción del cine afianza su consagración en nuestro panorama cultural, y su rastro reclama una atención cada vez más necesaria para alcanzar una adecuada competencia lectora. La literatura de Almudena Grandes acude a intertextos visuales como herramienta básica de construcción ficcional, un recorrido que rescata a través de la memoria un paisaje de sensaciones en el que la palabra puede deshacerse en la boca “como un buñuelo de viento” o ser escrita con los ojos como afirmara Gertrude Stein: “Las palabras realmente importantes son aquellas que escribo con los ojos. Los oídos y la boca no cuentan”. El artículo indaga asimismo en claves de comprensión para la reciente adaptación cinematográfica de la novela Malena es un nombre de tango.

  8. Negotiation: How to Be Effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2017-01-01

    The art of successful negotiation is not as random or difficult as it might seem at first glance. Most negotiations end up with both sides receiving something of value as well as giving up something valuable in return. It has been said that the best negotiated outcomes occur when both parties walk away a bit disappointed or just a little bit happy. The goal of this short primer is to give some hints as to how to get a slightly better deal than the other party most of the time. There are several points to remember to be able to achieve such an outcome frequently. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The preliminary research for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Chang Hyun; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the solution to the production of bioactive substance using biotransformation process from core technology of biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology. And, this strategy will provide core technology for development of drugs as new concept and category. Research scopes and contents of project include 1) The development of mutant for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 2) The development of host for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 3) The preliminary study for biosynthetic engineering of isoflavone by radiation fusion technology. The results are as follows. Isoflavone compounds(daidzein, hydroxylated isoflavone) were analyzed by GC-MS. The study of radiation doses and p-NCA high-throughput screening for mutant development were elucidated. And, it was carried out the study of radiation doses for host development. Furthermore, the study of redox partner and construction of recombinant strain for region-specific hydroxylation(P450, redox partner). In addition, the biological effect of 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone as an anti-obesity agent was elucidated in this study.

  10. Minimum Information about a Biosynthetic Gene cluster : commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Cummings, Matthew; Biggins, John B; Blin, Kai; de Bruijn, Irene; Chooi, Yit Heng; Claesen, Jan; Coates, R Cameron; Cruz-Morales, Pablo; Duddela, Srikanth; Dusterhus, Stephanie; Edwards, Daniel J; Fewer, David P; Garg, Neha; Geiger, Christoph; Gomez-Escribano, Juan Pablo; Greule, Anja; Hadjithomas, Michalis; Haines, Anthony S; Helfrich, Eric J N; Hillwig, Matthew L; Ishida, Keishi; Jones, Adam C; Jones, Carla S; Jungmann, Katrin; Kegler, Carsten; Kim, Hyun Uk; Kotter, Peter; Krug, Daniel; Masschelein, Joleen; Melnik, Alexey V; Mantovani, Simone M; Monroe, Emily A; Moore, Marcus; Moss, Nathan; Nutzmann, Hans-Wilhelm; Pan, Guohui; Pati, Amrita; Petras, Daniel; Reen, F Jerry; Rosconi, Federico; Rui, Zhe; Tian, Zhenhua; Tobias, Nicholas J; Tsunematsu, Yuta; Wiemann, Philipp; Wyckoff, Elizabeth; Yan, Xiaohui; Yim, Grace; Yu, Fengan; Xie, Yunchang; Aigle, Bertrand; Apel, Alexander K; Balibar, Carl J; Balskus, Emily P; Barona-Gomez, Francisco; Bechthold, Andreas; Bode, Helge B; Borriss, Rainer; Brady, Sean F; Brakhage, Axel A; Caffrey, Patrick; Cheng, Yi-Qiang; Clardy, Jon; Cox, Russell J; De Mot, Rene; Donadio, Stefano; Donia, Mohamed S; van der Donk, Wilfred A; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Doyle, Sean; Driessen, Arnold J M; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Fischbach, Michael A; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H; Gross, Harald; Gust, Bertolt; Hertweck, Christian; Hofte, Monica; Jensen, Susan E; Ju, Jianhua; Katz, Leonard; Kaysser, Leonard; Klassen, Jonathan L; Keller, Nancy P; Kormanec, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Kwon, Hyung-Jin; Lautru, Sylvie; Lavigne, Rob; Lee, Chia Y; Linquan, Bai; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Wen; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Mahmud, Taifo; Mast, Yvonne; Mendez, Carmen; Metsa-Ketela, Mikko; Micklefield, Jason; Mitchell, Douglas A; Moore, Bradley S; Moreira, Leonilde M; Muller, Rolf; Neilan, Brett A; Nett, Markus; Nielsen, Jens; O'Gara, Fergal; Oikawa, Hideaki; Osbourn, Anne; Osburne, Marcia S; Ostash, Bohdan; Payne, Shelley M; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Petricek, Miroslav; Piel, Jorn; Ploux, Olivier; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Salas, Jose A; Schmitt, Esther K; Scott, Barry; Seipke, Ryan F; Shen, Ben; Sherman, David H; Sivonen, Kaarina; Smanski, Michael J; Sosio, Margherita; Stegmann, Evi; Sussmuth, Roderich D; Tahlan, Kapil; Thomas, Christopher M; Tang, Yi; Truman, Andrew W; Viaud, Muriel; Walton, Jonathan D; Walsh, Christopher T; Weber, Tilmann; van Wezel, Gilles P; Wilkinson, Barrie; Willey, Joanne M; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Wright, Gerard D; Ziemert, Nadine; Zhang, Changsheng; Zotchev, Sergey B; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko; Glockner, Frank Oliver

    A wide variety of enzymatic pathways that produce specialized metabolites in bacteria, fungi and plants are known to be encoded in biosynthetic gene clusters. Information about these clusters, pathways and metabolites is currently dispersed throughout the literature, making it difficult to exploit.

  11. Elucidation and in planta reconstitution of the parthenolide biosynthetic pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qing; Manzano, David; Tanić, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Parthenolide, the main bioactive compound of the medicinal plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), is a promising anti-cancer drug. However, the biosynthetic pathway of parthenolide has not been elucidated yet. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of all the genes from feverfew tha...

  12. Expression profile of genes coding for carotenoid biosynthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expression profile of genes coding for carotenoid biosynthetic pathway during ripening and their association with accumulation of lycopene in tomato fruits. Shuchi Smita, Ravi Rajwanshi, Sangram Keshari Lenka, Amit Katiyar, Viswanathan Chinnusamy and. Kailash Chander Bansal. J. Genet. 92, 363–368. Table 1.

  13. Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthetic Genes in Germinating Arabidopsis Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasek, WL; Shirley, BW; McKillop, A; Goodman, HM; Briggs, W; Ausubel, FM

    1992-01-01

    Many higher plants, including Arabidopsis, transiently display purple anthocyanin pigments just after seed germination. We observed that steady state levels of mRNAs encoded by four flavonoid biosynthetic genes, PAL1 (encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1), CHS (encoding chalcone synthase), CHI (encoding chalcone isomerase), and DFR (encoding dihydroflavonol reductase), were temporally regulated, peaking in 3-day-old seedlings grown in continuous white light. Except for the case of PAL1 mRNA, mRNA levels for these flavonoid genes were very low in seedlings grown in darkness. Light induction studies using seedlings grown in darkness showed that PAL1 mRNA began to accumulate before CHS and CHI mRNAs, which, in turn, began to accumulate before DFR mRNA. This order of induction is the same as the order of the biosynthetic steps in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results suggest that the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is coordinately regulated by a developmental timing mechanism during germination. Blue light and UVB light induction experiments using red light- and dark-grown seedlings showed that the flavonoid biosynthetic genes are induced most effectively by UVB light and that blue light induction is mediated by a specific blue light receptor. PMID:12297632

  14. Virtual reality negotiation training increases negotiation knowledge and skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekens, J.; Harbers, M.; Brinkman W.; Jonker, C.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally investigate learning effects of a rigourously set up virtual reality (VR) negotiation training. We discuss the design of the system in detail. Further, we present results of an experiment (between subject; three experimental conditions: control, training once,

  15. Commercial negotiations in the foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of commercial negotiations paying attention to the negotiation itself as well as to its basic elements. The specificity of the Polish foundries’ main negotiation partners from The European Union, who are the deliverers of diverse casting range, was specified. The most important cultural factors, which determine the process of negotiations conducted by the representatives of various cultural groups, were analysed. The understanding of cultural differences and adapting to them while negotiating are important factors which constitute the parties’ negotiation process. The meaning of price in the commercial negotiation process was described. The elements of sale process and the factors which influence the casts price were enumerated. What is more, the main methods of determining price were characterized. The essential problems connected with conducting the price negotiations in foundries were indicated.

  16. The science of culture and negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, Brian C; Brett, Jeanne M; Gelfand, Michele J

    2016-04-01

    Recent negotiation research has produced a groundswell of insights about the effects of culture on negotiation. Yet, few frameworks exist to organize the findings. This review integrates recent research using a two-dimensional framework: The first dimension organizes the research into that which has taken: (1) a comparative intracultural approach, versus (2) an intercultural approach. The second dimension organizes the research by its emphasis on: (1) inputs into negotiation, (2) processes of negotiating, and (3) outcomes of negotiation. This framework helps to organize extant research and produces novel insights about the connections between disparate research streams, revealing both commonalities and culture-specificities in negotiation strategy and outcomes and suggesting that intercultural negotiations are difficult but not insurmountable. We conclude by discussing several areas in which more research on culture and negotiation is urgently needed in today's globalizing world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. International negotiations in the foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the essence of negotiations in general, which could find it’s application in foundry engineering. The paper is the result of long cooperation of the authors with foundry engineering and their participation in negotiations between the domestic and foreign companies. In this paper the essence and the rules of negotiations have been introduced. It presents also the skills and abilities of the negotiators. The cycle of negotiations and the following stages of negotiations have been also described. The authors have presented the characteristics of negotiations led by the partners from different parts of the world with particular emphasize on Asian and European countries as with these partners the negotiations in Polish foundries are mainly led.

  18. Core competencies for natural resource negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, S.C.; Lamb, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    Natural resource negotiation often involves multiple parties with overlapping interests and issues that can provide opportunities for mutually beneficial solutions. These opportunities can be missed, however, if negotiators are unable to comprehend the facts of a negotiation, understand the interests of other parties, or accurately evaluate the options that increase the size of the negotiation pie. Through structured personal interviews with more than 60 representatives from seven different hydropower negotiations, respondents identified core competencies that help negotiators succeed at accurately comprehending the facts of a negotiation, comprehending the interests of other parties, and fully understanding the available options and alternatives. We categorized those core competencies into three dimensions of negotiation - interpersonal, organizational, and operational.

  19. 48 CFR 19.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 19.808 Section 19.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC....808 Contract negotiation. ...

  20. Enhancing Negotiation Skills Using Foreign Service Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opt, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Conflict communication, negotiation, small group. Objective: This activity will enhance students' awareness and critique of their own negotiation behaviors. A list of references and suggested readings is included.

  1. Cultural Differences in International Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹悦

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship of cultural differences on international business negotiations. And also, it emphases on the importance of understanding and mastering cultural differences in international business negotiations.

  2. Interdependence in negotiation : Effects of exit options and social motive on distributive and integrative negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, E.; de Dreu, C.K W; Van de Vliert, E.

    2000-01-01

    This study extends past research on the impact of alternatives in dyadic negotiation by (a) providing negotiators with the mere possibility to negotiate with an outside party and (b) examining the moderating role of the negotiators' social motive. Business students engaged in face-to-face

  3. A Framework on Impression Management in Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Ditte Dahl; Esbjerg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a dramaturgical framework to provide us with a new understanding of how negotiators use impression management behaviour during the negotiation process to position themselves in an endeavour to reach a desirable outcome.......In this paper we develop a dramaturgical framework to provide us with a new understanding of how negotiators use impression management behaviour during the negotiation process to position themselves in an endeavour to reach a desirable outcome....

  4. UNICEF and automobile CO2 negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seok Hun [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The EU automobile negotiation was very suggestive since it was the first international trade negotiation related with UNFCCC. It generated considerable reactions in association with {sup v}oluntary negotiation{sup i}n semiconductor sector. Most of all, such a new car negotiation shows well that it is hard to free from global environmental responsibilities even for a company in a developing country in UNFCCC.

  5. 48 CFR 1615.070 - Negotiation authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Negotiation authority. 1615.070 Section 1615.070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 1615.070 Negotiation authority. Th...

  6. Innovation in international negotiation: content and style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; Tjosvold, D.

    2004-01-01

    This special issue of International Negotiation is the second in a series on innovation and negotiation. The first issue (Vol. 9, no. 1, 2004) considered innovations in the conduct and process of negotiation, whereas the present issue considers how innovation in the content, style, and strategy of

  7. 48 CFR 2115.070 - Negotiation authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Negotiation authority. 2115.070 Section 2115.070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 2115.070 Negotiation...

  8. 46 CFR 502.56 - Negotiated rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiated rulemaking. 502.56 Section 502.56 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE... its own motion, may establish a negotiated rulemaking committee to negotiate and develop consensus on...

  9. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Culture, Conflict, and Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-28

    negotiator cognition: Judgement accuracy and negotiation processes in individualistic and collectivistic cultures ", Organizational Behavior and Human...2004, Adair, Okumura, and Brett, 2001). Communication sequences are also affected by culture . Negotiators from collectivistic cultures use more... individualistic cultures (Adail and Brett, 2005; Adair, Okumura, and Brett, 2001). Research in DB/psychology has increasingly examined situational factors that

  10. Face and identity management in negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planken, Brigitte Chantal

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation reports on a comparative study of the verbal behaviour of experienced negotiators (professionals) and inexperienced negotiators (students), negotiating in a lingua franca (English). The study centred around two corpora of speech data generated in a series of intercultural sales

  11. Complexity in electronic negotiation support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessmair, Michele; Strunk, Guido; Vetschera, Rudolf; Koeszegi, Sabine T

    2011-10-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the medium influences the way we communicate and negotiation research directs considerable attention to the impact of different electronic communication modes on the negotiation process and outcomes. Complexity theories offer models and methods that allow the investigation of how pattern and temporal sequences unfold over time in negotiation interactions. By focusing on the dynamic and interactive quality of negotiations as well as the information, choice, and uncertainty contained in the negotiation process, the complexity perspective addresses several issues of central interest in classical negotiation research. In the present study we compare the complexity of the negotiation communication process among synchronous and asynchronous negotiations (IM vs. e-mail) as well as an electronic negotiation support system including a decision support system (DSS). For this purpose, transcripts of 145 negotiations have been coded and analyzed with the Shannon entropy and the grammar complexity. Our results show that negotiating asynchronically via e-mail as well as including a DSS significantly reduces the complexity of the negotiation process. Furthermore, a reduction of the complexity increases the probability of reaching an agreement.

  12. 24 CFR 290.13 - Negotiated sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiated sales. 290.13 Section... DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF MULTIFAMILY PROJECTS AND SALE OF HUD-HELD MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.13 Negotiated sales. When HUD conducts a negotiated sale...

  13. Step 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before a grant can be awarded and accepted, several pre-award activities must happen to formalize the partnership. Ensuring compliance with federal laws, a review of costs and a negotiation of the appropriate funding level must all happen in order to rece

  14. Teacher Negotiations of Sexual Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…

  15. Negotiations on climate in deadlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the reasons of the failure of the negotiations on climate which took place in Warsaw in November 2013. Despite some agreements on projects (notably to avoid deforestation), evolutions are being blocked by financial issues. Besides, emerging countries and NGOs largely disagree with the posture of big countries. The future of the carbon market is also put into question again

  16. Negotiating Conventions and Creating Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Alexander Sasha; Barberá-Tomás, David

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the processes of negotiation and institution building through which transnational networks of learning are fashioned. It does so by examining the case of the European animation industry and the activity of an association, Cartoon, which facilitated the development of common ...

  17. Ontolology Negotiation Between Scientific Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailin, Sidney C.; Truszkowski, Walt; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to ontology negotiation between information agents. Ontologies are declarative (data driven) expressions of an agent's "world": the objects, operations, facts, and rules that constitute the logical space within which an agent performs. Ontology negotiation enables agents to cooperate in performing a task, even if they are based on different ontologies. 'Me process allows agents to discover ontology conflicts and then, though incremental interpretation, clarification, and explanation, establish a common basis for communicating with each other. The need for ontology negotiation stems from the proliferation of information sources and of agents with widely varying specialty expertise. The unmanageability of massive amounts of web-based information is already becoming apparent. It is starting to have an impact on professions that rely on distributed archived information. If the expansion continues at its present rate without an ontology negotiation process being introduced, there will soon be no way to ensure the accuracy and completeness of information that scientists obtain from sources other than their own experiments. Ontology negotiation is becoming increasingly recognized as a crucial element of scalable agent technology. This is because agents, by their very nature, are supposed to operate with a fair amount of autonomy and independence from their end-users. Part of this independence is the ability to enlist other agents for help in performing a task (such as locating information on the web). The agents enlisted for help may be "owned" by a different end-user or organization (such as a document archive), and there is no guarantee that they will use the same terminology or understand the same concepts (objects, operators, theorems, rules) as the recruiting agent. For NASA, the need for ontology negotiation arises at the boundaries between scientific disciplines. For example: modeling the effects of global warming might involve

  18. Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Christopher W

    2010-01-01

    Handbook of Global and Multicultural Negotiation provides advice and strategies for effective cross-cultural negotiations. Written from a multicultural perspective, this guidebook explores cross-cultural communication for problem solving and negotiations. This resource includes real-life stories and examples compiled from over thirty years of domestic and global experience from both authors, including Chris Moore, a well-known international negotiator and best selling author. This step-by-step guide to negotiation provides practical recommendations, advice, and globally proven strategies to pr

  19. Turning negotiation into a corporate capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, D

    1999-01-01

    Every company today exists in a complex web of relationships formed, one at a time, through negotiation. Purchasing and outsourcing contracts are negotiated with vendors. Marketing arrangements are negotiated with distributors. Product development agreements are negotiated with joint-venture partners. Taken together, the thousands of negotiations a typical company engages in have an enormous effect on both its strategy and its bottom line. But few companies think systematically about their negotiating activities as a whole. Instead they take a situational view, perceiving each negotiation to be a separate event with its own goals, tactics, and measures of success. Coordinating them all seems an overwhelming and impracticable job. In reality, the author argues, it is neither. A number of companies are successfully building coordinated negotiation capabilities by applying four broad changes in practice and perspective. First, they've established a company-wide negotiation infrastructure to apply the knowledge gained from forging past agreements to improve future ones. Second, they've broadened the measures they use to evaluate negotiators' performance beyond matters of cost and price. Third, they draw a clear distinction between the elements of an individual deal and the nature of the ongoing relationship between the parties. Fourth, they make their negotiators feel comfortable walking away from a deal when it's not in the company's best interests. These changes aren't radical steps. But taken together, they will let companies establish closer, more creative relationships with suppliers, customers, and other partners.

  20. Institutional dynamics and the negotiation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    The paper develops the argument for analyzing negotiations from an institutional perspective. A major theme of the argument being advanced in the paper is that the institutional perspective provides a more comprehensive understanding of the negotiation process in its entirety. The negotiation...... process can be broken down into three distinct components, namely (a) the pre negotiation phase; (b) the negotiating phase; and (c) the post negotiation evaluation. Each of these phases is critically influenced by a specific component or components of the institutional environment. Scott's distinction...... and their implications for negotiating processes in these countries. Choosing India and China to illustrate the utility of this framework is justified by the fact that India and China are both in the process of transforming their economies and although confronted with similar challenges they have dealt with them in very...

  1. Multilateral negotiations over climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Pinto, L.M.; Harrison, G.W. [Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal). Nucleo de Investigacao em Microeconomia Aplicada, Departmento de Economia

    2000-07-01

    Negotiations in the real world have many features that tend to be ignored in policy modelling. They are often multilateral, involving many negotiating parties with preferences over outcomes that can differ substantially. They are also often multi-dimensional, in the sense that several policies are negotiated over simultaneously. Trade negotiations are a prime example, as are negotiations over environmental policies to abate CO{sub 2}. The authors demonstrate how one can formally model this type of negotiation process. They use a policy-oriented computable general equilibrium model to generate preference functions which are then used in a formal multilateral bargaining game. The case study is on climate change policy, but the main contribution is to demonstrate how one can integrate formal economic models of the impacts of policies with formal bargaining models of the negotiations over those policies. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Agents That Negotiate Proficiently with People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sarit

    Negotiation is a process by which interested parties confer with the aim of reaching agreements. The dissemination of technologies such as the Internet has created opportunities for computer agents to negotiate with people, despite being distributed geographically and in time. The inclusion of people presents novel problems for the design of autonomous agent negotiation strategies. People do not adhere to the optimal, monolithic strategies that can be derived analytically, as is the case in settings comprising computer agents alone. Their negotiation behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors, such as social attributes that influence negotiation deals (e.g., social welfare, inequity aversion) and traits of individual negotiators (e.g., altruism, trustworthiness, helpfulness). Furthermore, culture plays an important role in their decision making and people of varying cultures differ in the way they make offers and fulfill their commitments in negotiation.

  3. Biosynthetic Pathway and Metabolic Engineering of Plant Dihydrochalcones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibdah, Mwafaq; Martens, Stefan; Gang, David R

    2018-03-14

    Dihydrochalcones are plant natural products containing the phenylpropanoid backbone and derived from the plant-specific phenylpropanoid pathway. Dihydrochalcone compounds are important in plant growth and response to stresses and, thus, can have large impacts on agricultural activity. In recent years, these compounds have also received increased attention from the biomedical community for their potential as anticancer treatments and other benefits for human health. However, they are typically produced at relatively low levels in plants. Therefore, an attractive alternative is to express the plant biosynthetic pathway genes in microbial hosts and to engineer the metabolic pathway/host to improve the production of these metabolites. In the present review, we discuss in detail the functions of genes and enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of the dihydrochalcones and the recent strategies and achievements used in the reconstruction of multi-enzyme pathways in microorganisms in efforts to be able to attain higher amounts of desired dihydrochalcones.

  4. [Advance in flavonoids biosynthetic pathway and synthetic biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-Qiu; Wang, Cai-Xia; Kuang, Xue-Jun; Li, Ying; Sun, Chao

    2016-11-01

    Flavonoids are the valuable components in medicinal plants, which possess a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. There is an unambiguous understanding about flavonoids biosynthetic pathway, that is,2S-flavanones including naringenin and pinocembrin are the skeleton of other flavonoids and they can transform to other flavonoids through branched metabolic pathway. Elucidation of the flavonoids biosynthetic pathway lays a solid foundation for their synthetic biology. A few flavonoids have been produced in Escherichia coli or yeast with synthetic biological technologies, such as naringenin, pinocembrin and fisetin. Synthetic biology will provide a new way to get valuable flavonoids and promote the research and development of flavonoid drugs and health products, making flavonoids play more important roles in human diet and health. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. A Concurrent Multiple Negotiation Protocol Based on Colored Petri Nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lei; Ren, Fenghui; Zhang, Minjie; Bai, Quan

    2017-11-01

    Concurrent multiple negotiation (CMN) provides a mechanism for an agent to simultaneously conduct more than one negotiation. There may exist different interdependency relationships among these negotiations and these interdependency relationships can impact the outcomes of these negotiations. The outcomes of these concurrent negotiations contribute together for the agent to achieve an overall negotiation goal. Handling a CMN while considering interdependency relationships among multiple negotiations is a challenging research problem. This paper: 1) comprehensively highlights research problems of negotiations at concurrent negotiation level; 2) provides a graph-based CMN model with consideration of the interdependency relationships; and 3) proposes a colored Petri net-based negotiation protocol for conducting CMNs. With the proposed protocol, a CMN can be efficiently and concurrently processed and negotiation agreements can be efficiently achieved. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed protocol in terms of the negotiation success rate, the negotiation time and the negotiation outcome.

  6. Floodplain conflicts: regulation and negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardoe, J.; Penning-Rowsell, E.; Tunstall, S.

    2011-10-01

    In the continuing shift from engineered solutions towards more holistic methods of managing flood risk, spatial planning has become the primary focus of a conflict between land and water, water and people. In attempting to strike a balance between making space for water and making space for people, compromises are required. Through five case studies in the UK, this paper analyses the effectiveness of Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS 25) and the processes of negotiation that it promotes. This assessment allows us to draw conclusions on the nature of the compromises this kind of negotiation can achieve and the implications of this for flood risk management. What emerges is that the beneficial impacts of decisions to develop floodplain areas are given a proper hearing and sensible conditions imposed, rather than arguments to prevent such development remaining unchallenged.

  7. Floodplain conflicts: regulation and negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pardoe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing shift from engineered solutions towards more holistic methods of managing flood risk, spatial planning has become the primary focus of a conflict between land and water, water and people. In attempting to strike a balance between making space for water and making space for people, compromises are required. Through five case studies in the UK, this paper analyses the effectiveness of Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS 25 and the processes of negotiation that it promotes. This assessment allows us to draw conclusions on the nature of the compromises this kind of negotiation can achieve and the implications of this for flood risk management. What emerges is that the beneficial impacts of decisions to develop floodplain areas are given a proper hearing and sensible conditions imposed, rather than arguments to prevent such development remaining unchallenged.

  8. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-01

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  9. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  10. The Negotiation of Basel III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm

    2015-01-01

    While the Basel Accords of 1988 and 2004 (Basel I and Basel II) ostensibly set out to regulate bank risk at the international level, they were effectively in the grip of neoliberal beliefs in the self-regulating potential of free markets. In 2009–2011, the Basel Accords were revised once more wit...... agency, the empirical argument is substantiated through textual–intertextual analysis of the rhetorical circulation of affective signs in the Basel III negotiations....

  11. Negotiating a deal in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The legal and diplomatic environment surrounding oil production negotiations in Iraq was discussed with reference to the essential terms generally negotiated for upstream contracts between oil companies and the Iraqi Ministry of Oil. Legal considerations were discussed for the following upstream contracts: production sharing contracts, a risk service contract, a modified buy-back contract, a technical service contract, and a joint venture company. It was noted that negotiations in Iraq require a great amount of diplomacy as projects are very high profile and attract significant international attention. Information sharing is critical in gaining valuable government support. The main problem for interested investors in Iraq is predicting when the UN sanctions will be lifted. Once lifted, the Ministry of Oil's Development Plan is to increase oil production through the co-operative assistance of foreign oil companies. While the sanctions remain in place, Iraq is allowed to sell oil on a renewable basis every 6 months under the oil-for-food programme, which permits Iraq to spend US$600 million every 6 months for spare parts to upgrade its oil industry. 9 figs

  12. Climate geopolitics. Negotiations, strategies, impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemenne, Francois

    2015-01-01

    As countries are not equal in front of the climate change issue (some contribute more than the others, some will be more heavily impacted, some are more dependent on fossil energies, some could be affected by population movements related to the degradation of their environment), and as countries are to adopt measures for a more sustainable development while facing huge geopolitical challenges which affect international negotiations, this book aims at describing and analysing these issues which illustrate serious imbalances between countries. These issues relate to the development of energy policies, to geographical and demographic constraints. The author describes how the climate has become an international political issue, and a field of complex interactions with international relationships. After having recalled the origins of greenhouse gas emissions and their main expected impacts, he analyses the various responsibilities, describes these different impacts, outlines how global warming is basically unfair: the less responsible countries will be more impacted than the responsible ones. He also discusses mechanisms of international cooperation which have been implemented to address this issue: adaptation and mitigation policies, associated negotiations. He notices that the strongest mitigation efforts are, the least necessary adaptation efforts will be. He discusses the issue of financing and necessary financial and technological transfers to help southern countries in reducing their emissions without compromising their development. He highlights the current status of negotiations, their organisation, the present actors and forces, and their main point of tension

  13. Optimizing Negotiation Conflict in the Cloud Service Negotiation Framework Using Probabilistic Decision Making Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Rajavel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of negotiation conflict in the cloud service negotiation framework is identified as one of the major challenging issues. This negotiation conflict occurs during the bilateral negotiation process between the participants due to the misperception, aggressive behavior, and uncertain preferences and goals about their opponents. Existing research work focuses on the prerequest context of negotiation conflict optimization by grouping similar negotiation pairs using distance, binary, context-dependent, and fuzzy similarity approaches. For some extent, these approaches can maximize the success rate and minimize the communication overhead among the participants. To further optimize the success rate and communication overhead, the proposed research work introduces a novel probabilistic decision making model for optimizing the negotiation conflict in the long-term negotiation context. This decision model formulates the problem of managing different types of negotiation conflict that occurs during negotiation process as a multistage Markov decision problem. At each stage of negotiation process, the proposed decision model generates the heuristic decision based on the past negotiation state information without causing any break-off among the participants. In addition, this heuristic decision using the stochastic decision tree scenario can maximize the revenue among the participants available in the cloud service negotiation framework.

  14. Optimizing Negotiation Conflict in the Cloud Service Negotiation Framework Using Probabilistic Decision Making Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavel, Rajkumar; Thangarathinam, Mala

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of negotiation conflict in the cloud service negotiation framework is identified as one of the major challenging issues. This negotiation conflict occurs during the bilateral negotiation process between the participants due to the misperception, aggressive behavior, and uncertain preferences and goals about their opponents. Existing research work focuses on the prerequest context of negotiation conflict optimization by grouping similar negotiation pairs using distance, binary, context-dependent, and fuzzy similarity approaches. For some extent, these approaches can maximize the success rate and minimize the communication overhead among the participants. To further optimize the success rate and communication overhead, the proposed research work introduces a novel probabilistic decision making model for optimizing the negotiation conflict in the long-term negotiation context. This decision model formulates the problem of managing different types of negotiation conflict that occurs during negotiation process as a multistage Markov decision problem. At each stage of negotiation process, the proposed decision model generates the heuristic decision based on the past negotiation state information without causing any break-off among the participants. In addition, this heuristic decision using the stochastic decision tree scenario can maximize the revenue among the participants available in the cloud service negotiation framework.

  15. AN EDUCATIONAL GAME IN CONSTRUCTION PROCUREMENT NEGOTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jye Dzeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Project managers are frequently required to negotiate during the procurement of construction materials and drawing up of contractual agreements. Training in negotiation training requires hands-on experience and interaction with multiple parties. However, in the conventional curriculum on construction management, negotiation is taught merely through lectures and case studies. This study addressed that shortcoming by developing a portfolio negotiation game in which students play different roles and actively make decisions while proceeding through a simulated negotiation process in a competitive context. The proposed game would be the first negotiation game within the domain of the construction industry. During the pilot study, 46 students (with or without industrial working experience played the game; the results showed an increase in learning interest, satisfaction, and effectiveness.

  16. Negotiated risks. International talks on hazardous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenhaus, Rudolf; Sjoestedt, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    This book fills a major gap in the risk literature, as it brings together two research strands: risks, to which IIASA's research programs have contributed significantly over the years, culminating in the Risk and Vulnerability Program, and international negotiations, on which there is an abundance of published work, much of it resulting from the work of IIASA's Processes of International Negotiations Program. Throughout the book, it is pointed out that there are actor-driven risks, namely those posed by international negotiations themselves, and issue-driven risks which are caused by large-scale human activities. In fact, negotiated risks deal with some of the most serious risks facing humanity: climate change, nuclear activities, and weapons of mass destruction. The book contains both scientific analyses on the nature of internationally negotiated risks and analyses of concrete risks, both of which are of immense practical relevance in the larger context of international negotiations. (orig.)

  17. Automated Bilateral Negotiation and Bargaining Impasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernando; Novais, A. Q.; Coelho, Helder

    The design and implementation of autonomous negotiating agents involve the consideration of insights from multiple relevant research areas to integrate different perspectives on negotiation. As a starting point for an interdisciplinary research effort, this paper employs game-theoretic techniques to define equilibrium strategies for the bargaining game of alternating offers and formalizes a set of negotiation strategies studied in the social sciences. This paper also shifts the emphasis to negotiations that are "difficult" to resolve and can hit an impasse. Specifically, it analyses a situation where two agents bargain over the division of the surplus of several distinct issues to demonstrate how a procedure to avoid impasses can be utilized in a specific negotiation setting. The procedure is based on the addition of new issues to the agenda during the course of negotiation and the exploration of the differences in the valuation of these issues to capitalize on Pareto optimal agreements.

  18. Office of the US Nuclear Waste Negotiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Office of the US Nuclear Waste Negotiator was created as an independent federal agency by the US Congress pursuant to the 1987 amendments to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The office, which was authorized by Congress for 5 years following the enactment of the 1987 amendments, is headquartered in Boise, Idaho, and maintains a liaison office in Washington DC. The negotiator is charged with the responsibility of attempting to find a state or Indian tribe willing to host a repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility at a technically qualified site on reasonable terms. The negotiator is instructed to negotiate with any state or Indian tribe that expresses an interest in hosting a repository or MRS facility. The negotiator will formally submit the negotiated agreement and environmental assessment to Congress, and the agreement will become effective when acted on by Congress and signed by the President into law

  19. Condom negotiation: findings and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasant, Courtney; Parra, Gilbert R; Okwumabua, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize factors associated with condom negotiation among heterosexual men. Literature searches were conducted using multiple databases spanning several disciplines. Studies examining psychological, demographic, relational, communication, and environmental factors related to condom negotiation are described, and a three-dimensional framework of condom negotiation is proposed. This framework of condom negotiation may aid researchers in operationalizing this construct, organizing this literature, and facilitating measurement development. We used this three-dimensional framework to articulate the influence of gender, ethnicity, relationship type, partner characteristics, trauma history, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol use on condom negotiation. Areas for future research are outlined. More research is needed to understand how these factors interact to influence condom negotiation, as well as the interaction between gender and the identified factors.

  20. The polarizing effect of arousal on negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ashley D; Curhan, Jared R

    2013-10-01

    In this research, we examined the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and the prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized given its negative effect on negotiations, whereas prior research on misattribution of arousal suggests that arousal might polarize outcomes, either negatively or positively. In two experiments, we manipulated arousal and measured its effect on subjective and objective negotiation outcomes. Our results support the polarization effect. When participants had negative prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a detrimental effect on outcomes, whereas when participants had positive prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a beneficial effect on outcomes. These effects occurred because of the construal of arousal as negative or positive affect, respectively. Our findings have important implications not only for negotiation, but also for research on misattribution of arousal, which previously has focused on the target of evaluation, in contrast to the current research, which focused on the critical role of the perceiver.

  1. Negotiation strategies in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This paper seeks to explore the impact of different negotiation strategies on then negotiation setting in different buyer-supplier relationships. So far, the extant supply chain management (SCM) literature has only briefly touched this subject, though such a study has been advocated...... to reject or confirm the reached conclusions. Originality/value - The paper is the first to specifically investigate the role of negotiation strategies in the academic discipline of SCM from a qualitative angle using participant observations and interviews....

  2. Modeling Negotiation Using "Narrative Grammar": Exploring the Evolution of Meaning in a Simulated Negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobb, S.; Laws, D.; Sluzki, C.

    2013-01-01

    Negotiation research, drawing on rational choice theory, provides a wealth of findings about how people negotiate successfully, as well as descriptions of some of the many pitfalls associated to negotiation failures. Building on narrative theory, this paper attempts to expand the theoretical base of

  3. Beach or Office? Where shall we negotiate? : The impact of location on negotiation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijst, Per; Hong, Alain

    2017-01-01

    The central question in this study was to what extent the formality of the location where the negotiation takes place influences the negotiation strategies used. We studied the role of formality in an experimental setting, where a negotiation simulation took place either in an office room or at the

  4. Use of [75Se]selenomethionine in immunoglobulin biosynthetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutman, G.A.; Warner, N.L.; Harris, A.W.; Bowles, A.

    1978-01-01

    The gamma-emitting amino acid analog, [ 75 Se] selenomethionine, has been used as a biosynthetic label for immunoglobulins secreted by plasmacytomas in tissue culture. The secreted products are structurally intact with respect to their antibody combining sites and their class and allotype antigenic specificities. A component of [ 75 Se] selenomethionine preparations was found to bind to fetal calf serum proteins, in a manner releasable by mercaptoethanol, but not by sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea. Methods for circumventing the problems caused by this binding are described. (Auth.)

  5. A kinetic model for the penicillin biosynthetic pathway in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Jørgensen, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    A kinetic model for the first two steps in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway, i.e. the ACV synthetase (ACVS) and the isopenicillin N synthetase (IPNS) is proposed. The model is based on Michaelis-Menten type kinetics with non-competitive inhibition of the ACVS by ACV, and competitive inhibition...... of the IPNS by glutathione. The model predicted flux through the pathway corresponds well with the measured rate of penicillin biosynthesis. From the kinetic model the elasticity coefficients and the flux control coefficients are calculated throughout a fed-batch cultivation, and it is found...

  6. A social negotiation of hope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungruhe, Christian; Esson, James

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the present-day perception among boys and young men in West Africa that migration through football offers a way of achieving social standing and improving their life chances. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork among footballers in urban southern Ghana between 2010 and 2016, we...... argue that young people’s efforts to make it abroad and “become a somebody” through football is not merely an individual fantasy; it is rather a social negotiation of hope to overcome widespread social immobility in the region. It is this collective practice among a large cohort of young males...

  7. Negotiating

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Philip; Scott-Barrett, Fiona

    1993-01-01

    This is part of a series of books, which gives training in key business communication skills. Emphasis is placed on building awareness of language appropriateness and fluency in typical business interactions. This new edition is in full colour.

  8. Biosynthetic multitasking facilitates thalassospiramide structural diversity in marine bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Ross, Avena C.

    2013-01-23

    Thalassospiramides A and B are immunosuppressant cyclic lipopeptides first reported from the marine α-proteobacterium Thalassospira sp. CNJ-328. We describe here the discovery and characterization of an extended family of 14 new analogues from four Tistrella and Thalassospira isolates. These potent calpain 1 protease inhibitors belong to six structure classes in which the length and composition of the acylpeptide side chain varies extensively. Genomic sequence analysis of the thalassospiramide-producing microbes revealed related, genus-specific biosynthetic loci encoding hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthases consistent with thalassospiramide assembly. The bioinformatics analysis of the gene clusters suggests that structural diversity, which ranges from the 803.4 Da thalassospiramide C to the 1291.7 Da thalassospiramide F, results from a complex sequence of reactions involving amino acid substrate channeling and enzymatic multimodule skipping and iteration. Preliminary biochemical analysis of the N-terminal nonribosomal peptide synthetase module from the Thalassospira TtcA megasynthase supports a biosynthetic model in which in cis amino acid activation competes with in trans activation to increase the range of amino acid substrates incorporated at the N terminus. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. Biosynthetic multitasking facilitates thalassospiramide structural diversity in marine bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Ross, Avena C.; Xü , Ying; Lu, Liang; Kersten, Roland D.; Shao, Zongze; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Qian, Peiyuan; Moore, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Thalassospiramides A and B are immunosuppressant cyclic lipopeptides first reported from the marine α-proteobacterium Thalassospira sp. CNJ-328. We describe here the discovery and characterization of an extended family of 14 new analogues from four Tistrella and Thalassospira isolates. These potent calpain 1 protease inhibitors belong to six structure classes in which the length and composition of the acylpeptide side chain varies extensively. Genomic sequence analysis of the thalassospiramide-producing microbes revealed related, genus-specific biosynthetic loci encoding hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthases consistent with thalassospiramide assembly. The bioinformatics analysis of the gene clusters suggests that structural diversity, which ranges from the 803.4 Da thalassospiramide C to the 1291.7 Da thalassospiramide F, results from a complex sequence of reactions involving amino acid substrate channeling and enzymatic multimodule skipping and iteration. Preliminary biochemical analysis of the N-terminal nonribosomal peptide synthetase module from the Thalassospira TtcA megasynthase supports a biosynthetic model in which in cis amino acid activation competes with in trans activation to increase the range of amino acid substrates incorporated at the N terminus. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. 48 CFR 619.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 619.808 Section 619.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 619.808 Contract negotiation...

  11. Supply Chain Sourcing Game: A Negotiation Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Mehmet; Love, Ernie C.

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an exercise that simulates the negotiation process in a dynamic supply chain. The retailer and wholesaler roles are assigned to student groups who negotiate supply contracts in a number of rounds during a class period. Each group makes pricing, inventory, and ordering decision concurrently, and competes with others to…

  12. 49 CFR 1144.1 - Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiation. 1144.1 Section 1144.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE INTRAMODAL RAIL COMPETITION § 1144.1 Negotiation. (a) Timing. At least 5 days prior to seeking the prescription of ...

  13. Intercultural Negotiation: The “Nomadic” Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E. WALKER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has a strong impact on international negotiation. Negotiators must manage situationswhere they may have to deal with several people coming from many different cultures. It is thusnecessary to manage diversity during the negotiation processes and interactions to achieve asufficiently high level of performance to be competitive in world markets.Researchers have tended to focus on the importance of cultural knowledge to internationalnegotiators. Many articles describe different styles of negotiations according to countries, regionsor even cultural groupings, such as for Anglo-Saxon or Arab negotiating partners.However, researchers have given less attention to the notion of intercultural competence and howcompanies could develop the ability to adapt to any culture, even if a negotiator has little priorinformation concerning their partners. This skill is universal across all cultures and could be addedto the profile of a successful negotiator. It is an attitude based on openness towards people comingfrom a different culture. This paper describes negotiators who adopt this attitude: the way of a‘nomad’.

  14. 32 CFR 756.6 - Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiation. 756.6 Section 756.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS PROCEDURES FOR PROCESSING CLAIMS INVOLVING NON-APPROPRIATED FUND ACTIVITIES AND THEIR EMPLOYEES § 756.6 Negotiation. (a) General. Claims from NAFIs should be processed primarily...

  15. The mind and heart of the negotiator

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Leigh L

    2015-01-01

    For undergraduate and graduate-level business courses that cover the skills of negotiation. Delve into the mind and heart of the negotiator in order to enhance negotiation skills. The Mind and Heart of the Negotiator is dedicated to negotiators who want to improve their ability to negotiate-whether in multimillion-dollar business deals or personal interactions. This text provides an integrated view of what to do and what to avoid at the bargaining table, facilitated by an integration of theory, scientific research, and practical examples. This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. Here's how: *Provide Students with Practical Real-World Examples: Each chapter opens with a case study that illustrates a real business situation.*Offer In-Depth Information on Business Negotiation Skills: This text provides practical take-away points for the manager and executive on integrative negotiation and contains a series of hands-on principles that have been proven to incre...

  16. 28 CFR 552.31 - Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiations. 552.31 Section 552.31 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Hostage... negotiation process. Instead, this responsibility is ordinarily assigned to a team of individuals specifically...

  17. CONTEXTUAL STRATEGIES FOR CONDUCTING EFFECTIVE NEGOTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia\tBĂEȘU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper we try to argue the development of contextual strategies for conducting effective negotiation. Throughout the paper we present that the first motivation which we manage to identify is that we negotiate to improve whatever situation we are involved in. It is of great relevance to identify a few reasons for what we negotiate. Another motivation is that negotiation is an opportunity for creativity and it does allow you to fashion a solution according to, usually different kinds of facts, different fact situation so you may get to express some creativity. Negotiation is perceived as an opportunity where we can also build relationship with the other person. We can also communicate better with the other side about where they are, what they want and where they want to go. Next, we try to identify what makes for successful negotiation during each stage of the negotiation process. According to this paper there are five things which are the essence of business negotiation.

  18. Negotiations in the EU Council of Ministers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Sandrino

    Insiders and outsiders agree; there is something particular about negotiating in Brussels. This book analyses ten years of continuous negotiations about EU enlargement to the Western Balkans, answering questions such as When and how are decisions typically reached in the European Union? What is t...

  19. Using Cognitive Agents to Train Negotiation Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Christopher A; Daamen, Jeroen; Gaudrain, Emma; Renkema, Tom; Top, Jakob Dirk; Cnossen, Fokie; Taatgen, Niels A

    2018-01-01

    Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial

  20. Negotiation Strategies in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of this paper This paper seeks to explore the impact of different negotiation strategies on the negotiation setting in different buyer-supplier relationships. So far, the extant SCM literature has only briefly touched this subject, though such a study has been advocated for on previous no...

  1. 40 CFR 35.937-5 - Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procurement including negotiation may be performed by the grantee directly or by another non-Federal governmental body, person or firm retained for the purpose. Contract negotiations may include the services of... be conducted by the grantee under procedures it adopts based upon Public Law 92-582, 40 U.S.C. 541...

  2. 4 CFR 28.122 - Negotiability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiability issues. 28.122 Section 28.122 Accounts... Special Procedures; Unfair Labor Practices § 28.122 Negotiability issues. Where the GAO and an exclusive... shall review the arguments, hold a hearing if the administrative judge deems it necessary, and issue a...

  3. The mind and heart (literally) of the negotiator: personality and contextual determinants of experiential reactions and economic outcomes in negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimotakis, Nikolaos; Conlon, Donald E; Ilies, Remus

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed and tested a model proposing that negotiator personality interacts with the negotiation situation to influence negotiation processes and outcomes. In 2 studies, the authors found that negotiators high in agreeableness were best suited to integrative negotiations and that negotiators low in agreeableness were best suited to distributive negotiations. Consistent with this person-situation fit argument, in Study 1 the authors found that negotiators whose dispositions were a good fit to their negotiation context had higher levels of physiological (cardiac) arousal at the end of the negotiation compared with negotiators who were "misplaced" in situations inconsistent with their level of agreeableness, and this arousal was in turn related to increased economic outcomes. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1, finding that person-situation fit was related to physiological (heart rate), psychological (positive affect), and behavioral activation (persistence) demonstrated during the negotiation, and these measures in turn were related to the economic outcomes achieved by participants.

  4. Determinants of Complexity of Sovereign Debt Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mesjasz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The situation on all kinds of financial markets is determined by their increasing complexity. Negotiation of sovereign debt is also a complex endeavor. Its complexity results both from structural characteristics - number of actors, problems of coordination, communication, cooperation and conflict and from cognitive limitations. The survey of literature on sovereign debt management shows that no research has been done on complexity of sovereign debt management, and sovereign debt negotiation in particular. The aim of the paper is to provide initial framework concepts of complexity of sovereign debt restructuring negotiation referring to a universal collection of characteristics of negotiation. A model of debt restructuring negotiation is elaborated and a set of its complexity- related characteristics is proposed.

  5. Helping UN negotiators protect the poorest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysinghe, Achala Chandani

    2011-07-15

    UN climate change negotiations are beehives of intense activity. Parallel negotiating sessions, contact groups, drafting sessions and side events all contribute to the complexity. During high-stake conferences like the one held in Copenhagen in 2009, negotiators labour through deadlocked all-night meetings. Adaptation, mitigation, technology transfer and finance are just a few of the controversial and technically challenging issues on the table. The UNFCCC process itself imposes an additional labyrinth that participants must learn. To meet these demands and participate in the negotiations effectively, countries need talented teams of negotiators and expert advisors. The most powerful countries send dozens of delegates: Japan's team has 114 members, and the United States has 155. But Gambia, which leads the 48 countries in the least developed countries (LDC) group, has only four. For the poorest countries, the UN provides funds to support just two delegates.

  6. Handbook of group decision and negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Colin

    2010-01-01

    The growing field of Group Decision and Negotiation is best described as the empirical, formal, computational, and strategic analysis of group decision-making and negotiation, especially from the viewpoints of Management Science and Operations Research. The topic crosses many traditional disciplinary boundaries. It has connections to business administration and business strategy, management science, systems engineering, computer science, mathematics, and law, as well as economics, psychology, and other social sciences. This defining handbook provides an up-to-date reference on new approaches to the principles and practice of negotiation, group decision-making, and collaboration, including the origins, development, and prospects of electronic negotiation, as well as the associated development of on-line or computer-based arbitration systems. It also provides a current and comprehensive reference on how traditional issues in negotiation, such as knowledge, language, strategy, fairness and justice, have been tra...

  7. Gender Contrasts in Negotiation Impasse Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Cotter

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study contrasts the rate of impasse in genders in face-to-face negotiations for newly trained women and men. The empirical study analyzed negotiators’ negotiation impasse rates based on gender using a two-tailed t-test. The bargainers were involved in a series of ten high-stakes, zero-sum game negotiations. A total of 4,855 separate negotiations were examined. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in the impasse rates of men and women The female rate of impasse was lower than the male rate of impasse, but without any significant differences, the results indicate that there are no gender differences in the abilities of negotiators to arrive at a deal.

  8. THE COST OF POSITIONAL NEGOTIATIONS VERSUS COLLABORATIVE OR RELATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS FOR NEGOTIATING COMPLIANCE MILESTONES AT HANFORD WA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Hanford site is subject to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO), an order on consent signed by the DOE, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE). Under the HFFCCO, negotiations for transition milestones begin within six months after the issuance of a shutdown order. In the case of the PFP, the Nuclear Materials disposition and stabilization activities, a DOE responsibility, were necessary as precursor activities to Transition. This situation precipitated a crisis in the negotiations between the agencies, and formal negotiations initiated in 1997 ended in failure. The negotiations reached impasse on several key regulatory and operational issues. The 1997 negotiation was characterized by a strongly positional style. DOE and the regulatory personnel took hard lines early in the negotiations and were unable to move to resolution of key issues after a year and a half. This resulted in unhappy stakeholders, poor publicity, and work delays as well as wounded relationships between DOE and the regulatory community. The PFP is a former plutonium metal production facility. The operating mission of the PFP ended with a DOE Headquarters shutdown letter in October of 1996. Generally, the receipt of a shutdown letter initiates the start of Transition (as the first step of Decommissioning) of a facility. In the 2000-2001 PFP negotiations, a completely different approach was suggested and eventually initiated: Collaborative or Relational Negotiations. The relational negotiation style resulted in agreement between the agencies on all key issues within 6 months of initiation. All parties were very pleased with the results and all parties were relieved that protracted negotiations sessions were not needed with the new style of working together collaboratively to serve each other's interests without compromising each party's needs. The characteristics of collaborative negotiations included building

  9. Negotiating a Systems Development Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Hedström, Karin

    Systems development methods (or methods) are often applied in tailored version to fit the actual situation. Method tailoring is in most the existing literature viewed as either (a) a highly rational process with the method engineer as the driver where the project members are passive information providers or (b) an unstructured process where the systems developer makes individual choices, a selection process without any driver. The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate that important design decisions during method tailoring are made by project members through negotiation. The study has been carried out using the perspective of actor-network theory. Our narratives depict method tailoring as more complex than (a) and (b) show the driver role rotates between the project members, and design decisions are based on influences from several project members. However, these design decisions are not consensus decisions.

  10. Complex Automated Negotiations Theories, Models, and Software Competitions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Minjie; Robu, Valentin; Matsuo, Tokuro

    2013-01-01

    Complex Automated Negotiations are a widely studied, emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. In general, automated negotiations can be complex, since there are a lot of factors that characterize such negotiations. For this book, we solicited papers on all aspects of such complex automated negotiations, which are studied in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This book includes two parts, which are Part I: Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiations and Part II: Automated Negotiation Agents Competition. Each chapter in Part I is an extended version of ACAN 2011 papers after peer reviews by three PC members. Part II includes ANAC 2011 (The Second Automated Negotiating Agents Competition), in which automated agents who have different negotiation strategies and implemented by different developers are automatically negotiate in the several negotiation domains. ANAC is an international competition in which automated negotiation strategies, submitted by a number of...

  11. Heterologous expression of pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster using Streptomyces artificial chromosome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyeon, Hye-Rim; Nah, Hee-Ju; Kang, Seung-Hoon; Choi, Si-Sun; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2017-05-31

    Heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters of natural microbial products has become an essential strategy for titer improvement and pathway engineering of various potentially-valuable natural products. A Streptomyces artificial chromosomal conjugation vector, pSBAC, was previously successfully applied for precise cloning and tandem integration of a large polyketide tautomycetin (TMC) biosynthetic gene cluster (Nah et al. in Microb Cell Fact 14(1):1, 2015), implying that this strategy could be employed to develop a custom overexpression scheme of natural product pathway clusters present in actinomycetes. To validate the pSBAC system as a generally-applicable heterologous overexpression system for a large-sized polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces, another model polyketide compound, the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster, was preciously cloned and heterologously expressed using the pSBAC system. A unique HindIII restriction site was precisely inserted at one of the border regions of the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster within the chromosome of Streptomyces venezuelae, followed by site-specific recombination of pSBAC into the flanking region of the pikromycin gene cluster. Unlike the previous cloning process, one HindIII site integration step was skipped through pSBAC modification. pPik001, a pSBAC containing the pikromycin biosynthetic gene cluster, was directly introduced into two heterologous hosts, Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor, resulting in the production of 10-deoxymethynolide, a major pikromycin derivative. When two entire pikromycin biosynthetic gene clusters were tandemly introduced into the S. lividans chromosome, overproduction of 10-deoxymethynolide and the presence of pikromycin, which was previously not detected, were both confirmed. Moreover, comparative qRT-PCR results confirmed that the transcription of pikromycin biosynthetic genes was significantly upregulated in S. lividans containing tandem

  12. Metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathway for production of renewable biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijai; Mani, Indra; Chaudhary, Dharmendra Kumar; Dhar, Pawan Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic engineering is an important area of research that involves editing genetic networks to overproduce a certain substance by the cells. Using a combination of genetic, metabolic, and modeling methods, useful substances have been synthesized in the past at industrial scale and in a cost-effective manner. Currently, metabolic engineering is being used to produce sufficient, economical, and eco-friendly biofuels. In the recent past, a number of efforts have been made towards engineering biosynthetic pathways for large scale and efficient production of biofuels from biomass. Given the adoption of metabolic engineering approaches by the biofuel industry, this paper reviews various approaches towards the production and enhancement of renewable biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, isopropanol, hydrogen, and biodiesel. We have also identified specific areas where more work needs to be done in the future.

  13. The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in plants: function and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koes, R.E.; Quattrocchio, F.; Mol, J.N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Flavonoids are a class of low molecular weight phenolic compounds that is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They exhibit a diverse spectrum of biological functions and play an important role in the interaction between plants and their environment. Flavonoids not only protect the plant from the harmful effects of UV irradiation but also play a crucial role in the sexual reproduction process. A special class of flavonoid polymers, the tannins, plays a structural role in the plant. Yet other classes of flavonoids, flavonols and anthocyanins, have been implicated in the attraction of pollinators. Certain flavonoids participate in the interaction between plants and other organisms such as symbiotic bacteria and parasites. This raises the intriguing question as to how these different compounds arose and evolved. Based on taxonomy and molecular analysis of gene expression patterns it is possible to deduce a putative sequence of acquisition of the different branches of the biosynthetic pathway and their regulators. (author)

  14. The flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in plants: function and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koes, R. E.; Quattrocchio, F.; Mol, J. N.M. [Department of Genetics, Institute for Molecular Biological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, BioCentrum Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-07-01

    Flavonoids are a class of low molecular weight phenolic compounds that is widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They exhibit a diverse spectrum of biological functions and play an important role in the interaction between plants and their environment. Flavonoids not only protect the plant from the harmful effects of UV irradiation but also play a crucial role in the sexual reproduction process. A special class of flavonoid polymers, the tannins, plays a structural role in the plant. Yet other classes of flavonoids, flavonols and anthocyanins, have been implicated in the attraction of pollinators. Certain flavonoids participate in the interaction between plants and other organisms such as symbiotic bacteria and parasites. This raises the intriguing question as to how these different compounds arose and evolved. Based on taxonomy and molecular analysis of gene expression patterns it is possible to deduce a putative sequence of acquisition of the different branches of the biosynthetic pathway and their regulators. (author)

  15. Extending the biosynthetic repertoires of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Agnieszka Janina Zygadlo; Mellor, Silas Busck; Vavitsas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    The chloroplasts found in plants and algae, and photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria, are emerging hosts for sustainable production of valuable biochemicals, using only inorganic nutrients, water, CO2 and light as inputs. In the past decade, many bioengineering efforts have focused...... on metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in the chloroplast or in cyanobacteria for the production of fuels, chemicals, as well as complex, high-value bioactive molecules. Biosynthesis of all these compounds can be performed in photosynthetic organelles/organisms by heterologous expression...... of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria as biosynthetic compartments and hosts, and we estimate the production levels to be expected from photosynthetic hosts in light of the fraction of electrons and carbon that can potentially be diverted from photosynthesis. The supply of reducing power, in the form of electrons...

  16. Metabolic profiling of alternative NAD biosynthetic routes in mouse tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Mori

    Full Text Available NAD plays essential redox and non-redox roles in cell biology. In mammals, its de novo and recycling biosynthetic pathways encompass two independent branches, the "amidated" and "deamidated" routes. Here we focused on the indispensable enzymes gating these two routes, i.e. nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT, which in mammals comprises three distinct isozymes, and NAD synthetase (NADS. First, we measured the in vitro activity of the enzymes, and the levels of all their substrates and products in a number of tissues from the C57BL/6 mouse. Second, from these data, we derived in vivo estimates of enzymes'rates and quantitative contributions to NAD homeostasis. The NMNAT activity, mainly represented by nuclear NMNAT1, appears to be high and nonrate-limiting in all examined tissues, except in blood. The NADS activity, however, appears rate-limiting in lung and skeletal muscle, where its undetectable levels parallel a relative accumulation of the enzyme's substrate NaAD (nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide. In all tissues, the amidated NAD route was predominant, displaying highest rates in liver and kidney, and lowest in blood. In contrast, the minor deamidated route showed higher relative proportions in blood and small intestine, and higher absolute values in liver and small intestine. Such results provide the first comprehensive picture of the balance of the two alternative NAD biosynthetic routes in different mammalian tissues under physiological conditions. This fills a gap in the current knowledge of NAD biosynthesis, and provides a crucial information for the study of NAD metabolism and its role in disease.

  17. Evolution and Diversity of Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Fusarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Hoogendoorn

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi in the Fusarium genus cause severe damage to crops, resulting in great financial losses and health hazards. Specialized metabolites synthesized by these fungi are known to play key roles in the infection process, and to provide survival advantages inside and outside the host. However, systematic studies of the evolution of specialized metabolite-coding potential across Fusarium have been scarce. Here, we apply a combination of bioinformatic approaches to identify biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs across publicly available genomes from Fusarium, to group them into annotated families and to study gain/loss events of BGC families throughout the history of the genus. Comparison with MIBiG reference BGCs allowed assignment of 29 gene cluster families (GCFs to pathways responsible for the production of known compounds, while for 57 GCFs, the molecular products remain unknown. Comparative analysis of BGC repertoires using ancestral state reconstruction raised several new hypotheses on how BGCs contribute to Fusarium pathogenicity or host specificity, sometimes surprisingly so: for example, a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of hexadehydro-astechrome was identified in the genome of the biocontrol strain Fusarium oxysporum Fo47, while being absent in that of the tomato pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Several BGCs were also identified on supernumerary chromosomes; heterologous expression of genes for three terpene synthases encoded on the Fusarium poae supernumerary chromosome and subsequent GC/MS analysis showed that these genes are functional and encode enzymes that each are able to synthesize koraiol; this observed functional redundancy supports the hypothesis that localization of copies of BGCs on supernumerary chromosomes provides freedom for evolutionary innovations to occur, while the original function remains conserved. Altogether, this systematic overview of biosynthetic diversity in Fusarium paves the way for

  18. Expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes in peritoneal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousse, J-C; Defrère, S; Colette, S; Van Langendonckt, A; Donnez, J

    2010-03-01

    Increased peritoneal eicosanoid concentrations have been reported in endometriosis patients and might be important in disease-associated pain and inflammation. Here, we evaluated the expression of key biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes involved in this abnormal eicosanoid production in peritoneal macrophages and endometriotic lesions. Peritoneal macrophages, endometriotic lesions and matched eutopic endometrium were collected from endometriosis patients (n = 40). Peritoneal macrophages and eutopic endometrium samples were also collected from disease-free women (n = 25). Expression of type IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) was quantified by real-time PCR, and these five key enzymes were localized by immunohistochemistry. sPLA(2)-IIA, COX-2 and mPGES-1 mRNA was significantly increased in peritoneal macrophages of endometriosis patients compared with controls (P = 0.006, P = 0.016 and P = 0.025, respectively). In endometriosis patients, sPLA(2)-IIA, mPGES-1 and 15-PGDH mRNA was significantly enhanced in peritoneal lesions compared with matched eutopic endometrium (P endometriosis group compared with controls (P = 0.023). Finally, sPLA(2)-IIA, COX-2, mPGES-1 and 15-PGDH immunostaining was found mainly in endometrial glands, whereas 5-LO was distributed throughout the glands and stroma. Our study highlights an imbalance between eicosanoid biosynthesis and degradation in endometriosis patients. Both peritoneal macrophages and endometriotic lesions may be involved. Research into new molecules inhibiting biosynthetic enzymes (such as sPLA(2)-IIA and mPGES-1) and/or activating catabolic enzymes (such as 15-PGDH) may prove to be a major field of investigation in the development of targeted medical therapies.

  19. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Liliana Bohórquez Suárez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students’ negotiations: Establishing a connection with a partner to work with, proposing practical alternatives, refusing mates’ propositions, and making practical decisions. Moreover, we found that the constant performance of the process of negotiation provokes students to construct a sociolinguistic identity that allows agreements to emerge.

  20. First formal ITER negotiations make excellent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, P.

    2001-01-01

    November 8 and 9 2001 marked the historic beginning of formal negotiations meetings on the ITER project. Delegations from Canada, the European Union, Japan and the Russian Federation met in Toronto, Canada, for the first in a series of Negotiations that is expected to lead, by the end of 2002, to an agreement on the joint implementation of ITER. This agreement will govern, under international law, the construction, operation and decommissioning of ITER. The Negotiations concluded by issuing a joint news release, reflecting a commitment to share the progress reports on the efforts to implement ITER

  1. Negotiation Training Courses for Natural Resource Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, Nina; Swann, M. Earlene; Walters, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    FORT's Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch (PASA) has been conducting and publishing research on multi-party natural resource negotiation since the 1980s. This research has led to the development of basic and advanced negotiation training courses. Each course is two-and-a-half days. Both courses are a mix of lecture, hands-on training, and discussion. Please join us and other natural resource professionals facing similar problems and share your experiences. Come prepared to candidly discuss examples of successes to embrace, stalemates to recognize, and pitfalls to avoid in natural resource negotiations.

  2. Learning How to Ask: Women and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lauren H; Bajaj, Anureet K

    2017-03-01

    Women are less likely to reach top-level leadership positions, and more likely to leave academic positions, than men, and are likely to earn less money than men. Women are also less likely to initiate a negotiation-a process that is crucial for professional advancement. This reluctance to ask hinders their advancement and can have long-lasting consequences-both financial and professional. The reasons that women do not ask are multifactorial. In this article, we will explore reasons why women are less likely to negotiate, the barriers they face when they do, and strategies that women can apply to improve their negotiation skills.

  3. Interaction patterns in crisis negotiations: Persuasive arguments and cultural differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul J; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    This research examines cultural differences in negotiators' responses to persuasive arguments in crisis (hostage) negotiations over time. Using a new method of examining cue-response patterns, the authors examined 25 crisis negotiations in which police negotiators interacted with perpetrators from

  4. Virtual reality negotiation training system with virtual cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, D.; Burger, F.; Brinkman, W.P.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    A number of negotiation training systems have been developed to improve people’s performance in negotiation. They mainly focus on the skills development, and less on negotiation understanding and improving self-efficacy. We propose a virtual reality negotiation training system that exposes users to

  5. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation memorandum...

  6. Paying a Price: Culture, Trust, and Negotiation Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, Brian C.; Brett, Jeanne M.; Nandkeolyar, Amit K.; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Three studies contrasting Indian and American negotiators tested hypotheses derived from theory proposing why there are cultural differences in trust and how cultural differences in trust influence negotiation strategy. Study 1 (a survey) documented that Indian negotiators trust their counterparts less than American negotiators. Study 2 (a…

  7. Love, or negotiation, is in the air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A. [McCloskey Coal Information Services (Australia)

    2001-10-01

    The columnist considers the issues of whether there will be any Japanese/Australian benchmark price negotiations at all this year, and if so whether Japan will continue to set the world price for coking and steam coal.

  8. Territorial stigmatisation and the negotiation of place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2018-01-01

    The article addresses the negotiated meaning of notorious places through a consideration of a recent tendency in Danish TV documentaries where marginalized, often peripheral, places are portrayed and debated. Based partly on sociological research about territorial stigmatisation, partly on location...

  9. Negotiate way out of siting dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.H.; Nadler, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Can America negotiate itself out of its high-level radioactive waste dilemma by finding communities willing to volunteer as host sites? The authors think such a possibility exists. In fact, they see little other way to successfully locate controversial facilities in the future. A decide-announce-defend strategy only sparks community anger, solidifies opposition, and leads to expensive court battles without achieving results. The Office of Nuclear Waste Negotiator was established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to negotiate with states an Indian tribes about hosting a permanent nuclear waste repository and an interim Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. Twenty communities and Indian tribes submitted applications for grants to study the possibility of hosting an MRS facility. Whether or not one of these potential hosts decides to make a commitment, the efficacy of negotiation has been demonstrated. Neither courtroom procedures nor administrative flats have engendered similar success

  10. Expressing Intervals in Automated Service Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kassidy P.; Warnier, Martijn; van Splunter, Sander; Brazier, Frances M. T.

    During automated negotiation of services between autonomous agents, utility functions are used to evaluate the terms of negotiation. These terms often include intervals of values which are prone to misinterpretation. It is often unclear if an interval embodies a continuum of real numbers or a subset of natural numbers. Furthermore, it is often unclear if an agent is expected to choose only one value, multiple values, a sub-interval or even multiple sub-intervals. Additional semantics are needed to clarify these issues. Normally, these semantics are stored in a domain ontology. However, ontologies are typically domain specific and static in nature. For dynamic environments, in which autonomous agents negotiate resources whose attributes and relationships change rapidly, semantics should be made explicit in the service negotiation. This paper identifies issues that are prone to misinterpretation and proposes a notation for expressing intervals. This notation is illustrated using an example in WS-Agreement.

  11. Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Negotiating Rights : Building Coalitions for Improving Maternal Health Services ... the state of maternal health in the country reflects poorly on public health priorities. ... A number of international agencies and civil society organizations are ...

  12. Minority College Women's Views on Condom Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2015-12-22

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the "withholding sex" subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p negotiation included deciding the "right timing" of discussion and having a previous history of sexual intercourse without a condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male's responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms.

  13. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-10-07

    Oct 7, 2009 ... ... pillar of Latin America's development strategy into the 21st century. ... and policy advisors involved in trade negotiations and the formulation of trade policy. ... Expanding women's financial inclusion: A win-win for women and ...

  14. 32 CFR 644.83 - Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be available. He should furnish the landowner a copy of a map indicating the boundaries of that... negotiating patterns, and keeping in mind that counteroffers must be justified as being just and reasonable...

  15. 78 FR 17234 - Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... (DFS) Negotiated Service Agreement (NSA) to the market dominant product list.\\1\\ After a [[Page 17235... dominant product list.\\2\\ On March 8, 2013, the Postal Service filed an amendment to the DFS NSA with the...

  16. Analysis of international negotiations and trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Górriz Gonzalo, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze international trade agreements and negotiations. For that purpose, two agreements made by the United States are chosen to be analyzed. In the first place, the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) agreement, that was signed by the United States, Canada and Mexico in 1994 in order to create a free trade area. In addition, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) will be analyze, an agreement that is still being negotiated between the United Stat...

  17. Do Not Shoot, a Personal Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    purpose and job with us. The negotiation in this example was forced and physical in nature. Once the elder arrived with an interpreter, things were...Having worked with law enforcement, I was taught that removing the immediate threat, while utilizing the element of surprise with limited physical ...Studies AY10 Coursebook , (Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, August 2009), 130-131. 2 William Zartman, "Negotiation and Conflict Resolution

  18. A Framework for Argumentation-Based Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra, C.; Jennings, N. R.; Noriega, P.; Parsons, S.

    1997-01-01

    Many autonomous agents operate in domains in which the cooperation of their fellow agents cannot be guaranteed. In such domains negotiation is essential to persuade others of the value of co-operation. This paper describes a general framework for negotiation in which agents exchange proposals backed by arguments which summarise the reasons why the proposals should be accepted.The argumentation is persuasive because the exchanges are able to alter the mental state of the agents involved. The f...

  19. Modern approaches to agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Quan; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Ren, Fenghui; Aydoğan, Reyhan; Hadfi, Rafik

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses several important aspects of complex automated negotiations and introduces a number of modern approaches for facilitating agents to conduct complex negotiations. It demonstrates that autonomous negotiation is one of the most important areas in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. Further, it presents complex automated negotiation scenarios that involve negotiation encounters that may have, for instance, a large number of agents, a large number of issues with strong interdependencies and/or real-time constraints.

  20. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  1. Using Cognitive Agents to Train Negotiation Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Stevens

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial software agents with which students can train. These agents have the advantage that they can be “reset,” and played against multiple times. This allows students to learn from their mistakes and try different strategies. However, these agents are often based on normative theories of how negotiators should conduct themselves, not necessarily how people actually behave in negotiations. Here, we take a step toward addressing this gap by developing an agent grounded in a cognitive architecture, ACT-R. This agent contains a model of theory-of-mind, the ability of humans to reason about the mental states of others. It uses this model to try to infer the strategy of the opponent and respond accordingly. In a series of experiments, we show that this agent replicates some aspects of human performance, is plausible to human negotiators, and can lead to learning gains in a small-scale negotiation task.

  2. Managerial Roles and Functions in Negotiation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Kozina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on negotiation processes performed in a company and presents author’s concept of the description of the roles and functions accomplished by managers within those processes and being of significant importance from the point of view of negotiations’ outcomes. Such a concept aims at providing the analysis and conducting of business negotiations with effective support. Firstly (following introduction, the concept, types, and comprehensive model of such negotiations is presented as a useful methodological framework for specifying managerial roles and functions. Secondly, some classic concepts of those roles are reviewed, drawing special attention to the ones that concern negotiation process. Thirdly, general managerial functions within that process are described. Fourthly, those functions are precised by relating them to typical hierarchical levels. Fifthly, peculiar managerial functions within negotiating team are discussed. Finally, specific issue of the role of manager as a mediator is addressed. Summing up the paper, the crucial areas for subsequent research were pointed out. In order to elaborate the presented concept the author carried out the comparative study of negotiation literature as well as developed his original ideas.

  3. Using Cognitive Agents to Train Negotiation Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Christopher A; Daamen, Jeroen; Gaudrain, Emma; Renkema, Tom; Top, Jakob Dirk; Cnossen, Fokie; Taatgen, Niels A

    2018-01-01

    Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial software agents with which students can train. These agents have the advantage that they can be "reset," and played against multiple times. This allows students to learn from their mistakes and try different strategies. However, these agents are often based on normative theories of how negotiators should conduct themselves, not necessarily how people actually behave in negotiations. Here, we take a step toward addressing this gap by developing an agent grounded in a cognitive architecture, ACT-R. This agent contains a model of theory-of-mind, the ability of humans to reason about the mental states of others. It uses this model to try to infer the strategy of the opponent and respond accordingly. In a series of experiments, we show that this agent replicates some aspects of human performance, is plausible to human negotiators, and can lead to learning gains in a small-scale negotiation task.

  4. Hostage (crisis) negotiation: the potential role of negotiator personality, decision-making style, coping style and emotional intelligence on negotiator success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amy; Brown, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the potential role of hostage negotiator characteristics and the impact of psychological constructs on negotiator success. It explores the role of Personality, Decision-Making Style, Coping Style, Cognitive Coping Style and Emotion Regulation and Emotional Intelligence within high stress environments and occupations. The findings suggest that certain individual traits and characteristics may play a role in negotiator success, via the mediation of specific styles, which are conducive to effective crisis negotiation skills. It is proposed that these findings have application within the field of hostage/crisis negotiation in the format of guidance regarding the recruitment and selection of hostage negotiators and the identification of potential training needs within individual negotiators in order to maximize their efficacy within the field. In line with this, it is argued that a psychometric tool that assesses these constructs is developed in order to aid the process of hostage negotiation selection.

  5. Negotiating power: agenda ordering and the willingness to negotiate in asymmetric intergroup conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kteily, Nour; Saguy, Tamar; Sidanius, James; Taylor, Donald M

    2013-12-01

    In this research, we investigated how group power influences the way members of groups in asymmetrical conflict approach intergroup negotiations. Drawing on theories of negotiations and of intergroup power, we predicted that group power would interact with features of the proposed negotiating agenda to influence willingness to come to the table. Based on the negotiation literature, we focused on 2 types of sequential negotiation agendas: 1 beginning with the discussion of consequential issues before less consequential issues (consequential first) and 1 leaving the discussion of consequential issues until after less consequential issues are discussed (consequential later). Because they are motivated to advance changes to their disadvantaged status quo, we expected low-power group members to favor consequential first over consequential later invitations to negotiate. High-power group members, motivated to protect their advantage, were expected to show the reverse preference. Converging evidence from 5 experiments involving real-world and experimental groups supported these predictions. Across studies, participants received an invitation to negotiate from the other group involving either a consequential first or consequential later agenda. Low-power group members preferred consequential first invitations because these implied less stalling of change to the status quo, and high-power group members preferred consequential later invitations because these invitations seemed to pose less threat to their position. Theoretical and practical implications for negotiations research and conflict resolution are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. 78 FR 57571 - Negotiated Rulemaking Committee, Negotiator Nominations and Schedule of Committee Meetings-Title...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... and security reporting requirements in the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and... negotiators who represent key stakeholder constituencies for the issues to be negotiated to serve on the... conversion, gainful employment, changes to the campus safety and security reporting requirements in the Clery...

  7. The Social Negotiation of Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouzounian, Gerard [ANDRA, Chatenay-Malabry (France); Gaston, Didier; Vindimian, Eric [INERIS, Vemeuil-en-Halatte (France); Brugnot, Gerard [CEMAGREF, St-Martin-d' Heres (France); Masure, Philippe [BRGM, Orleans (France)

    2001-07-01

    The prevention of risk and the necessary protection against its consequences require a sound scientific and technical approach that may only be achieved once all stakeholders mutually agree on the means to be used. Those means depend on a social structure that relies on their accessibility and on the nature of the risks that society is ready to assume. Such a structure raises a series of different questions, all with various connotations: Technical: Do we have solutions to prevent risk and limit its consequences? Scientific: What do we know about risk and to what extent is it possible to foresee an event and its potential consequences? Economical: What financial means can we allocate to risk prevention? Insurance: What types of risk may be covered? Political and ethical: What is the significance of the community concerned? What types of risk are acceptable? Legal: What liabilities stand with regard to risk prevention and protection? Societal and political: What process needs to be adopted? In a democracy, who may hold the responsibility to decide on behalf of the population? Any approach that would restrict unduly any of those parameters would lead inevitably to a series of contentions resulting from neglected aspects - and eventually to failure. That explains why several projects had to be abandoned or rejected in recent decades, simply because of insufficient consultation or interaction. The third phase involves qualitative and quantitative predictions of impacts on relevant targets (human beings, ecosystem, industrial or capital goods). After adopting a probabilistic approach (hierarchisation of causes according to more or less probabilistic scenarios) and rating effects on a severity scale, the assessment may proceed with the fourth phase where risks are evaluated, rated and categorised based on acceptable thresholds that lie at the core of the social negotiation. Once the risk assessment is over, the risk manager is able to take preventive, protective and

  8. The Social Negotiation of Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, Gerard; Gaston, Didier; Vindimian, Eric; Brugnot, Gerard; Masure, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The prevention of risk and the necessary protection against its consequences require a sound scientific and technical approach that may only be achieved once all stakeholders mutually agree on the means to be used. Those means depend on a social structure that relies on their accessibility and on the nature of the risks that society is ready to assume. Such a structure raises a series of different questions, all with various connotations: Technical: Do we have solutions to prevent risk and limit its consequences? Scientific: What do we know about risk and to what extent is it possible to foresee an event and its potential consequences? Economical: What financial means can we allocate to risk prevention? Insurance: What types of risk may be covered? Political and ethical: What is the significance of the community concerned? What types of risk are acceptable? Legal: What liabilities stand with regard to risk prevention and protection? Societal and political: What process needs to be adopted? In a democracy, who may hold the responsibility to decide on behalf of the population? Any approach that would restrict unduly any of those parameters would lead inevitably to a series of contentions resulting from neglected aspects - and eventually to failure. That explains why several projects had to be abandoned or rejected in recent decades, simply because of insufficient consultation or interaction. The third phase involves qualitative and quantitative predictions of impacts on relevant targets (human beings, ecosystem, industrial or capital goods). After adopting a probabilistic approach (hierarchisation of causes according to more or less probabilistic scenarios) and rating effects on a severity scale, the assessment may proceed with the fourth phase where risks are evaluated, rated and categorised based on acceptable thresholds that lie at the core of the social negotiation. Once the risk assessment is over, the risk manager is able to take preventive, protective and

  9. Flg22-Triggered Immunity Negatively Regulates Key BR Biosynthetic Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Góngora, Tamara; Kim, Seong-Ki; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Zipfel, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    In plants, activation of growth and activation of immunity are opposing processes that define a trade-off. In the past few years, the growth-promoting hormones brassinosteroids (BR) have emerged as negative regulators of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), promoting growth at the expense of defense. The crosstalk between BR and PTI signaling was described as negative and unidirectional, since activation of PTI does not affect several analyzed steps in the BR signaling pathway. In this work, we describe that activation of PTI by the bacterial PAMP flg22 results in the reduced expression of BR biosynthetic genes. This effect does not require BR perception or signaling, and occurs within 15 min of flg22 treatment. Since the described PTI-induced repression of gene expression may result in a reduction in BR biosynthesis, the crosstalk between PTI and BR could actually be negative and bidirectional, a possibility that should be taken into account when considering the interaction between these two pathways.

  10. Extending the biosynthetic repertoires of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Mellor, Silas Busck; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Wlodarczyk, Artur Jacek; Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Perestrello Ramos H de Jesus, Maria; King, Brian Christopher; Bakowski, Kamil; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2016-07-01

    Chloroplasts in plants and algae and photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria are emerging hosts for sustainable production of valuable biochemicals, using only inorganic nutrients, water, CO2 and light as inputs. In the past decade, many bioengineering efforts have focused on metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in the chloroplast or in cyanobacteria for the production of fuels, chemicals and complex, high-value bioactive molecules. Biosynthesis of all these compounds can be performed in photosynthetic organelles/organisms by heterologous expression of the appropriate pathways, but this requires optimization of carbon flux and reducing power, and a thorough understanding of regulatory pathways. Secretion or storage of the compounds produced can be exploited for the isolation or confinement of the desired compounds. In this review, we explore the use of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria as biosynthetic compartments and hosts, and we estimate the levels of production to be expected from photosynthetic hosts in light of the fraction of electrons and carbon that can potentially be diverted from photosynthesis. The supply of reducing power, in the form of electrons derived from the photosynthetic light reactions, appears to be non-limiting, but redirection of the fixed carbon via precursor molecules presents a challenge. We also discuss the available synthetic biology tools and the need to expand the molecular toolbox to facilitate cellular reprogramming for increased production yields in both cyanobacteria and chloroplasts. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Reconstruction of cytosolic fumaric acid biosynthetic pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guoqiang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fumaric acid is a commercially important component of foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals and industrial materials, yet the current methods of production are unsustainable and ecologically destructive. Results In this study, the fumarate biosynthetic pathway involving reductive reactions of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was exogenously introduced in S. cerevisiae by a series of simple genetic modifications. First, the Rhizopus oryzae genes for malate dehydrogenase (RoMDH and fumarase (RoFUM1 were heterologously expressed. Then, expression of the endogenous pyruvate carboxylase (PYC2 was up-regulated. The resultant yeast strain, FMME-001 ↑PYC2 + ↑RoMDH, was capable of producing significantly higher yields of fumarate in the glucose medium (3.18 ± 0.15 g liter-1 than the control strain FMME-001 empty vector. Conclusions The results presented here provide a novel strategy for fumarate biosynthesis, which represents an important advancement in producing high yields of fumarate in a sustainable and ecologically-friendly manner.

  12. Overexpression of the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattanovich Diethard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High cell density cultures of Pichia pastoris grown on methanol tend to develop yellow colored supernatants, attributed to the release of free flavins. The potential of P. pastoris for flavin overproduction is therefore given, but not pronounced when the yeast is grown on glucose. The aim of this study is to characterize the relative regulatory impact of each riboflavin synthesis gene. Deeper insight into pathway control and the potential of deregulation is established by overexpression of the single genes as well as a combined deregulation of up to all six riboflavin synthesis genes. Results Overexpression of the first gene of the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway (RIB1 is already sufficient to obtain yellow colonies and the accumulation of riboflavin in the supernatant of shake flask cultures growing on glucose. Sequential deregulation of all the genes, by exchange of their native promoter with the strong and constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (PGAP increases the riboflavin accumulation significantly. Conclusion The regulation of the pathway is distributed over more than one gene. High cell density cultivations of a P. pastoris strain overexpressing all six RIB genes allow the accumulation of 175 mg/L riboflavin in the supernatant. The basis for rational engineering of riboflavin production in P. pastoris has thus been established.

  13. Labelled precursors for biosynthetic studies on naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringmann, Gerhard; Pokorny, Frank; Wenzel, Matthias; Wurm, Kathi; Schneider, Christoph

    1997-01-01

    The isotope labelled monocyclic ketones 5 and 8, postulated precursors to the presumably acetogenic naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids, have been synthesized for biogenetic experiments to Ancistrocladaceae and Dioncophyllaceae plants. Key step of the preparation of 1-(2'-[carbonyl- 14 C] acetyl-3',5'-dibenzyloxyphenyl-2-propanone ([ 14 C]-13 is the C-acetylation of the arylpropanone 10 with the mixed pivalic acetic anhydride ([ 14 C]-11). The resulting pyrylium salt [ 14 C]-12, which is stable and can be stored, is cleaved directly before the feeding experiment to give the diketone [ 14 C]-13 and deprotected to give the free phenolic target molecule [ 14 C]-5. This synthetic route is applicable also to the preparation of 1-(2'-[ 13 C 2 ]acetyl-3'hydroxyphenyl)-2-propanone ([ 13 C 2 ]-5) for biosynthetic experiments with NMR analysis. For the preparation of the oxygen-poorer 13 C-labelled diketone 1-(2'-[methyl- 13 C] acetyl-3'-hydr oxyphenyl)-2-propanone [ 13 C]-8, an 'indanone-route' has been elaborated. (Author)

  14. Novel insights in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Bai, Quan; Fujita, Katsuhide

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on all aspects of complex automated negotiations, which are studied in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. This book consists of two parts. I: Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations, and II: Automated Negotiation Agents Competition. The chapters in Part I are extended versions of papers presented at the 2012 international workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN), after peer reviews by three Program Committee members. Part II examines in detail ANAC 2012 (The Third Automated Negotiating Agents Competition), in which automated agents that have different negotiation strategies and are implemented by different developers are automatically negotiated in the several negotiation domains. ANAC is an international competition in which automated negotiation strategies, submitted by a number of universities and research institutes across the world, are evaluated in tournament style. The purpose of the competition is to steer the research in the area of bilate...

  15. Culture and Negotiator Cognition: Judgment Accuracy and Negotiation Processes in Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand; Christakopoulou

    1999-09-01

    In this paper, we argue that judgment biases in negotiation are perpetuated by underlying cultural values and ideals, and therefore, certain judgment biases will be more prevalent in certain cultural contexts. Based on theory in cultural psychology (Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Triandis, 1989), we considered the notion that fixed pie error, a judgment bias in which negotiators fail to accurately understand their counterparts' interests (Pruitt & Lewis, 1975; Thompson & Hastie, 1990), would be more prevalent at the end of negotiations in the United States, an individualistic culture, than Greece, a collectivistic culture. The results of a 2-week computer-mediated intercultural negotiation experiment, which took place between American students in Illinois and Greek students in Athens, supported this view. Theoretical implications of culture and cognition in negotiation are also discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Key roles of Arf small G proteins and biosynthetic trafficking for animal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisco F; Harris, Tony J C

    2017-04-14

    Although biosynthetic trafficking can function constitutively, it also functions specifically for certain developmental processes. These processes require either a large increase to biosynthesis or the biosynthesis and targeted trafficking of specific players. We review the conserved molecular mechanisms that direct biosynthetic trafficking, and discuss how their genetic disruption affects animal development. Specifically, we consider Arf small G proteins, such as Arf1 and Sar1, and their coat effectors, COPI and COPII, and how these proteins promote biosynthetic trafficking for cleavage of the Drosophila embryo, the growth of neuronal dendrites and synapses, extracellular matrix secretion for bone development, lumen development in epithelial tubes, notochord and neural tube development, and ciliogenesis. Specific need for the biosynthetic trafficking system is also evident from conserved CrebA/Creb3-like transcription factors increasing the expression of secretory machinery during several of these developmental processes. Moreover, dysfunctional trafficking leads to a range of developmental syndromes.

  17. Reconstruction of the biosynthetic pathway for the core fungal polyketide scaffold rubrofusarin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter; Naesby, Michael; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2013-01-01

    production in easily fermentable and genetically engineerable organisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli are desirable. Rubrofusarin is an orange polyketide pigment that is a common intermediate in many different fungal biosynthetic pathways. RESULTS: In this study, we established...

  18. Heterologous stable expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes using the moss Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Søren Spanner; King, Brian Christopher; Zhan, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Heterologous and stable expression of genes encoding terpenoid biosynthetic enzymes in planta is an important tool for functional characterization and is an attractive alternative to expression in microbial hosts for biotechnological production. Despite improvements to the procedure, such as stre...

  19. Reconstitution of Biosynthetic Machinery for the Synthesis of the Highly Elaborated Indole Diterpene Penitrem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengwei; Tagami, Koichi; Minami, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    KULNJ). Importantly, without conventional gene disruption, reconstitution of the biosynthetic machinery provided sufficient data to determine the pathway. It was thus demonstrated that the Aspergillus oryzae reconstitution system is a powerful method for studying the biosynthesis of complex natural products....

  20. A nitrous acid biosynthetic pathway for diazo group formation in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Yoshinori; Katsuyama, Yohei; Ohnishi, Yasuo

    2016-02-01

    Although some diazo compounds have bioactivities of medicinal interest, little is known about diazo group formation in nature. Here we describe an unprecedented nitrous acid biosynthetic pathway responsible for the formation of a diazo group in the biosynthesis of the ortho-diazoquinone secondary metabolite cremeomycin in Streptomyces cremeus. This finding provides important insights into the biosynthetic pathways not only for diazo compounds but also for other naturally occurring compounds containing nitrogen-nitrogen bonds.

  1. Effects of polyamines and polyamine biosynthetic inhibitors on mitotic activity of Allium cepa root tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Meral; Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Tufekci, M A

    2008-03-01

    The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of exogenous polyamines (PAs), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm) and PA biosynthetic inhibitors, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), cyclohexilamine (CHA), methylglioxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) were investigated in the root meristems of Allium cepa L. The reduction of mitotic index and the induction of chromosomal aberrations such as bridges, stickiness, c-mitotic anaphases, micronuclei, endoredupliction by PAs and PA biosynthetic inhibitors were observed and these were used as evidence of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.

  2. Instruments for public environment policies: The negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, S.; Squillacioti, M.T.

    1990-12-01

    The negotiation starts from the postulate that environmental conflicts are a standing datum in the future of our societies. Environmental instance is based in deep and not reversible manner inside the attitude and value changes and, consequently, inside the quality of life. The different hopes about the environmental consequences constitute an internal element of democratic development and it is not thinkable to ignore or neglect these diversities. With regard to this last point the inadequacy of the present legal systems must be underlined. They are constructed to settle a controversy about 'the facts' and not about 'the values'. Often some environmental disputes may last quite a few years without facing the real essence of the question. The environmental negotiation intends as a 'consensual approach' that should give more possibilities for the conflict solution. It is based on the presupposition to create the terms for final result. In comparison with the legislative acts, the direct negotiation table permits a best exploration of options and a best mobilization of technical competencies. At last, because the negotiators should live together on the basis of obtained agreement, they will have more sensibility for the problems attached to the application than the laymen, for which the process ends with the publication of the law. The strongest argumentation in favor of environmental negotiation is that it is more difficult to avoid the substantial questions as well as often happens inside the legislative acts. (author)

  3. Negotiations at all Points? Interaction and Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nadai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A criticism frequently leveled at interactionism—the theoretical basis of much of qualitative research—is that it neglects social structure and is limited to micro-social analysis. Anselm STRAUSS' concept of "negotiated order" is an attempt to overcome these alleged weaknesses and to address the connection between interaction and structure, and between micro-, meso- and macro-level analysis. In his view, negotiations between units of any potential scale, from small groups to nation states, are at the heart of social order and social change. The concept of "negotiated order" has been particularly influential in organization studies. However, it has also met with criticism. In this paper, we explore the potential of the approach for connecting different levels of analysis in qualitative research. We use the example of negotiations on "performance" in businesses to discuss the relationship between micro-level negotiations and organizations and societal discourse respectively. The empirical data were collected in an ethnographic research project which we conducted in three large businesses in Switzerland. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801327

  4. NEGOTIATING PECUNIARY GAINS AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia Crina PETRESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The initiation and development of the negotiation process is the result of the interaction between stimulating and hindering factors, among which there are perceived winning chances and perceived risk of projecting a negative image of himself/ herself. The objectives of the research were to observe the strength of people’s perception regarding these two variables and if they were influenced by the negotiation objective: a pecuniary one vs. an environmental one (both involving self-advocacy: aiming at personal benefits. From the point of view of the analyzed variables, people are good negotiators – they have high trust in winning chances and low fear of negative image, but they do not hold strong environmental concerns. The perceived winning chances were significantly higher (p0.05.

  5. Conflicting Perspectives in Trade and Environmental Negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, B.K.; Roson, R.

    2002-09-01

    International trade negotiations have recently tackled the issue of possible free trade restrictions, justified - among others - on the basis of environmental concerns. Also, some analyses of international environmental agreements (especially in the field of climate change) have highlighted the key role played by changes in the terms of trade in determining the cost of environmental policies. Yet, secondary effects of international trade remain disregarded in many environmental policies, whereas the introduction of environmental trade barriers has been resisted, arguing that this may hide a Trojan horse of a renewed protectionism. This paper reviews the debate on trade and the environment in the two fields of environmental and trade negotiations, highlighting the different and somewhat conflicting approach adopted in the two cases. A numerical general equilibrium model is used to illustrate how different 'perceptions' (translated in terms of alternative model closures) affect the use of instruments, the distributional impact of the various policies, and the strategic interplay between negotiators in international agreements

  6. Behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druckman, D.; Hopmann, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    This article surveys theory and research about the process of international negotiation. The goal, of this paper is to apply behavioral science research to find ways to negotiate an improved mutual security regime between the nuclear superpowers that would make nuclear war less likely in the years ahead. When President John F. Kennedy presented the first nuclear arms control agreement, the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, to the U.S. public in 1963 he noted the ancient Chinese proverb: A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step. Just as the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty represented for Kennedy the first step on the road to nuclear arms control, so the research reviewed here represents at best the first few steps in a long journey to a better understanding of how to negotiate a regime of mutual security between the nuclear superpowers

  7. An Attempt of Shaping a Framework of Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Galita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The term negotiation is more and more frequently used nowadays not only in trade or business activities, but also in many other fields of activity. People negotiate in all areas of social life (in the family, at work, in the street, in shops, in a company, in a political party, between states, etc. whenever they seek to resolve differences of opinion or to get what they want. Any kind of negotiation starts from a series of basic conditions (the interdependence of the parties engaged in negotiations, the existence of some differences of opinion, the parties’ joint work to achieve a mutually beneficial agreement. At the same time, any negotiation takes place in a certain setting, bordered by the object of negotiation, its aims and stakes, the place and time of its deployment. Depending on the areas where the process of negotiation appears, one can speak of three general types: the economic negotiation, the political negotiation and the social one. At this level, other classifications can be identified, according to the participants in the negotiations, the parties' interests, the negotiating environment, the time and duration of negotiations and themanner of completion, all in the limits of two extreme poles, the conflict and the cooperation between the parties involved.Keywords: negotiation, participants, conflict, cooperation, communication.

  8. Desire to bargain and negotiation success: Lessons about the need to negotiate from six hydropower disputes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Taylor, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    The authors investigated the notion that successful licensing negotiations require that all parties to the dispute must have a desire to bargain. This desire is most likely to be present when the dispute exhibits ripeness and each party believes a bargained solution is the most cost-effective way to resolve differences. Structured interviews of participants in six Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hydropower licensing consultations were conducted to determine the level of need to negotiate for each party. The findings indicate that a need to negotiate is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for success. Several factors were associated with a need to negotiate: a weak BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement); a salient issue; participants' sense of efficacy; a sense of inevitability; professional roles encouraging negotiation; and disputes about facts as opposed to disputes about values. Participants' need to negotiate fluctuated throughout the process and intensified when questions were ripe: i.e., critical issues were debated or the regulatory process required action

  9. Negotiation and Monitoring of Service Level Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillinan, Thomas B.; Clark, Kassidy P.; Warnier, Martijn; Brazier, Frances M. T.; Rana, Omer

    Service level agreements (SLAs) provide a means to define specific Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees between providers and consumers of services. Negotiation and definition of these QoS characteristics is an area of significant research. However, defining the actions that take place when an agreement is violated is a topic of more recent focus. This paper discusses recent advances in this field and propose some additional features that can help both consumers and producers during the enactment of services. These features include the ability to (re)negotiate penalties in an agreement, and specifically focuses on the renegotiation of penalties during enactment to reflect ongoing violations.

  10. Communication & Negotiation Skills Workshop for Women I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This workshop is designed to provide women physics students and postdocs with the professional skills they need to effectively perform research, including: negotiating a position in academia, industry or at a national lab, interacting positively on teams and with a mentor or advisor, thinking tactically, articulating goals, enhancing their personal presence, and developing alliances. We will discuss negotiation strategies and tactics that are useful for achieving professional goals. This is a highly interactive workshop where participants are invited to bring examples of difficult professional situations to discuss.

  11. Communication & Negotiation Skills Workshop for Women II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This workshop is designed to provide women physics students and postdocs with the professional skills they need to effectively perform research, including: negotiating a position in academia, industry or at a national lab, interacting positively on teams and with a mentor or advisor, thinking tactically, articulating goals, enhancing their personal presence, and developing alliances. We will discuss negotiation strategies and tactics that are useful for achieving professional goals. This is a highly interactive workshop where participants are invited to bring examples of difficult professional situations to discuss.

  12. The art of negotiation. A delicate balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, C; Sullivan, G

    1997-01-01

    Successful negotiation is the art of gentle persuasion, not a "winner-take-all" showdown. Accordingly, it is essential to begin the process with a positive outlook and with the goal of reaching an agreement that is acceptable to all parties involved. Although the term "opponent" is used in this article to describe the person or group with whom you are negotiating, it is not used in the adversarial context. It is important to maintain a non-adversarial relationship, to the extent possible.

  13. Negotiation techniques to resolve western water disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Berton L.; Taylor, Jonathan G.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing literature on the resolution of natural resources conflicts. Much of it is practical, focusing on guidelines for hands-on negotiation. This literature can be a guide in water conflicts. This is especially true for negotiations over new environmental values such as instream flow. The concepts of competitive, cooperative, and integrative styles of conflict resolution are applied to three cases of water resource bargaining. Lessons for the effective use of these ideas include: break a large number of parties into small working groups, approach value differences in small steps, be cautious in the presence of an attentive public, keeps decisions at the local level, and understand the opponent's interests.

  14. World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fergusson, Ian F

    2008-01-01

    The World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha Development Round of multilateral trade negotiations resumed in 2007 after being suspended in July 2006 after key negotiating groups failed to break a deadlock on agricultural tariffs and subsidies...

  15. 24 CFR 982.506 - Negotiating rent to owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.506 Negotiating rent to owner. The owner and the family negotiate the rent to owner. At the...

  16. New Trends in Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Minjie; Robu, Valentin; Fatima, Shaheen; Matsuo, Tokuro

    2012-01-01

    Complex Automated Negotiations represent an important, emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. Automated negotiations can be complex, since there are a lot of factors that characterize such negotiations. These factors include the number of issues, dependencies between these issues,  representation of utilities, the negotiation protocol, the number of parties in the negotiation (bilateral or multi-party), time constraints, etc. Software agents can support automation or simulation of such complex negotiations on the behalf of their owners, and can provide them with efficient bargaining strategies. To realize such a complex automated negotiation, we have to incorporate advanced Artificial Intelligence technologies includes search, CSP, graphical utility models, Bayes nets, auctions, utility graphs, predicting and learning methods. Applications could include e-commerce tools, decision-making support tools, negotiation support tools, collaboration tools, etc. This book aims to pro...

  17. Implementation of resource-negotiating agents in telemanufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, TL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available the negotiations should be stored to allow future agents to benefit from previous negotiations. The components that are needed to implement the above and the results of the implementation are discussed in this paper....

  18. Next frontier in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Robu, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on automated negotiations based on multi-agent systems. It is intended for researchers and students in various fields involving autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as e-commerce tools, decision-making and negotiation support systems, and collaboration tools. The contents will help them to understand the concept of automated negotiations, negotiation protocols, negotiating agents’ strategies, and the applications of those strategies. In this book, some negotiation protocols focusing on the multiple interdependent issues in negotiations are presented, making it possible to find high-quality solutions for the complex agents’ utility functions. This book is a compilation of the extended versions of the very best papers selected from the many that were presented at the International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations.

  19. The Doha Negotiations on Trade in Goods: An European Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Messerlin , Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The note reviews the basic market access issues in the Doha negotiations on trade in goods from an European perspective. First, it shows that some European negotiators are demanding more concessions in manufacturing (NAMA) that the European business community is asking for - adding strong tensions in a context already marked by severe problems in farm talks. Second, the note reveals the European interests really at stake in the agricultural negotiations, before addressing the negotiating issu...

  20. 48 CFR 570.105-1 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation. 570.105-1 Section 570.105-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.105-1 Contracting by negotiation. Contracting by negotiation...

  1. 48 CFR 970.1504-2 - Price negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price negotiation. 970.1504-2 Section 970.1504-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-2 Price negotiation. (a) Management and operating contract...

  2. 48 CFR 315.372 - Preparation of negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation of negotiation memorandum. 315.372 Section 315.372 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.372 Preparation of negotiation memorandum. The Contracting...

  3. Strategies and tactics of the negotiation for powerplant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, Yoshifumi; Yamanaka, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kimio

    1983-01-01

    Recently, the negotiation with local inhabitants in powerplant siting area is apt to drag on and is becoming more intricate. The purpose of this study is to present strategies and tactics for stepping up the negotiation more smoothly, taking the case of the negotiation with a fishermen's union. In this report, a case study is made for ten cases regarding negotiation with local fishermen's unions in order to find out how the negotiations were carried out. The results of the study are summarized as follows. 1) The negotiations were classified into four types in accordance with the characteristics of each case (e.g. historical background, type of project). 2) An analysis was made about the relationship between the degree of difficulty of negotiation (e.g. period of time of the negotiation for fishery compensation) and the characteristics of the case. As a result, it was found that the degree of difficulty of negotiation has a close relationship to the historical background and the fishery productivity. 3) Persons concerned with the negotiation were classified into three groups. The interested party, the mediators and the supporters, according to the relationship among these persons and the roles played by them. 4) External events haveing an effect on the development of the negotiation were extracted and pigeonholed. 5) The behavior of the persons concerned was analyzed and thirty-eight measures were figured out which were considered to be effective to negotiate smoothly. (author)

  4. 33 CFR 1.05-60 - Negotiated rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiated rulemaking. 1.05-60... committee members will negotiate in good faith; (4) There is a likelihood of a committee consensus in a... Coast Guard has resources to do negotiated rulemaking; and (7) The Coast Guard can use the consensus of...

  5. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Negotiation Authorities 2515.215-70 NSF negotiation authorities. (a) Authorities. Citation: 42 U.S.C. 1870(c). (b) Application. When an NSF contract... international cooperation or national security.” Contracts or their modifications entered into under this...

  6. The medium as an innovation in international negotiation : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; Kersten, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of International Negotiation addresses a new research perspective on cross-cultural and international negotiation processes – the effects of innovation. This research examines the process of negotiation in terms of the elemental human decision-making and communication acts that are

  7. 50 CFR 600.760 - Fishery Negotiation Panel lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishery Negotiation Panel lifetime. 600... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Fishery Negotiation Panels § 600.760 Fishery Negotiation Panel lifetime. (a) An FNP shall terminate upon either: (1) Submission of...

  8. 32 CFR 644.85 - General negotiation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General negotiation procedures. 644.85 Section... negotiation procedures. (a) Provisions of Military Construction Appropriation Act. (1) Section 108 of the... of Pub. L. 91-646 and this chapter. (c) Negotiations on the basis of ownership; “Package-Deal...

  9. 37 CFR 351.2 - Voluntary negotiation period; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and will...

  10. 48 CFR 36.520 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation... by negotiation. The contracting officer shall insert in solicitations for construction the provision at 52.236-28, Preparation of Offers—Construction, when contracting by negotiation. [62 FR 51258, Sept...

  11. Examining Classroom Negotiation Strategies of International Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gwendolyn M.

    2011-01-01

    From a constructivist point of view teacher identity evolves as the teacher interacts and negotiates with others. However, before negotiation can occur, instructors must establish their own teacher identity as a starting position. This narrative study analyzes how international teaching assistants negotiated with their American undergraduate…

  12. 48 CFR 15.406-3 - Documenting the negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... negotiation. 15.406-3 Section 15.406-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.406-3 Documenting the negotiation. (a) The contracting officer shall document in the contract file the principal elements of the...

  13. International business: Raising cultural awareness in global negotiating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Gardašević

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The global marketplace is a fast-growing and rapidly changing field. Global negotiation is a process where each party from two or more different countries involved in negotiating tries to gain an advantage for itself by the end of the process. The process of global negotiating differs from culture to culture in terms of language, different types of communication (verbal and nonverbal, negotiating style, approaches to problem – solving, etc. The aspects of culture that are of vital importance for global negotiating are attitudes and beliefs, religion, material culture, and language. This paper should encourage better understanding of the process of negotiation: it defines the negotiation process, identifies the issues that are subject to negotiation and mentions the stages of negotiation. It discusses the importance of developing cultural awareness prior to negotiating internationally through descriptive overview of all aspects of culture. It gives examples of differences in global negotiating and doing business worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to show theoretically the connection between these terms and provide information that will prevent business people from making mistakes and pitfalls in international negotiation process.

  14. Collaborative Negotiations: A Successful Approach for Negotiation Compliance Milestones for the transition of the PFP Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The new approach to negotiations was termed collaborative (win-win) rather than positional (win-lose). Collaborative negotiations were conducted to establish milestones for the decommissioning of the Plutonium Finishing Plant, PFP

  15. Differential hexosamine biosynthetic pathway gene expression with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Coomer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP culminates in the attachment of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc onto serine/threonine residues of target proteins. The HBP is regulated by several modulators, i.e. O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase (OGT and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (OGA catalyze the addition and removal of O-GlcNAc moieties, respectively; while flux is controlled by the rate-limiting enzyme glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFPT, transcribed by two genes, GFPT1 and GFPT2. Since increased HBP flux is glucose-responsive and linked to insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes onset, we hypothesized that diabetic individuals exhibit differential expression of HBP regulatory genes. Volunteers (n = 60; n = 20 Mixed Ancestry, n = 40 Caucasian were recruited from Stellenbosch and Paarl (Western Cape, South Africa and classified as control, pre- or diabetic according to fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c levels, respectively. RNA was purified from leukocytes isolated from collected blood samples and OGT, OGA, GFPT1 and GFPT2 expressions determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The data reveal lower OGA expression in diabetic individuals (P < 0.01, while pre- and diabetic subjects displayed attenuated OGT expression vs. controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively. Moreover, GFPT2 expression decreased in pre- and diabetic Caucasians vs. controls (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively. We also found ethnic differences, i.e. Mixed Ancestry individuals exhibited a 2.4-fold increase in GFPT2 expression vs. Caucasians, despite diagnosis (P < 0.01. Gene expression of HBP regulators differs between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals, together with distinct ethnic-specific gene profiles. Thus differential HBP gene regulation may offer diagnostic utility and provide candidate susceptibility genes for different ethnic groupings.

  16. Fuzzy Constraint-Based Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menq-Wen Lin; K. Robert Lai; Ting-Jung Yu

    2005-01-01

    Conflicts between two or more parties arise for various reasons and perspectives. Thus, resolution of conflicts frequently relies on some form of negotiation. This paper presents a general problem-solving framework for modeling multi-issue multilateral negotiation using fuzzy constraints. Agent negotiation is formulated as a distributed fuzzy constraint satisfaction problem (DFCSP). Fuzzy constrains are thus used to naturally represent each agent's desires involving imprecision and human conceptualization, particularly when lexical imprecision and subjective matters are concerned. On the other hand, based on fuzzy constraint-based problem-solving, our approach enables an agent not only to systematically relax fuzzy constraints to generate a proposal, but also to employ fuzzy similarity to select the alternative that is subject to its acceptability by the opponents. This task of problem-solving is to reach an agreement that benefits all agents with a high satisfaction degree of fuzzy constraints, and move towards the deal more quickly since their search focuses only on the feasible solution space. An application to multilateral negotiation of a travel planning is provided to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of our framework.

  17. The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

  18. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez Suárez, Ingrid Liliana; Gómez Sará, Mary Mily; Medina Mosquera, Sindy Lorena

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students'…

  19. 77 FR 59343 - Contracting by Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 3415 Contracting by Negotiation CFR Correction In Title 48 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 29 to End, revised as of October 1, 2011, on page 150, in section 3415.605, paragraph (d) is correctly revised, and section 3415.606 is added to read as follows: 3415.605...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.519 - Negotiation impasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiation impasses. 9701.519 Section 9701.519 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Labor-Management...

  1. The hostage experience: implications for negotiation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; Noelanders, Sigrid; Vervaeke, Geert

    2005-01-01

    From a clinical and social psychological perspective, this exploratory study aims at relating the hostage experience to hostage negotiation strategies. Therefore, we conducted 11 semi-structured and in-depth interviews with victims of two types of hostage-taking: sieges and kidnappings. The results

  2. The hostage experience : Implications for negotiation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, E; Noelanders, S; Vervaeke, G

    2005-01-01

    From a clinical and social psychological perspective, this exploratory study aims at relating the hostage experience to hostage negotiation strategies. Therefore, we conducted 11 semi-structured and in-depth interviews with victims of two types of hostage-taking: sieges and kidnappings. The results

  3. From Informed Consent to Negotiated Consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Harry R.

    1988-01-01

    Considers informed consent standard inadequate for insuring autonomy in long term care. Argues for complex standard of "negotiated consent." Illuminates philosophical argument by qualitative data from interviews with physicians, nurses, and social workers in nursing homes, which demonstrated continuum of interventions ranging from…

  4. Licensing and negotiating: exploring unfamiliar ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, N.; Stone, G.; Anderson, R.; Feinstein, J.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade the scene in which librarians have had to operate has completely changed. Librarians have migrated from book-buyers to licence-negotiators, from circulation experts to providers of digital services. This chapter tries to map some of the fields that they have entered and to

  5. Formula Approaches for Market Access Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); W. Martin (William)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMost of the large tariff reductions achieved in multilateral trade negotiations have involved tariff-cutting formulas such as the "Swiss" formula. However, wide variations in initial tariff rates between active participants call for new approaches under the Doha Development Agenda. This

  6. Negotiating Your Syllabus: Building a Collaborative Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David M.; Renard, Monika K.

    2015-01-01

    We provide instruction for engaging students in negotiating their course syllabus. In contrast to the common conceptualization of the syllabus as an instructor-determined contract, we involve our students in developing the collaborative contract under which they will be evaluated. We discuss our successful facilitation of this activity and how to…

  7. How to manage your negotiating team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jeanne M; Friedman, Ray; Behfar, Kristin

    2009-09-01

    You are leading a negotiating team for your company. When you sit down with the other party, someone on your side of the table blurts out: "Just tell us--what do we need to do to get more of your business?" And in that moment, you know you've lost the upper hand. Gaffes like this are more common than most businesspeople would care to admit, management professors Brett, Friedman, and Behfar have found in their research. Even though team members are all technically on the same side, they often have different priorities and imagine different ideal outcomes: Business development just wants to close the deal. Finance is most concerned about costs. Legal is focused on patents and intellectual property. The authors recommend taking four steps, either singly or in tandem, to align those goals: Map out each person's priorities, work out conflicts directly with departments, employ a mediator if that doesn't work, and use data to resolve differences. Once you are all on the same page, you can take steps to make sure everyone is coordinated during the negotiations themselves. Try simulating the negotiation beforehand, assigning roles to team members that take advantage of their strengths, and establishing the signals you will use to communicate with one another during the session. The payoff from working as a cohesive group is clear. With access to greater expertise and the ability to assign members to specialized roles, teams can implement more-complex strategies than a sole negotiator could ever pull off.

  8. Governing climate? 20 years of international negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykut, Stefan; Dahan, Amy

    2015-01-01

    As greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere have reached a record level in 2013, the authors propose an analysis and an assessment of international negotiations and governance on the climate issue since the Kyoto protocol. They precisely describe the mechanics of these negotiations, recall their different steps (the IPCC creation, the Rio conference, the UN Convention, the Kyoto protocol), describe the emergence of the different concepts which have been used to define the negotiation framework, comment the definition of the three main structuring principles of the struggle against climate change (precautionary principle, principle of common but differentiated responsibility, right to development), and outline the role of adaptation. They discuss the negotiation context, the emergence of a European leadership, the failure of the Copenhagen conference, and the importance of domestic policies. They also address other related concerns: the maintenance of the prevailing model of economic growth, national sovereignty, the postures of some companies and sectors. The authors present and analyse the situation and posture of different countries: USA, China, emerging powers like Brazil and India, Europe, Germany and France. They make some propositions to build up a new type of international climate governance, and outline the need of a convergence of international energy, commercial and development agendas, and of the development of a bottom-up approach

  9. Negotiating School Conflicts to Prevent Student Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, John P.; Roberts, John K.

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter presents a model of negotiation as a means to resolve school conflict. The assumption is that school conflict is inevitable, but student delinquency is not. Delinquent behavior results from the way that the school deals with conflict. Students resort to…

  10. Order and Mystery in Negotiation Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Linda L.; Bullis, Connie

    A preliminary study investigating the perceptions of intergroup relations in the bargaining process supports Kenneth Burke's concepts of order and mystery. Questionnaires, interviews, and direct observations of teachers' and school boards' teams involved in contract negotiations show that people closest to the bargaining saw more order in the…

  11. Shifting Selves: Constructing and Negotiating Academic Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeyar, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to explore how academics construct and negotiate their identities within the world of the academe. Identity construction involves different forms of community participation and identification. Utilising the research methodology of narrative inquiry, this article explores how academics came to see themselves across those…

  12. Designing an International Joint Venture Negotiation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, Phil; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluates a simulation game that models management problems encountered in negotiating and managing international joint ventures. Designed to instruct executives of state-owned agribusinesses in Indonesia in abstract concepts such as partner rapport, transfer price conflicts, and marketing disagreements, its success suggests that simulation games…

  13. Essence and resolution of international climate negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Wan Du

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In essence, international climate negotiation is a serious and responsible global effort, despite various conflicts, to establish a rational international climate regime. In essence, tackling climate changes is leading the globe to actualize sustainable development of all humankind along the low-carbon, green, and cyclic-development path. Thus, climate negotiation should be driving all parties to achieve a global climate regime arrangement in a constructive way. Therefore, this paper suggests focusing on the following three major recommendations: early developed countries take the lead in committing positively to absolute emission reduction; the developing countries contribute according to their abilities and stages of development; the developed countries perform real deeds using their funds and technology. Based on substantial breakthrough that would be made, progressive supplement and improvement could be accomplished through the mechanism of review and adjustment under the Convention framework. This path represents a combination of bottom-up and top-down. The ultimate way out of international climate negotiation lies in win-win cooperation. Profound reasons for China to participate proactively and practically in international climate negotiation, based on its actual conditions, are the internal wants and needs of its scientific and sustainable development, as well as the undertaking of international responsibilities as a responsible, large, developing country.

  14. An Intimate Encounter: Negotiating Subtitled Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Flynn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of subtitling has received little attention in Film Studies, despite being the primary means by which foreign-language cinema is experienced. Current literature focuses on important matters of language and translation, but there are other aspects that exceed these matters when we watch subtitled films, aspects which are able to affect and move viewers without relying on explanation through translation. My paper shows how viewers have to negotiate these affective elements in order to apprehend foreign-language films, with special attention on their indeterminate characteristics that escape representation. It considers the negotiation of subtitled cinema from numerous theoretical perspectives. Gilles Deleuze’s film-philosophy is popular in Film Studies for its theoretical flows and lines of flight, but this paper engages another Deleuzian thread—one of gaps and fissure—in order to explore the indeterminate negotiations of subtitled films. But in thinking about subtitling, we also have to reconsider the constitution of media. Cinema is not just made up of individual parts; rather, it is made of many interacting media, which cannot be separated. I argue that subtitled cinema consists of multiple affective elements that go beyond the interpretive methods of language and translation, and that the practice of negotiation is one way to apprehend them. In conclusion, this article, by exploring non-linguistic issues, argues that subtitling is not simply supplementary to cinema.

  15. 47 CFR 27.1251 - Mandatory Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incumbent. In evaluating claims that a party has not negotiated in good faith, the FCC will consider, inter..., reliability is measured by the percent of time the bit error rate (BER) exceeds a desired value, and for analog or digital video transmission, it is measured by whether the end-to-end transmission delay is...

  16. 47 CFR 101.73 - Mandatory negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... relocation process. In evaluating claims that a party has not negotiated in good faith, the FCC will consider... overall reliability of the FMS system. For digital systems, reliability is measured by the percent of time... measured by the percent of time that audio signal quality meets an established threshold. If an analog...

  17. COLLECTIVE NEGOTIATIONS--IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHM, ROBERT E.

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT CONFLICT, CONTROL, AND BARGAINING ARE PRIMARY ELEMENTS FOR RELEVANT THEORY AND RESEARCH ON COLLECTIVE TEACHER NEGOTIATION. COLLECTIVE ACTIVITY BY TEACHERS IS ATTRIBUTED TO THEIR INCREASED PROFESSIONALIZATION AND IS REGARDED AS AN ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSE GENERATED BY AN EMERGING MANAGERIAL-PROFESSIONAL-BUREAUCRATIC…

  18. Negotiated economic opportunity and power: perspectives and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is least acknowledged in daily discourses that street vending is a very important phenomenon. Little wonder that street vending involves negotiating for space in all its manifestations: physical space, economic opportunity and power. The vendors are coerced by both local urban and national authorities and sometimes the ...

  19. Administration by negotiation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, O.J.D.M.L.

    2002-01-01

    The legal literature in the Netherlands has been paying a considerable amount of attention for some time now to horizontal administration or administration by negotiation., voluntary agreements, mediation, Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) and dispute settlement. The issue is still of continued

  20. Stair negotiation in women with fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Domínguez-Muñoz, Francisco J.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Adsuar, José C.; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Walking up and down stairs is a common and important activity of daily living. Women with fibromyalgia often show a reduced ability to perform this task. The objective of this study was to evaluate the test–retest reliability of stair negotiation tasks and to assess the impact of fibromyalgia symptoms on the ability to negotiate stairs. Forty-two women with fibromyalgia participated in this descriptive correlational study. The relevance of the stair negotiation (both walking up and down) was evaluated by assessing its association with the revised version of the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ-R) and other health-related variables. Test–retest reliability was also analyzed. The main outcome measures were time spent walking up and down stairs and impact of fibromyalgia, quality of life, number of falls, weight, and lower limb strength and endurance. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for stair descent was 0.929 whereas that for ascent was 0.972. The score in these tests correlated significantly with the total score for the FIQ-R and the score for many of dimensions and symptoms: that is, physical function, overall impact of fibromyalgia, pain, energy, stiffness, restorative sleep, tenderness, self-perceived balance problems, and sensitivity. Given the importance of the stair negotiation as activity of daily living and the high reliability, both stair ascent and descent tasks may be useful as outcome measures in studies on patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:29069023

  1. The negotiation of collective agreements in France: Challenges and characteristics of negotiating gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Coron , Clotilde

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The negotiation of corporate agreements in France, the cornerstone of labor relations, has been the subject of much research. However, few address the issue of the process of the negotiation of a company agreement on gender equality, a theme that has been mandatory since the Génisson 2001 Act. This issue presents certain particularities (the transversal nature of gender equality across various Human Resource areas, legal framework obligations, etc.) that may affect the...

  2. Offer and Acceptance and the Dynamics of Negotiations: Arguments for Contract Theory from Negotiation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pannebakker, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe doctrine of offer and acceptance forms the basis of the rules of contract formation in most western legal systems. However, if parties enter into elaborate negotiations, these rules may become difficult to apply. This paper addresses the application of the doctrine of offer and acceptance to the formation of contract in the context of negotiations. The paper argues that while the doctrine of offer and acceptance is designed to assess the issues related to the substance of the ...

  3. When does taking a break help in negotiations? The influence of breaks and social motivation on negotiation processes and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harinck, F.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2011-01-01

    Most negotiations are interrupted from time to time to reflect on the negotiation or to do other pressing tasks. This study investigated how these breaks and the thoughts during these breaks influence subsequent negotiation behavior. Prosocially motivated dyads, with a tendency to think

  4. Strategies and tactics of the negotiation for powerplant siting, model analysis of negotiation with the local fishermen's union, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, Yoshifumi; Yamanaka, Yoshiro

    1983-01-01

    Recently, the negotiation with local inhabitants in powerplant siting area is apt to drag on and is becoming more intricate. The purpose of this study is to present strategies and tactics for stepping up the negotiation more smoothly, taking the case of the negotiation with a fishermen's union. In this report, we obtained knowledge about the negotiation regarding compensation by the process as follows. (1) A gaming simulation model of the negotiation was built from the case study. This model reenacted the negotiation by having role-players represent the role of a power industry and fishermen's union. (2) Applying this model, 16 cases of simulated negotiations were carried out. As a result, similarities to actual negotiations were observed in the development of the negotiations and in the behavior of the interested party. We confirmed the model's ability to reproduce the negotiations. (3) Knowledge and information was also obtained by this simulation, concerning the developmental pattern of the negotiations, the effectiveness of measures for the promotion of fishery, the role of mediation, the utilization of preliminary negotiation, and so on. (author)

  5. Getting to Yes at the Beach or in the Office? : The Role of Location Formality and Negotiation Type on Negotiation Process and Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Alain; van der Wijst, Per

    2017-01-01

    The negotiation location plays an important role in negotiations. The present study examined to what extent the negotiation process and outcomes are influenced by the formality of the location and negotiation type. It was hypothesized that negotiations in a beach setting would yield better

  6. Personality determinants of manipulative behavior in the negotiation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila V. Matveeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiations are an inalienable component of human society in the modernworld, so studying those personal characteristics of negotiators that infl uencetheir choice of negotiating strategy, tactics, and style is relevant and signifi cant.Knowledge of the patterns of a partner’s choice of one strategy of behavior or anotherinfl uences on successful negotiation process and assists in achieving goals.We did research on the connections among level of anxiety, motivation to succeedand to avoid failure, and self-esteem to the level of Machiavellianism. This articlediscusses the personal characteristics that infl uence the choice of manipulativetactics of behavior in negotiations.

  7. Second negotiation meeting on the joint implementation of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The second negotiation meeting on the joint implementation of ITER was held in Tokyo(Japan) on 22-23 January 2002 to continue formal negotiations on the joint implementation of the ITER project. The delegations from Japan, European Union, Canada and Russia reached common understanding on some of the Joint Implementation Agreement (JIA) related issues. The delegations requested the Negotiators' Standing Subgroup (NSSG) to further elaborate the draft JIA and to submit second draft to the third Negotiation Meeting. The delegations accepted the revised Work Plan and Milestones for the negotiations process

  8. Constraints and triggers: situational mechanics of gender in negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Hannah Riley; Babcock, Linda; McGinn, Kathleen L

    2005-12-01

    The authors propose 2 categories of situational moderators of gender in negotiation: situational ambiguity and gender triggers. Reducing the degree of situational ambiguity constrains the influence of gender on negotiation. Gender triggers prompt divergent behavioral responses as a function of gender. Field and lab studies (1 and 2) demonstrated that decreased ambiguity in the economic structure of a negotiation (structural ambiguity) reduces gender effects on negotiation performance. Study 3 showed that representation role (negotiating for self or other) functions as a gender trigger by producing a greater effect on female than male negotiation performance. Study 4 showed that decreased structural ambiguity constrains gender effects of representation role, suggesting that situational ambiguity and gender triggers work in interaction to moderate gender effects on negotiation performance. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. STRATEGIES FOR SMALL ENTERPRISES NEGOTIATING WITH LARGE FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Anca Stan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All around the world business is changing. All traditional business practices have been called into question as markets, customers competitors, problems and solutions have changed. As a result, business practices we once took for granted, like traditional negotiating approaches are falling by the wayside in favor of more collaborative, equally beneficial, win-win strategies. A new negotiation paradigm away from negotiating a deal and toward negotiating a relationship is needed for the twenty first century. Business can no longer stay on top by negotiating short term victories. The key to winning unbeatable, long term results is to negotiate solid, long term relationship. Smart business owners are trying to find ways to leverage their assets, and one important way is to negotiate for long - term relationships. Traditional knowledge and skills remain important. Yet global managers can better respond to global demands by learning continuously managing diversity, and developing a global mindset.

  10. Multi-issue Agent Negotiation Based on Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baohe; Zheng, Sue; Wu, Hong

    Agent-based e-commerce service has become a hotspot now. How to make the agent negotiation process quickly and high-efficiently is the main research direction of this area. In the multi-issue model, MAUT(Multi-attribute Utility Theory) or its derived theory usually consider little about the fairness of both negotiators. This work presents a general model of agent negotiation which considered the satisfaction of both negotiators via autonomous learning. The model can evaluate offers from the opponent agent based on the satisfaction degree, learn online to get the opponent's knowledge from interactive instances of history and negotiation of this time, make concessions dynamically based on fair object. Through building the optimal negotiation model, the bilateral negotiation achieved a higher efficiency and fairer deal.

  11. Differences between E-negotiation and face-to-face negotiation by professional buyers: Analysis of role plays

    OpenAIRE

    Soroush, Negin

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we tried to find out the differences between face-to-face negotiation and E-negotiation. We have done so by examining hypotheses based on the existing literature on negotiations and communication, using a database on negotiations performed by professional buyers in training sessions. Part of the obtained results was based on a face-to-face setting, part of them on an e-mail negotiation setting. We have assessed the obtained results to find out the differences between face-t...

  12. A model of negotiation scenarios based on time, relevance andcontrol used to define advantageous positions in a negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Guillermo Rojas Altamirano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Models that apply to negotiation are based on different perspectives that range from the relationship between the actors, game theory or the steps in a procedure. This research proposes a model of negotiation scenarios that considers three factors (time, relevance and control, which are displayed as the most important in a negotiation. These factors interact with each other and create different scenarios for each of the actors involved in a negotiation. The proposed model not only facilitates the creation of a negotiation strategy but also an ideal choice of effective tactics.

  13. Polyketide synthase chemistry does not direct biosynthetic divergence between 9- and 10-membered enediynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsman, Geoff P.; Chen, Yihua; Thorson, Jon S.; Shen, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Enediynes are potent antitumor antibiotics that are classified as 9- or 10-membered according to the size of the enediyne core structure. However, almost nothing is known about enediyne core biosynthesis, and the determinants of 9- versus 10-membered enediyne core biosynthetic divergence remain elusive. Previous work identified enediyne-specific polyketide synthases (PKSEs) that can be phylogenetically distinguished as being involved in 9- versus 10-membered enediyne biosynthesis, suggesting that biosynthetic divergence might originate from differing PKSE chemistries. Recent in vitro studies have identified several compounds produced by the PKSE and associated thioesterase (TE), but condition-dependent product profiles make it difficult to ascertain a true catalytic difference between 9- and 10-membered PKSE-TE systems. Here we report that PKSE chemistry does not direct 9- versus 10-membered enediyne core biosynthetic divergence as revealed by comparing the products from three 9-membered and two 10-membered PKSE-TE systems under identical conditions using robust in vivo assays. Three independent experiments support a common catalytic function for 9- and 10-membered PKSEs by the production of a heptaene metabolite from: (i) all five cognate PKSE-TE pairs in Escherichia coli; (ii) the C-1027 and calicheamicin cognate PKSE-TEs in Streptomyces lividans K4-114; and (iii) selected native producers of both 9- and 10-membered enediynes. Furthermore, PKSEs and TEs from different 9- and 10-membered enediyne biosynthetic machineries are freely interchangeable, revealing that 9- versus 10-membered enediyne core biosynthetic divergence occurs beyond the PKSE-TE level. These findings establish a starting point for determining the origins of this biosynthetic divergence. PMID:20534556

  14. What is the evidence for the use of biologic or biosynthetic meshes in abdominal wall reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köckerling, F; Alam, N N; Antoniou, S A; Daniels, I R; Famiglietti, F; Fortelny, R H; Heiss, M M; Kallinowski, F; Kyle-Leinhase, I; Mayer, F; Miserez, M; Montgomery, A; Morales-Conde, S; Muysoms, F; Narang, S K; Petter-Puchner, A; Reinpold, W; Scheuerlein, H; Smietanski, M; Stechemesser, B; Strey, C; Woeste, G; Smart, N J

    2018-04-01

    Although many surgeons have adopted the use of biologic and biosynthetic meshes in complex abdominal wall hernia repair, others have questioned the use of these products. Criticism is addressed in several review articles on the poor standard of studies reporting on the use of biologic meshes for different abdominal wall repairs. The aim of this consensus review is to conduct an evidence-based analysis of the efficacy of biologic and biosynthetic meshes in predefined clinical situations. A European working group, "BioMesh Study Group", composed of invited surgeons with a special interest in surgical meshes, formulated key questions, and forwarded them for processing in subgroups. In January 2016, a workshop was held in Berlin where the findings were presented, discussed, and voted on for consensus. Findings were set out in writing by the subgroups followed by consensus being reached. For the review, 114 studies and background analyses were used. The cumulative data regarding biologic mesh under contaminated conditions do not support the claim that it is better than synthetic mesh. Biologic mesh use should be avoided when bridging is needed. In inguinal hernia repair biologic and biosynthetic meshes do not have a clear advantage over the synthetic meshes. For prevention of incisional or parastomal hernias, there is no evidence to support the use of biologic/biosynthetic meshes. In complex abdominal wall hernia repairs (incarcerated hernia, parastomal hernia, infected mesh, open abdomen, enterocutaneous fistula, and component separation technique), biologic and biosynthetic meshes do not provide a superior alternative to synthetic meshes. The routine use of biologic and biosynthetic meshes cannot be recommended.

  15. Dynamic SLA Negotiation in Autonomic Federated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubach, Pawel; Sobolewski, Michael

    Federated computing environments offer requestors the ability to dynamically invoke services offered by collaborating providers in the virtual service network. Without an efficient resource management that includes Dynamic SLA Negotiation, however, the assignment of providers to customer's requests cannot be optimized and cannot offer high reliability without relevant SLA guarantees. We propose a new SLA-based SERViceable Metacomputing Environment (SERVME) capable of matching providers based on QoS requirements and performing autonomic provisioning and deprovisioning of services according to dynamic requestor needs. This paper presents the SLA negotiation process that includes on-demand provisioning and uses an object-oriented SLA model for large-scale service-oriented systems supported by SERVME. An initial reference implementation in the SORCER environment is also described.

  16. Consultation and IBA negotiations in wind projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle, Alexander [Bull Housser and Tupper LLP (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This presentation aimed at providing more information on consultation and IBA negotiations in wind energy projects, it was given by a law firm Bull, Housser and Tupper LLP. The subjects tackled by this paper are: the duty to consult, what First Nations are expecting from IBAs, if IBAs will differ from one wind project to another, if templates assist in achieving equity, who should be responsible for financing IBAs, and whether benefits or payments of money can achieve equity. The presentation emphasised that it is important to cooperate and share information in determining what the role of the Crown should be. In addition, the authors believe that an innovative resolution table should be established and that legal certainty should be obtained. This presentation provided First Nations with useful information on consultation and IBA negotiations in wind energy projects.

  17. Status of Iran's nuclear program and negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, David

    2014-01-01

    Iran's nuclear program poses immense challenges to international security. Its gas centrifuge program has grown dramatically in the last several years, bringing Iran close to a point where it could produce highly enriched uranium in secret or declared gas centrifuge plants before its breakout would be discovered and stopped. To reduce the risk posed by Iran's nuclear program, the P5+1 have negotiated with Iran short term limits on the most dangerous aspects of its nuclear programs and is negotiating long-term arrangements that can provide assurance that Iran will not build nuclear weapons. These long-term arrangements need to include a far more limited and transparent Iranian nuclear program. In advance of arriving at a long-term arrangement, the IAEA will need to resolve its concerns about the alleged past and possibly on-going military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program

  18. Negotiating Collaborative Governance Designs: A Discursive Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public-management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem solving and public innovation. Although aspects of for example stakeholder inclusion and power are conceptualized in the literature......, these issues remain challenging in practice. Therefore, the interest in understanding the emerging processes of collaborative governance is growing. This article contributes to theorizing discursive aspects of such processes by conceptualizing and exploring the meaning negotiations through which collaborative...... governance designs emerge and change. The findings of a case study of local governments’ efforts to innovate quality management in education through collaborative governance suggest that such form of governance is continuingly negotiated in communication during both design and implementation phases. Through...

  19. Eighth ITER negotiations meeting (N-8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhavin, V.

    2003-01-01

    The eighth ITER Negotiations meeting was held on 18-19 February, 2003 in St. Petersburg, Russia. The delegations of People's Republic of China and the USA joined those from Canada, The European Union, Japan and the Russian federation in their efforts to reach agreement on the implementation of the ITER project. The delegations took note of the progress of discussions on procurement allocations, ITER decommissioning issues, management structure and intellectual property rights. The Negotiators approved the report on the Joint Assessment of Specific Sites and noted the report on the start of the ITER Transitional Arrangements (ITA). The delegations also noted that China has stated its willingness to participate in ITA and that the USA is considering participation

  20. GATS Mode 4 Negotiation and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Sang Yoo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics and issues of GATS Mode 4 and guesses the effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market to suggest policy options to Korea. Mode 4 negotiation started from the trade perspective, however, since Mode 4 involves international labor migration, it also has migration perspective. Thus developed countries, that have competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of skilled workers such as intra-company transferees and business visitors. On the other hand, developing countries, that have little competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of low-skilled workers. Empirical studies predict that the benefits of Mode 4 liberalization will be focused on developed countries rather than developing countries. The latter may suffer from brain drain and reduction of labor supply. Nevertheless developed countries are reluctant to Mode 4 negotiation because they can utilize skilled workers from developing countries by use of their own temporary visa programs. They are interested in Mode 4 related with Mode 3 in order to ease direct investment and movement of natural persons to developing countries. Regardless of the direction of a single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation, the net effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market may be negative. The Korean initial offer on Mode 4 is the same as the UR offer. Since Korean position on Mode 4 is most defensive, it is hard to expect that Korean position will be accepted as the single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation. Thus Korea has to prepare strategic package measures to minimize the costs of Mode 4 liberalization and improve competitiveness of service sector.

  1. Negotiation Performance: Antecedents, Outcomes, and Training Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    informational processing system. One consequence of this fact, according to their model, is that any cognitive activity that taps this pool, such as...training these skills (Burke & Day, 1986; Falcone, 105 1985; Taylor, Russ- Eft , & Chan, 2005). In their recent meta-analysis of BMT, Taylor, Russ- Eft ...Gender differences in negotiation outcome: A meta- analysis. Personnel Psychology, 52, 653-677. Taylor, P.J., Russ- Eft , D.F., & Chan, D.W.L. (2005

  2. Merger negotiations with stock market feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Betton, Sandra; Eckbo, B. Espen; Thompson, Rex; Thorburn, Karin S.

    2011-01-01

    Merger negotiations routinely occur amidst economically significant a target stock price runups. Since the source of the runup is unobservable (is it a target stand-alone value change and/or deal anticipation?), feeding the runup back into the offer price risks "paying twice" for the target shares. We present a novel structural empirical analysis of this runup feedback hypothesis. We show that rational deal anticipation implies a nonlinear relationship between the runup and the offer price ma...

  3. An intimate encounter: negotiating subtitled cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Niall

    2016-01-01

    The question of subtitling has received little attention in Film Studies, despite being the primary means by which foreign-language cinema is experienced. Current literature focuses on important matters of language and translation, but there are other aspects that exceed these matters when we watch subtitled films, aspects which are able to affect and move viewers without relying on explanation through translation. My paper shows how viewers have to negotiate these affective elements in order...

  4. New deal under negotiation with petrochemical sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-08-04

    Development of a strong petrochemicals industry is the cornerstone of Alberta`s economic diversification policy. According to the Vice-President for Business Strategy for Nova Corporation, developments have now reached the critical mass that lure new investments and employment by its sheer scale. A tall hurdle still to clear is to secure the source of raw materials from the natural gas production sector and the Alberta government. Negotiations have been underway over supplies of ethane to be extracted from gas streams for proposed new plants. These negotiations are crucial in testing whether Canadian industry can fulfill its potential. The Alliance Pipeline Project is a key component in settling this complex issue in view of the crucial importance of the proposed pipeline to Chicago for export of gas and liquid by-products, including ethane. Nova has made an offer to Alliance which represents a major change in buying methods. Nova is now ready to recognize ethane as a separate commodity that requires it to be listed with its own selling price. Nova offers prices `on a Gulf Coast-dominated basis` which is generally agreed to yield about the same economic upside to producers as if they actually exported the ethane. Nova hopes for a conclusion of negotiations by year end. Meanwhile the Alberta government also hopes for a settlement, if only to avoid the necessity of rationing ethane between Alberta petrochemical plants and exports.

  5. [Teamwork and negotiation with family in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Mendes, Maria Goreti; Rodrigues Araújo, Beatriz; Pereira Martins, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Analyze the negotiation and interaction process within nurses' practice with mothers of hospitalized children in pediatric unit from the teamwork perspective. A qualitative approach was used in this study, based on the Grounded Theory from the symbolic interaction perspective. The study included 12 nurses of the pediatric unit and 18 mothers who stayed in the hospital with their hospitalized children. The number of participants was defined according to data saturation. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews were chosen as data collection techniques and it was analyzed using the program NVivo8. From the analysis performed, the central category identified was «weaknesses in the negotiation process», within the interactions between nurses and mothers. Nurses revealed difficulties in the communication process, they did not include roles definition with mothers in order to establish their participation in the care process and a power imbalance was also evidenced. Within the studied settings, an important lack of collaborative work with hospitalized children's mothers was observed. The weaknesses in the negotiation process and specifically the difficulties found in communication; the lack of roles and tasks clarification and the perceived power imbalance regarding relationships, prevent mothers involvement in their children care process, considered a basic component to achieve a greater mother implication, better results in terms of health and a lower impact of hospitalization in the children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Conflicting Perspectives in Trade and Environmental Negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchner, B.K. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milan (Italy); Roson, R. [Economics Department, Ca' Foscari University, Venice (Italy)

    2002-09-01

    International trade negotiations have recently tackled the issue of possible free trade restrictions, justified - among others - on the basis of environmental concerns. Also, some analyses of international environmental agreements (especially in the field of climate change) have highlighted the key role played by changes in the terms of trade in determining the cost of environmental policies. Yet, secondary effects of international trade remain disregarded in many environmental policies, whereas the introduction of environmental trade barriers has been resisted, arguing that this may hide a Trojan horse of a renewed protectionism. This paper reviews the debate on trade and the environment in the two fields of environmental and trade negotiations, highlighting the different and somewhat conflicting approach adopted in the two cases. A numerical general equilibrium model is used to illustrate how different 'perceptions' (translated in terms of alternative model closures) affect the use of instruments, the distributional impact of the various policies, and the strategic interplay between negotiators in international agreements.

  7. The Alliance Negotiation Scale: A psychometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Jennifer M; Safran, Jeremy D; Muran, J Christopher

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the utility and psychometric properties of a new measure of psychotherapy process, the Alliance Negotiation Scale (ANS; Doran, Safran, Waizmann, Bolger, & Muran, 2012). The ANS was designed to operationalize the theoretical construct of negotiation (Safran & Muran, 2000), and to extend our current understanding of the working alliance concept (Bordin, 1979). The ANS was also intended to improve upon existing measures such as the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI; Horvath & Greenberg, 1986, 1989) and its short form (WAI-S; Tracey & Kokotovic, 1989) by expanding the emphasis on negative therapy process. The present study investigates the psychometric validity of the ANS test scores and interpretation-including confirming its original factor structure and evaluating its internal consistency and construct validity. Construct validity was examined through the ANS' convergence and divergence with several existing scales that measure theoretically related constructs. The results bolster and extend previous findings about the psychometric integrity of the ANS, and begin to illuminate the relationship between negotiation and other important variables in psychotherapy research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Negotiation of identities in intercultural communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janík Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation of identities in communication entails affirming the identities we want others to recognize in us and ascription of identities we mutually assign to each other in communication. The study of intercultural communication focuses on cultural identity as the principal identity component that defines intercultural communication. In this article, the assumption that cultural group membership factors determine the context of intercultural communication is questioned. The article examines how intercultural interlocutors negotiate their identities in various intercultural interactions. The aims of the research presented in this paper are: 1 to examine which identities - cultural, personal, or social - intercultural interlocutors activate in intercultural communication; 2 to determine whether interlocutors’ intercultural communication is largely influenced by their cultural identities; 3 and to identify situations in which they activate their cultural identities (3. The research data were collected from 263 international students studying at Masaryk University in Brno in the years 2010 - 2016. Although the research results are not conclusive, they indicate that cultural identities predominate in the students’ ethnocentric views and that stereotypes constrain the students’ cultural identities and affect the negotiation of identities in intercultural communication.

  9. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2008-12-01

    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.

  10. The Function of Negotiation in Iranian EFL Students’ Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is believed to play a key role in language learning in general and vocabulary learning in particular. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of types of instructions (negotiation, non-negotiation, or in isolation on learning and recalling of new words by Iranian learners. Using a quasi-experimental research design, 39 EFL students of a secondary school were sampled and assigned into three experimental groups: the input plus negotiated group (IPN, the input without negotiated group (IWN, and the elaborative, un-instructed input group (EUI. The first group had the chance for negotiated interaction; the second one received the input without any negotiation with their instructor and the last group received elaborative input without any interaction with their teachers. The groups were rated on their degree of comprehension and the acquisition of vocabulary items. The results revealed that negotiation had a non-significant effect over non-negotiation tasks. However, the results indicated that negotiation was significantly effective against un-instruction task. Thus, in acquisition and retention of new vocabulary, IPN group was not significantly different than IWN group, but they outperformed those learners who used their own strategy to learn new words (EUI.

  11. Accumulation of Rutin and Betulinic Acid and Expression of Phenylpropanoid and Triterpenoid Biosynthetic Genes in Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shicheng; Park, Chang Ha; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Yeon Bok; Yang, Jingli; Sung, Gyoo Byung; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Soonok; Park, Sang Un

    2015-09-30

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is used in traditional Chinese medicine and is the sole food source of the silkworm. Here, 21 cDNAs encoding phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes and 21 cDNAs encoding triterpene biosynthetic genes were isolated from mulberry. The expression levels of genes involved in these biosynthetic pathways and the accumulation of rutin, betulin, and betulinic acid, important secondary metabolites, were investigated in different plant organs. Most phenylpropanoid and triterpene biosynthetic genes were highly expressed in leaves and/or fruit, and most genes were downregulated during fruit ripening. The accumulation of rutin was more than fivefold higher in leaves than in other organs, and higher levels of betulin and betulinic acid were found in roots and leaves than in fruit. By comparing the contents of these compounds with gene expression levels, we speculate that MaUGT78D1 and MaLUS play important regulatory roles in the rutin and betulin biosynthetic pathways.

  12. Eleventh ITER negotiations meeting (N-11) and twelfth negotiators' standing sub-group meeting (NSSG-12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Delong

    2005-01-01

    The Eleventh ITER Negotiations Meeting (N-11) and the Twelfth Negotiators' Standing Sub-Group (NSSG-12 convened on October 19-25, 2005 at the Kempinski Hotel Chengdu, Sichuan Province. China was the host of this meeting. Delegations from China, the European Union, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United States of America, as well as members from the International Team, met there to continue their work to reach agreement on the joint implementation of the ITER international fusion energy R and D project. The delegations accepted the Vice Minister of Science and Technology, Mr. LIU Yanhua, and State Councillor, Mr. SHI Dinghuan as Moderators for N-11 and NSSG-12, respectively, and Mr. LUO Delong as Secretary for both meetings. At the Meeting, delegates discussed and made substantial progress on a full range of legal, technical, and administrative topics, including staffing for ITER, policies for managing the project and its procurements, and the continuing joint drafting of the agreement on establishing the international ITER Organization to implement the project. Delegates also explored the possibility of India joining the Negotiations. In the light of the reports presented to the Meeting from the recent joint exploratory mission to India, delegates identified a series of steps for the near future leading towards a possible agreement among all the Parties to India's accession. The Negotiations Meeting also discussed the progress report of NSSG and forward planning and future tasks. The Negotiators agreed that substantial progress was made on all topics, and delegations are optimistic that the Joint Implementation Agreement and related Annexes and instruments could be initialed in spring of 2006. As decided by all delegations, the next Twelfth ITER Negotiations Meeting will be held in Korea on 6 December, 2005

  13. Characterization of the fumonisin B2 biosynthetic gene cluster in Aspergillus niger and A. awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus niger and A. awamori strains isolated from grapes cultivated in Mediterranean basin were examined for fumonisin B2 (FB2) production and presence/absence of sequences within the fumonisin biosynthetic gene (fum) cluster. Presence of 13 regions in the fum cluster was evaluated by PCR assay...

  14. Dual biosynthetic pathways to phytosterol via cycloartenol and lanosterol in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Masashi; Kikuchi, Jun; Saito, Kazuki; Muranaka, Toshiya

    2009-01-20

    The differences between the biosynthesis of sterols in higher plants and yeast/mammals are believed to originate at the cyclization step of oxidosqualene, which is cyclized to cycloartenol in higher plants and lanosterol in yeast/mammals. Recently, lanosterol synthase genes were identified from dicotyledonous plant species including Arabidopsis, suggesting that higher plants possess dual biosynthetic pathways to phytosterols via lanosterol, and through cycloartenol. To identify the biosynthetic pathway to phytosterol via lanosterol, and to reveal the contributions to phytosterol biosynthesis via each cycloartenol and lanosterol, we performed feeding experiments by using [6-(13)C(2)H(3)]mevalonate with Arabidopsis seedlings. Applying (13)C-{(1)H}{(2)H} nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, the elucidation of deuterium on C-19 behavior of phytosterol provided evidence that small amounts of phytosterol were biosynthesized via lanosterol. The levels of phytosterol increased on overexpression of LAS1, and phytosterols derived from lanosterol were not observed in a LAS1-knockout plant. This is direct evidence to indicate that the biosynthetic pathway for phytosterol via lanosterol exists in plant cells. We designate the biosynthetic pathway to phytosterols via lanosterol "the lanosterol pathway." LAS1 expression is reported to be induced by the application of jasmonate and is thought to have evolved from an ancestral cycloartenol synthase to a triterpenoid synthase, such as beta-amyrin synthase and lupeol synthase. Considering this background, the lanosterol pathway may contribute to the biosynthesis of not only phytosterols, but also steroids as secondary metabolites.

  15. Characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster for cryptic phthoxazolin A in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Anggraini Suroto

    Full Text Available Phthoxazolin A, an oxazole-containing polyketide, has a broad spectrum of anti-oomycete activity and herbicidal activity. We recently identified phthoxazolin A as a cryptic metabolite of Streptomyces avermitilis that produces the important anthelmintic agent avermectin. Even though genome data of S. avermitilis is publicly available, no plausible biosynthetic gene cluster for phthoxazolin A is apparent in the sequence data. Here, we identified and characterized the phthoxazolin A (ptx biosynthetic gene cluster through genome sequencing, comparative genomic analysis, and gene disruption. Sequence analysis uncovered that the putative ptx biosynthetic genes are laid on an extra genomic region that is not found in the public database, and 8 open reading frames in the extra genomic region could be assigned roles in the biosynthesis of the oxazole ring, triene polyketide and carbamoyl moieties. Disruption of the ptxA gene encoding a discrete acyltransferase resulted in a complete loss of phthoxazolin A production, confirming that the trans-AT type I PKS system is responsible for the phthoxazolin A biosynthesis. Based on the predicted functional domains in the ptx assembly line, we propose the biosynthetic pathway of phthoxazolin A.

  16. Phytochemical and Biosynthetic Studies of Lignans, with a Focus on Indonesian Medicinal Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfahmi, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis phytochemical and biosynthetic studies of lignans are described. The focus is on the Indonesian medicinal plants Phyllanthus niruri and Piper cubeba and on two Linum species, Linum flavum and L. leonii, native to European countries. Both Indonesian plants are used in jamu. Jamu is the

  17. Elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway for the production of the pigment chrysogine by Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viggiano, Annarita; Salo, Oleksandr; Ali, Hazrat; Szymanski, Wiktor; Lankhorst, Peter P; Nygård, Yvonne; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Driessen, Arnold J M

    Chrysogine is a yellow pigment produced by Penicillium chrysogenum and other filamentous fungi. Although it was first isolated in 1973, the biosynthetic pathway has so far not been resolved. Here, we show that the deletion of the highly expressed non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene

  18. Detergent insolubility of alkaline phosphatase during biosynthetic transport and endocytosis. Role of cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerneus, D. P.; Ueffing, E.; Posthuma, G.; Strous, G. J.; van der Ende, A.

    1993-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is anchored to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by a covalently attached glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. We have studied the biosynthetic transport and endocytosis of alkaline phosphatase in the choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo, which endogenously expresses this

  19. Distribution of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in 343 Fusarium genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium consists of over 200 phylogenetically distinct species, many of which cause important crop diseases and/or produce mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites (SMs). Some fusaria also cause opportunistic infections in humans and other animals. To investigate the distribution of biosynthetic ...

  20. Lactococcus lactis as expression host for the biosynthetic incorporation of tryptophan analogues into recombinant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Khattabi, Mohamed; van Roosmalen, Maarten L.; Jager, Dennis; Metselaar, Heidi; Permentier, Hjalmar; Leenhouts, Kees; Broos, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    Incorporation of Trp (tryptophan) analogues into a protein may facilitate its structural analysis by spectroscopic techniques. Development of a biological system for the biosynthetic incorporation of such analogues into proteins is of considerable importance. The Gram-negative Escherichia coli is

  1. Insights into secondary metabolism from a global analysis of prokaryotic biosynthetic gene clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cimermancic, P.; Medema, Marnix; Claesen, J.; Kurika, K.; Wieland Brown, L.C.; Mavrommatis, K.; Pati, A.; Godfrey, P.A.; Koehrsen, M.; Clardy, J.; Birren, B. W.; Takano, Eriko; Sali, A.; Linington, R.G.; Fischbach, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Although biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) have been discovered for hundreds of bacterial metabolites, our knowledge of their diversity remains limited. Here, we used a novel algorithm to systematically identify BGCs in the extensive extant microbial sequencing data. Network analysis of the

  2. New insights into the organization and regulation of trichothecene biosynthetic genes in Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collectively, species of the genus Trichoderma can produce numerous structurally diverse secondary metabolites (SM). This ability is conferred by the presence of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in their genomes. Species of Trichoderma in the Brevicompactum clade are able to produce trichothecenes, a f...

  3. Characterization and engineering of thermophilic aldolases : synthesizing nitrogen-heterocycles in biosynthetic routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink-van Loo, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aldolases are enzymes that catalyze reactions in both degradation and biosynthetic pathways in vivo and have been discovered in all domains of life. they. An interesting property of aldolases is that they can synthesize carbon-carbon bonds, generating a new stereogenic centre. As enzymes are

  4. Neurosteroid biosynthetic pathway changes in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luchetti, Sabina; Bossers, Koen; Frajese, Giovanni Vanni; Swaab, Dick F.

    2010-01-01

    There is emerging evidence from animal studies for a neuroprotective role of sex steroids in neurodegenerative diseases, but studies in human brain are lacking. We have carried out an extensive study of the neurosteroid biosynthetic pathways in substantia nigra (SN), caudate nucleus (CN) and putamen

  5. The oxalic acid biosynthetic activity of Burkholderia mallei is encoded by a single locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although it is known that oxalic acid provides a selective advantage to the secreting microbe, our understanding of how this acid is biosynthesized remains incomplete. This study reports the identification, cloning, and partial characterization of the oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme from the animal ...

  6. An Integrated Metabolomic and Genomic Mining Workflow to Uncover the Biosynthetic Potential of Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Vynne, Nikolaj Grønnegaard; Klitgaard, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms are a rich source of bioactives; however, chemical identification is a major bottleneck. Strategies that can prioritize the most prolific microbial strains and novel compounds are of great interest. Here, we present an integrated approach to evaluate the biosynthetic richness in ba...

  7. How negotiators get to yes: predicting the constellation of strategies used across cultures to negotiate conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, C H

    2001-08-01

    Individualism, hierarchy, polychronicity, and explicit-contracting values explain why managers from Germany, Japan, and the United States use a different mix of strategies to negotiate workplace conflict. Hypotheses extend prior research in showing that conflict behavior is multiply determined and that each culture uses a variety of interests, regulations, and power-based conflict management strategies. Results of actual (rather than survey-based) conflict resolution behavior suggest several fruitful avenues for future research, including examining the inferred meaning of negotiation arguments, analyzing interaction effects of cultural value dimensions, studying the effectiveness of different strategies across cultures, and examining whether strategic adjustments are made during intercultural conflict management.

  8. Interaction patterns in crisis negotiations: persuasive arguments and cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    This research examines cultural differences in negotiators' responses to persuasive arguments in crisis (hostage) negotiations over time. Using a new method of examining cue-response patterns, the authors examined 25 crisis negotiations in which police negotiators interacted with perpetrators from low-context (LC) or high-context (HC) cultures. Compared with HC perpetrators, LC perpetrators were found to use more persuasive arguments, to reciprocate persuasive arguments in the second half of negotiations, and to respond to persuasive arguments in a compromising way. Further analyses found that LC perpetrators were more likely to communicate threats, especially in the first half of the negotiations, but that HC perpetrators were more likely to reciprocate them. The implications of these findings for our understanding of intercultural interaction are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. An Information Technology Tool to Support Negotiating Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Montanana

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses computer-supported large-scale negotiation, in particular, negotiation with advisers. It is claimed that better communication within negotiating teams should lead to longer, more productive sessions than the current ones. To this end, an information technology environment should be provided for the negotiation. The paper introduces SHINE, a collaborative software system developed at the University of Chile. This software has many features to allow rich interactions among advisers belonging to the same team, among negotiators and also between a negotiator and his advisers. Emphasis is placed on the design features to enable and ease these interactions. The facilities include WYSIWIS windows, enhanced electronic mail to send and receive text or video messages with several urgency levels, an evaluation procedure and various ways to state comments and ideas. SHINE has been implemented as a prototype on Sun Sparc workstations.

  10. Functional conservation of coenzyme Q biosynthetic genes among yeasts, plants, and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Hayashi

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q (CoQ is an essential factor for aerobic growth and oxidative phosphorylation in the electron transport system. The biosynthetic pathway for CoQ has been proposed mainly from biochemical and genetic analyses of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, the biosynthetic pathway in higher eukaryotes has been explored in only a limited number of studies. We previously reported the roles of several genes involved in CoQ synthesis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we expand these findings by identifying ten genes (dps1, dlp1, ppt1, and coq3-9 that are required for CoQ synthesis. CoQ10-deficient S. pombe coq deletion strains were generated and characterized. All mutant fission yeast strains were sensitive to oxidative stress, produced a large amount of sulfide, required an antioxidant to grow on minimal medium, and did not survive at the stationary phase. To compare the biosynthetic pathway of CoQ in fission yeast with that in higher eukaryotes, the ability of CoQ biosynthetic genes from humans and plants (Arabidopsis thaliana to functionally complement the S. pombe coq deletion strains was determined. With the exception of COQ9, expression of all other human and plant COQ genes recovered CoQ10 production by the fission yeast coq deletion strains, although the addition of a mitochondrial targeting sequence was required for human COQ3 and COQ7, as well as A. thaliana COQ6. In summary, this study describes the functional conservation of CoQ biosynthetic genes between yeasts, humans, and plants.

  11. AGENT-BASED NEGOTIATION PLATFORM IN COLLABORATIVE NETWORKED ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Georgeta CREȚAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an agent-based platform to model and support parallel and concurrent negotiations among organizations acting in the same industrial market. The underlying complexity is to model the dynamic environment where multi-attribute and multi-participant negotiations are racing over a set of heterogeneous resources. The metaphor Interaction Abstract Machines (IAMs is used to model the parallelism and the non-deterministic aspects of the negotiation processes that occur in Collaborative Networked Environment.

  12. 25 CFR 162.605 - Negotiation of leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiation of leases. 162.605 Section 162.605 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Non-Agricultural Leases § 162.605 Negotiation of leases. (a) Leases of individually owned land or tribal land may be negotiated by those owners or their...

  13. Optimal linguistic expression in negotiations depends on visual appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maki; Kwon, Jinhwan; Tamada, Hikaru; Hirahara, Yumi

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the visual appearance of a negotiator on persuasiveness within the context of negotiations. Psychological experiments were conducted to quantitatively analyze the relationship between visual appearance and the use of language. Male and female participants were shown three female and male photographs, respectively. They were asked to report how they felt about each photograph using a seven-point semantic differential (SD) scale for six affective factors (positive impression, extraversion, intelligence, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and agreeableness). Participants then answered how they felt about each negotiation scenario (they were presented with pictures and a situation combined with negotiation sentences) using a seven-point SD scale for seven affective factors (positive impression, extraversion, intelligence, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and degree of persuasion). Two experiments were conducted using different participant groups depending on the negotiation situations. Photographs with good or bad appearances were found to show high or low degrees of persuasion, respectively. A multiple regression equation was obtained, indicating the importance of the three language factors (euphemistic, honorific, and sympathy expressions) to impressions made during negotiation. The result shows that there are optimal negotiation sentences based on various negotiation factors, such as visual appearance and use of language. For example, persons with good appearance might worsen their impression during negotiations by using certain language, although their initial impression was positive, and persons with bad appearance could effectively improve their impressions in negotiations through their use of language, although the final impressions of their negotiation counterpart might still be more negative than those for persons with good appearance. In contrast, the impressions made by persons of normal appearance

  14. THE ROLE OF MINDFULNESS IN UNETHICAL PURCHASING NEGOTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yi-Hui; Lin, Chieh-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- Negotiation occurs all the time in purchasing practices ofbusinesses, and is inevitable for purchasing professionals when encounteringpurchasing conflict. Ethical negotiation is considered the vital requirement inmaintaining long-term and close buyer-supplier relationships. This study aimsto explore the relationship between mindfulness and unethical negotiation. Methodology- This study will take purchasing professionals inTaiwan as research subjects to investigate the relationship be...

  15. The relationship between negotiations success and leadership style

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    D.Phil. Both leadership and negotiations constitute key success factors for organisations. Previous studies on leadership suggest that leadership effectiveness differentiates successful organisations from others. Equally, negotiations success constitutes a key distinguishing factor separating developed countries from the developing and the under-developed ones. A perusal of available literature and previous research on leadership and negotiations reveals a historical tendency by writers an...

  16. The alternative negotiator as the invisible third at the table : The impact of potency information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, E.; De Dreu, C.K.W.; Van de Vliert, E.

    This study explores the impact of person information about an alternative negotiator in dyadic negotiation in which one of two individuals is able to exit the negotiation to further negotiate with the alternative party. Individualistic negotiators were expected to be influenced more by information

  17. Teaching Negotiation Skills through Practice and Reflection with Virtual Humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Core, Mark; Traum, David; Lane, H. Chad; Swartout, William; Gratch, Jonathan; van Lent, Michael; Marsella, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    .... The motivation for such simulations is training soft skills such as leadership, cultural awareness, and negotiation, where the majority of actions are conversational, and the problem solving involves...

  18. Power distribution in complex environmental negotiations: Does balance matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, N.; Lamb, B.L.; Taylor, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    We studied six interagency negotiations covering Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) hydroelectric power licenses. Negotiations occurred between state and federal resource agencies and developers over project operations and natural resource mitigation. We postulated that a balance of power among parties was necessary for successful negotiations. We found a complex relationship between balanced power and success and conclude that a balance of power was associated with success in these negotiations. Power played a dynamic role in the bargaining and illuminates important considerations for regulatory design.

  19. Types of unethical tactics in negotiation between buyer and supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: This article researches the kinds of unethical tactics, which can use customers or suppliers to achieve better negotiating outcome. Purpose: Determine which tactics they used, from where they rise from and what the other authors about resulting of using unethical tactics. Method: Analysis of articles from Ebsco and ProQuest databases. Results: Getting of ethical knowledge, types of unethical negotiation tactics and awareness of the limits of ethics in the negotiations process between suppliers and customers. Organization: Managers can gain the recognition of unethical tactics, their using in the negotiation process and the construction of negotiating temperament or even competence. The research contributes to a better achievement of the performance of the organization. The results of this article can contribute to the negotiators decision-making on the use of unethical tactics. Society: Ethical negotiation helps to improve the reputation and respect of the organization, which represents the negotiator. Originality: In a review of existing articles and searches we have not found similar studies to investigate the unethical negotiating tactics. Limitations/Future Research: The article is limited to fifteen articles and three books.

  20. A Brief Study of the Potential Problems in Cross-cultural Business Nego-tiations and Recommendations for Chinese Negotiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明瑞强

    2013-01-01

    Globalization has become a hot topic in the world economy realm. As international trade booms worldwide, especially in China, it requires negotiators despite their genders, regions, ethics or ages to sit together around the table and achieve their goals. Various problems do occur in this process. This paper is going to study the potential problems in cross-culture business ne-gotiations and put forward some workable suggestions and recommendations for Chinese negotiators with the view to clearing the situation up.

  1. Offer and Acceptance and the Dynamics of Negotiations: Arguments for Contract Theory from Negotiation Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Pannebakker (Ekaterina)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe doctrine of offer and acceptance forms the basis of the rules of contract formation in most western legal systems. However, if parties enter into elaborate negotiations, these rules may become difficult to apply. This paper addresses the application of the doctrine of offer and

  2. Trend of UNFCCC negotiation and its countermeasure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Gun [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    It has been eight years since UNFCCC was adopted in 1992 Rio environmental commission. Through five Conference of the Parties (COP) and twelve subcommittee meetings, there are still disagreements and controversies on major issues such as compensation to the developing countries, technology transfer, and Kyoto mechanism (clean development system, emission permit trade, cooperative implementation). On the other hand, each country demands that Kyoto protocol should go into effect by the 10th anniversary of Rio commission. In this study, based on the 12th subcommittee meeting held in June 2000, it is discussed recent trend of negotiation and prospect.

  3. Agent-Based Negotiation in Uncertain Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    An agent aims to secure his projected needs by attempting to build a set of (business) relationships with other agents. A relationship is built by exchanging private information, and is characterised by its intimacy — degree of closeness — and balance — degree of fairness. Each argumentative interaction between two agents then has two goals: to satisfy some immediate need, and to do so in a way that develops the relationship in a desired direction. An agent's desire to develop each relationship in a particular way then places constraints on the argumentative utterances. The form of negotiation described is argumentative interaction constrained by a desire to develop such relationships.

  4. Technology development for meeting with automobiles negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Il [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The direction of technology development for meeting with automobiles negotiation is to establish a development and supply policy of automobile with the minimum mileage. Furthermore the development policy of diesel car should be promoted with the same level of gasoline engine emission and a new concept of developing clean diesel engine is needed to achieve this goal. Therefore a smoke-filtering device, developed in Korea, should be promoted for supplying and post-process technology development such as SCR and DeNox catalyzer should be promoted.

  5. WTO negotiations on agriculture and developing countries:

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda, Anwarul; Gulati, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    The World Trade Organization’s Doha Round of trade talks has been plagued by a lack of concrete progress toward establishing a fair and harmonious agricultural trading system. Because the results of the Doha Round could have far-reaching implications for the trade and economic prospects of developing countries in the twenty-first century, it is critical for these countries to fully understand the issues involved in the negotiations on agriculture. However, there has been no authoritative an...

  6. Getting past yes: negotiating as if implementation mattered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, Danny

    2004-11-01

    Many deals that look good on paper never materialize into value-creating endeavors. Often, the problem begins at the negotiating table. In fact, the very person everyone thinks is pivotal to a deal's success--the negotiator--is often the one who undermines it. That's because most negotiators have a deal maker mind-set: They see the signed contract as the final destination rather than the start of a cooperative venture. What's worse, most companies reward negotiators on the basis of the number and size of the deals they're signing, giving them no incentive to change. The author asserts that organizations and negotiators must transition from a deal maker mentality--which involves squeezing your counterpart for everything you can get--to an implementation mind-set--which sets the stage for a healthy working relationship long after the ink has dried. Achieving an implementation mind-set demands five new approaches. First, start with the end in mind: Negotiation teams should carry out a "benefit of hindsight" exercise to imagine what sorts of problems they'll have encountered 12 months down the road. Second, help your counterpart prepare. Surprise confers advantage only because the other side has no time to think through all the implications of a proposal. If they agree to something they can't deliver, it will affect you both. Third, treat alignment as a shared responsibility. After all, if the other side's interests aren't aligned, it's your problem, too. Fourth, send one unified message. Negotiators should brief implementation teams on both sides together so everyone has the same information. And fifth, manage the negotiation like a business exercise: Combine disciplined negotiation preparation with post-negotiation reviews. Above all, companies must remember that the best deals don't end at the negotiating table--they begin there.

  7. The Impact of Team Characteristics on the Course and Outcome of Intergroup Price Negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backhaus, K.; van Doorn, J.; Wilken, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose and Methodology. Both academic research and managerial practice devote attention to the topic of negotiation, and price negotiations have particular salience in business relations. Despite frequent negotiations between buying and selling centers in practice, the impact of team

  8. Your gain my pain? The effects of accounting information in uncertain negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essa, Samy A.G.; Dekker, Henri C.; Groot, Tom L.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies on buyer-supplier negotiations show that refined accounting information can enhance negotiation processes and outcomes. We extend these studies by considering the influence of payoff uncertainty, which is commonly present in negotiations. Payoff uncertainty can increase friction

  9. Teaching business plan negotiation : fostering entrepreneurship among business and engineering students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; O'Duill, M.; Robertson, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    FROM PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS to complex business dealings, negotiations are essential forms of communication. But negotiation skills are often neglected in university courses. One reason for this neglect is the difficulty of teaching negotiations effectively. Such teaching requires both an underlying

  10. United Nations negotiations on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Climate change is a global environmental issue which is the subject of intergovernmental negotiations in the United Nations system. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) recommended to the UN General Assembly a four-track strategy relating to climate change: improved monitoring and assessment; increased research; development of internationally agreed policies to reduce greenhouse gases; and adoption of strategies to minimize impacts of climate change. The UN hosted a Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992 to attempt to find a common basis for action to protect the Earth's future and to secure a sustainable and equitable process of development. The focal point for UNCED efforts related to climate change is the Protection of the Atmosphere chapter of Agenda 21. Program A of this agenda contains responses to the WCED recommendations and Program B includes promotion of sustainable development in energy development, transportation, industry, and resource development. A framework convention on climate change was developed by an Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee established in 1990 and adopted by 130-140 countries. This convention includes general and specific obligations such as stabilization and control of greenhouse gas concentrations, development of emission inventories, and provision of financial resources to aid developing countries in responding to the climate change problem. 3 refs

  11. The process of negotiating settlements at FERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Interstate gas pipelines and their customers presently settle about 90% of the rate cases set for hearing before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The conventional regulatory litigation process is now only an occasional means of dispute resolution. This paper explains the settlement process, illustrating with the 12 section 4 rate cases brought by pipelines from 2008 and 2009. The paper also discusses and illustrates why parties prefer settlement to litigation, what difference it makes, which cases tend to settle, what might account for the increasing frequency of settlements over time, the recent phenomenon of pre-filing settlements and the recent settlement of section 5 cases brought by FERC. In contrast to many other regulatory jurisdictions, FERC Trial Staff play an active role in facilitating negotiation and settlement. They make an initial analysis 3 months after a pipeline files for a tariff rate increase. Thereafter, the regulatory aim is to bring the parties into agreement, not to determine an outcome and impose it upon them. This is a different role for the regulatory body than was previously apparent. - Highlights: ► About 90% of FERC rate cases are settled, not litigated. ► FERC Trial Staff play an active role in facilitating negotiation and settlement. ► Conventional regulation is now only an occasional means of dispute resolution. ► The paper also discusses which cases settle and what difference it makes.

  12. Negotiating a regime to control global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebenius, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    For purposes of analysis, this paper has uncritically maintained that the prospect of a serious climate problem exists and has only lightly examined the broader advantages and drawbacks of various proposed policy and institutional responses. Crucial as they are to a full treatment of the issues, these underlying substantive and policy questions enter the analysis primarily insofar as they affect the likely outcomes of pending and potential negotiations. To an advocate of a new greenhouse control regime, the fundamental negotiating task is to craft and sustain a meaningful winning coalition of countries backing such a regime. Two centrally necessary conditions for the fundamental task are: (1) that each member of the coalition see enough gain in the regime relative to the alternatives to adhere and (2) the potential and actual blocking coalitions of interests opposed to the regime be prevented from forming and from being acceptably accommodated or otherwise neutralized. The analysis of this paper is organized around key questions whose answers will influence whether and how these two necessary conditions might (or might not) be met

  13. Adversarial life testing: A Bayesian negotiation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufo, M.J.; Martín, J.; Pérez, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Life testing is a procedure intended for facilitating the process of making decisions in the context of industrial reliability. On the other hand, negotiation is a process of making joint decisions that has one of its main foundations in decision theory. A Bayesian sequential model of negotiation in the context of adversarial life testing is proposed. This model considers a general setting for which a manufacturer offers a product batch to a consumer. It is assumed that the reliability of the product is measured in terms of its lifetime. Furthermore, both the manufacturer and the consumer have to use their own information with respect to the quality of the product. Under these assumptions, two situations can be analyzed. For both of them, the main aim is to accept or reject the product batch based on the product reliability. This topic is related to a reliability demonstration problem. The procedure is applied to a class of distributions that belong to the exponential family. Thus, a unified framework addressing the main topics in the considered Bayesian model is presented. An illustrative example shows that the proposed technique can be easily applied in practice

  14. IPPSO raises Hydro exports in smog negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Independent Power Producers of Ontario (IPPSO) requested federal and provincial committees negotiating atmospheric emission standards to review Ontario Hydro's export wheeling plans. IPPSO alleges that Ontario Hydro is preparing to apply pressure on the Canadian export approval process, and is building up a major effort that will increase emissions, contrary to the objectives embodied in a number of environment protection projects such as the Ontario Smog Plan, The Federal-Provincial NOx Management Plan, the Strategic Options Plan, or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Draft NOx Protocol Negotiations. IPPSO alleges further that while Ontario Hydro is one of Canada's largest single emitter of greenhouse gases NOx, and SO 2 , and as a public sector corporation it should be the most amenable to serving the public good, the Corporation is doing exactly the opposite: it actively prevents production of electricity from less polluting sources. It is IPPSO's contention that Ontario Hydro's desire to control the Ontario market could come at significant cost to the environment

  15. Communication and Negotiations as an Ssential Prerequisite for the Development of International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Maciukevičienė, Liuda; Pipirienė, Vida

    2011-01-01

    In today's global markets it is very important to understand how to communicate effectively with partners from various cultures in order to be successful in the business world. Negotiating success largely depends on: pre-negotiation of a negotiating strategy and tactics of choice and flexibility in the negotiations and the ability to make influence. The article examines the concept of negotiation in international business, makes consistent analysis of the phases of the negotiations. Negotiati...

  16. Exploring the Roles of Intermediaries in Collective Memory-Supported Electronic Negotiation: A Theoretical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Nongkran Lertpittayapoom; Souren Paul

    2006-01-01

    Following the emergence of the Internet, electronic negotiation has become an alternative to face-to-face negotiation. The current forms of negotiation support systems (NSS) used to support many electronic negotiations offer very little support for historical negotiation data. In order to address this issue, the idea of a collective memory support in negotiations has been proposed in recent years. This article highlights the use of an online intermediary as an effective location from which co...

  17. Negotiating over bundles and prices using aggregate knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somefun, D.J.A.; Klos, T.B.; Poutré, la J.A.; Bauknecht, K.; Bichler, M.; Pröll, B.

    2004-01-01

    Combining two or more items and selling them as one good, a practice called bundling, can be a very effective strategy for reducing the costs of producing, marketing, and selling goods. In this paper, we consider a form of multi-issue negotiation where a shop negotiates both the contents and the

  18. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation memorandum. 249.110 Section 249.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 249.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow...

  19. 25 CFR 89.31 - Negotiation of contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiation of contract. 89.31 Section 89.31 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT ATTORNEY CONTRACTS WITH INDIAN TRIBES Five Civilized Tribes § 89.31 Negotiation of contract. That person or governing entity recognized as having authority to act for and in behalf o...

  20. 48 CFR 852.273-71 - Alternative negotiation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative negotiation techniques. 852.273-71 Section 852.273-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.273-71 Alternative negotiation technique...

  1. 48 CFR 53.215 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation. 53.215 Section 53.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.215 Contracting by negotiation...

  2. 48 CFR 2453.215 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contracting by negotiation. 2453.215 Section 2453.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 2453.215 Contracting by negotiation...

  3. 48 CFR 253.215 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation. 253.215 Section 253.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 253.215 Contracting by negotiation...

  4. Effective Technique for Consistent Evaluation of Negotiation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Diana; Mukherjee, Arup

    2009-01-01

    Negotiation is an important managerial skill. Teaching negotiations is challenging in the class room environment because of the need to create learning experiences that enable students to practice this critical skill. However, experience of teaching this course over four years, suggests that the more difficult task is to measure student…

  5. 48 CFR 215.406-3 - Documenting the negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documenting the negotiation. 215.406-3 Section 215.406-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.406-3 Documenting the...

  6. 31 CFR 10.31 - Negotiation of taxpayer checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negotiation of taxpayer checks. 10.31 Section 10.31 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Duties and Restrictions Relating to Practice Before the Internal Revenue Service § 10.31 Negotiation of taxpayer checks. ...

  7. 48 CFR 853.215 - Contracting by negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracting by negotiation. 853.215 Section 853.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 853.215 Contracting by negotiation...

  8. Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…

  9. 12 CFR 269.9 - Mediation of negotiation impasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation of negotiation impasses. 269.9 Section 269.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 269.9 Mediation of negotiation...

  10. 15 CFR 930.157 - Mediation and informal negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation and informal negotiations. 930.157 Section 930.157 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Activities Having Interstate Coastal Effects § 930.157 Mediation and informal negotiations. The relevant...

  11. A policy model to initiate environmental negotiations: Three hydropower workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Berton Lee; Taylor, Jonathan G.; Burkardt, Nina; Ponds, Phadrea D.

    1998-01-01

    How do I get started in natural resource negotiations? Natural resource managers often face difficult negotiations when they implement laws and policies regulating such resources as water, wildlife, wetlands, endangered species, and recreation. As a result of these negotiations, managers must establish rules, grant permits, or create management plans. The Legal‐Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) was designed to assist managers in systematically analyzing the parties in natural resource negotiations and using that analysis to prepare for bargaining. The LIAM relies on the theory that organizations consistently employ behavioral roles. The model uses those roles to predict likely negotiation behavior. One practical use of the LIAM is when all parties to a negotiation conduct a workshop as a way to open the bargaining on a note of trust and mutual understanding. The process and results of three LIAM workshops designed to guide hydroelectric power licensing negotiations are presented. Our experience with these workshops led us to conclude that the LIAM can be an effective tool to begin a negotiation and that trust built through the workshops can help create a successful result.

  12. A protocol for arguing about rejections in negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Henry; van Veenen, J.; Parsons, S; Maudet, N; Moraitis, P; Rahwan,

    2006-01-01

    One form of argument-based negotiation is when agents argue about why an offer was rejected. If an agent can state a reason for a rejection of an offer, the negotiation process may become more efficient since the other agent can take this reason into account when making new offers. Also, if a reason

  13. The interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Manstead, A.S.R.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations. In the course of a computer-mediated negotiation, participants received information about the emotional state (anger, happiness, or none) of their opponent. Consistent with a strategic-choice

  14. The interpersonal effects of anger and happines in negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations. In the course of a computer-mediated negotiation, participants received information about the emotional state (anger, happiness, or none) of their opponent. Consistent with a strategic-choice

  15. Negotiation: A Tool for Change [and] Principles of Whistleblowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; And Others

    These two brief papers provide guidelines for consumers, parents, and advocates in the techniques of negotiation and whistleblowing ("speaking out against illegal, immoral, and otherwise wrong practices in human services, government, and other organizational settings"). Steps for preparing to negotiate with opposing groups involve proper…

  16. WTO — The knowledge deficit in trade negotiations | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The ferocity of negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO) was on display again at the Fifth WTO Ministerial Conference, held in Cancún, Mexico from September 10 to 14. The intensity of the negotiations reflects more than a clash of opinions about free trade. It gives expression to a deep and dangerous power ...

  17. The influence of Culture on ABMP Negotiation Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations are known to proceed differently across cultures. A realistic agent model of international negotiations has to take cultural differences into account. This paper presents an agent-based model that tackles this challenge. The context is a trade game where commodities with a hidden

  18. The influence of culture on ABMP negotiation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2011-01-01

    Negotiations are known to proceed differently across cultures. A realistic agent model of international negotiations has to take cultural differences into account. This paper presents an agent-based model that tackles this challenge. The context is a trade game where commodities with a hidden

  19. Is stair negotiation measured appropriately in functional assessment scales?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Mulley, G.P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A decline in mobility may result in problems with the negotiation of stairs, which can potentially be hazardous. In practice, stair negotiation is an important aspect of daily living and therefore needs to be assessed carefully. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review to

  20. Intersectional Identity Negotiation: The Case of Young Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine; Papoi, Kristin; Venegas, Patricia; Hamman, Laura; Schwabenbauer, Briana

    2017-01-01

    We cast our lens on intersectional networks of identity negotiated by young children in immigrant families. Although some scholars discuss identity construction, we reference identity negotiation to capture the active, strategic, and agential work that we witnessed in our study. We begin by synthesizing relevant research on children's identity…

  1. Budget Time: A Gender-Based Negotiation Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkacs, Linda L.; Barkacs, Craig B.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a gender-based negotiation simulation designed to make participants aware of gender-based stereotypes and their effect on negotiation outcomes. In this simulation, the current research on gender issues is animated via three role sheets: (a) Vice president (VP), (b) advantaged department head, and (c) disadvantaged department…

  2. 17 CFR 200.735-7 - Negotiation for employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiation for employment. 200.735-7 Section 200.735-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Employees and Former Members and Employees of the Commission § 200.735-7 Negotiation for employment. (a) An...

  3. Negotiation as a Model for Teaching Public Relations Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Martha Dunagin; Perrigo, Eileen

    1998-01-01

    Shows that negotiation provides an effective model for teaching public relations professionalism. Describes how two professors in a public relations class used a negotiation model to teach students to simultaneously balance the two components of professionalism: ethical considerations and pragmatic, problem-solving measures. (SR)

  4. Department's Negotiated Rulemaking Process for Gainful Employment. Final Audit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Education (Department) is required to use negotiated rulemaking to develop proposed regulations for programs authorized under Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA). Under negotiated rulemaking, the Department works to develop the proposed regulations in collaboration with representatives of the parties…

  5. 77 FR 25658 - Negotiated Rulemaking Committee; Public Hearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... and available to the student via debit or another bank-provided card. We are interested in how or... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Chapter VI [Docket ID ED-2012-OPE-0008] Negotiated Rulemaking... negotiated rulemaking committee to prepare proposed regulations for the Federal Student Aid Programs...

  6. THE TPP AND TTIP TRADE AGREEMENTS: THE INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Free trade is one of the ultimate purposes of the free trade agreements currently negotiated over the world. Two of these trials are represented by the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. The common feature of these two trade deals is represented by the United States, a global actor that is making sure that it will be able to trade in best conditions on both of its geographical shores: on the Pacific and on The Atlantic. The negotiations are still ongoing, but results are expected on both sides. An important issue for the third parties, but not only, is represented by the secrecy of the negotiations undertaken and the lack of transparency shown by the negotiating Governments. If the agreements are concluded, a major global impact on trade and investments is expected, with significant positive implications for the TPP and TTIP negotiating states.

  7. Focus Groups as Social Arenas for the Negotiation of Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, T. M.; Gronkjaer, M.

    2018-01-01

    Aim: This article aims to demonstrate how focus group discussions act as a social arena for the negotiation of social norms and normativity and to discuss the implications for the analysis of focus group discussions. Participants and methods: We have used sequences of group interactions from...... a focus group study on everyday life and chronic illness to demonstrate how methodological tools from conversation analysis and discursive psychology can be used to facilitate a systematic analysis of the negotiation and legitimization of social norms and normativity in focus groups. The empirical data...... consisted of six focus groups with a total of 32 participants. Results: The analysis demonstrated negotiations on normativity concerning four central aspects related to living with chronic illness: negotiating normativity about adjustment to the disease, negotiating normativity about being a dutiful...

  8. Achieving a negotiated compensation agreement in siting: the MRS case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmon, E.B.

    1987-01-01

    Theoreticians claim that negotiated compensation plans could overcome local resistance to nuclear waste (or other less than desirable) facilities, and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 gives the Department of Energy considerable flexibility to negotiate with and compensate states in which it locates waste storage. DOE's monitored retrievable storage (MRS) proposal is the first attempt under the NWPA to site nuclear waste operations, and both DOE and one local community tried the negotiated compensation approach with some success. State and regional leaders chose to oppose the project rather than to negotiate, however. The limited experience to date suggests that local reluctance to negotiate is a generic weakness of the compensation approach to siting and must be given greater attention

  9. Diurnal and circadian expression profiles of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki; Andrés, Fernando; Kanehara, Kazue; Liu, Yu-chi; Coupland, George; Dörmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Glycerolipid composition in plant membranes oscillates in response to diurnal change. However, its functional significance remained unclear. A recent discovery that Arabidopsis florigen FT binds diurnally oscillating phosphatidylcholine molecules to promote flowering suggests that diurnal oscillation of glycerolipid composition is an important input in flowering time control. Taking advantage of public microarray data, we globally analyzed the expression pattern of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis under long-day, short-day, and continuous light conditions. The results revealed that 12 genes associated with glycerolipid metabolism showed significant oscillatory profiles. Interestingly, expression of most of these genes followed circadian profiles, suggesting that glycerolipid biosynthesis is partially under clock regulation. The oscillating expression profile of one representative gene, PECT1, was analyzed in detail. Expression of PECT1 showed a circadian pattern highly correlated with that of the clock-regulated gene GIGANTEA. Thus, our study suggests that a considerable number of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes are under circadian control.

  10. Designing universal primers for the isolation of DNA sequences encoding Proanthocyanidins biosynthetic enzymes in Crataegus aronia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuiter Afnan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hawthorn is the common name of all plant species in the genus Crataegus, which belongs to the Rosaceae family. Crataegus are considered useful medicinal plants because of their high content of proanthocyanidins (PAs and other related compounds. To improve PAs production in Crataegus tissues, the sequences of genes encoding PAs biosynthetic enzymes are required. Findings Different bioinformatics tools, including BLAST, multiple sequence alignment and alignment PCR analysis were used to design primers suitable for the amplification of DNA fragments from 10 candidate genes encoding enzymes involved in PAs biosynthesis in C. aronia. DNA sequencing results proved the utility of the designed primers. The primers were used successfully to amplify DNA fragments of different PAs biosynthesis genes in different Rosaceae plants. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first use of the alignment PCR approach to isolate DNA sequences encoding PAs biosynthetic enzymes in Rosaceae plants.

  11. Giant linear plasmids in Streptomyces: a treasure trove of antibiotic biosynthetic clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinashi, Haruyasu

    2011-01-01

    Many giant linear plasmids have been isolated from Streptomyces by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and some of them were found to carry an antibiotic biosynthetic cluster(s); SCP1 carries biosynthetic genes for methylenomycin, pSLA2-L for lankacidin and lankamycin, and pKSL for lasalocid and echinomycin. Accumulated data suggest that giant linear plasmids have played critical roles in genome evolution and horizontal transfer of secondary metabolism. In this review, I summarize typical examples of giant linear plasmids whose involvement in antibiotic production has been studied in some detail, emphasizing their finding processes and interaction with the host chromosomes. A hypothesis on horizontal transfer of secondary metabolism involving giant linear plasmids is proposed at the end.

  12. 77 FR 14016 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Preparation, Submission, and Negotiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ..., Submission, and Negotiation of Subcontracting Plans; Correction AGENCY: General Services Administration (GSA..., Preparation, Submission, and Negotiation of Subcontracting Plans; Correction. Correction In the information...

  13. Genetic determination of the meso-diaminopimelate biosynthetic pathway of mycobacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Cirillo, J. D.; Weisbrod, T. R.; Banerjee, A.; Bloom, B. R.; Jacobs, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing incidence of multiple-drug-resistant mycobacterial infections indicates that the development of new methods for treatment of mycobacterial diseases should be a high priority. meso-Diaminopimelic acid (DAP), a key component of a highly immunogenic subunit of the mycobacterial peptidoglycan layer, has been implicated as a potential virulence factor. The mycobacterial DAP biosynthetic pathway could serve as a target for design of new antimycobacterial agents as well as the constru...

  14. Biosynthetic Studies on Water-Soluble Derivative 5c (DTX5c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Fernández

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum belizeanum is responsible for the production of several toxins involved in the red tide phenomenon known as Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP. In this paper we report on the biosynthetic origin of an okadaic acid water-soluble ester derivative, DTX5c, on the basis of the spectroscopical analysis of 13C enriched samples obtained by addition of labelled sodium [l-13C], [2-13C] acetate to artificial cultures of this dinoflagellate.

  15. Spook and Spookier code for stage-specific components of the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway in Diptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ono, Hajime; Rewitz, Kim; Shinoda, Tetsu

    2006-01-01

    is eliminated in larvae carrying mutations in molting defective (mld), a gene encoding a nuclear zinc finger protein that is required for production of ecdysone during Drosophila larval development. Intriguingly, mld is not present in the Bombyx mori genome, and we have identified only one spook homolog in both...... Bombyx and Manduca that is expressed in both embryos and larva. These studies suggest an evolutionary split between Diptera and Lepidoptera in how the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway is regulated during development....

  16. An improved in vivo deuterium labeling method for measuring the biosynthetic rate of cytokinins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowski, Petr; Floková, K.; Václavíková, Kateřina; Jaworek, P.; Raus, M.; Nordström, A.; Novák, Ondřej; Doležal, Karel; Šebela, M.; Frébortová, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 12 (2010), s. 9214-9229 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/08/0920; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokinin * deuterium labelling * biosynthetic rate Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2010

  17. Linking metabolic QTLs with network and cis-eQTLs controlling biosynthetic pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Wentzell

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic variation between individuals of a species is often under quantitative genetic control. Genomic analysis of gene expression polymorphisms between individuals is rapidly gaining popularity as a way to query the underlying mechanistic causes of variation between individuals. However, there is little direct evidence of a linkage between global gene expression polymorphisms and phenotypic consequences. In this report, we have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs-controlling glucosinolate content in a population of 403 Arabidopsis Bay x Sha recombinant inbred lines, 211 of which were previously used to identify expression QTLs controlling the transcript levels of biosynthetic genes. In a comparative study, we have directly tested two plant biosynthetic pathways for association between polymorphisms controlling biosynthetic gene transcripts and the resulting metabolites within the Arabidopsis Bay x Sha recombinant inbred line population. In this analysis, all loci controlling expression variation also affected the accumulation of the resulting metabolites. In addition, epistasis was detected more frequently for metabolic traits compared to transcript traits, even when both traits showed similar distributions. An analysis of candidate genes for QTL-controlling networks of transcripts and metabolites suggested that the controlling factors are a mix of enzymes and regulatory factors. This analysis showed that regulatory connections can feedback from metabolism to transcripts. Surprisingly, the most likely major regulator of both transcript level for nearly the entire pathway and aliphatic glucosinolate accumulation is variation in the last enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway, AOP2. This suggests that natural variation in transcripts may significantly impact phenotypic variation, but that natural variation in metabolites or their enzymatic loci can feed back to affect the transcripts.

  18. Concurrent negotiation and coordination for grid resource coallocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong; Shi, Benyun

    2010-06-01

    Bolstering resource coallocation is essential for realizing the Grid vision, because computationally intensive applications often require multiple computing resources from different administrative domains. Given that resource providers and consumers may have different requirements, successfully obtaining commitments through concurrent negotiations with multiple resource providers to simultaneously access several resources is a very challenging task for consumers. The impetus of this paper is that it is one of the earliest works that consider a concurrent negotiation mechanism for Grid resource coallocation. The concurrent negotiation mechanism is designed for 1) managing (de)commitment of contracts through one-to-many negotiations and 2) coordination of multiple concurrent one-to-many negotiations between a consumer and multiple resource providers. The novel contributions of this paper are devising 1) a utility-oriented coordination (UOC) strategy, 2) three classes of commitment management strategies (CMSs) for concurrent negotiation, and 3) the negotiation protocols of consumers and providers. Implementing these ideas in a testbed, three series of experiments were carried out in a variety of settings to compare the following: 1) the CMSs in this paper with the work of others in a single one-to-many negotiation environment for one resource where decommitment is allowed for both provider and consumer agents; 2) the performance of the three classes of CMSs in different resource market types; and 3) the UOC strategy with the work of others [e.g., the patient coordination strategy (PCS )] for coordinating multiple concurrent negotiations. Empirical results show the following: 1) the UOC strategy achieved higher utility, faster negotiation speed, and higher success rates than PCS for different resource market types; and 2) the CMS in this paper achieved higher final utility than the CMS in other works. Additionally, the properties of the three classes of CMSs in

  19. Toward a culture-by-context perspective on negotiation: negotiating teams in the United States and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Brett, Jeanne; Gunia, Brian C; Imai, Lynn; Huang, Tsai-Jung; Hsu, Bi-Fen

    2013-05-01

    Within the United States, teams outperform solos in negotiation (Thompson, Peterson, & Brodt, 1996). The current research examined whether this team advantage generalizes to negotiators from a collectivist culture (Taiwan). Because different cultures have different social norms, and because the team context may amplify the norms that are salient in a particular culture (Gelfand & Realo, 1999), we predicted that the effect of teams on negotiation would differ across cultures. Specifically, we predicted that since harmony norms predominate in collectivist cultures like Taiwan, the team context would amplify a concern with harmony, leading Taiwanese teams to negotiate especially suboptimal outcomes. In support, 2 studies showed that Taiwanese teams negotiated less-optimal outcomes than Taiwanese solos. We also used a moderated-mediation analysis to investigate the mechanism (Hayes, 2012), documenting that the interactive effect of culture and context on outcomes was mediated by harmony norms. By showing that the same situational conditions (team negotiations) can have divergent effects on negotiation outcomes across cultures, our results point toward a nuanced, sociocontextual view that moves beyond the culture-as-main-effect approach to studying culture and negotiations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. 41 CFR 109-45.304-2.50 - Negotiated sales and negotiated sales at fixed prices by designated contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... suitable advertised sale; (2) Personal property is of such small value that the proceeds to be derived... fair market value of the personal property and other satisfactory terms of disposal are obtained by... PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.3-Sale of Personal Property § 109-45.304-2.50 Negotiated sales and negotiated sales at...

  1. A genomics based discovery of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borui Pi

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites (SMs produced by Aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. However, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. In this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. A total of 52 gene clusters were identified in the draft genome of A. ustus 3.3904, such as the sterigmatocystin biosynthesis pathway that was commonly found in Aspergillus species. In addition, several SM biosynthetic gene clusters were firstly identified in Aspergillus that were possibly acquired by horizontal gene transfer, including the vrt cluster that is responsible for viridicatumtoxin production. Comparative genomics revealed that A. ustus shared the largest number of SM biosynthetic gene clusters with A. nidulans, but much fewer with other Aspergilli like A. niger and A. oryzae. These findings would help to understand the diversity and evolution of SM biosynthesis pathways in genus Aspergillus, and we hope they will also promote the development of fungal identification methodology in clinic.

  2. A simple biosynthetic pathway for large product generation from small substrate amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Marko; Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2012-10-01

    A recently emerging discipline of synthetic biology has the aim of constructing new biosynthetic pathways with useful biological functions. A major application of these pathways is generating a large amount of the desired product. However, toxicity due to the possible presence of toxic precursors is one of the main problems for such production. We consider here the problem of generating a large amount of product from a potentially toxic substrate. To address this, we propose a simple biosynthetic pathway, which can be induced in order to produce a large number of the product molecules, by keeping the substrate amount at low levels. Surprisingly, we show that the large product generation crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of the substrate molecules. We derive an optimal induction strategy, which allows as much as three orders of magnitude increase in the product amount through biologically realistic parameter values. We point to a recently discovered bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas in E. coli) as a putative example of the pathway analysed here. We also argue that the scheme proposed here can be used not only as a stand-alone pathway, but also as a strategy to produce a large amount of the desired molecules with small perturbations of endogenous biosynthetic pathways.

  3. Enhancement of Nucleoside Production in Hirsutella sinensis Based on Biosynthetic Pathway Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Shan; Baker, Peter James; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Xue, Ya-Ping; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Yuan, Shui-Jin; Teng, Yi; Wu, Ling-Fang

    2017-01-01

    To enhance nucleoside production in Hirsutella sinensis, the biosynthetic pathways of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides were constructed and verified. The differential expression analysis showed that purine nucleoside phosphorylase, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, and guanosine monophosphate synthase genes involved in purine nucleotide biosynthesis were significantly upregulated 16.56-fold, 8-fold, and 5.43-fold, respectively. Moreover, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, uridine nucleosidase, uridine/cytidine monophosphate kinase, and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase genes participating in pyrimidine nucleoside biosynthesis were upregulated 4.53-fold, 10.63-fold, 4.26-fold, and 5.98-fold, respectively. To enhance the nucleoside production, precursors for synthesis of nucleosides were added based on the analysis of biosynthetic pathways. Uridine and cytidine contents, respectively, reached 5.04 mg/g and 3.54 mg/g when adding 2 mg/mL of ribose, resulting in an increase of 28.6% and 296% compared with the control, respectively. Meanwhile, uridine and cytidine contents, respectively, reached 10.83 mg/g 2.12 mg/g when adding 0.3 mg/mL of uracil, leading to an increase of 176.3% and 137.1%, respectively. This report indicated that fermentation regulation was an effective way to enhance the nucleoside production in H. sinensis based on biosynthetic pathway analysis. PMID:29333435

  4. A simple biosynthetic pathway for large product generation from small substrate amounts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djordjevic, Marko [Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Djordjevic, Magdalena [Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-10-01

    A recently emerging discipline of synthetic biology has the aim of constructing new biosynthetic pathways with useful biological functions. A major application of these pathways is generating a large amount of the desired product. However, toxicity due to the possible presence of toxic precursors is one of the main problems for such production. We consider here the problem of generating a large amount of product from a potentially toxic substrate. To address this, we propose a simple biosynthetic pathway, which can be induced in order to produce a large number of the product molecules, by keeping the substrate amount at low levels. Surprisingly, we show that the large product generation crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of the substrate molecules. We derive an optimal induction strategy, which allows as much as three orders of magnitude increase in the product amount through biologically realistic parameter values. We point to a recently discovered bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas in E. coli) as a putative example of the pathway analysed here. We also argue that the scheme proposed here can be used not only as a stand-alone pathway, but also as a strategy to produce a large amount of the desired molecules with small perturbations of endogenous biosynthetic pathways. (paper)

  5. Enhancement of cordyceps polysaccharide production via biosynthetic pathway analysis in Hirsutella sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Baker, Peter James; Yi, Ming; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Teng, Yi; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The addition of various sulfates for enhanced cordyceps polysaccharide (CP) production in submerged cultivation of H. sinensis was investigated, and manganese sulfate was found the most effective. 2mM of manganese sulfate on 0day (d) was investigated as the optimal adding condition, and the CP production reached optimum with 5.33%, increasing by 93.3% compared with the control. Furthermore, the consumption of three main precursors of CP was studied over cultivation under two conditions. Intracellular mannose content decreased by 43.1% throughout 6days cultivation, which corresponded to CP accumulation rate sharply increased from 0 d to 6 d, and mannose was considered as the most preferred precursor for generating CP. Subsequently, mannose biosynthetic pathway was constructed and verified for the first time in H. sinensis, which constituted the important part of CP biosynthesis, and transcriptional levels of the biosynthetic genes were studied. Transcriptional level of gene cpsA was significantly up-regulated 5.35-fold and it was a key gene involved both in mannose and CP biosynthesis. This study demonstrated that manganese sulfate addition is an efficient and simple way to improve CP production. Transcriptional analysis based on biosynthetic pathway was helpful to find key genes and better understand CP biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assembly of a novel biosynthetic pathway for production of the plant flavonoid fisetin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlhut, Steen G; Siedler, Solvej; Malla, Sailesh; Harrison, Scott J; Maury, Jérôme; Neves, Ana Rute; Forster, Jochen

    2015-09-01

    Plant secondary metabolites are an underutilized pool of bioactive molecules for applications in the food, pharma and nutritional industries. One such molecule is fisetin, which is present in many fruits and vegetables and has several potential health benefits, including anti-cancer, anti-viral and anti-aging activity. Moreover, fisetin has recently been shown to prevent Alzheimer's disease in mice and to prevent complications associated with diabetes type I. Thus far the biosynthetic pathway of fisetin in plants remains elusive. Here, we present the heterologous assembly of a novel fisetin pathway in Escherichia coli. We propose a novel biosynthetic pathway from the amino acid, tyrosine, utilizing nine heterologous enzymes. The pathway proceeds via the synthesis of two flavanones never produced in microorganisms before--garbanzol and resokaempferol. We show for the first time a functional biosynthetic pathway and establish E. coli as a microbial platform strain for the production of fisetin and related flavonols. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fabrication of biosynthetic vascular prostheses by 193-nm excimer laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husinsky, Wolfgang; Csek, Ch.; Bartel, A.; Grabenwoeger, M.; Fitzal, F.; Wolner, Ernst

    1998-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of transmural capillary ingrowth into the inner surface of biosynthetic vascular prostheses (OmniflowTM) through perforations created by an excimer-laser, thus inducing an endothelial cell coverage. The biosynthetic vascular prostheses (10 cm length, 6 mm (phi) ) were perforated with an excimer laser ((phi) of the holes 50 - 100 micrometer, distance 4 mm) and implanted into the carotid arteries of 8 sheep. The laser tissue interaction process of 193 nm radiation ensures minimal thermal damage to the prostheses. They were compared to untreated OmniflowTM prostheses implanted at the contralateral side. Three months after implantation the prostheses were explanted and evaluated by gross morphology, histological examination and scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy showed endothelial cells in the midgraft portion of all perforated prostheses, whereas collagen fibers, fibrin meshwork and activated platelets formed the inner layer in 6 out of 8 untreated OmniflowTM prostheses. It can be concluded, that spontaneous endothelialization of biosynthetic vascular prostheses can be achieved by transmural capillary ingrowth through perforations in the wall of the prostheses in an experimental sheep model.

  8. A simple biosynthetic pathway for large product generation from small substrate amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djordjevic, Marko; Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    A recently emerging discipline of synthetic biology has the aim of constructing new biosynthetic pathways with useful biological functions. A major application of these pathways is generating a large amount of the desired product. However, toxicity due to the possible presence of toxic precursors is one of the main problems for such production. We consider here the problem of generating a large amount of product from a potentially toxic substrate. To address this, we propose a simple biosynthetic pathway, which can be induced in order to produce a large number of the product molecules, by keeping the substrate amount at low levels. Surprisingly, we show that the large product generation crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of the substrate molecules. We derive an optimal induction strategy, which allows as much as three orders of magnitude increase in the product amount through biologically realistic parameter values. We point to a recently discovered bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas in E. coli) as a putative example of the pathway analysed here. We also argue that the scheme proposed here can be used not only as a stand-alone pathway, but also as a strategy to produce a large amount of the desired molecules with small perturbations of endogenous biosynthetic pathways. (paper)

  9. A Genomics Based Discovery of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Aspergillus ustus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Borui; Yu, Dongliang; Dai, Fangwei; Song, Xiaoming; Zhu, Congyi; Li, Hongye; Yu, Yunsong

    2015-01-01

    Secondary metabolites (SMs) produced by Aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. However, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. In this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. A total of 52 gene clusters were identified in the draft genome of A. ustus 3.3904, such as the sterigmatocystin biosynthesis pathway that was commonly found in Aspergillus species. In addition, several SM biosynthetic gene clusters were firstly identified in Aspergillus that were possibly acquired by horizontal gene transfer, including the vrt cluster that is responsible for viridicatumtoxin production. Comparative genomics revealed that A. ustus shared the largest number of SM biosynthetic gene clusters with A. nidulans, but much fewer with other Aspergilli like A. niger and A. oryzae. These findings would help to understand the diversity and evolution of SM biosynthesis pathways in genus Aspergillus, and we hope they will also promote the development of fungal identification methodology in clinic. PMID:25706180

  10. Structural Diversification of Lyngbyatoxin A by Host-Dependent Heterologous Expression of the tleABC Biosynthetic Gene Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihan; Hoshino, Shotaro; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2016-08-03

    Natural products have enormous structural diversity, yet little is known about how such diversity is achieved in nature. Here we report the structural diversification of a cyanotoxin-lyngbyatoxin A-and its biosynthetic intermediates by heterologous expression of the Streptomyces-derived tleABC biosynthetic gene cluster in three different Streptomyces hosts: S. lividans, S. albus, and S. avermitilis. Notably, the isolated lyngbyatoxin derivatives, including four new natural products, were biosynthesized by crosstalk between the heterologous tleABC gene cluster and the endogenous host enzymes. The simple strategy described here has expanded the structural diversity of lyngbyatoxin A and its biosynthetic intermediates, and provides opportunities for investigation of the currently underestimated hidden biosynthetic crosstalk. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Identification and analysis of the paulomycin biosynthetic gene cluster and titer improvement of the paulomycins in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jine Li

    Full Text Available The paulomycins are a group of glycosylated compounds featuring a unique paulic acid moiety. To locate their biosynthetic gene clusters, the genomes of two paulomycin producers, Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115 and Streptomyces sp. YN86, were sequenced. The paulomycin biosynthetic gene clusters were defined by comparative analyses of the two genomes together with the genome of the third paulomycin producer Streptomyces albus J1074. Subsequently, the identity of the paulomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was confirmed by inactivation of two genes involved in biosynthesis of the paulomycose branched chain (pau11 and the ring A moiety (pau18 in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115. After determining the gene cluster boundaries, a convergent biosynthetic model was proposed for paulomycin based on the deduced functions of the pau genes. Finally, a paulomycin high-producing strain was constructed by expressing an activator-encoding gene (pau13 in S. paulus, setting the stage for future investigations.

  12. Recent development of antiSMASH and other computational approaches to mine secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blin, Kai; Kim, Hyun Uk; Medema, Marnix H.

    2017-01-01

    Many drugs are derived from small molecules produced by microorganisms and plants, so-called natural products. Natural products have diverse chemical structures, but the biosynthetic pathways producing those compounds are often organized as biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) and follow a highly...... conserved biosynthetic logic. This allows for the identification of core biosynthetic enzymes using genome mining strategies that are based on the sequence similarity of the involved enzymes/genes. However, mining for a variety of BGCs quickly approaches a complexity level where manual analyses...... are no longer possible and require the use of automated genome mining pipelines, such as the antiSMASH software. In this review, we discuss the principles underlying the predictions of antiSMASH and other tools and provide practical advice for their application. Furthermore, we discuss important caveats...

  13. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholder and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholder and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  14. Negotiation and Contracting in Collaborative Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Inês; Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.

    Due to the increasing market turbulence, companies, organizations and individuals need to tune their actuation forms so that they can prevail. It is particularly essential to create alliances and partnerships for collaborative problem solving when responding to new businesses or collaborative opportunities. In all types of alliances it is necessary to establish agreements that represent the rights and duties of all involved parts in a given collaboration opportunity. Therefore, it is important to deeply understand the structures and requirements of these alliances, i.e. what kind of members does the alliance have, what kind of protocols may be implied, how conflicts may possibly be resolved, etc. Moreover to these requirements, also the required support tools and mechanisms have to be identified. For that, this paper presents a research work that is being carried in the negotiation and contracting field, in order to promote agility in collaborative networks.

  15. The Affective Negotiation of Slum Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Tore Elias Harsløf Mukherjee

    , India. Slum tours are typically framed as both tourist performances , bought as commodities for a price on the market, and as appeals for aid that tourists encounter within an altruistic discourse of charity. This book enriches the tourism debate by interpreting tourist performances as affective...... economies, identifying tour guides as emotional labourers and raising questions on the long-term impacts of economically unbalanced encounters with representatives of the Global North, including the researcher. This book studies the ‘feeling rules’ governing a slum tour and how they shape interactions. When...... the space of comfortable affective negotiation constituted by the guides? This book will be essential reading for undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers working within the fields of human geography, slum tourism research, subaltern studies and development studies....

  16. Climate Change and International Civil Aviation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Korber Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has discussed ways of regulating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by civil aircraft for almost 20 years. Over the past four years, a consensus has developed about a market-based mechanism in the form of a carbon offset system. This article describes the route to the agreement reached by ICAO’s 39th Assembly, in order to contextualise the results and point out some of its limitations. It points to two main factors that contributed to the consensus: the role of the European Union, which sought to lead the negotiations, and the choice of a flexible and ultimately weak mechanism that received support from the international airlines.

  17. Climate Watchlist: Key issues for Cancun negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Siegele, Linda

    2010-11-15

    We must mitigate and adapt to climate change. On this, the international community is agreed. But exactly how to do that is still up for debate. There were high hopes that last year's UN climate talks in Copenhagen would deliver a legally binding agreement for action on climate change. But the outcome — the Copenhagen Accord — was instead a political 'statement of intent' that fell significantly short of expectations. Now, after a year of interim meetings and several negotiating texts, parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are gathering in Cancun, Mexico, to try again. Their success will largely depend on settling disputes — particularly between the developed and developing world — about six key issues: shared vision; adaptation; climate finance; technology transfer; reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation; and post-2012 emissions reduction targets.

  18. Negotiating Values in the Creative Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairs, festivals and competitive events play a crucial role in the creative industries; yet their significance has been largely overlooked. This book explores the role of such events through a series of studies that include some of the most iconic fairs and festivals in the world. It brings...... together a team of distinguished scholars to examine art fairs, biennales, auctions, book fairs, television programming markets, film festivals, animation film festivals, country music festivals, fashion weeks, wine classifications and wine-tasting events. This diverse set of studies shows that such events...... serve a variety of purposes: as field-configuring events (FCEs), as a way of ritualizing industry practices, and as ‘tournaments of values’ where participants negotiate different cultural values to resolve economic issues. Suitable for academics and practitioners, this book presents a fascinating new...

  19. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of DOE-complex wastes is inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholders and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholders and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  20. On limiting technology by negotiated agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnesale, Albert

    1983-10-01

    The substance of my remarks tonight will be far narrower in scope than the prescribed title of my talk would indicate. This reflects two considerations: first, this topical meeting is focused on technologies associated with nuclear weapons systems; and, second, President Reagan recently (i.e., on March 23, 1983) called for ``a program to counter the awesome Soviet missile threat with measures that are defensive.'' In light of these considerations, I will concentrate tonight on the case of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems as an example of a countinuing effort to limit technology by negotiated agreement? Why limit ABM systems? After all, such systems are defensive in nature, not offensive. Defensive systems are intended to protect people and the things of value to them. It is the offensive systems that cause death and destruction. Why don't we just go ahead and deploy the best available ABM system, and develop and test even better systems for deployment in the future?

  1. DIPLOMACY AS A SKILL OF NEGOTIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADA SIMJANOSKA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diplomacy in the XXI century is transformed and expanded from peaceful method of relations among states into a general tool of communication between globalized societies. At the beginning it was practiced only by professional diplomats as an art in leading affairs of state. Today, because of the growing number of participants in international relations (states, international organizations, non-governmental organizations, transnational companies, the media, academia, etc., focus of traditional diplomacy is augmented, while the monopoly by traditional diplomacy is fading. The policy and diplomacy have not lost their ability to actively modulate the decisions required by the state, but they need to justify their superior ability, and thus their legitimacy to solve community problems through modern means and methods such as negotiations.

  2. Negotiating equity for management of DOE wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    One important factor frustrating optimal management of Department of Energy (DOE)-complex wastes is the inability to use licensed and permitted facilities systematically. Achieving the goal of optimal use of DOE's waste management facilities is politically problematic for two reasons. First, no locale wants to bear a disproportionate burden from DOE wastes. Second, the burden imposed by additional wastes transported from one site to another is difficult to characterize. To develop a viable framework for equitably distributing these burdens while achieving efficient use of all DOE waste management facilities, several implementation and equity issues must be addressed and resolved. This paper discusses stakeholders and equity issues and proposes a framework for joint research and action that could facilitate equity negotiations among stakeholders and move toward a more optimal use of DOE's waste management capabilities

  3. Bacterial natural product biosynthetic domain composition in soil correlates with changes in latitude on a continent-wide scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemetre, Christophe; Maniko, Jeffrey; Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Sparrow, Ben; Lowe, Andrew J; Brady, Sean F

    2017-10-31

    Although bacterial bioactive metabolites have been one of the most prolific sources of lead structures for the development of small-molecule therapeutics, very little is known about the environmental factors associated with changes in secondary metabolism across natural environments. Large-scale sequencing of environmental microbiomes has the potential to shed light on the richness of bacterial biosynthetic diversity hidden in the environment, how it varies from one environment to the next, and what environmental factors correlate with changes in biosynthetic diversity. In this study, the sequencing of PCR amplicons generated using primers targeting either ketosynthase domains from polyketide biosynthesis or adenylation domains from nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis was used to assess biosynthetic domain composition and richness in soils collected across the Australian continent. Using environmental variables collected at each soil site, we looked for environmental factors that correlated with either high overall domain richness or changes in the domain composition. Among the environmental variables we measured, changes in biosynthetic domain composition correlate most closely with changes in latitude and to a lesser extent changes in pH. Although it is unclear at this time the exact mix of factors that may drive the relationship between biosynthetic domain composition and latitude, from a practical perspective the identification of a latitudinal basis for differences in soil metagenome biosynthetic domain compositions should help guide future natural product discovery efforts. Published under the PNAS license.

  4. An Adaptive Tradeoff Algorithm for Multi-issue SLA Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seokho; Sim, Kwang Mong

    Since participants in a Cloud may be independent bodies, mechanisms are necessary for resolving different preferences in leasing Cloud services. Whereas there are currently mechanisms that support service-level agreement negotiation, there is little or no negotiation support for concurrent price and timeslot for Cloud service reservations. For the concurrent price and timeslot negotiation, a tradeoff algorithm to generate and evaluate a proposal which consists of price and timeslot proposal is necessary. The contribution of this work is thus to design an adaptive tradeoff algorithm for multi-issue negotiation mechanism. The tradeoff algorithm referred to as "adaptive burst mode" is especially designed to increase negotiation speed and total utility and to reduce computational load by adaptively generating concurrent set of proposals. The empirical results obtained from simulations carried out using a testbed suggest that due to the concurrent price and timeslot negotiation mechanism with adaptive tradeoff algorithm: 1) both agents achieve the best performance in terms of negotiation speed and utility; 2) the number of evaluations of each proposal is comparatively lower than previous scheme (burst-N).

  5. Automated negotiation in environmental resource management: Review and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshragh, Faezeh; Pooyandeh, Majeed; Marceau, Danielle J

    2015-10-01

    Negotiation is an integral part of our daily life and plays an important role in resolving conflicts and facilitating human interactions. Automated negotiation, which aims at capturing the human negotiation process using artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques, is well-established in e-commerce, but its application in environmental resource management remains limited. This is due to the inherent uncertainties and complexity of environmental issues, along with the diversity of stakeholders' perspectives when dealing with these issues. The objective of this paper is to describe the main components of automated negotiation, review and compare machine learning techniques in automated negotiation, and provide a guideline for the selection of suitable methods in the particular context of stakeholders' negotiation over environmental resource issues. We advocate that automated negotiation can facilitate the involvement of stakeholders in the exploration of a plurality of solutions in order to reach a mutually satisfying agreement and contribute to informed decisions in environmental management along with the need for further studies to consolidate the potential of this modeling approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Case-based Reasoning in Conflict Negotiation in Concurrent Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Case-based reasoning (CBR) is a kind of analogous reasoning that is widely used in artificial intelligence. Conflicts are pervasive in Concurrent Engineering design environment. Conflict negotiation is necessary when conflicts occur. It is difficult to resolve conflicts due to several reasons. An approach to resolving conflicts by case-based reasoning is proposed in this paper. The knowledge representation of conflict negotiation cases, the judgment of case similarity, the retrieval model of cases, the management of case bases, and the process of case-based conflict negotiation are studied. The implementation structure of the Case-based Conflict Solving System (CCSS) is also given.

  7. Consensus Making in Requirements Negotiation: the communication perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Price

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available When developing an Information System (IS, organizational goals of various stakeholders are commonly in direct conflict. Furthermore, individuals often rank their private objectives well over their management's directions. Recognising and reconciling all these diverse goals, and reaching agreement among the stakeholders, are prerequisite to establishing project cooperation and collaboration. This paper focuses, in particular, on the negotiation and consensus making during requirements elicitation - the earliest stages of the IS development process. As requirements elicitation involves rich communication between project stakeholders, we therefore explore negotiation and consensus making from the communication perspective. The resulting model assists our understanding of the communication factors that influence the consensus process during requirements negotiation.

  8. INSURGENT WAR, NEGOTIATION OF CONFLICT AND HISTORCAL MEMORY IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIEL ÁLVAREZ RUBIO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports an analysis based on the insurgent war and the process of negotiations undertaken between the government and the FARC. This study covers both conflict negotiation theories applied to the Colombian case as well as the results of these negotiations. Finally, some insights are made regarding the complex post-conflict scenario, covering issues such as the possible downsizing of the Armed Forces (Public Forces, demobilization and integration into society of the guerrillas of the FARC and the construction of the historical memory of the internal armed conflict in Colombian. Key words:  ·

  9. Process ambiguities in Sino-Danish Business Negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    . These ambiguities stem from differences in negotiation scripts across Danish and Chinese cultures. The essential argument being advanced here is that it is the effective and/or the ineffective management of process ambiguities that shapes the evolution of the negotiating dynamic between the Danish and the Chinese...... businesspeople. An inductive model of sino-Danish negotiations is developed that is based on 24 interviews conducted with Danish expatriate managers in China and 4 interviews with Chinese working in Danish companies. Implications for research and practice are discussed...

  10. It takes two to tango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian

    2018-01-01

    that influence the success of an organisation. The overview shows most of the research has been done at the individual level of analysis, examining the impact of contact with HCNs on expatriate adjustment and performance. Several avenues and suggestions for future research are listed; an important starting point......There has been a growing interest in the potentially positive impact of expatriate interactions with host country nationals (HCNs) in International Human Resource Management (IHRM). This paper provides a comprehensive overview of this relatively new body of literature, and organises the empirical...

  11. It takes two to tango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian

    2016-01-01

    and outcomes on three different levels of analysis: individual, dyadic, and organizational. Most of the research has been done on the individual level of analysis, examining the impact of contact with host nationals on expatriate adjustment and performance. Several avenues and suggestions for future research......There has been a growing interest in the potentially positive impact of expatriate interactions with host nationals in International Human Resource Management (IHRM). This literature review provides an overview of this growing area of investigation, outlining research pertaining to the antecedents...

  12. It takes two to tango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    Since 9/11, the terrorist is often awarded the position of the radical Other of Danish identity; the personified existential threat to Denmark (not primarily as a state but as a soci- ety). The strategy of the Danish government to counter terrorism describes itself as covering a ‘broad spectrum......' of efforts. It includes an ‘active foreign policy' in relation to the Muslim world and an ‘active integration policy'in relation to Muslim migrants. Both inside and outside the nation state efforts range from ‘hard power' security strategies of elimination and control involving military, police......, and intelligence operations to ‘soft power' strategies of information, partnerships, and dialogue. The paper analyses Danish counterterrorism policies to iden- tify the concepts of dialogue implied and the positions awarded to less-than-radical Muslim Others. The paper concludes that Muslims might...

  13. It Takes Two to Tango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Hedman, Jonas; Eaton, Ben

    2017-01-01

    National electronic identification systems (e-IDs) are key e-government infrastructures that form the backbone of e-government services. When developed via public-private partnerships (PPP), such e-government infrastructures require appropriate governance arrangements to sustain a delicate balance...... between governments and the private actors involved. Using the lens of power dependence theory, we investigate the ongoing tender process of the third-generation e-ID in Denmark. The key actors are public agencies and the financial sector. Early findings illustrate how contextual factors related to market......, technology, regulations, and social norms affect the distribution of power dependence between the actors; such distribution will eventually shape the governance arrangement resulting from the tender. Through this study, we expect to contribute to research on governance of public-private e-government...

  14. It takes two to tango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian

    2018-01-01

    that influence the success of an organisation. The overview shows most of the research has been done at the individual level of analysis, examining the impact of contact with HCNs on expatriate adjustment and performance. Several avenues and suggestions for future research are listed; an important starting point...... for future research is to clearly delineate which aspect of expatriate-local interactions is investigated – the frequency, depth, or breadth of the contact. This review counterbalances the predominant IHRM focus on expatriates as sole actors in expatriate success by specifically including another important...

  15. Advancing a Distributive-Bargaining and Integrative-Negotiation Integral System: A Values-Based Negotiation Model (VBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The proposed values-based negotiation model (VBM agrees with and extends principled negotiation’s recognition of personal values and emotions as important negotiation elements. First, building upon Martin Buber’s existentialist treatment of religion and secularism, VBM centers on religion as one of many possible sources of personal values that informs respectful and mutually beneficial interactions without needing one to necessarily be religious. Just as one need not be a Buddhist or a Hindu to practice yoga, negotiators of any theological outlook can profit from a model grounded in broad, common tenets drawn from a range of organized religions. Second, VBM distinguishes feelings from emotions because the long-lasting and intrinsically stimulated effects of feelings have greater implications on the perception of negotiated outcomes. VBM negotiators view negotiations as a constitutive prosocial process whereby parties consider the outcome important enough to invest time and energy. Negotiators who use VBM appeal to the goodness of their counterparts by doing good first so that both parties avoid a win-lose outcome. This counterintuitive move contradicts the self-centered but understandably normal human behavior of prioritizing one’s own interests before others’ interests. However, when one appeals to the goodness of one’s Buberian Thou counterparts, he or she stimulates positive emotions that promote understanding. Third, VBM provides a framework that draws upon an individual’s personal values (religious or otherwise and reconfigures the distributive-bargaining-and-integrative-negotiation distinction so that negotiators can freely apply distributive tactics to claim maximum intangible and tangible outcomes without compromising on their personal values or valuable relationships.

  16. Police crisis negotiations in the UK and the USA: comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Koshkina, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the essence of police crisis negotiations and the structure of a crisis negotiation team. The differences between British and American negotiators are discussed as well as the role of profiling during crisis negotiations with mentally ill hostage takers.

  17. A Study on the Application of Politeness Strategies in International Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张栋栋

    2016-01-01

    #%Under the influence of economic globalization, international business negotiation is becoming more and more fre-quent. Politeness principle is an important pragmatic strategy in international business negotiation, representing good cultural quality and professional ethics image. In the course of business negotiation, how to properly use politeness language and pay at-tention to politeness strategy will affect the result of negotiation.

  18. 25 CFR 1000.65 - What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation grants support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation... planning and negotiation grants support? The planning and negotiation grants support activities such as...

  19. How Can Women Escape the Compensation Negotiation Dilemma? Relational Accounts Are One Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Hannah Riley; Babcock, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Policy makers, academics, and media reports suggest that women could shrink the gender pay gap by negotiating more effectively for higher compensation. Yet women entering compensation negotiations face a dilemma: They have to weigh the benefits of negotiating against the social consequences of having negotiated. Research shows that women are…

  20. Do job autonomy and negotiation self-efficacy improve employment relationships?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R A Oeij

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether improving the employment relationship does more depend on negotiation selfefficacy or on task outonomy for a sample of employees from a Dutch telecom company. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy on integrative negotiation and the effect of integrative negotiation on psychological contract breach. Results indicate that employees negotiate more integratively when they have higher negotiation self-efficacy, compared to employees with more task autonomy. Empirical support was found for the prediction that higher negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy correlates with less psychological contract breach.

  1. Recent advances in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Fujita, Katsuhide; Robu, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    This book covers recent advances in Complex Automated Negotiations as a widely studied emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. The book includes selected revised and extended papers from the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN2014), which was held in Paris, France, in May 2014. The book also includes brief introductions about Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiation which are based on tutorials provided in the workshop, and brief summaries and descriptions about the ANAC'14 (Automated Negotiating Agents Competition) competition, where authors of selected finalist agents explain the strategies and the ideas used by them. The book is targeted to academic and industrial researchers in various communities of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as agreement technology, mechanism design, electronic commerce, related areas, as well as graduate, undergraduate, and PhD students working in those areas or having interest in them.

  2. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations and Rules on Intellectual ... New funding opportunity to fight antimicrobial resistance ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  3. Approximating the Qualitative Vickrey Auction by a Negotiation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Koen V.; Tykhonov, Dmytro; de Weerdt, Mathijs

    A result of Bulow and Klemperer has suggested that auctions may be a better tool to obtain an efficient outcome than negotiation. For example, some auction mechanisms can be shown to be efficient and strategy-proof. However, they generally also require that the preferences of at least one side of the auction are publicly known. However, sometimes it is very costly, impossible, or undesirable to publicly announce such preferences. It thus is interesting to find methods that do not impose this constraint but still approximate the outcome of the auction. In this paper we show that a multi-round multi-party negotiation protocol may be used to this end if the negotiating agents are capable of learning opponent preferences. The latter condition can be met by current state of the art negotiation technology. We show that this protocol approximates the theoretical outcome predicted by a so-called Qualitative Vickrey auction mechanism (even) on a complex multi-issue domain.

  4. Negotiation in the New Strategic Environment: Lessons From Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tressler, David M

    2007-01-01

    U.S. soldiers in Iraq from junior to senior leaders conduct thousands of negotiations with Iraqi leaders while pursuing tactical and operational objectives that affect the strategic import of the U.S...

  5. Negotiation From a Near and Distant Time Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Marlone D.; Trope, Yaacov; Carnevale, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Across 3 experiments, the authors examined the effects of temporal distance on negotiation behavior. They found that greater temporal distance from negotiation decreased preference for piecemeal, single-issue consideration over integrative, multi-issue consideration (Experiment 1). They also found that greater temporal distance from an event being negotiated increased interest in conceding on the lowest priority issue and decreased interest in conceding on the highest priority issue (Experiment 2). Lastly, they found increased temporal distance from an event being negotiated produced a greater proportion of multi-issue offers, a greater likelihood of conceding on the lowest priority issue in exchange for a concession on the highest priority issue, and greater individual and joint outcomes (Experiment 3). Implications for conflict resolution and construal level theory are discussed. PMID:17014295

  6. An implementation of norm-based agent negotiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieter; Prakken, H.; Vey Mestdagh, C.N.J. de

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we develop our previous outline of a multi-agent architecture for regulated information exchange in crime investigations. Interactions about information exchange between agents (representing police officers) are further analysed as negotiation dialogues with embedded persuasion

  7. Negotiation as a form of persuasion: arguments in first offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaravi, Yossi; Ganzach, Yoav; Pazy, Asya

    2011-08-01

    In this article we examined aspects of negotiation within a persuasion framework. Specifically, we investigated how the provision of arguments that justified the first offer in a negotiation affected the behavior of the parties, namely, how it influenced counteroffers and settlement prices. In a series of 4 experiments and 2 pilot studies, we demonstrated that when the generation of counterarguments was easy, negotiators who did not add arguments to their first offers achieved superior results compared with negotiators who used arguments to justify their first offer. We hypothesized and provided evidence that adding arguments to a first offer was likely to cause the responding party to search for counterarguments, and this, in turn, led him or her to present counteroffers that were further away from the first offer.

  8. Data Acquisition in a Manoeuver Auto-negotiation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szlapczynska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Typical approach to collision avoidance systems with artificial intelligence support is that such systems assume a central communication and management point (such as e.g. VTS station, usually located on shore. This approach is, however, not applicable in case of an open water encounter. Thus, recently a new approach towards collision avoidance has been proposed, assuming that all ships in the encounter, either restricted or open water, communicate with each other and negotiate their maneuvers, without involving any outer management or communication center. Usually the negotiation process is driven by the collision avoidance software and called auto-negotiation. This paper elaborates on data acquisition problem in case of the maneuver auto-negotiation. It focuses on ships' initialization in the system and data gathering.

  9. Self-organized service negotiation for collaborative decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Huang, Zhenhua; Zheng, Ziming

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a self-organized service negotiation method for CDM in intelligent and automatic manners. It mainly includes three phases: semantic-based capacity evaluation for the CDM sponsor, trust computation of the CDM organization, and negotiation selection of the decision-making service provider (DMSP). In the first phase, the CDM sponsor produces the formal semantic description of the complex decision task for DMSP and computes the capacity evaluation values according to participator instructions from different DMSPs. In the second phase, a novel trust computation approach is presented to compute the subjective belief value, the objective reputation value, and the recommended trust value. And in the third phase, based on the capacity evaluation and trust computation, a negotiation mechanism is given to efficiently implement the service selection. The simulation experiment results show that our self-organized service negotiation method is feasible and effective for CDM.

  10. Interdepartmental conflict management and negotiation in cardiovascular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Hansel J; Nallamshetty, Leelakrishna; Rybicki, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Although the relationship between cardiologists and radiologists has a thorny history, advanced cardiac imaging technology and the promise of cardiac computed tomography are forcing both specialties back to the negotiation table. These discussions represent an opportunity for better communication, collaboration, and resource allocation. The authors address the aspects of interdepartmental conflict management and negotiation through their radiology department's ongoing efforts to provide high-quality advanced noninvasive cardiovascular imaging services at a large academic institution. The definition and causes of conflict are defined, with a specific focus on noninvasive cardiovascular imaging, followed by a description of steps used in the negotiation process. The authors encourage radiologists to entertain an open dialogue with cardiology, because in many cases, both sides can benefit. The benefits of a negotiated outcome include minimizing internal competitors, incorporating cardiologists' expertise to cardiac imaging algorithms, and more effective training opportunities.

  11. Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations - Phase III. International Lawyers and Economists against Poverty (ILEAP) is an initiative that aims to help African and Caribbean countries derive full benefit from integration into ...

  12. Negotiating with third party payers: one community pharmacy's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridy, Kimberly; DeHart, Renee M; Monk-Tutor, Mary R

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate financial terms and legal wording in insurance contracts and negotiate their terms with companies to improve an independent pharmacy's financial position and to determine the time required to negotiate a contract and translate that time into a salary cost. An independent pharmacy in a small town in Alabama with a population of approximately 6,000. The prescription department accounts for two-thirds of the pharmacy's sales and dispenses approximately 70,000 prescriptions each year. Insurance companies paid for over 59% of these prescriptions in 2000. The pharmacy is open 7 days a week with one full-time pharmacist and a second pharmacist who works 2 days a month. A contract negotiation form was developed that addressed factors that might affect a pharmacy's decision to accept or reject a contract; the form included an area for recording the time involved in negotiating each contract. Insurance companies selected by the pharmacy owner were faxed copies of an Insurer Demographics Collection Form. Upon collection of all data and finalization of proposed changes, a copy of the contract with the proposed changes marked, along with a letter explaining and justifying the changes, was sent to the insurance company. If no response was received from the company, the contact person was called and negotiations proceeded over the telephone. Primary end points were the percentage of companies that would negotiate and the average increase in reimbursement achieved. Secondary end points included the time involved in negotiations and the translation of that time into a salary cost. None of the nine participating companies accepted any of the changes proposed. The time to negotiate each contract ranged from 28 minutes to 74 minutes, taking an average of 48.4 minutes. Depending on the division of work between the pharmacist and the technician, the salary cost for the negotiations ranged from $14.68 to $18.73 per contract. This study provides a realistic description of

  13. Preference Elicitation and Negotiation in a Group Recommender System

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Márquez , Jesús ,; Ziegler , Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present a novel approach to group recommender systems that better takes into account the social interaction in a group when formulating, discussing and negotiating the features of the item to be jointly selected. Our approach provides discussion support in a collaborative preference elicitation and negotiation process. Individual preferences are continuously aggregated and immediate feedback of the resulting recommendations is provided. We also support the last stag...

  14. Personality & negotiation: a study with a new approach

    OpenAIRE

    Saraiva, Manuel Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Master of Science in Business Administration / JEL Classi cation: M10, M12 After a hiatus in the research of individual di erences within negotiation, there's been a surge of renewed interest for the past years followed by several new ndings. With an increasing trend of interdependence and strategic alliances governing the current corporate reality, negotiation is rapidly becoming a paramount element in managers daily working lives, and now more than ever there is a need to...

  15. Transactional Analysis - Cultural and Educational Perspectives of Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph. D. Oana Iucu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the negotiation topics from one modern perspective, as an managerial, cultural and protocol structure. The traditionally orientation, psycho-social and communicational, technically and instrumentally, has been extended with one dynamic and very actual approach to the protocol procedures. Here is also analyzed principals negotiation’s components, which are frequently mentioned in handbooks of management and negotiation, from the organizational and operational its consequences point of view.

  16. Collaboration in a competitive healthcare system: negotiation 101 for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay-Williams, Robyn; Johnson, Andrew; Lane, Paul; Li, Zhicheng; Camilleri, Lauren; Winata, Teresa; Klug, Michael

    2018-04-09

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of negotiation training delivered to senior clinicians, managers and executives, by exploring whether staff members implemented negotiation skills in their workplace following the training, and if so, how and when. Design/methodology/approach This is a qualitative study involving face-to-face interviews with 18 senior clinicians, managers and executives who completed a two-day intensive negotiation skills training course. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and inductive interpretive analysis techniques were used to identify common themes. Research setting was a large tertiary care hospital and health service in regional Australia. Findings Participants generally reported positive affective and utility reactions to the training, and attempted to implement at least some of the skills in the workplace. The main enabler was provision of a Negotiation Toolkit to assist in preparing and conducting negotiations. The main barrier was lack of time to reflect on the principles and prepare for upcoming negotiations. Participants reported that ongoing skill development and retention were not adequately addressed; suggestions for improving sustainability included provision of refresher training and mentoring. Research limitations/implications Limitations include self-reported data, and interview questions positively elicited examples of training translation. Practical implications The training was well matched to participant needs, with negotiation a common and daily activity for most healthcare professionals. Implementation of the skills showed potential for improving collaboration and problem solving in the workplace. Practical examples of how the skills were used in the workplace are provided. Originality/value To the authors' knowledge, this is the first international study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of an integrative bargaining negotiation training program targeting executives, senior

  17. Persuasive negotiation for autonomous agents: A rhetorical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ramchurn, S.D.; Jennings, N. R.; Sierra, C.

    2003-01-01

    Persuasive negotiation occurs when autonomous agents exchange proposals that are backed up by rhetorical arguments (such as threats, rewards, or appeals). The role of such rhetorical arguments is to persuade the negotiation opponent to accept proposals more readily. To this end, this paper presents a rhetorical model of persuasion that defines the main types of rhetorical particles that are used and that provides a decision making model to enable an agent to determine what type of rhetorical ...

  18. Towards a Better Understanding of Climate Change Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryndís Arndal Woods

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of environmental economics literature applies non-cooperative game theory to examine the stability of International Environmental Agreements. Recently, a new trend has emerged in the literature whereby scholars use modified economic approaches to better account for ‘reality’ as such. This article builds upon the work of Hugh Ward, Frank Grundig and Ethan Zorick who conducted a mixed-method analysis to create a model of international climate change negotiations which could explain why policy change has been minimal in this issue area. The purpose of this article is to further develop the mixed-method approach in order to gain a better understanding of international climate change negotiations. Using the progression of the 2011 Durban negotiation session as our raw data, we demonstrate the usefulness of conducting qualitative and quantitative analyses simultaneously to best represent reality. Content and discourse analyses are applied to the Durban negotiations to identify the properties of the underlying game. The results are applied to the future of the negotiations in order to identify trends which need to be addressed to reach more progressive outcomes in the future. The main results of the qualitative analyses of the Durban negotiations included that players had modest expectations at the outset of the negotiations, which influenced the issues they addressed. The quantitative analysis demonstrated that players achieved a high degree of success at Durban; all players achieved their desired outcomes on at least half of the issues they addressed. Finally, the mixed-method approach identified important trends from the negotiations, most importantly the cracks exposed within the BASIC bloc and the role of the ‘middle ground’ alliance.

  19. International negotiations about reducing the emission of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepage, C.

    1999-01-01

    It is high time Europe proposed concrete actions within the framework of Kyoto negotiations. Europe should participate to negotiations actively, otherwise a non-efficient agreement could be applied. At Kyoto it was decided that licences for releasing greenhouse gases could be exchanged between countries but not between firms. The global efficiency and success of such a system requires to involve firms and polluters more directly. (A.C.)

  20. Negotiation and argumentation in multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Multi-agent systems (MAS) composed of autonomous agents representing individuals or organizations and capable of reaching mutually beneficial agreements through negotiation and argumentation are becoming increasingly important and pervasive.Research on both automated negotiation and argumentation in MAS has a vigorous, exciting tradition. However, efforts to integrate both areas have received only selective attention in the academia and the practitioner literature. A symbiotic relationship could significantly strengthen each area's progress and trigger new R&D challenges and prospects toward t