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Sample records for biosynthese von vitamin

  1. Untersuchungen zur Erdbeerfruchtreifung : Biosynthese von 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanon und Enzymaktivitäten während des Reifungsprozesses

    OpenAIRE

    Raab, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Die Fruchtreifung stellt einen hochkomplexen Prozess dar, der durch eine Reihe von biochemischen und physiologischen Veränderungen gekennzeichnet ist. Dies umfasst bedeutende Veränderungen von Textur, Farbe sowie die Bildung von geschmacks- und geruchsaktiven Verbindungen. Die vorliegende Arbeit präsentiert neue Erkenntnisse zur Biosynthese von 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanon (Furaneol®, HDMF), einer Schlüssel-Aromakomponente der Erdbeere (Fragaria x ananassa). Daneben lieferten die durc...

  2. Einfluss von abiotischen Faktoren auf Wuchs und Scopolamin-Biosynthese in Duboisia myoporoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullrich, Sophie Friederike

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Duboisia ist eine in Australien beheimatete Pflanze aus der Familie der Nachtschattengewächse, die Tropanalkaloide als sekundäre Pflanzeninhaltsstoffe enthält, deren quantitativ und ökonomisch bedeutsamstes Scopolamin ist. Um neue Erkenntnisse hinsichtlich des Einflusses abiotischer Faktoren auf Wuchs und Scopolamin-Biosynthese zu gewinnen, wurden Pflanzen der Art Duboisia myoporoides in Hydrokultur in Klimakammern unter streng kontrollierten Bedingungen angebaut (kalibrierte Einstellungen für Beleuchtungsdauer, Lichtintensität und Temperatur. Wichtige Messgrößen stellten dabei Biomasse und Alkaloidgehalt dar, letzterer gemessen mittels UHPLC und LC-MS.

  3. Functionalization of biosynthesized gold nanoparticle from aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosynthesized nanoparticles and formulated nanodrug were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Zetasizer, Scanning and transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM; TEM), Energy Dispersive spectrophotometry (EDAX) and Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy. Polyethylene glycol and Lincomycin were ...

  4. Rekombinante Biosynthese von p-Cumarylalkohol in E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The increasingly scarce availability of fossil raw materials calls for the development of new strategies to ensure the sustainable supply with energy and components for synthesis. Energy and mass bioconversion processes of renewable raw materials can contribute in minimizing the dependence on fossil raw materials and close the gap in energy supply. Currently though, renewable raw materials cannot completely replace fossil raw materials. The emphasis lies more on the concept of using renewable...

  5. Biological and electrical properties of biosynthesized silver

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biological and electrical properties of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. Madhulika ... Abstract. In this work, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized biochemically at room temperature using aqueous extract of rhizome of Rheum australe plant. ... The obtained results may have potential applications as sensors.

  6. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it's time for them to be used, special carriers in your body take them to where they're needed. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are all fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins are different. When you eat foods ...

  7. Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermal treatment is an intrinsic part of most food processing procedures and may be employed to inactive enzimes and toxic '• factors, to change texture and flavour or to preserve. The vitamin degree of transformation or destruction in cooking methods depends on the temperature and on the time of exposure to this temperature. Oxigen, light and transition metals frequently play an active role in accelerating or promoting vitamin losses. Both chemical change and difussion proceed more rapidly as the temperature is raised. An advantage of deep frying consists of the fact that the temperature within the food does not exceed the temperature of the steam under the crust, and that frying times are in general very short compared to other cooking procedures. Another advantages may be the low content of dissolved oxygen in frying fats, and also in its high tocopherol content. There is no leaching of water-soluble vitamins in deep-frying. Speaking of vitamin stability we have to keep in mind that the concept of vitamins is a more physiological concept than a chemical one. The stability itself is not a property of the various vitamins but rather of the various chemical compounds sometimes called vitamers, of which a certain vitamin group consists. For practical purposes, vitamin losses should be considered only in foods wich substantially contribute to the vitamin supply of single people or population groups. There is little data in the literature about vitamin changes in deep-frying of food. However published experimental data on vitamin loses show that deep-frying is one of the most protective cooking procedures. For example, in ours results the vitamin C losses of stewed vegetable foods were twice higher than that of fried ones, (raw potatoes containing 19 mg/100g fresh weight, 13 mg/100 fried in olive oil, and 5 mg/100g stewed in the same oil.

  8. Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. VI. (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. VI. Communication: Effect of Vitamins and Vitamin-Like Substances),

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of substances (folic acid, axerophtol, tokopherol and others) stimulate the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis and, therefore, are very well...group of vitamins (thiamine, lactoflavin, pyridoxine and others) are without recognizeable effect upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . The third...inhibiting effect upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . Further investigations with these substances within a combined inhibition system seem to be important. (Modified author abstract)

  9. Kristallstruktur der Methylornithin-Synthase (PylB): Einblicke in die Biosynthese von Pyrrolysin

    KAUST Repository

    Quitterer, Felix

    2011-11-16

    Made by the barrel load: The biosynthetic pathway of the recently discovered 22nd amino acid, pyrrolysine, starts with an isomerization of lysine to methylornithine, catalyzed by PylB. The X-ray crystal structure of PylB is determined (see picture) and shows it has a TIM barrel fold. The sealed central cavity contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and methylornithine, whose 2R,3R configuration could be confirmed. The data suggest a fragmentation–recombination mechanism via a glycyl radical intermediate.

  10. Magnetic behavior of biosynthesized Co_3O_4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diallo, A.; Doyle, T.B.; Mothudi, B.M.; Manikandan, E.

    2017-01-01

    This contribution reports for the 1st time on the magnetic behavior of CO_3O_4 nanoparticles synthesized by a “green” process using an Aspalathus linearis’ leaves natural extract. More accurately magnetic behavior of CO_3O_4 nanoparticles successfully biosynthesized was investigated using vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetization behavior for the samples manifests a combination of size dependent antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic behaviors, respectively, for the core and shell of the nanoparticles. - Highlights: • 1"s"t report on magnetic behavior of Co3O4 nanoparticles via Aspalathus linearis. • Co_3O_4 nanoparticles manifest size-dependent antiferromagnetic & paramagnetic behaviors. • Antiferromagnetic & paramagnetic behaviors were confirmed by VSM.

  11. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles to control fungal infections in indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyá, Cecilia; Bellotti, Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Fungi grow especially in dark and moist areas, deteriorating the indoor environment and causing infections that particularly affect immunosuppressed individuals. Antimicrobial coatings have as principal objective to prevent biofilm formation and infections by incorporation of bioactive additives. In this sense, metallic nanoparticles, such as silver, have proven to be active against different microorganisms specially bacteria. Biosynthesized method is a promising environmentally friendly option to obtain nanoparticles. The aim of this research was assess the employment of plants extracts of Aloysia triphylla (cedrón), Laurelia sempervirens (laurel) and Ruta chalepensis (ruda) to obtain silver nanoparticles to be used as an antimicrobial additive to a waterborne coating formulation. The products obtained were assessed against fungal isolates from biodeteriorated indoor coatings. The fungi were identified by conventional and molecular techniques as Chaetomium globosum and Alternaria alternate. The results revealed that the coating with silver nanoparticles obtained with L. sempervirens extract at 60 °C with a size of 9.8 nm was the most efficient against fungal biofilm development.

  12. Synthetic routes to degradable copolymers deriving from the biosynthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates are a family of natural polyesters being produced as intracellular carbon and energy reserves by a wide variety of microorganisms. They have developed rapidly in both research and development efforts globally in the last 15 years. Till now, over 100 different types of PHAs have been successfully biosynthesized using both genetic engineering and fermentation techniques. Their unique biodegradable, biocompatible and thermoplastic characteristics make PHAs promising candidates for the commodity and biomedical applications. This review focused on the chemical synthesis of the derivatives of the biosynthesized PHAs.

  13. Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesized by Bacillus mycoides in quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordenes-Aenishanslins, Nicolás Alexis; Saona, Luis Alberto; Durán-Toro, Vicente María; Monrás, Juan Pablo; Bravo, Denisse Margarita; Pérez-Donoso, José Manuel

    2014-07-16

    One of the major challenges of nanotechnology during the last decade has been the development of new procedures to synthesize nanoparticles. In this context, biosynthetic methods have taken hold since they are simple, safe and eco-friendly. In this study, we report the biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by an environmental isolate of Bacillus mycoides, a poorly described Gram-positive bacterium able to form colonies with novel morphologies. This isolate was able to produce TiO2 nanoparticles at 37 ° C in the presence of titanyl hydroxide. Biosynthesized nanoparticles have anatase polymorphic structure, spherical morphology, polydisperse size (40-60 nm) and an organic shell as determined by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and FTIR, respectively. Also, conversely to chemically produced nanoparticles, biosynthesized TiO2 do not display phototoxicity. In order to design less expensive and greener solar cells, biosynthesized nanoparticles were evaluated in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) and compared with chemically produced TiO2 nanoparticles. Solar cell parameters such as short circuit current density (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) revealed that biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles can mobilize electrons in QDSSCs similarly than chemically produced TiO2. Our results indicate that bacterial extracellular production of TiO2 nanoparticles at low temperatures represents a novel alternative for the construction of green solar cells.

  14. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  15. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  16. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for ... blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have ...

  17. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from ...

  18. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultraviolet light from the sun. The body also needs vitamin E to boost its immune system so that ... important functions. How much vitamin E do I need? The amount of vitamin E you need each day depends on your ...

  19. Biomedical potentialities of Taraxacum officinale-based nanoparticles biosynthesized using methanolic leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Tahir; Bilal, Muhammad; Li, Chuanlong; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2018-02-14

    In the present study, the potential of methanolic leaf extract of Taraxacum officinale plant as a function of bio-inspired green synthesis for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been explored. The bio-reduction of aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution was confirmed by visually detecting the color change from pale yellow to blackish-brown. Maximum absorbance was observed at 420 nm due to the presence of characteristic surface Plasmon resonance of nano silver by UV-visible spectroscopy. The role of various functional groups in the bio-reduction of silver and chemical transformation was verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) predicts the shape (rocky, flack type, ellipsoidal, etc.), size (68 nm) and elemental composition (Ag as a major constituent) of the biosynthesized AgNPs, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis further corroborated the morphology of the AgNPs. Color mapping and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed the nano-sized topography. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed the charge, stability, and size of the AgNPs. The generated AgNPs presented potential antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Haemophilus influenzae. The biosynthesized AgNPs also showed antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, results clearly indicate that biosynthesized AgNPs could be used as effective nano drug for treating infectious diseases caused by multidrug resistant bacterial strains in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of cream incorporated with silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marslin G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Marslin,1 Rajendran K Selvakesavan,1 Gregory Franklin,1 Bruno Sarmento,2,3 Alberto CP Dias11Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences (CITAB-UM, AgroBioPlant Group, Department of Biology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; 2Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica (INEB, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 3CESPU, Instituto Universitário de Ciências da Saúde, Gandra, PortugalAbstract: We report on the antimicrobial activity of a cream formulation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, biosynthesized using Withania somnifera extract. Aqueous extracts of leaves promoted efficient green synthesis of AgNPs compared to fruits and root extracts of W. somnifera. Biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized for their size and shape by physical-chemical techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. After confirming the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs, they were incorporated into a cream. Cream formulations of AgNPs and AgNO3 were prepared and compared for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans and a plant pathogen (Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Our results show that AgNP creams possess significantly higher antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.Keywords: Withania somnifera, green synthesis, silver nanoparticles cream, antimicrobial activity

  1. Hydrosoluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Jasvinder; Kvarnberg, David

    2014-01-01

    The hydrosoluble vitamins are a group of organic substances that are required by humans in small amounts to prevent disorders of metabolism. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical, physiologic and nutritional aspects of the water-soluble vitamins. Deficiency of these particular vitamins, most commonly due to inadequate nutrition, can result in disorders of the nervous system. Many of these disorders have been successfully prevented in developed countries; however, they are still common in developing countries. Of the hydrosoluble vitamins, the nervous system depends the most on vitamins B and C (ascorbic acid) for proper functioning. The B group vitamins include thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin or niacinamide (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine or pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and cobalamin (vitamin B12). Clinical findings depend upon the deficiency of the underlying vitamin; generally, deficiency symptoms are seen from a combination rather than an isolated vitamin deficiency. True hereditary metabolic disorders and serious deficiency-associated diseases are rare and in general limited to particular geographic regions and high-risk groups. Their recognition is truly important as that determines the appropriate therapeutic management. The general availability of vitamins to practically everyone and several national health programs have saved many lives and prevented complications. However, there has been some apprehension for several decades about how harmless generous dosages of these vitamins are. Overt overdosages can cause vitamin toxicity affecting various body systems including the nervous system. Systemically, vitamin toxicity is associated with nonspecific symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and skin rash which are common with any acute or chronic vitamin overdose. At a national level, recommended daily allowances for vitamins become policy statements. Nutrition policy has far

  2. Vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin E is an antioxidant. It plays a role in ... immune system and metabolic processes. Good sources of vitamin E include Vegetable oils Margarine Nuts and seeds Leafy ...

  3. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thin, and brittle bones, a condition known as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin D ... the body. In children, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, a condition in which the bones become soft ...

  4. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one ... building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis ...

  5. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your ... healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include ...

  6. Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... values to calculate your total daily recommended amount. What foods provide vitamin C? Fruits and vegetables are the ... lessen cooking losses. Fortunately, many of the best food sources of vitamin C, ... raw. What kinds of vitamin C dietary supplements are available? ...

  7. Potential of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles as Nanocatalyst for Enhanced Degradation of Cellulose by Cellulase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipinchandra K. Salunke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs as a result of their excellent optical and electronic properties are promising catalytic materials for various applications. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach for enhanced degradation of cellulose using biosynthesized AgNPs in an enzyme catalyzed reaction of cellulose hydrolysis by cellulase. AgNPs were synthesized through reduction of silver nitrate by extracts of five medicinal plants (Mentha arvensis var. piperascens, Buddleja officinalis Maximowicz, Epimedium koreanum Nakai, Artemisia messer-schmidtiana Besser, and Magnolia kobus. An increase of around twofold in reducing sugar formation confirmed the catalytic activity of AgNPs as nanocatalyst. The present study suggests that immobilization of the enzyme onto the surface of the AgNPs can be useful strategy for enhanced degradation of cellulose, which can be utilized for diverse industrial applications.

  8. Magnetic behavior of biosynthesized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, A., E-mail: abdoulayediallosn@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation,1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Centre for Nano Science and Nanotechnology, K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 63721, Tamil Nadu (India); Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nano-Fabrication, Faculté des sciences et Techniques, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD), B.P. 25114, Dakar-Fann Dakar (Senegal); Doyle, T.B. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation,1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001 (South Africa); Mothudi, B.M.; Manikandan, E. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation,1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); and others

    2017-02-15

    This contribution reports for the 1st time on the magnetic behavior of CO{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized by a “green” process using an Aspalathus linearis’ leaves natural extract. More accurately magnetic behavior of CO{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles successfully biosynthesized was investigated using vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetization behavior for the samples manifests a combination of size dependent antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic behaviors, respectively, for the core and shell of the nanoparticles. - Highlights: • 1{sup st} report on magnetic behavior of Co3O4 nanoparticles via Aspalathus linearis. • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles manifest size-dependent antiferromagnetic & paramagnetic behaviors. • Antiferromagnetic & paramagnetic behaviors were confirmed by VSM.

  9. Catalytic and antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles green biosynthesized using soluble green tea powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Fan, Yapei; Liu, Xinfang; Luo, Denglin; Liu, Huan; Yang, Ningning

    2018-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green fabricated using soluble green tea powder (SGTP) as stabilizer and reducing agent. The properties and morphology of Ag NPs were investigated through UV–visible spectroscopy, field emission transmission electron microscope (FE-TEM) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance around at 420 nm revealing the synthesis of Ag NPs. FE-TEM results confirmed that the Ag NPs are spherical and face-centered cubic structure. FT-IR spectroscopy identified the role of various functional groups in the nanoparticle synthesis. The one spot biosynthesized Ag NPs showed favourable antibacterial properties on Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, and excellent catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol. This work provided a feasible, green method to fabricate Ag NPs with promising photocatalytic and antimicrobial activities.

  10. Low-cost mercury (II) ion sensor by biosynthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Jet G.; Candano, Gabrielle Jackie; Mendoza, Aileen Nicole; Paderanga, Marciella; Cardino, Krenz John; Locsin, Alessandro; Bibon, Cherilou

    2017-11-01

    Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles has attracted the curiosity of scientists over the past few decades. Nanoparticles have been proven to exhibit enhanced properties and offer a variety of applications in different fields of study. Utilizing nanoparticles instead of bulky equipment and noxious chemicals has become more convenient; reagents needed for synthesis have been proven to be benign (mostly aqueous solutions) and are cost-effective. In this study, gold nanoparticles were biosynthesized using guyabano (Annonamuricata) peel samples as the source of reducing agents. The optimum concentration ratio of gold chloride to guyabano extract was determined to be 1:7. Characterization studies were accomplished using UV Vis Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Electron Microscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Spectroscopic maximum absorbance was found to be at 532 nm thereby confirming the presence of gold nanoparticles. Hydroxyl (O-H stretching), carbonyl (C=O stretching), and amide (N-H stretching) functional groups shown in the FTIR spectra are present on possible reducing agents such as phenols, alkaloids, and saponins found in the plant extract. SEM images revealed spherical shaped nanoparticles with mean diameter of 23.18 nm. It was observed that the bio-synthesized AuNPs were selective to mercury ions through uniform color change from wine red to yellow. A novel smartphone-based mercury (II) ions assay was developed using the gold nanoparticles. A calibration curve correlated the analytical response (Red intensity) to the concentrations of Hg 2+ ions. Around 94% of the variations in the intensity is accounted for by the variations in the concentration of mercury (II) ions suggesting a good linear relationship between the two variables. A relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 1% was achieved at all individual points. The metal sensor displayed a sensitivity of 0.039 R.I./ppm with an LOD of 93.79 ppm. Thus, the bio-fabricated gold nanoparticles

  11. Ellis Von Creveld Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar H

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One patient with Ellis Von Creveld syndrome contains: dwarfism, congenital heart"ndisease, ectodermal dysplasia, polyductyly, an abnormally wide labial frenum and maxillary"nmolars with single root.

  12. Lars von Triers film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Overgaard

    2007-01-01

    Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse.......Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse....

  13. Plasmodium falciparum uses vitamin E to avoid oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmann, Rodrigo A C; Fotoran, Wesley L; Kimura, Emilia A; Katzin, Alejandro M

    2017-10-10

    Plasmodium falciparum is sensitive to oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo, and many drugs such as artemisinin, chloroquine and cercosporin interfere in the parasite's redox system. To minimize the damage caused by reactive radicals, antioxidant enzymes and their substrates found in parasites and in erythrocytes must be functionally active. It was shown that P. falciparum synthesizes vitamin E and that usnic acid acts as an inhibitor of its biosynthesis. Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant that protects polyunsaturated fatty acids from lipid peroxidation, and this activity can be measured by detecting its oxidized product and by evaluating reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Here, we demonstrated that ROS levels increased in P. falciparum when vitamin E biosynthesis was inhibited by usnic acid treatment and decreased to basal levels if exogenous vitamin E was added. Furthermore, we used metabolic labelling to demonstrate that vitamin E biosynthesized by the parasite acts as an antioxidant since we could detect its radiolabeled oxidized product. The treatment with chloroquine or cercosporin of the parasites increased the ratio between α-tocopherolquinone and α-tocopherol. Our findings demonstrate that vitamin E produced endogenously by P. falciparum is active as an antioxidant, probably protecting the parasite from the radicals generated by drugs.

  14. Enhancement of antidandruff activity of shampoo by biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from Solanum trilobatum plant leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Gaurav; Nayak, Nitesh; Gyana Prasuna, R.

    2013-10-01

    The present investigation describes simple and effective method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles via green route. Solanum trilobatum Linn extract were prepared by both conventional and homogenization method. We optimized the production of silver nanoparticles under sunlight, microwave and room temperature. The best results were obtained with sunlight irradiation, exhibiting 15-20 nm silver nanoparticles having cubic and hexagonal shape. Biosynthesized nanoparticles were highly toxic to various bacterial strains tested. In this study we report antibacterial activity against various Gram negative ( Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella typhi) and Gram positive ( Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus) bacterial strains. Screening was also performed for any antifungal properties of the nanoparticles against human pathogenic fungal strains ( Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis). We also demonstrated that these nanoparticles when mixed with shampoo enhance the anti-dandruff effect against dandruff causing fungal pathogens ( Pityrosporum ovale and Pityrosporum folliculitis). The present study showed a simple, rapid and economical route to synthesize silver nanoparticles and their applications hence has a great potential in biomedical field.

  15. Characterization and antimicrobial application of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles by using Microbacterium resistens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Myagmarjav, Davaajargal; Wang, Dandan; Jin, Chi-Gyu; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-11-01

    Various microorganisms were found to be cable of synthesizing gold and silver nanoparticles when gold and silver salts were supplied in the reaction system. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the extracellular synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles by the type strain Microbacterium resistens(T) [KACC14505]. The biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), field emission transmission electron micrograph (FE-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), elemental mapping, and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Moreover, the nanoparticles were evaluated for antimicrobial potential against various pathogenic microorganisms such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus [ATCC 33844], Salmonella enterica [ATCC 13076], Staphylococcus aureus [ATCC 6538], Bacillus anthracis [NCTC 10340], Bacillus cereus [ATCC 14579], Escherichia coli [ATCC 10798], and Candida albicans [KACC 30062]. The silver nanoparticles were found as a potent antimicrobial agent whereas gold nanoparticles not showed any ability. Therefore, the current study describes the simple, green, and extracellular synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles by the type strain Microbacterium resistens(T) [KACC14505].

  16. In vivo self-bio-imaging of tumors through in situ biosynthesized fluorescent gold nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianling; Zhang, Gen; Li, Qiwei; Jiang, Hui; Liu, Chongyang; Amatore, Christian; Wang, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging in vivo allows non-invasive tumor diagnostic thus permitting a direct monitoring of cancer therapies progresses. It is established herein that fluorescent gold nanoclusters are spontaneously biosynthesized by cancerous cell (i.e., HepG2, human hepatocarcinoma cell line; K562, leukemia cell line) incubated with micromolar chloroauric acid solutions, a biocompatible molecular Au(III) species. Gold nanoparticles form by Au(III) reduction inside cells cytoplasms and ultimately concentrate around their nucleoli, thus affording precise cell imaging. Importantly, this does not occur in non-cancerous cells, as evidenced with human embryo liver cells (L02) used as controls. This dichotomy is exploited for a new strategy for in vivo self-bio-imaging of tumors. Subcutaneous injections of millimolar chloroauric acid solution near xenograft tumors of the nude mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma or chronic myeloid leukemia led to efficient biosynthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters without significant dissemination to the surrounding normal tissues, hence allowing specific fluorescent self-bio-marking of the tumors.

  17. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seem to benefit older women who still have strong bones. Taking vitamin K1 seems to increase bone strength and might prevent fractures in older women. But it might not work as well in older men. Vitamin K1 doesn't seem to improve bone ...

  18. B Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B vitamins are B1 (thiamine) B2 (riboflavin) B3 (niacin) B5 (pantothenic acid) B6 B7 (biotin) B12 Folic acid These ... help form red blood cells. You can get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, eggs, ...

  19. FATSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Novica Bojanić; Jelena Radović; Nina Jančić; Nataša Đinđić

    2013-01-01

    Vitamins are the cell biocatalysts, indispensable factors in performing the basic body functions. Fat-soluble vitamins are not involved in processes related to musscle contractions and energy expenditure, but they can affect physical performance indirectly because they are important for immune function (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E), antioxidant function (vitamin A, vitamin E) or bone methabolism (vitamin D, vitamin K). Currently there are no clear recommendations for increase of fat-solub...

  20. Antimicrobial and anticancer activities of porous chitosan-alginate biosynthesized silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Lee, Jin-Young; Kang, Dong Seop; Anil, Sukumaran; Kim, Se-Kwon; Shim, Min Suk; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2017-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to obtain porous antimicrobial composites consisting of chitosan, alginate, and biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Chitosan and alginate were used owing to their pore-forming capacity, while AgNPs were used for their antimicrobial property. The developed porous composites of chitosan-alginate-AgNPs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The FT-IR results revealed the presence of a strong chemical interaction between chitosan and alginate due to polyelectrolyte complex; whereas, the XRD results confirmed the presence of AgNPs in the composites. The dispersion of AgNPs in the porous membrane was uniform with a pore size of 50-500μm. Antimicrobial activity of the composites was checked with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The developed composites resulted in the formation of a zone of inhibition of 11±1mm for the Escherichia coli, and 10±1mm for Staphylococcus aureus. The bacterial filtration efficiency of chitosan-alginate-AgNPs was 1.5-times higher than that of the chitosan-alginate composite. The breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used to test the anticancer activity of the composites. The IC 50 value of chitosan-alginate-AgNPs on MDA-MB-231 was 4.6mg. The developed chitosan-alginate-AgNPs composite showed a huge potential for its applications in antimicrobial filtration and cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rhizostomeen von Manila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1924-01-01

    Die hier beschriebene kleine Scyphomedusen-Sammlung wurde von Herrn Director P. B. Sivickis, Dept. of Zoology, University of Philippines, Manila, dem Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden überwiesen. Das Material wurde im December 1922 in Manila-bay gefischt und befindet sich in bestem

  2. Schmetterlinge von Madeira

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1941-01-01

    Wer auf einer ozeanischen Insel Schmetterlinge sammeln will, darf seine Erwartungen nicht zu hoch spannen; aber dennoch waren meine Frau und ich sehr enttäuscht, als uns auf einer Reise nach Madeira von einer dort angesessenen, gebildeten Dame gesagt wurde, sie habe auf der Insel niemals einen

  3. Biologischer Anbau von Strauchbeeren

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Andi

    2004-01-01

    Das Merkblatt enthält auf Österreich angepasste, praxisnahe Informationen zur Produktion von hochwertigen Strauchbeeren wie Himbeeren, Brombeeren, Johannisbeeren, Stachelbeeren und Heidelbeeren. Weiterhin: übersichtliche Hinweise zur Planung, Standortwahl, Sortenauswahl, Bodenvorbereitung und Pflanzung, Bewässerung, Nährstoffversorgung, Witterungsschutz, Beikrautregulierung, Ernte und Lagerung. (Diese Publikation enthält spezifische Informationen für Österreich)

  4. Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carrots, and squash. Fruits, including cantaloupe, apricots, and mangos. Dairy products, which are among the major sources ... medicines might interfere with how your body absorbs, uses, or breaks down nutrients . Vitamin A and healthful ...

  5. Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as the clotting vitamin, because without it blood would not clot. Some studies suggest that it helps maintain strong bones in the older adults. Food Sources The best way to get the daily ...

  6. Evolutionary convergence in the biosyntheses of the imidazole moieties of histidine and purines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vázquez-Salazar

    , as well as the internal cyclization of the Ala-Ser-Gly motif of some members of the ammonia-lyase and aminomutase families, that lead to the MIO cofactor. The diversity of imidazole-synthesizing pathways highlights the biological significance of this key chemical group, whose biosyntheses evolved independently several times.

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two categories of vitamins. ... vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D ( ...

  8. Nutzerorientiertes Management von materiellen und immateriellen Informationsobjekten

    OpenAIRE

    Hübsch, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Schaffung einer stabilen, erweiterbaren und skalierbaren Infrastruktur für die Bereitstellung von Diensten im Umfeld von Bibliotheken und ähnlichen wissensanbietenden Einrichtungen unter Verwendung von XML-RPC und Python.

  9. Multifunctional biosynthesized silver nanoparticles exhibiting excellent antimicrobial potential against multi-drug resistant microbes along with remarkable anticancerous properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Diksha; Thiruveedula, Prasanna Kumar; Pathak, Rajiv; Kumar, Bipul; Gautam, Hemant K; Agnihotri, Shrish; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2017-11-01

    This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which were biosynthesized using the extracts of Citrus maxima plant. Characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of AgNps in nano-size range. These nanoparticles exhibited enhanced antioxidative activity and showed commendable antimicrobial activity against wide range of microbes including multi-drug resistant bacteria that were later confirmed by TEM. These particles exhibited minimal toxicity when cytotoxicity study was performed on normal human lung fibroblast cell line as well as human red blood cells. It was quite noteworthy that these particles showed remarkable cytotoxicity on human fibrosarcoma and mouse melanoma cell line (B16-F10). Additionally, the apoptotic topographies of B16-F10 cells treated with AgNps were confirmed by using acridine orange and ethidium bromide dual dye staining, caspase-3 assay, DNA fragmentation assay followed by cell cycle analysis using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Taken together, these results advocate promising potential of the biosynthesized AgNps for their use in therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bactericidal application and cytotoxic activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles with an extract of the red seaweed Pterocladiella capillacea on the HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kassas, Hala Yassin; Attia, Azza Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Nano-biotechnology is recognized as offering revolutionary changes in various fields of medicine. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles have a wide range of applications. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized with an aqueous extract of Pterocladiella (Pterocladia) capillacea, used as a reducing and stabilizing agent, and characterized using UV-VIS spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive analysis (EDX). The biosynthesized AgNPs were tested for cytotoxic activity in a human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% antibiotic and antimycotic solution and 2 mM glutamine. Bacterial susceptibility to AgNPs was assessed with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis [Gram+ve] and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli [Gram-ve]. The agar well diffusion technique was adopted to evaluate the bactericidal activity of the biosynthesized AgNPs using Ampicillin and Gentamicin as gram+ve and gram-ve antibacterial standard drugs, respectively. The biosynthesized AgNPs were 11.4±3.52 nm in diameter. FT-IR analysis showed that carbonyl groups from the amino acid residues and proteins could assist in formation and stabilization of AgNPs. The AgNPs showed potent cytotoxic activity against the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line at higher concentrations. The results also showed that the biosynthesized AgNPs inhibited the entire panel of tested bacteria with a marked specificity towards Bacillus subtillus. Cytotoxic activity of the biosynthesized AgNPs may be due to the presence of alkaloids present in the algal extract. Our AgNPs appear more bactericidal against gram-positive bacteria (B. subtillus).

  11. Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body that produces vitamin D. As many of us spend more and more time on computers and game consoles, we're not outdoors as much as we once were. And, when we do spend time in the sun, more of us are making the wise decision to use sunscreen ...

  12. Microstructural, spectroscopic, and antibacterial properties of silver-based hybrid nanostructures biosynthesized using extracts of coriander leaves and seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Luna,1 Enrique Díaz Barriga-Castro,2 Alberto Gómez-Treviño,3 Nuria O Núñez,4 Raquel Mendoza-Reséndez1 1Research Center of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; 2Central Laboratory of Analytical Instrumentation, Research Center for Applied Chemistry, Coahuila, Mexico; 3Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; 4Colloidal Materials Research Group, Institute of Materials Science of Seville, Spanish National Research Council, University of Seville, Seville, Spain Abstract: Coriander leaves and seeds have been highly appreciated since ancient times, not only due to their pleasant flavors but also due to their inhibitory activity on food degradation and their beneficial properties for health, both ascribed to their strong antioxidant activity. Recently, it has been shown that coriander leaf extracts can mediate the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles through oxidation/reduction reactions. In the present study, extracts of coriander leaves and seeds have been used as reaction media for the wet chemical synthesis of ultrafine silver nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters, with urchin- and tree-like shapes, coated by biomolecules (mainly, proteins and polyphenols. In this greener route of nanostructure preparation, the active biocompounds of coriander simultaneously play the roles of reducing and stabilizing agents. The morphological and microstructural studies of the resulting biosynthesized silver nanostructures revealed that the nanostructures prepared with a small concentration of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =5 mM exhibit an ultrafine size and a narrow size distribution, whereas particles synthesized with high concentrations of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =0.5 M are polydisperse and formation of supramolecular structures occurs. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy

  13. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  14. Confirmation of Fructans biosynthesized in vitro from [1-13C]glucose in asparagus tissues using MALDI-TOF MS and ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Maeda, Tomoo; Grant, Suzanne; Grant, Gordon; Sporns, Peter

    2013-05-15

    Accumulation of Fructans was confirmed in asparagus tissues that had been cultured for 2 days on media supplemented with glucose. It is very common that Fructans are biosynthesized from sucrose. We hypothesized however that Fructans could also be biosynthesized from glucose. Stem tissues of in vitro-cultured asparagus were subcultured for 72 h on a medium containing 0.5M of [1-(13)C]glucose. A medium containing 0.5M of normal ((12)C) glucose was used as control. Carbohydrates were extracted from the tissues and analyzed using HPLC, MALDI-TOF MS and ESI-MS. HPLC results indicated that the accumulation of short-chain Fructans was similar in both (13)C-labelled and control samples. Short-chain Fructans of DP=3-7 were detected using MALDI-TOF MS. The molecular mass of each oligomer in the (13)C-labelled sample was higher than the mass of the natural sample by 1 m/z unit per sugar moiety. The results of ESI-MS on the HPLC fractions of neokestose and 1-kestose showed that these oligomers (DP=3) were biosynthesized from exogenous glucose added to the medium. We conclude that not only exogenous sucrose but glucose can induce Fructan biosynthesis; fructans of both inulin type and inulin neoseries are also biosynthesized from glucose accumulated in asparagus tissues; the glucose molecules (or its metabolic products) were incorporated into Fructans as structural monomers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Strategies for vitamin B6 biofortification of plants: A dual role as a micronutrient and a stress protectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé eVanderschuren

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B6 has an essential role in cells as a cofactor for several metabolic enzymes. It has also been shown to function as a potent antioxidant molecule. The recent elucidation of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathways in plants provides opportunities for characterizing their importance during developmental processes and exposure to stress. Humans and animals must acquire vitamin B6 with their diet, with plants being a major source, because they cannot biosynthesize it de novo. However, the abundance of the vitamin in the edible portions of the most commonly consumed plants is not sufficient to meet daily requirements. Genetic engineering has proven successful in increasing the vitamin B6 content in the model plant Arabidopsis. The added benefits associated with the enhanced vitamin B6 content, such as higher biomass and resistance to abiotic stress, suggest that increasing this essential micronutrient could be a valuable option to improve the nutritional quality and stress tolerance of crop plants. This review summarizes current achievements in biofortification of vitamin B6 and considers strategies for increasing vitamin B6 levels in crop plants for human health and nutrition.

  16. Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol using gold nanoparticles biosynthesized by cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenli; Qu, Yuanyuan, E-mail: qyy@dlut.edu.cn; Pei, Xiaofang; Li, Shuzhen; You, Shengnan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhaojing; Zhou, Jiti

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • A green process for AuNPs synthesis was achieved by fungus Aspergillus. • Uniform spherical AuNPs with well dispersity and stability were biosynthesized. • The biogenic AuNPs possessed remarkable catalytic activities for 4-NP reduction. - Abstract: A facile one-pot eco-friendly process for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with high catalytic activity was achieved using cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au as reducing, capping and stabilizing agents. The surface plasmon resonance band of UV–vis spectrum at 532 nm confirmed the presence of AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that quite uniform spherical AuNPs were synthesized and the average size of nanoparticles increased from 4 nm to 29 nm with reaction time. X-ray diffraction analysis verified the formation of nano-crystalline gold particles. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the presence of functional groups on the surface of biosynthesized AuNPs, such as O−H, N−H, C=O, C−H, C−OH and C−O−C groups, which increased the stability of AuNPs. The biogenic AuNPs could serve as a highly efficient catalyst for 4-nitrophenol reduction. The reaction rate constant was linearly correlated with the concentration of AuNPs, which increased from 0.59 min{sup −1} to 1.51 min{sup −1} with the amount of AuNPs increasing form 1.46 × 10{sup −6} to 17.47 × 10{sup −6} mmol. Moreover, the as-synthesized AuNPs exhibited a remarkable normalized catalytic activity (4.04 × 10{sup 5} min{sup −1} mol{sup −1}), which was much higher than that observed for AuNPs synthesized by other biological and conventional chemical methods.

  17. Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol using gold nanoparticles biosynthesized by cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wenli; Qu, Yuanyuan; Pei, Xiaofang; Li, Shuzhen; You, Shengnan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhaojing; Zhou, Jiti

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A green process for AuNPs synthesis was achieved by fungus Aspergillus. • Uniform spherical AuNPs with well dispersity and stability were biosynthesized. • The biogenic AuNPs possessed remarkable catalytic activities for 4-NP reduction. - Abstract: A facile one-pot eco-friendly process for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with high catalytic activity was achieved using cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au as reducing, capping and stabilizing agents. The surface plasmon resonance band of UV–vis spectrum at 532 nm confirmed the presence of AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that quite uniform spherical AuNPs were synthesized and the average size of nanoparticles increased from 4 nm to 29 nm with reaction time. X-ray diffraction analysis verified the formation of nano-crystalline gold particles. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the presence of functional groups on the surface of biosynthesized AuNPs, such as O−H, N−H, C=O, C−H, C−OH and C−O−C groups, which increased the stability of AuNPs. The biogenic AuNPs could serve as a highly efficient catalyst for 4-nitrophenol reduction. The reaction rate constant was linearly correlated with the concentration of AuNPs, which increased from 0.59 min −1 to 1.51 min −1 with the amount of AuNPs increasing form 1.46 × 10 −6 to 17.47 × 10 −6 mmol. Moreover, the as-synthesized AuNPs exhibited a remarkable normalized catalytic activity (4.04 × 10 5 min −1 mol −1 ), which was much higher than that observed for AuNPs synthesized by other biological and conventional chemical methods.

  18. Facts about Vitamin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... milligrams of vitamin C every day. Three large strawberries provide 33 milligrams of vitamin C. Figure 1. ... and citrus fruit juices, sweet peppers, papayas, and strawberries. Table 2. Food sources of vitamin C. Food ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, ... excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body ...

  1. Von der Vielfalt einer Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Kabaum, Marcel; Buck, Marc Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Von der Vielfalt von Universitäten bzw. higher education institutions (HEIs) zu sprechen heißt, sich dem Dickicht an Komplexität zu stellen, das sich zwischen ihren Ideen und Realitäten ausbreitet. Der Text führt in den Sammelband "Ideen und Realitäten von Universitäten" ein und hebt die verschiedenen disziplinären Sichtweisen sowie die internationale Breite - Deutschland, Südamerika, USA, Afghanistan und China - der Beiträge hervor. (DIPF/Orig.)

  2. Synthesis of novel vitamin K derivatives with alkylated phenyl groups introduced at the ω-terminal side chain and evaluation of their neural differentiation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakane, Rie; Kimura, Kimito; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Ishizawa, Michiyasu; Takagi, Yuta; Wada, Akimori; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Makishima, Makoto; Suhara, Yoshitomo

    2017-11-01

    Vitamin K is an essential cofactor of γ-glutamylcarboxylase as related to blood coagulation and bone formation. Menaquinone-4, one of the vitamin K homologues, is biosynthesized in the body and has various biological activities such as being a ligand for steroid and xenobiotic receptors, protection of neuronal cells from oxidative stress, and so on. From this background, we focused on the role of menaquinone in the differentiation activity of progenitor cells into neuronal cells and we synthesized novel vitamin K derivatives with modification of the ω-terminal side chain. We report here new vitamin K analogues, which introduced an alkylated phenyl group at the ω-terminal side chain. These compounds exhibited potent differentiation activity as compared to control. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Alejandro Von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Paz Otero

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Diverso fue y sigue siéndolo, el destino de los dos hermanos Humboldt, Guillermo y Alejandro. Sino que se inicia con el nacimiento: Guillermo, el mayor, nace el 22 de junio de 1767 en Potsdam, residencia de los emperadores prusianos, la ciudad de los palacios imperiales, el imperio del militarismo germano; su cuna se meció cerca al palacete de Sans-Soussi, donde Federico el Grande forja ba el poderío de Prusia, cultivaba las ciencias y las artes, anfitrionaba a los intelectuales de Europa, y era "vasallo espiritual de Volta ire", según la aguda frase de Goethe. Alejandro viene al mundo dos años después (14 de septiembre de 1769 en Berlín, en la casa burguesa de la Jagerstrasse (calle del cazador que su madre Elizabeth von Humboldt heredara de su primer esposo.

  4. Kleben von Kunststoff mit Metall

    CERN Document Server

    Brockmann, W; Käufer, H

    1989-01-01

    Das Buch behandelt das Kleben von Kunststoffen mit Metallen in einer fur den Praktiker verstandlichen und umsetzbaren Form. Es leitet zu Klebeverfahren an, die optimale Ergebnisse hinsichtlich Qualitat, Dauerhaftigkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit liefern.

  5. Facts about Vitamin K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Figure 1. Vitamin K is mostly found in vegetables, especially green ... ColognePhotos/iStock/Thinkstock, © ColognePhotos Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat- ...

  6. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  7. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B12? Disclaimer What is vitamin B12 and what does it do? Vitamin B12 ...

  8. FATSOLUBLE VITAMINS AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novica Bojanić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are the cell biocatalysts, indispensable factors in performing the basic body functions. Fat-soluble vitamins are not involved in processes related to musscle contractions and energy expenditure, but they can affect physical performance indirectly because they are important for immune function (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, antioxidant function (vitamin A, vitamin E or bone methabolism (vitamin D, vitamin K. Currently there are no clear recommendations for increase of fat-solubile vitamins intake in athletes, as well as evidence that athletic performance may be improved due to fat-solubile vitamins supplementation. In a small number of studies, it was shown that an antioxidant effect of beta carotene and vitamin E can prevent muscle damage and facilitate recovery after exercise. Also, athletes who perform the exercises in the halls should be informed about the necessity of sun exposure, as vitamin D is synthesised in the skin. Most athletes are not familiar with their needs for vitamins and trace elements, and take these compounds as supplements without consulting a nutritionist. It is important to emphasize that liposulubile vitamins are deposited in the body and can cause hypervitaminosis and toxic effects if taken in excess. It is indisputable that the lack of any fat-soluble vitamin cause problems in normal physiological processes, but supplementation is generally not required in athlets who have a well-balanced diet.

  9. Antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of biosynthesized colloidal zinc oxide nanoparticles for a fortified cold cream formulation: A potent nanocosmeceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sonia; H, Linda Jeeva Kumari; K, Ruckmani; M, Sivakumar

    2017-10-01

    Nanocosmeceuticals are promising applications of nanotechnology in personal care industries. Zinc oxide is an inorganic material that is non-toxic and skin compatible with self-cleansing and microbicidal properties. Herein, exploitation of colloidal zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONps) as potent biomaterial for a topical formulation of cosmetic and dermatological significance is employed. ZnONps were green synthesized using environmentally benign Adhatoda vasica leaf extract and characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results reveal that the biosynthesized ZnONps exhibit an absorption peak at 352nm. XRD and HR-TEM analyses confirm the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnONps with particle size of about 10nm to 12nm. Elemental analysis by EDX confirms the presence of zinc and oxygen. Zeta potential of -24.6mV affirms the stability of nanoparticles. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of biosynthesized ZnONps exhibit mean zone of inhibition from 08.667±0.282 to 21.666±0.447 (mm) and 09.000±0.177 to 19.000±0.307 (mm) respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The IC 50 value exerted from the antioxidant activity of ZnONps is found to be 139.27μgmL -1 . ZnONps infused cold cream formulation of microbicidal and antioxidant properties was further tested against clinical skin pathogens. The nano-based cold cream exhibited significant inhibitory action against Candida sp., which showed resistance against a commercial antifungal cream (2%). Therefore, this study demonstrates the exploitation of ZnONps as promising colloidal drug carriers in cosmeceuticals that can significantly alleviate human skin infections and oxidative stress induced cellular damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vitamin D and Anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Biricik, Ebru; Güneş, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is a vitamin not only associated with calcium-phosphorus metabolism but also affects many organ systems. Because of its effect on the immune system in recent years, it has attracted much attention. Vitamin D deficiency is a clinical condition that can be widely observed in the society. Thus, patients with vitamin D deficiency are often seen in anaesthesia practice. In the absence of vitamin D, prolongation of intensive care unit stay, increase in mortality and morbidity and also ass...

  11. Richard von Volkmann

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Christian; Schneider, Peter; Engelhardt, Michael; Hargens, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Richard von Volkmann (1830–1889), one of the most important surgeons of the 19th century, is regarded as one of the fathers of orthopaedic surgery. He was a contemporary of Langenbeck, Esmarch, Lister, Billroth, Kocher, and Trendelenburg. He was head of the Department of Surgery at the University of Halle, Germany (1867–1889). His popularity attracted doctors and patients from all over the world. He was the lead physician for the German military during two wars. From this experience, he compared the mortality of civilian and war injuries and investigated the general poor hygienic conditions in civilian hospitals. This led him to introduce the “antiseptic technique” to Germany that was developed by Lister. His powers of observation and creativity led him to findings and achievements that to this day bear his name: Volkmann’s contracture and the Hueter-Volkmann law. Additionally, he was a gifted writer; he published not only scientific literature but also books of children’s fairy tales and poems under the pen name of Richard Leander, assuring him a permanent place in the world of literature as well as orthopaedics. PMID:18196438

  12. Aggregation und Management von Metadaten im Kontext von Europeana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Koch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mit dem In-Beziehung-Setzen und Verlinken von Daten im Internet wird der Weg zur Umsetzung des semantischen Webs geebnet. Erst die semantische Verbindung von heterogenen Datenbeständen ermöglicht übergreifende Suchvorgänge und späteres „Machine Learning“. Im Artikel werden die Aktivitäten der Europäischen Digitalen Bibliothek im Bereich des Metadatenmanagements und der semantischen Verlinkung von Daten skizziert. Dabei wird einerseits ein kurzer Überblick zu aktuellen Forschungsschwerpunkten und Umsetzungsstrategien gegeben, und darüber hinaus werden einzelne Projekte und maßgeschneiderte Serviceangebote für naturhistorische Daten, regionale Kultureinrichtungen und Audiosammlungen beschrieben.

  13. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from aqueous leaves extracts of four Terminalia species

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rafie, Hanaa Mohamed; Abdel-Aziz Hamed, Manal

    2014-09-01

    The environmentally friendly synthesis of nanoparticles process is a revolutionary step in the field of nanotechnology. In recent years plant mediated biological synthesis of nanoparticles has been gaining importance due to its simplicity and eco-friendliness. In this study, a simple and an efficient eco-friendly approach for the biosynthesis of stable, monodisperse silver nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of four Terminalia species, namely, Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mellueri, Terminalia bentazoe and Terminalia bellerica were described. The silver nanoparticles were characterized in terms of synthesis, capping functionalities (polysaccharides, phenolics and flavonoidal compounds) and microscopic evaluation by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed a simple and feasible approach for obtaining stable aqueous monodispersive silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, biological activity of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was examined. Concerning this, dose-dependent antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles imparted by the plant phenolic and flavonoidal components was evaluated using in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and found to be comparable to standard ascorbic acid. The same holds true for the anti-inflammatory activity where Terminalia catappa and Terminalia mellueri have a high-test inhibition percentage better than that of ascorbic acid in the carrageenan induced hind paw edema. The results also revealed that the aqueous extract of Terminallia catapa and its silver nanoparticles recorded the most potent in vivo antioxidant effect.

  14. A new composite consisting of electrosynthesized conducting polymers, graphene sheets and biosynthesized gold nanoparticles for biosensing acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad; Barazesh, Behnaz; Khoshroo, Alireza; Moshtaghiun, Mohammad; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan

    2018-06-01

    In this work we report the synthesis of a stable composite with excellent electrical properties, on the surface of a biosensor. Conductive polymers offer both high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength. Many reports have focused on synthesizing conductive polymers with the aid of high-cost enzymes. In the current work we introduce a novel electrochemical, one-step, facile and cost effective procedure for synthesizing poly (catechol), without using expensive enzymes. The poly (catechol) conductivity was enhanced by modification with graphene sheets and biosynthesized gold nanoparticles. Four different robust methods, DPV, EIS, CV and chronoamperometry, were used to monitor the biosensor modifications. The peak currents of the catechol (an electroactive probe) were linearly related to the logarithm of the concentrations of target DNA in the range 100.0 μM to 10.0 pM, with a detection limit of 1.0 pM for the DNA strand. The current work investigates a new, stable composite consisting of conductive polymers and nanoparticles, which was applied to the detection of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of a Squalene Epoxidase Inhibitor, Terbinafine, on Ether Lipid Biosyntheses in a Thermoacidophilic Archaeon, Thermoplasma acidophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Takahide; Nemoto, Naoki; Oshima, Tairo; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2002-01-01

    The archaeal plasma membrane consists mainly of diether lipids and tetraether lipids instead of the usual ester lipids found in other organisms. Although a molecule of tetraether lipid is thought to be synthesized from two molecules of diether lipids, there is no direct information about the biosynthetic pathway(s) or intermediates of tetraether lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we examined the effects of the fungal squalene epoxidase inhibitor terbinafine on the growth and ether lipid biosyntheses in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum. Terbinafine was found to inhibit the growth of T. acidophilum in a concentration-dependent manner. When growing T. acidophilum cells were pulse-labeled with [2-14C]mevalonic acid in the presence of terbinafine, incorporation of radioactivity into the tetraether lipid fraction was strongly suppressed, while accumulation of radioactivity was noted at the position corresponding to diether lipids, depending on the concentration of terbinafine. After the cells were washed with fresh medium and incubated further without the radiolabeled substrate and the inhibitor, the accumulated radioactivity in the diether lipid fraction decreased quickly while that in the tetraether lipids increased simultaneously, without significant changes in the total radioactivity of ether lipids. These results strongly suggest that terbinafine inhibits the biosynthesis of tetraether lipids from a diether-type precursor lipid(s). The terbinafine treatment will be a tool for dissecting tetraether lipid biosynthesis in T. acidophilum. PMID:11844769

  16. Co-ordinated research programme on development and application of isotopic techniques in studies of vitamin A nutrition. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In Vitamin A nutrition, evaluations to ascertain the efficacy of intervention strategies are becoming increasingly important. However, state-of-the-art methods for evaluating vitamin A status often do not provide enough quantitative information on vitamin A status and the bioconversion of carotenoids, particularly in people with subclinical vitamin A deficiency. These limitations have had programmatic consequences. The principal reason the new Coordinated Research programme (CRP) was formulated was to improve techniques for measuring vitamin A status and the bioconversion of carotenoids to vitamin A with the expectation that the new methods could contribute meaningfully to field-based evaluations of the efficacy of intervention strategies. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is sponsoring programmes to develop and transfer isotopic techniques to improve nutrition monitoring in developing countries. The New CRP ''Development and Application of Isotopic Techniques in Studies of Vitamin A Nutrition'' has seven teams, six of which are working to develop methods based on orally administered isotopically labelled retinol which will be a valid measure of whole body retinol (mostly hepatic reserves) and useful under typical field conditions, particularly in women and children with marginal vitamin A deficiency. The seventh team is biosynthesizing uniformly deuterated β-carotene by growing foods in deuterated water. This report summarizes the research to be undertaken, as presented at the first Research Co-ordination Meeting

  17. Co-ordinated research programme on development and application of isotopic techniques in studies of vitamin A nutrition. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    In Vitamin A nutrition, evaluations to ascertain the efficacy of intervention strategies are becoming increasingly important. However, state-of-the-art methods for evaluating vitamin A status often do not provide enough quantitative information on vitamin A status and the bioconversion of carotenoids, particularly in people with subclinical vitamin A deficiency. These limitations have had programmatic consequences. The principal reason the new Coordinated Research programme (CRP) was formulated was to improve techniques for measuring vitamin A status and the bioconversion of carotenoids to vitamin A with the expectation that the new methods could contribute meaningfully to field-based evaluations of the efficacy of intervention strategies. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is sponsoring programmes to develop and transfer isotopic techniques to improve nutrition monitoring in developing countries. The New CRP ``Development and Application of Isotopic Techniques in Studies of Vitamin A Nutrition`` has seven teams, six of which are working to develop methods based on orally administered isotopically labelled retinol which will be a valid measure of whole body retinol (mostly hepatic reserves) and useful under typical field conditions, particularly in women and children with marginal vitamin A deficiency. The seventh team is biosynthesizing uniformly deuterated {beta}-carotene by growing foods in deuterated water. This report summarizes the research to be undertaken, as presented at the first Research Co-ordination Meeting. Refs, figs, tabs.

  18. John von Neumann selected letters

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    John von Neuman was perhaps the most influential mathematician of the twentieth century, especially if his broad influence outside mathematics is included. Not only did he contribute to almost all branches of mathematics and created new fields, but he also changed post-World War II history with his work on the design of computers and with being a sought-after technical advisor to many figures in the U.S. military-political establishment in the 1940s and 1950s. The present volume is the first substantial collection of (previously mainly unpublished) letters written by von Neumann to colleagues, friends, government officials, and others. The letters give us a glimpse of the thinking of John von Neumann about mathematics, physics, computer science, science management, education, consulting, politics, and war. Readers of quite diverse backgrounds will find much of interest in this fascinating first-hand look at one of the towering figures of twentieth century science.

  19. Automatisierung von HiL Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Asbach, Lennart; Ebrecht, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Automatisierung von HiL Tests. Darstellung und Bewertung einer praktischen Umsetzung. Das Poster zeigt die Motivation, die Durchführung, einen aktuellen Stand und einen Ausblick der Testautomatisierung im Bahnlabor RailSiTe. Als Beispiel dient der Konformitätstest von ETCS-Onboard Zugrechnern, um die Einführung von ETCS zu unterstützen.

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as over- ... including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ... magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, ... nerve function. There are 13 vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, ...

  5. Homopteren von Java, gesammelt von Herrn Edw. Jacobson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melichar, L.

    1914-01-01

    Herr Edw. Jacobson hat auf Java in den Jahren 1908— 1910 Homopteren gesammelt und mir die Bearbeitung des gesammelten Materiales übertragen. Die Jacobson’sche Ausbeute ist insoferne bemerkenswert, als dieselbe viele Mikrohomopteren enthält, welche von nichtfachkundigen Sammlern gewöhnlich nicht

  6. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamishehkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials, were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  7. Vitamin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  8. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  9. Facts about Vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yolks. Table 2. Food sources of vitamin A Food Vitamin A (RAE*) Sweet potato, cooked, 1 medium 1,400 Spinach, frozen, boiled, ½ cup 580 Carrot, raw, ½ cup 460 Pumpkin, cooked, ½ cup 305 Cantaloupe, cubed, 1 cup ...

  10. Vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625 ...

  11. Vitamin D Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. If your results show you have an excess of (too much) vitamin D, it is most likely due to taking ... 2 screens]. Available from: ... Merck & Co. Inc.; c2017. Vitamin D [cited 2017 Apr 10]; [about 2 screens]. ...

  12. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A higher than normal value means you have excess vitamin A in your blood (toxic levels). This may ... Saunders; 2013:1175-1177. Ross AC, Tan L. Vitamin A deficiencies and excess. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  13. B Vitamins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the body through the urine. Because B vitamins are water-soluble, only small amounts are stored by the body and they must be obtained from foods rich in B vitamins or from supplements on a regular basis. Severe ...

  14. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation is described of specified vitamin D 3 esters containing alkyl and hydroxy groups. They can be used, in particular, for preparing radiolabeled vitamin D 3 compounds of high specific activity. (U.K.)

  15. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to cyclo-vitamin intermediates of specified formula. They can be used, in particular, for preparing 26,27-isotopically labeled vitamin D 3 compounds of high specific activity. (author)

  16. Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are unique to specific vitamin deficiencies. Folate-deficiency anemia risk factors include: Undergoing hemodialysis for kidney failure. ... the metabolism of folate. Vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia risk factors include: Lack of intrinsic factor. Most ...

  17. Properties of von Neumann entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disentangled) as seen by moving observers, is used to investigate the properties of von Neumann entropy, as a measure of spin–momentum entanglement. To do so, we partition the total Hilbert space into momentum and spin subspaces so that the ...

  18. von Hippel-Lindau disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Gimsing, Steen; Kosteljanetz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumours (ELSTs) of the inner ear occur in 16% of patients with the hereditary tumor syndrome von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL). ELSTs of all sizes can cause irreversible hearing loss which can, however, be prevented through early diagnosis and treatment. We aim to emphasize the ch...

  19. In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles using Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauthal, Preeti; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi, E-mail: mausumi_mukhopadhyay@yahoo.com [S.V. National Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (India)

    2013-01-15

    In-vitro free radical scavenging activity of biosynthesized gold (Au-NPs) and silver (Ag-NPs) nanoparticles was investigated in the present study. Natural precursor Prunus armeniaca (apricot) fruit extract was used as a reducing agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. The free radical scavenging activity of the nanoparticles were observed by modified 1,1 Prime -diphynyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH and 2,2 Prime -azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), ABTS assay. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Appearance of optical absorption peak at 537 nm (2.20 keV) and 435 nm (3 keV) within 0.08 and 0.5 h of reaction time was confirmed the presence of metallic Au and Ag nanoclusters, respectively. Nearly spherical nanoparticles with majority of particle below 20 nm (TEM) for both Au-NPs and Ag-NPs were synthesized. XRD pattern confirmed the existence of pure nanocrystalline Au-NPs while few additional peaks in the vicinity of fcc silver-speculated crystallization of metalloproteins of fruit extract on the surface of the Ag-NPs and vice versa. FTIR spectra was supported the role of amino acids of protein/enzymes of fruit extract for synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles. Dose-dependent scavenging activity was observed for Au-NPs and Ag-NPs in both DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assay. 50 % scavenging activity for DPPH were 11.27 and 16.18 mg and for ABTS 3.40 and 7.12 mg with Au-NPs and Ag-NPs, respectively.

  20. [Friedrich Ludwig von Maydelli pildid Baltimaade ajaloost = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydells Baltische Geschichte in Bildern = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydell ́s Baltic history in images] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Friedrich Ludwig von Maydelli pildid Baltimaade ajaloost = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydells Baltische Geschichte in Bildern = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydell ́s Baltic history in images. Eesti kunstimuuseum, Kadrioru kunstimuuseum. Tallinn 2013

  1. Vitamin D – The Vitamin Hormone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a lot has changed, and vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is now a global public-health ... Open Access article distributed under the terms of the. Creative Commons ..... as excess vitamin D3 is destroyed by sunlight. Conclusion. It appears ...

  2. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and can be stored in your body. The water-soluble vitamins — C and the B-complex vitamins (such as vitamins B6, B12, niacin, riboflavin, and folate) — need to dissolve in water before your body can absorb them. Because of ...

  3. Vitamin D derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, H.F.; Schnoes, H.K.; Napoli, J.L.; Fivizzani, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The chemical preparation of 26,27-isotopically labelled vitamin D 3 derivatives of high specific activity is described. These labelled vitamin D derivatives are useful in the determination of vitamin D metabolite levels in the blood and tissues of man and animals. (U.K.)

  4. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pork Nuts Poultry Whole grains and fortified cereals Canned chickpeas Fortified breads and cereals may also contain vitamin B6. Fortified means that a vitamin or mineral has been added to the food. Side Effects Large doses of vitamin B6 can cause: Difficulty ...

  5. Vitamin C and Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, Harri

    2017-03-29

    In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  6. Vitamin C and Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Hemilä

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.

  7. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  8. [Vitamins in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, K

    2012-09-01

    Vitamins are organic substances essential to the maintenance of many physiological functions, and necessary for growth. They are subdivided into two groups: the fat soluble vitamins which include vitamins A, D, E and K and the water-soluble vitamins which include Group B vitamins and vitamin C. The recommendations for vitamins intake must be evaluated at regular intervals, and vary according to the different methods used and the different environments assessed. The shortcomings, but equally the measures of prevention must be taken into account. In industrialized countries, provided that the diet is balanced and in the absence of chronic disease, the majority of needs are covered. Vitamin requirements vary depending on age, sex, state of pregnancy, chronic disease or a specific diet. In industrialized countries, chronic alcoholics and malabsorption cases represent groups at risk of vitamin deficiency. Dietary anamnesis remains the best tool to assess needs and nutritional deficiencies. In infants fed exclusively on milk, the required intake is easy to deduce; on the other hand, the needs assessment becomes more difficult with dietary diversification. In industrialized countries, vitamin D should be administered throughout one's life, and vitamin K during the first three months of life for breast-fed new-borns. In developing countries, nutritional status is precarious and supplementation needs to be adapted accordingly.

  9. Nonclassical Vitamin D Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Zittermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5–15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L.

  10. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles derived from fungi against endo-perio pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus pumilus, and Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkai, Kiran Rahul; Mudda, Jayashree A.; Shivanna, Vasundhara; Rathod, Vandana; Halkai, Rahul S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Even after rapid progress in contemporary dental practice, we encounter the failures due to endodontic, periodontal, or combined lesions. Complex anatomy of tooth and resistant microbes demands the development of new treatment strategies. Aim: The aim of this study is to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fungi and determine the antibacterial efficacy against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus pumilus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Fungi isolated from healthy leaves of Withania somnifera were used to biosynthesize AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by different methods, and antibacterial efficacy was evaluated by agar well diffusion method measuring the zone of inhibition. Test microorganisms were divided as Group 1: B. pumilus 27142 (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC]), Group 2: E. faecalis 29212 (ATCC), and Group 3: P. gingivalis 33277 (ATCC). Agents used for antibacterial efficacy were grouped as: AgNPs: A (20 μl), B (40 μl), C (60 μl), D (80 μl), E (100 μl), F (0.2% chlorhexidine [CHX]), G (2% CHX), H (Ampicillin), and I (sterile distilled water). Results: Characterization studies showed the color change from colorless to reddish brown color; ultraviolet spectrum showed peak at 420 nm, transmission electron microscope revealed the particles spherical in shape and 10–20 nm size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of functional groups. Data collected for antibacterial efficacy were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's multiple shows no significant difference among three groups (P lesions. PMID:29430090

  11. Clinical Efficacy Associated with Enhanced Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized Using Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract, Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a Murine Model of Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khadragy, Manal; Alolayan, Ebtesam M; Metwally, Dina M; El-Din, Mohamed F Serag; Alobud, Sara S; Alsultan, Nour I; Alsaif, Sarah S; Awad, Manal A; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2018-05-22

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most significant vector-borne syndromes of individuals. This parasitic infection can be affected by many species of Leishmania, most of which are zoonotic. Natural products have made and are continuing to make important contributions to the search for new antileishmanial agents. The use of plants in the production assembly of silver nanoparticles has drawn attention because of its rapid, eco-friendly, non-pathogenic, economical protocol and provides a single step technique for the biosynthetic process. Hence, we aimed to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and investigated the antileishmanial activity of these nanoparticles in a murine model of Leishmania major infection. A total of 50 mice were used and divided into five groups-healthy control, infected, infected mice treated with pentostam, infected mice treated with Ag-NPs and infected mice pretreated with Ag-NPs. In the present study, the leaf extract of the plant species Moringa oleifera was found to be a good source for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, their formation being confirmed by color change and stability in solution. In the present murine model of Leishmania major infection, we found that oral treatment with silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using Moringa oleifera extract resulted in a significant reduction in the average size of leishmaniasis cutaneous lesions compared with untreated mice. Furthermore, the clinical efficacy of Moringa oleifera extract was associated with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities. In conclusion, treatment with silver nanoparticles biosynthesized using Moringa oleifera extract has higher and faster clinical efficacy than standard pentavalent antimonial treatment, probably by boosting the endogenous antioxidant activity.

  12. Gebrauch von Komplementärmedizin bei Patienten mit metastasierendem Melanom unter Therapie mit Ipilimumab innerhalb einer klinischen Studie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Jutta; Mohr, Peter; Simon, Jan-Christoph; Fluck, Michael; Berking, Carola; Zimmer, Lisa; Loquai, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    In Deutschland wenden 40-90 % aller Krebspatienten Methoden der komplementären and alternativen Medizin (KAM) an. Bis dato gibt es kein Datenmaterial zum Einsatz der KAM bei Melanompatienten. Das Ziel unserer Studie war es, Daten über den Gebrauch, die Informationsquellen und Ziele von Patienten mit metastasierendem Melanom zu erfassen. Einhundertsechsundfünfzig Patienten aus 25 Studienzentren nahmen an der DecOG-MM-PAL Multibasket Studie teil. Die beteiligten Personen wurden auch gebeten, an einer Nebenstudie teilzunehmen, die ihren Gebrauch von KAM erfassen sollte. Dazu wurde während der Behandlung ein standardisierter Fragebogen zu genau festgelegten Zeitpunkten ausgeteilt. Insgesamt gingen 55 Fragebögen von 32 (21 %) Melanompatienten ein. Von diesen gaben 17 (53 %) ein Interesse an KAM an, und sieben (22 %) machten von KAM Gebrauch. Die Hauptinformationsquellen (31 %) waren Familienmitglieder und Freunde, gefolgt von Ärzten (19 %). Die Hauptgründe für die Anwendung von KAM waren die Stärkung des Immunsystems (41 %) und des Körpers (34 %). Nahrungsergänzungsmittel (Vitamine und Spurenelemente) wurden am häufigsten angewendet (28 %). Eine relativ hohe Anzahl an Patienten mit metastasierendem Melanom machte trotz Teilnahme an einer klinischen Studie von KAM Gebrauch. Wechselwirkungen könnten durch biologisch basierte KAM auftreten, und hier besonders bei immunmodulierenden KAM- Strategien. Um Risiken zu vermeiden, sollte die Kommunikation zwischen den Ärzten und den Patienten verbessert werden. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Shock, diaschisis and von Monakow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of shock apparently emerged in the middle of the 18th century (Whyett as an occurrence observed experimentally after spinal cord transection, and identified as "shock" phenomenon one century later (Hall. The concept was extended (Brown-Séquard and it was suggested that brain lesions caused functional rupture in regions distant from the injured one ("action à distance". The term "diaschisis" (von Monakow, proposed as a new modality of shock, had its concept broadened, underpinned by observations of patients, aiming at distinguishing between symptoms of focal brain lesions and transitory effects they produced, attributable to depression of distant parts of the brain connected to the injured area. Presently, diaschisis is related mainly to cerebrovascular lesions and classified according to the connection fibers involved, as proposed by von Monakow. Depression of metabolism and blood flow in regions anatomically separated, but related by connections with the lesion, allows observing diaschisis with neuroimaging.

  14. Von Hippel–Lindau disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhara Haron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL disease is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited multisystem disorder characterised by the development of a variety of benign and malignant tumours. We report a case of VHL disease that was inherited by a daughter from her father, who both presented at a young age with progressive headache and were found to have a posterior fossa haemangioblastoma (HB on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Multiple benign pancreatic and renal cysts were also noted in both patients.

  15. Microfinance als Geflecht von Anreizproblemen

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Reinhard H.; Tschach, Ingo E.

    2001-01-01

    Während sich die Entwicklungsfinanzierung in Theorie und Praxis generell mit dem Finanzwesen in Entwicklungs- und Transformationsländern befasst, steht im Teilgebiet der Microfinance die Frage im Vordergrund, wie in diesen Ländern der Zugang ärmerer Bevölkerungsgruppen und speziell von Klein- und Kleinstunternehmer(innen), Kleinbauern und sonstigen wirtschaftlich Selbständigen aus eher niedrigen sozialen Schichten zu Kredit und anderen Finanzdiensleistungen verbessert werden kann. Obwohl es e...

  16. Moose von Inselbergen in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Frahm, Jan-Peter; Porembski, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    Acht Leber- und zehn Laubmoosarten werden von Inselbergen aus Benin angegeben. Fünf der Lebermoose (Acrolejeunea emergens, Riccia atropurpurea, R. congoana, R. discolor, R. moenkemeyeri) und alle Laubmoose (Archidium ohioense, Brachymenium acuminatum, B. exile, Bryum arachnoideum, B. argenteum, Bryum deperssum, Garckea moenkemeyeri, Hyophila involuta, Philonotis mniobryoides und Weissia cf. edentula) werden neu für Benin angegeben. Eight liverworts and ten mosses are reported from inselber...

  17. Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung von Selen-Spezies in human-biologischem Material

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Selen ist essentieller Bestandteil von mehr als 25 physiologisch wichtigen menschlichen Enzymen. Der tägliche Bedarf wird überwiegend in Form von organischen Selenverbindungen wie Selenmethionin oder Selenocystein aus der Nahrung aufgenommen. Weitere Expositionswege sind die Einnahme von Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln zur Selensupplementation sowie die inhalative oder dermale Aufnahme von in erster Linie anorganischen Selenverbindungen oder elementarem Selen an Arbeitsplätzen der Selen-verarbeiten...

  18. Dr. von Braun Briefing Walt Disney

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Dr. von Braun began his association with Walt Disney in the 1950s when the rocket scientist appeared in three Disney television productions related to the exploration of space. Years later, Dr. von Braun invited Disney and his associates to tour the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. This photograph is dated April 13, 1965. From left are R.J. Schwinghamer from the MSFC, Disney, B.J. Bernight, and Dr. von Braun.

  19. Wohnquartiersbeschreibung: ein Instrument zur Regionalisierung von Nachbarschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, Jürgen H. P.

    2001-01-01

    'Ausgehend von der Annahme, daß soziale Differenzierung sich in räumlicher Differenzierung niederschlägt, bietet eine Beschreibung der Struktur des näheren Wohnumfeldes die Möglichkeit, das Wohnquartier als Handlungsraum und Sozialisationsinstanz zur Interpretation von Umfragedaten zu nutzen. Das vorliegende Instrumentarium erlaubt es, das Wohnquartier unabhängig von Zensusdaten über Merkmale, die in der eigenen Umfrage erhoben werden, zu charakterisieren.' (Autorenreferat) 'The general hy...

  20. Definitions of Health Terms: Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Water-Soluble Vitamins Water-soluble vitamins include all the B vitamins and vitamin C. The body does not easily store water-soluble vitamins and flushes out the extra in the urine. ...

  1. Scurvy and Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Mayberry, Jason A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the history of scurvy and vitamin C. The first section of the paper outlines the science of vitamin C. The second discusses outlines the medical progression of vitamin C deficiency and scurvy. The third section gives a brief timeline of scurvy throughout human history. The fourth section discusses the conditions during the age of sail that combined to make scurvy the greatest killer of sailors. The final section follows the scientific drive to find a cure and eventual elim...

  2. The science behind vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The use of topically applied vitamins has become a ubiquitous part of clinical skin care. While a part of the skin's antioxidant system that assists in protecting it from oxidative damage, vitamins A, C, and E have also proven their ability to treat photoaging, acne, cutaneous inflammation, and hyperpigmentation ((Burgess, 2008). Understanding these vitamins' unique mechanisms of action and how they work in concert helps the clinician select the appropriate topicals for their patients.

  3. Vitamine K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal dit Sollier Claire

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subclasses of vitamin K, their origins, their differential characteristics of absorption and metabolism, their relative effects on gammacarboxylation of various proteins implicated in hemostasis andcoagulation, in bone calcification are not well known even by experts in these fields. These misunderstandings explain errors in recommendations for public and for patients. This review will not expose again the fundamentals on vitamins K as presented in the paper by Marc Guillaumont published in 2000 in this same journal. This 2011 review will try to update our actual knowledge and most of all will insist on their practical implications especially on the management of oral anticoagulant treatments since until recently vitamin K antagonist was the only available type of such a treatment. Several examples illustrate the need for a better understanding of this subject. The fear that diet vitamin K could deregulate the equilibrium of oral vitamin K antagonist treatment leads to recommend a quite total suppression of vitamin K containing components in the diet of anticoagulated patients. This leads to an opposite effect: a high sensitivity to vitamin K and to disequilibrium of the anticoagulant treatment while a comprehensivemoderate and regular diet intake of vitamin K first facilitates the food choice of the patients but also helps to stabilise the treatment of chronically anticoagulated patients. Vitamin K plays a role in bone calcification and in osteoporosis prevention. Until recently the food supplementation with vitamin K in view of preventing osteoporosis in general population was strongly limited due to fear to affect the treatment equilibrium in anticoagulated patients. While an understanding that the effects of moderate supplementation in vitamin K has no or limited effect on anticoagulation and on the long run could at the opposite help to stabilize the daily level of anticoagulation in patients chronically treated with vitamin K.

  4. Vitamin D and Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    PITTAS, ANASTASSIOS G.; DAWSON-HUGHES, BESS

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of evidence from animal and human studies, vitamin D has emerged as a potential risk modifier for type 1 and type 2 diabetes (type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes). Vitamin D is thought to have both direct (through activation of the vitamin D receptor) and indirect (via regulation of calcium homeostasis) effects on various mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of both types of diabetes, including pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, impaired insulin action and systemic inflammati...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body and are eliminated in the urine." Develop a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers ... calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ... toc Also, the AAFP lists the following side effects that are sometimes associated with taking too much ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of ... Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin ... providers before combining or substituting them with other foods or medicines." Frankos adds, "Do not self-diagnose ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? ... good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as over-the-counter multivitamins. According to the American ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... before taking vitamin E or vitamin K pills. Water-soluble Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of ... Subscribe to FDA RSS feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on ...

  14. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and ... into the body with the use of bile acids, which are fluids used to absorb fat. The ...

  16. Pregnancy and Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Ingole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D insufficiency is common in women across different races of childbearing age. It is being increasingly discovered that vitamin D has many important bodily functions apart from skeletal actions pertaining to Calcium homeostasis. Evidence suggests that the maternal risks due to vitamin D deficiency includes eclampsia, increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance; and fetal risks include risk of rickets, osteoporotic fracture in late adulthood. It may be prudent to include screening of all pregnant women for vitamin D level as a part of routine antenatal care and supplementation be given if found deficient.

  17. Vitamin E in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abid Keen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E is an important fat-soluble antioxidant and has been in use for more than 50 years in dermatology. It is an important ingredient in many cosmetic products. It protects the skin from various deleterious effects due to solar radiation by acting as a free-radical scavenger. Experimental studies suggest that vitamin E has antitumorigenic and photoprotective properties. There is a paucity of controlled clinical studies providing a rationale for well-defined dosages and clinical indications of vitamin E usage in dermatological practice. The aim of this article is to review the cosmetic as well as clinical implications of vitamin E in dermatology.

  18. Vitamin C In Neuropsychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are necessary factors in human development and normal brain function. Vitamin C is a hydrosoluble compound that humans cannot produce; therefore, we are completely dependent on food intake for vitamin C. Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidative agent and is present in high concentrations in neurons and is also crucial for collagen synthesis throughout the body. Ascorbic acid has a role in modulating many essential neurotransmitters, enables neurogenesis in adult brain and protects cells against infection. While SVCT1 enables the absorption of vitamin C in the intestine, SVCT2 is primarily located in the brain.

  19. Vitamin D-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Henrik; Schmedes, Anne; Horn, Peer

    2009-01-01

    The importance of vitamin D for osteoporosis and fractures has been known for more than 40 years. Vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed by measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), which should be > 50 nmol/l year round. Recent research suggests that a number of severe diseases could be prevented...... by increasing 25-OHD to 80 nmol/l. Despite a strong focus on such increase, recommendations for intake of Vitamin D have not been changed and the present recommendations are too low even to ensure > 50 nmol/l. To achieve optimal concentrations > 80 nmol/l, we estimate that 50-70 microgram of vitamin D per day...

  20. Vitamin D-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Leif; Nielsen, Lars Rejnmark; Larsen, Erik Roj

    2005-01-01

    During the last two decades, biochemical assays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been available, and based on plasma measurements various definitions of vitamin D deficiency have been suggested. Whereas severe vitamin D deficiency is usually recognised relatively easy, it has been more difficult to d......% and 47%, respectively. Thus, a suboptimal vitamin D status is common among Danes. It is therefore important to consider how their vitamin D status can be improved.......During the last two decades, biochemical assays for 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been available, and based on plasma measurements various definitions of vitamin D deficiency have been suggested. Whereas severe vitamin D deficiency is usually recognised relatively easy, it has been more difficult...... to delimit the more subtle forms of vitamin D insufficiency. Today, a suboptimal vitamin D status is considered to be when the plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is below 50 nmol/L. Vitamin D insufficiency is defined as a plasma concentration between 25 and 50 nmol/L, whereas the term deficiency is used...

  1. Vitamin D and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant or Breastfeeding? Nutrients You Need Eating During Pregnancy Sun Safety Figuring Out Food Labels Nutrition Guide for Toddlers Osteoporosis Minerals Your Bones Vitamin D Vitamins and Minerals ...

  2. Von Willebrand disease protects against arterial thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Y.V.; Eikenboom, J.C.; De Wee, E.M.; Van Der Bom, J.G.; Cnossen, M.H.; Degenaar-Dujardin, M.E.; Fijnvandraat, K.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Laros-Van Gorkum, B.A.; Meijer, K.; Mauser -Bunschoten, E.P.; Leebee k, F.W.

    Background and Aims: Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is caused by reduced levels of or dysfunctional von Willebrand factor (VWF) and is characterized by a bleeding tendency. It is well known that individuals with high VWF levels have a higher risk for arterial thrombosis. Although it has never been

  3. Research, design and education, Von Humboldt revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, M.F.T.; Doevendans, C.H.; Trum, H.M.G.J.; Langenhuizen, Anja; Ouwerkerk, Marieke van; Rosemann, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a result of reflection on the interrelation design-research-cultivation, and on the interpretation of Von Humboldt's maxim: 'Einheit von Forschung und Lehre', which governed the academic world in the past two centuries. It is argued that 'Forschung' should be interpreted as 'Research

  4. Diffusion von Leerstelleninseln auf Cu(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, Laurens K.; Schlößer, Dietmar; Rosenfeld, Georg

    1998-01-01

    Die zufällige Bewegung von Leerstelleninseln wurde bisher vorwiegend in einem Bild beschrieben, das von der Diffusion einzelner Atome ausgeht. In diesem Bild kann man Inseldiffusion durch die Einstein-Beziehung für Brownsche Bewegung ((Δ r)2 = 4 D Δ t) beschreiben. Für die Diffusionskonstante D wird

  5. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  6. Vitamin E Nicotinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbell R. Duncan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications. The forms of vitamin E most studied are natural α-tocopherol and the esters α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl succinate. A small number of studies include or focus on another ester form, α-tocopheryl nicotinate, an ester of vitamin E and niacin. Some of these studies raise the possibility of differences in metabolism and in efficacy between vitamin E nicotinate and other forms of vitamin E. Recently, through metabolomics studies, we identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester. Since knowledge about vitamin E nicotinate is not readily available in the literature, the purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate published reports, specifically with respect to α-tocopheryl nicotinate with an emphasis on the differences from natural α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate.

  7. Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hes Frederik J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A germline mutation in the Von-Hippel Lindau (VHL gene predisposes carriers to development of abundantly vascularised tumours in the retina, cerebellum, spine, kidney, adrenal gland and pancreas. Most VHL patients die from the consequences of cerebellar haemangioblastoma or renal cell carcinoma. The VHL gene is a tumour suppressor gene and is involved in angiogenesis by regulation of the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1-α. Clinical diagnosis of VHL can be confirmed by molecular genetic analysis of the VHL gene, which is informative in virtually all VHL families. A patient with (suspicion for VHL is an indication for genetic counselling and periodical examination.

  8. Vitamin B-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  9. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and adults need it to keep their bones strong and healthy. If you don’t get enough vitamin D, and you’re more likely to break bones as you age. How Much Vitamin D Do You Need? Women and Men Under age 50 400-800 international units (IU) ...

  10. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  11. Rediscovering vitamin D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... closely linked to that of the childhood bone disease rickets. Although the .... milk with vitamin D3, which resulted in a dramatic decline in the incidence of ... The overall effect of calcitriol on the adaptive immune system is ..... non-melanoma skin cancers, protect from solid cancers: vitamin. D as a possible ...

  12. Vitamin A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was last reviewed on October 21, 2015. This article was last modified on June 29, 2018. At a Glance Why Get Tested? To detect vitamin A deficiency or toxicity When To Get Tested? When you have symptoms suggesting a vitamin A deficiency or excess, or are at risk for a deficiency Sample ...

  13. Riboflavin : A multifunctional vitamin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza, ACS; Ferreira, CV; Juca, MB; Aoyama, H; Cavagis, ADM; Peppelenbosch, MP

    2005-01-01

    Riboflavin, a component of the B-2 vitaminic complex, plays important roles in biochemistry, especially in redox reactions, due to the ability to participate in both one- and two-electron transfers as well as acting as a photosensitizer. Accordingly, low intakes of this vitamin have been associated

  14. Vitamin D and Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    industrial absenteeism caused by colds and respiratory illness; days of missed work was reduced by 30%. (n=3031) Homes AD, et al. Industrial...greater than ~87nmol/L. Vitamin D from sunlight affects TB The 1903 Nobel prize was awarded for the discovery that vitamin D from sunlight could cure cutaneous TB….

  15. Vitamin D and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolden-Kirk, Heidi; Overbergh, Lut; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2011-01-01

    directly thereby rendering them more resistant to the types of cellular stress encountered during T1D and T2D. This review evaluates the role of vitamin D signaling in the pathogenesis of T1D and T2D with a special emphasis on the direct effects of vitamin D on pancreatic beta cells.......Experimental evidence indicates that vitamin D may play a role in the defense against type 1 diabetes (T1D) as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Epidemiological data have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence of both T1D and T2D, whereas early and long-term vitamin...

  16. Vitamin D – The vitamin hormone | Muntingh | South African Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin D supplements and specific foods can aid in maintaining sufficient levels of vitamin D, particularly in people at risk of deficiency. However, there is still a lot of uncertainty around what are “optimal” or “sufficient” levels, how much sunlight different people need to achieve a given level of vitamin D, and whether vitamin ...

  17. Jacob Stael von Holstein ja palladionism eesti arhitektuuris / Ants Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hein, Ants, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Sõjaväeinsenerist ja arhitektist Jacob Stael von Holsteinist (1628, Pärnu-1679), tema kavandatud hoonetest ja rollist 17. sajandi II poole arhitektuuris. Fabian von Ferseni Toompeal Lossiplatsil asunud elamust (lammutati 1894) ja Maardu mõisahoonest, Hans von Ferseni Mäo mõisahoonest Järvamaal, Otto Wilhelm von Ferseni majast Toompeal, Axel von Roseni majast Tallinnas Pikk t. 28 (1670-74), Otto Reinhold von Taube majast Tartus (hävinud), J. S. von Holsteini enda hoonetest: majast Tallinnas Toompea 1, Anija mõisahoonest, elamust Riias jm. Bibliograafia lk. 452

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... low dietary intake may be a cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. How Vitamins are ... Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More ...

  2. The von Meyenburg complex; Der von Meyenburg Komplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, S.A.; Bautz, W.; Uder, M.; Kuefner, M.A. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2008-07-01

    The von Meyenburg complex (VMC) describes bile duct hamartomas and presents a rare, benign incidental finding in liver imaging. We report on a 61-year-old man, who was referred for a follow up study 14 years after remission of Hodgkin's disease. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple hypodense lesions throughout the liver, primary suggesting recurrent Hodgkin's disease. Previous CT-examinations, which were obtained at a later date, showed those lesions in identical distribution and morphology over the years, leading to diagnosis of multiple bile duct hamartomas (VMC). Making imaging-based diagnosis of VMC including ultrasound, CT and magnetic resonance imaging is a challenging task for the radiologist. Based on literature research findings, the impact of different modalities in the diagnostic work-up of VMC is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Chapter 29: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: overview and fat-soluble vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2010-01-01

    The vitamine doctrine: Although diseases resulting from vitamin deficiencies have been known for millennia, such disorders were generally attributed to toxic or infectious causes until the "vitamin doctrine" was developed in the early 20th century. In the late-19th century, a physiologically complete diet was believed to require only sufficient proteins, carbohydrates, fats, inorganic salts, and water. From 1880-1912, Lunin, Pekelharing, and Hopkins found that animals fed purified mixtures of known food components failed to grow or even lost weight and died, unless the diet was supplemented with small amounts of milk, suggesting that "accessory food factors" are required in trace amounts for normal growth. By this time, Funk suggested that deficiencies of trace dietary factors, which he labeled "vitamines" on the mistaken notion that they were "vital amines," were responsible for such diseases as beriberi, scurvy, rickets, and pellagra. Vitamin A deficiency eye disease: Night blindness was recognized by the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, and many authorities from Galen onward advocated liver as a curative. Outbreaks of night blindness were linked to nutritional causes in the 18th and 19th centuries by von Bergen, Schwarz, and others. Corneal ulceration was reported in 1817 by Magendie among vitamin A-deficient dogs fed for several weeks on a diet limited to sugar and water, although he erroneously attributed this to a deficiency of dietary nitrogen (i.e. protein). Subsequently, corneal epithelial defects, often in association with night blindness, were recognized in malnourished individuals subsisting on diets now recognizable as deficient in vitamin A by Budd, Livingstone, von Hubbenet, Bitot, Mori, Ishihari, and others. During World War I, Bloch conducted a controlled clinical trial of different diets among malnourished Danish children with night blindness and keratomalacia and concluded that whole milk, butter, and cod-liver oil contain a fat-soluble substance

  4. Neues über das Tertiär von Java und die mesozoischen Schichten von West-Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1888-01-01

    Die Monographie, welche unter dem Titel Die Fossilien von Java herausgegeben wird ¹), ist so weit fortgeschritten, dass sich aus den in ihr beschriebenen Gastropoden bereits eine Anzahl von Schlussfolgerungen ableiten lässt, welche für die in Bearbeitung begriffene, geologische Karte von Java von

  5. Spectrophotometric evaluation of surface morphology dependent catalytic activity of biosynthesized silver and gold nanoparticles using UV–vis spectra: A comparative kinetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankamwar, Balaprasad, E-mail: bankamwar@yahoo.com [Bio-inspired Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Kamble, Vaishali; Sur, Ujjal Kumar [Bio-inspired Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Santra, Chittaranjan [Department of Chemistry, Netaji Nagar Day College, Regent Park, Kolkata 700092 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were stable for 6 months and used as effective SERS active substrate. • They are effective catalyst in the chemical reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. • Comparative catalytic efficiency of both silver and gold nanoparticles was studied spectrophotometrically. • Our results demonstrate surface morphology dependent catalytic activity of both nanoparticles. - Abstract: The development of eco-friendly and cost-effective synthetic protocol for the preparation of nanomaterials, especially metal nanoparticles is an emerging area of research in nanotechnology. These metal nanoparticles, especially silver can play a crucial role in various catalytic reactions. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles described here was very stable up to 6 months and can be further exploited as an effective catalyst in the chemical reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. The silver nanoparticles were utilized as an efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate using Rhodamine 6G as Raman probe molecule. We have also carried out systematic comparative studies on the catalytic efficiency of both silver and gold nanoparticles using UV–vis spectra to monitor the above reaction spectrophotometrically. We find that the reaction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and the catalytic activity can be explained by a simple model based on Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism for heterogeneous catalysis. We also find that silver nanoparticles are more efficient as a catalyst compare to gold nanoparticles in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, which can be explained by the morphology of the nanoparticles as determined by transmission electron microscopy.

  6. Spectrophotometric evaluation of surface morphology dependent catalytic activity of biosynthesized silver and gold nanoparticles using UV–vis spectra: A comparative kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankamwar, Balaprasad; Kamble, Vaishali; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Santra, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were stable for 6 months and used as effective SERS active substrate. • They are effective catalyst in the chemical reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. • Comparative catalytic efficiency of both silver and gold nanoparticles was studied spectrophotometrically. • Our results demonstrate surface morphology dependent catalytic activity of both nanoparticles. - Abstract: The development of eco-friendly and cost-effective synthetic protocol for the preparation of nanomaterials, especially metal nanoparticles is an emerging area of research in nanotechnology. These metal nanoparticles, especially silver can play a crucial role in various catalytic reactions. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles described here was very stable up to 6 months and can be further exploited as an effective catalyst in the chemical reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. The silver nanoparticles were utilized as an efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate using Rhodamine 6G as Raman probe molecule. We have also carried out systematic comparative studies on the catalytic efficiency of both silver and gold nanoparticles using UV–vis spectra to monitor the above reaction spectrophotometrically. We find that the reaction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and the catalytic activity can be explained by a simple model based on Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism for heterogeneous catalysis. We also find that silver nanoparticles are more efficient as a catalyst compare to gold nanoparticles in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, which can be explained by the morphology of the nanoparticles as determined by transmission electron microscopy.

  7. Viability of HEK 293 cells on poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesized from a mutant Azotobacter vinelandii strain. Cast film and electrospun scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Uribe, Angel; Meneses-Acosta, Angelica; Domínguez-Díaz, Maraolina

    2017-12-01

    Sterilization, cytotoxicity and cell viability are essential properties defining a material for medical applications and these characteristics were investigated for poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) of 230kDa obtained by bacterial synthesis from a mutant strain of Azotobacter vinelandii. Cell viability was investigated for two types of PHB scaffolds, solution cast films and non-woven electrospun fibrous membranes, and the efficiency was compared against a culture dish. The biosynthesized PHB was sterilized by ultraviolet radiation and autoclave, it was found that the thermal properties and intrinsic viscosity remained unchanged indicating that the sterilization methods did not degrade the polymer. Sterilized scaffolds were then seeded with human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells to evaluate the cytotoxic response. The cell viability of these cells was evaluated for up to six days, and the results showed that the cell morphology was normal, with no cytotoxic effects. The films and electrospun membranes exhibited over 95% cell viability whereas the viability in culture dishes reached only ca. 90%. The electrospun membrane, however, exhibited significantly higher cell density than the cast film suggesting that the fibrous morphology enables better nutrients transfer. The results indicate that the biosynthesized PHB stands UV and autoclave sterilization methods, it is biocompatible and non-toxic for cell growth of human cell lines. Furthermore, cell culture for up to 18 days showed that 62% and 90% of mass was lost for the film and fibrous electrospun scaffold, respectively. This is a favorable outcome for use in tissue engineering where material degradation, as tissue regenerates, is desirable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamin C revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Spoelstra-de Man, Angelique Me; de Waard, Monique C

    2014-08-06

    This narrative review summarizes the role of vitamin C in mitigating oxidative injury-induced microcirculatory impairment and associated organ failure in ischemia/reperfusion or sepsis. Preclinical studies show that high-dose vitamin C can prevent or restore microcirculatory flow impairment by inhibiting activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, augmenting tetrahydrobiopterin, preventing uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, and decreasing the formation of superoxide and peroxynitrite, and by directly scavenging superoxide. Vitamin C can additionally restore vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictors, preserve endothelial barrier by maintaining cyclic guanylate phosphatase and occludin phosphorylation and preventing apoptosis. Finally, high-dose vitamin C can augment antibacterial defense. These protective effects against overwhelming oxidative stress due to ischemia/reperfusion, sepsis or burn seems to mitigate organ injury and dysfunction, and promote recovery after cardiac revascularization and in critically ill patients, in the latter partially in combination with other antioxidants. Of note, several questions remain to be solved, including optimal dose, timing and combination of vitamin C with other antioxidants. The combination obviously offers a synergistic effect and seems reasonable during sustained critical illness. High-dose vitamin C, however, provides a cheap, strong and multifaceted antioxidant, especially robust for resuscitation of the circulation. Vitamin C given as early as possible after the injurious event, or before if feasible, seems most effective. The latter could be considered at the start of cardiac surgery, organ transplant or major gastrointestinal surgery. Preoperative supplementation should consider the inhibiting effect of vitamin C on ischemic preconditioning. In critically ill patients, future research should focus on the use of short-term high-dose intravenous vitamin

  9. A Comparative In Vivo Scrutiny of Biosynthesized Copper and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles by Intraperitoneal and Intravenous Administration Routes in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Ashajyothi; K Handral, Harish; Kelmani R, Chandrakanth

    2018-04-03

    During the present time, anti-microbial features of copper (Cu) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are extensively used to combat the growth of pathogenic microbes. CuNPs and ZnONPs are recurrently used in cosmetics, medicine and food additives, and their potential for toxic impacts on human and ecosystem is of high concern. In this study, the fate and toxicity of 16- to 96-nm-ranged biosynthesized copper (Bio-CuNPs) and zinc oxide (Bio-ZnONPs) was assessed in male Wistar rats. In vivo exposures of the two nanoparticles are achieved through two different administration routes namely, intraperitoneal (i/p) and intravenous (i/v) injections. The three different concentrations, no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC), inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) and total lethal concentration (TLC), were appraised at the dose range of 6.1 to 19.82 μg/kg and 11.14 to 30.3 μg/kg for Bio-CuNPs and Bio-ZnONPs respectively, for both i/p and i/v routes on 14th and 28th day of observation. These dose ranges are considered based on the previous study of antibacterial dose on multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we investigated the toxic effect of Bio-CuNPs and Bio-ZnONPs on animal behaviour, animal mass, haematologic indices, organ indices and histopathology of liver, spleen, kidney and brain organs. We found that i/v and i/p administration of Bio-ZnONPs in three different doses did not cause mortality and body weight was slightly reduced up to second week of administration compared with the vehicle control group. At the dose ranges of 11-16 μg/kg (i/v) and 24-30 μg/kg (i/p), no significant changes were observed in the serum creatinine level as well as serum ALT, serum AST level and ALP level which were 40.7 mg/dl, 37.9 IU/L and 82.4 IU/L normal as compared to vehicle control on 14th and 28th day of observation. These findings are confirmed in liver, kidney and spleen indices and histopathology studies. Furthermore, liver and kidney injury

  10. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproduct...... suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology may be of clinical importance....

  11. Eine Analyse des Zusammenhangs zwischen dem Konsum von Alkopops und dem Problemverhalten von Jugendlichen

    OpenAIRE

    Metzner, Cornelia Beate Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Zielsetzung: In dieser Arbeit wird untersucht, ob bei Jugendlichen ein Zusammenhang zwischen dem Konsum von Alkopops einerseits und dem sonstigen Alkoholtrinkverhalten, dem Konsum von Zigaretten und illegalen Drogen sowie weiteren Risikoverhaltensweisen andererseits besteht, ferner ob sich Unterschiede im Verhalten von Jungen und Mädchen ergeben. Theoretischer und empirischer Hintergrund: �Alkopops�, d. h. Mischgetränke diverser Hersteller aus Likör bzw. Schnaps und Limonade sowie wein- ...

  12. Analytik von Minorlipiden: Ferulasäureester von Phytosterolen (gamma-Oryzanol) in Reis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Ferulasäureestern von Phytosterolen (γ-Oryzanol) werden antioxidative und cholesterinsenkende Eigenschaften zugeschrieben. Bisher beschriebene Methoden zur Analytik von γ-Oryzanol in Reis erforderten eine aufwendige Aufreinigung des Probenextrakts. In dieser Arbeit wurde basierend auf der on-line LC-GC eine Methode entwickelt, die die simultane Bestimmung von γ-Oryzanol-Gehalt und Sterylferulat-Verteilung ohne Aufreinigung des Probenextrakts erlaubt. Mit Hilfe der Technik wurden die natürlich...

  13. Redoxspeziation von endlagerrelevanten Elementen mit Hilfe von Trennmethoden gekoppelt an ein Massenspektrometer mit induktiv gekoppeltem Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Graser, Carl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden Redoxspeziationsanalysen von Eisen, Neptunium und Plutonium per CE-SF-ICP-MS durchgeführt. Durch Optimierung der Trennparameter konnten Trennungen der Pu Oxidationsstufen III bis VI und Trennungen der Np Oxidationsstufen IV bis VI binnen 15 Minuten mit einer Nachweisgrenze von 10-12 M durchgeführt werden. Die Trennung der Fe Oxidationsstufen II und III gelang in weniger als 5 Minuten mit einer Nachweisgrenze von 5-10-8 M.

  14. THE DIGITAL VON FAHRENHEID PYRAMID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bura

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available 3D Scanners Lab from Digital Humanities Laboratory at the University of Warsaw initiated the scientific project, the purpose of which was to call attention to systematically penetrated and devastated pyramid-shaped tomb from the XVIII/XIX century, of family von Fahrenheid in Rapa in Banie Mazurskie commune (NE Poland. By conducting a series of non-invasive studies, such as 3D inventory using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, thermal imaging, georadar measurements (around and inside the tomb and anthropological research of mummified remains as well - the complete dataset was collected. Through the integration of terrestrial (TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS authors managed to analyse the surroundings of Fahrenheid pyriamid and influence of some objects (like trees on the condition and visibility of the Pyramids in the landscape.

  15. Die Wirkung von Desacetylcefotaxin, einem Metaboliten von Cefotaxim, in vitro und auf die experimentelle Infektion mit Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Wirbelauer, J.; Hof, H.; Hacker, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Die MHK-Werte von Desacetylcefotaxim gegen verschiedene, z. T. ampicillinresistente Stämme von Escherichia coH, die mit Hilfe einer Agardilutionsmethode erhoben wurden, waren höher als die von Cefotaxim und Ceftriaxon, jedoch niedriger als die von Cefoxitin. In einem Modell der systemischen Infektion der Maus mit einem plasmidtragenden, betalactamaseproduzierenden Stamm von E. coli führte die Therapie mit Desacetylcefotaxim zu einer starken Reduktion der Keime pro Leber. Im Vergleich zur Ther...

  16. Synergistic cytotoxic action of vitamin C and vitamin K3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Negoro, T; Satoh, K; Jiang, Y; Hashimoto, K; Kikuchi, H; Nishikawa, H; Miyata, T; Yamamoto, Y; Nakano, K; Yasumoto, E; Nakayachi, T; Mineno, K; Satoh, T; Sakagami, H

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the combination effect of sodium ascorbate (vitamin C) and menadione (vitamin K3) on the viability of various cultured cells. Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2, HSC-3) and human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells were more sensitive to these vitamins as compared to normal cells (human gingival fibroblast HGF, human periodontal ligament fibroblast HPLF, human pulp cell HPC). The combination of vitamin C and vitamin K3 produced synergistic cytotoxicity against all these 6 cell lines. Treatment with vitamin C or vitamin K3, or their combination, induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation only in HL-60 cells, but not in the oral tumor cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSG). ESR spectroscopy showed that vitamins C and K3 produce radicals under alkaline conditions and that the combination of these two vitamins synergistically enhanced their respective radical intensities.

  17. Vitamin B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... off the market in 1983 because they were running up expensive legal bills in defense of their ... effects and are not likely to increase the beneficial effects. Movement disorders (tardive dyskinesia).Taking vitamin B6 ...

  18. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to other diseases. In children, it can cause rickets. Rickets is a rare disease that causes the bones ... and children are at higher risk of getting rickets. In adults, severe vitamin D deficiency leads to ...

  19. Facts about Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national ... content in food (US Department of Health and Human Services & US Department of Agriculture, 2015). Food Vitamin ...

  20. Vitamin D Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunscreen or sun avoidance also lowers the skin’s production of vitamin D. There has been much confusion ... treatment can improve bone, body composition (how much lean muscle mass an individual has), and quality of life in ...

  1. VON WISPR Family Processors: Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagstaff, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    ...) and the background noise they are embedded in. Processors utilizing those fluctuations such as the von WISPR Family Processors discussed herein, are methods or algorithms that preferentially attenuate the fluctuating signals and noise...

  2. Von Onlineplattformen und mittelalterlichen Märkten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius Gräbner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung und Vernetzung ökonomischer Systeme haben plattformbasierte Interaktionsbeziehungen stark an Bedeutung gewonnen. Hier werden zwei oder mehr Nutzungsgruppen durch eine dritte Seite, die Plattform, zusammengebracht. Die Interaktion wird in solchen zweiseitigen Märkten von den Plattformbetreibern kontrolliert. Kreditkartensysteme, Softwaremärkte oder werbefinanzierte Online-Communities stellen typische Beispiele dar. Da die Analyse von zweiseitigen Märkten mit Gleichgewichtsmodellen aufgrund der algebraischen Struktur des Problems in der Regel nicht praktikabel ist, präsentieren wir im vorliegenden Beitrag ein agentenbasiertes Modell, welches in einem kürzlich erschienenen Artikel ausführlicher diskutiert wird. Anhand von illustrativen Beispielen verdeutlichen wir die Implikationen eines agentenbasierten Ansatzes für die Innovationsökonomik im Allgemeinen und das Studium von Technologieentwicklung im Besonderen.

  3. Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 6. Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer: A Pioneer of Synthetic Organic Chemistry. Gopalpur Nagendrappa. General Article Volume 19 Issue 6 June 2014 pp 489-522 ...

  4. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Titanisierung von Implantatoberflächen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Hanngörg; Heinlein, Markus; Guldner, Norbert W.

    Titan gilt seit Jahrzehnten als einer der wichtigsten Implantatwerkstoffe in der Medizin. Neben den guten mechanischen Eigenschaften (Leichtigkeit, hohe Festigkeit etc.), besitzen Titanimplantate vor allem eine hervorragende Körperverträglichkeit, so dass die Implantate optimal in den humanen Organismus integriert werden [1]. Ist jedoch aufgrund der Anforderungen an das Implantat eine hohe Flexibilität und/ oder Elastizität gefragt, so scheidet der Werkstoff Titan aufgrund seiner spröden und unflexiblen Materialeigenschaften aus. Die Folge ist der Einsatz von Implantatmaterialien, sowohl künstlichen als auch biologischen Ursprungs, welche nicht selten eine unzureichende Biokompatibilität aufweisen und somit zu Fremdköper- und immunologischen Reaktionen und Einkapselung des Implantates führen können. Die Erhöhung der Körperverträglichkeit, eine Adaption an das biologische Umfeld und eine hohe Biokompatibilität sind demzufolge die wichtigsten Eigenschaften bei der bedarfsgerechten Herstellung von Implantaten und Implantatoberflächen. Zur Gestaltung von innovativen, biokompatiblen Oberflächen stehen unterschiedliche technische Lösungsansätze zur Verfügung. Zum einen besteht die Möglichkeit, geeignete Oberflächeneigenschaften aus dem Grundmaterial selbst zu optimieren. Dies geschieht unter anderem durch Modifikation der Werkstoffoberflächen in Form von Texturierungen und Oberflächenrauhigkeiten. Zum anderen können die Oberflächeneigenschaften unabhängig von denen des Trägermaterials gestaltet werden. Durch Funktionalisierung der Oberflächen mit geeigneten Beschichtungen oder der Zugabe von Medikamenten (Drug Eluting) werden die Kunststoffimplantate dahingehend verändert, dass eine Steigerung der Körperakzeptanz erreicht wird. Die Titanbeschichtung von Implantatoberflächen kombiniert die positiven Materialeigenschaften von Titan und Polymer.

  6. 50th birthday of Christian von Ferber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 15, 2011 Christian von Ferber - member of the Editorial Board of "Condensed Matter Physics" and renowned expert in the fields of soft matter physics and complex systems - celebrated his 50th birthday. The Editorial board of CMP, colleagues and friends warmy congratulate Christian von Ferber and wish him and his family continuing good health and to enjoy many adventures and discoveries in his future scientific travels!

  7. The classification problem for von Neumann factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasyk, R.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2009-01-01

    We prove that it is not possible to classify separable von Neumann factors of types II, II or III, 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1, up to isomorphism by a Borel measurable assignment of "countable structures" as invariants. In particular the isomorphism relation of type II factors is not smooth. We also prove...... that the isomorphism relation for von Neumann II factors is analytic, but is not Borel....

  8. Hullud päevad von Krahlis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Von Krahli Teatris mängitakse neil päevi neli korda Peeter Jalaka lavastuses Tõnu Kõrvitsa kammeroopereid "Tuliaed" ja "Mu luiged, mu mõtted", mille aluseks on luuletaja Marie Heibergi saatus. Libreto autor on Maarja Kangro. Kammerooperid tulevad lavale Von Krahli Teatri ja Nargen Opera koostöös. Esitavad Kädy Plaas, Helen Lokuta, Nargen Opera koor ja Tallinna Kammerorkester, dirigent Tõnu Kaljuste

  9. Bedeutung von Umwelt- und Organismusfaktoren bei Autoaggressionen

    OpenAIRE

    Rohmann, Ulrich H.; Elbing, Ulrich; Hartmann, Hellmut

    1988-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden übergeordnete Hypothesen zu autoaggressiven Verhaltensweisen formuliert, wobei prozeßhafte Abläufe von umweltbezogenen und organischen Variablen angenommen werden. Eine solche dynamische Beziehung hat ihre Bedeutung sowohl für verursachende als auch aufrechterhaltende Faktoren. In einer Querschnittuntersuchung lassen sich Korrelationen von Tageszeit- und Tätigkeitscharakteristiken (umweltbezogene Variablen) zur Autoaggressionshäufigkeit und Pulsfrequenz (Orga...

  10. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neubauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  11. Vitamin A absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigation of the absorption of vitamin A and related substances is complicated by the multiplicity of forms in which they occur in the diet and by the possibility that they may be subject to different mechanisms of absorption. Present knowledge of these mechanisms is inadequate, especially in the case of carotenoids. Numerous tests of absorption have been developed. The most common has been the biochemical measurement of the rise in plasma vitamin A after an oral dose of retinol or retinyl ester, but standardization is inadequate. Radioisotope tests based upon assay of serum or faecal activity following oral administration of tritiated vitamin A derivaties hold considerable promise, but again standardization is inadequate. From investigations hitherto performed it is known that absorption of vitamin A is influenced by several diseases, although as yet the consistency of results and the correlation with other tests of intestinal function have often been poor. However, the test of vitamin A absorption is nevertheless of clinical importance as a specialized measure of intestinal function. (author)

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... too good to be true, it probably is. Examples of false claims on product labels include: Quick ... may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve ... the Dietary guidelines include the following: Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate). AAFP cites two ... flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): Nerve damage to the ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates ... as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

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  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Today's dietary supplements are not only vitamins and minerals. "They also include other less familiar substances such ... dietary ingredient" category are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a ... limbs, which may cause numbness, trouble walking, and pain. C (ascorbic acid): Upset stomach, kidney stones, increased ...

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    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and vitamins E and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the use of vitamin supplements, the Dietary ... and beverages within and among the basic food groups. At the same time, choose foods that limit ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider ... the money?'" Frankos advises. "Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the spot. Some ...

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    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation (such as sunlight), consume extra vitamin D ... a vitamin can also cause problems with some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, and vitamins E and D (for ... may become pregnant, eat foods high in heme-iron and/or consume iron-rich plant foods or ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the following tips before buying a dietary supplement: Think twice about chasing the latest headline. Sound health ... For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for ... a varied diet. If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the foods they eat, millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... consuming foods, with supplementation suggested for certain sensitive populations. These guidelines, published by the Department of Health ... acid, and vitamins E and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the use of vitamin supplements, the ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they need from the ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children and adolescents) vitamin B-12, iron, folic acid, ... Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices ...

  10. 25-hydroxy vitamin D test

    Science.gov (United States)

    25-OH vitamin D test; Calcidiol; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol test ... follow any instructions for not eating before the test. ... This test is done to determine if you have too much or too little vitamin D in your blood.

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts Your body uses vitamins for a ... They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and information programs. Barbara Schneeman, Ph.D., Director ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, ... comes to purchasing dietary supplements, Vasilios Frankos, Ph.D., Director of FDA's Division of Dietary Supplement Programs, ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be a cause of concern. These nutrients are: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A (as carotenoids), C, and E (for adults) calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E (for children ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... millions of people worldwide take supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There ... Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by mouth that contain a " ...

  15. Vitamins for enhancing plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakri, Hatem; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Mliki, Ahmed; Brini, Faiçal; Chong, Julie; Jbara, Moez

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an overview on vitamins with inducing activities in plants, the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated, and the hormonal signalling-network regulating this process. Moreover, it reports how vitamins might be part of the molecular events linked to induced resistance by the conventional elicitors. Induced resistance (IR), exploiting the plant innate-defense system is a sustainable strategy for plant disease control. In the last decade, vitamins have been proven to act as inducers of disease resistance, and these findings have received an important attention owing to their safety and cost effectiveness. Vitamins, including thiamine (TH, vitamin B1), riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2), menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB, vitamin K3), Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, vitamin Bx), and folic acid (FA, vitamin B9) provided an efficient protection against a wide range of pathogens through the modulation of specific host-defense facets. However, other vitamins, such as ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E), have been shown to be a part of the molecular mechanisms associated to IR. The present review is the first to summarize what vitamins are acting as inducers of disease resistance in plants and how could they be modulated by the conventional elicitors. Thus, this report provides an overview on the protective abilities of vitamins and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their activities. Moreover, it describes the hormonal-signalling network regulating vitamin-signal transduction during IR. Finally, a biochemical model describing how vitamins are involved in the establishment of IR process is discussed.

  16. ˝FLUMINENSIA˝ VON FRAN KURELAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldina Veronika Banaš

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch "Fluminensia" (1862 von Fran Kurelac enthält die für die Schulfestlichkeiten geschriebenen Reden, Gelegenheitsgedichte - Ehrengedichte den bedeutenden und verdienstvollen Zeitgenossen gewidmet: dem Bischof von Senj und Modrus" Mirko Ožegović, Bartol Zmajic von Bakar, dem kroatischen Ban Josip Jelačić u.a. Danach folgen Aufrufe ("Proglasi" aus stürmischem 1848, gerichtet auf die Granzlandbewohner, Deutscher, ungarische Kroaten, Rumänen und Slawonier. Die Aufrufe wurden von Kurelac im Namen der Banalregierung beschrieben. Am Ende des Buches steht eine sprachwissenschaftliche Abhandlung über die ubstantivbiegung. Die für die Schulfestlichkeiten geschreibenen Reden sind wissenschaftliche Inhalte, essaystisch-didaktisch gestalltet, mit der Meldung über die Bedeutung der Wisenschaft, über die Bedeutung und Rolle der Sprache und des Buches für den Fortschritt des Volkes. Der Verfasser widmete dieses Buch seinen ehemaligen Schülern. "Fluminensia" nimmt eine wichtige Stelle in literarischer und sprachwissenschaftlicher Schöpfung auf dem Gebiet von Rijeka und Kroatien im 19. Jahrhundert ein.

  17. Privatiserung von Geschichte. Probleme einer differenzierten Aufarbeitung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe Kundrus

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchung von Vera Neumann ist die These, daß im Krieg Erlebtes und Erlittenes in den Wiederaufbau- und Wirtschaftswunderjahren Westdeutschlands einem Thematisierungstabu unterlegen sei. Anhand von 50 Interviews, die in den 80er Jahren im Rahmen des von Lutz Niethammer geleiteten Projekts „Lebensgeschichte und Sozialgeschichte im Ruhrgebiet 1930–1960“ (LUSIR entstanden sind und die sie jetzt anhand der Tonbandprotokolle und Abschriften ein zweites Mal auswertet, möchte die Historikerin diese Verschüttungen aufspüren. Im Anschluß an Niethammers These der „Privatisierung von Geschichte“ will sie zeigen, daß seelische und körperliche Kriegsfolgen wie Deprivations- und Überlastungsgefühle, der Verlust von Angehörigen und Kriegsbeschädigungen „privatisiert“, d.h. an die Familien übertragen wurden. Dort seien dann in erster Linie die weiblichen Familienmitglieder mit der Versorgungs- und Pflegearbeit konfrontiert worden. An vier Fallbeispiele schließt sich eine detaillierte Auswertung des gesamten Interviewmaterials an. Diesen Teilen folgt ein Abschnitt zur staatlichen Kriegsopferversorgung in der frühen Bundesrepublik.

  18. A new von Mises probabilistic formula for quartet invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacovazzo, C.; Camalli, M.; Spagna, R.

    1989-01-01

    Von Mises formulas for quartet invariants, even is useful in most cases of practical interest, suffer from some systematic errors. A new von Mises formula is suggested with better theoretical features. (orig.)

  19. Kerttu Wagner. Die historischen romane von Jaan Kross / Wolfgang Drechsler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Drechsler, Wolfgang, 1963-

    2001-01-01

    Arvustus: Wagner, Kerttu. Die historischen Romane von Jaan Kross : am Beispiel einer Untersuchung der deutschen und englischen Übersetzungen von "Professor Martensi ärasõit" (1984). Frankfurt am Main [etc.] : P. Lang, 2001.

  20. IAS 25, Bilanzierung von Finanzinvestitionen (Accounting for Investments)

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Manfred

    1997-01-01

    IAS 25, Bilanzierung von Finanzinvestitionen (Accounting for Investments). - In: Rechnungslegung nach International Accounting Standards (IAS) / hrsg. von Jörg Baetge ... - Stuttgart : Schäffer-Poeschel, 1997. - S. 923-953

  1. Borel reductibility and classification of von neumann algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasyk, R.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2009-01-01

    We announce some new results regarding the classification problem for separable von Neumann algebras. Our results are obtained by applying the notion of Borel reducibility and Hjorth's theory of turbulence to the isomorphism relation for separable von Neumann algebras....

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body ... iron-absorption enhancer, such as foods high in vitamin C. If you're a woman of childbearing age ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be expensive or may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body and are eliminated in the urine." Develop a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers to have an overall strategy for how they ...

  4. Too Much Vitamin C: Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too much of it. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin that supports normal growth and development and helps ... Dec. 12, 2017. Pazirandeh S, et al. Overview of water-soluble vitamins. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Dec. ...

  5. Vitamin D and bone health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holick, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an essential role in maintaining a healthy mineralized skeleton for most land vertebrates including humans. Sunlight causes the photoproduction of vitamin D3 in the skin. Once formed, vitamin D3 is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidney to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The major biological function of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is to keep the serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range to maintain essential cellular functions and to promote mineralization of the skeleton. Most foods do not contain any vitamin D. Foods fortified with vitamin D have a variable amount present and cannot be depended on as a sole source of vitamin D nutrition. Exposure to sunlight provides most humans with their vitamin D requirement. Aging, sunscreen use and the change in the zenith angle of the sun can dramatically affect the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Vitamin D insufficiency and vitamin D deficiency is now being recognized as a major cause of metabolic bone disease in the elderly. Vitamin D deficiency not only causes osteomalacia but can exacerbate osteoporosis. It is generally accepted that an increase in calcium intake to 1000-1500 mg/d along with an adequate source of vitamin D of at least 400 IU/d is important for maintaining good bone health

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to search Skip to topics menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of ... supplemental vitamins as part of their health regimen. Why Buy Vitamins? There are many good reasons to consider taking vitamin supplements, such as ...

  7. Vitamin Excess and Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Liliane; Krebs, Nancy F

    2018-04-01

    The published literature supports the high prevalence of supplement use in children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatricians today are faced with questions from parents and patients about the benefits, safety, efficacy, and correct dose of vitamins and minerals. In this article, we review 7 vitamins with the most clinical relevance as judged by abundance in food, risks and symptoms of deficiency, and potential for toxicity. Specifically, we focus on possible clinical scenarios that can be indicative of nutritional deficiency. We synthesize and summarize guidelines from nutrition experts, various medical societies, the World Health Organization, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2018. All rights reserved.

  8. Medien und Berufsvorstellungen von Kindern: eine experimentelle Studie zum Einfluss von Kinderbüchern auf das Berufsspektrum von Kindergartenkindern

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Tim; Gehrau, Volker; Handrup, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    "Der Beitrag thematisiert zunächst den Stand der beruflichen Orientierung von Jugendlichen sowie die pädagogischen Bemühungen beim Übergang Schule-Beruf, insbesondere im Hinblick auf eine Erweiterung des häufig engen Spektrums von Berufen, die bei der Berufswahl berücksichtig werden. Dabei richten sich die Bestrebungen, diesem Problem entgegenzuwirken, bislang vor allem auf Jugendliche. Anschließend wird anhand vorliegender Ergebnisse aus der Medienforschung diskutiert, in welcher Weise Masse...

  9. Doença de von Willebrand e anestesia Enfermedad de von Willebrand y anestesia Von Willebrand's disease and anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A doença de von Willebrand ocorre devido à mutação no cromossomo 12 e é caracterizada por deficiência qualitativa ou quantitativa do fator de von Willebrand. A diversidade de mutações leva ao aparecimento das mais variadas manifestações clínicas possibilitando a divisão dos pacientes em vários tipos e subtipos clínicos. A coagulopatia se manifesta basicamente através da disfunção plaquetária associada à diminuição dos níveis séricos do fator VIII coagulante. O objetivo dessa revisão foi mostrar os cuidados relacionados aos pacientes portadores da doença de von Willebrand durante o período perioperatório. CONTEÚDO: Foram definidas as características da doença de von Willebrand quanto à fisiopatologia, à classificação, ao diagnóstico laboratorial, ao tratamento atual e aos cuidados com o manuseio do paciente no período perioperatório. CONCLUSÕES: A doença de von Willebrand é o distúrbio hemorrágico hereditário mais comum, porém ela é subdiagnosticada pela complexidade da própria doença. A correta classificação do paciente, o uso apropriado da desmopressina e a transfusão do fator de von Willebrand são medidas fundamentais para a realização do procedimento anestésico bem-sucedido.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La enfermedad de von Willebrand ocurre debido a la mutación en el cromosoma 12 y se caracteriza por la deficiencia cualitativa o cuantitativa del factor de von Willebrand. La diversidad de mutaciones conlleva al aparecimiento de las más variadas manifestaciones clínicas posibilitando la división de los pacientes en varios tipos y subtipos clínicos. La coagulopatía se manifiesta básicamente a través de la disfunción plaquetaria asociada con la disminución de los niveles séricos del factor VIII coagulante. El objetivo de esa revisión fue mostrar los cuidados relacionados con las pacientes portadoras de la enfermedad de von Willebrand durante el per

  10. Gemeinsam hilfreich oder einsam lästig? Beurteilung von praktikumsbegleitenden Weblogs von angehenden Lehrpersonen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Egger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Weblogs werden an Hochschulen vermehrt zur Unterstützung von Lern- und Reflexionsprozessen eingesetzt, in der Lehrer/innenbildung auch zunehmend während der berufspraktischen Ausbildung. Die Studierenden beurteilen den Einsatz von Weblogs jedoch unterschiedlich. Dabei ist wenig bekannt, welchen Einfluss die Vergabe und das Erhalten von Peerfeedback auf den Beurteilungsprozess von praktikumsbegleitenden Weblogs sowie auf den Umfang von Blogpostings haben. Im folgenden Beitrag wird dieser Frage mittels einer Befragung von 74 angehenden Lehrpersonen nachgegangen, die praktikumsbegleitende Weblogs mit oder ohne Peerfeedback nutzten, um über herausfordernde Ereignisse im Praktikum zu reflektieren. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Studierende, die Peerfeedback erhielten und andere Blogbeiträge kommentierten, den Weblogeinsatz nützlicher einschätzen sowie eine höhere Motivation und positivere Einstellung gegenüber den Einsatz von Weblogs aufweisen als Studierende, die ohne Peerfeedback bloggen. Keinen Einfluss hat Peerfeedback auf den Umfang der Blogbeiträge und auf die dafür aufgewendete Zeit.

  11. Von Willebrand protein binds to extracellular matrices independently of collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, D D; Urban-Pickering, M; Marder, V J

    1984-01-01

    Von Willebrand protein is present in the extracellular matrix of endothelial cells where it codistributes with fibronectin and types IV and V collagen. Bacterial collagenase digestion of endothelial cells removed fibrillar collagen, but the pattern of fibronectin and of von Willebrand protein remained undisturbed. Exogenous von Willebrand protein bound to matrices of different cells, whether rich or poor in collagen. von Willebrand protein also decorated the matrix of cells grown in the prese...

  12. Rat beta-LPH, gamma-LPH and beta-endorphin biosynthesized by isolated cells of pars intermedia and pars distalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianoulakis, C.; Seidah, N.G.; Routhier, R.; Chretien, M.

    1980-01-01

    Rats pars intermedia cells were incubated for 3 h with the following amino-acids: a) 35 S-methionine and 3 H-phenylalamine; b) 3 H-valine; and c) 3 H-valine and 3 H-lysine. Radioactive gamma-lipotropin, beta-lipotropin and beta-endorphin were purified on carboxy- methyl-cellulose and characterized by polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis af pH 4.5, molecular weight estimation and microsequencing. Rat gamma-lipotropin was shown to differ slightly from ovine gamma-lipotropin in its NH 2 -terminal amino acid sequence, in containing no methionine and having phenylalanine at position 6, valine at positions 13 and 27, and lysine at position 20. The same variations were observed in the sequence of rat beta-lipotropin, while rat beta-endorphin was shown to be identical to the ovine beta-endorphin. Following a 3-h pulse of rat pars distalis, the cells were extracted with care to avoid beta-lipotropin degradation by proteolytic enzymes. A peptide was purified and identified to be rat beta-endorphin, thus demonstrating that beta-endorphin is biosynthesized in pars distalis and is not an extraction artifact. (author)

  13. Extraskeletal effects of vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Rossini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we observed an increasing number of publications about the vitamin D, due to its recognised therapeutic actions and to the widespread hypovitaminosis D. In addition to the well known skeletal benefits, vitamin D can have multiple effects on other tissues.Muscular apparatus: hypovitaminosis D is associated with myopathy, sarcopenia, muscular strength reduction and increased risk of falls. The vitamin D supplementation increases the muscle functionality indexes. Cardiovascular system: low levels of vitamin D are related to increased levels of cardiovascular risk factors, heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a decreased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a good vitamin D status is related to a decreased incidence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome; a vitamin D supplementation in the early childhood reduces (nearly 30% the risk of having type 1 diabetes. Cancer: vitamin D deficit is associated with breast, colorectal cancer and melanoma relapses. Low and high levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OHD are related to a higher neoplastic mortality. Infectious diseases: hypovitaminosis D is associated with higher incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and worse interferon response in chronic hepatitis C. Vitamin D supplementation decreases the risk of having type A influence. Rheumatic diseases: in rheumatoid arthritis low serum levels of vitamin D metabolites are related to a higher disease activity, while a good vitamin D status is associated with a higher probability of remission or response to therapy and a lower degree of disability. Neurologic diseases: associations between vitamin D deficit and risk of multiple sclerosis, depression, cognitive deficits, and Parkinson’s disease have been reported.There is evidence of the extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, but most derive from observational studies: clinical trials

  14. [Anja Wilhelmi. Lebensweltlen von Frauen der deutschen Oberschicht im Baltikum (1800-1939). Eine Untersuchung anhand von Autobiographien] / Alexander Ewig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ewig, Alexander, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Wilhelmi, Anja. Lebenswelten von Frauen der deutschen Oberschicht im Baltikum (1800-1939). Eine Untersuchung anhand von Autobiographien. (Veröffentlichungen des Nordost-Instituts, 10.) (Wiesbaden : HArrassowitz 2008)

  15. Gasification of liquid manure; Vergasung von Guelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudenau, H.W.; Hoberg, H.; Hirsch, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde

    1996-12-31

    The potential of thermal use of liquid manure is investigated. It is recommended to separate the liquid and solid fraction. While the liquid fraction can be used as fertilizer, the solid fraction can be used for generating a fuel gas for combined heat and power generation. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass in der thermischen Verwertung von Guelle ein bisher nur wenig genutztes Potential vorliegt. Die zum Anbau von Getreide notwendige Duengung kann durch Separation von Guelle in Fest- und Duennfraktion effektiver und kostenguenstiger durchgefuehrt werden. Der Naehrstoffgehalt des Guellefeststoffs sollte durch thermische Aufbereitung aufkonzentriert werden, so dass eine Vermarktung auch mit laengeren Transpoertwegen darstellbar ist. Die bei der thermischen Behandlung gewonnene Waerme kann prozessintern genutzt und ueberschuessige Waerme an Abnehmer in der naeheren Umgebung geliefert werden. Genauso besteht die Moeglichkeit, ein Brenngas zu erzeugen und die Energie mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung zu nutzen. (orig)

  16. Gasification of liquid manure; Vergasung von Guelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudenau, H W; Hoberg, H; Hirsch, U [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde

    1997-12-31

    The potential of thermal use of liquid manure is investigated. It is recommended to separate the liquid and solid fraction. While the liquid fraction can be used as fertilizer, the solid fraction can be used for generating a fuel gas for combined heat and power generation. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass in der thermischen Verwertung von Guelle ein bisher nur wenig genutztes Potential vorliegt. Die zum Anbau von Getreide notwendige Duengung kann durch Separation von Guelle in Fest- und Duennfraktion effektiver und kostenguenstiger durchgefuehrt werden. Der Naehrstoffgehalt des Guellefeststoffs sollte durch thermische Aufbereitung aufkonzentriert werden, so dass eine Vermarktung auch mit laengeren Transpoertwegen darstellbar ist. Die bei der thermischen Behandlung gewonnene Waerme kann prozessintern genutzt und ueberschuessige Waerme an Abnehmer in der naeheren Umgebung geliefert werden. Genauso besteht die Moeglichkeit, ein Brenngas zu erzeugen und die Energie mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung zu nutzen. (orig)

  17. Spectral theory and quotients in Von Neumann algebras | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this note we consider to what extent the functional calculus and the spectral theory in von Neumann algebras are preserved by the taking of quotients relative to two-sided ideals of the von Neumann algebra. Keywords:von Neumann algebra, functional calculus, spectral theory, quotient algebras. Quaestiones ...

  18. Der Einfluss von sozialer Ungleichheit und kulturellen Unterschieden auf die Wahrnehmung von finanziellen und Arbeitsplatzrisiken: Überlegungen zur Risikogesellschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, David; Quilgars, Deborah; Jones, Anwen

    2006-01-01

    Der vorliegende Artikel beruht auf Daten einer Studie, die sich mit der Frage beschäftigt, wie verschiedene soziale und kulturelle Gruppen die Risiken von Einkommens- und Arbeitsplatzverlust wahrnehmen und darauf reagieren. Autoren wie LASH, DOUGLAS und LUPTON betonten die Bedeutung von Gruppenzugehörigkeit und sozialen Kategorien für die Strukturierung der Reaktionsweisen auf verschiedene Risikoarten. Sie sprechen daher lieber von Risikokulturen als von der Risikogesellschaft. Trotzdem erken...

  19. Bewertung von Fahrzeuggeräuschen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuit, Klaus; Schulte-Fortkamp, Brigitte; Fiebig, André; Haverkamp, Michael

    Bei der Wahrnehmung und Beurteilung eines Automobils sind unzählige Merkmale und Eigenschaften von Bedeutung. Dabei können Merkmale objektiv-technisch beschrieben werden, wie Angaben zur Motorisierung, Höchstgeschwindigkeit, Drehmoment, zulässige Zuladung, Verbrauch usw. Daneben sind weitere Eigenschaften von Bedeutung, die sich einer einfachen objektiv-technischen Beschreibung entziehen. Hier sind Begriffe zu nennen, wie Sicherheit, allgemeine Qualitätsanmutung, Design, Ergonomie, Komfort, Haptik, Fahrdynamik, Zuverlässigkeit, die deutlich schwieriger objektiv erfassbar und beschreibbar sind (Abb. 4.1).

  20. Asymptotic analysis of a von Koch beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Pugno, Nicola; Sapora, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Fractal geometry is used in diverse research areas, being an useful tool in describing the mechanical behaviour of natural and man-made structures. In this paper, the structural behaviour of a von Koch cantilever beam is analyzed in the small deformations regime. Analytical recursive formulae for the strain energy scaling are derived, which have been found in good agreement with numerical simulations. Energy considerations suggest a peculiar scaling for the beam rigidity in order to prevent compliance divergence. The results are then extended to evaluate the stiffness matrix of a von Koch beam.

  1. Von Mumien, Cyborgs und Röntgenbildern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Schleicher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Unter dem Titel Techniken der Reproduktion liegt ein Sammelband vor, der die Beiträge einer Tagung an der Universität Paderborn vom Dezember 2001 enthält. In enger Verknüpfung verschiedener disziplinärer Perspektiven werden Schlaglichter auf eine Vielzahl von Themen geworfen, die sich mit dem Begriff „Reproduktion“ verbinden. Dabei wird deutlich, wie eng die Geschichte der Medien und die Entwicklung von Technologien der biologischen Fortpflanzung miteinander verzahnt sind.

  2. Vitamin d and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Daniel S; McClung, James P; Kohen, Tal; Lieberman, Harris R

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D is an essential nutrient obtained from the diet and exposure to sunlight. Roles for vitamin D have been established in the function of the cardiovascular, immune, and musculoskeletal systems. An electronic database search was conducted using EMBASE (1967 to August 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to August 2012), SPORTDiscus™ (1975 to August 2012), and the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) (1998 to August 2012) with no limits of language of publication. Articles that described vitamin D and performance were considered eligible for this review. Recent studies suggest that vitamin D maintains physical performance in athletes and other active populations, e.g., maximal oxygen consumption may be related to vitamin D status. Poor vitamin D status affects muscle strength, and vitamin D may participate in protein synthesis through the actions of the vitamin D receptor in muscle tissue. Vitamin D may protect against overuse injuries, such as stress fracture, through its well-documented role in calcium metabolism. The objective of this manuscript is to review recent evidence regarding the importance of vitamin D for maintaining physical performance, and includes specific examples of how vitamin D supports the cardiovascular, immune, and musculoskeletal systems.

  3. Vitamin D and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall Brinkley, D; Ali, Omair M; Zalawadiya, Sandip K; Wang, Thomas J

    2017-10-01

    Vitamin D is principally known for its role in calcium homeostasis, but preclinical studies implicate multiple pathways through which vitamin D may affect cardiovascular function and influence risk for heart failure. Many adults with cardiovascular disease have low vitamin D status, making it a potential therapeutic target. We review the rationale and potential role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and treatment of chronic heart failure. Substantial observational evidence has associated low vitamin D status with the risk of heart failure, ventricular remodeling, and clinical outcomes in heart failure, including mortality. However, trials assessing the influence of vitamin D supplementation on surrogate markers and clinical outcomes in heart failure have generally been small and inconclusive. There are insufficient data to recommend routine assessment or supplementation of vitamin D for the prevention or treatment of chronic heart failure. Prospective trials powered for clinical outcomes are warranted.

  4. Synthesis of B6 vitamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučijak Nevena Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vitamin B6 has been known since its discovery in the 1940's. Chemical tests, elestrometric titration determinations, and absorption spectrum studies showed that this vitamin exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine (an alcohol, pyridoxal (an aldehyde, and pyridoxamine (a primary amine. Vitamin B6 is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism, and it is assumed that this vitamin is cofactor of metabolic processes more important than any other substance. A deficiency of vitamin B6 in the human diet leads to severe disorders. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the proper function of the immune and nervous system, and helps the body convert protein to energy. This paper describes the history, properties and applications of vitamin B6, elucidation of chemical structure, and different procedures for synthesis of pyridoxine and pyridoxamine.

  5. Vitamin D and respiratory disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Hushmand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D is synthesized in some body organs following sun exposure and dietary intake. Vitamin D exhibits its major and critical effects not only through regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism but also by influencing on respiratory and immune system. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below the optimum limit lead to vitamin D insufficiency or maybe deficiency. These inappropriate concentrations of vitamin D lead to different types of pulmonary diseases such as viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. In this review we described the association between vitamin D deficiency and severe therapy resistant asthma. We also reviewed the underlying molecular mechanism of vitamin D deficiency in children with severe- therapy resistant asthma. Based on current information, future clinical trial are needed to study the role of vitamin D supplementation on different groups of patients with severe asthma including infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities.

  6. Die Verteilung und Eigenschaften von Bodenformen in der Deutschen Bucht, eine Rekonstruktion der Karten von Ulrich (1973)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Christian; Lefebvre, Alice; Benninghoff, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Entstehung, Gestalt und Dynamik von Bodenformen in vergleichsweise kleinen Untersuchungsgebieten ist die Arbeit von ULRICH (1973) über die Verteilung von Bodenformen in der Deutschen Bucht bis heute die einzige verfügbare zusammenhängende Darstellung für die deutsche Nordseeküste. Die analogen Karten und die...

  7. Vitamin D and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Minu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D, a fat-soluble prohormone is synthesized in response to sunlight. Experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D may reduce the risk of cancer through regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation as well as inhibition of angiogenesis. These anticancer properties have been attributed primarily to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH 2 D] (calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D. Extensive research has shown that cells, including cancer cells, express specific receptors (VDR for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. When bound to the VDR, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D regulates> 60 genes that exert prodifferentiating, antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects on cells, including effects on cell cycle. The amount of exposure to the sun has been found to correlate inversely with cancer mortality and survival in numerous epidemiological studies. An inverse relationship between solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B exposure and non-skin cancer mortality has long been reported. Several ecological studies suggest that sunlight may protect against prostate, colon, rectal, female breast and ovarian cancer, all diseases that contribute to a substantially higher proportion of cancer mortality in the western industrialized world. Some analytical studies also suggest a protective association between circulating vitamin D in blood, which is largely derived from sunlight, or dietary vitamin D. Paricalcitol (calcitriol analogue is as effective as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in transactivating the prostatic VDR and in inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer cell lines and primary cultures of prostate cancer cells in vitro. Promising preclinical evaluations of calcitriol and analogues have appeared in prostate cancer animal models.

  8. Evaluation von Bildungssoftware im Spannungsfeld von Objektivität und praktischer Anwendung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Biffi

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Das Angebot an Bildungs- bzw. Lernsoftware umfasst eine breite Palette von sehr unterschiedlichen Produkten. Eigentliche Unterrichtssoftware, die speziell für den Unterricht hergestellt und auf Lehrmittel und Curriculum abgestimmt ist, gibt es kaum. Im Projekt «Lernsoftware Evaluation» des Pestalozzianums Zürich ermitteln Lehrpersonen die Qualität von Bildungssoftware, indem sie diese im Unterricht einsetzen und anhand eines Kriterienrasters beurteilen. Eine Analyse der in der Evaluation generierten Daten belegt die Problematik des Anspruchs einer objektiven Qualitätsbeurteilung. Es werden die Probleme bei der Anwendung von Kriterienraster und Beurteilungsmodus aufgezeigt und ermittelt, worin die subjektiven Qualitätsmassstäbe der Evaluierenden begründet sind. Diese Ausführungen sind Teil eines Forschungsprojekts für die Weiterentwicklung einer theoretisch fundierten, aber dennoch praxisnahen Evaluation von Bildungssoftware.

  9. Von der Medienwirkungsbehauptung zur erziehungswissenschaftlichen Medienrezeptionsforschung. Vorschlag zur Analyse von Filmkommunikaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Drinck

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Im Hinblick auf die Erforschung spezifischer Zusammenhänge von Medienkonsum und der Herausbildung von Einstellungen und Handlungen wird eine konstruktivistische Theorieorientierung plausibilisiert, indem zunächst auf den Stand der Medienwirkungsforschung eingegangen und vor dem Hintergrund einer begründeten Kritik des Wirkungsverständnisses auf die Notwendigkeit einer medienrezeptionswissenschaftlichen Forschungsalternative hingewiesen wird. Weiterhin wird der Stand der (erziehungswissenschaftlichen Medienrezeptionsforschung erörtert. Sodann werden Elemente einer konstruktivistischen Methodologie von Medienrezeptionsforschung beschrieben, die am Beispiel der Rezeption von Filmen konkretisiert werden. Dabei wird das Konzept des Kommunikates (S.J. Schmidt als Ausgangspunkt genommen, ein Vorschlag für eine Beschreibungssprache für (Film- Kommunikate entwickelt und eine Adaption des Ansatzes filmischer Narration zur Sprache gebracht.

  10. Erzeugung gleichverteilter Stichproben von Lozenge-Teilungen mittels Kopplung von Markovketten

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Aus dem Inhalt: 1 Einleitung 2 Eigenschaften der Lozengeteilungen 3 Coupling From The Past (CFTP) 4 Simulation von uniform verteilten Lozengeteilungen 5 Programmlisting und Diskussion der Implementierung 6 Ausblick A Anhang

  11. Der Briefwechsel zwischen Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Ernst von Baer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmuck

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Der kurze, nicht vollständig erhaltene Briefwechsel zwischen Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Ernst von Baer behandelt sehr verschiedene Themen: Politik, Kriegsgefahr, den Wissenschaftsbetrieb, Auszeichnungen und Tagungen, Embryologie und Cholera. Gemeinsam mit Briefen und Reden ergibt sich dabei ein differenziertes Bild der Beurteilung der beiden Wissenschaftler durch den jeweils anderen. Während Baer sich als Bewunderer Humboldts erweist, erscheint umgekehrt Humboldts Einschätzung Baers als ambivalent. Abstract The short, not completely preserved correspondence between Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Ernst von Baer deals with a wide range of subjects: politics and the danger of war, academic activities, scientific awards and conferences, aspects of embryology and the cholera. Letters to third persons and speeches, together with the correspondence between Humboldt and Baer show a differentiated pattern of mutual appraisal: While Baer always remained an admirer of the elder naturalist, Humboldt’s estimation was characterized by ambivalence.

  12. Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung von Satellitengalaxien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Björn

    2002-01-01

    Gleichgewichtsmodelle ein- und zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien werden erzeugt und die Gezeiteneinwirkungen der als starres äußeres Potential angenommenen Milchstraße auf sie betrachtet. Eine erste Reihe von Simulationen mit anfänglich kugelsymmetrischen einkomponentigen Satelliten zeigt, daß sich nach elliptischer Deformation ein Balken und Schweife ungleicher Länge ausbilden, deren Aussehen sich periodisch ändert. Mithilfe von Vergleichssimulationen wurden folgende Phänomene am Satelliten entdeckt: (1) Hochdichtebereiche in den Schweifen, (2) Niedrigdichtebereiche um den Kern bzw. Balken und (3) ein oft verdeckter Balken. Analysiert wird das Erscheinungsbild in Zeitabhängigkeit. Die Teilchen gehen dem Kern über den Balken verloren und bewegen sich entlang gewisser stets gleich aussehender charakteristischer Strukturen in die Schweife. Nach einer Herleitung allgemeiner Größen des mehrkomponentigen Kingprofils werden drei stabile Standardmodelle zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien mit Massenverhältnis 1:10 (baryonische zu dunkle Materie) und unterschiedlicher Verteilung der dunklen und sichtbaren Materie gefunden. Ohne die Allgemeinheit der Ergebnisse zu beeinträchtigen, wurde dabei die Große Magellanische Wolke als Grundlage der Modelle genommen. Nach geeigneter Wahl der Bahn, zu der der Gezeitenradius des verwendeten dreikomponentigen Milchstraßenpotentials sowohl analytisch als auch numerisch berechnet wird, werden Simulationen der Modelle analysiert. Hauptaugenmerk ist das unterschiedliche Verhalten der Komponenten. Hauptergebnisse: (1) Es ist möglich, große Anteile dunkler, jedoch nur geringe sichtbarer Materie abzulösen. Dunkle und sichtbare Materie können unterschiedliche morphologische Strukturen bilden. (2) Je nach Konzentration der Komponenten ist die Eigengravitation der Teilchen mehr oder weniger für das Aussehen bestimmend. (3) Die Kernauflösung des Satelliten findet im Perigalaktikum (PG), sein Zerfall aber erst im

  13. A note on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadison, Richard V.; Liu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A Murray–von Neumann algebra is the algebra of operators affiliated with a finite von Neumann algebra. In this article, we first present a brief introduction to the theory of derivations of operator algebras from both the physical and mathematical points of view. We then describe our recent work on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras. We show that the “extended derivations” of a Murray–von Neumann algebra, those that map the associated finite von Neumann algebra into itself, are inner. In particular, we prove that the only derivation that maps a Murray–von Neumann algebra associated with a factor of type II1 into that factor is 0. Those results are extensions of Singer’s seminal result answering a question of Kaplansky, as applied to von Neumann algebras: The algebra may be noncommutative and may even contain unbounded elements. PMID:24469831

  14. A note on derivations of Murray-von Neumann algebras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadison, Richard V; Liu, Zhe

    2014-02-11

    A Murray-von Neumann algebra is the algebra of operators affiliated with a finite von Neumann algebra. In this article, we first present a brief introduction to the theory of derivations of operator algebras from both the physical and mathematical points of view. We then describe our recent work on derivations of Murray-von Neumann algebras. We show that the "extended derivations" of a Murray-von Neumann algebra, those that map the associated finite von Neumann algebra into itself, are inner. In particular, we prove that the only derivation that maps a Murray-von Neumann algebra associated with a factor of type II1 into that factor is 0. Those results are extensions of Singer's seminal result answering a question of Kaplansky, as applied to von Neumann algebras: The algebra may be noncommutative and may even contain unbounded elements.

  15. Soolopartiid Von Krahli katuse all / Kristi Eberhart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eberhart, Kristi

    2007-01-01

    Von Krahli Teatri kolmest lavastusest: "Erki ja Tiina" (lavastaja Mart Kangro, tantsivad Erki Laur ja Tiina Tauraite), "Faust" (J. W. Goethe ainetel tekst ja lavastus Taavi Eelmaa, muusika ja laulud Chalice, osades Jarek Kasar ja Rein Pakk), "Hamletid" (William Shakespeare'i ainetel kontseptsiooni, lavastuse, koreograafia, kujunduse, valguse autor Sasha Pepeljajev, video- ja helikunstnik Taavet Jansen. Esitaja Juhan Ulfsak)

  16. Alexander von Humboldt and Coenraad Jacob Temminck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, A.J.P.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the archives of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden there is a map with three letters written by Alexander von Humboldt (17691859) to the first director of the Museum, Coenraad Jacob Temminck (1778-1858). The map, the hard cover of John Gould's "Synopsis of the birds

  17. Differential functional von Foerster equations with renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Leszczyński

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural iterative methods converge to the exact solution of a differential-functional von Foerster-type equation which describes a single population dependent on its past time and state densities as well as on its total size. On the lateral boundary we impose a renewal condition.

  18. Wege zur Entdeckung von Communities in Folksonomies

    OpenAIRE

    Jäschke, Robert; Hotho, Andreas; Schmitz, Christoph; Stumme, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    Ein wichtiger Baustein des neu entdeckten World Wide Web - des "Web 2.0" - stellen Folksonomies dar. In diesen Systemen können Benutzer gemeinsam Ressourcen verwalten und mit Schlagwörtern versehen. Die dadurch entstehenden begrifflichen Strukturen stellen ein interessantes Forschungsfeld dar. Dieser Artikel untersucht Ansätze und Wege zur Entdeckung und Strukturierung von Nutzergruppen ("Communities") in Folksonomies.

  19. Hans von Engel and the ICPIG Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R.

    2000-01-01

    The history of the, organized by Hans von Engel, International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases is presented: Oxford (1953), Delft (1955), Venice (1957), Uppsala (1959), Munich (1961), Oxford (1971) and Berlin (1977). Some organizational aspects, financial support and remarkable events like international prizes in field of plasma physics are given

  20. Guido von Pirquet: Austrian pioneer of astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, F.

    1977-01-01

    The works of Guido von Pirquet, Austrian pioneer of rocketry, were assessed. Major emphasis was given to Pirquet's calculation of the route to Venus which in fact was followed by the first Russian rocket to Venus. Of interest also is Pirquet's valuable construction of a space station and his analysis of interstellar space flight.

  1. Ueberreste vorweltlicher Proboscidier von Java und Banka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1884-01-01

    Junghuhn führte in seinem Werke über Java nur einen einzigen Wirbelthierrest, Carcharias megalodon, an (7, IV, pag. 97); es war ihm nicht gelungen bei seinem ersten Aufenthalte auf der Insel Reste von Säugethieren zu finden, so eifrig er auch darnach in den Höhlen des Tertiaergebirges suchte (7, IV,

  2. Active Von Willebrand Factor, thrombocytopenia and thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstein, J.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Platelets and von Willebrand factor (VWF) are unable to interact in circulation. To induce an interaction, a conversion of VWF to a platelet-binding conformation is required. At higher shear stresses, the first step in thrombus formation is binding of VWF to the subendothelium. This results in

  3. Ueber eine Anomalie von Acromitus flagellatus (Stiasny)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1934-01-01

    Bei erneuter Durchsicht des reichhaltigen Materiales von Acromitus flagellatus (Stiasny) in der Scyphomedusen-Sammlung des Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden (vergl. meine Mitteilungen daruber, 1920, Uebersichtstabelle III und 1921, p. 131/136) fand ich ein Exemplar, das eine

  4. Von Kalifornien nach Taxham / Katri Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Katri, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Neljas osa magistritööst "Von Kalifornien nach Taxham: Formen und Strukturen der Kommunikation in Peter Handkes Romanen "Der kurze Brief zum langen Abschied" und "In einer dunklen Nacht ging ich aus meinem stillen Haus"" (Tartu, 2000. Juhendaja: Claus Sommerhage)

  5. Von der lernenden Region zur "Smart Region“

    OpenAIRE

    Poschwatta, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Von der lernenden Region zur "Smart Region“ / M. Hilpert, W. Poschwatta. - In: Nabizadeh-Araghi, Nima : Auf dem Weg zur "Smart Region" : regionale Entwicklung am Beispiel der Pistazienproduktion im Iran. - Augsburg : Müllerdruck, 2004. - S. 5-9. - (Terra facta ; 2)

  6. Vitamins, metabolomics, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondul, Alison M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius

    2017-06-01

    How micronutrients might influence risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been the focus of a large body of research (especially regarding vitamins E, A, and D). Metabolomic profiling has the potential to discover molecular species relevant to prostate cancer etiology, early detection, and prevention, and may help elucidate the biologic mechanisms through which vitamins influence prostate cancer risk. Prostate cancer risk data related to vitamins E, A, and D and metabolomic profiling from clinical, cohort, and nested case-control studies, along with randomized controlled trials, are examined and summarized, along with recent metabolomic data of the vitamin phenotypes. Higher vitamin E serologic status is associated with lower prostate cancer risk, and vitamin E genetic variant data support this. By contrast, controlled vitamin E supplementation trials have had mixed results based on differing designs and dosages. Beta-carotene supplementation (in smokers) and higher circulating retinol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentrations appear related to elevated prostate cancer risk. Our prospective metabolomic profiling of fasting serum collected 1-20 years prior to clinical diagnoses found reduced lipid and energy/TCA cycle metabolites, including inositol-1-phosphate, lysolipids, alpha-ketoglutarate, and citrate, significantly associated with lower risk of aggressive disease. Several active leads exist regarding the role of micronutrients and metabolites in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and risk. How vitamins D and A may adversely impact risk, and whether low-dose vitamin E supplementation remains a viable preventive approach, require further study.

  7. Vitamin D in Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helde-Frankling, Maria; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda

    2017-10-18

    Vitamin D is a hormone synthesized in the skin in the presence of sunlight. Like other hormones, vitamin D plays a role in a wide range of processes in the body. Here we review the possible role of vitamin D in nociceptive and inflammatory pain. In observational studies, low vitamin D levels have been associated with increased pain and higher opioid doses. Recent interventional studies have shown promising effects of vitamin D supplementation on cancer pain and muscular pain-but only in patients with insufficient levels of vitamin D when starting intervention. Possible mechanisms for vitamin D in pain management are the anti-inflammatory effects mediated by reduced cytokine and prostaglandin release and effects on T-cell responses. The recent finding of vitamin D-mediated inhibition of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is especially interesting and exhibits a credible mechanistic explanation. Having reviewed current literature, we suggest that patients with deficient levels defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels 50 nmol/L probably have little benefit from supplementation. Our conclusion is that vitamin D may constitute a safe, simple and potentially beneficial way to reduce pain among patients with vitamin D deficiency, but that more randomized and placebo-controlled studies are needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn.

  8. Vitamin D in allergic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a factor that plays a significant role in calcium-phosphate balance. It has an effect on bone metabolism and also has modulator and anti-inflammatory activity. It is claimed that vitamin D inhibits immunological reactions with Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes. The influence of vitamin D on Th2 lymphocytes is not clear. The main effect of vitamin D is probably the activation of Treg lymphocytes. It was observed that vitamin D had a beneficial influence on diseases connected with excessive activation of Th1 lymphocytes, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, non-specific enteritis, diabetes type 1 or psoriasis. The role of vitamin D in allergic diseases, in which increased activation of Th2-dependent reactions are of great importance, is controversial. However, due to a wide range of vitamin D activity, this view seems to be simplified. A beneficial effect on the course of allergic diseases was observed in up-to-date studies although the role of vitamin D in their pathogenesis has not been explained yet. On the basis of recent studies and well-known mechanisms of vitamin D activity on particular elements of the immunological system, the influence of vitamin D on the course of chosen allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis was presented considering the possibility of contribution of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  9. Worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D status depends on the production of vitamin D3 in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D intake through the diet or vitamin D supplements. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is the parameter of choice for the assessment of vitamin D

  10. Vitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, lung function and structure in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Isaac; Hanson, Corrine; Sayles, Harlan

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been associated with COPD and FEV1. There are limited data regarding emphysema and vitamin D and DBP.......Vitamin D and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been associated with COPD and FEV1. There are limited data regarding emphysema and vitamin D and DBP....

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of the effect of gamma radiation on the physical parameters of biosynthesized silver/chitosan nano-particles and their antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mohamed E.; Eid, May M.; Khattab, Om kolthoum H.; El-Hallouty, Salwa M.; El-Marakby, Seham M.; Mahmoud, Doaa A.

    2015-09-01

    Studying the effect of pH on the biosynthesis of silver/chitosan nanoparticles (Ag/CS NPs) using Aspergillus deflectus and Penicillium pinophilum as reducing agents, showed very weak surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag/CS NPs at certain pH. In this paper, the effect of irradiation on the synthesis of Ag/CS at non-optimum pH was evaluated and thereby, the antimicrobial effect of the biosynthesized Ag/CS NPs. The SPR of the AgNPs was analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The active groups responsible for the reduction and capping of the AgNPs were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and their shape and size were determined via high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. UV/Visible spectroscopy confirmed the appearance of AgNPs’ SPR. Additionally, the FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the Ag/CS NP formation. Data also revealed that increasing both the pH and irradiation dose resulted in a decrease of the Ag/CS NPs’ size. DLS and HRTEM results showed that the best pH for biosynthesis of Ag/Cs is 7.5 at 50 kGy considering the particle size and crystallinity. Also, pH 8.5 gave the best antimicrobial activity of the Ag/CS NPs from Penicillium against both S. aureus and E. coli, while 8.5 and 7.5 were the best in the same order, for Ag/CS from Aspergillus.

  12. Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized Using Achillea biebersteinii Flower Extract: Apoptosis Induction in MCF-7 Cells via Caspase Activation and Regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, the most popular nanoparticles, possess unique properties. Achillea biebersteinii is a plant of the Asteraceae family rich in active antitumor components. The aim of this research was the characterization and investigation of the cytotoxic properties of Ag-NPs synthesized using A. biebersteinii flower extract, on a human breast cancer cell line. The Ag-NPs were synthesized after approximately 180 min of reaction at 40 °C, then they were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The anti-apoptosis effect of Ag-NPs on the MCF-7 cell line was investigated by MTT assay, DAPI and acridine orange staining and caspase activity. The transcriptional expression of bax, bcl-2, caspase-3, -8 and -9 were also evaluated by RT-PCR. The TEM images revealed that the Ag-NPs morphology had a different shape. The DLS indicated that the average hydrodynamic diameter of the biosynthesized Ag-NPs was around 12 nm. By UV-visible spectroscopy the strongest absorbance peak was observed at 460 nm. The FTIR results also showed interaction between the plant extract and Ag-NPs due to the similarity in the peak patterns. The EDS results showed that Ag-NPs display an absorption peak at 3 keV, indicating the presence of the element silver. The Ag-NPs caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, fragmentation in nucleic acid, inhibited the proliferation and induction of apoptosis on MCF-7 by suppressing specific cell cycle genes, and simulation programmed cell dead genes. Further investigation is required to establish the potential of this novel and promising approach in cancer therapy.

  13. ATP synthesis in the energy metabolism pathway: a new perspective for manipulating CdSe quantum dots biosynthesized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rong Zhang,1–3 Ming Shao,1–3 Xu Han,1–3 Chuan Wang,3–4 Yong Li,3–4 Bin Hu,3–4 Daiwen Pang,3–4 Zhixiong Xie1–31Hubei Key Laboratory of Cell Homeostasis, 2College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, 3Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education, 4College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Due to a growing trend in their biomedical application, biosynthesized nanomaterials are of great interest to researchers nowadays with their biocompatible, low-energy consumption, economic, and tunable characteristics. It is important to understand the mechanism of biosynthesis in order to achieve more efficient applications. Since there are only rare studies on the influences of cellular energy levels on biosynthesis, the influence of energy is often overlooked. Through determination of the intracellular ATP concentrations during the biosynthesis process, significant changes were observed. In addition, ATP synthesis deficiency caused great decreases in quantum dots (QDs biosynthesis in the Δatp1, Δatp2, Δatp14, and Δatp17 strains. With inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy analyses, it was found that ATP affected the accumulation of the seleno-precursor and helped with the uptake of Cd and the formation of QDs. We successfully enhanced the fluorescence intensity 1.5 or 2 times through genetic modification to increase ATP or SeAM (the seleno analog of S-adenosylmethionine, the product that would accumulate when ATP is accrued. This work explains the mechanism for the correlation of the cellular energy level and QDs biosynthesis in living cells, demonstrates control of the biosynthesis using this mechanism, and thus provides a new manipulation strategy for the biosynthesis of other nanomaterials to widen their applications. Keywords: ATP, biosynthesis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, QDs, CdSe

  14. Cardiovascular Diseases and Fat Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin D and Vitamin K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the associations between insufficiency of fat soluble vitamins and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been reported. Vitamin D affects the cardiovascular system via several pathways, such as suppression of parathyroid hormone, the renin- angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular endothelial growth and the immune system. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown the association between the concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), which is a vitamin D metabolite indicating nutritional vitamin D status, and hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure and CVD mortality. On the other hand, the association between vitamin K status and CVDs, especially vascular calcification, has been also reported. Cross-sectional and cohort studies show that high vitamin K status is associated with reduced coronary artery calcification, CVDs and mortality risk. Epidemiological and basic studies indicate that vitamin K possesses a benefit in the prevention of the progression of coronary artery calcification via activation of matrix-gla protein (MGP). While these data in epidemiological and basic studies suggest the protective role of vitamin D and K in CVDs, the benefits of supplementation of both vitamins have not been validated in randomized controlled trials. Further basic and interventional studies are needed to confirm the benefit of both vitamins in protection against CVDs.

  15. Vitamin D-biofortified beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Sarah K.; O'Doherty, John V.; Rajauria, Gaurav

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1......) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p ...) total vitamin D activity (by 38–56%; p vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary...

  16. Vitamin D and muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2017-10-01

    Muscle weakness is a hallmark of severe vitamin D deficiency, but the effect of milder vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency on muscle mass and performance and risk of falling is uncertain. In this presentation, I review the evidence that vitamin D influences muscle mass and performance, balance, and risk of falling in older adults. Special consideration is given to the impact of both the starting 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level and the dose administered on the clinical response to supplemental vitamin D in older men and women. Based on available evidence, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D dose range of 800-1000 IU per day has been effective in many studies; lower doses have generally been ineffective and several doses above this range have increased the risk of falls. In conclusion, older adults with serum 25(OH)D levels vitamin D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin D in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-04-13

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  18. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L Trump

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited.

  19. Vitamin D in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B

    2018-01-01

    Signaling through the vitamin D receptor has been shown to be biologically active and important in a number of preclinical studies in prostate and other cancers. Epidemiologic data also indicate that vitamin D signaling may be important in the cause and prognosis of prostate and other cancers. These data indicate that perturbation of vitamin D signaling may be a target for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Large studies of vitamin D supplementation will be required to determine whether these observations can be translated into prevention strategies. This paper reviews the available data in the use of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of prostate cancer. Clinical data are limited which support the use of vitamin D compounds in the management of men with prostate cancer. However, clinical trials guided by existing preclinical data are limited. PMID:29667615

  20. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often ...

  1. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Download PDFs English ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  2. Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide Vitamins and Minerals in Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Are ... you need to know. What are vitamins and minerals? Vitamins and minerals are substances your body needs ...

  3. Radioresponse of mice testes with or without vitamin-E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareek, T.K.; Goyal, P.K.; Dev, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Vitamins have generated a great deal of interest in recent years for a wide range of protective effects in biological systems. The present study is an attempt to assess the prophylactic use of Vitamin-E against radiation induced changes in the testicular cell counts of Swiss albino mice after exposure to low dose of gamma rays. Quantitative changes in different type of testicular cells of adult Swiss albino mice exposed to 1.6 Gy gamma rays after 7 days prior treatment of vitamin-E (as α-tocopherol), once a day, were studied. The results were compared with those obtained from animals irradiated with the same dose of gamma rays in the absence of Vitamin-E. It was found that the number of different cell counts declined in the testes after irradiation. A continuous depletion was found in the frequency of different spermatogonia types and primary spermatocytes from 6 h to 5 d after irradiation both with control and experimental groups. The counts of such testicular components started elevating from day 10, but remained below normal till 20 days post-irradiation. A progressive decline in the counts of spermatids was also observed from 6 h to the last autopsy interval. However, the experimental values were significantly higher than their corresponding controls at days 10 and 20 post-irradiation intervals. It appears that the higher surviving germ cells population and lesser testicular degeneration in Vitamin-E treated animals is the result of high degree of protection provided by Vitamin-E to the germ cells, which continue to retain their proliferative activities. (author)

  4. Water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Erik J M

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous Determination of Vitamins.--Klejdus et al. described a simultaneous determination of 10 water- and 10 fat-soluble vitamins in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (LC-DAD). A combined isocratic and linear gradient allowed separation of vitamins in 3 distinct groups: polar, low-polar, and nonpolar. The method was applied to pharmaceutical preparations, fortified powdered drinks, and food samples, for which results were in good agreement with values claimed. Heudi et al. described a separation of 9 water-soluble vitamins by LC-UV. The method was applied for the quantification of vitamins in polyvitaminated premixes used for the fortification of infant nutrition products. The repeatability of the method was evaluated at different concentration levels and coefficients of variation were based on, for example, LC. Koontz et al. showed results of total folate concentrations measured by microbiological assay in a variety of foods. Samples were submitted in a routine manner to experienced laboratories that regularly perform folate analysis fee-for-service basis in the United States. Each laboratory reported the use of a microbiological method similar to the AOAC Official Method for the determination of folic acid. Striking was, the use of 3 different pH extraction conditions by 4 laboratories. Only one laboratory reported using a tri-enzyme extraction. Results were evaluated. Results for folic acid fortified foods had considerably lower between-laboratory variation, 9-11%, versus >45% for other foods. Mean total folate ranged from 14 to 279 microg/100 g for a mixed vegetable reference material, from 5 to 70 microg/100 g for strawberries, and from 28 to 81 microg/100 g for wholemeal flour. One should realize a large variation in results, which might be caused by slight modifications in the microbiological analysis of total folate in foods or the analysis in various (unfortified) food matrixes. Furthermore, optimal

  5. Vitamins and bone health: beyond calcium and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadieh, Hala; Arabi, Asma

    2011-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health disorder associated with an increased risk of fracture. Nutrition is among the modifiable factors that influence the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Calcium and vitamin D play important roles in improving bone mineral density and reducing the risk of fracture. Other vitamins appear to play a role in bone health as well. In this review, the findings of studies that related the intake and/or the status of vitamins other than vitamin D to bone health in animals and humans are summarized. Studies of vitamin A showed inconsistent results. Excessive, as well as insufficient, levels of retinol intake may be associated with compromised bone health. Deficiencies in vitamin B, along with the consequent elevated homocysteine level, are associated with bone loss, decreased bone strength, and increased risk of fracture. Deficiencies in vitamins C, E, and K are also associated with compromised bone health; this effect may be modified by smoking, estrogen use or hormonal therapy after menopause, calcium intake, and vitamin D. These findings highlight the importance of adequate nutrition in preserving bone mass and reducing the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  6. Wir zeigen andere Bilder von Frauen ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Rulofs

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Beitrag beleuchtet die Bedeutung der Geschlechterordnung im Prozess der sportmedialen Kommunikation. Im Kern geht es um die Frage, inwiefern im Prozess der medialen Vermittlung von Sport traditionelle Geschlechterstereotype aufrechterhalten werden oder Möglichkeiten der Irritation solcher Stereotype bestehen. Dazu werden verschiedene Ebenen des massenmedialen Kommunikationsprozesses in den Blick genommen: die Medienprodukte, die Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und Selbst-Präsentation der Sportler/innen, die Medienrezeption und die Herstellungsprozesse von Medien in den Sportredaktionen. This article illustrates the relevance of gender in processes of sports media communication. The question in focus is in what way traditional gender stereotypes are perpetuated in the process of media communication in sport and how such stereotypes can be irritated. Therefore different levels of mass media communication are considered: the media products, the public relations of athletes and the presentation of themselves as athletes, the media-reception and the production processes in sport departments of media institutions.

  7. The Molecular Genetics of von Willebrand Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergül Berber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and/or qualitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor (vWF is associated with the most common inherited bleeding disease von Willebrand disease (vWD. vWD is a complex disease with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Incomplete penetrance and variable expression due to genetic and environmental factors contribute to its complexity. vWD also has a complex molecular pathogenesis. Some vWF gene mutations are associated with the affected vWF biosynthesis and multimerization, whereas others are associated with increased clearance and functional impairment. Moreover, in addition to a particular mutation, type O blood may result in the more severe phenotype. The present review aimed to provide a summary of the current literature on the molecular genetics of vWD.

  8. The molecular genetics of von Willebrand disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Ergül

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative and/or qualitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor (vWF) is associated with the most common inherited bleeding disease von Willebrand disease (vWD). vWD is a complex disease with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Incomplete penetrance and variable expression due to genetic and environmental factors contribute to its complexity. vWD also has a complex molecular pathogenesis. Some vWF gene mutations are associated with the affected vWF biosynthesis and multimerization, whereas others are associated with increased clearance and functional impairment. Moreover, in addition to a particular mutation, type O blood may result in the more severe phenotype. The present review aimed to provide a summary of the current literature on the molecular genetics of vWD. None declared.

  9. von Neumann's hypothesis concerning coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, J

    2003-01-01

    An orthonormal basis of modified coherent states is constructed. Each member of the basis is an infinite sum of coherent states on a von Neumann lattice. A single state is assigned to each unit cell of area h (Planck constant) in the phase plane. The uncertainties of the coordinate x and the square of the momentum p 2 for these states are shown to be similar to those for the usual coherent states. Expansions in the newly established set are discussed and it is shown that any function in the kq-representation can be written as a sum of two fixed kq-functions. Approximate commuting operators for x and p 2 are defined on a lattice in phase plane according to von Neumann's prescription. (leeter to the editor)

  10. Theodor von Grotthuss’ Contribution to Electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauliukaite, Rasa; Juodkazytė, Jurga; Ramanauskas, Rimantas

    2017-01-01

    Freiherr Christian Johann Dietrich Theodor von Grotthuss (1785-1822) lived and worked in Lithuania. Inspired by Volta's pile he proposed the first theory of water electrolysis, which was published in 1805 in Rome. Michael Faraday acknowledged T. Grotthuss for this theory in his further investigations of electrolysis processes. Having studied in Germany and France Grotthuss brought science to province by establishing his laboratory in Gedučiai village in his mother's real estate. Lithuanian scientists are proud that life of Theodor von Grotthuss was related to this country. Many events to remember this prominent scientist are organised in Vilnius and other places. His works and example provided a good basis for further development of electrochemical science in Lithuania. Grotthuss insights into the mechanism of proton transport still are of great relevance to such areas of modern science as membrane biochemistry, energy conversion and storage.

  11. Inattentional blindness and the von Restorff effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2015-02-01

    Sometimes we fail to notice distinctive or unusual items (inattentional blindness), while other times we remember distinctive items more than expected items (the von Restorff effect). A three-factor framework is presented and tested in two experiments in an attempt to reconcile these seemingly contradictory phenomena. Memory for different types of unexpected stimuli was tested after an easy or difficult Stroop color-naming task. Highly arousing taboo words were well remembered even when the difficult Stroop task limited attentional resources. However, a conceptual isolation effect was only observed when the nature of the category change was highlighted by the Stroop task, the Stroop task was easy, and/or the isolated targets enjoyed a retrieval advantage relative to comparison targets. As proposed in the three-factor framework, the arousing qualities of the stimuli, the attentional demands of the primary task, and the relevance of isolated features at encoding and retrieval combine to produce inattentional blindness and the von Restorff effect.

  12. Verbesserung der Symmetrie von Hirnaufnahmen entlang der Sagittalebene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ens, Konstantin; Wenzel, Fabian; Fischer, Bernd

    Die lokale Symmetrie von Hirnscans entlang der Sagittalebene zu ermitteln und zu modizifieren, ist für eine Reihe neurologischer Anwendungen interessant. Beispielsweise kann der voxelweise Vergleich von rechter und linker Hirnhälfte nur dann Aufschluss über die Lokalisierung von Läsionen geben, wenn durch Transformation ein Hirnscan eine möglichst hohe Symmetrie aufweist. Ein weiteres Anwendungsgebiet ist die Visualisierung von medialen Hirnschnitten, für die die Trennfläche beider Hirnhälfte möglichst eben sein sollte. Diese Arbeit stellt die Entwicklung eines Verfahrens vor, mit dessen Hilfe die Symmetrie von Hirnaufnahmen entlang der Sagittalebene verbessert werden kann. Dies geschieht unter Verwendung von aktiven Konturen, die mit Hilfe einer neuartigen Kostenfunktion gesteuert werden. Experimente am Ende der Arbeit mit strukturellen Kernspinaufnahmen demonstrieren die Leistungsfähigkeit des Verfahrens.

  13. Rohlin flows on Von Neumann algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The authors will classify Rohlin flows on von Neumann algebras up to strong cocycle conjugacy. This result provides alternative approaches to some preceding results such as Kawahigashi's classification of flows on the injective type II_1 factor, the classification of injective type III factors due to Connes, Krieger and Haagerup and the non-fullness of type III_0 factors. Several concrete examples are also studied.

  14. Marktorientierte Vertriebs-Reorganisation von Energieversorgungsunternehmen

    OpenAIRE

    Beutin, Nikolas; Scholl, Michael; Fürst, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Seit der Liberalisierung des Energiemarktes im Jahre 1998 sehen sich Energieversorgungsunternehmen (EVUs) einer veränderten Markt- und Wettbewerbssituation gegenüber. Neben Risiken, wie dem Eintritt von Wettbewerbern in das vormals geschützte Gebiet, eröffnete sich ihnen hierdurch aber auch die Chance, außerhalb des eigenen Netzbereiches neue Kunden zu gewinnen. Um sowohl dem Margenverfall als auch der direkten Vergleichbarkeit mit ...

  15. La Medea de Lars von Trier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iratxe Fresneda Delgado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el modo en el que Lars von Trier recrea para el cine el estereotipo de Medea. Mediante el análisis fílmico de la película y apoyándose en los estudios culturales, el texto se interroga acerca de la importancia y el poder potencial del cine a la hora recuperar el antiguo mito y demostrar su vigencia. El análisis amplía horizontes para la compresión de los mecanismos que articulan el entramado de significados de la película, donde Von Trier aporta una nueva visión del arquetipo de Medea uniéndola, a la tradición pictórica del Romanticismo. Una influencia que habita en las posteriores obras del director danés, donde el paisaje, la naturaleza, se erige en elemento catalizador de las pulsiones humanas, en su cómplice y testigo.This paper explores the way that Lars von Trier’s film recreates the stereotype of Medea. Using film analysis and based on cultural studies the article asks about the importance and potential power of cinema to recover the ancient myth and show their effects. The analysis expands horizons for the understanding of the mechanisms that link the network of meanings of the film, where the author offers a new vision of Medea's archetype attaching it to the pictorial tradition tied to the Romanticism. An influence that can be seen in the later works of Lars von Trier, where the landscape, the nature, stands as a catalyst of human drives, as his accomplice and witness.

  16. Visuelle Analyse von E-mail-Verkehr

    OpenAIRE

    Mansmann, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Diese Arbeit beschreibt Methoden zur visuellen geographischen Analyse von E-mail Verkehr.Aus dem Header einer E-mail können Hostadressen und IP-Adressen herausgefiltert werden. Anhand einer Datenbank werden diesen Host- und IP-Adressen geographische Koordinaten zugeordnet.Durch eine Visualisierung werden in übersichtlicher Art und Weise mehrere tausend E-mail Routen dargestellt. Zusätzlich dazu wurden interktive Manipulationsmöglichkeiten vorgestellt, welche eine visuelle Exploration der Date...

  17. Zur Kenntnis von Gnetum neglectum Bl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markgraf, F.

    1960-01-01

    Gnetum neglectum war nicht nur, wie der Name andeutet, bis zu Blumes Zeit übersehen worden, sondern es wurde von Späteren wiederum verkannt, wie ich in Bull. J. B. Buitenzorg 3. Ser. 10 (1930) 474 näher ausgeführt habe. Die echte Art taucht verhältnismässig selten in den Herbarien auf. Sie ist eine

  18. Von Medien, Übertragungen und Automaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Barberi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Im Zuge der Debatten zum Medialen Habitus wurde vielfach betont, dass die >Theorie der Praxispraxeologischen Medientheorie< des Medialen Habitus avant la lettre gesprochen werden kann. Dieser Artikel untersucht – ausgehend von den Debatten zur "Medienkompetenz" – wie Bourdieu Sprache, Sprechen und Diskurs, sowie Akteure, Felder und Habitus als Medien begreift und betont dabei die Nützlichkeit der Bourdieuschen Bildungssoziologie im Rahmen einer sozialwissenschaftlichen Grundlegung der Medienpädagogik.

  19. Portrait of Dr. Von Braun with Walt Disney, 1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-01-01

    Marshall Center Director Dr. Wernher Von Braun is pictured with Walt Disney during a visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center in 1954. In the 1950s, Dr. Von Braun while working in California on the Saturn project, also worked with Disney studios as a technical director in making three films about Space Exploration for television. Disney's tour of Marshall in 1965 was Von Braun's hope for a renewed public interest in the future of the Space Program at NASA.

  20. Gespiegelte Planeten – Die Anordnung der Pyramiden von Gizeh

    OpenAIRE

    Jelitto, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Antike Bauwerke wurden wiederholt auf astronomische Zusammenhänge hin untersucht, so z. B. ihre Ausrichtung in Bezug auf die Bewegung von Sonne oder Sternen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurden für die Pyramiden von Gizeh drei ungewöhnliche Gleichungen entdeckt, die die Pyramidengrößen mit einer Genauigkeit von ca. 0,1 % festlegen. Gleichzeitig legen diese drei Gleichungen nahe, die drei Pyramiden in der Reihenfolge Mykerinos-, Chefren- und Cheopspyramide den inneren drei Planeten unseres Sonnensys...

  1. Saage tuttavaks : Elisabeth ja Karl von Hoerschelmann / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2004-01-01

    Kuraator M. Levin kuni 10. X 2004 Adamson-Ericu muuseumis avatud näitusest "Tuntud ja tundmatud Elisabeth von Rosendorff-Hoerschelmann ja Karl von Hoerschelmann". Enamik töid on kunstnike laste Konstantin Hoerschelmanni ja Anna Röder-Hoerschelmanni omand. Elisabeth Rosendorff (1898-1984) sündis Virumaal Maidlas eesti perekonnas, Karl von Hoerschelmann (1899-1951) Sevastoopolis saksa perekonnas

  2. Arbeitszeiten von Professorinnen und Professoren in Deutschland 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Weihs, Claus; Hernández Rodríguez, Tanja; Doeckel, Maximilian; Marty, Christoph; Wormer, Holger

    2018-01-01

    In dieser Studie werden belastbare Prognoseintervalle der wöchentlichen Gesamtarbeitszeit von Universitätsprofessorinnen und -professoren aus Daten einer Umfrage aus dem Jahre 2016 und a-priori Informationen aus früheren Studien bestimmt. Neben der Gesamtarbeitszeit werden auch Teilarbeitszeiten zum Beispiel für Lehre und Forschung ermittelt. Die Ergebnisse von frequentistischer und Bayesianischer Analyse werden verglichen. Aus den gültigen Fragebögen von aktiven Vollzeit arbeitenden Universi...

  3. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  4. Vitamin E and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.; Knipschild, P.; ter Riet, G.

    1989-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials of the effects of Vitamin E on complaints of intermittent claudication and angina pectoris are reviewed, and their methodological shortcomings are considered. Mechanisms by which Vitamin E might act in cardiovascular disease are discussed. The evidence about the possible

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... first trimester of pregnancy, consume adequate synthetic folic acid daily (from fortified foods or supplements) in addition to food forms of ... consume extra vitamin D from vitamin D-fortified foods and/or supplements. ... amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, microbial probiotics, and ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the spot. Some supplement products may be expensive or may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are not used by the body and are eliminated in the ...

  7. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D include these, among many others: • Some cancers • Heart disease • Diabetes (high blood sugar) • Obesity • Muscle weakness However, it is not clear if ... vitamin D can become “trapped” in body fat, obesity may cause low vitamin D. People ... heart disease, and stroke.) These diseases are even more likely ...

  8. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Hamilton, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The application concerns the manufacture of radioactive forms of vitamin B-12 in which the cobalt atom present in the vitamin B-12 molecule is replaced with a radioactive isotope of cobalt, usually cobalt-57 or cobalt-58. Such radioactive forms of B-12 are used extensively in the diagnosis of B-12 deficiency states

  9. vitamin c - jf-f

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impo

    delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) which peaks after. 24 - 48 hours and subsides after ... As the evidence regarding the effect of vitamin C (VC) supple- mentation on systemic ..... Pederson EW, Ostowski K, Ibfedt T, et al. Effect of vitamin ...

  10. Vitamin D Status in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the vitamin D in our body is produced by cutaneous synthesis in response to sunlight. As more and more people live in cities and spend the bulk of their time indoors, it can be difficult to get sufficient sun exposure for adequate cutaneous production of vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D insufficiency has become a very common health problem worldwide. The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV 2008 showed that the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] level below 50 nmol/L, was 47.3% in males and 64.5% in females. Only 13.2% of males and 6.7% of females had a serum 25(OHD level of greater than 75 nmol/L. In Korea, vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in young adults than in elderly people, likely due to the indoor lifestyle of younger people. Compared with the United States and Canada, Korea has a lower mean 25(OHD level and a higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. To improve the vitamin D status of the Korean population, more aggressive policies on food fortification and vitamin D supplementation are needed.

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... product worth the money?'" Frankos advises. "Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the spot. Some supplement products may be expensive or may not provide the benefit you expect. For example, excessive amounts of water-soluble vitamins, like vitamins C and B, are ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... There are 13 vitamins that the body absolutely needs: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, and the B ... Americans, many people consume more calories than they need without taking in ... nutrients—including vitamins—for which low dietary intake may be a ...

  13. Vitamin D for older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, Anouk M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D has been identified as an important factor in healthy aging and is receiving growing attention in clinical research. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble molecule, which is synthesized by hepatic and renal or extra-renal hydroxylation into the active hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D).

  14. [Vitamin D and endocrine diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Natielen Jacques; Garcia, Vivian Cristina; Martini, Ligia Araújo

    2009-07-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been worldwide reported in all age groups in recent years. It has been considered a Public Health matter since decreased levels of vitamin D has been related to several chronic diseases, as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and hypertension. Glucose intolerance and insulin secretion has been observed during vitamin D deficiency, both in animals and humans resulting in T2DM. The supposed mechanism underlying these findings is presence of vitamin D receptor in several tissues and cells, including pancreatic beta-cells, adipocyte and muscle cells. In obese individuals, the impaired vitamin D endocrine system, characterized by high levels of PTH and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could induce a negative feedback for the hepatic synthesis of 25(OH)D and also contribute to a higher intracellular calcium, which in turn secrete less insulin and deteriorate insulin sensitivity. In hypertension, vitamin D could act on renin-angiotensin system and also in vascular function. Administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could decreases renin gene expression and inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. However, prospective and intervention human studies that clearly demonstrates the benefits of vitamin D status adequacy in the prevention and treatment of endocrine metabolic diseases are lacking. Further research still necessary to assure the maximum benefit of vitamin D in such situations.

  15. Vitamin K and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Maryam S; Gajic-Veljanoski, Olga; Cheung, Angela M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K has been purported to play an important role in bone health. It is required for the gamma-carboxylation of osteocalcin (the most abundant noncollagenous protein in bone), making osteocalcin functional. There are 2 main forms (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2), and they come from different sources and have different biological activities. Epidemiologic studies suggest a diet high in vitamin K is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in aging men and women. However, randomized controlled trials of vitamin K1 or K2 supplementation in white populations did not increase bone mineral density at major skeletal sites. Supplementation with vitamin K1 and K2 may reduce the risk of fractures, but the trials that examined fractures as an outcome have methodological limitations. Large well-designed trials are needed to compare the efficacies of vitamin K1 and K2 on fractures. We conclude that currently there is not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of vitamin K supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin D and muscle trophicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues-Faria, Carla; Boirie, Yves; Walrand, Stéphane

    2017-05-01

    We review recent findings on the involvement of vitamin D in skeletal muscle trophicity. Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with reduced muscle mass and strength, and its supplementation seems effective to improve these parameters in vitamin D-deficient study participants. Latest investigations have also evidenced that vitamin D is essential in muscle development and repair. In particular, it modulates skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, discrepancies still exist about an enhancement or a decrease of muscle proliferation and differentiation by the vitamin D. Recently, it has been demonstrated that vitamin D influences skeletal muscle cell metabolism as it seems to regulate protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. Finally, apart from its genomic and nongenomic effects, recent investigations have demonstrated a genetic contribution of vitamin D to muscle functioning. Recent studies support the importance of vitamin D in muscle health, and the impact of its deficiency in regard to muscle mass and function. These 'trophic' properties are of particular importance for some specific populations such as elderly persons and athletes, and in situations of loss of muscle mass or function, particularly in the context of chronic diseases.

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fat-soluble vitamins.” For some vitamins and minerals, the National Academy of Sciences has established upper limits of intake (ULs) that it recommends not be exceeded during any given day. (For more information, visit ... the AAFP lists the following side effects that are ...

  18. Vitamin D deficiency and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D comprises a group of fat-soluble pro-hormones, obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements, and it must undergo two hydroxylation reactions to be activated in the body. Several studies have shown the role of vitamin D in mineral metabolism regulation, especially calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Some factors such as inadequate vitamin intake and liver or kidney disorders can lead to vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, vitamin D malnutrition may also be linked to susceptibility to chronic diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, high blood pressure, cognitive impairment including foggy brain and memory loss, and autoimmune diseases including diabetes type I. Recent research has revealed that low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity (Sato et al., 2004 and mortality (Pilz et al., 2008. Also, hypertension contributes to a reduction in bone mineral density and increase in the incidence of stroke and death. This article reviews the function and physiology of vitamin D and examines the effects of vitamin D deficiency on susceptibility to stroke, as a cardiovascular event, and its morbidity and subsequent mortality.

  19. Vitamin D and autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Potrokhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review discusses the effect of vitamin D on the tolerogenic modulation of an immune response, its relationship to cells of the monocyte-macrophage series, including dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, in the context of the impact of the expression of anti-inflammatory proinflammatory cytokines in some autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Crohn`s disease. It discusses the role of vitamin D in the development of innate and adaptive immunity. Despite some conflicting evidence, the immune regulatory function of vitamin D is generally directed toward inhibition of the components of innate and acquired immunity, which are responsible for the induction of autoimmune reactions; in this connection there are a growing number of publications devoted to the issues of vitamin D supplementation in patients with autoimmune diseases, the preventive effect of vitamin D intake on the risk of an abnormality and that of therapeutic doses of the vitamin on its course. The maintenance of the threshold value for serum 25(OHD3 at least 30 ng/ml, which is achieved by the intake of about 2000 IU of vitamin D, is shown to be required for its immune regulatory function. The data given raise the question as to whether it is necessity to revise the Russian recommended daily dietary allowances for vitamin D through its infant food fortification.

  20. [Osteomalacia and vitamin D deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, C P; Corsten, N; Rolf, O

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin D and calcium deficiency has a higher incidence in the orthopedic-trauma surgery patient population than generally supposed. In the long term this can result in osteomalacia, a form of altered bone mineralization in adults, in which the cartilaginous, non-calcified osteoid does not mature to hard bone. The current value of vitamin D and its importance for bones and other body cells are demonstrated. The causes of vitamin D deficiency are insufficient sunlight exposure, a lack of vitamin D3 and calcium, malabsorption, and rare alterations of VDR signaling and phosphate metabolism. The main symptoms are bone pain, fatigue fractures, muscular cramps, muscle pain, and gait disorders, with an increased incidence of falls in the elderly. Osteopathies induced by pharmaceuticals, tumors, rheumatism or osteoporosis have to be considered as the main differential diagnoses. In addition to the recording of symptoms and medical imaging, the diagnosis of osteomalacia should be ensured by laboratory parameters. Adequate treatment consists of the high-dose intake of vitamin D3 and the replacement of phosphate if deficient. Vitamin D is one of the important hormone-like vitamins and is required in all human cells. Deficiency of vitamin D has far-reaching consequences not only for bone, but also for other organ systems.

  1. Vitamin D: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, M; Alonso, G; García-Martín, A

    2014-10-01

    In recent years has been a growing interest by vitamin D, not only for its important role in the bone mineral metabolism, but also by the extra-osseous effects. Most of the scientific societies consider that deposits are sufficient if the serum concentration of 25-OH vitamin D is above 30ng/ml and are considered deficient if levels are below 20ng/ml. The majority of studies found that supplements of calcium plus vitamin D have a positive effect in reducing the risk of fracture and the risk of falls in the elderly, although several specifies that doses should be 700-1.000 IU daily. The treatment of the deficit can be performed with vitamin D2, D3 as well as calcidiol or the active metabolite calcitriol. In certain pathologies also selective vitamin D receptor activators can be used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of irradiation on vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1994-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical process involving treatment of food with ionising radiation. Its main uses are reduction in spoilage and pathogenic organisms, inhibition of ripening and sprouting processes, and insect disinfestation. Chemical changes in the treated foods are small, and expert committees have concluded that they carry no special nutritional problems. Some vitamins are sensitive to irradiative degradation, however, and opponents of the process have claimed that extensive destruction will occur. Irradiation doses will, however, be limited by organoleptic changes, and maximum levels are being introduced into legislation for specific foods. Examination of the published literature shows that vitamins C and B 1 are the most sensitive water-soluble vitamins, and that E and A are the most sensitive fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin losses on irradiation of permitted foods in western countries will not be of nutritional importance. (Author)

  3. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  4. Untersuchungen zur Farbreaktion von Amilorid, Chlorhexidin und Proguanil mit Hypobromit

    OpenAIRE

    Huth, Silke

    2004-01-01

    Bei der Reaktion von Amiloridhydrochlorid (1· HCl) mit Brom in alkalischer Lösung wird ein gelbbraunes Dehydrierungsprodukt erhalten, daß als 3-(3-Amino-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-5-chlor-2,6-pyrazindiamin (6) identifiziert werden konnte. Durch Vergleich von Massen- und NMR-Spektren der Verbindung 6 mit Spektren von 1· HCl und Referenzsubstanzen I-III konnte auf die verbindung 6 geschlossen werden. Die Struktur wurde durch eine Röntgenstrukturanalyse abgesichert. Erhitzen von Amiloridhydrochlorid ...

  5. Chancen und Gefahren von Global-Marketing-Konzepten

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, Ulrike

    1990-01-01

    Chancen und Gefahren von Global-Marketing-Konzepten. - Augsburg : Förderges. Marketing, 1990. - 57, XII S. - Zugl: Augsburg, Univ., Diplomarb. - (Arbeitspapiere zur Schriftenreihe Schwerpunkt Marketing ; 29)

  6. A bicategorical approach to Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    We relate Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras to the ''Connes fusion'' tensor product between correspondences. In the purely algebraic setting, it is well known that rings are Morita equivalent if they are equivalent objects in a bicategory whose 1-cells are bimodules. We present a similar result for von Neumann algebras. We show that von Neumann algebras form a bicategory, having Connes's correspondences as 1-morphisms, and (bounded) intertwiners as 2-morphisms. Further, we prove that two von Neumann algebras are Morita equivalent iff they are equivalent objects in the bicategory. The proofs make extensive use of the Tomita-Takesaki modular theory

  7. Vitamin D deficiency in Fibromyalgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatty, S.A.; Shaikh, N.A.; Irfan, M.; Kashif, S.M.; Vaswani, A.S.; Sumbhai, A.; Gunpat

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To check the Vitamin D levels in patients diagnosed as fibromyagia in our population. Methods: Study was done at Medical OPD of Civil Hospital Karachi, from January to March 2009. Female patients diagnosed as Fibromyalgia according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and exclusion of systemic illness on examination, and normal reports of blood CP, ESR, serum calcium, phosphate and Alkaline Phosphatase, were asked to get Vitamin D levels in their serum. Vitamin D deficiency is defined as 30 ng/ml. Result: Forty female patients were included in the study. The mean age was 37.65 +- 11.5 years. Mean Vitamin D level was 17.41 +- 5.497 ng/ml. Thirty two (80%) of patients had Vitamin D deficiency, mean levels of 15.855 +- 4.918 ng/ml and 8(20%) had Vitamin D insufficiency, mean levels of 23.64 +- 2.39 ng/ml. Patients with vitamin D deficiency and age less than 45 years were 22 (68.75%), had mean vitamin D level 16.87 +- 4.48 ng/ml whereas in age ranging from 46-75 years were 10 (31.25%) had mean vitamin D level 16.09 +- 6.45 ng/ml. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is frequently seen in patients diagnosed as fibromyalgia and nonspecific musculoskeletal pain in our population. Although the sample size of the study is small, but the figures are so alarming that it is an eye opener towards the need of a population based study, including normal population as well as those presenting with musculoskeletal pain. (author)

  8. Vitamin C and Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitra C. Carr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. It is also needed for apoptosis and clearance of the spent neutrophils from sites of infection by macrophages, thereby decreasing necrosis/NETosis and potential tissue damage. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes is less clear, but it has been shown to enhance differentiation and proliferation of B- and T-cells, likely due to its gene regulating effects. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100–200 mg/day, which optimize cell and tissue levels. In contrast, treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory response and metabolic demand.

  9. Der Einfluß der Ablauforganisation auf die Effizienz von Entscheidungen: Eine empirische Untersuchung am Beispiel von Bilanzanalysen

    OpenAIRE

    Gemünden, Hans Georg

    1987-01-01

    Der vorliegende Beitrag widmet sich einem in der Organisationstheorie stark vernachlässigten Problem: der Ablauforganisation von Entscheidungen. Am Beispiel von Bilanzanalysen wird empirisch geprüft, in welcher Weise eine Gliederung des Prozesses nach Verrichtungen oder Objekten die Qualität der Analyse beeinflußt. Hierzu wird ein validiertes Konzept zur Messung der Qualität von Bilanzanalysen entwickelt. Es wird gezeigt, wie man mittels prozeßbegleitender experimenteller Organisationsforschu...

  10. Beeinflussung der Wirkung von Ernährungsinformation durch Framing: Analyse am Beispiel von Folsäure

    OpenAIRE

    Lensch, Kathrin; Hartmann, Monika; Simons, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Die Bereitstellung und verbrauchergerechte Aufbereitung von Informationen stellt eine Möglichkeit dar, Konsumenten darin zu unterstützen, Gesundheitsaspekte vermehrt in das Kauf- und Essverhalten zu integrieren. In der Verhaltensökonomik gelten Framing-Effekte als wichtige Bestimmungsfaktoren für die Wahrnehmung von Informationen. Im Rahmen des vorliegenden Beitrags werden Framing-Effekte am Beispiel von Ernährungsinformationen über Folsäure mit Hilfe eines Experiments untersucht. Die Ergebni...

  11. Erosive potential of vitamin and vitamin+mineral effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegehaupt, Florian J; Lunghi, Nancy; Hogger, Vanessa M G; Attin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The extrinsic sources for erosion-causing acids are primarily acidic beverages and foodstuffs. Effervescent tablets also contain organic acids (e.g. citric, tartaric, malic) in order to form carbon dioxide by contact with water – with the help of the carbonate salts of the tablets. To adequately inform patients about the possible erosive potential of effervescent tablets, this study was undertaken in order to investigate the erosive potential of effervescent tablets (ET), containing either a combination of vitamins and minerals or vitamins only, commercially available in Switzerland. One hundred and ninety-two bovine enamel samples were prepared and allocated to 16 groups (A–H and 1–8; n = 12/group). Samples were eroded (120 s/erosive cycle) in freshly prepared solutions (200 ml/12 samples) comprised of tap water and a supplement as follows: none (control groups, A and 1); vitamin+mineral ET: Qualite and Prix (B), Optisana (C), Well and Active (D), Actilife All in One (E), Berocca (F), Isostar (G) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (H); vitamin ET: Actilife-Multivitamin (2), Sunlife Vitamin C (3), Optisana Vitamin C (4), Optisana Multivitamin (5), Well and Active Multivitamin (6), Kneipp Vitamin C+Zink (7) and Sunlife Multivitamin (8). Enamel loss was measured using profilometry after 10 and 20 erosive cycles. For the vitamin+mineral ET, no loss was observed in groups B–E. Significantly highest enamel loss (mean ± SD) after 20 cycles was observed for Isostar (5.26 ± 0.76 µm) and Qualite and Prix Mg + Vit C (5.12 ± 0.67 µm). All vitamine ET showed erosive enamel loss. Significantly highest loss was observed for Sunlife Multivitamin (8.45 ± 1.08 µm), while the lowest loss was observed for Actilife-Multivitamin (5.61 ± 1.08 µm) after 20 cycles. Some of the tested effervescent tablets showed a considerable erosive potential and patients should be informed accordingly.

  12. Philologie im Horizont der Geschichtlichkeit von Sprache und Text: zum Tagungsband von Wulf Oesterreicher und Maria Selig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Müller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wulf Oesterreicher und Maria Selig, Hrsg., Geschichtlichkeit von Sprache und Text: Philologien – Disziplingenese – Wissenschaftshistoriographie (Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink, 2014, 332 S.

  13. C-Vitamin mod åreforkalkning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Overraskende mange mennesker i den vestlige verden får ikke C-vitamin nok. Muligvis vil tilskud med C-vitamin kunne forebygge hjertekarsygdomme.......Overraskende mange mennesker i den vestlige verden får ikke C-vitamin nok. Muligvis vil tilskud med C-vitamin kunne forebygge hjertekarsygdomme....

  14. Plasma and milk concentrations of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 following intravenous injection of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M; Knipfel, J E

    1984-01-01

    Plasma levels of vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in ewes after administration of a single massive intravenous dose of vitamin D3 (2 X 10(6) IU) or 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (5 mg) were determined at zero, one, two, three, five, ten and 20 days postinjection. In six ewes injected with vitamin D3 conversion of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 resulted in a six-fold increase in the plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 level within one day. Elevated levels were maintained until day 10 but by day 20 a s...

  15. Reproductive endocrinology of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Mette; Boisen, Ida Marie; Mortensen, Li Juel; Lanske, Beate; Juul, Anders; Blomberg Jensen, Martin

    2017-09-15

    Vitamin D is a versatile hormone with several functions beyond its well-established role in maintenance of skeletal health and calcium homeostasis. The effects of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor, which is expressed together with the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the reproductive tissues. The reproductive organs are therefore responsive to and able to metabolize vitamin D locally. The exact role remains to be clarified but several studies have suggested a link between vitamin D and production/release of reproductive hormones into circulation, which will be the main focus of this review. Current evidence is primarily based on small human association studies and rodent models. This highlights the need for randomized clinical trials, but also functional animal and human in vitro studies, and larger, prospective cohort studies are warranted. Given the high number of men and women suffering from reproductive problems and abnormal endocrinology research addressing the role of vitamin D in reproductive endocrinology may be of clinical importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. XRD and solid state 13C-NMR evaluation of the crystallinity enhancement of 13C-labeled bacterial cellulose biosynthesized by Komagataeibacter xylinus under different stimuli: A comparative strategy of analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Contreras, Juan C; Manriquez-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Gutiérrez-Ortega, José A; Gonzalez-Garcia, Yolanda

    2018-05-22

    The production and crystallinity of 13 C bacterial cellulose (BC) was examined in static culture of Komagataeibacter xylinus with different chemical and physical stimuli: the addition of NaCl or cloramphenicol as well as exposure to a magnetic field or to UV light. Crystalline BC biosynthesized under each stimulus was studied by XRD and solid state 13 C NMR analyses. All treatments produced BC with enhanced crystallinity over 90% (XRD) and 80% (NMR) compared to the control (83 and 76%, respectively) or to Avicel (77 and 62%, respectively). The XRD data indicated that the crystallite size was 80-85 Å. Furthermore, changes on the allomorphs (I α and I β ) ratio tendency of BC samples addressed to the stimuli were estimated using the C4 signal from 13 C NMR data. These results showed a decrease of the allomorph I α (3%) when BC was biosynthesized with UV light and chloramphenicol compared to control (58.79%). In contrast, the BC obtained with NaCl increased up to 60.31% of the I α allomorph ratio. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Von den Liven von Oesel / August Ludwig Schlözer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlözer, August Ludwig

    2008-01-01

    Avaldatud Eberhard Winkleri initsiatiivil A. L. Schlözeri teose põhjal: Gesammelte Nachrichten von den Ueberresten der Liven, in Livland und Kurland. (1770), mis moodustab osa teosest: Schlözer, August Ludwig. M. Johann Joseph Haigold's Beylagen zum Neuveränderten Russland. Zweiter Theil. Riga und Leipzig, 1770

  18. Aino Lepik von Wiren / Aino Lepik von Wiren ; interv. Kadi Alatalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik von Wirén, Aino, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Heinrich Marga eksiilvalitsuse (20.06.1990-7.10.1992) kohtuminister Aino Lepik von Wiren pagulaslapse elust Rootsis, haridusest ja elukutse valikust, tööst eksiilvalitsuses, tööleasumisest Eestisse 1992. aastal, seadusandlikust tegevusest ning aluse panekust välismaalaste- ja kodakondsuspoliitikale, naiste võimalustest poliitilisse tippu tõusmiseks, kodu- ja väliseestlaste vastandamisest

  19. Ööklubi Club von Überlingen = Club von Überlingen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ööklubi Club von Überlingen (Madara 22A, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekt: Taavi Aunre (Boom.ee OÜ). Taavi Aunrest, tema tähtsamad tööd. I-II korruse plaan, 11 värv. vaadet, foto T. Aunrest

  20. Vitamin D and gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Torloni, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D status (which is involved in glucose homeostasis) is related to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). GDM is characterized by increased resistance to and impaired secretion of insulin and results in higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including operative delivery......, macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and neonatal hypoglycemia. Women with GDM and their babies are at increased risk for developing type II diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: International definitions of vitamin D deficiency and normality are inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women particularly...

  1. [Vitamins and Minerals in Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holch, Julian Walter; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Erickson, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D.; Dowling, Kirsten G; Škrabáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    25(OH)D values from national health/nutrition surveys. OBJECTIVE: This study applied VDSP protocols to serum 25(OH)D data from representative childhood/teenage and adult/older adult European populations, representing a sizable geographical footprint, to better quantify the prevalence of vitamin D...... is evident throughout the European population at prevalence rates that are concerning and that require action from a public health perspective. What direction these strategies take will depend on European policy but should aim to ensure vitamin D intakes that are protective against vitamin D deficiency...

  3. Vitamin requirements of juvenile penaeid shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, D

    1989-01-01

    The results of supplementing crustacean feeds with vitamins are examined specifically from the standpoint of shrimp culture. Micro-nutrients selected for discussion include: water-soluble vitamins of the B-complex, choline and inositol, vitamin C and the fat-soluble group of vitamins: A, D, E and K. Ways in which utilization of vitamins and ultimately dietary demand are altered by physiological state, conditions of culture, as well as factors which impact on feed levels, are explored.

  4. Immunomodulation by vitamin D: implications for TB

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Rene F; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2011-01-01

    TB remains a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Low vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of TB and other immune disorders. These observations suggest a role for vitamin D as a modulator of normal human immune function. This article will detail the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D regulates the immune system and how vitamin D insufficiency may lead to immune dysregulation. The importance of vitamin D bioavailability as a mechanism for defining the ...

  5. Polychaeten aus den Zoologischen Museen von Leiden und Amsterdam I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augener, H.

    1933-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Untersuchung eines sehr umfangreichen Polychaeten-Materials niedergelegt, das mir von Herrn Prof. Dr. E. D. van Oort in Leiden und Herrn Prof. Dr. L. F. de Beaufort in Amsterdam zur Bearbeitung übergeben wurde. Von diesem Material ist der dem Museum in Leiden

  6. [Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen. Saksa Simplicissimuse seiklused] / Meelis Friedenthal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Friedenthal, Meelis, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Tutvustus: Grimmelshausen, Hans Jakob Christoffel von. Saksa Simplicissimuse seiklused, teisisõnu: ühe veidra vagabundi elulugu, kel Melchior Sternfels von Fuchshaim nimeks, et kus ja mis moel ta siia ilma sündis ning mida siin nägi, õppis, oma nahal tunda sai ja kannatas, nagu sellestki, miks ta siinsest ilmast vabatahtlikult loobub. [Tallinn] : Pegasus, c2010

  7. Von Neumann algebras as complemented subspaces of B(H)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Wang, Liguang

    2014-01-01

    Let M be a von Neumann algebra of type II1 which is also a complemented subspace of B( H). We establish an algebraic criterion, which ensures that M is an injective von Neumann algebra. As a corollary we show that if M is a complemented factor of type II1 on a Hilbert space H, then M is injective...

  8. An accurate von Neumann's law for three-dimensional foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kraynik, Andrew M.; Koehler, Stephan A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2001-01-01

    The diffusive coarsening of 2D soap froths is governed by von Neumann's law. A statistical version of this law for dry 3D foams has long been conjectured. A new derivation, based on a theorem by Minkowski, yields an explicit analytical von Neumann's law in 3D which is in very good agreement with

  9. Erfahrungen an der Schnittstelle von Medienarbeit und Praxisforschung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Holzwarth

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag reflektiert die Verbindung von praktischer Medienarbeit und Forschung am Beispiel eines internationalen EU-Forschungsprojekts zum Thema Medien und Migration. Neben didaktischen Prinzipien und Konzepten für die aktive Medienarbeit im Forschungskontext geht es um die Kooperation von medienpädagogischer Begleitung (MB und wissenschaftlicher Begleitung (WB sowie um deren spezifische Kompetenzen.

  10. Die baltischen Kapitulationen von 1710 : Kontext, Wirkungen, Interpretationen / Marten Seppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seppel, Marten, 1979-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Die baltischen Kapitulationen von 1710 : Kontext, Wirkungen, Interpretationen, hrsg. von Karsten Brüggemann, Mati Laur und Pärtel Piirimäe, Queleln und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte, Bd 23 (Köln u.a: Böhlau Verlag, 2014)

  11. [Precocious puberty and von Recklinghausen's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Ewa; Wikiera, Beata; Basiak, Aleksander; Głab, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Von Recklinghausen's disease belongs to a group of neurocutaneous syndromes and is characterised by skin, nerve and bone abnormalities. We present a case of von Recklinghausen's disease and precocious puberty in 7-year-old boy. At the age of three café au lait spots on the skin and an incranial tumour situated near the optic chiasm--qualified as inoperable--were discovered. At the age of 7 first signs of precocious puberty appeared (pubic hair P3 and enlargement of the testes (15 ml) and penis). Laboratory measurements included: LH 7.5 mIU/ml, FSH 1.1 mIU/ml, testosterone 183 ng/ml, assessment of bone age: 9 years. The response to LHRH stimulation was characteristic for true precocious puberty (LH 15.9 mIU/ml and FSH 1.5 mIU/ml after 30 minutes). The MRI of the brain showed a tumour of the suprasellar region with compression of pituitary stalk. True precocious puberty was diagnosed. Treatment with Diphereline was introduced. At present the boy is 9 years old and has been treated with Diphereline for 16 months. The volume of the testicles has decreased to 7 ml and loss of pubic hair was noted. The MRI does not show any progression in tumour growth. The authors would like to underline the need of close observation of children with von Reclinghausen disease with regard to possibility of uncovering true precocious puberty which is critical for rapid diagnosis and introduction of correct treatment.

  12. Influence of lifestyle on vitamin bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Henk; van der Gaag, Martijn; Hendriks, Henk

    2002-01-01

    In this review the effects of lifestyle factors, especially alcohol consumption, on vitamin bioavailability are summarized and discussed. Alcohol effects are clearly dose-dependent. Excessive chronic alcohol intake is generally associated with vitamin deficiency (especially folate, thiamine, and vitamin B6) due to malnutrition, malabsorption, and ethanol toxicity. Effects of moderate alcohol use are mainly explained by a lower vitamin intake. In the case of vitamin A and beta-carotene, effects on post-absorptive (lipoprotein) metabolism have been demonstrated. In one diet-controlled crossover study, alcohol consumption resulted in an increase in the plasma vitamin B6 (PLP) content, especially after beer consumption (containing vitamin B6), but also after wine and spirit consumption (not containing vitamin B6). Smoking is also associated with a lower dietary vitamin intake. In the case of vitamin C, B12, folate, and beta-carotene, evidence has been presented for effects on postabsorptive metabolism, due to smoke-induced oxidative stress and/or vitamin inactivation. For vitamin E a direct effect of smoking on absorption has been demonstrated. There is no convincing evidence that low-fat diets negatively affect fat-soluble vitamin absorption, but cholesterol-lowering compounds (diets), or unabsorbable fat substitutes, may do so. Vitamin bioavailability may be compromised from certain vegetables (particularly raw), and/or from high-fiber foods, because of limited digestion and inefficient release of vitamins from the food matrix.

  13. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Olukunmi O; da Silva Lopes, Katharina; Ota, Erika; Takemoto, Yo; Rumbold, Alice; Takegata, Mizuki; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-05-06

    Miscarriage is a common complication of pregnancy that can be caused by a wide range of factors. Poor dietary intake of vitamins has been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, therefore supplementing women with vitamins either prior to or in early pregnancy may help prevent miscarriage. The objectives of this review were to determine the effectiveness and safety of any vitamin supplementation, on the risk of spontaneous miscarriage. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (6 November 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation during pregnancy with one or more vitamins with either placebo, other vitamins, no vitamins or other interventions. We have included supplementation that started prior to conception, periconceptionally or in early pregnancy (less than 20 weeks' gestation). Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed trial quality. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. The quality of evidence is included for numerical results of outcomes included in the 'Summary of findings' tables. We included a total of 40 trials (involving 276,820 women and 278,413 pregnancies) assessing supplementation with any vitamin(s) starting prior to 20 weeks' gestation and reporting at least one primary outcome that was eligible for the review. Eight trials were cluster-randomised and contributed data for 217,726 women and 219,267 pregnancies in total.Approximately half of the included trials were assessed to have a low risk of bias for both random sequence generation and adequate concealment of participants to treatment and control groups. Vitamin C supplementation There was no difference in the risk of total fetal loss (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92 to 1.40, seven trials, 18,949 women; high-quality evidence); early or late miscarriage (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.65 to 1

  14. Unlawfulness of environmental zones; Rechtswidrigkeit von Umweltzonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbach, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The author examines the new findings on the effectiveness of the environmental zones and, in this context, questions their legitimacy. In addition, the efforts of the European and German legislators are analyzed in order to reduce the particulate matter pollution. In addition, legal protection against the exceeding of limits for particulate matter is critically appreciated. [German] Der Autor beleuchtet die neuen Erkenntnisse zur Wirksamkeit der Umweltzonen und hinterfragt vor diesem Hintergrund deren Rechtmaessigkeit. Darueber hinaus werden die Bemuehungen des europaeischen und deutschen Gesetzgebers analysiert, um die Feinstaubbelastung zu senken. Zudem wird der Rechtsschutz gegen die Ueberschreitung von Feinstaubgrenzwerten kritisch gewuerdigt.

  15. A Metabiography of Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas A. Rupke

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in English.The author's recently published monograph on Alexander von Humboldt describes the multiple images of this great cultural icon. The book is a metabiographical study that shows how from the middle of the nineteenth century to the present day Humboldt has served as a nucleus of crystallisation for a variety of successive socio-political ideologies, each producing its own distinctive representation of him. The historiographical implications of this biographical diversity are profound and support current attempts to understand historical scholarship in terms of memory cultures.

  16. Die Biopsie von Knochen- und Weichteiltumoren

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, B

    2008-01-01

    Technisch stellt die Biopsie von Knochen- und Weichteiltumoren einen simplen Akt dar, intellektuell aber ist die Planung einer Biopsie höchst anspruchsvoll. Zu häufig werden heutzutage immer noch Biopsien unsachgemäss durchgeführt, so dass die Behandlung - im besten Fall - erschwert wird. Eine unsachgemäss durchgeführte Biopsie führt häufig zu negativen funktionellen Konsequenzen für den Patienten, im schlimmsten Fall kann es die Prognose direkt beeinträchtigen. Aus diesem Grund soll...

  17. Die Altäre von Selinunt

    OpenAIRE

    Voigts, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    In der Dissertation wurden die Altäre von Selinunt, einer griechischen Kolonie auf Sizilien, mit den Methoden der Bauforschung untersucht. Die neun behandelten Brandopferaltäre sind monumentale Quaderbauten, die bis zu 20 m Länge erreichen. Sie stammen aus der Blütezeit Selinunts, dem 6. und 5. Jh. v. Chr. Die Bauten waren bereits im 19. und 20. Jh. freigelegt worden und wurden nun in Bauaufnahmen dokumentiert, zeichnerisch rekonstruiert und zeitlich eingeordnet. Dabei ließ sich an ihnen eine...

  18. Alexander von Humboldt’s footnotes

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Alexander von Humboldts Fußnoten waren ihrer Zeit weit voraus, obwohl sie kaum den heutigen akademischen Standards entsprechen. Dieser Artikel untersucht die Fußnoten in Humboldts Essai politique sur l‘île de Cuba (1826). Zwar ist es nicht immer leicht, die manchmal recht geheimnisvollen Verweise zu entschlüsseln, dennoch lohnt sich der Versuch: Humboldts Fußnoten geben nicht nur Auskunft über seine umfassenden Netzwerke des Wissens. Sie verweisen auch auf Auseinandersetzungen verschiedener G...

  19. The role of vitamins in the diet of the elderly II. Water-soluble vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Csapó J.; Albert Cs.; Prokisch J.

    2017-01-01

    Following a presentation of humans’ water-soluble vitamin requirements, the authors will discuss in detail the role these vitamins play in human organism and outline those major biochemical processes that are negatively affected in the body in case of vitamin deficiency. They point out that in the elderly population of developed countries cases of water-soluble vitamin deficiency are extremely rare and they are due to the lack of dietary vitamin, but mostly to the vitamin being released from ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the urine." Develop a Vitamin Strategy It is important for consumers to have an overall strategy for ... the individual's intake of food." She adds, "An important point made in the guidelines is that nutrient ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are Regulated Vitamin products are regulated by FDA as "Dietary Supplements." The law defines dietary supplements, in part, as products taken by mouth that contain a "dietary ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge ... for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D ...

  3. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reduce risk for chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. They form the basis for federal food, ... vitamin can also cause problems with some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. Report ...

  4. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... manufacturers evaluate their products through testing identity, purity, strength, and composition. Risks of Overdoing It As is ... vitamin can also cause problems with some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. Report ...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There ... WebMD resource Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with ... ingredient" category are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, ...

  7. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body stores these for use as needed. Practice Safety with Dietary Supplements When it comes to purchasing ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you are an older adult, have dark skin, or are exposed to insufficient ultraviolet band radiation ( ... Vitamins B-3 (niacin): flushing, redness of the skin, upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. If you're over age 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline ... supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat foods high in ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... problems if you eat a vegetarian or vegan diet if you are pregnant or breastfeeding Vitamin Facts ... and to reduce risk for chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. They form the basis for ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are 13 vitamins that the body ... upset stomach. B-6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine): Nerve damage to the limbs, which may cause numbness, ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with your health ... are not only vitamins, but minerals, botanicals products, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, microbial probiotics, and ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body uses vitamins for a variety of biological processes, including growth, digestion, and nerve function. There are ... published by the Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), provide ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... a vitamin can also cause problems with some medical tests or interfere with how some drugs work. ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... product worth the money?'" Frankos advises. "Resist the pressure to buy a product or treatment on the ... and phosphate in soft tissues. If you take blood thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin ...

  16. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet Poor diet in infants Poor nutrition during pregnancy Certain health conditions can make it difficult for your body to absorb enough vitamin B12. They include: Chronic alcoholism Crohn disease, celiac disease, infection with the fish ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups. At ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... If you believe that you are experiencing an adverse response to taking a vitamin or a dietary ... MedWatch program . Starting December 22, 2007, any serious adverse events reported to a dietary supplement manufacturer must ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... useful when they fill a specific identified nutrient gap that cannot or is not otherwise being met ...

  20. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... useful when they fill a specific identified nutrient gap that cannot or is not otherwise being met ...

  1. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vitamins and minerals. "They also include other less familiar substances such as herbals, botanicals, amino acids, and enzymes," Frankos says. "Check with your health care providers before combining or substituting them with ...

  2. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will achieve adequate vitamin intakes. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advises that nutrient needs be met ... with supplementation suggested for certain sensitive populations. These guidelines, published by the Department of Health and Human ...

  3. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D Andrew J. Solomon, MD WHAT ... caused by improper immune responses (autoimmune diseases), including multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent Patient Page in Neurology provided ...

  4. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janowsky, Esther

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our current work is to determine whether there are differences in blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy- vitamin D between women with breast cancer and two control groups of women without breast cancer...

  5. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern, such as one of those recommended in the ... and phosphate in soft tissues. If you take blood thinners, talk to your doctor before taking vitamin ...

  6. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults ... Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  7. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the body when skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Both forms are converted to 25- ... through sunlight exposure. Dietary sources include a few foods that naturally contain vitamin D, such as fatty ...

  8. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... activity. They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and information programs. Barbara Schneeman, Ph.D., ...

  9. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health's Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan. If you're over age 50, consume vitamin ... in many forms. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 requires that all such products ...

  10. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are essential nutrients that contribute to a healthy life. Although most people get all the vitamins they ... adds, "Do not self-diagnose any health condition. Work with your health care providers to determine how ...

  11. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Joint FDA/WebMD resource Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients Related Consumer Updates Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips ...

  12. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Fortify Your Knowledge About Vitamins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... protein. D (calciferol): Nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, constipation, weakness, weight loss, confusion, heart rhythm problems, deposits of ...

  13. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. They form the basis for federal food, nutrition education, and ... 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline form, which is found in fortified foods or supplements. ...

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), provide science-based advice to promote health and to reduce ... some vitamins and minerals, the National Academy of Sciences has established upper limits of intake (ULs) that ...

  15. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body, which doesn't store large amounts. The kidneys remove those vitamins that are not needed. Fat- ... walking, and pain. C (ascorbic acid): Upset stomach, kidney stones, increased iron absorption. Folic Acid (folate): High ...

  16. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no-risk, money-back guarantees," and requirements for advance payment. "Also ask yourself, "Is the product worth ... to have an overall strategy for how they will achieve adequate vitamin intakes. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines ...

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat ... high in vitamin C. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant or ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products ...

  19. [Heinz von zur Mühlen. Das Bürgertum Fordert Blut. Ein Bolschewistiches Flugblatt von 1918] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinz von zur Mühlen. Das Bürgertum Fordert Blut. Ein Bolschewistiches Flugblatt von 1918. In : Ostseeprovinzen, baltische Staaten und das Nationale. Münster : LIT, 2005, lk. 403-414. 1918. aastast pärit lendlehest, mille käekirja järgi otsustades on kirjutanud Viktor Kingissepp

  20. Vitamins and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E

  1. Vitamin D and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino R Pérez-López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Faustino R Pérez-López, Gonzalo Pérez-Roncero, María T López-BaenaGrupo de Investigación sobre Salud de la Mujer en Aragón (GRISAMAR, Universidad de Zaragoza, Hospital Clínico Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: Vitamin D is a hormone sequentially produced at different body sites, and which plays a significant role in human health, particularly bone health. However, other roles are emerging. When the serum concentration of vitamin D is very low, the risk of rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis is increased. In children and adolescents there is a high prevalence of low vitamin D status, especially in females and during the winter–the prevalence being lower than during the summer. Although there is no unanimous agreement over the minimum values necessary for good health, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels below 20 ng/mL may be regarded as a vitamin D-deficient condition, and levels between 20–30 ng/mL may be the range of vitamin D insufficiency. Mild low levels have been associated with bone mass accrual alterations in children and adolescents, diminished muscle strength, negative cardiovascular outcomes, insulin resistance and obesity, and neurological disorders. Effective preventive strategies are needed to guarantee adequate vitamin D levels throughout childhood and adolescence, taking into account the geographical setting, season of the year, the level of environmental pollution, skin characteristics, eating habits and body weight, with a view to securing optimum health during these phases, and the prevention of complications in adulthood. There needs to be a renewed appreciation of the beneficial effect of moderate sunlight for providing all humans with the vitamin D needed for ensuring good health. Prolonged sun exposure is not advised, however, due to the risk of skin cancer. In addition, a balanced diet is indicated, since vitamin D-rich foods are better assimilated than supplements. When such conditions cannot be met, then the

  2. Photoprotection and vitamin D status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springbett, Peter; Buglass, Surhi; Young, Antony R

    2010-11-03

    The adverse effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on the skin are well documented, especially in fair-skinned people. These can be ameliorated by photoprotection strategies advocated by many public health bodies and typically include sun avoidance, sunscreen use and clothing. The UVB waveband which is the main cause of all adverse effects investigated in the laboratory to date is also the waveband for vitamin D photosynthesis which is the only established benefit of solar exposure. This is especially important because solar UVB is the main source of vitamin D for most people. There is increasing evidence that vitamin D plays a much greater role in human health than was previously thought. This has given rise to concerns that photoprotection, especially sunscreen use, could adversely affect vitamin D status and human health. Furthermore, it is stated that people with heavily pigmented skins often have poor vitamin D status because of photoprotection by melanin. In this paper we review the effect of photoprotection strategies and pigmentation on vitamin D status. Clothing can clearly be very effective at inhibiting vitamin D synthesis. Sunscreens are effective in theory and some limited human studies support this. However, most studies show little or no effect and the most likely reason for this is that sunscreens have not been applied in the manner that was used to determine their labelled index of protection against sunburn. This could change in the future if public health campaigns and the sunscreen industry are successful in encouraging the public to apply sunscreens more liberally and/or use much higher levels of labelled protection. The role of melanin on vitamin D status is not clear and requires further investigation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Vitamin D and neurocognitive function

    OpenAIRE

    Schlögl, Mathias; Holick, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Mathias Schlögl,1 Michael F Holick21University Center for Medicine of Aging Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin, and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: In recent years, emerging evidence has linked vitamin D not only to its known effects on calcium and bone metabolism, but also to many chronic illnesses involving neurocognitive decl...

  4. Assay of vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovey, K.C.; Carrick, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    A radioassay is described for vitamin B12 which involves denaturing serum protein binding proteins with alkali. In the denaturation step a dithiopolyol and cyanide are used and in the intrinsic factor assay step a vitamin B12 analogue such as cobinamide is used to bind with any remaining serum proteins. The invention also includes a kit in which the dithiopolyol is provided in admixture with the alkali. The dithiopolyol may be dithiothreitol or dithioerythritol. (author)

  5. Guy von Dardel 1919-2009

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Guy von Dardel, a well-known figure at CERN and in the international particle physics community, passed away on 28 August. Guy von Dardel came to CERN when it was founded in 1954 and was a full-time staff member until 1964, performing several experiments and working on technical developments. These included the first measurement of the neutral pion’s life-time. Called to Lund University in 1964, he became professor there in 1965 and director of the 1.2 GeV electron accelerator. In the late 1960s, he performed an experiment at CERN’s PS that measured the decays of the Λ. Then, in the early 1970s, he involved the Lund group in a series of experiments at the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), where he measured the production of various types of particles. In particular, he participated in a series of experiments that observed the production of a high abundance of particles with large transverse momenta. This required an explanation...

  6. Translational Medicine Advances in von Willebrand Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillicrap, David

    2014-01-01

    Following the recognition of von Willebrand disease (VWD) in 1926 and the cloning of the gene for von Willebrand factor (VWF) in 1985, significant advances have been made in our fundamental knowledge of both the disease and the protein. Some of this new knowledge has also begun to impact the clinical management of VWD. First, the progressive increase in our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of VWD has resulted in rational applications of molecular testing to complement the current range of phenotypic tests for VWD. These molecular genetic strategies are most effectively directed at the prenatal diagnosis of type 3 VWD and confirmatory testing for types 2B and 2N disease. In contrast, the use of molecular testing to clarify the diagnosis of type 1 VWD is of marginal benefit, at best. In terms of VWD therapies, a new recombinant VWF concentrate has recently completed successful clinical trials and is now awaiting more widespread application. There have even been some pre-clinical successes with VWF gene transfer although the clinical rationale for this therapeutic strategy needs careful consideration. Much more remains to be learnt about the biology of VWF and further translational advances for the enhancement of VWD care will inevitably be realized. PMID:23809112

  7. Die Krakauer Kirche von Karmeliten und Karmelitaninnen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Szymon Wronski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. Die Klosterkirche der unbeschuhten Karmelitinnen Zum Heiligen Josef. Ein glücklicher Auftakt und somit die charakteristische Einführung in das 20. Jh. für den Kirchenbau von Krakau war die Errichtung der Karmeliterinnen St. Josephs-Kirche an der Lobzowska-Straße 40, in der die Architekten (Tadeusz Stryjeński (1849-1943 - Projektant der Kirche und Franciszek Mączyński (1874-1947 - Ausführer des Bauprojektes mit eigenen Verbesserungen die historisch- eklektizistischen Formen d.h. die mittelalterlichen Formen vor allem des sog. Übergangsstils vereinfachten. Die Kirche, die in den Jahren 1903-1905 errichtet wurde, steht inmitten vom Baukomplex des Klosters, dessen Grundriss das Quadrat ist49. Der Kirchenbau ist ein dem Gesamtbau des Klosters eingefügter Längsraum. Hinter dem Chor liegt das Oratorium des Konvents. Das Material Backstein (mit Verwendung von Stein erinnert an die Baukunst eines der besten Architekten jener Zeit, nämlich Teodor Talowskis (1857-1910, der viele Kirchen in Südpolen, aber auch viele Bürgerhäuser nicht nur in Krakau im ausgehenden 19. Jh. baute. Die Architektur der Karmeliterinnen St. Josephs-Kirche ist immer noch im Malerischen begriffen. Aber die Vereinfachung der historischen Formen führt zu ihrer „Beruhigung” und dadurch zur Wuchtigkeit des Ausdrucks. Bemerkenswert ist die in dieser Zeit (in der Anlage noch seltene ausgewogene Proportionierung des Baukörpers. Das methodische Prinzip jener Zeit ist der Kontrast. Im Kontrast zu den gedrungenen und wuchtigen Formen des Baukörpers stehen z.B. die sich verjüngenden obeliskenförmigen und pylonenartigen Türmchen, die nicht nur die Eingangsfassade der Kirche flankieren, sondern auch an den Ecken des Querhauses der Kirche stehen. Die ingravierten weißen Steine an der Fassade in der Zahl von Zehn erinnern an das Gebot des Karmelterinnenordens: Bete täglich den Rosenkranz und sind zugleich ein Vanitativmotiv. 2. Die Klosterkirche der unbeschuhten

  8. Suitability of tracers; Eignung von Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, D. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie

    1999-02-01

    Hydrological tracer techniques are a means of making statements on the direction and speed of underground water. One of the simpler tasks is to find out whether there is hydrological communication between two given points. This requires a determination of the direction of flow, which places less exacting demands on the properties of the tracer than does the task of determining the flow velocity of underground water. Tracer methods can serve to infer from flow velocity the distance (flow) velocity, which is defined as the ratio between the distance between two points located in flow direction and the actual time it takes water to flow from one to the other. [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe der hydrologischen Markierungstechniken koennen Aussagen ueber die Richtung und die Geschwindigkeit von Bewegungen des unterirdischen Wassers gemacht werden. Der einfachere Fall liegt vor, wenn festgestellt werden soll, ob zwischen zwei Punkten eine hydrologische Verbindung besteht. Bei dieser Fliessrichtungsbestimmung sind die Forderungen an die Eigenschaften der einzusetzenden Tracer geringer als bei der Bestimmung der Geschwindigkeit des unterirdischen Wassers. Von den Geschwindigkeiten des unterirdischen Wassers ist die Abstands-(Fliess)geschwindigkeit, die definiert ist durch das Verhaeltnis aus dem Abstand und der wahren Fliesszeit zwischen zwei in Bewegungsrichtung gelegenen Punkten, durch Tracermethoden zu bestimmen. (orig.)

  9. Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Voigt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

  10. Ludwig Leichhardt und Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya-Katarina Südfels

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Im Juli des Jahres 1841 kommt es zu einem Treffen zwischen zwei Männern, das zunächst belanglos erscheint, sich aber Jahre später als wichtige historische Begebenheit herausstellen wird. In seinem Pariser Büro empfängt der 71jährige Naturforscher Alexander von Humboldt den jungen Preußen Ludwig Leichhardt. Der angehende Naturwissenschaftler erhofft sich Zuspruch und Empfehlung des berühmten Alexander von Humboldts. Die Unterredung ist kurz und verläuft für Leichhardt ergebnislos. Es wird das einzige Treffen der beiden Naturwissenschaftler bleiben. Aus heutiger Sicht unverständlich, da Ludwig Leichhardt und Alexander von Humboldt mehr verband, als ihre Leidenschaft für die Naturwissenschaften. Viel zu wenig ist sich bis jetzt den biographischen Analogien und den vergleichbaren geographischen Leistungen der beiden Preußen gewidmet worden. Abstract During July 1841 a meeting between two men takes place, which seems to have been extraneous, but turns out to be a significant historical incident. 71 year old natural scientist Alexander von Humboldt welcomes young Ludwig Leichhardt from Prussia in his office in Paris. The prospective young scientist expects help and references from famous Alexander von Humboldt. The conversation is short and ends from Leichhardt’s point of view without results. Unfortunately this is going to be the only meeting between the two scientists even though the two Prussians have more in common than their passion for the natural sciences. Way too seldomly have biographical analogy and geographical productivity of the two men been compared. Résumé En juillet 1841 une rencontre entre deux hommes a lieu, qui au premier abord semble sans importance, mais qui des années plus tard est considéré comme un événement historique majeur. Dans son bureau parisien, le naturaliste Alexandre de Humboldt, alors âgé de 71 ans, reçoit le jeune Prussien Ludwig Leichhardt. Le jeune scientifique en devenir

  11. CD31-Expression am Primärtumor und Nachweis hämatogen disseminierter Tumorzellen im Knochenmark von Brustkrebspatientinnen

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenmann, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Der Nachweis von disseminierten Tumorzellen im Knochenmark von Patientinnen mit primärem Mammakarzinom ist ein wichtiger prognostischer Parameter. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Nachweis von CD31 am Primärtumor Mammakarzinom mit dem Auftreten von Mikrometastasen im Knochenmark korreliert. Ferner wurde die prognostische Bedeutung von disseminierten Tumorzellen im Knochenmark und die prognostische Bedeutung von CD31 evaluiert. Bei 50 Patientinnen des Gesamtkollektivs von 195 (25,6%) wu...

  12. Vitamin B-12 and Perinatal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Layden, Alexander J; Stover, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency (importance of adequate vitamin B-12 status periconceptionally and during pregnancy cannot be overemphasized, given its fundamental role in neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Infants born to vitamin B-12-deficient women may be at increased risk of neural tube closure defects, and maternal vitamin B-12 insufficiency (pregnancy complications, few prospective studies and, to our knowledge, only 1 randomized trial have examined the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy. The role of vitamin B-12 in the etiology of adverse perinatal outcomes needs to be elucidated to inform public health interventions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. An evidence-based update on vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, K Kelly; Hume, Anne L

    2010-04-01

    American adults take many types of vitamin supplements, despite limited evidence of their efficacy, especially in preventing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Supplements contain significant amounts of vitamins when consumed from multiple sources. Excess consumption of some vitamins may have detrimental health effects. Use of MMVM products appears to be safe; however, clinical outcomes have not been established. Although vitamin D and preconception folic acid may be appropriate for self care, a health care provider should monitor other vitamin supplements for disease prevention, such as niacin. Beyond supplementation as treatment for vitamin deficiencies, evidence is lacking.

  14. Vitamin supplementation in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hannah E; Roffman, Joshua L

    2014-07-01

    This article reviews the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. It describes the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, and reviews the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. There is mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. There is a need for larger randomized controlled trials, and further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products, are recommended.

  15. [Clinical roles of vitamins in hematopoietic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M; Kanamaru, A

    1999-10-01

    Vitamins are essential organisms which promote various metabolisms and physiological systems. Several vitamins play important roles in hematopoietic system. Vitamin B12, C and folic acid are associated with DNA synthesis of erythroid nucleus, the deficiency of which causes the megaloblastic anemia. Some megaloblatic anemia and sideroblastic anemia might response to vitamin B1 and B6, respectively. Vitamin K participates in some coagulation factors in coagulation-fibrinogenolysis system. It has been reported that vitamins A, D and K potentially differentiate leukemic cells and then induce the apoptosis, suggesting that they would be new therapeutic agents in acute leukemia.

  16. Clarifying the link between von Neumann and thermodynamic entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Alain; Deville, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    The state of a quantum system being described by a density operator ρ, quantum statistical mechanics calls the quantity - kTr( ρln ρ), introduced by von Neumann, its von Neumann or statistical entropy. A 1999 Shenker's paper initiated a debate about its link with the entropy of phenomenological thermodynamics. Referring to Gibbs's and von Neumann's founding texts, we replace von Neumann's 1932 contribution in its historical context, after Gibbs's 1902 treatise and before the creation of the information entropy concept, which places boundaries into the debate. Reexamining von Neumann's reasoning, we stress that the part of his reasoning implied in the debate mainly uses thermodynamics, not quantum mechanics, and identify two implicit postulates. We thoroughly examine Shenker's and ensuing papers, insisting upon the presence of open thermodynamical subsystems, imposing us the use of the chemical potential concept. We briefly mention Landau's approach to the quantum entropy. On the whole, it is shown that von Neumann's viewpoint is right, and why Shenker's claim that von Neumann entropy "is not the quantum-mechanical correlate of thermodynamic entropy" can't be retained.

  17. Die Rolle von RANK-Ligand und Osteoprotegerin bei Osteoporose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofbauer LC

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF- κB ligand (RANKL, sein zellulärer Rezeptor RANK und der Decoy-Rezeptor Osteoprotegerin (OPG stellen ein essentielles Zytokinsystem für die Zellbiologie von Osteoklasten dar. Verschiedene Untersuchungen belegen die Bedeutung von Störungen des OPG/RANKL/RANK-Systems bei der Pathogenese metabolischer Knochenerkrankungen. In dieser Arbeit werden die wichtigsten Störungen des OPG/RANKL/RANK-Systems bei verschiedenen Osteoporoseformen dargestellt. Östrogenrezeptor- (ER- Agonisten wie 17 β-Östradiol, Raloxifen und Genistein stimulieren die osteoblastäre Produktion von OPG durch Aktivierung von ER- α in vitro, während Lymphozyten von Patientinnen mit Östrogenmangel RANKL überexprimieren. Die parenterale Gabe von OPG vermag den mit Östrogenmangel assoziierten Knochenverlust im Tiermodell und in einer kleineren klinischen Studie zu verhindern. Glukokortikoide und Immunsuppressiva steigern gleichzeitig die RANKL-Expression und hemmen die OPG-Produktion in osteoblastären Zellen in vitro. Glukokortikoide sind auch in vivo imstande, die OPG-Serumspiegel deutlich zu reduzieren. Dagegen hemmen biomechanische Reize in vitro die RANKL-Produktion und steigern die OPG-Produktion. Ein Fehlen dieser biomechanischen Reize bei längerer Immobilisierung kann daher den RANKL/OPG-Quotienten steigern, während die tierexperimentelle Immobilisierungs-Osteoporose durch die parenterale Gabe von OPG gemildert werden kann.

  18. Consequences of a Deficit in Vitamin B6 Biosynthesis de Novo for Hormone Homeostasis and Root Development in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boycheva, Svetlana; Dominguez, Ana; Rolcik, Jakub; Boller, Thomas; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5′-phosphate) is an essential cofactor of many metabolic enzymes. Plants biosynthesize the vitamin de novo employing two enzymes, pyridoxine synthase1 (PDX1) and PDX2. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), there are two catalytically active paralogs of PDX1 (PDX1.1 and PDX1.3) producing the vitamin at comparable rates. Since single mutants are viable but the pdx1.1 pdx1.3 double mutant is lethal, the corresponding enzymes seem redundant. However, the single mutants exhibit substantial phenotypic differences, particularly at the level of root development, with pdx1.3 being more impaired than pdx1.1. Here, we investigate the differential regulation of PDX1.1 and PDX1.3 by identifying factors involved in their disparate phenotypes. Swapped-promoter experiments clarify the presence of distinct regulatory elements in the upstream regions of both genes. Exogenous sucrose (Suc) triggers impaired ethylene production in both mutants but is more severe in pdx1.3 than in pdx1.1. Interestingly, Suc specifically represses PDX1.1 expression, accounting for the stronger vitamin B6 deficit in pdx1.3 compared with pdx1.1. Surprisingly, Suc enhances auxin levels in pdx1.1, whereas the levels are diminished in pdx1.3. In the case of pdx1.3, the previously reported reduced meristem activity combined with the impaired ethylene and auxin levels manifest the specific root developmental defects. Moreover, it is the deficit in ethylene production and/or signaling that triggers this outcome. On the other hand, we hypothesize that it is the increased auxin content of pdx1.1 that is responsible for the root developmental defects observed therein. We conclude that PDX1.1 and PDX1.3 play partially nonredundant roles and are differentially regulated as manifested in disparate root growth impairment morphologies. PMID:25475669

  19. Concentration-Effect Relationship of Intrapritoneal Administration of 1, 25 (OH 2-Vitamin D in a Chronic Constriction Model of Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinaz Nasirinezhad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Results: These findings revealed the exaggerated responses in the group which received CCI. The group which was treated by 1 μg/kg of 1,25 vit D3 showed a significant reduction in pain behavior. Injection of 1,25 vit D3 did not change the response of animals to the acetone drop and von frey filament. Discussion: Our results showed that antinoceptive effect of 1,25 vit D3 in a rodent neuropathic pain model is dose dependent and this vitamin may provide new approach for treatment of chronic pain.The presence of nuclear receptors of 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25 vit D3, the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, in neurons and glial cells indicates the biological effect of this vitamin in the nervous system. The present experiment was conducted to identify the effects of different doses of 1,25 vit D3 on mechanical and cold allodynia in rodent model of neuropatinc pain. Methods: A mononeuropathy was produced by chronic constrictive injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve. 1,25 vit D3 (0.3, 0.6 ,1 μg/Kg was administered by an i.p. injection every 2 days during a month after CCI. Mechanical and cold allodynia were evaluated by Von frey filament and acetone respectively.

  20. Das Geschäftsmodell von Retail Banken im Wandel der Digitalisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Messikommer, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Der Prozess der Digitalisierung führt in unterschiedlichen Branchen zu tiefgreifenden Veränderungen. Dazu gehört auch der Finanzsektor, dessen Umfeld von erodierenden Margen und Tiefstzinsen geprägt ist. Die Digitalisierung hat weitreichende Auswirkungen auf die Geschäftsmodelle von Banken und speziell von Retail Banken. Deren Basisdienstleistungen werden zunehmend von neuen Mitbewerbern mit modernster Internet-Technologie angeboten. Damit sind wesentliche Teile der Wertschöpfungskette von Re...

  1. Strukturbasierte Entwicklung von Assaysystemen und Charakterisierung von orthosterischen und allosterischen Kinaseinhibitoren

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Die Proteinkinasen stellen eine wichtige Enzymklasse für die Regulation der Signaltransduktion dar. Sie steuern diese diffizil regulierten, intrazellulären Signalkaskaden durch Übertragung der ?-Phosphatgruppe von ATP auf andere Proteine. Fehlregulationen dieser komplexen Stoffwechselwege können Krankheiten wie Krebs, Diabetes oder Autoimunkrankheiten verursachen. Somit gehören die Kinasen in den letzten Jahren zu den wichtigsten Zielproteinen der Pharmaindustrie. Die klassi...

  2. Der Effekt von Akupunktur in der Prävention von Prüfungsangst

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Prüfungsangst ist ein weit verbreitetes gesellschaftliches Phänomen, das bisher in nur wenigen wissenschaftlichen Ansätzen untersucht wurde. Die Zahl der Studenten, die Gehirn - Doping zur Leistungssteigerung und zur Minimierung von Prüfungsangst nutzen, steigt stetig an. In bisherigen Studien wurde Akupunktur an Herz 7 als vielversprechende Behandlungsalternative dargestellt. Basierend auf diesen Ergebnissen, wurde in dieser Arbeit untersucht, ob eine Einzelpunktakupunktur an Herz 7 die ...

  3. Comparison of different formulations of vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.M.F.; Khalil, K.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD) is responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical diseases and vitamin D deficiency prevalence is frightening in most parts of the world including Pakistan. Therefore, supplementations of vitamin D are used in the population at high risk for the prevention and the treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D supplementation comes in various formulations both oral and intramuscular. Cholecalciferol is the most commonly used preparation which is given through these routes of administration. There is need to study the fact that how much vitamin D levels are raised after administration of these different formulations as this can be a pivotal factor in determining dosage and route of vitamin D3. Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on 320 cases and compared the efficacy of various Vitamin D3 preparations in raising Vitamin D levels conducted in Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Services Hospital, Lahore from February to July, 2016. Blood serum was drawn for vitamin D level in the cases at the time of presentation and after treatment. Results: Three hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in study and divided into four groups (A, B, C, D). There was no significant difference between groups (A, B, C, D) in change in vitamin d levels after 3 months of treatment (p-Value 0.446). Conclusion: Different preparations of vitamin D are equally effective in raising vitamin D levels at 12 weeks. However, there is a need to conduct large scale studies to further validate these results. (author)

  4. [Albert Reder Ritter von Schellmann (1826-1904)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G; Holubar, K

    1990-01-01

    Albert Reder von Schellmann (1826-1904) was an important syphilidologist of the Vienna Medical School in the second half of the nineteenth century. He went in for the dualistic concept of the origin of syphilis and ulcer caused by soft chancre. In 1870 - Reder became head of a third dermato-syphilidologic department in the "Josephinum" in Vienna, where military surgeons got their medical education. At the same time the two full professorships of dermatosyphilidology in the Vienna General Hospital were held by Ferdinand von Hebra (1816-1880) and Carl Ludwig Sigmund von Ilanor (1810-1883).

  5. Speziation von Gadolinium-MRT-Kontrastmitteln in Umweltmatrizes

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Gd-Kontrastmittel werden in der Medizin für die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) benötigt, um einen besseren Bildkontrast zu erzielen. Nach der Anwendung gelangen diese Arzneimittel über das Abwasser in die Klärwerke und von dort in die jeweiligen anliegenden Oberflächengewässer. Somit wird es notwendig, den Verbleib der Gd-MRT-Kontrastmittel in der Umwelt zu verfolgen und aufzuklären. In dieser Arbeit werden für die Analyse von Umweltproben Methoden zur Speziesanalytik von Gd-Kontrastmitteln ...

  6. Vitamin D: A millenium perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F

    2003-02-01

    Vitamin D is one of the oldest hormones that have been made in the earliest life forms for over 750 million years. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, and most plants and animals that are exposed to sunlight have the capacity to make vitamin D. Vitamin D is critically important for the development, growth, and maintenance of a healthy skeleton from birth until death. The major function of vitamin D is to maintain calcium homeostasis. It accomplishes this by increasing the efficiency of the intestine to absorb dietary calcium. When there is inadequate calcium in the diet to satisfy the body's calcium requirement, vitamin D communicates to the osteoblasts that signal osteoclast precursors to mature and dissolve the calcium stored in the bone. Vitamin D is metabolized in the liver and then in the kidney to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D]. 1,25(OH)(2)D receptors (VDR) are present not only in the intestine and bone, but in a wide variety of other tissues, including the brain, heart, stomach, pancreas, activated T and B lymphocytes, skin, gonads, etc. 1,25(OH)(2)D is one of the most potent substances to inhibit proliferation of both normal and hyperproliferative cells and induce them to mature. It is also recognized that a wide variety of tissues, including colon, prostate, breast, and skin have the enzymatic machinery to produce 1,25(OH)(2)D. 1,25(OH)(2)D and its analogs have been developed for treating the hyperproliferative disease psoriasis. Vitamin D deficiency is a major unrecognized health problem. Not only does it cause rickets in children, osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults, but may have long lasting effects. Chronic vitamin D deficiency may have serious adverse consequences, including increased risk of hypertension, multiple sclerosis, cancers of the colon, prostate, breast, and ovary, and type 1 diabetes. There needs to be a better appreciation of the importance of vitamin D for overall health and well being. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Synchronization of the seminiferous epithelium after vitamin A replacement in vitamin A-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, A. M.; de rooij, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin A replacement on spermatogenesis was studied in mice. Breeding pairs of Cpb-N mice were given a vitamin A-deficient diet for at least 4 wk. The born male mice received the same diet and developed signs of vitamin A deficiency at the age of 14-16 wk. At

  8. Maternal circulating vitamin status and colostrum vitamin composition in healthy lactating women—A systematic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Jasmijn Y.; Pundir, Shikha; McKenzie, Elizabeth; Keijer, Jaap; Kussmann, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Colostrum is the first ingested sole nutritional source for the newborn infant. The vitamin profile of colostrum depends on the maternal vitamin status, which in turn is influenced by diet and lifestyle. Yet, the relationship between maternal vitamin status and colostrum vitamin composition has

  9. Modernisation of ventilation systems; Modernisierung von Lueftungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Technische Gebaeudeausruestung

    1997-12-31

    When redeveloping buildings it is common to use window constructions with air-tight rabbets which obviate the inflow of fresh air almost entirely. This leads to the well-known structural-physics and hygienic consequences. As an added effect, the distinctly enhanced thermal insulation results in changes in dynamic heat loss. The paper focuses on the issues of how to safeguard the inflow of fresh air, and the heating capacity of radiators. (MSK) [Deutsch] Da die bei Gebaeudesanierungen eingesetzten fugendichten Fensterkonstruktionen die Nachstroemmoeglichkeiten fuer die Zuluft fast ganz unterbinden, fuehrt das zu den bekannten bauphysikalischen und hygienischen Konsequenzen. Dazu kommen veraenderte dynamische Waermverlustverhaeltnisse aufgrund der deutlich verbesserten Waermedaemmung. Im Folgenden wird schwerpunktmaessig auf die Probleme Zuluftsicherung und Waermeleistung von Heizkoerpern eingegangen.

  10. Of von Willebrand factor and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryckaert, Marijke; Rosa, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Cécile V; Lenting, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Hemostasis and pathological thrombus formation are dynamic processes that require multiple adhesive receptor-ligand interactions, with blood platelets at the heart of such events. Many studies have contributed to shed light on the importance of von Willebrand factor (VWF) interaction with its platelet receptors, glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V and αIIbβ3 integrin, in promoting primary platelet adhesion and aggregation following vessel injury. This review will recapitulate our current knowledge on the subject from the rheological aspect to the spatio-temporal development of thrombus formation. We will also discuss the signaling events generated by VWF/GPIb-IX-V interaction, leading to platelet activation. Additionally, we will review the growing body of evidence gathered from the recent development of pathological mouse models suggesting that VWF binding to GPIb-IX-V is a promising target in arterial and venous pathological thrombosis. Finally, the pathological aspects of VWF and its impact on platelets will be addressed.

  11. Ex-ante Evaluation von Investitionsalternativen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Müller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag zeigt, wie mit Hilfe der Methode der agentenbasierten Modellierung und Simulation (ABMS ein Beitrag zur ex-ante Policy-Beratung geleistet werden kann. Anhand eines exemplarischen Anwendungsfalls, der VISIBLE Simulationsumgebung („Virtual Simulation Lab for the Analysis of Investments in Learning and Education“, diskutieren wir die Konsequenzen unterschiedlicher Kooperationsförderinstrumente für Wissensdiffusionsprozesse in Netzwerken am Beispiel der Region Heilbronn-Franken. Die Simulationsergebnisse zeigen, dass die strukturelle Konfiguration eines regionalen Innovationssystems eine zentrale Bedeutung für die Gestaltung von Kooperationsfördermaßnahmen hat und dass Interventionen, die darauf abzielen, Wissenstransfer zwischen den Akteuren anzuregen, genau die entgegengesetzten Wirkungen entfalten können.

  12. Budke, Alexandra; Kanwischer, Detlef; Pott, Andreas (Hg.), Internetgeographien : Beobachtungen zum Verhältnis von Internet, Raum und Gesellschaft / [rezensiert von] Helmut Klüter

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Rezensiertes Werk: Internetgeographien : Beobachtungen zum Verhältnis von Internet, Raum und Gesellschaft / hrsg. von Alexandra Budke ... - Stuttgart : Steiner, 2004. - 192 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt. - (Erdkundliches Wissen ; 136) ISBN 3-515-08506-8

  13. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  14. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  15. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  16. Literatuuronderzoek HPLC-methoden voor vitamine E

    OpenAIRE

    Altena, A.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Doel van dit onderzoek is: het inventariseren van HPLC-methoden voor vitamine E, eventueel in combinatie met vitamine A, in levensmiddelen. Een overzicht van de in de literatuur beschreven HPLC-methoden vanaf ca. 1977 wordt gegeven.

  17. Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, C A

    2011-09-01

    Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.

  18. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  19. Vitamin D, light and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Mats B

    2010-11-03

    Vitamin D receptors and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are present in the central nervous system. Calcitriol (the active vitamin D hormone) affects numerous neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, relevant for mental disorders. In the case of depressive disorders, considerable evidence supports a role of suboptimal vitamin D levels. However, the data are not conclusive and further studies are necessary. Especially, the relative importance of the pineal-melatonin system versus the vitamin D-endocrine system for the pathogenesis of seasonal affective disorders is presently unresolved. Two diagnoses, schizophrenia and autism, have been hypothetically linked to developmental (prenatal) vitamin D deficiency, however, also in adult patients, low levels have been reported, supporting the notion that vitamin D deficiency may not only be a predisposing developmental factor but also relate to the adult patients' psychiatric state. Two cases are described, whose psychiatric improvement coincided with effective treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY IN NIGERIAN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a global problem of public health significance in many ... It is therefore important to know Vitamin A status of. Nigerian ..... Ph D thesis University of Ibadan. Ajaiyeoba AI (1994). Childhood blindness in Nigeria.

  1. Facts about Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Pediatrics, Vitamin K Ad Hoc Task Force. Controversies concerning vitamin K and the newborn. Pediatrics 1993; ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  2. Worldwide status of vitamin D nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, P

    2010-07-01

    The vitamin D status depends on the production of vitamin D3 in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D intake through the diet or vitamin D supplements. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration is the parameter of choice for the assessment of vitamin D status. Low serum levels of calcium and phosphate and an elevated level of alkaline phosphatase can also point to vitamin D deficiency. Usually, between 50% and 90% of vitamin D in the body is coming from the production in the skin and the remainder is from the diet. The production of vitamin D3 in the skin depends on sunshine exposure, latitude, skin-covering clothes, the use of sun block and skin pigmentation. In general, serum 25(OH)D is lower with higher latitudes and with darker skin types, but there are exceptions. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)DAmerica where vitamin D deficiency is uncommon but vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D between 25 and 50 nmol/l) is still common. In the United States and Canada milk is usually supplemented with vitamin D and the use of vitamin supplements is relatively common. Vitamin D status in Latin America usually is reasonable but there are exceptions and vitamin D insufficiency still occurs quite often. In Australia and New Zealand a poor vitamin D status was seen in the elderly who were often vitamin D deficient and also in immigrants from Asia. Vitamin D deficiency also occurred in children when the mother was vitamin D deficient. Within Europe, vitamin D status usually is better in the Nordic countries than around the Mediterranean. This may be due to a lighter skin and sun seeking behaviour and a high consumption of cod liver oil in the Northern countries while in Southern Europe people stay out of the sunshine and have a somewhat darker skin. A very poor vitamin D status was observed in non-western immigrants, especially in pregnant women. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are globally still very common

  3. Vitamin A and Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, John C

    2016-01-01

    Visual systems detect light by monitoring the effect of photoisomerization of a chromophore on the release of a neurotransmitter from sensory neurons, known as rod and cone photoreceptor cells in vertebrate retina. In all known visual systems, the chromophore is 11-cis-retinal complexed with a protein, called opsin, and photoisomerization produces all-trans-retinal. In mammals, regeneration of 11-cis-retinal following photoisomerization occurs by a thermally driven isomerization reaction. Additional reactions are required during regeneration to protect cells from the toxicity of aldehyde forms of vitamin A that are essential to the visual process. Photochemical and phototransduction reactions in rods and cones are identical; however, reactions of the rod and cone visual pigment regeneration cycles differ, and perplexingly, rod and cone regeneration cycles appear to use different mechanisms to overcome the energy barrier involved in converting all-trans- to 11-cis-retinoid. Abnormal processing of all-trans-retinal in the rod regeneration cycle leads to retinal degeneration, suggesting that excessive amounts of the retinoid itself or its derivatives are toxic. This line of reasoning led to the development of various approaches to modifying the activity of the rod visual cycle as a possible therapeutic approach to delay or prevent retinal degeneration in inherited retinal diseases and perhaps in the dry form of macular degeneration (geographic atrophy). In spite of great progress in understanding the functioning of rod and cone regeneration cycles at a molecular level, resolution of a number of remaining puzzling issues will offer insight into the amelioration of several blinding retinal diseases.

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.; Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.

    1991-01-01

    Vitamins are known to be sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation. Since most foods contain a large proportion of water, the most probable reaction of the ionizing radiation would be with water; and as vitamins are present in very small amounts compared with other substances in the food they will be affected indirectly by the radiation. This chapter discusses the effect of ionizing radiation on water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins. (author)

  5. 21 CFR 184.1930 - Vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin A. 184.1930 Section 184.1930 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1930 Vitamin A. (a)(1) Vitamin A (retinol; CAS Reg. No. 68-26-8) is the... odorless or have a mild fishy odor. Vitamin A is extracted from fish liver oils or produced by total...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1950 - Vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin D. 184.1950 Section 184.1950 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1950 Vitamin D. (a) Vitamin D is added to food as the following food ingredients: (1) Crystalline vitamin D2 (C28H44O, CAS Reg. No. 50-14-6), also known as ergocalciferol, is the...

  7. Vitamin A and mother child health Review

    OpenAIRE

    Günlemez, Ayla; Atasay, Begüm; Arsan, Saadet

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin A has a critical role in normal vision cell differantiation proliferation and maintanence of epithelial cell integrity Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent and important deficiencies and is of public health significance in developing countries This article reviews vitamin A deficiency in the world and Turkey and it’s effect on maternal and child health Key words: vitamin A maternal health child health

  8. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, J F [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and margarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 0/sup 0/C instead of at ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -80/sup 0/C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperature.

  9. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, J F [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and magarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 0/sup 0/C instead of ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -80/sup 0/C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperature.

  10. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and margarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 0 0 C instead of at ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -80 0 C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperture. (orig.) [de

  11. Vitamin A in irradiated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Vitamin A losses induced by 10 MeV electrons in cream cheese, calf liver sausage, pig liver, whole egg powder and magarine continued to increase during storage for 4-8 weeks in presence of air. Thus, vitamin A loss in sausage irradiated with 5 Mrad was 22% on the day after irradiation, 61% after 4 weeks. Irradiation and storage at 0 0 C instead of ambient temperature reduced these losses considerably. Exclusion of air (vacuum, nitrogen) or irradiation on dry ice (approx. -80 0 C) were even more effective in preventing destruction of vitamin A. After 4 weeks of storage, cream cheese irradiated at 5 Mrad had lost 60% when irradiated and stored in air at ambient temperature, 20% in nitrogen atmosphere, 5% in vacuum package, and 5% when irradiated on dry ice and stored at ambient temperature. (orig.) [de

  12. Entwicklung der Reglementierung von 10 MEM-Berufen im Kontext von Bildungsreformen und dem Wandel in der Arbeitswelt: Eine Kurzstudie im Auftrag von LIBS: Eine Kurzstudie im Auftrag von LIBS Industrielle Berufslehren Schweiz, Baden

    OpenAIRE

    Egg, Maria Esther; Renold, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Im Auftrag der LIBS Industrielle Berufslehren Schweiz, hat die KOF die Entwicklung von 10 MEM1-Berufsbildern seit dem ersten Berufsbildungsgesetz dargestellt und diese eingebettet in eine kurze Zusammenfassung der wichtigsten Etappenschritte des Schweizer Berufsbildungssystems.

  13. Magnus Georg von Paucker (1787-1855) / Eckhard Spring

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Spring, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    Eestis sündinud ja Tartu Ülikoolis õppinud silmapaistvast baltisaksa teadlasest ja tema lapselapsest Alexandrine Pauckerist. 23. novembril 2012 Jelgavas/Mitaus toimunud Magnus Georg von Pauckerile pühendatud teaduskonverentsist

  14. Warum das Controlling den systematischen Einsatz von Simulationen vorantreiben sollte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitzner, Jan; Schneider, Melanie L.

    2017-01-01

    Simulationen werden in der Unternehmenssteuerung heutzutage noch nicht systematisch eingesetzt. Dass sich jedoch die existierenden Hemmnisse durchaus überwinden lassen, legen die Antworten von Studienteilnehmern nahe, die Simulationen häufig einsetzen. Dabei kann Controlling eine Vorreiterrolle e...

  15. Pharmakobotanische Untersuchungen von Lavendelsorten auf dem Plattensee- Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth, Frida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Auf dem Hof Dörgicsei Levendula Major GmbH wurden 9 Lavendelsorten (6 Sorten von Lavandula angustifolia und 3 Sorten von Lavandula x intermedia untersucht. Neben den morphologischen und Wachstumseigenschaften wurden auch Frisch- und Trockengewichte bewertet. Quantitative und qualitative Untersuchungen von den Blüten- und Ätherischöldrogen wurden auch durchgeführt. Die statistische Analyse zeigte signifikant höhere Erträge bei den Sorten L. angustifolia ’Essence Purple’ und L. x intermedia ’Edelweiss’. Gehalt und Zusammensetzung von ätherischem Öl war eindeutig bei der Sorte L. angustifolia ’Ellagance Purple’ am günstigsten.

  16. Pure Jauch-Piron states on von Neumann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamhalter, J.

    1993-01-01

    We study Jauch-Piron states and two-valued measures on von Neumann algebra. We prove as the main result that, under some set-theoretical assumption, a pure state of a von Neumann algebra A not containing a central abelian portion is Jauch-Piron if and only if it is σ-additive. Moreover, we show that this result holds for type I factor indenpendently on the set-theoretical axiomatics. As a consequence we obtain a lucid characterization of pure Jauch-Piron states on von Neumann algebras acting on a Hilbert space with real-nonmeasurable dimension (this can be viewed as a generalization of the paper). We also characterize the von Neumann algebras whose logic of projections is Jauch-Piron. Finally, we prove that every two-valued measure on the projection logic of A, where A contains no type I 2 central portion, has to be concentrated at an abelian direct summand of A. (orig.)

  17. Von Krahli Teater toob Eestisse erakordse auhinna / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Bessie-auhinna puhul, millega New Yorgis pärjati Von Krahli Teatri lavastust "Luikede järv." Mõjukuselt on seda võrreldud Broadway teatriauhinna Tonyga. Lisatud lühiandmed P. Jalaka ja S. Pepeljajevi kohta

  18. Frobenius theory for positive maps of von Neumann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoegh-Krohn, R.

    1978-01-01

    Frobenius theory about the cyclic structure of eigenvalues of irreducible non negative matrices is extended to the case of positive linear maps of von Neumann algebras. Semigroups of such maps and ergodic properties are also considered. (orig.) [de

  19. Pengaruh asupan Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B12, dan vitamin C terhadap kadar hemoglobin pada remaja vegan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti Siallagan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vegan has become a diet that started to be many people's choice. Low intake of iron and vitamin B12 is factors that can cause anemia in vegan. On the other side vegans often consume vegetables and fruits that contained high of vitamin A and vitamin C which helps the absorption of iron, that can help prevent anemia. Objective: The purpose of the research know the effect of the intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin C on hemoglobin (Hblevels in young Buddhist vegan Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Method: This research uses cross-sectional design. The population in this study are all adolescent vegan in the Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira. Samples in this study were 31 peoples. Independent variable is an intake of iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12, and vitamin C was obtained by SQ-FFQ, while the dependent variable was Hb with hemoglobin testing system quick-check set. Analysis of the data in this study using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression. Results: There is a relationship intake of iron (p=0,000, vitamin B12 (p=0,037, and vitamin C (p=0,000 to Hb level of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira, there is no relationship intake of vitamin A with a Hb level of adolescent vegan (p=0,220. The result of multivariate analysis using multiple regression analysis of the variables that most influence haemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan are the intake of iron and vitamin C. Each increase of 1 mg Fe intake will increase the Hb concentration as much as 0.013 g/dl and increase of 1 mg of vitamin C intake will increase Hb levels as much as 0.002 g/dl. Conclusion: Iron and vitamin C intake is the most influence factors to hemoglobin levels of adolescent vegan in Buddhist Pusdiklat Maitreyawira.

  20. Vitamine A voorziening van de Nederlandse bevolking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers PMCM; Feskens EJM; CVG

    2004-01-01

    In this report vitamin A intake is assessed. From these analyses, 17 to 30 per cent of the adults in our study were found to have an inadequate vitamin A intake to maintain sufficient vitamin A stores. A substantial proportion of these individuals had a level of intake greatly less than required.

  1. Vitamin D deficiency and heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Drechsler, Christiane; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    Vitamin D deficiency is present in the vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and correcting a poor vitamin D status is recommended as a treatment of CKD-mineral and bone disorders. In this review, we summarize the molecular and clinical data on the role of vitamin D status for

  2. Prenatal vitamins: what is in the bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, Norman B; Dowling, David D; Duerbeck, Jillinda M

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all obstetricians routinely prescribe prenatal vitamins to their pregnant patients at the time of the first prenatal visit. Many times, patients' understanding of the health benefits of prenatal vitamins differs substantially from that of the prescribing physician. The following is a review of the most common ingredients found in prenatal vitamins and their purported health benefits.

  3. 21 CFR 582.5930 - Vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A. 582.5930 Section 582.5930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5930 Vitamin A. (a) Product. Vitamin A. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. Vitamins in the prevention of human diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrmann, Wolfgang, Prof; Obeid, Rima

    2011-01-01

    ... in ancient Egypt. One-sided nutrition, smoking, alcohol, genetic factors, and even geographical origin interfere with our dietary intake of the vitamins. Insufficient vitamin intake can impact our health and contribute significantly to the development of diseases. This book offers expert reviews and judgements on the role of vitamins in health and ...

  5. Vitamin K, osteoarthritis, and joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoarthritis is the leading cause of joint pain and lower extremity disability in older adults and there is no known cure. Vitamin K has been implicated on osteoarthritis because vitamin K dependent proteins are present in joint tissues, such as cartilage and bone. In order to function, vitamin K ...

  6. Fuzzy modeling for Vitamin B12 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbik, A.M.; van Loon, S.L.M.; Boer, A.K.; Kaymak, U.; Scharnhorst, V.; Carvalho, J.; Lesot, M.J.; Kaymak, U.; Vieira, S.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.

    2016-01-01

    Blood vitamin B12 levels are not representative for actual vitamin B12 status in tissue. Instead plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels can be measured because MMA concentrations increase relatively early in the course of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, MMA levels in plasma may also be increased

  7. Optimized sampling of hydroperoxides and investigations of the water vapour dependence of hydroperoxide formation during ozonolysis of alkenes; Optimierung der Probenahme von Hydroperoxiden und Untersuchungen zur Wasserdampfabhaengigkeit der Bildung von Hydroperoxiden bei der Ozonolyse von Alkenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.H.; Plagens, H.

    1997-06-01

    There are several sampling methods for hydroperoxides none of which is particularly reliable. The authors therefore tested three new methods in order to optimize hydroperoxide sampling and, using the optimized sampling procedure, to investigate the water vapour dependence of hydroperoxide formation during ozonolysis of alkenes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Probenahme von Hydroperoxiden existieren verschiedene Verfahren, von denen bisher keines als besonders zuverlaessig angesehen werden konnte. Daher wurden in dieser Arbeit drei Verfahren getestet, um die Probenahme von Hydroperoxiden zu optimieren und mit dem entsprechenden Verfahren die Wasserdampfabhaengigkeit der Bildung von Hydroperoxiden bei der Ozonolyse von Alkenen zu untersuchen. (orig.)

  8. Numerical Analysis Of Buckling Of Von Mises Planar Truss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A computational algorithm of a discrete model of von Mises planar steel truss is presented. The structure deformation is evaluated by seeking the minimal potential energy. The critical force invented by mathematical solution was compared with solution by computer algorithm. Symmetric and asymmetric effects of initial shape of geometric imperfection of axis of struts are used in model. The shapes of buckling of von Mises planar truss of selected vertical displacement of top joint are shown.

  9. Analytische und Effektor-Studien von N-Acyl-Ethanolaminphosphaten

    OpenAIRE

    Ates, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    Bei N-Acyl-Ethanolaminphosphaten handelt es sich um eine bislang wenig untersuchte Klasse polarer Substanzen, deren Erforschung aufgrund ihrer strukturellen Analogie zu apolaren, physiologisch wirksamen N-Acyl-Ethanolaminen von Interesse ist. Zu bear-beiten waren analytische Fragestellungen, die auch synthetische Aufgaben beinhalteten, wie Methodenentwicklung und Versuche zur Erfassung von N-Acyl-Ethanolamin-phosphaten in ausgewählten Lebensmitteln sowie strukturelle Studien zur „Bioaktivität...

  10. Spurenstoffuntersuchungen zur Bildung und Ausbreitung von Wassermassen im subpolaren Nordatlantik

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Hauke

    2001-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde ein umfangreicher Spurenstoffdatensatz aus dem subpolaren Nordatlantik erstellt und ausgewertet, der Tritium-, Helium- und Neon- sowie O-18-Messungen umfaßt. Das Hauptaugenmerk galt dabei der Bildung und Ausbreitung der tiefen Wassermassen und deren Variabilität auf Zeitskalen von einigen Jahren. Anhand von Tracermittelwerten, die mit Hilfe eines optimierten Interpolationsverfahrens gewonnen wurden, konnte gezeigt werden, daß die konvektive Neubildung de...

  11. Nash y von Neumann: mundos posibles y juegos de lenguaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar , Boris

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo emplea las nociones de juego de lenguaje y de equivalencia entre juegos para examinar la decisión de John Nash de no jugar el juego coalicional que propuso John von Neumann. El argumento central es que Nash concibió una clase de mundos posibles incompatible con la de von Neumann, y que en el origen de esa divergencia estarían sus distintas nociones de racionalidad.

  12. Von Neumann's impossibility proof: Mathematics in the service of rhetorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieks, Dennis

    2017-11-01

    According to what has become a standard history of quantum mechanics, in 1932 von Neumann persuaded the physics community that hidden variables are impossible as a matter of principle, after which leading proponents of the Copenhagen interpretation put the situation to good use by arguing that the completeness of quantum mechanics was undeniable. This state of affairs lasted, so the story continues, until Bell in 1966 exposed von Neumann's proof as obviously wrong. The realization that von Neumann's proof was fallacious then rehabilitated hidden variables and made serious foundational research possible again. It is often added in recent accounts that von Neumann's error had been spotted almost immediately by Grete Hermann, but that her discovery was of no effect due to the dominant Copenhagen Zeitgeist. We shall attempt to tell a story that is more historically accurate and less ideologically charged. Most importantly, von Neumann never claimed to have shown the impossibility of hidden variables tout court, but argued that hidden-variable theories must possess a structure that deviates fundamentally from that of quantum mechanics. Both Hermann and Bell appear to have missed this point; moreover, both raised unjustified technical objections to the proof. Von Neumann's argument was basically that hidden-variables schemes must violate the ;quantum principle; that physical quantities are to be represented by operators in a Hilbert space. As a consequence, hidden-variables schemes, though possible in principle, necessarily exhibit a certain kind of contextuality. As we shall illustrate, early reactions to Bohm's theory are in agreement with this account. Leading physicists pointed out that Bohm's theory has the strange feature that pre-existing particle properties do not generally reveal themselves in measurements, in accordance with von Neumann's result. They did not conclude that the ;impossible was done; and that von Neumann had been shown wrong.

  13. Räumliche Aspekte von Transformationsproblemen aus systemtheoretischer Perspektive

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Helmut

    2000-01-01

    Der mit dem Topos "Transformation von Wirtschafts- und Gesellschaftssystemen" axiomatisch angenommene Unvereinbarkeit sozialistischer und marktwirtschaftlicher Strukturen ist aus raumwissenschaftlicher Sicht nicht nachvollziehbar. Zum einen gibt es in Wirtschaftsgeographie und Infrastrukturtheorie eine ganze Reihe von Gemeinsamkeiten und Berührungspunkten, die man für den konstruktiven Systemumbau nutzen kann. Zum andern benötigt der Umbau selbst eine räumliche Infrastruktur. Und zum dritten ...

  14. Integration von 3D-Kamerasystemen am Gabelstapler

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinert, Steffen; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2013-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag beschreibt die Integration von laufzeitmessenden 3D Kamerasystemen in die Gabelzinkenspitzen eines Flurförderzeugs. Mit Hilfe der integrierten Kameras und deren ausgewerteter Aufnahmen wurde ein Assistenzsystem für die Handhabung von Ladungsträgern realisiert, das dem Fahrer des Flurförderzeugs Verfahrempfehlungen für die Optimierung der Relativposition zwischen Gabelzinken und Ladungsträger bzw. Lagerplatz ausgibt. Neben der Vorstellung der verwendeten Kamera-Hardware und der ...

  15. Die Darstellung von guten und schlechten Beziehungen in Kinderzeichnungen

    OpenAIRE

    Gramel, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Nach welchen Kriterien sich Bilder, auf denen Kinder eine positive Beziehung darstellen, von Bildern unterscheiden, auf denen negative Beziehungen dargestellt sind, wurde an einer Stichprobe von 45 Kindern zwischen 4;6 und 11;6 Jahren untersucht. Die Kinder fertigten jeweils ein positives und ein negatives Beziehungsbild an. Es zeigte sich, dass die Kinder in beiden Beziehungskategorien zum großen Teil Gleichaltrige darstellten. Sie benannten für ihre Bilder Kriterien, anhand derer man die po...

  16. Zur Dialektik von Soft Skills und fachlicher Kompetenz

    OpenAIRE

    Jendrowiak, Hans-Werner

    2010-01-01

    [Der Autor stellt folgende Thesen zur Dialektik von Soft Skills und fachlicher Bildung auf:] 1. Soft Skills sind normale Bildungskategorien und Teil einer Allgemeinen Bildung. […] 2. Soft Skills sind als personalgebundene Kriterien auch immer schon Gegenstand bildungstheoretischer Debatten. […] 3. Soft Skills ist eine trendorientierte Bezeichnung für Bildung. […] 4. Soft Skills sind Ausdruck von Vorstellungen, Ideen und Theorien (Schulkultur, Unternehmenskultur, Unternehmensphilosophie). 5. S...

  17. Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2008-01-01

    Sun exposure has been associated with lower death rates for pancreatic cancer in ecological studies. Skin exposure to solar ultra-violet B radiation induces cutaneous production of precursors to 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D (D) and is considered the primary contributor to vitamin D status in most populations. Pancreatic islet and duct cells express 25-(OH) D3-1α-hydroxylase that generates the biologically active 1,25-dihydroxy(OH)2 D form. Thus, 25(OH)D concentrations could affect pancreatic fun...

  18. Politische Bildung im Kontext von Regierung, Unterricht und Zucht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rucker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841 gilt als der Begründer der wissenschaftlichen Pädagogik. In diesem Beitrag wird zu zeigen versucht, dass Herbart die Unterstützung politischer Bildung als eine Aufgabe von Regierung, Unterricht und Zucht bestimmt und in seinem Werk wichtige „Bausteine“ für eine Theorie der politischen Bildung unter den Bedingungen von Erziehung vorlegt hat. Nach Herbart ist das politische Selbst- und Weltverhältnis auf Sachverhalte bezogen, die nicht nur die Lebensführung einzelner Menschen, sondern die Lebensführung einer Mehrzahl von Menschen betreffen. Nicht das Zusammenleben von Menschen generell ist jedoch Orientierungsgesichtspunkt des politischen Selbst- und Weltverhältnisses, sondern nur das problematisch gewordene Zusammenleben. Politik ergibt sich nach Herbart aus einem Konflikt hinsichtlich der Frage, wie das Zusammenleben von Menschen geregelt sein sollte. Während die Regierung lediglich mittelbar einen Beitrag zur politischen Bildung leistet, indem sie die Voraussetzungen für Unterricht und Zucht bereitstellt, fungieren die beiden zuletzt genannten Formen von Erziehung als die eigentlichen Medien, in denen die politische Bildung im Sinne Herbarts ihren Ort hat.

  19. Prophylaxis escalation in severe von Willebrand disease: A prospective study from the von Willebrand Disease Prophylaxis Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Abshire (Thomas Calvin); J. Cox-Gill; C.L. Kempton; F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank); M. Carcao (M.); P. Kouides (P.); S. Donfield (S.); E. Berntorp

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Treatment of mucosal bleeding (epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and menorrhagia) and joint bleeding remains problematic in clinically severe von Willebrand disease (VWD). Patients are often unresponsive to treatment (e.g. desmopressin or antifibrinolytic therapy) and may

  20. Entwicklung von Extraktions- und Absorptionssystemen auf Basis ionischer Flüssigkeiten für die Entschwefelung von Kohlenwasserstoffen

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhlmann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Da die Anforderungen an den Schwefelgehalt der fossilen Brennstoffe - nicht zuletzt durch gesetzliche Richtlinien bezüglich der Schadstoffemissionen - im Laufe der Zeit ständig gestiegen sind, sind effektive Entschwefelungsverfahren für fossile Brennstoffe von hohem Interesse. Die derzeitige Entschwefelungstechnologie basiert auf dem HDS-Verfahren, alternative Verfahren sind aber wünschenswert, insbesondere wenn Anwendungen einen Schwefelgehalt von weit unter 10 ppm erforderlich machen. Daher...

  1. Bone health, vitamin D and lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangüesa Gómez, Clara; Flores Robles, Bryan Josué; Andréu, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is high. This is likely due to photoprotection measures in addition to intrinsic factors of the disease. Low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of low bone mineral density and fracture. Vitamin D deficiency could also have undesirable effects on patients' immune response, enhancing mechanisms of loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. Vitamin D levels should be periodically monitored and patients should be treated with the objective of reaching vitamin D levels higher than 30-40 ng/ml. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Rickets–vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal. PMID:22470851

  3. Rickets-vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sahay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal.

  4. Radioprotective effect of vitamins C and E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nahas, S.M.; Mohamed, A.A.; Mattar, F.E.

    1993-01-01

    Albino rats were treated with aqueous vitamin C solution and vitamin E solution dissolved in olive oil at two concentrations, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, for 6 months. Some of the animals where then subjected to whole-body irradiation. Chromosomal aberrations and mitotic activity in non-irradiated and irradiated groups were recorded. Both vitamins were found to be non-mutagenic. Vitamin C exerted a radioprotective effect but vitamin E was not radioprotective and it suppressed the radioprotection otherwise produced by olive oil. (author). 31 refs., 2 figs

  5. VITAMIN INTAKE: REAL NECESSARY OR DANGEROUS EXCESS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Torshkhoeva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are biologically active substances, which regulate many biochemical processes within the human body. in modern conditions, peculiarities of the household and children's nourishment do not allow for complete satisfaction of the need in all the vitamins only thanks to the food. In relation to this, it's quite desirable to provide the additional inflow of the vitamins into the child's body, which may be performed through the individual intake of the children's multivitamin medications.Key words: vitamins, children, hypovitaminosis, vitamin and mineral complex.

  6. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  7. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: von Willebrand病 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term von Willebrand病 名詞 一般 * * * * von Willebrand...病 ... MeSH D014842 200906053707829497 C LS51 UNKNOWN_2 von Willebrand 病

  8. Von Roll RCP method - first experiences; Von Roll RCP - Verfahren. Erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitaine, P.; Engweiler, J. [Roll Umwelttechnik AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    The RCP method was designed as a residue-optimised alternative to the thermally optimised grate firing of residual wastes. Its technical realisation and development to market maturity took no more than 5 years. In the first process stage the waste is converted to high-carbon pyrolysis charcoal and high-rank gas in the absence of oxygen. In the second stage these substances are oxidised by addition of oxygen. The resulting temperature causes the non-combustible constituents of the slag to melt. In a third, optional, stage this molten slag can be liberated of (heavy) metals to such an extent that it can subsequently be used directly as additive for grinding. Further exhaust gas treatment is facilitated by the use of a circulatory fluidised-bed secondary combustion chamber. Despite the reduced flue gas volume and resultant higher pollutant concentrations in the crude gas, overall emissions are lower than in conventional plants. [Deutsch] Das reststoffoptimierte RCP Verfahren ist als Alternative zur thermisch optimierten Rostverbrennung von Restabfaellen konzipiert. In nur fuenf Jahren wurde das Verfahren technisch umgesetzt und zur Marktreife entwickelt. In einer ersten Stufe des Verfahrens wird der Abfall unter Luftabschluss in einen kohlenstoffreichen Pyrolysekoks und eine heizwertreiches Gas umgesetzt. Im zweiten Schritt werden diese Stoffe unter Zugabe von Sauerstoff oxidiert. Dabei treten Temperaturen auf, bei denen die nichtbrennbaren Bestandteile der Schlacke schmelzen. Optional wird diese Schmelzschlacke in einem dritten Schritt derart von (Schwer-) Metallen befreit, dass sie anschliessend direkt als Zement-Zumahlstoff eingesetzt werden kann. Die Nutzung der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht - Nachbrennkammer zur Abgasbehandlung vereinfacht die weitergehende Abgasbehandlung. Trotz verringertem Rauchgasvolumen und damit hoeheren Schadstoffkonzentrationen im Rohgas werden die Gesamtemissionen gegenueber konventionellen Anlagen verringert. (orig./SR)

  9. How common is vitamin B-12 deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2009-02-01

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification. This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers whether fortification would improve the status of deficient subgroups of the population. In large surveys in the United States and the United Kingdom, approximately 6% of those aged > or =60 y are vitamin B-12 deficient (plasma vitamin B-12 life. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Inadequate intake, due to low consumption of animal-source foods, is the main cause of low serum vitamin B-12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor populations worldwide; in most studies, serum vitamin B-12 concentration is correlated with intake of this vitamin. In older persons, food-bound cobalamin malabsorption becomes the predominant cause of deficiency, at least in part due to gastric atrophy, but it is likely that most elderly can absorb the vitamin from fortified food. Fortification of flour with vitamin B-12 is likely to improve the status of most persons with low stores of this vitamin. However, intervention studies are still needed to assess efficacy and functional benefits of increasing intake of the amounts likely to be consumed in flour, including in elderly persons with varying degrees of gastric atrophy.

  10. Radioassay of vitamin B-12 employing bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, N.; Fries, J.E.; Richards, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioassay for vitamin B-12 using the unknown quantity of non-radioactive vitamin B-12 released from serum mixed with the radioactivity of a known quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer. A solution of intrinsic factor having a binding capacity less than the quantity of serum vitamin B-12 and radioactive vitamin B-12 is used to bind a portion of the vitamin B-12 mixture. The vitamin B-12 not bound to intrinsic factor is removed by addition of a bentonite-containing tablet. The quantity of radioactive vitamin B-12 bound to intrinsic factor is compared with standard values and the unknown serum vitamin B-12 obtained. In the steps of the procedure the acid assay medium is pre-combined with the radioactive tracer so that the radioactive vitamin B-12 tracer receives the same treatment as serum vitamin B-12. Certain of the other reagent solutions are pre-combined and the concentration of the components adjusted so that the volume used of each of these other reagent solutions is the same in different assay steps. Thus, fewer pipetting steps are necessary. 7 claims, 1 drawing figure

  11. Associations between B Vitamins and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang

    2015-08-27

    B vitamins may correlate with Parkinson's disease (PD) through regulating homocysteine level. However, there is no comprehensive assessment on the associations between PD and B vitamins. The present study was designed to perform a meta-analytic assessment of the associations between folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and PD, including the status of B vitamins in PD patients compared with controls, and associations of dietary intakes of B vitamins and risk of PD. A literature search using Medline database obtained 10 eligible studies included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Pooled data revealed that there was no obvious difference in folate level between PD patients and healthy controls, and PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 than controls. Available data suggested that higher dietary intake of vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.65, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = (0.30, 1.01)), while no significant association was observed for dietary intake of folate and vitamin B12 and risk of PD. PD patients had lower level of vitamin B12 and similar level of folate compared with controls. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 exhibited preventive effect of developing PD based on the available data. As the number of included studies is limited, more studies are needed to confirm the findings and elucidate the underpinning underlying these associations.

  12. Vitamin D in chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Caroline S; Volmer, Dietrich A; Grünhage, Frank; Lammert, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) and several related extrahepatic manifestations such as hepatic osteodystrophy are associated with deficiency of vitamin D, which has therefore been suggested as therapeutic target. Vitamin D undergoes hepatic 25-hydroxylation, rendering the liver critical to the metabolic activation of this vitamin. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in CLD patients, and vitamin D levels are inversely related to the severity of CLD. Declining levels of carrier proteins such as albumin and vitamin D-binding protein might also be critical in CLD. Intervention studies report improvements of CLD following supplementation, and benefits to health outcomes in particular with respect to hepatitis C virus infection have recently been documented. We discuss vitamin D sources, functions and metabolism with a focus on the inherent complications of analytical measurements, such as the interference of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D C-3 epimers. Global discrepancies in the definition of optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are covered, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in CLD is reviewed. We also address the functional mechanisms underlying this deficiency, and refer to associations between genetic variation in vitamin D metabolism and CLD. Lastly, we consider the health implications of a vitamin D deficiency in CLD and consider therapeutic options. Herein, we focus on the epidemiological and functional relationships between vitamin D deficiency and CLD, followed by a discussion of the potential implications for therapeutic interventions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Vitamin D and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atul; Bush, Andrew; Hawrylowicz, Catherine; Saglani, Sejal

    2012-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are increasingly being recognized in the general population, and have been largely attributed to lifestyle changes (reduced exposure to sunshine due to working indoors or the use of protective clothing and sunscreen; changes in diet) over the last few decades. The musculoskeletal consequences of severe vitamin D deficiency are well established, however, a number of other disorders have now been linked to vitamin D insufficiency, including asthma. There is growing appreciation of the likely importance of vitamin D as a pleiotrophic mediator that contributes to pulmonary health. Children with asthma appear to be at increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency. Epidemiologic data suggest that low serum vitamin D in children with asthma is associated with more symptoms, exacerbations, reduced lung function, increased medication usage and severe disease. In vitro studies have demonstrated that vitamin D enhances steroid responsiveness in adult asthmatics. Vitamin D may play an important role in pulmonary health by inhibiting inflammation, in part through maintaining regulatory T cells, and direct induction of innate antimicrobial mechanisms. More research is required to fully understand the role of vitamin D in the maintenance of airway homeostasis and address the diagnostic and therapeutic implications vitamin D may have in the future of asthma management. This review summarises the current understanding and uncertainties regarding the effect of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in children with asthma. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and D (for specific population groups). Regarding the use of vitamin supplements, the Dietary guidelines include the following: Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups. At the same time, choose foods that limit the intake of saturated ...

  15. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Eschenmoser Approach to Vitamin B

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. Eschenmoser Approach to Vitamin B12 by A/D Strategy: An Unexpected Journey. G Wayne Craig. General Article Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 624-640. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Linkedin Pin it Email Print Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Vitamins are essential nutrients that contribute to ...

  18. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 50, consume vitamin B-12 in its crystalline form, which is found in fortified foods or supplements. If you're a woman of childbearing age who may become pregnant, eat foods high in heme-iron and/or consume iron-rich plant foods or ...

  19. Fortify Your Knowledge about Vitamins

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medicines." Frankos adds, "Do not self-diagnose any health condition. Work with your health care providers to determine how best to achieve ... Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults ... More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition ...

  20. Peranan Vitamin D Pada Pencegahan Penyakit Degeneratif: Persfektif Baru

    OpenAIRE

    Siagian, Albiner

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is one of the fat soluble vitamins. This vitamin is usually known as vitamin that takes apart in bone health thorough its role in increasing efficiency of calcium absorption in small intestine. Without vitamin D, human small intestine can only absorb calcium up to 15%. Vitamin D can increase efficiency of dietary calcium absorption up to 30%. Until 1980s, vitamin D was primarily known by its role in bone and tooth formation However, recent epidemiologic studies have revealed...