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Sample records for biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

  1. Biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaric, N.; Lu, G.; Velikonja, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals is a viable alternative method for clean-up and remedy of hazardous waste sites. The final objective in this approach is to convert the parent toxicant into a readily biodegradable product which is harmless to human health and/or the environment. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil can also efficiently be enhanced by addition or in-situ production of biosufactants. It was generally observed that the degradation time was shortened and particularly the adaptation time for the microbes. More data from our laboratories showed that chlorinated aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, a herbicide Metolachlor, as well as naphthalene are degraded faster and more completely when selected biosurfactants are added to the soil. More recent data demonstrated an enhanced biodegradation of heavy hydrocarbons in petrochemical sludges, and in contaminated oil when biosurfactants were present or were added prior to the biodegradation process.

  2. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in creosote contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezza, Fisseha Andualem; Chirwa, Evans M Nkhalambayausi

    2016-02-01

    The potential for biological treatment of an environment contaminated by complex petrochemical contaminants was evaluated using creosote contaminated soil in ex situ bio-slurry reactors. The efficacy of biosurfactant application and stimulation of in situ biosurfactant production was investigated. The biosurfactant produced was purified and characterised using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Biosurfactant enhanced degradation of PAHs was 86.5% (with addition of biosurfactant) and 57% in controls with no biosurfactant and nutrient amendments after incubation for 45 days. A slight decrease in degradation rate observed in the simultaneous biosurfactant and nutrient, NH4NO3 and KH2PO4, supplemented microcosm can be attributed to preferential microbial consumption of the biosurfactant supplemented. The overall removal of PAHs was determined to be mass transport limited since the dissolution rate caused by the biosurfactant enhanced the bioavailability of the PAHs to the microorganisms. The consortium culture was predominated by the aromatic ring-cleaving species Bacillus stratosphericus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  3. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of hydrophobic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameotra, S.S.; Makkar, R.S. [Inst. of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-01-15

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and - philic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures-lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crude on sludge, and pesticides call be toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds that pollute the environment. They are released into the environment as a result of oil spillage and by-products of coal treatment processes. The low water solubility of these compounds limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of pollutants has potential hioremediation applications.

  4. Bioremediation of Creosote - contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    BYSS, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was studied employing the methods of soil microbial biology and using new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry analytical approach. The changes of the soil microbial community under the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution impact were analyzed and described, as well as the changes during the bioremediation experiments. Laboratory-scale bioremediation experiments using the soil microbial community (consisted of bacteria...

  5. Soil mesocosm studies on atrazine bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarkar, Sneha; Nousiainen, Aura; Shaligram, Shraddha; Björklöf, Katarina; Lindström, Kristina; Jørgensen, Kirsten S; Kapley, Atya

    2014-06-15

    Accumulation of pesticides in the environment causes serious issues of contamination and toxicity. Bioremediation is an ecologically sound method to manage soil pollution, but the bottleneck here, is the successful scale-up of lab-scale experiments to field applications. This study demonstrates pilot-scale bioremediation in tropical soil using atrazine as model pollutant. Mimicking field conditions, three different bioremediation strategies for atrazine degradation were explored. 100 kg soil mesocosms were set-up, with or without atrazine application history. Natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation were tested, where augmentation with an atrazine degrading consortium demonstrated best pollutant removal. 90% atrazine degradation was observed in six days in soil previously exposed to atrazine, while soil without history of atrazine use, needed 15 days to remove the same amount of amended atrazine. The bacterial consortium comprised of 3 novel bacterial strains with different genetic atrazine degrading potential. The progress of bioremediation was monitored by measuring the levels of atrazine and its intermediate, cyanuric acid. Genes from the atrazine degradation pathway, namely, atzA, atzB, atzD, trzN and trzD were quantified in all mesocosms for 60 days. The highest abundance of all target genes was observed on the 6th day of treatment. trzD was observed in the bioaugmented mesocosms only. The bacterial community profile in all mesocosms was monitored by LH-PCR over a period of two months. Results indicate that the communities changed rapidly after inoculation, but there was no drastic change in microbial community profile after 1 month. Results indicated that efficient bioremediation of atrazine using a microbial consortium could be successfully up-scaled to pilot scale.

  6. Fungal Bioremediation of Creosote-contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    BYSS, Marius

    2008-01-01

    The influence of two ligninolytic fungi (Pleurotus ostreatus and Irpex lacteus) on bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was studied. The thesis describes the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration decrease during the laboratory-scale experiments and reveals the changes in the present soil microbial community under the influence of either fungus. The thesis compares different impact on PAH concentrations and soil microbial community depending on the fungus applied.

  7. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated Fernald soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the use of microbial bioleaching for removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The ability of bacteria to assist in oxidation and solubilization of uranium was compared to the ability of fungi to produce complexing compounds which have the same effect. Biosorption of uranium by fungi was also measured. Soil samples were examined for changes in mineralogical properties due to these processes. On the basis of these laboratory scale studies a generalized flow sheet is proposed for bioremediation of contaminated Fernald soils

  8. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  9. BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological remediation of soils contaminated with organic chemicals is an alternative treatment technology that can often meet the goal of achieving a permanent clean-up remedy at hazardous waste sites, as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for impl...

  10. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. U. Chibuike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for the bioremediation of polluted soils. Using plants for the treatment of polluted soils is a more common approach in the bioremediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Combining both microorganisms and plants is an approach to bioremediation that ensures a more efficient clean-up of heavy metal polluted soils. However, success of this approach largely depends on the species of organisms involved in the process.

  11. Improving Bioremediation of PAH Contaminated Soils by Thermal Pretreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bonten, L.T.C.

    2001-01-01

    Numerous sites and large volumes of sediments in the Netherlands are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are of great concern because of their toxic and carcinogenic effects. Since PAH tend to sorb very strongly to the soil matrix, bioremediation is a slow process with often high residual concentrations after remediation. In this study it was tried to develop methods to improve bioremediation, this means to decrease residual concentrations after bioremediation. In ...

  12. Chemometric assessment of enhanced bioremediation of oil contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, Mohsen; Farhoudi, Majid; Christensen, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting, and addi......Bioremediation is a promising technique for reclamation of oil polluted soils. In this study, six methods for enhancing bioremediation were tested on oil contaminated soils from three refinery areas in Iran (Isfahan, Arak, and Tehran). The methods included bacterial enrichment, planting...... steranes were used for determining the level and type of hydrocarbon contamination. The same methods were used to study oil weathering of 2 to 6 ring polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Results demonstrated that bacterial enrichment and addition of nutrients were most efficient with 50% to 62% removal...

  13. TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Gabriela POPA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological methods for remediation of soils is based on the degradation of pollutants due to activity of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi. Effectiveness of biological decontamination of soils depends on the following factors: biodegradation of pollutants, type of microorganisms used, choice of oxidant and nutrient and subject to clean up environmental characteristics. Ex situ techniques for bioremediation of soils polluted are: composting (static / mechanical agitation, land farming and biopiles. Techniques in situ bioremediation of soils polluted are: bioventingul, biospargingul and biostimulation – bioaugumentarea.

  14. Bioremediation and detoxification of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a cleanup alterative, the bioremediation potential of soil, contaminated by spills of three medium petroleum distillates, jet fuel heating oil (No. 2 fuel oil) and diesel fuel was evaluated in controlled-temperature laboratory soil columns and in outdoor lysimeters. Solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography (GC) was used routinely for analysis of fuel residues. Occasionally, class separation and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were also used in residue characterization. The decrease in toxic residues was evaluated by Microtox and Ames tests. Seed germination and plant growth bioassays were also performed. Persistence and toxicity of the fuels increased in the order of jet fuel < heating oil < diesel fuel. Bioremediation consisting of liming, fertilization and tilling decreased the half-lives of the pollutants in soil by a factor of 2-3. Biodegradation was faster at 27C than at 17 or 37C, but hydrocarbon concentration and soil quality had only modest influence on biodegradation rates and did not preclude successful bioremediation of these contaminated soils within one growing season. Microbial activity measurements by the fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis assay confirmed that microbial activity was the principal force in hydrocarbon elimination. Bioremediation was highly effective in eliminating also the polycyclic aromatic components of diesel fuel. The bioremediation and detoxification of fuel-contaminated soil was corroborated by Microtox, Ames and plant growth bioassays

  15. Rehabilitation of oil polluted soils by bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Mihail; Parvan, Lavinia; Cioroianu, Mihai; Carmen, Sirbu; Constantin, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    In Romania about 50,000 ha are polluted with oil and/or brine. The main sources of pollution are the different activities using petroleum products: extraction, transport, treatment, refining and distribution. Taking into acoount the large areas and the cost per unit area, bioremediation was tested as a method of rehabilitation. To stimulate the performance of the bioremediation process for a polluted soil (luvisol) by 3% oil, different methods were tested: -application of a bacterial inoculum consisting of species of the Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter genera;- application of two types of absorbent materials, 16 t/ha peat and 16, respectively, 32 kg/ha Zeba (starch-based polymer, superabsorbent); -mineral fertilization with N200P200K200 and 5 different liquid fertilizer based on potassium humates extracted from lignite in a NPK matrix with micronutrients and added monosaccharides (4 and 8%). After 45 days from the treatment (60 days from pollution) the following observations have been noticed: • the application of only bacterial inoculum had no significant effect on the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons; • the use of 650 l/ha AH-SH fertilizer (potassium humate in a NPK matrix) led to a 47% decrease of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons); • the application of 16 t/ha peat, together with the bacterial inoculum and the AH-SG2 liquid fertilizer (containing humates of potassium in a NPK matrix with microelements and 8% monosaccharides, in which the nitrogen is amide form) led to a 50% decrease of the TPH content; • the application of 16 kg/ha Zeba absorbent together with bacterial inoculum and 650 l/ha AH-SG1 liquid fertilizer (containing humates of potassium in a NPK matrix with microelements and 4% monosaccharide in which the nitrogen is in amide form) led to a 57% decrease of the TPH content; • the application of 32 kg/ha Zeba absorbent, together with the AH-SG2 fertilizer, led to a 58% decrease of the TPH content.

  16. ENGINEERING ISSUE: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SUBSURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. Understanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of th...

  17. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chibuike, G. U.; S. C. Obiora

    2014-01-01

    Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for...

  18. Bioremediation treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils: influencing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Masoud; Barabadi, Abbas; Barabady, Javad

    2014-10-01

    The Arctic environment is very vulnerable and sensitive to hydrocarbon pollutants. Soil bioremediation is attracting interest as a promising and cost-effective clean-up and soil decontamination technology in the Arctic regions. However, remoteness, lack of appropriate infrastructure, the harsh climatic conditions in the Arctic and some physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils may reduce the performance and limit the application of this technology. Therefore, understanding the weaknesses and bottlenecks in the treatment plans, identifying their associated hazards, and providing precautionary measures are essential to improve the overall efficiency and performance of a bioremediation strategy. The aim of this paper is to review the bioremediation techniques and strategies using microorganisms for treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated Arctic soils. It takes account of Arctic operational conditions and discusses the factors influencing the performance of a bioremediation treatment plan. Preliminary hazard analysis is used as a technique to identify and assess the hazards that threaten the reliability and maintainability of a bioremediation treatment technology. Some key parameters with regard to the feasibility of the suggested preventive/corrective measures are described as well.

  19. Bioremediation of lead contaminated soil with Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Peng, Weihua; Jia, Yingying; Lu, Lin; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-08-01

    Bioremediation with microorganisms is a promising technique for heavy metal contaminated soil. Rhodobacter sphaeroides was previously isolated from oil field injection water and used for bioremediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soil in the present study. Based on the investigation of the optimum culturing conditions and the tolerance to Pb, we employed the microorganism for the remediation of Pb contaminated soil simulated at different contamination levels. It was found that the optimum temperature, pH, and inoculum size for R. sphaeroides is 30-35 °C, 7, and 2 × 10(8) mL(-1), respectively. Rhodobacter sphaeroides did not remove the Pb from soil but did change its speciation. During the bioremediation process, more available fractions were transformed to less accessible and inert fractions; in particular, the exchangeable phase was dramatically decreased while the residual phase was substantially increased. A wheat seedling growing experiment showed that Pb phytoavailability was reduced in amended soils. Results inferred that the main mechanism by which R. sphaeroides treats Pb contaminated soil is the precipitation formation of inert compounds, including lead sulfate and lead sulfide. Although the Pb bioremediation efficiency on wheat was not very high (14.78% root and 24.01% in leaf), R. sphaeroides remains a promising alternative for Pb remediation in contaminated soil.

  20. Bioremediation potential of diesel-contaminated Libyan soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshlaf, Eman; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Taha, Mohamed; Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Makadia, Tanvi H; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2016-11-01

    Bioremediation is a broadly applied environmentally friendly and economical treatment for the clean-up of sites contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, the application of this technology to contaminated soil in Libya has not been fully exploited. In this study, the efficacy of different bioremediation processes (necrophytoremediation using pea straw, bioaugmentation and a combination of both treatments) together with natural attenuation were assessed in diesel contaminated Libyan soils. The addition of pea straw was found to be the best bioremediation treatment for cleaning up diesel contaminated Libyan soil after 12 weeks. The greatest TPH degradation, 96.1% (18,239.6mgkg(-1)) and 95% (17,991.14mgkg(-1)) were obtained when the soil was amended with pea straw alone and in combination with a hydrocarbonoclastic consortium respectively. In contrast, natural attenuation resulted in a significantly lower TPH reduction of 76% (14,444.5mgkg(-1)). The presence of pea straw also led to a significant increased recovery of hydrocarbon degraders; 5.7log CFU g(-1) dry soil, compared to 4.4log CFUg(-1) dry soil for the untreated (natural attenuation) soil. DGGE and Illumina 16S metagenomic analyses confirm shifts in bacterial communities compared with original soil after 12 weeks incubation. In addition, metagenomic analysis showed that original soil contained hydrocarbon degraders (e.g. Pseudoxanthomonas spp. and Alcanivorax spp.). However, they require a biostimulant (in this case pea straw) to become active. This study is the first to report successful oil bioremediation with pea straw in Libya. It demonstrates the effectiveness of pea straw in enhancing bioremediation of the diesel-contaminated Libyan soil.

  1. Electromigration of Contaminated Soil by Electro-Bioremediation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Shaylinda, M. Z. N.; Azim, M. A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals poses major environmental and human health problems. This problem needs an efficient method and affordable technological solution such as electro-bioremediation technique. The electro-bioremediation technique used in this study is the combination of bacteria and electrokinetic process. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of Pseudomonas putida bacteria as a biodegradation agent to remediate contaminated soil. 5 kg of kaolin soil was spiked with 5 g of zinc oxide. During this process, the anode reservoir was filled with Pseudomonas putida while the cathode was filled with distilled water for 5 days at 50 V of electrical gradient. The X-Ray Fluorescent (XRF) test indicated that there was a significant reduction of zinc concentration for the soil near the anode with 89% percentage removal. The bacteria count is high near the anode which is 1.3x107 cfu/gww whereas the bacteria count at the middle and near the cathode was 5.0x106 cfu/gww and 8.0x106 cfu/gww respectively. The migration of ions to the opposite charge of electrodes during the electrokinetic process resulted from the reduction of zinc. The results obtained proved that the electro-bioremediation reduced the level of contaminants in the soil sample. Thus, the electro-bioremediation technique has the potential to be used in the treatment of contaminated soil.

  2. Bioremediation of a pesticide polluted soil: Case DDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,1,1-trichloro-2,2 bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) has been used since the Second World War to control insect-borne diseases in humans and domestic animals. The use of these organochlorine insecticides has been banned in most countries because of its persistence in the environment, biomagnification and potential susceptibility to toxicity to higher animals. Bioremediation involves the use of microorganisms to degrade organic contaminants in the environment, transforming them into simpler and less dangerous, even harmless compounds. This decontamination strategy has low costs, and wide public acceptance, also it can take place on the site. Compared to other methods, bioremediation is a more promising and less expensive to eliminate contaminants in soil and water. In soil, compounds such as DDT, chlorinated biphenyls can be partially biodegraded by a group of aerobic bacteria that cometabolize the contaminant. The bioavailability of pollutants may be enhanced by treating the soil in the presence of contaminant mobilizing agents such as surfactants. In this review we discuss the different strategies for bioremediation of soil contaminated with DDT, including mechanisms and degradation pathways. The application of these techniques in contaminated soil is also described. This review also discusses which is the best strategy for bioremediation of DDT.

  3. [Effects and Biological Response on Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Man-li; Nie, Mai-qian; Wang, Ting-ting; Zhang, Ming-hui

    2015-05-01

    Bioaugmentation and biostimulation were used to remediate petroleum-contaminated soil which were collected from Zichang city in North of Shaanxi. The optimal bioremediation method was obtained by determining the total petroleum hydrocarbon(TPH) using the infrared spectroscopy. During the bioremediation, number of degrading strains, TPH catabolic genes, and soil microbial community diversity were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined agarose electrophoresis, and PCR-denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results in different treatments showed different biodegradation effects towards total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Biostimulation by adding N and P to soils achieved the best degradation effects towards TPH, and the bioaugmentation was achieved by inoculating strain SZ-1 to soils. Further analysis indicated the positive correlation between catabolic genes and TPH removal efficiency. During the bioremediation, the number of TPH and alkanes degrading strains was higher than the number of aromatic degrading strains. The results of PCR-DGGE showed microbial inoculums could enhance microbial community functional diversity. These results contribute to understand the ecologically microbial effects during the bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soil.

  4. Use of Additives in Bioremediation of Contaminated Groundwater and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews application of additives used in bioremediation of chlorinated solvents and fuels for groundwater and soil remediation. Soluble carbon substrates are applicable to most site conditions except aquifers with very high or very low groundwater flow. Slow-release ...

  5. Influence of salinity on bioremediation of oil in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spills from oil production and processing result in soils being contaminated with oil and salt. The effect of NaCl on degradation of oil in a sandy-clay loam and a clay loam soil was determined. Soils were treated with 50 g kg-1 non-detergent motor oil (30 SAE). Salt treatments included NaCl amendments to adjust the soil solution electrical conductivities to 40, 120, and 200 dS m-1. Soils were amended with nutrients and incubated at 25oC. Oil degradation was estimated from the quantities of CO2 evolved and from gravimetric determinations of remaining oil. Salt concentrations of 200 dS m-1 in oil amended soils resulted in a decrease in oil mineralized by 44% for a clay loam and 20% for a sandy-clay loam soil. A salt concentration of 40 dS m-1 reduced oil mineralization by about 10% in both soils. Oil mineralized in the oil amended clay-loam soil was 2-3 times greater than for comparable treatments of the sandy-clay loam soil. Amending the sandy-clay loam soil with 5% by weight of the clay-loam soil enhanced oil mineralization by 40%. Removal of salts from oil and salt contaminated soils before undertaking bioremediation may reduce the time required for bioremediation. (author)

  6. Assisted bioremediation tests on three natural soils contaminated with benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is an attractive and useful method of remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons because it is simple to maintain, applicable in large areas, is economic and enables an effective destruction of the contaminant. Usually, the autochthone microorganisms have no ability to degrade these compounds, and otherwise, the contaminated sites have inappropriate environmental conditions for microorganism’s development. These problems can be overcome by assisted bioremediation (bioaugmentation and/or biostimulation. In this study the assisted bioremediation capacity on the rehabilitation of three natural sub-soils (granite, limestone and schist contaminated with benzene was evaluated. Two different types of assisted bioremediation were used: without and with ventilation (bioventing. The bioaugmentation was held by inoculating the soil with a consortium of microorganisms collected from the protection area of crude oil storage tanks in a refinery. In unventilated trials, biostimulation was accomplished by the addition of a nutrient mineral media, while in bioventing oxygen was also added. The tests were carried out at controlled temperature of 25 ºC in stainless steel columns where the moist soil contaminated with benzene (200 mg per kg of soil occupied about 40% of the column’s volume. The processes were daily monitored in discontinued mode. Benzene concentration in the gas phase was quantified by gas chromatography (GC-FID, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were monitored by respirometry. The results revealed that the three contaminated soils were remediated using both technologies, nevertheless, the bioventing showed faster rates. With this work it was proved that respirometric analysis is an appropriate instrument for monitoring the biological activity.

  7. Importance of soil-water relation in assessment endpoint in bioremediated soils: Plant growth and soil physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much effort has been focused on defining the end-point of bioremediated soils by chemical analysis (Alberta Tier 1 or CCME Guideline for Contaminated Soils) or toxicity tests. However, these tests do not completely assess the soil quality, or the capability of soil to support plant growth after bioremediation. This study compared barley (Hordeum vulgare) growth on: (i) non-contaminated, agricultural topsoil, (2) oil-contaminated soil (4% total extractable hydrocarbons, or TEH), and (3) oil-contaminated soil treated by bioremediation (< 2% TEH). Soil physical properties including water retention, water uptake, and water repellence were measured. The results indicated that the growth of barley was significantly reduced by oil-contamination of agricultural topsoil. Furthermore, bioremediation did not improve the barley yield. The lack of effects from bioremediation was attributed to development of water repellence in hydrocarbon contaminated soils. There seemed to be a critical water content around 18% to 20% in contaminated soils. Above this value the water uptake by contaminated soil was near that of the agricultural topsoil. For lower water contents, there was a strong divergence in sorptivity between contaminated and agricultural topsoil. For these soils, water availability was likely the single most important parameter controlling plant growth. This parameter should be considered in assessing endpoint of bioremediation for hydrocarbon contaminated soils

  8. Bioremediation of Pyrene-Contaminated Soils Using Biosurfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorfi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are persistence organic chemicals with proved carcinogenic and mutagenic hazards. These compounds are usually adsorbed in soils in vicinity of oil and gas industries. Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soils is difficult due to hydrophobic nature of PAHs. Objectives The main purpose of the current study was to determine the pyrene removal efficiency in synthetically contaminated soil, using biosurfactant. Materials and Methods Four pure bacterial strains capable of pyrene degradation were isolated from contaminated soils via enrichment techniques. The soil samples were spiked with an initial pyrene concentration of 500 mg/kg and subjected to bioremediation using a mixed culture comprised of previously isolated strains, in addition to application of biosurfactant during 63 days. Results The pyrene removal efficiency in samples containing biosurfactant, without biosurfactant and controls, were 86.4%, 59.8% and 14%, respectively, after 63 days. The difference of pyrene removal efficiency between the biosurfactant-containing samples and the ones without it was significant (P < 0.05. Conclusions Application of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa significantly improved pyrene removal in contaminated soils.

  9. Ex-situ bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of stress acclimated bacteria and nutrient supplements to enhance the biodegradation of petroleum contaminated soil can be a cost effective and reliable treatment technology to reduce organic contaminant levels to below established by local, state, and federal regulatory clean-up criteria. This paper will summarize the results of a field study in which 12,000 yds3 of petroleum contaminated soil was successfully treated via ex-situ bioremediation and through management of macro and micronutrient concentrations, as well as, other site specific environmental factors that are essential for optimizing microbial growth

  10. Aerobic bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using controlled landfarming technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) has been concerned about open, uncontrolled landfarming remediation procedures producing a significant amount of atmospheric volatile petroleum discharge and increasing the probability of the remediation site's soil and groundwater becoming contaminated by rainwater. WIK Associates, Inc., therefore, has been developing full scale aerobic bioremediation technology for clients within the Delaware area in order to carry out year round, full scale, aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contaminated soils, while controlling any volatile emissions

  11. Bioremediation potential of crude oil spilled on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spills sometimes occur during routine operations associated with exploration and production (E and P) of crude oil. These spills at E and P sites typically are small, less than 1 acre (0.4 ha), and the spill may be in remote locations. As a result, bioremediation often represents a cost-effective alternative to other cleanup technologies. The goal of this study was to determine the potential for biodegrading a range of crude oil types and determining the effect of process variables such as soil texture and soil salinity. Crude oils evaluated ranged in American Petroleum institute (API) gravity from 14 degree to 45 degree. The extent of biodegradation was calculated from oxygen uptake data and the total extractable material (TEM) concentration. Based on the data collected, a simple model was developed for predicting the bioremediation potential of a range of crude oil types. Biodegradation rates were significantly lower in sandy soils. Soil salinities greater than approximately 40 mmhos/cm adversely impacted soil microbial activity and biodegradation rate

  12. Microbial changes in rhizospheric soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons after bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xin; LI Pei-jun; ZHOU Qi-xing; XU Hua-xia; ZHANG Hai-rong

    2004-01-01

    Effects of bioremediation on microbial communities in soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons are a scientific problem to be solved. Changes in dominate microbial species and the total amount of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi in rhizospheric soils after bioremediation were thus evaluated using field bioremediation experiments. The results showed that there were changed dominant microorganisms including 11 bacterial strains which are mostly Gram positive bacteria and 6 fungal species which were identified. The total amount of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi increased after bioremediation of microbial agents combined with planting maize. On the contrary, fungi in rhizospheric soils were inhibited by adding microbial agents combined with planting soybean.

  13. Effect of alternating bioremediation and electrokinetics on the remediation of n-hexadecane-contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Sa Wang; Shuhai Guo; Fengmei Li; Xuelian Yang; Fei Teng; Jianing Wang

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of n-hexadecane in soil, realized by alternating bioremediation and electrokinetic technologies. Using an alternating technology instead of simultaneous application prevented competition between the processes that would lower their efficiency. For the consumption of the soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) necessary for bioremediation by electrokinetics, bioremediation was performed first. Because of the utilization and loss of the DOM a...

  14. Feasibility of electrokinetic oxygen supply for soil bioremediation purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena Ramírez, E; Villaseñor Camacho, J; Rodrigo Rodrigo, M A; Cañizares Cañizares, P

    2014-12-01

    This paper studies the possibility of providing oxygen to a soil by an electrokinetic technique, so that the method could be used in future aerobic polluted soil bioremediation treatments. The oxygen was generated from the anodic reaction of water electrolysis and transported to the soil in a laboratory-scale electrokinetic cell. Two variables were tested: the soil texture and the voltage gradient. The technique was tested in two artificial soils (clay and sand) and later in a real silty soil, and three voltage gradients were used: 0.0 (control), 0.5, and 1.0 V cm(-1). It was observed that these two variables strongly influenced the results. Oxygen transport into the soil was only available in the silty and sandy soils by oxygen diffusion, obtaining high dissolved oxygen concentrations, between 4 and 9 mg L(-1), useful for possible aerobic biodegradation processes, while transport was not possible in fine-grained soils such as clay. Electro-osmotic flow did not contribute to the transport of oxygen, and an increase in voltage gradients produced higher oxygen transfer rates. However, only a minimum fraction of the electrolytically generated oxygen was efficiently used, and the maximum oxygen transport rate observed, approximately 1.4 mgO2 L(-1)d(-1), was rather low, so this technique could be only tested in slow in-situ biostimulation processes for organics removal from polluted soils.

  15. Electro-bioremediation of diesel polluted soils

    OpenAIRE

    Mena Ramírez, Esperanza

    2015-01-01

    Soil pollution is a topic of the major significance all around the World. This environmental problem has increased in the last two centuries, because the Industrial Revolution marked the starting point for the development and intensification of the different industrial activities. Many of them involves the manipulation of multitude substances, hazardous for the environment and, consequently, also for the human health. Among the most widely extended pollutants, heavy metals, fossil fuels and p...

  16. Enhance soil bioremediation with electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrokinetic remediation is an in situ remediation technique that uses low-level direct-current electric potential differences (on the order of volts per centimeter) or an electric current (on the order of milliamps per square centimeter of cross-sectional area between electrodes) applied across a soil mass by electrodes placed in an open- or closed-flow arrangement. In electrokinetic methods, the groundwater in the boreholes or an externally supplied fluid (processing fluid) is used as the conductive medium. Electrokinetic remediation technology for metal extraction is expected to decrease the cost of remediating contaminated soils to the lower end of the $100--$1,000/m3 range. This would be a significant savings in the $350 billion hazardous waste site cleanup and remediation market. The environmental restoration cost for the mixed (radioactive)-waste market is separately estimated to be $65 billion. The potential of the electrokinetic remediation technique in remediating soils contaminated with radioactive mixed waste using depolarization agents and complexing agents is noteworthy. The authors have removed uranyl ions from spiked kaolinite using the technique

  17. Bioremediation of industrially contaminated soil using compost and plant technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, A M; Gbadebo, A M; Oyedepo, J A; Ojekunle, Z O; Alo, O M; Oyeniran, A A; Onalaja, O J; Ogunjimi, D; Taiwo, O T

    2016-03-01

    Compost technology can be utilized for bioremediation of contaminated soil using the active microorganisms present in the matrix of contaminants. This study examined bioremediation of industrially polluted soil using the compost and plant technology. Soil samples were collected at the vicinity of three industrial locations in Ogun State and a goldmine site in Iperindo, Osun State in March, 2014. The compost used was made from cow dung, water hyacinth and sawdust for a period of twelve weeks. The matured compost was mixed with contaminated soil samples in a five-ratio pot experimental design. The compost and contaminated soil samples were analyzed using the standard procedures for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus, exchangeable cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr). Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds were also planted for co-remediation of metals. The growth parameters of Kenaf plants were observed weekly for a period of one month. Results showed that during the one-month remediation experiment, treatments with 'compost-only' removed 49 ± 8% Mn, 32 ± 7% Fe, 29 ± 11% Zn, 27 ± 6% Cu and 11 ± 5% Cr from the contaminated soil. On the other hand, treatments with 'compost+plant' remediated 71 ± 8% Mn, 63 ± 3% Fe, 59 ± 11% Zn, 40 ± 6% Cu and 5 ± 4% Cr. Enrichment factor (EF) of metals in the compost was low while that of Cu (EF=7.3) and Zn (EF=8.6) were high in the contaminated soils. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) revealed low metal uptake by Kenaf plant. The growth parameters of Kenaf plant showed steady increments from week 1 to week 4 of planting.

  18. Evaluation of bio-remediation technologies for PAHs contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural attenuation is a new concept related to polluted soil remediation. Can be understood like an 'in situ' bio-remediation process with low technical intervention. This low intervention may be in order to follow the behaviour of pollutants 'monitored natural attenuation' or include an optimisation process to improve biological remediation. The use of this technology is a fact for light hydrocarbon polluted soil, but few is known about the behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this process. PAHs are more recalcitrant to bio-remediation due to their physic-chemical characteristics, mainly hydrophobicity and electrochemical stability. PAHs are a kind of pollutants widely distributed in the environment, not only in the proximity of the source. This linked to the characteristics of some of them related to toxicity and mutagenicity implies its inclusion as target compounds from an environmental point of view. Their low availability, solubility and the strong tendency to bind to soil particle, especially to the organic phase affect PAHs biological mineralisation. So, if the pollutant is not available to microorganisms it can not be bio-degraded. Bioavailability can be assessed form several but complementary points of view: physico-chemical and biological. First including the term availability and the second to point out the capacity of soil microorganisms to mineralize PAHs. Availability and Bio-degradability must be determined, as well as the presence and activity of specific degraders among the soil organisms, once settled these points is necessary to study the biological requirements to optimise biodegradation kinetics of these compounds. In this work we present a study carried out on a soil, contaminated by PAHs, the study includes three main topics: bioavailability assessment (both term availability and bio-degradability), bio-remediation assessment, once optimised conditions for natural attenuation and finally a simulation of the

  19. Transformation of a petroleum pollutant during soil bioremediation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. JOVANCICEVIC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment of ex situ soil bioremediation was performed at the locality of the Oil Refinery in Pančevo (alluvial formation of the Danube River, Serbia polluted with an oil type pollutant. The experiments of biostimulation, bioventilation and reinoculation of an autochthonous microbial consortium were performed during the six-month period (May–November 2006. The changes in the quantity and composition of the pollutant, or the bioremediation effect, were monitored by analysis of the samples of the polluted soil taken in time spans of two weeks. In this way, from the beginning until the end of the experiment, 12 samples were collected and marked as P1–P12 (Pančevo 1–Pančevo 12. The results obtained showed that more significant changes in the composition of the oil pollutant occurred only during the last phases of the experiment (P8–P12. The activity of microorganisms was reflected in the increase of the quantity of polar oil fractions, mainly fatty acid fractions. In this way, the quantity of total eluate increased, and the quantity of the insoluble residue was reduced to a minimum, whereby the oil pollutant was transformed to a form that could be removed more efficiently and more completely from the soil, as a segment of the environment.

  20. Soil Bioremediation Strategies Based on the Use of Fungal Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Christian; Boukcim, Hassan; Jolivalt, Claude

    The pollution of soil due to chemical compounds is an important problem worldwide. For that reason, the development of bioremediation processes remains an important challenge. In that context, filamentous fungi and their enzymatic systems appear to be potent tools to decrease the levels of contaminants in soils, by contaminant degradation or stabilisation. The structures and modes of action of selected fungal enzymes, namely peroxidases and laccases, have been extensively studied and are now well-known. Nevertheless, some improvement of their catalytic characteristics can be attempted through genetic engineering, in order to develop specific properties. In addition, some research is still needed to overcome several of their limitations for their efficient use in soils.

  1. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Heterogeneous Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin; Paul Fallgren; Terry Brown

    2006-03-02

    Western Research Institute (WRI) in conjunction with the University of Wyoming, Department of Renewable Resources and the U.S. Department of Energy, under Task 35, conducted a laboratory-scale study of hydrocarbon biodegradation rates versus a variety of physical and chemical parameters to develop a base model. By using this model, biodegradation of Petroleum hydrocarbons in heterogeneous soils can be predicted. The base model, as developed in this study, have been tested by both field and laboratory data. Temperature, pH, and nutrients appear to be the key parameters that can be incorporate into the model to predict biodegradation rates. Results to date show the effect of soil texture and source on the role of each parameter in the rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Derived from the existing study, an alternative approach of using CO{sub 2} accumulation data has been attempted by our collaborators at the University of Wyoming. The model has been modified and fine tuned by incorporating these data to provide more information on biodegradation.

  2. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted soil - Improvement of in situ bioremediation by bioaugmentation with endogenous and exogenous strains

    OpenAIRE

    Tarayre, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum pollution has now become a real problem because hydrocarbons are persistent contaminants in soils and water. Contamination problems increase when ages of relevant facilities, such as oil storage tanks and pipelines, increase over time. The evolution of Legislation concerning soil pollution has led to the need of efficient techniques able to restore the polluted ground. Unfortunately, these techniques are expensive. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted soils has been recognized as...

  3. Aggregation of Diesel Contaminated Soil for Bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ying; Shi Xiu-hong; Li Song; Xu Jing-gang

    2014-01-01

    Diesel contaminated soil (DCS) contained a large amount of the hydrocarbons and salt which was dominated by soluble sodium chloride. Aggregation process which made the desired aggregate size distribution could speed up the degradation rate of the hydrocarbons since the aggregated DCS had better physical characteristics than the non-aggregated material. Artificial aggregation increased pores >30 µm by approximately 5% and reduced pores <1 µm by 5%, but did not change the percentage of the pores between 1 and 30 µm. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of non-aggregated DCS was 5×10-6 m• s-l, but it increased to 1×10-5 m• s-l after aggregation. The compression index of the non-aggregated DCS was 0.0186; however, the artificial aggregates with and without lime were 0.031 and 0.028, respectively. DCS could be piled 0.2 m deep without artificial aggregation; however, it could be applied 0.28 m deep when artificial aggregates were formed without limiting O2 transport.

  4. Test plan for the soils facility demonstration: A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this test plan are to show the value added by using bioremediation as an effective and environmentally sound method to remediate petroleum contaminated soils (PCS) by: demonstrating bioremediation as a permanent method for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum products; establishing the best operating conditions for maximizing bioremediation and minimizing volatilization for SRS PCS during different seasons; determining the minimum set of analyses and sampling frequency to allow efficient and cost-effective operation; determining best use of existing site equipment and personnel to optimize facility operations and conserve SRS resources; and as an ancillary objective, demonstrating and optimizing new and innovative analytical techniques that will lower cost, decrease time, and decrease secondary waste streams for required PCS assays

  5. Test plan for the soils facility demonstration: A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, K.H.

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this test plan are to show the value added by using bioremediation as an effective and environmentally sound method to remediate petroleum contaminated soils (PCS) by: demonstrating bioremediation as a permanent method for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum products; establishing the best operating conditions for maximizing bioremediation and minimizing volatilization for SRS PCS during different seasons; determining the minimum set of analyses and sampling frequency to allow efficient and cost-effective operation; determining best use of existing site equipment and personnel to optimize facility operations and conserve SRS resources; and as an ancillary objective, demonstrating and optimizing new and innovative analytical techniques that will lower cost, decrease time, and decrease secondary waste streams for required PCS assays.

  6. In situ recycling of contaminated soil uses bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OxyChem Pipeline Operations, primarily an ethylene and propylene products mover, has determined that substantial savings can be realized by adopting a bioremediation maintenance and recycling approach to hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. By this method, the soil can be recycled in situ, or in containers. To implement the soil-recycling program, OxyChem elected to use a soil remediator and natural absorbent product, Oil Snapper. This field maintenance material, based on an Enhanced Urea Technology, provides a diet to stimulate the growth of hydrocarbon-eating microbes. It works well either with indigenous soil microbes or with commercial microbes. The product is carried in field vehicles, which makes it immediately available when leaks or spills are discovered. Procedure for clean-up is to apply product and mix it into affected soil. Thus the contaminant is contained, preventing further migration; the contaminant is dispersed throughout the product, making it more accessible to the microbes; nutrients are immediately available to the microbes; and the material contributes aeration and moisture-retention properties

  7. The effect of soil type on the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghollahi, Ali; Fazaelipoor, Mohammad Hassan; Schaffie, Mahin

    2016-09-15

    In this research the bioremediation of four different types of contaminated soils was monitored as a function of time and moisture content. The soils were categorized as sandy soil containing 100% sand (type I), clay soil containing more than 95% clay (type II), coarse grained soil containing 68% gravel and 32% sand (type III), and coarse grained with high clay content containing 40% gravel, 20% sand, and 40% clay (type IV). The initially clean soils were contaminated with gasoil to the concentration of 100 g/kg, and left on the floor for the evaporation of light hydrocarbons. A full factorial experimental design with soil type (four levels), and moisture content (10 and 20%) as the factors was employed. The soils were inoculated with petroleum degrading microorganisms. Soil samples were taken on days 90, 180, and 270, and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was extracted using soxhlet apparatus. The moisture content of the soils was kept almost constant during the process by intermittent addition of water. The results showed that the efficiency of bioremediation was affected significantly by the soil type (Pvalue soil with the initial TPH content of 69.62 g/kg, and the lowest for the clay soil (23.5%) with the initial TPH content of 69.70 g/kg. The effect of moisture content on bioremediation was not statistically significant for the investigated levels. The removal percentage in the clay soil was improved to 57% (within a month) in a separate experiment by more frequent mixing of the soil, indicating low availability of oxygen as a reason for low degradation of hydrocarbons in the clay soil.

  8. The effect of soil type on the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghollahi, Ali; Fazaelipoor, Mohammad Hassan; Schaffie, Mahin

    2016-09-15

    In this research the bioremediation of four different types of contaminated soils was monitored as a function of time and moisture content. The soils were categorized as sandy soil containing 100% sand (type I), clay soil containing more than 95% clay (type II), coarse grained soil containing 68% gravel and 32% sand (type III), and coarse grained with high clay content containing 40% gravel, 20% sand, and 40% clay (type IV). The initially clean soils were contaminated with gasoil to the concentration of 100 g/kg, and left on the floor for the evaporation of light hydrocarbons. A full factorial experimental design with soil type (four levels), and moisture content (10 and 20%) as the factors was employed. The soils were inoculated with petroleum degrading microorganisms. Soil samples were taken on days 90, 180, and 270, and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was extracted using soxhlet apparatus. The moisture content of the soils was kept almost constant during the process by intermittent addition of water. The results showed that the efficiency of bioremediation was affected significantly by the soil type (Pvalue soil with the initial TPH content of 69.62 g/kg, and the lowest for the clay soil (23.5%) with the initial TPH content of 69.70 g/kg. The effect of moisture content on bioremediation was not statistically significant for the investigated levels. The removal percentage in the clay soil was improved to 57% (within a month) in a separate experiment by more frequent mixing of the soil, indicating low availability of oxygen as a reason for low degradation of hydrocarbons in the clay soil. PMID:27233045

  9. The Influence of Soil Chemical Factors on In Situ Bioremediation of Soil Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breedveld, Gijs D.

    1997-12-31

    Mineral oil is the major energy source in Western society. Production, transport and distribution of oil and oil products cause serious contamination problems of water, air and soil. The present thesis studies the natural biodegradation processes in the soil environment which can remove contamination by oil products and creosote. The main physical/chemical processes determining the distribution of organic contaminants between the soil solid, aqueous and vapour phase are discussed. Then a short introduction to soil microbiology and environmental factors important for biodegradation is given. There is a discussion of engineered and natural bioremediation methods and the problems related to scaling up laboratory experiments to field scale remediation. Bioremediation will seldom remove the contaminants completely; a residue remains. Factors affecting the level of residual contamination and the consequences for contaminant availability are discussed. Finally, the main findings of the work are summarized and recommendations for further research are given. 111 refs., 41 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Effects on lead bioavailability and plant uptake during the bioremediation of soil PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amezcua-Allieri, M.A. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Rodriguez-Vazquez, R. [CINVESTAV, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of priority pollutants that are present in the soils of many industrially contaminated sites. In Mexico, the petrochemical industry is the main source of soil pollution. Soils polluted with PAHs are often accompanied by high levels of metals. Although bioremediation of soil contaminated with PAHs have received increasing attentions, the influence of microbial activity on metal behaviour is not understood. For that reason, this study investigated lead behaviour during the bioremoval of phenanthrene in soils sampled from Tabasco, Mexico. Lead bioavailable concentrations were evaluated by diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT). Metal uptake to plants was quantified. Lead concentrations were determined before and after organic removal by Penicillium frequentans and soil microflora. Metal uptake by Echinochloa polystachya and Triticum aestivum L was also investigated. DGT concentrations increased significantly after the addition of fungi in the presence of plants before bioremediation and after fungal addition. Although DGT responded immediately to uptake, plant uptake did not begin immediately. The fungal bioremediation reduced organic contaminants significantly while it increased bioavailable metal concentrations and plant uptake. The results highlight the impact of bioremediation of organic contaminants on trace metal behaviour. The bioremediation process makes the toxic lead more available to plants, and therefore more metal may be incorporated into the human food chain if crops grown on bioremediated soil are used for human or animal consumption. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  11. USING PHYTOREMEDIATION AND BIOREMEDIATION FOR PROTECTION SOIL NEAR GRAVEYARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Ignatowicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present research was to assess the usefulness of Basket willow (Salix viminalis to phytoremediation and bioremediation of sorption subsoil contaminated with pesticides. Studies upon purification of sorption material consisting of a soil and composting sewage sludge were conducted under pot experiment conditions. The study design included control pot along with 3 other ones polluted with pesticides. The vegetation season has lasted since spring till late autumn 2015. After acclimatization, the mixture of chloroorganic pesticides was added into 3 experimental pots. After harvest, it was found that pesticide contents in sorption subsoil (from 0.0017 to 0.0087 mg kg DM were much higher than in control soil (from 0.0005 to 0.0027 mg kg DM. Achieved results initially indicate that Basket willow (Salix viminalis can be used for reclamation of soils contaminated with pesticides, particularly for vitality prolongation of sorption barrier around the pesticide burial area. In future, it would allow for applying the sorption screen around pesticide burial area, which reduces pesticide migration into the environment, and grown energetic plants – through phytoremediation – would prolong the sorbent vitality and remove pesticides from above ground parts by means of combustion.

  12. Potential of cold-adapted microorganisms for bioremediation of oil-polluted Alpine soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental contamination by organic pollutants is a widespread problem in all climates. The most widely distributed pollution can be attributed to oil contamination. Bioremediation methods can provide efficient, inexpensive and environmentally safe cleanup tools. The role of cold-adapted microorganisms for the bioremediation of experimentally and chronically oil-contaminated Alpine soils was evaluated in the studies described. The results demonstrated that there is a considerable potential for oil bioremediation in Alpine soils. Oil biodegradation can be significantly enhanced by biostimulation (inorganic nutrient supply), but a complete oil elimination is not possible by employing biological decontamination alone. (Author)

  13. Ecotoxicity monitoring and bioindicator screening of oil-contaminated soil during bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weihang; Zhu, Nengwu; Cui, Jiaying; Wang, Huajin; Dang, Zhi; Wu, Pingxiao; Luo, Yidan; Shi, Chaohong

    2016-02-01

    A series of toxicity bioassays was conducted to monitor the ecotoxicity of soils in the different phases of bioremediation. Artificially oil-contaminated soil was inoculated with a petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium containing Burkholderia cepacia GS3C, Sphingomonas GY2B and Pandoraea pnomenusa GP3B strains adapted to crude oil. Soil ecotoxicity in different phases of bioremediation was examined by monitoring total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of seed germination and plant growth), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and bacterial luminescence. Although the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was reduced by 64.4%, forty days after bioremediation, the phytotoxicity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity test results indicated an initial increase in ecotoxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate metabolites characterized by high toxicity and low bioavailability during bioremediation. The ecotoxicity values are a more valid indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques compared with only using the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Among all of the potential indicators that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of plant height, shoot weight and root fresh weight), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and luminescence of P. phosphoreum were the most sensitive. PMID:26491984

  14. Ecotoxicity monitoring and bioindicator screening of oil-contaminated soil during bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weihang; Zhu, Nengwu; Cui, Jiaying; Wang, Huajin; Dang, Zhi; Wu, Pingxiao; Luo, Yidan; Shi, Chaohong

    2016-02-01

    A series of toxicity bioassays was conducted to monitor the ecotoxicity of soils in the different phases of bioremediation. Artificially oil-contaminated soil was inoculated with a petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortium containing Burkholderia cepacia GS3C, Sphingomonas GY2B and Pandoraea pnomenusa GP3B strains adapted to crude oil. Soil ecotoxicity in different phases of bioremediation was examined by monitoring total petroleum hydrocarbons, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of seed germination and plant growth), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and bacterial luminescence. Although the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration in soil was reduced by 64.4%, forty days after bioremediation, the phytotoxicity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity test results indicated an initial increase in ecotoxicity, suggesting the formation of intermediate metabolites characterized by high toxicity and low bioavailability during bioremediation. The ecotoxicity values are a more valid indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques compared with only using the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations. Among all of the potential indicators that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques, soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity (inhibition of plant height, shoot weight and root fresh weight), malonaldehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity and luminescence of P. phosphoreum were the most sensitive.

  15. [Response of soil microbial community to the bioremediation of soil contaminated with PAHs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Lin, Xian-gui; Liu, Wei-wei; Yin, Rui

    2012-08-01

    The diversity of bacterial community in soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated during the plant-microbe remediation enhanced by biosurfactant rhamnolips (RH), using the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method. The results showed that Shannon-Weaver diversity index was only 3.17 before bioremediation, and increased to 3.24-3.45 after bioremediation, in particular, highest value was found in the treatment of alfalfa (AL) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) and PAHs-degrading bacteria (DB) among all the treatments. The clustering analysis showed that the similarities of soil bacterial community of AL, AL + RH, AL + AM and AL + AM + RH were above 90%. At the same time, the similarity of AL + DB was much closer to those of the four treatments mentioned above. Additionally, when the bacterial communities of AL + DB + RH, AL + DB + AM and AL + DB + AM + RH were grouped together, the similarities of these three treatments were also higher than 80%. By sequence alignment, it was found that the predominant and characteristic bands in DGGE patterns were closely related with PAHs-degrading bacteria, such as Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acidobacteria, Sphingmonas, Rhodopseudomonas, Firmicutes, and Methylocytaceae. Application of rhamnolipids in plant-microbe bioremediation not only improved the bioavailability of PAHs, but also had a simultaneous influence on the diversity of soil bacterial community, resulting in the efficient promotion of PAHs removal from soils.

  16. Insight in the PCB-degrading functional community in long-term contaminated soil under bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petric, Ines; Hrsak, Dubravka; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina [Ruder Boskovic Inst., Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb (Croatia); Fingler, Sanja [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Bru, David; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice [INRA, Univ. der Bourgogne, Soil and Environmental Microbiology, Dijon (France)

    2011-02-15

    A small-scale bioremediation assay was developed in order to get insight into the functioning of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading community during the time course of bioremediation treatment of a contaminated soil. The study was conducted with the aim to better understand the key mechanisms involved in PCB-removal from soils. Materials and methods Two bioremediation strategies were applied in the assay: (a) biostimulation (addition of carvone as inducer of biphenyl pathway, soya lecithin for improving PCB bioavailability, and xylose as supplemental carbon source) and (b) bioaugmentation with selected seed cultures TSZ7 or Rhodococcus sp. Z6 originating from the transformer station soil and showing substantial PCB-degrading activity. Functional PCB-degrading community was investigated by using molecular-based approaches (sequencing, qPCR) targeting bphA and bphC genes, coding key enzymes of the upper biphenyl pathway, in soil DNA extracts. In addition, kinetics of PCBs removal during the bioremediation treatment was determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Results and discussion bphA-based phylogeny revealed that bioremediation affected the structure of the PCB-degrading community in soils, with Rhodococcus-like bacterial populations developing as dominant members. Tracking of this population further indicated that applied bioremediation treatments led to its enrichment within the PCB-degrading community. The abundance of the PCB-degrading community, estimated by quantifying the copy number of bphA and bphC genes, revealed that it represented up to 0.3% of the total bacterial community. All bioremediation treatments were shown to enhance PCB reduction in soils, with approximately 40% of total PCBs being removed during a 1-year period. The faster PCB reduction achieved in bioaugmented soils suggested an important role of the seed cultures in bioremediation processes. Conclusions The PCBs degrading community was modified in response to

  17. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated surface water, groundwater, and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation is currently receiving considerable attention as a remediation option for sites contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. There is an enormous amount of interest in bioremediation, and numerous journals now publish research articles concerning some aspect of the remediation approach. A review of the literature indicates that two basic forms of bioremediation are currently being practiced: the microbiological approach and the microbial ecology approach. Each form has its advocates and detractors, and the microbiological approach is generally advocated by most of the firms that practice bioremediation. In this paper, the merits and disadvantages of these forms are reviewed and a conceptual approach is presented for assessing which form may be most useful for a particular contaminant situation. I conclude that the microbial ecology form of bioremediation may be the most useful for the majority of contaminant situations, and I will present two case histories in support of this hypothesis

  18. ASSESSMENT OF DISTILLERY EFFLUENT IRRIGATION ON SOIL MICROBES AND ITS BIOREMEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi D. M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the assessment of toxicity of distillery effluent on soil microorganisms and its quality improvement through bioremediation using Pseudomonas spp. Under lab scale experiment, different dilutions of distillery effluent i.e. 25%, 50%, 75% were used to examine effects on physico-chemical parameters of effluent and on soil microflora e.g. algae, bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The results revealed that dilution may reduce significantly the metal contents and other toxicants in the effluent as well as in the soil. Statistical analysis revealed that bioremediation of distillery effluent using Pseudomonas spp. caused significant reduction in BOD, COD, TDS, TN, TP and color. The study indicates that raw distillery effluent is harmful for soil microflora and bioremediation improves the quality of distillery effluent making it suitable as a soil amendment.

  19. Ex-situ bioremediation of Brazilian soil contaminated with plasticizers process wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with wastes from a plasticizers industry, located in São Paulo, Brazil. A 100-kg soil sample containing alcohols, adipates and phthalates was treated in an aerobic slurry-phase reactor using indigenous and acclimated microorganisms from the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant of the plasticizers industry (11gVSS kg-1 dry soil, during 120 days. The soil pH and temperature were not corrected during bioremediation; soil humidity was corrected weekly to maintain 40%. The biodegradation of the pollutants followed first-order kinetics; the removal efficiencies were above 61% and, among the analyzed plasticizers, adipate was removed to below the detection limit. Biological molecular analysis during bioremediation revealed a significant change in the dominant populations initially present in the reactor.

  20. Aspergillus flavus: A potential Bioremediator for oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Avasn Maruthi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation is cost-effective, environmentally friendly treatment for oily contaminated sites by the use of microorganisms. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to establish the performance of fungal isolates in degradation of organic compounds contained in soils contaminated with petrol and diesel. As a result of the laboratory screening, two natural fungal strains capable of degrading total organic carbons (TOC were prepared from isolates enriched from the oil contaminated sites. Experiments were conducted in Erlenmeyer flasks under aerobic conditions, with TOC removal percentage varied from 0.7 to 32% depending on strains type and concentration. Strains Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Aspergillus niger exhibited the highest TOC removal percentage of 32 and 21%, respectively, before nutrient addition. TOC removal rate was enhanced after addition of nutrients to incubated flasks. The highest TOC reduction (45% was estimated after addition of combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur to Phanerocheate chrysosporium strains. Results of experimental work carried out elucidate that the fungi like Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Aspergillus niger were capabled of producing enzymes at a faster rate to decompose the substrate hydrocarbon and released more CO2 and hence these potential fungi can be utilized effectively as agents of biodegradation in waste recycling process and Bioremediation of oil contaminated sites.

  1. Metagenomic Analysis of the Bioremediation of Diesel-Contaminated Canadian High Arctic Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Beaumier, Danielle; Greer, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    As human activity in the Arctic increases, so does the risk of hydrocarbon pollution events. On site bioremediation of contaminated soil is the only feasible clean up solution in these remote areas, but degradation rates vary widely between bioremediation treatments. Most previous studies have focused on the feasibility of on site clean-up and very little attention has been given to the microbial and functional communities involved and their ecology. Here, we ask the question: which microorga...

  2. Assessment of microbial community changes and limiting factors during bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soil with new miniaturized physiological methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Due to human activities, organic pollutants are spilled to the environment where they threaten public health, often as contaminants of soil or groundwater. Living organisms are able to transform or mineralize many organic pollutants, and bioremediation techniques have been developed to remove pollutants from a contaminated site. However, fast and easy methods to document both the efficacy of bioremediation and the changes in soil microbial communities during bioremediation are not well develo...

  3. Assessment of microbial community changes and limiting factors during bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soil with new miniaturized physiological methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Karin; Holliger, Hans Christof

    2005-01-01

    Due to human activities, organic pollutants are spilled to the environment where they threaten public health, often as contaminants of soil or groundwater. Living organisms are able to transform or mineralize many organic pollutants, and bioremediation techniques have been developed to remove pollutants from a contaminated site. However, fast and easy methods to document both the efficacy of bioremediation and the changes in soil microbial communities during bioremediation are not well develo...

  4. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils: A recipe for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbach, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation of land crude oil and lube oil spills is an effective and economical option. Other options include road spreading (where permitted), thermal desorption, and off-site disposal. The challenge for environment and operations managers is to select the best approach for each remediation site. Costs and liability for off-site disposal are ever increasing. Kerr-McGee`s extensive field research in eastern and western Texas provides the data to support bioremediation as a legitimate and valid option. Both practical and economical bioremediation as a legitimate and valid option. Both practical and economical, bioremediation also offers a lower risk of, for example, Superfund clean-up exposure than off-site disposal.

  5. Microorganisms in heavy metal bioremediation: strategies for applying microbial-community engineering to remediate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Wood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is essential as heavy metals persist and do not degrade in the environment. Remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils requires metals to be mobilized for extraction whilst, at the same time, employing strategies to avoid mobilized metals leaching into ground-water or aquatic systems. Phytoextraction is a bioremediation strategy that extracts heavy metals from soils by sequestration in plant tissues and is currently the predominant bioremediation strategy investigated for remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils. Although the efficiency of phytoextraction remains a limiting feature of the technology, there are numerous reports that soil microorganisms can improve rates of heavy metal extraction.This review highlights the unique challenges faced when remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils as compared to static aquatic systems and suggests new strategies for using microorganisms to improve phytoextraction. We compare how microorganisms are used in soil bioremediation (i.e. phytoextraction and water bioremediation processes, discussing how the engineering of microbial communities, used in water remediation, could be applied to phytoextraction. We briefly outline possible approaches for the engineering of soil communities to improve phytoextraction either by mobilizing metals in the rhizosphere of the plant or by promoting plant growth to increase the root-surface area available for uptake of heavy metals. We highlight the technological advances that make this research direction possible and how these technologies could be employed in future research.

  6. In-situ bioremediation: Or how to get nutrients to all the contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum contamination is a pervasive environmental problem. Bioremediation is winning favor primarily because the soil may be treated on site and systems can be installed to operate without interfering with facility activities. Although bioremediation has been utilized for many years, its acceptance as a cost-effective approach is only now being realized. KEMRON applied in-situ bioremediation at a retired rail yard which had maintained a diesel locomotive refueling station supplied by two 20,000 gallon above ground storage tanks. Contamination originated from both spillage at the pumps and leaking fuel distribution lines. The contamination spread over a 3 acre area from the surface to a depth of up to 20 feet. Levels of diesel contamination found in the soil ranged from less than a 100 ppm to more than 25,000 ppm. The volume of soil which ultimately required treatment was more than 60,000 cubic yards. Several remedial options were examined including excavation and disposal. Excavation was rejected because it would have been cost prohibitive due to the random distribution of the contaminated soil. In-situ Bioremediation was selected as the only alternative which could successfully treat all the contaminated soils. This paper focuses on how KEMRON solved four major problems which would have prevented a successful remediation project. These problems were: soil compaction, random distribution of contaminated soils, potential free product, and extremely high levels of dissolved iron in the groundwater

  7. Dynamism of PGPR in bioremediation and plant growth promotion in heavy metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P R; Shaikh, S S; Sayyed, R Z

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination, particularly of cultivable lands, is a matter of concern. Bioremediation helps in reversing such contamination to certain extent. Here, we report isolation, polyphasic identification and the role of siderophore producing rhizobacteria Alcaligenes feacalis RZS2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa RZS3 in bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil and plant growth promotion activity in such contaminated soil. Siderophore produced by A. feacalis RZS2 and P. aeruginosa RZS3 strains chelated various heavy metal ions like MnCl₂.4H₂O, NiCl₂.6H₂O, ZnCl₂, CuCl₂ and CoCl₂ other than FeCl₃.6H2O at batch scale. Their bioremediation potential was superior over the chemical ion chelators like EDTA and citric acid. These isolates also promoted growth of wheat and peanut seeds sown in heavy metal contaminated soil. Effective root colonizing ability of these isolates was observed in wheat and peanut plants.

  8. Immobilized Native Bacteria as a Tool for Bioremediation of Soils and Waters: Implementation and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lobo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate (3,4-DHPA dioxygenase amino acid sequence and DNA sequence data for homologous genes, two different oligonucleotides were designed. These were assayed to detect 3,4-DHPA related aromatic compound—degrading bacteria in soil samples by using the FISH method. Also, amplification by PCR using a set of ERIC primers was assayed for the detection of Pseudomonas GCH1 strain, which used in the soil bioremediation process. A model was developed to understand and predict the behavior of bacteria and pollutants in a bioremediation system, taking into account fluid dynamics, molecular/cellular scale processes, and biofilm formation.

  9. Glyphosate biodegradation and potential soil bioremediation by Bacillus subtilis strain Bs-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X M; Yu, T; Yin, G H; Dong, Q L; An, M; Wang, H R; Ai, C X

    2015-11-23

    Glyphosate and glyphosate-containing herbicides have an adverse effect on mammals, humans, and soil microbial ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to develop methods for enhancing glyphosate degradation in soil through bioremediation. We investigated the potential of glyphosate degradation and bioremediation in soil by Bacillus subtilis Bs-15. Bs-15 grew well at high concentrations of glyphosate; the maximum concentration tolerated by Bs-15 reached 40,000 mg/L. The optimal conditions for bacterial growth and glyphosate degradation were less than 10,000 mg/L glyphosate, with a temperature of 35°C and a pH of 8.0. Optimal fermentation occurred at 180 rpm for 60 h with an inoculum ratio of 4%. Bs-15 degraded 17.65% (12 h) to 66.97% (96 h) of glyphosate in sterile soil and 19.01% (12 h) to 71.57% (96 h) in unsterilized soil. Using a BIOLOG ECO plate test, we observed no significant difference in average well color development values between the soil inoculated with Bs-15 and the control soil before 72 h, although there was a significant difference (P glyphosate-containing herbicides, increasing the microbial functional diversity in glyphosate-contaminated soils and thus enhancing the bioremediation of glyphosate-contaminated soils.

  10. Managed bioremediation of soil contaminated with crude oil soil chemistry and microbial ecology three years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, K; Levetin, E; Wells, H; Jennings, E; Hettenbach, S; Bailey, S; Lawlor, K; Sublette, K; Berton Fisher, J

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of samples taken from three experimental soil lysimeters demonstrated marked long-term effects of managed bioremediation on soil chemistry and on bacterial and fungal communities 3 yr after the application of crude oil or crude oil and fertilizer. The lysimeters were originally used to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of managed (application of fertilizer and water, one lysimeter) vs unmanaged bioremediation (one lysimeter) of Michigan Silurian crude oil compared to one uncontaminated control lysimeter. Three years following the original experiment, five 2-ft-long soil cores were extracted from each lysimeter, each divided into three sections, and the like sections mixed together to form composited soil samples. All subsequent chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on these nine composited samples. Substantial variation was found among the lysimeters for certain soil chemical characteristics (% moisture, pH, total Kjeldahl nitrogen [TKN], ammonia nitrogen [NH4-N], phosphate phosphorous [PO4-P], and sulfate [SO4 (-2)]). The managed lysimeter had 10% the level of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH-IR) found in the unmanaged lysimeter. Assessment of the microbial community was performed for heterotropic bacteria, fungi, and aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (toluene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene) by dilution onto solid media. There was little difference in the number of heterotrophic bacteria, in contrast to counts of fungi, which were markedly higher in the contaminated lysimeters. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were elevated in both oil-contaminated lysimeters. In terms of particular hydrocarbons as substrates, phenanthrene degraders were greater in number than naphthalene degraders, which outnumbered toluene degraders. Levels of sulfate-reducing bacteria seem to have been stimulated by hydrocarbon degradation. PMID:18576141

  11. Residues of endosulfan in surface and subsurface agricultural soil and its bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukkathil, Greeshma; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of many hydrophobic pesticides has been reported by various workers in various soil environments and its bioremediation is a major concern due to less bioavailability. In the present study, the pesticide residues in the surface and subsurface soil in an area of intense agricultural activity in Pakkam Village of Thiruvallur District, Tamilnadu, India, and its bioremediation using a novel bacterial consortium was investigated. Surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface soils (15-30 cm and 30-40 cm) were sampled, and pesticides in different layers of the soil were analyzed. Alpha endosulfan and beta endosulfan concentrations ranged from 1.42 to 3.4 mg/g and 1.28-3.1 mg/g in the surface soil, 0.6-1.4 mg/g and 0.3-0.6 mg/g in the subsurface soil (15-30 cm), and 0.9-1.5 mg/g and 0.34-1.3 mg/g in the subsurface soil (30-40 cm) respectively. Residues of other persistent pesticides were also detected in minor concentrations. These soil layers were subjected to bioremediation using a novel bacterial consortium under a simulated soil profile condition in a soil reactor. The complete removal of alpha and beta endosulfan was observed over 25 days. Residues of endosulfate were also detected during bioremediation, which was subsequently degraded on the 30th day. This study revealed the existence of endosulfan in the surface and subsurface soils and also proved that the removal of such a ubiquitous pesticide in the surface and subsurface environment can be achieved in the field by bioaugumenting a biosurfactant-producing bacterial consortium that degrades pesticides. PMID:26413801

  12. Residues of endosulfan in surface and subsurface agricultural soil and its bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukkathil, Greeshma; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of many hydrophobic pesticides has been reported by various workers in various soil environments and its bioremediation is a major concern due to less bioavailability. In the present study, the pesticide residues in the surface and subsurface soil in an area of intense agricultural activity in Pakkam Village of Thiruvallur District, Tamilnadu, India, and its bioremediation using a novel bacterial consortium was investigated. Surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface soils (15-30 cm and 30-40 cm) were sampled, and pesticides in different layers of the soil were analyzed. Alpha endosulfan and beta endosulfan concentrations ranged from 1.42 to 3.4 mg/g and 1.28-3.1 mg/g in the surface soil, 0.6-1.4 mg/g and 0.3-0.6 mg/g in the subsurface soil (15-30 cm), and 0.9-1.5 mg/g and 0.34-1.3 mg/g in the subsurface soil (30-40 cm) respectively. Residues of other persistent pesticides were also detected in minor concentrations. These soil layers were subjected to bioremediation using a novel bacterial consortium under a simulated soil profile condition in a soil reactor. The complete removal of alpha and beta endosulfan was observed over 25 days. Residues of endosulfate were also detected during bioremediation, which was subsequently degraded on the 30th day. This study revealed the existence of endosulfan in the surface and subsurface soils and also proved that the removal of such a ubiquitous pesticide in the surface and subsurface environment can be achieved in the field by bioaugumenting a biosurfactant-producing bacterial consortium that degrades pesticides.

  13. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils, Comprehensive Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, D.J.

    2001-01-12

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice, Poland have been cooperating in the development and implementation of innovative environmental remediation technologies since 1995. U.S. experts worked in tandem with counterparts from the IETU and CZOR throughout this project to characterize, assess and subsequently, design, implement and monitor a bioremediation system.

  14. Monitoring bioremediation of atrazine in soil microcosms using molecular tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular tools in microbial community analysis give access to information on catabolic potential and diversity of microbes. Applied in bioremediation, they could provide a new dimension to improve pollution control. This concept has been demonstrated in the study using atrazine as model pollutant. Bioremediation of the herbicide, atrazine, was analyzed in microcosm studies by bioaugmentation, biostimulation and natural attenuation. Genes from the atrazine degrading pathway atzA/B/C/D/E/F, trzN, and trzD were monitored during the course of treatment and results demonstrated variation in atzC, trzD and trzN genes with time. Change in copy number of trzN gene under different treatment processes was demonstrated by real-time PCR. The amplified trzN gene was cloned and sequence data showed homology to genes reported in Arthrobacter and Nocardioides. Results demonstrate that specific target genes can be monitored, quantified and correlated to degradation analysis which would help in predicting the outcome of any bioremediation strategy. - Highlights: ► Degradation of herbicide, atrazine. ► Comparison of bioremediation via bioaugmentation, biostimulation and natural attenuation. ► Gene profile analysis in all treatments. ► Variation in trzN gene numbers correlated to degradation efficiency. ► Cloning and sequence analysis of trzN gene demonstrates very high homology to reported gene. - This study demonstrates the use of molecular tools in bioremediation to monitor and track target genes; correlates the results with degradation and thereby predicts the efficiency of treatment.

  15. Investigation of the bioremediation potential of aerobic zymogenous microorganisms in soil for crude oil biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATJANA ŠOLEVIĆ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioremediation potential of the aerobic zymogenous microorganisms in soil (Danube alluvium, Pančevo, Serbia for crude oil biodegradation was investigated. A mixture of paraffinic types of oils was used as the substrate. The laboratory experiment of the simulated oil biodegradation lasted 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days. In parallel, an experiment with a control sample was conducted. Extracts were isolated from the samples with chloroform in a separation funnel. From these extracts, the hydrocarbons were isolated by column chromatography and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. n-Alkanes, isoprenoids, phenanthrene and its derivatives with one and two methyl groups were quantitatively analyzed. The ability and efficiency of zymogenous microorganisms in soil for crude oil bioremediation was assessed by comparison between the composition of samples which were exposed to the microorganisms and the control sample. The investigated microorganisms showed the highest bioremediation potential in the biodegradation of n-alkanes and isoprenoids. A considerably high bioremediation potential was confirmed in the biodegradation of phenanthrene and methyl phenanthrenes. Low bioremediation potential of these microorganisms was proven in the case of polycyclic alkanes of the sterane and triterpane types and dimethyl phenanthrenes.

  16. Characterization of bacterial consortia for its use in bioremediation of gas-oil contaminated antarctic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruberto, L.; Vazquez, S.; Mestre, C.; Nogales, B.; Christie-Oleza, J.; Bosch, R.; Mac Cormack, W. P.

    2009-07-01

    Success of bio augmentation of chronically-contaminated soils is controversial, mainly because the inocula are frequently unable to establish in the matrix under bioremediation. In Antarctica, the environmental conditions and the restriction for the introduction of non-autochthonous organisms (imposed by the Antarctic Treaty) prevent inoculation with foreign bacteria. (Author)

  17. Characterization of bacterial consortia for its use in bioremediation of gas-oil contaminated antarctic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success of bio augmentation of chronically-contaminated soils is controversial, mainly because the inocula are frequently unable to establish in the matrix under bioremediation. In Antarctica, the environmental conditions and the restriction for the introduction of non-autochthonous organisms (imposed by the Antarctic Treaty) prevent inoculation with foreign bacteria. (Author)

  18. Feasibility of on-site bioremediation of loam soil contaminated by diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H; Narkis, N

    2001-09-01

    This study originated from an accidental event of diesel oil contamination in a loam soil area of 7,000 m2. Approximately a volume of 1,300 m3 of diesel oil was released into the environment. Reclamation of the contaminated soil by on-site bioremediation was selected as the most appropriate treatment method. A major concern was associated with the nature of the local loam soil. Loam has a very low hydraulic conductivity and very quickly becomes impermeable after its contact with water. The bioremediation approach incorporated excavation of the contaminated soil, mixing it with an agent, which increased its permeability. Following this preliminary treatment came the construction of bioreactors as a suitable environment of nutrients, moisture, dissolved oxygen, and enriched culture of microorganisms, which enabled breakdown of the diesel oil. This case study indicated that the target of 99% of diesel oil clean up could be achieved by using the technology of on-site bioremediation. The selected treatment method was found to be technologically and economically feasible. However, some improvement in the application of the basic treatment approach might increase the bioremediation efficiency. PMID:11597113

  19. Semifield testing of a bioremediation tool for atrazine-contaminated soils: evaluating the efficacy on soil and aquatic compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelinho, Sónia; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Silva, Cátia; Costa, Catarina; Viana, Paula; Viegas, Cristina A; Fialho, Arsénio M; Ribeiro, Rui; Sousa, José Paulo

    2012-07-01

    The present study evaluated the bioremediation efficacy of a cleanup tool for atrazine-contaminated soils (Pseudomonas sp. ADP plus citrate [P. ADP + CIT]) at a semifield scale, combining chemical and ecotoxicological information. Three experiments representing worst-case scenarios of atrazine contamination for soil, surface water (due to runoff), and groundwater (due to leaching) were performed in laboratory simulators (100 × 40 × 20 cm). For each experiment, three treatments were set up: bioremediated, nonbioremediated, and a control. In the first, the soil was sprayed with 10 times the recommended dose (RD) for corn of Atrazerba and with P. ADP + CIT at day 0 and a similar amount of P. ADP at day 2. The nonbioremediated treatment consisted of soil spraying with 10 times the RD of Atrazerba (day 0). After 7 d of treatment, samples of soil (and eluates), runoff, and leachate were collected for ecotoxicological tests with plants (Avena sativa and Brassica napus) and microalgae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) species. In the nonbioremediated soils, atrazine was very toxic to both plants, with more pronounced effects on plant growth than on seed emergence. The bioremediation tool annulled atrazine toxicity to A. sativa (86 and 100% efficacy, respectively, for seed emergence and plant growth). For B. napus, results point to incomplete bioremediation. For the microalgae, eluate and runoff samples from the nonbioremediated soils were extremely toxic; a slight toxicity was registered for leachates. After only 7 d, the ecotoxicological risk for the aquatic compartments seemed to be diminished with the application of P. ADP + CIT. In aqueous samples obtained from the bioremediated soils, the microalgal growth was similar to the control for runoff samples and slightly lower than control (by 11%) for eluates.

  20. A review on slurry bioreactors for bioremediation of soils and sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poggi-Varaldo Héctor M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to present a critical review on slurry bioreactors (SB and their application to bioremediation of soils and sediments polluted with recalcitrant and toxic compounds. The scope of the review encompasses the following subjects: (i process fundamentals of SB and analysis of advantages and disadvantages; (ii the most recent applications of SB to laboratory scale and commercial scale soil bioremediation, with a focus on pesticides, explosives, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated organic pollutants; (iii trends on the use of surfactants to improve availability of contaminants and supplementation with degradable carbon sources to enhance cometabolism of pollutants; (iv recent findings on the utilization of electron acceptors other than oxygen; (v bioaugmentation and advances made on characterization of microbial communities of SB; (vi developments on ecotoxicity assays aimed at evaluating bioremediation efficiency of the process. From this review it can be concluded that SB is an effective ad situ and ex situ technology that can be used for bioremediation of problematic sites, such as those characterized by soils with high contents of clay and organic matter, by pollutants that are recalcitrant, toxic, and display hysteretic behavior, or when bioremediation should be accomplished in short times under the pressure and monitoring of environmental agencies and regulators. SB technology allows for the convenient manipulation and control of several environmental parameters that could lead to enhanced and faster treatment of polluted soils: nutrient N, P and organic carbon source (biostimulation, inocula (bioaugmentation, increased availability of pollutants by use of surfactants or inducing biosurfactant production inside the SB, etc. An interesting emerging area is the use of SB with simultaneous electron acceptors, which has demonstrated its usefulness for the bioremediation of soils polluted with

  1. Bioremediation of Quinoline-contaminated Soil Using Bioaugmentation in Slurry-phase Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; ZE-YU MAO; LI-PING HAN; YI QIAN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possibility of using bioaugmentation as a strategy for remediating quinoline-contaminated soil. Methods Microorganisms were introduced to the soil to assess the feasibility of enhancing the removal of quinoline from quinoline-contaminated soil. Slurry-phase reactor was used to investigate the bioremediation of quinoline-contaminated soil. HPLC (Hewlett-Packard model 5050 with an UV detector) was used for analysis of quinoline concentration. Results The biodegradation rate of quinoline was increased through the introduction of Burkholderia pickettii. Quinoline, at a concentration of 1 mg/g soil, could be removed completely within 6 and 8 hours with and without combined effect of indigenous microbes, respectively. Although the indigenous microbes alone had no quinoline-degrading ability, they cooperated with the introduced quinoline-degrader to remove quinoline more quickly than the introduced microbes alone. Bioaugmentaion process was accelerated by the increase of inoculum size and bio-stimulation. The ratio of water to soil in slurry had no significant impact on bioremediation results. Conclusion Bioaugmetation is an effective way for bioremediation of quinoline-contaminated soil.

  2. Methodology for bioremediation monitoring of oil wastes contaminated soils by using vegetal bio indicators; Metodologia para monitoramento de biorremediacao de solos contaminados com residuos oleosos com bioindicadores vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento Neto, Durval; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo]. E-mail: fjcampos@cce.ufpr.br

    1998-07-01

    This work studies the development of a methodology for the evaluation of the bioremediation status of oil waste contaminated soils, by using vegetal bioindicators for the bioremediation process monitoring, and evaluation of the environmental impacts on the contaminated areas.

  3. Evaluation of Four Bio fertilizers for Bioremediation of Pesticide contaminated Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to asses the ability of mixed populations of microorganisms which produced as a bio fertilizers by the General Organization of Agriculture Fund, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt (phosphoren, microbien, cerealin and azospirillum) to degrade five selected pesticides representing different classes including organophosphate, carbamate and chlorinated organic compounds. There were differences in rates of biotransformation, suggesting the selective induction of certain metabolic enzymes. Inoculation of soil incorporated with malathion, fenamiphos, carbaryl, aldicarb and dieldrin, resulted in ca. 80-90% removal of malathion and fenamiphos within 8 days, carbaryl and aldicarb within 11-15 days respectively. Dieldrin removal occurred slowly within 2 months. These data suggest that bioremediate may act as potential candidates for soil inoculation to bioremediate pesticide contaminated soil. The production of Co2 (soil respiration ) was stimulated by some pesticides. In samples with microbien, an about 2 times higher Co2 production was measured

  4. ASSESSMENT OF DISTILLERY EFFLUENT IRRIGATION ON SOIL MICROBES AND ITS BIOREMEDIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi D. M; Tripathi S

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of toxicity of distillery effluent on soil microorganisms and its quality improvement through bioremediation using Pseudomonas spp. Under lab scale experiment, different dilutions of distillery effluent i.e. 25%, 50%, 75% were used to examine effects on physico-chemical parameters of effluent and on soil microflora e.g. algae, bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes. The results revealed that dilution may reduce significantly the metal contents and other...

  5. Sequential Application of Soil Vapor Extraction and Bioremediation Processes for the Remediation of Ethylbenzene-Contaminated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, António Carlos Alves; Pinho, Maria Teresa; Albergaria, José Tomás;

    2012-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an efficient, well-known and widely applied soil remediation technology. However, under certain conditions it cannot achieve the defined cleanup goals, requiring further treatment, for example, through bioremediation (BR). The sequential application of these technol......Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an efficient, well-known and widely applied soil remediation technology. However, under certain conditions it cannot achieve the defined cleanup goals, requiring further treatment, for example, through bioremediation (BR). The sequential application......: (1) SVE was sufficient to reach the cleanup goals in 63% of the experiments (all the soils with NOMC below 4%), (2) higher NOMCs led to longer SVE remediation times, (3) BR showed to be a possible and cost-effective option when EB concentrations were lower than 335 mg kgsoil −1, and (4...

  6. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: are treatability and ecotoxicity endpoints related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine if there is a relationship between biotreatability and ecotoxicity endpoints in a wide range of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, including medium and heavy crude oil-contaminated flare pit wastes and lubrication oil contaminated soil, research was conducted. Each test material was analyzed for pH, water repellency, electrical conductivity, available N and P, total extractable hydrocarbons, oil and grease, and toxicity to seedling emergence, root elongation in barley, lettuce and canola, earthworm survival and luminescent bacteria (Microtox), prior to, and following three months of bioremediation in the laboratory. By monitoring soil respiration, progress of the bioremediation process and determination of a treatment endpoint were assessed. The time required to attain a treatment endpoint under laboratory conditions can range from 30 days to 100 days depending on the concentration of hydrocarbons and degree of weathering. Most flare pits are biotreatable, averaging a loss of 25-30% of hydrocarbons during bioremediation. Once a treatment endpoint is achieved, residual hydrocarbons contents almost always exceeds Alberta Tier I criteria for mineral oil and grease. As a result of bioremediation treatments, hydrophobicity is often reduced from severe to low. Many flare pit materials are still moderately to extremely toxic after reaching a treatment endpoint. (Abstract only)

  7. Effect of alternating bioremediation and electrokinetics on the remediation of n-hexadecane-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sa; Guo, Shuhai; Li, Fengmei; Yang, Xuelian; Teng, Fei; Wang, Jianing

    2016-04-01

    This study demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of n-hexadecane in soil, realized by alternating bioremediation and electrokinetic technologies. Using an alternating technology instead of simultaneous application prevented competition between the processes that would lower their efficiency. For the consumption of the soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) necessary for bioremediation by electrokinetics, bioremediation was performed first. Because of the utilization and loss of the DOM and water-soluble ions by the microbial and electrokinetic processes, respectively, both of them were supplemented to provide a basic carbon resource, maintain a high electrical conductivity and produce a uniform distribution of ions. The moisture and bacteria were also supplemented. The optimal DOM supplement (20.5 mg·kg-1 glucose; 80-90% of the total natural DOM content in the soil) was calculated to avoid competitive effects (between the DOM and n-hexadecane) and to prevent nutritional deficiency. The replenishment of the water-soluble ions maintained their content equal to their initial concentrations. The degradation rate of n-hexadecane was only 167.0 mg·kg-1·d-1 (1.9%, w/w) for the first 9 days in the treatments with bioremediation or electrokinetics alone, but this rate was realized throughout the whole process when the two technologies were alternated, with a degradation of 78.5% ± 2.0% for the n-hexadecane after 45 days of treatment.

  8. Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beškoski Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of soil and water with petroleum and its products occurs due to accidental spills during exploitation, transport, processing, storing and use. In order to control the environmental risks caused by petroleum products a variety of techniques based on physical, chemical and biological methods have been used. Biological methods are considered to have a comparative advantage as cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies. Bioremediation, defined as the use of biological systems to destroy and reduce the concentrations of hazardous waste from contaminated sites, is an evolving technology for the removal and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons as well as industrial solvents, phenols and pesticides. Microorganisms are the main bioremediation agents due to their diverse metabolic capacities. In order to enhance the rate of pollutant degradation the technology optimizes the conditions for the growth of microorganisms present in soil by aeration, nutrient addition and, if necessary, by adding separately prepared microorganisms cultures. The other factors that influence the efficiency of process are temperature, humidity, presence of surfactants, soil pH, mineral composition, content of organic substance of soil as well as type and concentration of contaminant. This paper presents a review of our ex situ bioremediation procedures successfully implemented on the industrial level. This technology was used for treatment of soils contaminated by crude oil and its derivatives originated from refinery as well as soils polluted with oil fuel and transformer oil.

  9. Bioremediation of polluted soil through the combined application of plants, earthworms and organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Ceccanti, Brunello; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2012-10-26

    Two plant species (Paulownia tomentosa and Cytisus scoparius), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), and organic matter (horse manure) were used as an ecological approach to bioremediate a soil historically contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was carried out for six months at a mesoscale level using pots containing 90 kg of polluted soil. Three different treatments were performed for each plant: (i) untreated planted soil as a control (C); (ii) planted soil + horse manure (20:1 w/w) (M); (iii) planted soil + horse manure + 15 earthworms (ME). Both the plant species were able to grow in the polluted soil and to improve the soil's bio-chemical conditions, especially when organic matter and earthworms were applied. By comparing the two plant species, few significant differences were observed in the soil characteristics; Cytisus scoparius improved soil nutrient content more than Paulownia tomentosa, which instead stimulated more soil microbial metabolism. Regarding the pollutants, Paulownia tomentosa was more efficient in reducing the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) content, while earthworms were particularly able to stimulate the processes involved in the decontamination of organic pollutants (hydrocarbons). This ecological approach, validated at a mesoscale level, has recently been transferred to a real scale situation to carry out the bioremediation of polluted soil in San Giuliano Terme Municipality (Pisa, Italy).

  10. Bioremediation of polluted soil through the combined application of plants, earthworms and organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macci, Cristina; Doni, Serena; Peruzzi, Eleonora; Ceccanti, Brunello; Masciandaro, Grazia

    2012-10-26

    Two plant species (Paulownia tomentosa and Cytisus scoparius), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), and organic matter (horse manure) were used as an ecological approach to bioremediate a soil historically contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The experiment was carried out for six months at a mesoscale level using pots containing 90 kg of polluted soil. Three different treatments were performed for each plant: (i) untreated planted soil as a control (C); (ii) planted soil + horse manure (20:1 w/w) (M); (iii) planted soil + horse manure + 15 earthworms (ME). Both the plant species were able to grow in the polluted soil and to improve the soil's bio-chemical conditions, especially when organic matter and earthworms were applied. By comparing the two plant species, few significant differences were observed in the soil characteristics; Cytisus scoparius improved soil nutrient content more than Paulownia tomentosa, which instead stimulated more soil microbial metabolism. Regarding the pollutants, Paulownia tomentosa was more efficient in reducing the heavy metal (Pb, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni) content, while earthworms were particularly able to stimulate the processes involved in the decontamination of organic pollutants (hydrocarbons). This ecological approach, validated at a mesoscale level, has recently been transferred to a real scale situation to carry out the bioremediation of polluted soil in San Giuliano Terme Municipality (Pisa, Italy). PMID:22911348

  11. [Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by cold-adapted microorganisms: research advance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-jie; Wang, Xiang; Lu, Gui-lan; Wang, Qun-hui; Li, Fa-sheng; Guo, Guan-lin

    2011-04-01

    Cold-adapted microorganisms such as psychrotrophs and psychrophiles widely exist in the soils of sub-Arctic, Arctic, Antarctic, alpine, and high mountains, being the important microbial resources for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperature. Using the unique advantage of cold-adapted microorganisms to the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in low temperature region has become a research hotspot. This paper summarized the category and cold-adaptation mechanisms of the microorganisms able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbon at low temperature, biodegradation characteristics and mechanisms of different petroleum fractions under the action of cold-adapted microorganisms, bio-stimulation techniques for improving biodegradation efficiency, e. g., inoculating petroleum-degrading microorganisms and adding nutrients or bio-surfactants, and the present status of applying molecular biotechnology in this research field, aimed to provide references to the development of bioremediation techniques for petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

  12. Implications of nitrogen fertilization for in-situ bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ bioremediation is a promising and rapidly evolving technology for the cleanup of contaminated soils. Although the principles of biodegradation are not new, they are being applied to field remediations in novel ways. Likewise, the metabolic requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus during biodegradation are well-established. However, their effect on the quality of biodegradation still needs delineation. In addition to the physiological effects of mineral nutrients, their mobility and bioavailability in soil becomes critical during an in-situ bioremediation. Studies in the authors laboratory have investigated the effect of different types of fertilizers on hydrocarbon biodegradation in a variety of contaminated soils. Results indicate that the amount and/or species of fertilizer may affect not only the rate of biodegradation, but also the quality of biodegradation, i.e. mineralization of CO2

  13. Comparative Bioremediation of Crude Oil-Amended Tropical Soil Microcosms by Natural Attenuation, Bioaugmentation, or Bioenrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Marques Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is an efficient strategy for cleaning up sites contaminated with organic pollutants. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of monitored natural attenuation, bioenrichment, and bioaugmentation using a consortium of three actinomycetes strains in remediating two distinct typical Brazilian soils from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes that were contaminated with crude oil, with or without the addition of NaCl. Microcosms were used to simulate bioremediation treatments over a 120-day period. During this period, we monitored total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs and n-alkanes degradation and changes in bacterial communities. Over time, we found the degradation rate of n-alkanes was higher than TPH in both soils, independent of the treatment used. In fact, our data show that the total bacterial community in the soils was mainly affected by the experimental period of time, while the type of bioremediation treatment used was the main factor influencing the actinomycetes populations in both soils. Based on these data, we conclude that monitored natural attenuation is the best strategy for remediation of the two tropical soils studied, with or without salt addition.

  14. Metagenomic analysis of the bioremediation of diesel-contaminated Canadian high arctic soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Yergeau

    Full Text Available As human activity in the Arctic increases, so does the risk of hydrocarbon pollution events. On site bioremediation of contaminated soil is the only feasible clean up solution in these remote areas, but degradation rates vary widely between bioremediation treatments. Most previous studies have focused on the feasibility of on site clean-up and very little attention has been given to the microbial and functional communities involved and their ecology. Here, we ask the question: which microorganisms and functional genes are abundant and active during hydrocarbon degradation at cold temperature? To answer this question, we sequenced the soil metagenome of an ongoing bioremediation project in Alert, Canada through a time course. We also used reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR to quantify the expression of several hydrocarbon-degrading genes. Pseudomonas species appeared as the most abundant organisms in Alert soils right after contamination with diesel and excavation (t = 0 and one month after the start of the bioremediation treatment (t = 1m, when degradation rates were at their highest, but decreased after one year (t = 1y, when residual soil hydrocarbons were almost depleted. This trend was also reflected in hydrocarbon degrading genes, which were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria at t = 0 and t = 1m and with Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria at t = 1y. RT-qPCR assays confirmed that Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus species actively expressed hydrocarbon degradation genes in Arctic biopile soils. Taken together, these results indicated that biopile treatment leads to major shifts in soil microbial communities, favoring aerobic bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons.

  15. Evaluating the efficacy of bioremediating a diesel-contaminated soil using ecotoxicological and bacterial community indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudur, Leadin Salah; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Miranda, Ana F; Morrison, Paul D; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Ball, Andrew S

    2015-10-01

    Diesel represents a common environmental contaminant as a result of operation, storage, and transportation accidents. The bioremediation of diesel in a contaminated soil is seen as an environmentally safe approach to treat contaminated land. The effectiveness of the remediation process is usually assessed by the degradation of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration, without considering ecotoxicological effects. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of two bioremediation strategies in terms of reduction in TPH concentration together with ecotoxicity indices and changes in the bacterial diversity assessed using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The biostimulation strategy resulted in a 90 % reduction in the TPH concentration versus 78 % reduction from the natural attenuation strategy over 12 weeks incubation in a laboratory mesocosm-containing diesel-contaminated soil. In contrast, the reduction in the ecotoxicity resulting from the natural attenuation treatment using the Microtox and earthworm toxicity assays was more than double the reduction resulting from the biostimulation treatment (45 and 20 % reduction, respectively). The biostimulated treatment involved the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus in order to stimulate the microorganisms by creating an optimal C:N:P molar ratio. An increased concentration of ammonium and phosphate was detected in the biostimulated soil compared with the naturally attenuated samples before and after the remediation process. Furthermore, through PCR-DGGE, significant changes in the bacterial community were observed as a consequence of adding the nutrients together with the diesel (biostimulation), resulting in the formation of distinctly different bacterial communities in the soil subjected to the two strategies used in this study. These findings indicate the suitability of both bioremediation approaches in treating hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, particularly biostimulation. Although

  16. [Dynamic changes in functional genes for nitrogen bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil cycle during].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin-Bin; Lu, Dian-Nan; Liu, Zheng

    2012-06-01

    Microorganisms in nitrogen cycle serve as an important part of the ecological function of soil. The aim of this research was to monitor the abundance of nitrogen-fixing, denitrifying and nitrifying bacteria during bioaugmentation of petroleum-contaminated soil using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) of nifH, narG and amoA genes which encode the key enzymes in nitrogen fixation, nitrification and ammoniation respectively. Three different kinds of soils, which are petroleum-contaminated soil, normal soil, and remediated soil, were monitored. It was shown that the amounts of functional microorganisms in petroleum-contaminated soil were far less than those in normal soil, while the amounts in remediated soil and normal soil were comparable. Results of this experiment demonstrate that nitrogen circular functional bacteria are inhibited in petroleum-contaminated soil and can be recovered through bioremediation. Furthermore, copies of the three functional genes as well as total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) for soils with six different treatments were monitored. Among all treatments, the one, into which both E. cloacae as an inoculant and wheat straw as an additive were added, obtained the maximum copies of 2.68 x 10(6), 1.71 x 10(6) and 8.54 x 10(4) per gram dry soil for nifH, narG and amoA genes respectively, companying with the highest degradation rate (48% in 40 days) of TPH. The recovery of functional genes and removal of TPH were better in soil inoculated with E cloacae and C echinulata collectively than soil inoculated with E cloacae only. All above results suggest that the nitrogen circular functional genes could be applied to monitor and assess the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil.

  17. Importance of organic amendment characteristics on bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, B; Huguenot, D; Panico, A; Fabbricino, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the importance of the organic matter characteristics of several organic amendments (i.e., buffalo manure, food and kitchen waste, fruit and vegetables waste, and activated sewage sludge) and their influence in the bioremediation of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-contaminated soil. The removal of low molecular weights (LMW) and high molecular weights (HMW) PAHs was monitored in four bioremediation reactors and used as an indicator of the role of organic amendments in contaminant removal. The total initial concentration of LMW PAHs was 234 mg kg(-1) soil (dry weight), while the amount for HMW PAHs was 422 mg kg(-1) soil (dry weight). Monitoring of operational parameters and chemical analysis was performed during 20 weeks. The concentrations of LMW PAH residues in soil were significantly lower in reactors that displayed a mesophilic phase, i.e., 11 and 15 %, compared to reactors that displayed a thermophilic phase, i.e., 29 and 31 %. Residual HMW PAHs were up to five times higher compared to residual LMW PAHs, depending on the reactor. This demonstrated that the amount of added organic matter and macronutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the biochemical organic compound classes (mostly soluble fraction and proteins), and the operational temperature are important factors affecting the overall efficiency of bioremediation. On that basis, this study shows that characterization of biochemical families could contribute to a better understanding of the effects of organic amendments and clarify their different efficiency during a bioremediation process of PAH-contaminated soil.

  18. Bioremediation a potential approach for soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norzila Othman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs represent a group of priority pollutants which are present at high concentration in soils of many industrially contaminated sites. Standards and criteria for the remediation of soils contaminated with PAHs vary widely between countries. Bioremediation has gained preference as a technology for remediation contaminated sites as it is less expensive and more environmental friendly. Bioremediation utilizes microorganisms to degrade PAHs to less toxic compounds. This technology degrades contaminants through natural biodegradation mechanisms or enhanced biodegradation mechanism and can be performed in-situ or ex-situ under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight potential of using isolated strains from municipal sludge on soil remediation. Several indigenous bacteria from municipal sludge namely genus Micrococus, Sphingomonas, and Corynebacterium demonstrated a high removal rate of PAHs with more than 80% of lower molecular weight of PAHs degraded after one week incubation. Laboratory studies had established that these genus able to degrade PAHs on contaminated soil. The successful application of bacteria to the bioremediation of PAHs contaminated sites requires a deeper understanding of how microbial PAH degradation proceeds. An overview of research focusing on biodegradation of PAHs will be presented.

  19. Design and field-scale implementation of an “on site” bioremediation treatment in PAH-polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An “on site” bioremediation program was designed and implemented in soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially naphthalene. We began by characterizing the soil's physical and chemical properties. A microbiological screening corroborated the presence of microorganisms capable of metabolizing PAHs. We then analyzed the viability of bioremediation by developing laboratory microcosms and pilot scale studies, to optimize the costs and time associated with remediation. The treatment assays were based on different types of biostimulants, such as a slow or fast-release fertilizer, combined with commercial surfactants. Once the feasibility of the biostimulation was confirmed, a real-scale bioremediation program was undertaken in 900 m3 of contaminated soil. The three-step design reduced PAH contamination by 94.4% at the end of treatment (161 days). The decrease in pollutants was concomitant with the selection of autochthonous bacteria capable of degrading PAHs, with Bacillus and Pseudomonas the most abundant genera. -- Highlights: •A three-step bioremediation program was designed for a polluted soil with PAHs. •Biostimulation was based in applying nutrient plus surfactants, watering and aeration. •Microcosm and pilot scale studies allowed the selection of the best treatment. •Bioremediation of 900 m3 of contaminated soil showed a final reduction of 94.4% PAHs. •Autochthonous Bacillus and Pseudomonas were the bacterial genera with highest representation. -- PAH-polluted soil underwent biostimulation at the microcosms and pilot-scale to optimize subsequent field-scale bioremediation

  20. Migration of radionuclides and heavy metals during the bioremediation of a polluted cinnamonic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nikolova, Marina

    2013-04-01

    A fresh sample of cinnamonic soil polluted with radionuclides (U, Ra) and toxic heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) was subjected to bioremediation in large-scale lysimeters by means of moulching. The aim of soil treatment was solubilization of pollutants located in horizon A, the migration of their dissolved complexes through the soil profile, and the pollutants` precipitation in the rich-in-clays below-lying horizons. The solubilization was due to the joint action of natural soil microflora and leach waters containing ammonium and phosphate ions, and in some variants-hydrocarbonate ions. The precipitation of pollutants was due to the enhanced activity of the indigenous microflora in which iron- and sulphate-reducing bacteria were the prevalent groups. After 24 months of treatment, each of the soil profiles in different lysimeters was divided into five sections reflecting the relevant soil layers (horizon A and the sub-horizons B1, B2, B3, and B4). The soil in these sections was subjected to a detailed chemical analysis and the obtained data were compared with the relevant data obtained before the start of soil bioremediation. It was found that considerable portions of the pollutants were removed from the horizon A and were migrated to the sub-horizons B3 and B4, mainly. In these sub-horizons the non-ferrous metals were precipitated mainly as the relevant sulphides, uranium was precipitated as uraninite (UO2), and radium-mainly as adsorbed ions and complexes.

  1. Phylogenetic diversity of dominant bacterial communities during bioremediation of crude oil-polluted soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Thomas Cloete

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of hydrocarbon pollutants is advantageous owing to the cost-effectiveness of the technology and the ubiquity of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms in the soil. Soil microbial diversity is affected by hydrocarbon perturbation thus selective enrichment of hydrocarbon utilizers occurs. Hydrocarbons interact with the soil matrix and soil microorganisms determining the fate of the contaminants relative to their chemical nature and microbial degradative capabilities respectively. Bacterial dynamics in crude oil-polluted soil microcosms undergoing bioremediation were investigated over a 42-day period. Four out of the five microcosms containing 4kg of pristine soil each were contaminated with 4% Arabian light crude oil. Three microcosms were amended with either 25g of NPK fertilizer, calcium ammonium nitrate or poultry droppings respectively while the fourth designated oil-contaminated control was unamended. The fifth microcosm had only pristine soil and was set up to ascertain indigenous bacterial community structure pre-contamination. Biostimulated soils were periodically tilled and watered. Hydrocarbon degradation was measured throughout the experimental period by gas chromatography. Gas chromatographic tracing of residual hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils showed marked attenuation of contaminants starting from the second (day 14 till the sixth (day 42 week after contamination whereas no significant reduction in hydrocarbon peaks was seen in the oil contaminated control soil throughout the 6-week experimental period. Molecular fingerprints of bacterial communities involved in aerobic biodegradation of crude oil hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils and controls were generated with DGGE using PCR-amplification of 16S rRNA gene obtained from extracted total soil community DNA. DGGE fingerprints demonstrated that NPK, calcium ammonium nitrate and poultry droppings selected different bacterial populations during the active phase of oil

  2. BIOREMEDIATION - TECHNOLOGY FOR DECONTAMINATION OF SOILS POLLUTED WITH PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Ramona PECINGINĂ; Daniela CÎRŢÎNĂ

    2013-01-01

    The pollution of soil with petroleum hydrocarbons prevents unfolding processes ofwater infiltration in soil, its circulation and the exchanges of the gaseous substances with theatmosphere. The biodegradation speed of the pollutants by the microorganisms is influenced ofsome factors: nutrients, soil type, humidity, temperature, pH, the type and the metabolism of themicroorganisms. The spill of the crude oil in the soil results in numerical growth of bacteriapopulations, with a concomitant redu...

  3. Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Beškoski Vladimir P.; Gojgić-Cvijović Gordana Đ.; Milić Jelena S.; Ilić Mila V.; Miletić Srđan B.; Jovančićević Branimir S.; Vrvić-Miroslav M.

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of soil and water with petroleum and its products occurs due to accidental spills during exploitation, transport, processing, storing and use. In order to control the environmental risks caused by petroleum products a variety of techniques based on physical, chemical and biological methods have been used. Biological methods are considered to have a comparative advantage as cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies. Bioremediation, defined as the use of b...

  4. [Bioremediation of chlorothalonil-contaminated soil by utilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain CTN-3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Li; Chen, Hong-Hong; Bi, Meng; Li, Shun-Peng

    2012-03-01

    Chlorothalonil is the priority organic pollutant listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. To utilize the function of microbial degradation in the bioremediation of chlorothalonil-contaminated soil is of practical significance. In this study, a chlorothalonil-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain CTN-3 isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil was used to examine the chlorothalonil-degrading capacity of the strain and related affecting factors in a microcosm. In sterilized soil, the effect of CTN-3 on chlorothalonil degradation was better than that in unsterilized soil. Various factors, including soil pH, temperature, initial chlorothalonil concentration, and inoculum size, affected the degradation of chlorothalonil by the strain. With the inoculum size of 10(6) CFU x g(-1) soil, the CTN-3 at 15-30 degrees C and pH 5.8-8.3 could effectively degrade 10-200 mg x kg(-1) of chlorothalonil, suggesting that the strain CTN-3 had great potential in the bioremediation of chlorothalonil-contaminated soil.

  5. [Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing coking plant by Lasiodiplodia theobromae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Cui-ping; Liu, Hai-bin; Sun, Hong-wen

    2012-08-01

    Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing Coking Plant was performed using a novel fungal strain Lasiodiplodia theobromae (L. theobromae). Moreover, enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of Tween 80 and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD). The correlation of the dynamics of enzyme activities during remediation and the degradation of PAHs was analyzed. The results showed that the degradation rate of PAHs increased to 45.3% on the 70th day after addition of L. theobromae, which was 30 percentage points higher than that of the control group. At an optimum concentration of 2 g x kg(-1) for Tween 80 and 1 g x kg(-1) for HPCD, the degradation rate of PAHs was enhanced to 65.8% and 63.9%, respectively, which was 50 percentage points higher than that of the control group. Hydrogen peroxidase and invertase activities in soil in the bioremediation group with only L. theobromae and the surfactant enhanced group were both enhanced twice more than that of the control group. These results showed that L. theobromae may produce hydrogen peroxidase and invertase or have synergic effect with indigenous microorganisms. Correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients of PAHs degradation rate and maximum enzyme activities of hydrogen peroxidase and invertase were 0.781 and 0.837, respectively. Therefore, the correlation between invertase activities and degradation rate was higher.

  6. [Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing coking plant by Lasiodiplodia theobromae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Cui-ping; Liu, Hai-bin; Sun, Hong-wen

    2012-08-01

    Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing Coking Plant was performed using a novel fungal strain Lasiodiplodia theobromae (L. theobromae). Moreover, enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of Tween 80 and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD). The correlation of the dynamics of enzyme activities during remediation and the degradation of PAHs was analyzed. The results showed that the degradation rate of PAHs increased to 45.3% on the 70th day after addition of L. theobromae, which was 30 percentage points higher than that of the control group. At an optimum concentration of 2 g x kg(-1) for Tween 80 and 1 g x kg(-1) for HPCD, the degradation rate of PAHs was enhanced to 65.8% and 63.9%, respectively, which was 50 percentage points higher than that of the control group. Hydrogen peroxidase and invertase activities in soil in the bioremediation group with only L. theobromae and the surfactant enhanced group were both enhanced twice more than that of the control group. These results showed that L. theobromae may produce hydrogen peroxidase and invertase or have synergic effect with indigenous microorganisms. Correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients of PAHs degradation rate and maximum enzyme activities of hydrogen peroxidase and invertase were 0.781 and 0.837, respectively. Therefore, the correlation between invertase activities and degradation rate was higher. PMID:23213912

  7. Soil pollution in the railway junction Niš (Serbia) and possibility of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Larisa; Aleksic, Gorica; Radosavljevic, Milan; Onjia, Antonije

    2015-04-01

    Mineral oil leaking from vehicles or released during accidents is an important source of soil and ground water pollution. In the railway junction Niš (Serbia) total 90 soil samples polluted with mineral oil derivatives were investigated. Field work at the railway Niš sites included the opening of soil profiles and soil sampling. The aim of this work is the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons concentration in the soil samples and the investigation of the bioremediation technique for treatment heavily contaminated soil. For determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil samples method of gas-chromatography was carried out. On the basis of measured concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil it can be concluded that: Obtained concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in 60% of soil samples exceed the permissible values (5000 mg/kg). The heavily contaminated soils, according the Regulation on the program of systematic monitoring of soil quality indicators for assessing the risk of soil degradation and methodology for development of remediation programs, Annex 3 (Official Gazette of RS, No.88 / 2010), must be treated using some of remediation technologies. Between many types of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with mineral oils and their derivatives, the most suitable are phytovolatalisation and phytostimulation. During phytovolatalisation plants (poplar, willow, aspen, sorgum, and rye) absorb organic pollutants through the root, and then transported them to the leaves where the reduced pollutants are released into the atmosphere. In the case of phytostimulation plants (mulberry, apple, rye, Bermuda) secrete from the roots enzymes that stimulates the growth of bacteria in the soil. The increase in microbial activity in soil promotes the degradation of pollutants. Bioremediation is performed by composting the contaminated soil with addition of composting materials (straw, manure, sawdust, and shavings), moisture components, oligotrophs and

  8. [Application prospect about bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated soil with immobilized microorganism technique: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin-Xing; Su, Xiao-Mei; Han, Hui-Bo; Shen, Chao-Feng; Shi, Ji-Yan

    2014-06-01

    As one type of the persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are tremendously harmful to organisms. These compounds are easily absorbed onto soil particles and able to accumulate in soil after they are released into the environment. Bioremediation technology of PCBs-contaminated soils has become a research hotspot in recent years, and immobilized microorganism technique has high developing and applying value because of its unique advantages in environmental remediation. This paper reviewed the chief remediation technology of PCBs-contaminated soils and then analyzed the characteristics of immobilized microorganism technique and its research progress in remediation of organic polluted soil. Finally, the feasibility and problems of this technique in remediation of PCBs-contaminated soil were also discussed.

  9. BIOREMEDIATION - TECHNOLOGY FOR DECONTAMINATION OF SOILS POLLUTED WITH PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of soil with petroleum hydrocarbons prevents unfolding processes ofwater infiltration in soil, its circulation and the exchanges of the gaseous substances with theatmosphere. The biodegradation speed of the pollutants by the microorganisms is influenced ofsome factors: nutrients, soil type, humidity, temperature, pH, the type and the metabolism of themicroorganisms. The spill of the crude oil in the soil results in numerical growth of bacteriapopulations, with a concomitant reduction in their diversity, respectively with the predominantspecies that degrade hydrocarbons to simpler compounds, determining their gradualdisappearance.

  10. Solid-phase bioremediation of diesel fuel-contaminated soil utilizing indigenous microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the spring of 1993, R.E. Wright Environmental, Inc. (REWEI) was retained by BP Oil Company (BP) to evaluate the use of bioremediation technology to remediate approximately 3,000 cubic yards (yd3) of soil impacted with diesel fuel. The impacted soil resulted from the release of several hundred gallons of diesel fuel from a ruptured valve on an aboveground pipeline within a terminal. The overland flow of the diesel fuel resulted in a significant area of soil being impacted by the fuel. Immediate response activities limited vertical migration of the fuel through the excavation and stockpiling of the surface-impacted soil. The nature of the contaminant -- an unweathered, refined petroleum product comprised primarily of alkanes of a medium chain length -- and the biodegradable nature of the diesel fuel made bioremediation a cost-effective and technically feasible remedial option. The objective of the project was to reduce the concentrations of the petroleum hydrocarbons to below the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) soil cleanup levels in order to reuse the soil on-site as fill. Basic agronomic principles were applied throughout all phases of the project in order to successfully biodegrade the hydrocarbon

  11. Enhancing Bioremediation of Oil-contaminated Soils by Controlling Nutrient Transport using Dual Characteristics of Soil Pore Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Y.; Suetsugu, A.; Matsumoto, Y.; Fujihara, A.; Suyama, K.; Miyamoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Soil structure is heterogeneous with cracks or macropores allowing bypass flow, which may lead to applied chemicals avoiding interaction with soil particles or the contaminated area. We investigated the bioremediation efficiency of oil-contaminated soils by applying suction at the bottom of soil columns during bioremediation. Unsaturated flow conditions were investigated so as to avoid bypass flow and achieve sufficient dispersion of chemicals in the soil column. The boundary conditions at the bottom of the soil columns were 0 kPa and -3 kPa, and were applied to a volcanic ash soil with and without macropores. Unsaturated flow was achieved with -3 kPa and an injection rate of 1/10 of the saturated hydraulic conductivity. The resultant biological activities of the effluent increased dramatically in the unsaturated flow with macropores condition. Unsaturated conditions prevented bypass flow and allowed dispersion of the injected nutrients. Unsaturated flow achieved 60-80% of saturation, which enhanced biological activity in the soil column. Remediation results were better for unsaturated conditions because of higher biological activity. Moreover, unsaturated flow with macropores achieved uniform remediation efficiency from upper through lower positions in the column. Finally, taking the applied solution volume into consideration, unsaturated flow with -3 kPa achieved 10 times higher efficiency when compared with conventional saturated flow application. These results suggest that effective use of nutrients or remediation chemicals is possible by avoiding bypass flow and enhancing biological activity using relatively simple and inexpensive techniques.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOKINETICS DETERMINATION METHODS FOR ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN SOIL TO ENHANCE IN-SITU AND ON-SITE BIOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of biodegradation rates of organics in soil slurry and compacted soil systems is essential for evaluating the efficacy of bioremediation for treatment of contaminated soils. In this paper, a systematic protocol has been developed for evaluating bioknetic and transp...

  13. Bioremediation of the soils contaminated with cadmium and chromium, by the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Aseman

    2016-01-01

    Results: There was a significant correlation between the reduction of chromium and cadmium metals in the soils and the accumulation of chromium and cadmium metals in the worm’s body. A significant decline of chromium levels of the soil was observed in the days 21 and 42 during the study compared to the initial amount of 0.1 mg/g. On the other hand, chromium concentration of the soil decreased from 0.14 to 0.1 mg/g after 42 days. Conclusion: said the research indicated that increased mortality of worms in the soil at a concentration of 0.08 mg/g of chromium, using the worms for bioremediation is not recommended. Although, this method is effective to remove cadmium from the soils having cadmium with concentrations of 0.04 and 0.08 mg/g but it needs further investigation.

  14. Bioremediation of the Soils Contaminated with Cadmium and Chromium, by the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Aseman- Bashiz1

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important environmental problems in the world is the soils contamination by heavy metals in the industrial areas, and especially the contamination of the agricultural lands. The use of earthworms to bioremediate the soils results in reducing the pollutants concentration through a bioaccumulation mechanism on the contaminants in the earthworm's body. Hence, the present study aimed to prove the biological effectiveness of Eisenia fetida earthworms in bioremediation the soils contaminated with chromium and cadmium. Concentration of chromium and cadmium pollution in soil was determined to be 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g respectively. 30 worms were added to 500 g soil samples. Chromium and cadmium concentration in soil and in the body of worms was measured at two time periods of 21 and 42 days. To measure the concentration of chromium and cadmium we used ICP spectrometry. Software in usage was SPSS version 17. There was a significant correlation between the reduction of chromium and cadmium metals in the soils and the accumulation of chromium and cadmium metals in the worm’s body. A significant decline of chromium levels of the soil was observed in the days 21 and 42 during the study compared to initial amount of 0.1 mg/g. on the other hand chromium concentration of the soil decreased from 0.14 mg/g to 0.1 mg/g after 42 days. Comparison of mortality in two different time periods showed that by passing the time and by increase in soil chromium and cadmium concentrations the death toll of worms rises. The increased mortality of worms in the soil at a concentration of 0.08 mg/g of chromium, say that using the worms for bioremediation is not recommended at such concentration of chromium but using the worms for the removal of cadmium at concentrations of 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g in the soil is recommended.

  15. Evaluation of oil removal efficiency and enzymatic activity in some fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Mohsenzadeh; Abdolkarim Chehregani Rad; Mehrangiz Akbari

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Petroleum pollution is a global disaster and there are several soil cleaning methods including bioremediation. Methods In a field study, fugal strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites of Arak refinery (Iran) and their growth ability was checked in potato dextrose agar (PDA) media containing 0-10% v/v crude oil, the activity of three enzymes (Catalase, Peroxidase and Phenol Oxidase) was evaluated in the fungal colonies and bioremediation ability of the fungi was ch...

  16. Evaluation of soil bioremediation techniques in an aged diesel spill at the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Hugo E; Peixoto, Raquel S; Cury, Juliano C; van Elsas, Jan D; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2015-12-01

    Many areas on the Antarctic continent already suffer from the direct and indirect influences of human activities. The main cause of contamination is petroleum hydrocarbons because this compound is used as a source of energy at the many research stations around the continent. Thus, the current study aims to evaluate treatments for bioremediation (biostimulation, bioaugmentation, and bioaugmentation + biostimulation) using soils from around the Brazilian Antarctic Station "Comandante Ferraz" (EACF), King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula. The experiment lasted for 45 days, and at the end of this period, chemical and molecular analyses were performed. Those analyses included the quantification of carbon and nitrogen, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis (with gradient denaturation), real-time PCR, and quantification of total hydrocarbons and polyaromatics. Molecular tests evaluated changes in the profile and quantity of the rrs genes of archaea and bacteria and also the alkB gene. The influence of the treatments tested was directly related to the type of soil used. The work confirmed that despite the extreme conditions found in Antarctic soils, the bacterial strains degraded hydrocarbons and bioremediation treatments directly influenced the microbial communities present in these soils even in short periods. Although the majority of the previous studies demonstrate that the addition of fertilizer seems to be most effective at promoting bioremediation, our results show that for some conditions, autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) treatment is indicated. This work highlights the importance of understanding the processes of recovery of contaminated environments in polar regions because time is crucial to the soil recovery and to choosing the appropriate treatment. PMID:26286513

  17. Evaluation of soil bioremediation techniques in an aged diesel spill at the Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Hugo E; Peixoto, Raquel S; Cury, Juliano C; van Elsas, Jan D; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2015-12-01

    Many areas on the Antarctic continent already suffer from the direct and indirect influences of human activities. The main cause of contamination is petroleum hydrocarbons because this compound is used as a source of energy at the many research stations around the continent. Thus, the current study aims to evaluate treatments for bioremediation (biostimulation, bioaugmentation, and bioaugmentation + biostimulation) using soils from around the Brazilian Antarctic Station "Comandante Ferraz" (EACF), King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula. The experiment lasted for 45 days, and at the end of this period, chemical and molecular analyses were performed. Those analyses included the quantification of carbon and nitrogen, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis (with gradient denaturation), real-time PCR, and quantification of total hydrocarbons and polyaromatics. Molecular tests evaluated changes in the profile and quantity of the rrs genes of archaea and bacteria and also the alkB gene. The influence of the treatments tested was directly related to the type of soil used. The work confirmed that despite the extreme conditions found in Antarctic soils, the bacterial strains degraded hydrocarbons and bioremediation treatments directly influenced the microbial communities present in these soils even in short periods. Although the majority of the previous studies demonstrate that the addition of fertilizer seems to be most effective at promoting bioremediation, our results show that for some conditions, autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) treatment is indicated. This work highlights the importance of understanding the processes of recovery of contaminated environments in polar regions because time is crucial to the soil recovery and to choosing the appropriate treatment.

  18. Enhanced bioremediation of soil from Tianjin, China, contaminated with polybrominated diethyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Cuiping; Li, Jing; Wang, Baolin; Wu, Jianyu; Jiang, Yan; Sun, Hongwen

    2014-12-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrients, H2O2, and tourmaline on the bioremediation of fields where the soil was contaminated with polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs). The results showed that 39.2, 38.3, and 48.1 % of total PBDE removal was observed in microcosms with the addition of nutrients, such as NaNO3, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3, respectively, compared to only 15.2 and 5.8 % of PBDE removal from soil with added Aspergillus niger and control soil, respectively, after 50 days of incubation. In addition, 50.8 and 56.5 % of total PBDE removal were observed in microcosms with 0.5 and 1 μL H2O2. The addition of tourmaline increased total PBDE removal to 32.4 %. Significant increases in soil enzymatic activity with PBDE degraders and bacterial communities were observed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)--denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). These observations suggested that the combination of inorganic nutrients with chemical, mineral, and biological treatment could improve the PBDE removal efficiency. However, the combination of H2O2 and biological treatment processes is the most efficient technology. This combination of technologies would not cause adverse effects on the subsequent bioremediation process. Therefore, this work offers a potential alternative for the remediation of soil contaminated with PBDE pollutants.

  19. The role of soil hydrologic heterogeneity for modeling large-scale bioremediation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, N.; Palladino, M.; Speranza, G.; Di Fiore, P.; Sica, B.; Nasta, P.

    2014-12-01

    The major aim of the EU-Life+ project EcoRemed (Implementation of eco-compatible protocols for agricultural soil remediation in Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano NIPS) is the implementation of operating protocols for agriculture-based bioremediation of contaminated croplands, which also involves plants extracting pollutants being then used as biomasses for renewable energy production. The study area is the National Interest Priority Site (NIPS) called Litorale Domitio-Agro Aversano, which is located in the Campania Region (Southern Italy) and has an extent of about 200,000 ectars. In this area, a high-level spotted soil contamination is mostly due to the legal or outlaw industrial and municipal wastes, with hazardous consequences also on the quality of the groundwater. An accurate determination of the soil hydraulic properties to characterize the landscape heterogeneity of the study area plays a key role within the general framework of this project, especially in view of the use of various modeling tools for water flow and solute transport simulations and to predict the effectiveness of the adopted bioremediation protocols. The present contribution is part of an ongoing study where we are investigating the following research questions: a) Which spatial aggregation schemes seem more suitable for upscaling from point to block support? b) Which effective soil hydrologic characteristic schemes simulate better the average behavior of larger scale phytoremediation processes? c) Allowing also for questions a) and b), how the spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties affect the variability of plant responses to hydro-meteorological forcing?

  20. Bioremediation of Soil Contaminated with Petroleum Using Forced-Aeration Composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory simulation studies and a composting pilot study were conducted to evaluate the capacity of three strains of fungi, indigenous fungus Fusarium sp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus Versicolor, to remediate petroleum-contaminated soils. In laboratory, the fungi were inoculated into a liquid culture medium and the petroleum-contaminated soil samples for incubation of 40 and 50 days, respectively.In the 200-day pilot study, nutrient contents and moisture were adjusted and maintained under aerobic condition in composting units using concrete container (118.5 cm × 65.5 cm × 12.5 cm) designed specially for this study. The laboratory simulation results showed that all the three fungi were effective in degrading petroleum in the liquid culture medium and in the soil. At the end of both the laboratory incubations, the degradation rates by Phanerochaete chrysosporium were the highest, reaching 66% after incubation in liquid culture for 50 days. This was further demonstrated in the composting pilot study where the degradation rate by P. chrysosporium reached 79% within 200 days, higher than those of the other two fungi (53.1% and 46.1%), indicating that P. chrysosporium was the best fungus for bioremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum. Further research is required to increase degradation rate.Key Words: bioremediation, composting, fungi, petroleum, soil

  1. Laboratory-scale bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil of Kuwait with soil amendment materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, B H; Chino, H; Tsuji, H; Kunito, T; Nagaoka, K; Otsuka, S; Yamashita, K; Matsumoto, S; Oyaizu, H

    1997-10-01

    A huge amount of oil-contaminated soil remains unremediated in the Kuwait desert. The contaminated oil has the potentiality to cause pollution of underground water and to effect the health of people in the neighborhood. In this study, laboratory scale bioremediation experiments were carried out. Hyponex (Hyponex, Inc.) and bark manure were added as basic nutrients for microorganisms, and twelve kinds of materials (baked diatomite, microporous glass, coconut charcoal, an oil-decomposing bacterial mixture (Formula X from Oppenheimer, Inc.), and eight kinds of surfactants) were applied to accelerate the biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons. 15% to 33% of the contaminated oil was decomposed during 43 weeks' incubation. Among the materials tested, coconut charcoal enhanced the biodegradation. On the contrary, the addition of an oil-decomposing bacterial mixture impeded the biodegradation. The effects of the other materials were very slight. The toxicity of the biodegraded compounds was estimated by the Ames test and the tea pollen tube growth test. Both of the hydrophobic (dichloromethane extracts) and hydrophilic (methanol extracts) fractions showed a very slight toxicity in the Ames test. In the tea pollen tube growth test, the hydrophobic fraction was not toxic and enhanced the growth of pollen tubes.

  2. SOLID OXYGEN SOURCE FOR BIOREMEDIATION IN SUBSURFACE SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium percarbonate was encapsulated in poly(vinylidene chloride) to determine its potential as a slow-release oxygen source for biodegradation of contaminan ts in subsurface soils. In laboratory studies under aqueous conditions, the encapsulated sodium percarbonate was estimate...

  3. Bioremediation Well Borehole Soil Sampling and Data Analysis Summary Report for the 100-N Area Bioremediation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. A. Gamon

    2009-09-28

    The purpose of this report is to present data and findings acquired during the drilling and construction of seven bioremediation wells in the 100-N Area in conjunction with remediation of the UPR-100-N-17 petroleum waste site.

  4. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil by Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haihua; Luo, Jinxue; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Huang, Zhanbin

    2015-09-01

    Bio-augmentation is a promising technique for remediation of polluted soils. This study aimed to evaluate the bio-augmentation effect of Rhodobacter sphaeroides biofertilizer (RBF) on the bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contaminated soil. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted over a period of 120 days, three methods for enhancing bio-augmentation were tested on TPH contaminated soils, including single addition RBF, planting, and combining of RBF and three crop species, such as wheat (W), cabbage (C) and spinach (S), respectively. The results demonstrated that the best removal of TPH from contaminated soil in the RBF bio-augmentation rhizosphere soils was found to be 46.2%, 65.4%, 67.5% for W+RBF, C+RBF, S+RBF rhizosphere soils respectively. RBF supply impacted on the microbial community diversity (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) and the activity of soil enzymes, such as dehydrogenase (DH), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and urease (UR). There were significant difference among the soil only containing crude oil (CK), W, C and S rhizosphere soils and RBF bio-augmentation soils. Moreover, the changes were significantly distinct depended on crops species. It was concluded that the RBF is a valuable material for improving effect of remediation of TPH polluted soils.

  5. Application of radiochemical methods for development of new biological preparation designed for soil bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Internationally the bioremediation of agricultural lands contaminated by persistent chloroorganic compounds by means of the microbial methods are used as the most low-cost and the most effective. One of the factors reducing efficacy of microbial degradation, is often the low quantity of microorganisms - destructors in the soil. Therefore, we have designed bioremediation technology of soils, contaminated by organochlorine compounds, with use of the alive microorganisms as active agent. We developed the biological preparation containing 5 aboriginal active strains of bacteria - destructors of persistent chloroorganic compounds and investigated the ability of biological preparation to increase the bioremediation potential of contaminated soils. To carry out the investigation we developed the complex of radiochemical methods with use of tritium labeled PCBs, including the following methods: 1.The method to define the accumulation and degradation of PCBs in soil bacteria in culture allows determination of quantitative characteristics of bacterial strains. 2. The method to define the PCBs degradation by soil bacteria strains in model conditions in the soil allows to estimate the PCB-destructive activity of strains after introducing in soil. 3. A method to define the PCB-destructive activity of own microbiota of contaminated soil. 4. A method to define the effect of stimulation of the PCB-destructive activity of biological preparation and own microbiota of soil with the help of biofertilizers. By using the developed radiochemical methods we have carried out investigation on creation of new biological preparation on the basis of strains of soil bacteria - destructors of PCBs. We also determined the quality and quantity characteristics of HCCH and PCBs-destructive activity of new biological preparation. It is shown that the new biological preparation is capable of accumulation and destruction of the PCBs in culture and in soil at model conditions. Thus, the

  6. Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils%污染土壤的生物修复综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜金华; 乔桂枝; 孙娅楠

    2012-01-01

    土壤是人类赖以生存的主要自然资源之一,是人类生态环境的重要组成部分。我国土壤污染总体形势相当严峻。文章介绍了土壤污染的基本情况,主要阐述了污染土壤的生物修复,并总结了存在的一些问题。%Soil was one of the major natural resources for the human survival, and an important part of the eco- logical environment. The overall situation of pollution soil in our country was quite grim. The basic situation of soil pollution was introduced. The bioremediation of contaminated soils was mainly elaborated and some problems were summarized.

  7. The use of sulphate-reducing bacteria in bioremediation of ex-coal mining soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENNY WIDYATI

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The most serious impact after exploiting coal by opened peat mining is acid mine drainage phenomenon. This is an oxidation of sulphide minerals by releasing sulphate that generate the environment acidity. This study was aimed to observe the ability of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB isolated of sludge paper mills in decreasing the ex-coal mining sulphate content. Before inoculating onto the soil, SRB was incubated in the sterilized organic matter for 4 days. Organic matter inhabited SRB mix with ex-coal mining soil (1:3 v/v. As a control was a series ex-coal mining mixed with non inoculated organic matter (1:3 v/v. The experiment is carried out in randomized complete design in 3 replications, each consist of 5 buckets. All buckets were maintained in saturated water content. Every 5 days for 20 days the sulphate content, pH and Eh were assessed to observe the bioremediation progress. The result shown that SRB was able to reduce 84.25% ex-coal mining sulphate content in 20 days. In consequence, the soil pH was increased from 4.15 to 6.66 during the process. It is recommended that SRB is prospective to be further developed as a sulphate bioremediation agents on ex-coal mining soil.

  8. Combining Solvent Extraction and Bioremediation for Removing Weathered Petroleum from Contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guo-Zhong; F.COULON; YANG Yue-Wei; LI Hong; SUI Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy,practicality and sustainability of a combined approach based on solvent extraction and biodegradation to remediate the soils contaminated with high levels of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons.The soils used in this study were obtained from the Shengli Oilfield in China,which had a long history of contamination with high concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons.The contaminated soils were washed using a composite organic solvent consisting of hexane and pentane (4:1,v/v) and then bioremediated in microcosms which were bioaugmentated with Bacillus subtilis FQ06 strains and/or rhamnolipid.The optimal solvent extraction conditions were determined as extraction for 20 min at 25 ℃ with solvent-soil ratio of 6:1 (v/w).On this basis,total petroleum hydrocarbon was decreased from 140000 to 14000 mg kg-1,which was further reduced to < 4000 mg kg-1 by subsequent bioremediation for 132 d.Sustainability assessment of this integrated technology showed its good performance for both short-and long-term effectiveness.Overall the results encouraged its application for remediating contaminated sites especially with high concentration weathered hydrocarbons.

  9. Impact of organic carbon and nutrients mobilized during chemical oxidation on subsequent bioremediation of a diesel-contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Remediation with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) impacts soil organic matter (SOM) and the microbial community, with deleterious effects on the latter being a major hurdle to coupling ISCO with in situ bioremediation (ISB). We investigate treatment of a diesel-contaminated soil with Fenton’s reage

  10. Variations in the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial and agricultural soils after bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meixia; Gong, Zongqiang; Allinson, Graeme; Tai, Peidong; Miao, Renhui; Li, Xiaojun; Jia, Chunyun; Zhuang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the variations in bioavailability remaining in industrial and agricultural soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after bioremediation. After inoculation of Mycobacterium sp. and Mucor sp., PAH biodegradation was tested on a manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil and an agricultural soil. PAH bioavailability was assessed before and after biodegradation using solid-phase extraction (Tenax-TA extraction) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) to represent bioaccessibility and chemical activity of PAHs, respectively. Only 3- and 4-ring PAHs were noticeably biodegradable in the MGP soil. PAH biodegradation in the agricultural soil was different from that in the MGP soil. The rapidly desorbing fractions (F(rap)) extracted by Tenax-TA and the freely dissolved concentrations of 3- and 4-ring PAHs determined by SPME from the MGP soil decreased after 30 days biodegradation; those values of the 5- and 6-ring PAHs changed to a lesser degree. For the agricultural soil, the F(rap) values of the 3- and 4-ring PAHs also decreased after the biodegradation experiment. The Tenax-TA extraction and the SPME have the potential to assess variations in the bioavailability of PAHs and the degree of biodegradation in contaminated MGP soils. In addition, Tenax-TA extraction is more sensitive than SPME when used in the agricultural soil.

  11. Effect of toluene as gaseous cosubstrate in bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Irmene; Velasco, Antonio; Revah, Sergio

    2006-04-17

    The stimulation of the microbial population by a more bioavailable supplementary carbon source and by a surfactant pretreatment was studied in petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soils bioremediation. Two types of soils were used, Soil A which had been recently polluted and the aged Soil B. They contained 52.4 and 50.4 g of total petroleum hydrocarbons per kg of dry soil, respectively. The effect of passing a continuous small stream of air containing a low concentration of gaseous toluene through packed 0.5 l (Ø=5.5 cm) columns was studied. For Soil A, after 62 days the THPs degradation was 28% higher in the toluene treated columns than in controls. In aged Soil B the effect of toluene was not significant, probably due to bioavailability limitations. With Soil B, the combined effect of toluene as cosubstrate and a surfactant pretreatment was studied and the hydrocarbons degradation was 29% higher in the toluene-amended columns than in the controls. Toluene removal was higher than 99% in all cases. Surfactant addition increased hydrocarbon degradation when toluene was also added suggesting that the biological reaction was the limiting process. The study shows the possibilities of using gaseous substrates, such as toluene, for the in situ or ex situ treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soil in processes limited by the biological reaction. The main advantage of the treatment is that the compound can be easily and directly delivered to the polluted soil through the venting system. PMID:16239067

  12. Literature review and assessment of various approaches to bioremediation of oil and associated hydrocarbons in soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted of available techniques for the biological treatment of oil and associated hydrocarbon contamination in soil and groundwater. The study involved a detailed literature search and review, as well as discussions with the users and developers of a number of the bioremediation techniques assessed. The result is a compendium of selected state-of-the-art bioremediation technologies which can serve to guide the selection process for treatment technology for a particular site subject to remediation. Background is provided on the various classes of sites on which petroleum-related contamination could occur, and the nature of contaminants typical of such sites. The mechanisms of hydrocarbon biodegradation are outlined along with various approaches to bioremediation such as in-situ, on-site, bioreactors, landfarming, composting, and physical/chemical treatments. Field trials required to characterize the site and provide an indication of the suitability of bioremediation and the most appropriate bioremediation approach are described. Commercially available bioremediation technologies are briefly discussed. A number of the bioremedial techniques reviewed are compared to more conventional treatment processes in terms of such criteria as operating cost, effectiveness, advantages, risks, applicability, equipment and manpower requirements, and considerations regarding usage in Canadian conditions. 15 figs., 17 tabs

  13. SUMMARY PAPER: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED VADOSE ZONE SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of Issue Papers and Briefing Documents which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. In an attem...

  14. Bioremediation (Natural Attenuation and Biostimulation) of Diesel-Oil-Contaminated Soil in an Alpine Glacier Skiing Area

    OpenAIRE

    Margesin, R.; Schinner, F.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of bioremediation as a treatment option for a chronically diesel-oil-polluted soil in an alpine glacier area at an altitude of 2,875 m above sea level. To examine the efficiencies of natural attenuation and biostimulation, we used field-incubated lysimeters (mesocosms) with unfertilized and fertilized (N-P-K) soil. For three summer seasons (July 1997 to September 1999), we monitored changes in hydrocarbon concentrations in soil and soil leachate and the accompa...

  15. [Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

    2004-09-01

    Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research.

  16. Bioremediation treatment of MTBE and ETBE in contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissara Reungsang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Three Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE degradative consortia were isolated from gasoline-contaminated soil namely: mKMS, mKGS1 and mKGS2. These consortia were tested for the ability to degrade Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE at the concentration of 100 mg/L and to degrade a mixture of MTBE and ETBE in the Nutrient Broth (NB media at the concentration of 50 mg/L each. The results showed that mKGS1 was the best degraders in which 74% of MTBE, 25% of ETBE and 16% of MTBE and 23% of ETBE in the mixture were degraded, within 30 days. mKGS1 was then further used in the bioaugmentation and biostimulation experiments. Degradation of MTBE increased from 34% to 61% after 70 days when mKGS1 was amended in soil mixed with the combination of MTBE and ETBE (at 50 mg/L each. However, mKGS1 did not significantly help the ETBE degradation when it was amended in soil (biostimulation technique. One percent glucose significantly stimulated the degradation of MTBE by the indigenous microorganisms. The presence of mKGS1 and an addition of 1% glucose as extra carbon source improved the degradation of MTBE, from 42 to 51%, suggesting mKGS1 played an important role in the degradation of MTBE.

  17. Ecotoxicological evaluation of in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated by the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frische, Tobias

    2003-01-01

    The luminescent bacteria assay, using soil leachates, was the most sensitive toxicity indicator. - To evaluate the environmental relevance of in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, effective and reliable monitoring approaches are of special importance. The presented study was conducted as part of a research project investigating in situ bioremediation of topsoils contaminated by the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Changes in soil toxicity within different experimental fields at a former ordnance factory were evaluated using a battery of five bioassays (plant growth, Collembola reproduction, soil respiration, luminescent bacteria acute toxicity and mutagenicity test) in combination to chemical contaminant analysis. Resulting data reveal clear differences in sensitivities between methods with the luminescent bacteria assay performed with soil leachates as most sensitive toxicity indicator. Complete test battery results are presented in so-called soil toxicity profiles to visualise and facilitate the interpretation of data. Both biological and chemical monitoring results indicate a reduction of soil toxicity within 17 months of remediation.

  18. Design and field-scale implementation of an "on site" bioremediation treatment in PAH-polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, A I; Lores, I; Sotres, A; Mendez-Garcia, C; Fernandez-Velarde, C; Santos, J A; Gallego, J L R; Sanchez, J

    2013-10-01

    An "on site" bioremediation program was designed and implemented in soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially naphthalene. We began by characterizing the soil's physical and chemical properties. A microbiological screening corroborated the presence of microorganisms capable of metabolizing PAHs. We then analyzed the viability of bioremediation by developing laboratory microcosms and pilot scale studies, to optimize the costs and time associated with remediation. The treatment assays were based on different types of biostimulants, such as a slow or fast-release fertilizer, combined with commercial surfactants. Once the feasibility of the biostimulation was confirmed, a real-scale bioremediation program was undertaken in 900 m(3) of contaminated soil. The three-step design reduced PAH contamination by 94.4% at the end of treatment (161 days). The decrease in pollutants was concomitant with the selection of autochthonous bacteria capable of degrading PAHs, with Bacillus and Pseudomonas the most abundant genera. PMID:23867700

  19. Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Raj

    Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

  20. Bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products: composition of the microbial consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA S. MILIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation, a process that utilizes the capability of microorganism to degrade toxic waste, is emerging as a promising technology for the treatment of soil and groundwater contamination. The technology is very effective in dealing with petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The aim of this study was to examine the composition of the microbial consortium during the ex situ experiment of bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products from the Oil Refinery Pančevo, Serbia. After a 5.5-month experiment with biostimulation and bioventilation, the concentration of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH had been reduced from 29.80 to 3.29 g/kg (89 %. In soil, the dominant microorganism population comprised Gram-positive bacteria from actinomycete-Nocardia group. The microorganisms which decompose hydrocarbons were the dominant microbial population at the end of the process, with a share of more than 80 % (range 107 CFU/g. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that a stable microbial community had been formed after initial fluctuations.

  1. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Lasso, Daniel Hidalgo; van der Zaan, Bas; van Gaans, Pauline; Maphosa, Farai; Smidt, Hauke; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-03-01

    To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in two diesel-contaminated soils (peat and fill). Chemical oxidant and soil type affected the microbial community diversity and biodegradation activity; however, this was only observed following treatment with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent, and in the biotic control without oxidation. Differences in the highest overall removal efficiencies of 69 % for peat (biotic control) and 59 % for fill (Fenton's reagent) were partially explained by changes in contaminant soil properties upon oxidation. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA and alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene abundances indicated that oxidation with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent negatively affected microbial abundance. However, regeneration occurred, and final relative alkB abundances were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in chemically treated microcosms than in the biotic control. 16S rRNA gene fragment fingerprinting with DGGE and prominent band sequencing illuminated microbial community composition and diversity differences between treatments and identified a variety of phylotypes within Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. Understanding microbial community dynamics during coupled chemical oxidation and bioremediation is integral to improved biphasic field application.

  2. Bioremediation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loick, N.; Hobbs, P.J.; Hale, M.D.C.; Jones, D.L. [University of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Environmental & Natural Resources

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review of research on different co-composting approaches to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminated soil, organisms that have been found to degrade PAHs, and PAH breakdown products. Advantages and limitations of using certain groups of organisms and recommended areas of further research effort are identified. Studies investigating the use of composting techniques to treat contaminated soil are broad ranging and differ in many respects, which makes comparison of the different approaches very difficult. Many studies have investigated the use of specific bio-additives in the form of bacteria or fungi with the aim of accelerating contaminant removal; however, few have employed microbial consortia containing organisms from both kingdoms despite knowledge suggesting synergistic relationships exist between them in contaminant removal. Recommendations suggest that further studies should attempt to systemize the investigations of composting approaches to bio-remediate PAH-contaminated soil, to focus on harnessing the biodegradative capacity of both bacteria and fungi to create a cooperative environment for PAH degradation, and to further investigate the array of PAHs that can be lost during the composting process by either leaching or volatilization.

  3. Laboratory bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soil using indigenous cultures and surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To help verify soil and groundwater remediation techniques, an Environmental Testing Facility (ETF) was built in Argentia, Newfoundland. A laboratory program has been developed and the influence of various parameters such as temperature, pH, nutrients and bacterial seeding on the biodegradation of diesel fuel-contaminated soils by indigenous microorganisms has been evaluated. Two non-toxic surfactants, Triton X-100 and Tween-60, have also been tested to determine their leaching potential for possible use in hydrocarbon removal, alone, or in combination with bioremediation. The addition of Triton X-100 showed no significant effect on the biotreatment of diesel fuel, but improved markedly diesel fuel leaching by percolation, indicating good potential for global remediation of the test soil by a combination of leaching and biodegradation. Tween-60 appears to inhibit biological activity, causing the efficiency of bacterial growth to drop from 50 per cent to 35 per cent. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  4. Potential of glycerol and soybean oil for bioremediation of weathered oily-sludge contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, T.C.F.; Franca, F.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica], E-mail: fpfranca@eq.ufrj.br; Oliveira, F.J.S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    The bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil was investigated on laboratory scale. This work evaluated the effect of co-substrate addition in tropical climate soil highly contaminated with oily residue. Glycerol and soybean oil were used as auxiliary co-substrates for contaminant degradation. Three different concentrations of co-substrate were tested, and the experiments were carried out over 60 days. The following parameters were monitored: humidity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria, total fungi, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and the concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene. The soil supplementation with renewable co-substrates improved the efficiency of the biodegradation TPH, with removals of 85% and 83% for glycerol and soybean oil, respectively, compared to a 55% removal yielded by the biodegradation process without supplementation. The use of glycerol increased Chrysene and Benzo[a]pyrene biodegradation by 50%, while soybean oil supplementation increased their removal by 36%. (author)

  5. Simple surface foam application enhances bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil in cold conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Jongshin; Kim, Jaisoo

    2015-04-01

    Landfarming of oil-contaminated soil is ineffective at low temperatures, because the number and activity of micro-organisms declines. This study presents a simple and versatile technique for bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil, which involves spraying foam on the soil surface without additional works such as tilling, or supply of water and air. Surfactant foam containing psychrophilic oil-degrading microbes and nutrients was sprayed twice daily over diesel-contaminated soil at 6 °C. Removal efficiencies in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) at 30 days were 46.3% for landfarming and 73.7% for foam-spraying. The first-order kinetic biodegradation rates for landfarming and foam-spraying were calculated as 0.019 d(-1) and 0.044 d(-1), respectively. Foam acted as an insulating medium, keeping the soil 2 °C warmer than ambient air. Sprayed foam was slowly converted to aqueous solution within 10-12h and infiltrated the soil, providing microbes, nutrients, water, and air for bioaugmentation. Furthermore, surfactant present in the aqueous solution accelerated the dissolution of oil from the soil, resulting in readily biodegradable aqueous form. Significant reductions in hydrocarbon concentration were simultaneously observed in both semi-volatile and non-volatile fractions. As the initial soil TPH concentration increased, the TPH removal rate of the foam-spraying method also increased.

  6. [Enhanced bioremediation of coking plant soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Xiu-Li; Ma, Jie; Wu, Shu-Ke; Chen, Chao-Qi; Wu, Wei

    2011-03-01

    Soil samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected from Beijing Coking Plant. The purposes were to isolate PAHs degrading bacteria from the soils, determine their appropriate living condition, enrich them and apply them in the enhanced bioremediation of the contaminated soils. Using each of the 16 USEPA priority PAHs as the sole carbon source, PAHs degrading bacteria were isolated using the method of plate streaking and identified by genetic analysis. In total seven species of PAHs degrading bacteria were obtained. When mixed, these bacteria could degrade the 16 (2-6 cyclic) PAHs studied at appropriate concentrations. In the liquid medium, when the total concentration of the 16 PAHs (sigma PAH16) was 17 microg/mL, single bacteria could grow well and degrade the PAHs. However, when sigma PAH16 was 166 microg/mL, the growth and activity of either single PAHs degrading bacteria or a mixture of the seven PAHs degrading bacteria were inhibited. Aiming at the contaminated soils from Beijing coking plant, five treatments were performed, i.e., control (C), addition of nutrient (N), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria (N + B), addition of nutrient and surfactant (N +S), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant (N + B + S). After five weeks of experiment, compared to the C treatment, the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B treatment was increased 32%, and the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B + S treatment was increased 46% (the mean removal rate of the 10 4-6 cyclic PAHs was increased 52%). The addition of PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant could significantly enhance the degradation of PAHs in the soils. This study provides evidence for the enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil for Beijing coking plant and other coking plants.

  7. Bioremediation of pesticide wastes in soil using two plant species, Kochia Scoparia and Brassica Napus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, E.L.; Anderson, T.A.; Coats, J.R. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Radiotracer studies were conducted to determine the fate of atrazine and metolachlor, applied as a mixture, in soils taken from pesticide-contaminated sites. Samples taken from nonvegetated areas and from the rhizosphere of Kochia scoparia were treated with {sup 14}C-atrazine and unlabeled metolachlor (50 {mu}g/g each) and incubated for 30, 60 or 135 d. A mass balance of the {sup 14}C applied revealed significant differences between the two soil types in soil bound residues, {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, and the extractable organic fraction (p<0.05). After 135-d incubation, 28% of the applied {sup 14}C was mineralized in Kochia rhizosphere soil, compared to 4% in soil taken from a nonvegetated area. A greater amount of {sup 14}C was extractable from the nonvegetated soil compared to the rhizosphere soil (64% and 22%, respectively). The half-life of atrazine based on extractable {sup 14}C-atrazine was 193 d in nonvegetated soil and 50 d in Kochia rhizosphere soil. Additional subsamples of nonvegetated soils treated with a mixture of {sup 14}C-atrazine and metolachlor were allowed to age for 135 d, and then were either planted with Brassica napus, Kochia scoparia, or left unvegetated. Incubations were carried out in enclosed chambers under controlled conditions. After 30 additional days, a subset of samples was extracted and analyzed using thin-layer chromatography, soil and plant combustion, and liquid scintillation spectroscopy. The percent of applied {sup 14}C-atrazine remaining as atrazine in soil which was nonvegetated, or planted with Brassica napus or Kochia scoparia was 9.3, 6.5, and 4.2%, respectively. Combustion of plants revealed that 11% of the applied radioactivity was taken up in Kochia scoparia, while less than 1% was taken up in Brassica napus plants. The potential for vegetation to aid in bioremediating pesticide wastes in soil is promising.

  8. Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Pollutedwith Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.; Tabak, Henry H.

    2007-03-15

    Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides has had manyfield tests, demonstrations, and full-scale implementations in recentyears. Field research in this area has occurred for many different metalsand radionuclides using a wide array of strategies. These strategies canbe generally characterized in six major categories: biotransformation,bioaccumulation/bisorption, biodegradation of chelators, volatilization,treatment trains, and natural attenuation. For all field applicationsthere are a number of critical biogeochemical issues that most beaddressed for the successful field application. Monitoring andcharacterization parameters that are enabling to bioremediation of metalsand radionuclides are presented here. For each of the strategies a casestudy is presented to demonstrate a field application that uses thisstrategy.

  9. [Arbuscular mycorrhizal bioremediation and its mechanisms of organic pollutants-contaminated soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuling; Ling, Wanting; Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Fuchun; Xiong, Wei

    2006-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), the symbiont of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plant root, has been proved to be able to improve soil structure and enhance the plant resistance to environmental stress. There are more than 170 kinds of AMF worldwide. Recently, the promoted degradation of organic pollutants in soils in the presence of AM was observed, and AM bioremediation (AMB) is becoming a promising and perspective remediation technique for organic pollutants-contaminated soils. This paper reviewed the research progress on the AMB of soils contaminated by typical organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAEs, petroleum, and pesticides. The mechanisms of AMB mainly include the metabolism of organic pollutants by AM fungi, the degradation of these pollutants by the enzymes derived from AM exudation and by the enhanced root exudation and rhizospheric microbial activity in the presence of AM, and the removal of the pollutants by plant uptake and accumulation. As a new approach for the remediation of contaminated soils, some aspects involved in AMB, e.g., the screening of high efficient AM fungi, efficacy of co-existing AM fungi, soil ageing, and plant uptake of organic pollutants from soils in the presence of AM, still need to be further investigated.

  10. Pyrethroid-Degrading Microorganisms and Their Potential for the Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control pests in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, public health and for indoor home use for more than 20 years. Because pyrethroids were considered to be a safer alternative to organophosphate pesticides (OPs), their applications significantly increased when the use of OPs was banned or limited. Although, pyrethroids have agricultural benefits, their widespread and continuous use is a major problem as they pollute the terrestrial and aquatic environments and affect non-target organisms. Since pyrethroids are not degraded immediately after application and because their residues are detected in soils, there is an urgent need to remediate pyrethroid-polluted environments. Various remediation technologies have been developed for this purpose; however, bioremediation, which involves bioaugmentation and/or biostimulation and is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach, has emerged as the most advantageous method for cleaning-up pesticide-contaminated soils. This review presents an overview of the microorganisms that have been isolated from pyrethroid-polluted sites, characterized and applied for the degradation of pyrethroids in liquid and soil media. The paper is focused on the microbial degradation of the pyrethroids that have been most commonly used for many years such as allethrin, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, and permethrin. Special attention is given to the bacterial strains from the genera Achromobacter, Acidomonas, Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Catellibacterium, Clostridium, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Sphingobium, Streptomyces, and the fungal strains from the genera Aspergillus, Candida, Cladosporium, and Trichoderma, which are characterized by their ability to degrade various pyrethroids. Moreover, the current knowledge on the degradation pathways of pyrethroids, the enzymes that are involved in the cleavage of

  11. Microarray and Real-Time PCR Analyses of the Responses of High-Arctic Soil Bacteria to Hydrocarbon Pollution and Bioremediation Treatments▿

    OpenAIRE

    Yergeau, Etienne; Arbour, Mélanie; Brousseau, Roland; Juck, David; Lawrence, John R.; Masson, Luke; Whyte, Lyle G; Greer, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    High-Arctic soils have low nutrient availability, low moisture content, and very low temperatures and, as such, they pose a particular problem in terms of hydrocarbon bioremediation. An in-depth knowledge of the microbiology involved in this process is likely to be crucial to understand and optimize the factors most influencing bioremediation. Here, we compared two distinct large-scale field bioremediation experiments, located at the Canadian high-Arctic stations of Alert (ex situ approach) a...

  12. Isolation and evaluation of potent Pseudomonas species for bioremediation of phorate in amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyal, Monu; Gupta, V K; Jindal, Vikas; Mandal, Kousik

    2015-12-01

    Use of phorate as a broad spectrum pesticide in agricultural crops is finding disfavor due to persistence of both the principal compound as well as its toxic residues in soil. Three phorate utilizing bacterial species (Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 4.3, Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1, Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.2) were isolated from field soils. Comparative phorate degradation analysis of these species in liquid cultures identified Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1 to cause complete metabolization of phorate during seven days as compared to the other two species in 13 days. In soils amended with phorate at different levels (100, 200, 300 mg kg(-1) soil), Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1 resulted in active metabolization of phorate by between 94.66% and 95.62% establishing the same to be a potent bacterium for significantly relieving soil from phorate residues. Metabolization of phorate to these phorate residues did not follow the first order kinetics. This study proves that Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1 has huge potential for active bioremediation of phorate both in liquid cultures and agricultural soils. PMID:26186726

  13. Isolation and evaluation of potent Pseudomonas species for bioremediation of phorate in amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyal, Monu; Gupta, V K; Jindal, Vikas; Mandal, Kousik

    2015-12-01

    Use of phorate as a broad spectrum pesticide in agricultural crops is finding disfavor due to persistence of both the principal compound as well as its toxic residues in soil. Three phorate utilizing bacterial species (Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 4.3, Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1, Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.2) were isolated from field soils. Comparative phorate degradation analysis of these species in liquid cultures identified Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1 to cause complete metabolization of phorate during seven days as compared to the other two species in 13 days. In soils amended with phorate at different levels (100, 200, 300 mg kg(-1) soil), Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1 resulted in active metabolization of phorate by between 94.66% and 95.62% establishing the same to be a potent bacterium for significantly relieving soil from phorate residues. Metabolization of phorate to these phorate residues did not follow the first order kinetics. This study proves that Pseudomonas sp. strain Imbl 5.1 has huge potential for active bioremediation of phorate both in liquid cultures and agricultural soils.

  14. From Rare to Dominant: a Fine-Tuned Soil Bacterial Bloom during Petroleum Hydrocarbon Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Sebastián; Barra, Bárbara; Caporaso, J Gregory; Seeger, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Hydrocarbons are worldwide-distributed pollutants that disturb various ecosystems. The aim of this study was to characterize the short-lapse dynamics of soil microbial communities in response to hydrocarbon pollution and different bioremediation treatments. Replicate diesel-spiked soil microcosms were inoculated with either a defined bacterial consortium or a hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial enrichment and incubated for 12 weeks. The microbial community dynamics was followed weekly in microcosms using Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Both the bacterial consortium and enrichment enhanced hydrocarbon degradation in diesel-polluted soils. A pronounced and rapid bloom of a native gammaproteobacterium was observed in all diesel-polluted soils. A unique operational taxonomic unit (OTU) related to the Alkanindiges genus represented ∼ 0.1% of the sequences in the original community but surprisingly reached >60% after 6 weeks. Despite this Alkanindiges-related bloom, inoculated strains were maintained in the community and may explain the differences in hydrocarbon degradation. This study shows the detailed dynamics of a soil bacterial bloom in response to hydrocarbon pollution, resembling microbial blooms observed in marine environments. Rare community members presumably act as a reservoir of ecological functions in high-diversity environments, such as soils. This rare-to-dominant bacterial shift illustrates the potential role of a rare biosphere facing drastic environmental disturbances. Additionally, it supports the concept of "conditionally rare taxa," in which rareness is a temporary state conditioned by environmental constraints. PMID:26590285

  15. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments. PMID:24813008

  16. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  17. Evaluation of biostimulation and Tween 80 addition for the bioremediation of long-term DDT-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-Corredor, Bibiana; Pino, Nancy J; Cardona, Santiago; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2015-02-01

    The bioremediation of a long-term contaminated soil through biostimulation and surfactant addition was evaluated. The concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and its metabolites 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) were monitored during an 8-week remediation process. Physicochemical characterization of the treated soil was performed before and after the bioremediation process. The isolation and identification of predominant microorganisms during the remediation process were also carried out. The efficiency of detoxification was evaluated after each bioremediation protocol. Humidity and pH and the heterotrophic microorganism count were monitored weekly. The DDT concentration was reduced by 79% after 8 weeks via biostimulation with surfactant addition (B+S) and 94.3% via biostimulation alone (B). Likewise, the concentrations of the metabolites DDE and DDD were reduced to levels below the quantification limits. The microorganisms isolated during bioremediation were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis, Flavobacterium sp., Cuprivadius sp., Variovorax soli, Phenylobacterium sp. and Lysobacter sp., among others. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed visualization of the colonization patterns of soil particles. The toxicity of the soil before and after bioremediation was evaluated using Vibrio fischeri as a bioluminescent sensor. A decrease in the toxic potential of the soil was verified by the increase of the concentration/effect relationship EC50 to 26.9% and 27.2% for B+S and B, respectively, compared to 0.4% obtained for the soil before treatment and 2.5% by natural attenuation after 8 weeks of treatment.

  18. Versatility of Streptomyces sp. M7 to bioremediate soils co-contaminated with Cr(VI) and lindane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, JuanDaniel; Solá, María Zoleica Simón; Benimeli, Claudia Susana; Amoroso, María Julia; Polti, Marta Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of environmental factors on the bioremediation of Cr(VI) and lindane contaminated soil, by an actinobacterium, Streptomyces sp. M7, in order to optimize the process. Soil samples were contaminated with 25 µg kg(-1) of lindane and 50 mg kg(-1) of Cr(VI) and inoculated with Streptomyces sp. M7. The lowest inoculum concentration which simultaneously produced highest removal of Cr(VI) and lindane was 1 g kg(-1). The influence of physical and chemical parameters was assessed using a full factorial design. The factors and levels tested were: Temperature: 25, 30, 35°C; Humidity: 10%, 20%, 30%; Initial Cr(VI) concentration: 20, 50, 80 mg kg(-1); Initial lindane concentration: 10, 25, 40 µg kg(-1). Streptomyces sp. M7 exhibited strong versatility, showing the ability to bioremediate co-contaminated soil samples at several physicochemical conditions. Streptomyces sp. M7 inoculum size was optimized. Also, it was fitted a model to study this process, and it was possible to predict the system performance, knowing the initial conditions. Moreover, optimum temperature and humidity conditions for the bioremediation of soil with different concentrations of Cr(VI) and lindane were determined. Lettuce seedlings were a suitable biomarker to evaluate the contaminants mixture toxicity. Streptomyces sp. M7 carried out a successful bioremediation, which was demonstrated through ecotoxicity test with Lactuca sativa.

  19. Potential bioremediation of mercury-contaminated substrate using filamentous fungi isolated from forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, Evi; Arfarita, Novi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Higuchi, Takaya; Kanno, Ariyo; Yamamoto, Koichi; Sekine, Masahiko

    2014-06-01

    The use of filamentous fungi in bioremediation of heavy metal contamination has been developed recently. This research aims to observe the capability of filamentous fungi isolated from forest soil for bioremediation of mercury contamination in a substrate. Six fungal strains were selected based on their capability to grow in 25 mg/L Hg(2+)-contaminated potato dextrose agar plates. Fungal strain KRP1 showed the highest ratio of growth diameter, 0.831, thus was chosen for further observation. Identification based on colony and cell morphology carried out by 18S rRNA analysis gave a 98% match to Aspergillus flavus strain KRP1. The fungal characteristics in mercury(II) contamination such as range of optimum pH, optimum temperature and tolerance level were 5.5-7 and 25-35°C and 100 mg/L respectively. The concentration of mercury in the media affected fungal growth during lag phases. The capability of the fungal strain to remove the mercury(II) contaminant was evaluated in 100 mL sterile 10 mg/L Hg(2+)-contaminated potato dextrose broth media in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks inoculated with 10(8) spore/mL fungal spore suspension and incubation at 30°C for 7 days. The mercury(II) utilization was observed for flasks shaken in a 130 r/min orbital shaker (shaken) and non-shaken flasks (static) treatments. Flasks containing contaminated media with no fungal spores were also provided as control. All treatments were done in triplicate. The strain was able to remove 97.50% and 98.73% mercury from shaken and static systems respectively. A. flavus strain KRP1 seems to have potential use in bioremediation of aqueous substrates containing mercury(II) through a biosorption mechanism.

  20. Endosulfan Resistance Profile of Soil Bacteria and Potential Application of Resistant Strains in Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandini P.K.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, bacterial strains were isolated from the soils of Wayanad District, Kerala, India and the isolates were tested for their tolerance to endosulfan and potential in bioremediation technology. Pesticide contamination in the soils, soil physico-chemical characteristics and socio-economic impacts of pesticide application were also analyzed. 28 pesticide compounds in the soil samples were analyzed and the results revealed that there was no pesticide residues in the soils. As per the survey conducted the pesticide application is very high in the study area and the level of awareness among the farmers was very poor regarding the method of application and its socio-economic and ecological impacts. A total of 9 bacterial strains were isolated with 50μg/ml of endosulfan in the isolating media and the results showed that most of the bacterial strains were highly resistance to endosulfan. Out of the 9 strains isolated 6 were highly resistant to endosulfan (500- 700μg/ml and the other 3 isolates showed the resistance of 250-500μg/ml. From the studied isolate, isolate 9 demonstrating prolific growth and high resistance was selected to check their capability to degrade endosulfan over time. Identification of the selected strain reveals that it belongs to the genus Bacillus. Results of endosulfan removal studies showed that with increase in time, the biomass of the bacterial strains increased. The complete disappearance of endosulfan from the spiked and inoculated broth during the first day of incubation (24 hour interval was observed. While the control flask showed the presence of endosulfan during the experimental period. Pesticide resistant bacteria are widely distributed in the soils of selected study area and the tolerance varied between bacteria even though they were isolated from the soils of the same area. The selected Bacillus species carry the ability to degrade endosulfan at accelerated rates and it could be useful in framing a

  1. Partial Characterization of Biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and Comparison with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate for the Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Moldes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-. The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage, as well as CH2–CH3 and C–O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg−1 of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment.

  2. A laboratory feasibility study on a new electrokinetic nutrient injection pattern and bioremediation of phenanthrene in a clayey soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrokinetic (EK) injection has recently been proposed to supply nutrients and electron acceptors in bioremediation of low permeable soils. However, effective pH control and uniform injection of inorganic ions have yet to be developed. The present study investigated a new EK injection pattern, which combined electrolyte circulation and electrode polarity reversal on a clayey soil. Soil pH could be controlled ranging from 7.0 to 7.6 by circulating the mixed electrolyte at a suitable rate (800 mL/h in this study) without any buffer. Ammonium and nitrate ions were distributed more uniformly in soil by electrode polarity reversal. The developed electrokinetic injection technology was applied primarily in bioremediation of phenanthrene contaminated soil. Over 80% of the initial 200 mg/kg phenanthrene in soil could be removed in 20 d, and greater phenanthrene removal was achieved using electrode polarity reversal. Hence, the present study provides a promising electrokinetic injection technology for bioremediation of contaminated soils.

  3. Bioremediation of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons at the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelvys Bermúdez Acosta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to describe and assess the main results in the process of bioremediation of 479 m3 of petroleum residuals spilled on the soil and restrained into four deposits of fuel on the coastal zone of “Punta Majagua”, Cienfuegos. The volume of hydrocarbons spilled and contained into the tanks was determined by means of their previous mixture with fertile ground in a ratio of 3/1. The hydrocarbons were disposed in a bioremediation area of 115 m X 75m built in situ. In turn 54, 5 m3 of BIOIL - FC were applied, which were fermented in an industrial bioreactor of 12000 L. An initial sampling was carried out registering values of total hydrocarbons (HTP higher than 41880 mg/kg, with high concentrations of Saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, resins, asphaltens (SARA. Three subsequent samples were taken with a sampling interval of 0, 45, 90 and 120 days of the application. An average concentration of 1884.57 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons was obtained at 120 days with an average removal rate of 94.8%, moreover values of 94.6%, 90.78%, 86.99% y 79.9% of SARA were respectively reported.

  4. Strong Impact on the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-Degrading Community of a PAH-Polluted Soil but Marginal Effect on PAH Degradation when Priming with Bioremediated Soil Dominated by Mycobacteria▿

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Anders R.; Schmidt, Stine; Hybholt, Trine K.; Henriksen, Sidsel; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Bioaugmentation of soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often disappointing because of the low survival rate and low activity of the introduced degrader bacteria. We therefore investigated the possibility of priming PAH degradation in soil by adding 2% of bioremediated soil with a high capacity for PAH degradation. The culturable PAH-degrading community of the bioremediated primer soil was dominated by Mycobacterium spp. A microcosm containing pristine soil artificial...

  5. KINETIC MODELLING AND HALF LIFE STUDY OF ADSORPTIVE BIOREMEDIATION OF SOIL ARTIFICIALLY CONTAMINATED WITH BONNY LIGHT CRUDE OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry; Kigho Moses Oghenejoboh; Bamidele Ogbe Solomon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, comparative potential effects of commercial activated carbon (CAC) and plantain peel-derived biochar (PPBC) of different particle sizes and dosage to stimulate petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil were investigated. Microcosms containing soil were spiked with weathered Bonny light crude oil (WBLCO) (10% w/w) and amended with different particle sizes (0.02, 0.07 and 0.48 mm) and dosage (20, 30 and 40 g) of CAC and PPBC, respectively. The bioremediation experiments were c...

  6. [Bioremediation of oil-polluted soils: using the [13C]/[12C] ratio to characterize microbial products of oil hydrocarbon biodegradation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziakun, A M; Brodskiĭ, E S; Baskunov, B P; Zakharchenko, V N; Peshenko, V P; Filonov, A E; Vetrova, A A; Ivanova, A A; Boronin, A M

    2014-01-01

    We compared data on the extent of bioremediation in soils polluted with oil. The data were obtained using conventional methods of hydrocarbon determination: extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, extraction IR spectroscopy, and extraction gravimetry. Due to differences in the relative abundances of the stable carbon isotopes (13C/12C) in oil and in soil organic matter, these ratios could be used as natural isotopic labels of either substance. Extraction gravimetry in combination with characteristics of the carbon isotope composition of organic products in the soil before and after bioremediation was shown to be the most informative approach to an evaluation of soil bioremediation. At present, it is the only method enabling quantification of the total petroleum hydrocarbons in oil-polluted soil, as well as of the amounts of hydrocarbons remaining after bioremediation and those microbially transformed into organic products and biomass.

  7. Bioremediation of diethylhexyl phthalate contaminated soil: a feasibility study in slurry- and solid-phase reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro, P; Collina, E; Franzetti, A; Lasagni, M; Luridiana, A; Pitea, D; Bestetti, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to verify the possibility of applying bioremediation as a treatment strategy on a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) manufacturing site in the north of Italy contaminated by diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) at a concentration of 5.51 mg/g of dry soil. Biodegradation kinetic experiments with DEHP contaminated soil samples were performed in both slurry- and solid-phase systems. The slurry-phase results showed that the cultural conditions, such as N and P concentrations and the addition of a selected DEHP degrading strain, increased the natural DEHP degradation rate. On the basis of these data, experiments to simulate bioventing on contaminated soil columns were performed. The DEHP concentration reached 0.63 mg/g of dry soil in 76 days (89% of degradation). A kinetic equation was developed to fit the experimental data and to predict the concentration of contaminant after treatment. The data obtained are encouraging for a future in situ application of the bioventing technology.

  8. Inlfuence of Soil pH and Temperature on Atrazine Bioremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahla Andleeb; Zhao Jiang; Khalil ur Rehman; Erinle Kehinda Olajide; Zhang Ying

    2016-01-01

    Present study was conducted to clarify soil pH and temperature influence on different atrazine bioremediation techniques. For this purpose, sodium citrate,Arthrobactorsp. strain DNS10, sawdust and animal manure were selected to clarify their atrazine remediation efficiency under pH 5, 7 and 9 and temperatures 20, 30 and 40℃, respectively. Results showed that atrazine remediation was generally optimized at pH 7 and 30℃ for all the treatments except sodium citrate as soil treated with sawdust was not temperature dependant, but at pH 5 remediation process was determined slower. Atrazine remediation in soil with no additional amendment was only 34%, while in soil treated with sawdust, DNS10, sodium citrate and animal manure were 75.17%, 89%, 74.17% and 76.83% at optimized pH and temperature. Overall atazine removal rate was significantly (≥0.01) higher with increasing in temperature at all the selected pH.

  9. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil on Kwajalein Island: Microbiological characterization and biotreatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, H.I. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)); Jolley, R.L.; Donaldson, T.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)) (comps.)

    1992-05-01

    Bioremediation technology is being evaluated for use on the Kwajalein Atoll, which is located in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The study was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on behalf of the US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA). During February of 1991, a team from ORNL and The University of Tennessee (UT) visited the USAKA. In addition to making on-site observations regarding microbial abundance and distribution of petroleum contaminants, they brought back to Oak Ridge various soil and water samples for detailed analyses. This report documents the biological studies of these samples and presents observations made during the period from February to April of 1991 by investigators at ORNL, UT, and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities.

  10. Application of compost for effective bioremediation of organic contaminants and pollutants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kästner, Matthias; Miltner, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Soils contaminated with hazardous chemicals worldwide are awaiting remediation activities; bioremediation is often considered as a cost-effective remediation approach. Potential bioapproaches are biostimulation, e.g. by addition of nutrients, fertiliser and organic substrates, and bioaugmentation by addition of compound-degrading microbes or of organic amendments containing active microorganisms, e.g. activated sludge or compost. In most contaminated soils, the abundance of the intrinsic metabolic potential is too low to be improved by biostimulation alone, since the physical and chemical conditions in these soils are not conducive to biodegradation. In the last few decades, compost or farmyard manure addition as well as composting with various organic supplements have been found to be very efficient for soil bioremediation. In the present minireview, we provide an overview of the composting and compost addition approaches as 'stimulants' of natural attenuation. Laboratory degradation experiments are often biased either by not considering the abiotic factors or by focusing solely on the elimination of the chemicals without taking the biotic factors and processes into account. Therefore, we first systemise the concepts of composting and compost addition, then summarise the relevant physical, chemical and biotic factors and mechanisms for improved contaminant degradation triggered by compost addition. These factors and mechanisms are of particular interest, since they are more relevant and easier to determine than the composition of the degrading community, which is also addressed in this review. Due to the mostly empirical knowledge and the nonstandardised biowaste or compost materials, the field use of these approaches is highly challenging, but also promising. Based on the huge metabolic diversity of microorganisms developing during the composting processes, a highly complex metabolic diversity is established as a 'metabolic memory' within developing and mature

  11. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyahia, Farid; Embaby, Ahmed Shams

    2016-02-15

    This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) gave a 56% decrease in TPH. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation.

  12. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Benyahia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20 sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80 gave a 56% decrease in TPH. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation.

  13. Enhancing plant-microbe associated bioremediation of phenanthrene and pyrene contaminated soil by SDBS-Tween 80 mixed surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hewei; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong

    2014-05-01

    The use of surfactants to enhance plant-microbe associated dissipation in soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a promising bioremediation technology. This comparative study was conducted on the effects of plant-microbe treatment on the removal of phenanthrene and pyrene from contaminated soil, in the presence of low concentration single anionic, nonionic and anionic-nonionic mixed surfactants. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and Tween 80 were chosen as representative anionic and nonionic surfactants, respectively. We found that mixed surfactants with concentrations less than 150 mg/kg were more effective in promoting plant-microbe associated bioremediation than the same amount of single surfactants. Only about (m/m) of mixed surfactants was needed to remove the same amount of phenanthrene and pyrene from either the planted or unplanted soils, when compared to Tween 80. Mixed surfactants (soils. In the concentration range of 60-150 mg/kg, both ryegrass roots and shoots could accumulate 2-3 times the phenanthrene and pyrene with mixed surfactants than with Tween 80. These results may be explained by the lower sorption loss and reduced interfacial tension of mixed surfactants relative to Tween 80, which enhanced the bioavailability of PAHs in soil and the microbial degradation efficiency. The higher remediation efficiency of low dosage SDBS-Tween 80 mixed surfactants thus advanced the technology of surfactant-enhanced plant-microbe associated bioremediation.

  14. Comparative Bioremediation of Crude Oil-Amended Tropical Soil Microcosms by Natural Attenuation, Bio augmentation, or Bio enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation is an efficient strategy for cleaning up sites contaminated with organic pollutants. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of monitored natural attenuation, bio enrichment, and bio augmentation using a consortium of three actinomycetes strains in remediating two distinct typical Brazilian soils from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes that were contaminated with crude oil, with or without the addition of NaCl. Microcosms were used to simulate bioremediation treatments over a 120-day period. During this period, we monitored total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and n-alkanes degradation and changes in bacterial communities. Over time, we found the degradation rate of n-alkanes was higher than TPH in both soils, independent of the treatment used. In fact, our data show that the total bacterial community in the soils was mainly affected by the experimental period of time, while the type of bioremediation treatment used was the main factor influencing the actinomycetes populations in both soils. Based on these data, we conclude that monitored natural attenuation is the best strategy for remediation of the two tropical soils studied, with or without salt addition.

  15. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis, E-mail: subhasis.ghoshal@mcgill.ca

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Aeration and moisture addition alone caused extensive hydrocarbon biodegradation. • 30-day slurry reactor remediation endpoints attained in 385 days in biopiles. • High nitrogen concentrations inhibited hydrocarbon degradation. • Inhibition of biodegradation linked to lack of shifts in soil microbial community. - Abstract: Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16–C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15 °C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16–C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day{sup −1} in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day{sup −1} in slurry bioreactors for C16–C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction

  16. Evaluation of oil removal efficiency and enzymatic activity in some fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsenzadeh Fariba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Petroleum pollution is a global disaster and there are several soil cleaning methods including bioremediation. Methods In a field study, fugal strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites of Arak refinery (Iran and their growth ability was checked in potato dextrose agar (PDA media containing 0-10% v/v crude oil, the activity of three enzymes (Catalase, Peroxidase and Phenol Oxidase was evaluated in the fungal colonies and bioremediation ability of the fungi was checked in the experimental pots containing 3 kg sterilized soil and different concentrations of petroleum (0-10% w/w. Results Four fungal strains, Acromonium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp., were selected as the most resistant ones. They were able to growth in the subjected concentrations and Alternaria sp. showed the highest growth ability in the petroleum containing media. The enzyme assay showed that the enzymatic activity was increased in the oil-contaminated media. Bioremediation results showed that the studied fungi were able to decrease petroleum pollution. The highest petroleum removing efficiency of Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp. and Acromonium sp. was evaluated in the 10%, 8%, 8% and 2% petroleum pollution respectively. Conclusions Fungi are important microorganisms in decreasing of petroleum pollution. They have bioremediation potency that is related to their enzymatic activities.

  17. Evaluation of Oil Removal Efficiency and Enzymatic Activity in Some fungal Strains for Bioremediation of Petroleum-Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mohsenzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petroleum pollution is a global disaster and there are several soil cleaning methods including bioremediation.Methods: In a field study, fugal strains were isolated from oil-contaminated sites of Arak refinery (Iran and their growth ability was checked in potato dextrose agar (PDA media containing 0-10% v/v crude oil, the activity of three enzymes (Catalase, Peroxidase and Phenol Oxidase was evaluated in the fungal colonies and bioremediation ability of the fungi was checked in the experimental pots containing 3 kg sterilized soil and different concentrations of petroleum (0-10% w/w.Results: Four fungal strains, Acromonium sp., Alternaria sp., Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium sp., were selected asthe most resistant ones. They were able to growth in the subjected concentrations and Alternaria sp. showed thehighest growth ability in the petroleum containing media. The enzyme assay showed that the enzymatic activity was increased in the oil-contaminated media. Bioremediation results showed that the studied fungi were able to decrease petroleum pollution. The highest petroleum removing efficiency of Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium sp.,Alternaria sp. and Acromonium sp. was evaluated in the 10%, 8%, 8% and 2% petroleum pollution respectively.Conclusions: Fungi are important microorganisms in decreasing of petroleum pollution. They have bioremediation potency that is related to their enzymatic activities.

  18. Bacterial community analysis of cypermethrin enrichment cultures and bioremediation of cypermethrin contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander; Kertesz, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Cypermethrin is widely used for insect control; however, its toxicity toward aquatic life requires its complete removal from contaminated areas where the natural degradation ability of microbes can be utilized. Agricultural soil with extensive history of CM application was used to prepare enrichment cultures using cypermethrin as sole carbon source for isolation of cypermethrin degrading bacteria and bacterial community analysis using PCR-DGGE of 16 S rRNA gene. DGGE analysis revealed that dominant members of CM enrichment culture were associated with α-proteobacteria followed by γ-proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Three potential CM-degrading isolates identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi JCm1, Bacillus megaterium JCm2, and Rhodococcus sp. JCm5 degraded 86-100% of CM (100 mg L(-1) ) within 10 days. These isolates were also able to degrade other pyrethroids, carbofuran, and cypermethrin degradation products. Enzyme activity assays revealed that enzymes involved in CM-degradation were inducible and showed activity when strains were grown on cypermethrin. Degradation kinetics of cypermethrin (200 mg kg(-1)) in soils inoculated with isolates JCm1, JCm2, and JCm5 suggested time-dependent disappearance of cypermethrin with rate constants of 0.0516, 0.0425, and 0.0807 d(-1), respectively, following first order rate kinetics. The isolated bacterial strains were among dominant genera selected under CM enriched conditions and represent valuable candidates for in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils and waters.

  19. Enhanced bioremediation of oil contaminated soil by graded modified Fenton oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinlan Xu; Lei Xin; Tinglin Huang; Kun Chang

    2011-01-01

    Graded modified Fenton's (MF) oxidation is a strategy in which H2O2 is added intermittently to prevent a sharp temperature increase and undesired soil sterilization at soil circumneutral pH versus adding the same amount of H2O2 continuously.The primary objective of the present study was to investigate whether a mild MF pre-oxidation such as a stepwise addition of H2O2 can prevent sterilization and achieve a maximum degradation of tank oil in soil.Optimization experiments of graded MF oxidation were conducted using citric acid,oxalic acid and SOLV-X as iron chelators under different frequencies of H2O2 addition.The results indicated that the activity order of iron chelates decreased as:citric acid (51%) > SOLV-X (44%) > oxalic acid (9%),and citric acid was found to be an optimized iron chelating agent of graded MF oxidation.Three-time addition of H2O2 was found to be favorable and economical due to decreasing total petroleum hydrocarbon removal from three time addition (51%) to five time addition (59%).Biological experiments were conducted after graded MF oxidation of tank oil completed under optimum conditions mentioned above.After graded oxidation,substantially higher increase (31%) in microbial activity was observed with excessive H2O2 (1470 mmol,/L,the mol ratio of H2O2:Fe2+ was 210:1)than that of non-oxidized soil.Removal efficiency of tank oil was up to 93% after four weeks.Especially,the oil fraction (C10-C40) became more biodagradable after graded MF oxidation than its absence.Therefore,graded MF oxidation is a mild pretreatment to achieve an effective bioremediation of oil contaminated soil.

  20. Pilot-scale bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated clayey soil from a sub-Arctic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ali; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2014-09-15

    Bioremediation is a potentially cost-effective solution for petroleum contamination in cold region sites. This study investigates the extent of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in a pilot-scale biopile experiment conducted at 15°C for periods up to 385 days, with a clayey soil, from a crude oil-impacted site in northern Canada. Although several studies on bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from cold region sites have been reported for coarse-textured, sandy soils, there are limited studies of bioremediation of petroleum contamination in fine-textured, clayey soils. Our results indicate that aeration and moisture addition was sufficient for achieving 47% biodegradation and an endpoint of 530 mg/kg for non-volatile (C16-C34) petroleum hydrocarbons. Nutrient amendment with 95 mg-N/kg showed no significant effect on biodegradation compared to a control system without nutrient but similar moisture content. In contrast, in a biopile amended with 1340 mg-N/kg, no statistically significant biodegradation of non-volatile fraction was detected. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of alkB and 16S rRNA genes revealed that inhibition of hydrocarbon biodegradation was associated with a lack of change in microbial community composition. Overall, our data suggests that biopiles are feasible for attaining the bioremediation endpoint in clayey soils. Despite the significantly lower biodegradation rate of 0.009 day(-1) in biopile tank compared to 0.11 day(-1) in slurry bioreactors for C16-C34 hydrocarbons, the biodegradation extents for this fraction were comparable in these two systems.

  1. Strong Impact on the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-Degrading Community of a PAH-Polluted Soil but Marginal Effect on PAH Degradation when Priming with Bioremediated Soil Dominated by Mycobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R.; Schmidt, Stine; Hybholdt, Trine K.;

    2007-01-01

    Bioaugmentation of soil polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often disappointing because of the low survival rate and low activity of the introduced degrader bacteria. We therefore investigated the possibility of priming PAH degradation in soil by adding 2% of bioremediated soil...... with a high capacity for PAH degradation. The culturable PAH-degrading community of the bioremediated primer soil was dominated by Mycobacterium spp. A microcosm containing pristine soil artificially polluted with PAHs and primed with bioremediated soil showed a fast, 100- to 1,000-fold increase in numbers...... of culturable phenanthrene-, pyrene-, and fluoranthene degraders and a 160-fold increase in copy numbers of the mycobacterial PAH dioxygenase gene pdo1. A nonpolluted microcosm primed with bioremediated soil showed a high rate of survival of the introduced degrader community during the 112 days of incubation...

  2. Enhancement and inhibition of microbial activity in hydrocarbon- contaminated arctic soils: Implications for nutrient-amended bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, J.F.; Ruth, M.L.; Catterall, P.H.; Walworth, J.L.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When nutrients were added to soil in the field at three levels of N:P (100:45, 200:90, and 300:135 mg/kg soil), the greatest stimulation in microbial activity occurred at the lowest, rather than the highest, level of nutrient addition. The total soil-water potentials ranged from -2 to -15 bar with increasing levels of fertilizer. Semivolatile hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly only in the soils treated at the low fertilizer level. These results indicate that an understanding of nutrient effects at a specific site is essential for successful bioremediation.Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When nutrients were added to soil in the field at three levels of N:P (100:45, 200:90, and 300:135 mg/kg soil), the greatest stimulation in microbial activity occurred at the lowest, rather than the highest, level of nutrient addition

  3. Degradation and enantiomeric fractionation of mecoprop in soil previously exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides - New insights for bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frková, Zuzana; Johansen, Anders; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen;

    2016-01-01

    bioremediation. The degradation processes were studied in soil sampled at different depths (3, 4.5 and 6m) at a Danish urban site with a history of phenoxy acid contamination. We observed preferential degradation of the R-enantiomer only under aerobic conditions in the soil samples from 3- and 6-m depth......, and biodegradation rates may differ between enantiomers. Therefore, enantio-preferred degradation of mecoprop (MCPP) in soil was measured to get in-depth information on whether amendment with glucose (BOD equivalents as substrate for microbial growth) and nitrate (redox equivalents for oxidation) can stimulate...

  4. Impact of organic carbon and nutrients mobilized during chemical oxidation on subsequent bioremediation of a diesel-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-02-01

    Remediation with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) impacts soil organic matter (SOM) and the microbial community, with deleterious effects on the latter being a major hurdle to coupling ISCO with in situ bioremediation (ISB). We investigate treatment of a diesel-contaminated soil with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent coupled with a subsequent bioremediation phase of 187d, both with and without nutrient amendment. Chemical oxidation mobilized SOM into the liquid phase, producing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations 8-16 times higher than the untreated field sample. Higher aqueous concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous species were also observed following oxidation; NH4(+) increased 14-172 times. During the bioremediation phase, dissolved carbon and nutrient species were utilized for microbial growth-yielding DOC concentrations similar to field sample levels within 56d of incubation. In the absence of nutrient amendment, the highest microbial respiration rates were correlated with higher availability of nitrogen and phosphorus species mobilized by oxidation. Significant diesel degradation was only observed following nutrient amendment, implying that nutrients mobilized by chemical oxidation can increase microbial activity but are insufficient for bioremediation. While all bioremediation occurred in the first 28d of incubation in the biotic control microcosm with nutrient amendment, biodegradation continued throughout 187d of incubation following chemical oxidation, suggesting that chemical treatment also affects the desorption of organic contaminants from SOM. Overall, results indicate that biodegradation of DOC, as an alternative substrate to diesel, and biological utilization of mobilized nutrients have implications for the success of coupled ISCO and ISB treatments.

  5. Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil with Oils Residuals through Bioaugmentation and Natural Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitê Carla Deon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential for soil contamination by oil spills is growing, due to heavy industrialization and economic development of countries. Due to this fact, the bioremediation has become an alternative to remediate areas through the use of biological agents. Two microorganisms, isolated from a lipid-rich effluent, were used in the bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with diesel oil, lubricating oil and soybean oil. Natural attenuation tests were conducted as controls. The removal of diesel fuel at the time of 21 d were of 18.5%, 7.30% and 11.38%, respectively, for the bioaugmentation with isolated I1 and I2 and natural attenuation. The removal of lubricating oil were 41.6%, 14.16% and 6.91% respectively for the bioaugmentation with the isolated I1 and I2 and natural attenuation, while for soybean oil removals were of 87 8%, 73.9% and 49.4%. Considering the processes of bioaugmentatiom and natural attenuation, the bioaugmentation with the isolated I1 showed better results, possibly due to the production of compounds capable of reducing the surface tension during the preparation of bioaugmentation.

  6. Bioremediation of Heavy Metals from Soil and Aquatic Environment: An Overview of Principles and Criteria of Fundamental Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchita Dixit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are natural constituents of the environment, but indiscriminate use for human purposes has altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in excess release of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc etc. into natural resources like the soil and aquatic environments. Prolonged exposure and higher accumulation of such heavy metals can have deleterious health effects on human life and aquatic biota. The role of microorganisms and plants in biotransformation of heavy metals into nontoxic forms is well-documented, and understanding the molecular mechanism of metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications for bioremediation of metal-contaminated sites. In view of this, the present review investigates the abilities of microorganisms and plants in terms of tolerance and degradation of heavy metals. Also, advances in bioremediation technologies and strategies to explore these immense and valuable biological resources for bioremediation are discussed. An assessment of the current status of technology deployment and suggestions for future bioremediation research has also been included. Finally, there is a discussion of the genetic and molecular basis of metal tolerance in microbes, with special reference to the genomics of heavy metal accumulator plants and the identification of functional genes involved in tolerance and detoxification.

  7. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbo-contaminated soils, comprehensive report, December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry

    2000-04-01

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU), Katowice, Poland have been cooperating in the development and implementation of innovative environmental remediation technologies since 1995. A major focus of this program has been the demonstration of bioremediation techniques to cleanup the soil and sediment associated with a waste lagoon at the Czechowice Oil Refinery (CZOR) in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization (ESC), treatability study, and risk assessment study, a remediation system was designed that took advantage of local materials to minimize cost and maximize treatment efficiency. U.S. experts worked in tandem with counterparts from the IETU and CZOR throughout this project to characterize, assess and subsequently, design, implement and monitor a bioremediation system. The CZOR, our industrial partner for this project, was chosen because of their foresight and commitment to the use of new approaches for environmental restoration. This program sets a precedent for Poland in which a portion of the funds necessary to complete the project were provided by the company responsible for the problem. The CZOR was named by PIOS (State Environmental Protection Inspectorate of Poland) as one of the top 80 biggest polluters in Poland. The history of the CZOR dates back more than 100 years to its establishment by the Vacuum Oil Company (a U.S. company and forerunner of Standard Oil). More than a century of continuous use of a sulfuric acid-based oil refining method by the CZOR has produced an estimated 120,000 tons of acidic, highly weathered, petroleum sludge. This waste has been deposited into three open, unlined process waste lagoons, 3 meters deep, now covering 3.8 hectares. Initial analysis indicated that the sludge was composed mainly of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The overall objective of this full-scale demonstration project was to characterize, assess

  8. Studies on organic and in-organic biostimulants in bioremediation of diesel-contaminated arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwegu, Amechi S; Orji, Michael U; Onwosi, Chukwudi O

    2016-11-01

    In this study, use of inorganic fertilizer (N.P.K) was compared with organic manure (compost) in the bioremediation of diesel-polluted agricultural soil over a two-month period. Renewal by enhanced natural attenuation was used as control. The results revealed that total petroleum hydrocarbon removal from polluted soil was 71.40 ± 5.60% and 93.31 ± 3.60% for N.P.K and compost amended options, respectively. The control (natural attenuation) had 57.90 ± 3.98% of total petroleum hydrocarbon removed. Experimental data fitted second order kinetic model adequately for compost amended option. The fertilizer amended option was found to be 1.04 times slower (k2 = 4.00 ± 1.40 × 10(-7)gmg(-1)d(-1), half-life = 28.15 d) than compost amended option (k2 = 1.39 ± 0.54 × 10(-5) gmg(-1)d(-1), half-life = 8.10 d) but 1.21 times (20.6%) faster than the control (k2 = 2.57 ± 0.16 × 10(-7) gmg(-1)d(-1), half-life = 43.81 d). The hydrocarbon utilizers isolated from the diesel contaminated soil were: Bacillus nealsoni, Micrococcus luteus, Aspergillus awamori, and Fusarium proliferatum. The phytotoxicity test showed that germination indices for natural attenuation (control), fertilizer (NPK) and compost amended options were 34%, 56%, and 89%, respectively. PMID:27494315

  9. Bioremediation of multi-polluted soil by spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrate: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and Pb availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Yunta, Felipe; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates the effect of three spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS) application methods on bioremediation of soil multi-polluted with Pb and PAH from close to a shooting range with respect natural attenuation (SM). The remediation treatments involve (i) use of sterilized SAS to biostimulate the inherent soil microbiota (SSAS) and two bioaugmentation possibilities (ii) its use without previous treatment to inoculate A. bisporus and inherent microbiota (SAS) or (iii) SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp). The efficiency of each bioremediation microcosm was evaluated by: fungal activity, heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacterial population, PAH removal, Pb mobility and soil eco-toxicity. Biostimulation of the native soil microbiology (SSAS) achieved similar levels of PAH biodegradation as SM and poor soil detoxification. Bioaugmented microcosms produced higher PAH removal and eco-toxicity reduction via different routes. SAS increased the PAH-degrading bacterial population, but lowered fungal activity. Abisp was a good inoculum carrier for A. bisporus exhibiting high levels of ligninolytic activity, the total and PAH-degrading bacteria population increased with incubation time. The three SAS applications produced slight Pb mobilization (<0.3%). SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp) proved the best application method to remove PAH, mainly BaP, and detoxify the multi-polluted soil. PMID:26188871

  10. Bioremediation of multi-polluted soil by spent mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) substrate: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and Pb availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Yunta, Felipe; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-12-30

    This study investigates the effect of three spent Agaricus bisporus substrate (SAS) application methods on bioremediation of soil multi-polluted with Pb and PAH from close to a shooting range with respect natural attenuation (SM). The remediation treatments involve (i) use of sterilized SAS to biostimulate the inherent soil microbiota (SSAS) and two bioaugmentation possibilities (ii) its use without previous treatment to inoculate A. bisporus and inherent microbiota (SAS) or (iii) SAS sterilization and further A. bisporus re-inoculation (Abisp). The efficiency of each bioremediation microcosm was evaluated by: fungal activity, heterotrophic and PAH-degrading bacterial population, PAH removal, Pb mobility and soil eco-toxicity. Biostimulation of the native soil microbiology (SSAS) achieved similar levels of PAH biodegradation as SM and poor soil detoxification. Bioaugmented microcosms produced higher PAH removal and eco-toxicity reduction via different routes. SAS increased the PAH-degrading bacterial population, but lowered fungal activity. Abisp was a good inoculum carrier for A. bisporus exhibiting high levels of ligninolytic activity, the total and PAH-degrading bacteria population increased with incubation time. The three SAS applications produced slight Pb mobilization (soil.

  11. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2014-06-15

    Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures.

  12. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Jin, Song [Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Zuo, Yi [Chevron Energy Technology Company, San Ramon, CA (United States); Fallgren, Paul H. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States); Ren, Zhiyong Jason, E-mail: jason.ren@colorado.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Pilot bioelectrochemical system showed high-performance hydrocarbon remediation. • Radius of influence characterization demonstrated system efficacy. • Current serves as degradation indicator. - Abstract: Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1–89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1–34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m{sup 2}. The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11–12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures.

  13. Laboratory and field scale bioremediation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils by means of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nidhi; Lata, Pushp; Jit, Simran; Sangwan, Naseer; Singh, Amit Kumar; Dwivedi, Vatsala; Niharika, Neha; Kaur, Jasvinder; Saxena, Anjali; Dua, Ankita; Nayyar, Namita; Kohli, Puneet; Geueke, Birgit; Kunz, Petra; Rentsch, Daniel; Holliger, Christof; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Lal, Rup

    2016-06-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils were treated for a period of up to 64 days in situ (HCH dumpsite, Lucknow) and ex situ (University of Delhi) in line with three bioremediation approaches. The first approach, biostimulation, involved addition of ammonium phosphate and molasses, while the second approach, bioaugmentation, involved addition of a microbial consortium consisting of a group of HCH-degrading sphingomonads that were isolated from HCH contaminated sites. The third approach involved a combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation. The efficiency of the consortium was investigated in laboratory scale experiments, in a pot scale study, and in a full-scale field trial. It turned out that the approach of combining biostimulation and bioaugmentation was most effective in achieving reduction in the levels of α- and β-HCH and that the application of a bacterial consortium as compared to the action of a single HCH-degrading bacterial strain was more successful. Although further degradation of β- and δ-tetrachlorocyclohexane-1,4-diol, the terminal metabolites of β- and δ-HCH, respectively, did not occur by the strains comprising the consortium, these metabolites turned out to be less toxic than the parental HCH isomers. PMID:27142265

  14. Laboratory and field scale bioremediation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils by means of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nidhi; Lata, Pushp; Jit, Simran; Sangwan, Naseer; Singh, Amit Kumar; Dwivedi, Vatsala; Niharika, Neha; Kaur, Jasvinder; Saxena, Anjali; Dua, Ankita; Nayyar, Namita; Kohli, Puneet; Geueke, Birgit; Kunz, Petra; Rentsch, Daniel; Holliger, Christof; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Lal, Rup

    2016-06-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils were treated for a period of up to 64 days in situ (HCH dumpsite, Lucknow) and ex situ (University of Delhi) in line with three bioremediation approaches. The first approach, biostimulation, involved addition of ammonium phosphate and molasses, while the second approach, bioaugmentation, involved addition of a microbial consortium consisting of a group of HCH-degrading sphingomonads that were isolated from HCH contaminated sites. The third approach involved a combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation. The efficiency of the consortium was investigated in laboratory scale experiments, in a pot scale study, and in a full-scale field trial. It turned out that the approach of combining biostimulation and bioaugmentation was most effective in achieving reduction in the levels of α- and β-HCH and that the application of a bacterial consortium as compared to the action of a single HCH-degrading bacterial strain was more successful. Although further degradation of β- and δ-tetrachlorocyclohexane-1,4-diol, the terminal metabolites of β- and δ-HCH, respectively, did not occur by the strains comprising the consortium, these metabolites turned out to be less toxic than the parental HCH isomers.

  15. Comparison of analytical methods used to measure petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and their application to bioremediation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, G.S.; Wong, W.M.; Rigatti, M.J. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McMillen, S.J. [Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Chemical measurements provide a means to evaluate crude oil and refined product bioremediation effectiveness in field and laboratory studies. These measurements are used to determine the net decrease in product or target compound concentrations in complex soil systems. The analytical methods used to evaluate these constituents will have a direct impact on the ability of the investigator to; (1) detect losses due to biodegradation, (2) understand the processes responsible for the hydrocarbon degradation and, (3) determine the rates of hydrocarbon degradation. This understanding is critical for the testing and design of bioremediation programs. While standard EPA methods are useful for measuring a wide variety of industrial and agrochemicals, they were not designed for the detection and accurate measurement of petroleum compounds. The chemical data generated with these standard methods are usually of limited utility because they lack the chemical specificity required to evaluate hydrocarbon compositional changes in the oil contamination required to evaluate biodegradation. The applications and limitations of standard EPA methodologies (EPA Methods 418.1, 8270, and modified 8015) will be evaluated and compared to several new analytical methods currently being used by the petroleum industry (e.g., gross compositional analysis, TLC-FID analysis, and enhanced EPA Method 8270) to evaluate bioremediation effectiveness in soils.

  16. Autochthonous bioaugmentation with environmental samples rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria for bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nedaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Sorkhoh, Naser; Radwan, Samir

    2016-05-01

    Oil-contaminated seawater and desert soil batches were bioaugmented with suspensions of pea (Pisum sativum) rhizosphere and soil with long history of oil pollution. Oil consumption was measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria in the bioremediation batches were counted using a mineral medium with oil vapor as a sole carbon source and characterized by their 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-gene sequences. Most of the oil was consumed during the first 2-4 months, and the oil-removal rate decreased or ceased thereafter due to nutrient and oxygen depletion. Supplying the batches with NaNO3 (nitrogen fertilization) at a late phase of bioremediation resulted in reenhanced oil consumption and bacterial growth. In the seawater batches bioaugmented with rhizospheric suspension, the autochthonous rhizospheric bacterial species Microbacterium oxidans and Rhodococcus spp. were established and contributed to oil-removal. The rhizosphere-bioaugmented soil batches selectively favored Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus, Caulobacter segnis, and Ensifer adherens. In seawater batches bioaugmented with long-contaminated soil, the predominant oil-removing bacterium was the marine species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. In soil batches on the other hand, the autochthonous inhabitants of the long-contaminated soil, Pseudomonas and Massilia species were established and contributed to oil removal. It was concluded that the use of rhizospheric bacteria for inoculating seawater and desert soil and of bacteria in long-contaminated soil for inoculating desert soil follows the concept of "autochthonous bioaugmentation." Inoculating seawater with bacteria in long-contaminated soil, on the other hand, merits the designation "allochthonous bioaugmentation." PMID:26801925

  17. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Chunping; Huang, Danlian; Zhang, Jiachao

    2015-11-01

    Increasing soil pollution problems have caused world-wide concerns. Large numbers of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum and related products, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals enter the soil, posing a huge threat to human health and natural ecosystem. Chemical and physical technologies for soil remediation are either incompetent or too costly. Composting or compost addition can simultaneously increase soil organic matter content and soil fertility besides bioremediation, and thus is believed to be one of the most cost-effective methods for soil remediation. This paper reviews the application of composting/compost for soil bioremediation, and further provides a critical view on the effects of this technology on microbial aspects in contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for contaminated soils. PMID:26008965

  18. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Chunping; Huang, Danlian; Zhang, Jiachao

    2015-11-01

    Increasing soil pollution problems have caused world-wide concerns. Large numbers of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum and related products, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals enter the soil, posing a huge threat to human health and natural ecosystem. Chemical and physical technologies for soil remediation are either incompetent or too costly. Composting or compost addition can simultaneously increase soil organic matter content and soil fertility besides bioremediation, and thus is believed to be one of the most cost-effective methods for soil remediation. This paper reviews the application of composting/compost for soil bioremediation, and further provides a critical view on the effects of this technology on microbial aspects in contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for contaminated soils.

  19. Evaluating the Effects of Bioremediation on Genotoxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil Using Genetically Engineered, Higher Eukaryotic Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Jing HU; Nakamura, Jun; Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation is one of the commonly applied remediation strategies at sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, remediation goals are typically based on removal of the target contaminants rather than on broader measures related to health risks. We investigated changes in the toxicity and genotoxicity of PAH-contaminated soil from a former manufactured-gas plant site before and after two simulated bioremediation processes: a sequencing batch bioreactor system ...

  20. Bioremediation of carbofuran contaminated soil under saturated condition: soil column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangklang, Pensri; Reungsang, Alissara; Suphannafai, Wisarut

    2012-06-01

    Disturbed soil columns, 5.8 cm in diameter and 25 cm in length, were used as a basic model to simulate the movement of carbofuran in rice field soil under saturated conditions. Bioaugmentation using a specific carbofuran degrader, Burkholderia sp. PCL3, in free and immobilized cell forms and biostimulation using rice straw as organic amendment were applied with the aim of enhancing the degradation of carbofuran in soil and to prevent the movement of carbofuran along with the flow through. In the abiotic control and the treatment with only indigenous microorganisms, the mass recovery percentage of carbofuran in the effluent was 52.1 and 22.5%, respectively. The application of bioaugmentation or biostimulation significantly enhanced carbofuran degradation in soil and reduced the movement of carbofuran as indicated by a low mass recovery percentage of carbofuran in the effluent of 14.6-15.5%. A low efficiency of carbofuran removal was obtained from the soil column with bioaugmentation together with biostimulation treatments in which the mass recovery percentage of carbofuran in the effluent was in the range of 22.1-22.6%. Sorption of carbofuran to soil, rice straw and corncob, formation of carbofuran metabolite and colony forming unit (CFU) and pH variation with the time were also investigated during column operation.

  1. Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter, coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to find methods for enhancing rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation in gasoline contaminated soil by ex situ bioremediation. Red soil (RS) was treated with gasoline-spilled soil (GS) from a gasoline station and different combinations of amendments were prepared using (i) mixed bacterial consortium (MC), (ii) poultry litter (PL), (iii) coir pith (CP) and (iv) rhamnolipid biosurfactant (BS) produced by Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129. The study was conducted for a period of 90 days during which bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation and growth parameters of Phaseolus aureus RoxB including seed germination, chlorophyll content, shoot and root length were measured. Approximately 67% and 78% of the hydrocarbons were effectively degraded within 60 days in soil samples amended with RS + GS + MC + PL + CP + BS at 0.1% and 1%. Maximum percentage of seed germination, shoot length, root length and chlorophyll content in P. aureus were recorded after 60 days in the above amendments. Further incubation to 90 days did not exhibit significant improvements. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT) revealed that the level of amendments, incubation time and combination of amendments significantly influenced bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation, seed germination and chlorophyll content at a 1% probability level. All tested additives MC, PL, CP and rhamnolipid BS had significant positive effects on the bioremediation of GS. (author)

  2. KINETIC MODELLING AND HALF LIFE STUDY OF ADSORPTIVE BIOREMEDIATION OF SOIL ARTIFICIALLY CONTAMINATED WITH BONNY LIGHT CRUDE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, comparative potential effects of commercial activated carbon (CAC and plantain peel-derived biochar (PPBC of different particle sizes and dosage to stimulate petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil were investigated. Microcosms containing soil were spiked with weathered Bonny light crude oil (WBLCO (10% w/w and amended with different particle sizes (0.02, 0.07 and 0.48 mm and dosage (20, 30 and 40 g of CAC and PPBC, respectively. The bioremediation experiments were carried out for a period of 28 days under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there was a positive relationship between the rate of petroleum hydrocarbons reduction and presence of the CAC and PPBC in crude oil contaminated soil microcosms. The WBLCO biodegradation data fitted well to the first-order kinetic model. The model revealed that WBLCO contaminated-soil microcosms amended with CAC and PPBC had higher biodegradation rate constants (k as well as lower half-life times (t1/2 than unamended soil (natural attenuation remediation system. The rate constants increased while half-life times decreased with decreased particle size and increased dosage of amendment agents. ANOVA statistical analysis revealed that WBLCO biodegradation in soil was significantly (p = 0.05 influenced by the addition of CAC and biochar amendment agents, respectively. However, Tukey’s post hoc test (at p = 0.05 showed that there was no significant difference in the bioremediation efficiency of CAC and PPBC. Thus, amendment of soils with biochar has the potential to be an inexpensive, efficient, environmentally friendly and relatively novel strategy to mitigate organic compound-contaminated soil.

  3. Enhanced Bioremediation of Soil Artificially Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons after Amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat) Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Nwogu, T. P.; Azubuike, C. C.; C. J. Ogugbue

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS) under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8....

  4. Bioremediation of Petroleum and Radiological Contaminated Soils at the Savannah River Site: Laboratory to Field Scale Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRIGMON, ROBINL.

    2004-06-07

    In the process of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations limited amounts of waste are generated containing petroleum, and radiological contaminated soils. Currently, this combination of radiological and petroleum contaminated waste does not have an immediate disposal route and is being stored in low activity vaults. SRS developed and implemented a successful plan for clean up of the petroleum portion of the soils in situ using simple, inexpensive, bioreactor technology. Treatment in a bioreactor removes the petroleum contamination from the soil without spreading radiological contamination to the environment. This bioreactor uses the bioventing process and bioaugmentation or the addition of the select hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Oxygen is usually the initial rate-limiting factor in the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Using the bioventing process allowed control of the supply of nutrients and moisture based on petroleum contamination concentrations and soil type. The results of this work have proven to be a safe and cost-effective means of cleaning up low level radiological and petroleum-contaminated soil. Many of the other elements of the bioreactor design were developed or enhanced during the demonstration of a ''biopile'' to treat the soils beneath a Polish oil refinery's waste disposal lagoons. Aerobic microorganisms were isolated from the aged refinery's acidic sludge contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twelve hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge. The predominant PAH degraders were tentatively identified as Achromobacter, Pseudomonas Burkholderia, and Sphingomonas spp. Several Ralstonia spp were also isolated that produce biosurfactants. Biosurfactants can enhance bioremediation by increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic contaminants including hydrocarbons. The results indicated that the diversity of acid-tolerant PAH-degrading microorganisms in acidic oil wastes may

  5. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis supernatant from a fermentation process to improve bioremediation of chlorpyrifos in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Diez, Angel E; Estrada-Castañeda, Kelly J; Castañeda-Sandoval, Laura M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of a nutrient-rich organic waste, namely the cell-free supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis (BtS) gathered from fermentation, as a biostimulating agent to improve and sustain microbial populations and their enzymatic activities, thereby assisting in the bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil at a high dose (70 mg kg(-1)). Experiments were performed for up to 80 d. Chlorpyrifos degradation and its major metabolic product, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); total microbial populations were enumerated by direct counts in specific medium; and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis was measured as an index of soil microbial activity. Throughout the experiment, there was higher chlorpyrifos degradation in soil supplemented with BtS (83.1%) as compared to non-supplemented soil. TCP formation and degradation occurred in all soils, but the greatest degradation (30.34%) was observed in soil supplemented with BtS. The total microbial populations were significantly improved by supplementation with BtS. The application of chlorpyrifos to soil inhibited the enzymatic activity; however, this negative effect was counteracted by BtS, inducing an increase of approximately 16% in FDA hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the potential of B. thuringiensis supernatant as a suitable biostimulation agent for enhancing chlorpyrifos and TCP biodegradation in chlorpyrifos-contaminated soils.

  6. Combination of bioremediation and electrokinetics for the in-situ treatment of diesel polluted soil: A comparison of strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena Ramírez, Esperanza; Villaseñor Camacho, José; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Cañizares, Pablo

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this work is to compare different strategies based on electrokinetic soil flushing and bioremediation for the remediation of diesel-polluted soil. Four options were tested at the laboratory scale: single bioremediation (Bio), performed as a control test; a direct combination of electrokinetic soil flushing and biological technologies (EKSF-Bio); EKSF-Bio with daily polarity reversal of the electric field (PR-EKSF-Bio); and a combination of electrokinetic soil flushing and a permeable reactive biological barrier (EKSF-BioPRB). Four batch experiments of 14 days duration were carried out for comparing technologies at room temperature with an electric field of 1.0 V cm(-1) (in EKSF). A diesel degrading microbial consortium was used. The experimental procedure and some specific details, such as the flushing fluids used, varied depending on the strategy. When using the EKSF-Bio option, a high buffer concentration was required to control the pH, causing soil heating, which negatively affected the biological growth and thus the diesel removal. The PR-EKSF-Bio and the EKSF-BioPRB options attained suitable operating conditions and improved the transport processes for biological growth. Polarity reversal was an efficient option for pH, moisture and temperature control. Homogeneous microbial growth was observed, and approximately 20% of the diesel was removed. The BioPRB option was not as efficient as PR-EKSF-Bio in controlling the operating conditions, but the central biobarrier protected the biological activity. Microbial growth was observed not only in the biobarrier but also in a large portion of the soil, and 29% of the diesel was removed in the short remediation test.

  7. Combination of bioremediation and electrokinetics for the in-situ treatment of diesel polluted soil: A comparison of strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena Ramírez, Esperanza; Villaseñor Camacho, José; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Cañizares, Pablo

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this work is to compare different strategies based on electrokinetic soil flushing and bioremediation for the remediation of diesel-polluted soil. Four options were tested at the laboratory scale: single bioremediation (Bio), performed as a control test; a direct combination of electrokinetic soil flushing and biological technologies (EKSF-Bio); EKSF-Bio with daily polarity reversal of the electric field (PR-EKSF-Bio); and a combination of electrokinetic soil flushing and a permeable reactive biological barrier (EKSF-BioPRB). Four batch experiments of 14 days duration were carried out for comparing technologies at room temperature with an electric field of 1.0 V cm(-1) (in EKSF). A diesel degrading microbial consortium was used. The experimental procedure and some specific details, such as the flushing fluids used, varied depending on the strategy. When using the EKSF-Bio option, a high buffer concentration was required to control the pH, causing soil heating, which negatively affected the biological growth and thus the diesel removal. The PR-EKSF-Bio and the EKSF-BioPRB options attained suitable operating conditions and improved the transport processes for biological growth. Polarity reversal was an efficient option for pH, moisture and temperature control. Homogeneous microbial growth was observed, and approximately 20% of the diesel was removed. The BioPRB option was not as efficient as PR-EKSF-Bio in controlling the operating conditions, but the central biobarrier protected the biological activity. Microbial growth was observed not only in the biobarrier but also in a large portion of the soil, and 29% of the diesel was removed in the short remediation test. PMID:26172598

  8. Microarray and real-time PCR analyses of the responses of high-arctic soil bacteria to hydrocarbon pollution and bioremediation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yergeau, Etienne; Arbour, Mélanie; Brousseau, Roland; Juck, David; Lawrence, John R; Masson, Luke; Whyte, Lyle G; Greer, Charles W

    2009-10-01

    High-Arctic soils have low nutrient availability, low moisture content, and very low temperatures and, as such, they pose a particular problem in terms of hydrocarbon bioremediation. An in-depth knowledge of the microbiology involved in this process is likely to be crucial to understand and optimize the factors most influencing bioremediation. Here, we compared two distinct large-scale field bioremediation experiments, located at the Canadian high-Arctic stations of Alert (ex situ approach) and Eureka (in situ approach). Bacterial community structure and function were assessed using microarrays targeting the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria found in cold environments and hydrocarbon degradation genes as well as quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR targeting key functional genes. The results indicated a large difference between sampling sites in terms of both soil microbiology and decontamination rates. A rapid reorganization of the bacterial community structure and functional potential as well as rapid increases in the expression of alkane monooxygenases and polyaromatic hydrocarbon-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases were observed 1 month after the bioremediation treatment commenced in the Alert soils. In contrast, no clear changes in community structure were observed in Eureka soils, while key gene expression increased after a relatively long lag period (1 year). Such discrepancies are likely caused by differences in bioremediation treatments (i.e., ex situ versus in situ), weathering of the hydrocarbons, indigenous microbial communities, and environmental factors such as soil humidity and temperature. In addition, this study demonstrates the value of molecular tools for the monitoring of polar bacteria and their associated functions during bioremediation. PMID:19684169

  9. Microbial community dynamics during the bioremediation process of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil by Hansschlegelia sp. strain CHL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Zhang, Huiwen

    2015-01-01

    Long-term and excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to a series of environmental problems. Strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, a highly efficient chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterium isolated in our previous study, was employed in the current soil bioremediation study. The residues of chlorimuron-ethyl in soils were detected, and the changes of soil microbial communities were investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. The results showed that strain CHL1 exhibited significant chlorimuron-ethyl degradation ability at wide range of concentrations between 10μg kg-1 and 1000μg kg-1. High concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly decreased the total concentration of PLFAs and the Shannon-Wiener indices and increased the stress level of microbes in soils. The inoculation with strain CHL1, however, reduced the inhibition on soil microbes caused by chlorimuron-ethyl. The results demonstrated that strain CHL1 is effective in the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and has the potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ.

  10. Microbial community dynamics during the bioremediation process of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil by Hansschlegelia sp. strain CHL1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Yang

    Full Text Available Long-term and excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to a series of environmental problems. Strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, a highly efficient chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterium isolated in our previous study, was employed in the current soil bioremediation study. The residues of chlorimuron-ethyl in soils were detected, and the changes of soil microbial communities were investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis. The results showed that strain CHL1 exhibited significant chlorimuron-ethyl degradation ability at wide range of concentrations between 10μg kg-1 and 1000μg kg-1. High concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly decreased the total concentration of PLFAs and the Shannon-Wiener indices and increased the stress level of microbes in soils. The inoculation with strain CHL1, however, reduced the inhibition on soil microbes caused by chlorimuron-ethyl. The results demonstrated that strain CHL1 is effective in the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and has the potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ.

  11. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation as strategies for the bioremediation of a burned woodland soil contaminated by toxic hydrocarbons: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-15

    In this work, the natural attenuation strategy (no soil amendments done) was compared with two different bioremediation approaches, namely bioaugmentation through soil inoculation with a suspension of Trichoderma sp. mycelium and biostimulation by soil addition with a microbial growth promoting formulation, in order to verify the effectiveness of these methods in terms of degradation efficiency towards toxic hydrocarbons, with particular attention to the high molecular weight (HMW) fraction, in a forest area impacted by recent wildfire in Northern Italy. The area under investigation, divided into three parcels, was monitored to figure out the dynamics of decay in soil concentration of C₁₂₋₄₀ hydrocarbons (including isoalkanes, cycloalkanes, alkyl-benzenes and alkyl-naphthalenes besides PAHs) and low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, following the adoption of the foregoing different remediation strategies. Soil hydrocarbonoclastic potential was even checked by characterizing the autochthonous microbial cenoses. Field experiments proved that the best performance in the abatement of HMW hydrocarbons was reached 60 days after soil treatment through the biostimulation protocol, when about 70% of the initial concentration of HMW hydrocarbons was depleted. Within the same time, about 55% degradation was obtained with the bioaugmentation protocol, whilst natural attenuation allowed only a 45% removal of the starting C12-40 hydrocarbon fraction. Therefore, biostimulation seems to significantly reduce the time required for the remediation, most likely because of the enhancement of microbial degradation through the improvement of nutrient balance in the burned soil.

  12. Dynamic changes of bacterial community under bioremediation with Sphingobium sp. LY-6 in buprofezin-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Hou, Qianqian; Liu, Wanru; Meng, Yawen; Wang, Guangli

    2015-08-01

    Buprofezin is a commonly used chemical with satisfactory biological activity against sucking insect pests, but its disposal can cause serious environmental problems. To study the feasibility of remedying contamination by buprofezin, microcosm experiments were carried out to study the effects of various concentrations of buprofezin and Sphingobium sp. LY-6 on soil bacterial communities in soils collected from vegetable fields. In this experiment, the results showed that buprofezin was effectively degraded by Sphingobium sp. LY-6 in incubation soils. Comparing to non-incubated soils, the cumulative degradation ratio of buprofezin was significantly increased, up to the extent of 85 and 51%, in the initial concentration of 10 and 100 mg kg(-1). The abundance and community structure of the bacterial communities were analysed by real-time PCR (qPCR) and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The findings suggest that buprofezin had a negative effect on soil bacterial community, and decreases in bacterial abundance were observed in the later part of the incubation period. The bacterial community structure and diversity shifted significantly at each sampling time. In conclusion, the buprofezin-degrading strain LY-6 played a major role in the bioremediation of the buprofezin-contaminated soil and influenced the dynamics and structure of the bacterial community, demonstrating the great potential of exogenous microorganisms for soil remediation.

  13. Shifts in microbial community structure during in situ surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingwen; Li, Feng; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to reveal the microbial mechanism of in situ surfactant-enhanced bioremediation (SEBR). Various concentrations of rhamnolipids, Tween 80, and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) were separately sprayed onto soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for years. Within 90 days, the highest level of degradation (95 %) was observed in the soil treated with rhamnolipids (10 mg/kg), followed by 92 % degradation with Tween 80 (50 mg/kg) and 90 % degradation with SDBS (50 mg/kg). The results of the microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) suggest that bacteria dominated the enhanced PAH biodegradation (94 % of the maximum contribution). The shift of bacterial community structure during the surfactant treatment was analyzed by using the 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. In the presence of surfactants, the number of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas increased from 2-3 to 15-30 % at the end of the experiment (two to three times of control). Gene prediction with phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) shows that the PAH-degrading genes, such as 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate dioxygenase and PAH dioxygenase large subunit, significantly increased after the surfactant applications (p bioremediation.

  14. Application of sewage sludge and intermittent aeration strategy to the bioremediation of DDT- and HCH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qi; Lei, Mei; Chen, Tongbin; Yang, Jun; Wan, Xiaoming; Yang, Sucai

    2014-08-01

    Adding organic amendments to stimulate the biodegradation of pesticides is a subject of ongoing interest. The effect of sewage sludge on the bioremediation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soil was investigated in bench scale experiments, and intermittent aeration strategy was also used in this study to form an anaerobic-aerobic cycle. Bioremediation of DDT and HCH was enhanced with the addition of sewage sludge and the intermittent aeration. The removal rates of HCH and DDT were raised by 16.8%-80.8% in 10 days. Sewage sludge increased the organic carbon content from 6.2 to 218 g/kg, and it could also introduce efficient degradation microbes to soil, including Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Sphingomonas sp. The unaerated phase enhanced the anaerobic dechlorination of DDT and HCH, and anaerobic removal rates of β-HCH, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT accounted for more than 50% of the total removal rates, but the content of α-HCH declined more in the aerobic phase.

  15. Effect of electric field on the performance of soil electro-bioremediation with a periodic polarity reversal strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, E; Villaseñor, J; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2016-03-01

    In this work, it is studied the effect of the electric fields (within the range 0.0-1.5 V cm(-1)) on the performance of electrobioremediation with polarity reversal, using a bench scale plant with diesel-spiked kaolinite with 14-d long tests. Results obtained show that the periodic changes in the polarity of the electric field results in a more efficient treatment as compared with the single electro-bioremediation process, and it does not require the addition of a buffer to keep the pH within a suitable range. The soil heating was not very important and it did not cause a change in the temperature of the soil up to values incompatible with the life of microorganisms. Low values of water transported by the electro-osmosis process were attained with this strategy. After only 14 d of treatment, by using the highest electric field studied in this work (1.5 V cm(-1)), up to 35.40% of the diesel added at the beginning of the test was removed, value much higher than the 10.5% obtained by the single bioremediation technology in the same period.

  16. Shifts in microbial community structure during in situ surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingwen; Li, Feng; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to reveal the microbial mechanism of in situ surfactant-enhanced bioremediation (SEBR). Various concentrations of rhamnolipids, Tween 80, and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) were separately sprayed onto soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for years. Within 90 days, the highest level of degradation (95 %) was observed in the soil treated with rhamnolipids (10 mg/kg), followed by 92 % degradation with Tween 80 (50 mg/kg) and 90 % degradation with SDBS (50 mg/kg). The results of the microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) suggest that bacteria dominated the enhanced PAH biodegradation (94 % of the maximum contribution). The shift of bacterial community structure during the surfactant treatment was analyzed by using the 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing. In the presence of surfactants, the number of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas increased from 2-3 to 15-30 % at the end of the experiment (two to three times of control). Gene prediction with phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) shows that the PAH-degrading genes, such as 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate dioxygenase and PAH dioxygenase large subunit, significantly increased after the surfactant applications (p < 0.05). The findings of this study provide insights into the surfactant-induced shifts of microbial community, as well as critical factors for efficient bioremediation. PMID:27068902

  17. Biodegradation and bioremediation potential of diazinon-degrading Serratia marcescens to remove other organophosphorus pesticides from soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Żmijowska, Agnieszka; Wójcik, Marcin; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2013-03-15

    The ability of diazinon-degrading Serratia marcescens to remove organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), i.e. chlorpyrifos (CP), fenitrothion (FT), and parathion (PT) was studied in a mineral salt medium (MSM) and in three soils of different characteristics. This strain was capable of using all insecticides at concentration of 50 mg/l as the only carbon source when grown in MSM, and 58.9%, 70.5%, and 82.5% of the initial dosage of CP, FT, and PT, respectively was degraded within 14 days. The biodegradation experiment showed that autochthonous microflora in all soils was characterized by a degradation potential of all tested OPPs; however, the initial lag phases for degradation of CP and FT, especially in sandy soil, were observed. During the 42-day experiment, 45.3%, 61.4% and 72.5% of the initial dose of CP, FT, and PT, respectively, was removed in sandy soil whereas the degradation of CP, FT, and PT in the same period, in sandy loam and silty soils reached 61.4%, 79.7% and 64.2%, and 68.9%, 81.0% and 63.6%, respectively. S. marcescens introduced into sterile soils showed a higher degradation potential (5-13%) for OPPs removal than those observed in non-sterile soil with naturally occurring attenuation. Inoculation of non-sterile soils with S. marcescens enhanced the disappearance rates of all insecticides, and DT50 for CP, FT, and PT was reduced by 20.7, 11.3 and 13.0 days, and 11.9, 7.0 and 8.1 days, and 9.7, 14.5 and 12.6 days in sandy, sandy loam, and silty soils, respectively, in comparison with non-sterile soils with only indigenous microflora. This ability of S. marcescens makes it a suitable strain for bioremediation of soils contaminated with OPPs.

  18. Bioremediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil by Hansschlegelia sp. strain CHL1 and the changes of indigenous microbial population and N-cycling function genes during the bioremediation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Zhang, Huiwen

    2014-06-15

    Long-term and excessive application of the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl has led to soil degradation and crop rotation barriers. In the current study, we isolated bacterial strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, which can utilize chlorimuron-ethyl as its sole carbon and energy source, and investigated its application in soil bioremediation. Indigenous microbial populations and N-cycling function in the soil were also investigated during the bioremediation process by monitoring the copy numbers of bacterial and fungal marker genes, as well as N-cycling functional genes (nifH, amoA, nirS, and nirK). Results showed that >95% of chlorimuron-ethyl could be degraded within 45 days in soils inoculated with CHL1. Inoculation at two time points resulted in a higher remediation efficiency and longer survival time than a single inoculation. At the end of the 60-day incubation, the copy numbers of most indicator genes were recovered to the level of the control, even in the single-inoculation soils. A double inoculation was necessary for recovery of nifH. However, the abundance of nirK and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial genes were significantly inhibited regardless of inoculum. The results suggested that CHL1 is effective for the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and could partially reduce the toxic effects of chlorimuron-ethyl on soil microorganisms.

  19. Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, N.B.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Hidalgo Lasso, D.; Zaan, van der B.M.; Gaans, van P.; Maphosa, F.; Smidt, H.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in

  20. Engineering Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for simultaneous degradation of organophosphates and pyrethroids and its application in bioremediation of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhenqiang; Gong, Ting; Che, You; Liu, Ruihua; Xu, Ping; Jiang, Hong; Qiao, Chuanling; Song, Cunjiang; Yang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural soils are usually co-contaminated with organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. To develop a stable and marker-free Pseudomonas putida for co-expression of two pesticide-degrading enzymes, we constructed a suicide plasmid with expression cassettes containing a constitutive promoter J23119, an OP-degrading gene (mpd), a pyrethroid-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase gene (pytH) that utilizes the upp gene as a counter-selectable marker for upp-deficient P. putida. By introduction of suicide plasmid and two-step homologous recombination, both mpd and pytH genes were integrated into the chromosome of a robust soil bacterium P. putida KT2440 and no selection marker was left on chromosome. Functional expression of mpd and pytH in P. putida KT2440 was demonstrated by Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays. Degradation experiments with liquid cultures showed that the mixed pesticides including methyl parathion, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, fenpropathrin, and cypermethrin (0.2 mM each) were degraded completely within 48 h. The inoculation of engineered strain (10(6) cells/g) to soils treated with the above mixed pesticides resulted in a higher degradation rate than in noninoculated soils. All six pesticides could be degraded completely within 15 days in fumigated and nonfumigated soils with inoculation. Theses results highlight the potential of the engineered strain to be used for in situ bioremediation of soils co-contaminated with OP and pyrethroid pesticides. PMID:25917649

  1. Engineering Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for simultaneous degradation of organophosphates and pyrethroids and its application in bioremediation of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhenqiang; Gong, Ting; Che, You; Liu, Ruihua; Xu, Ping; Jiang, Hong; Qiao, Chuanling; Song, Cunjiang; Yang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural soils are usually co-contaminated with organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. To develop a stable and marker-free Pseudomonas putida for co-expression of two pesticide-degrading enzymes, we constructed a suicide plasmid with expression cassettes containing a constitutive promoter J23119, an OP-degrading gene (mpd), a pyrethroid-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase gene (pytH) that utilizes the upp gene as a counter-selectable marker for upp-deficient P. putida. By introduction of suicide plasmid and two-step homologous recombination, both mpd and pytH genes were integrated into the chromosome of a robust soil bacterium P. putida KT2440 and no selection marker was left on chromosome. Functional expression of mpd and pytH in P. putida KT2440 was demonstrated by Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays. Degradation experiments with liquid cultures showed that the mixed pesticides including methyl parathion, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, fenpropathrin, and cypermethrin (0.2 mM each) were degraded completely within 48 h. The inoculation of engineered strain (10(6) cells/g) to soils treated with the above mixed pesticides resulted in a higher degradation rate than in noninoculated soils. All six pesticides could be degraded completely within 15 days in fumigated and nonfumigated soils with inoculation. Theses results highlight the potential of the engineered strain to be used for in situ bioremediation of soils co-contaminated with OP and pyrethroid pesticides.

  2. Bioremediation of soil contaminated by diesel oil Biorremediação de solos contaminados por óleo diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Menezes Bento

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Were evaluated natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation on the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in soils contaminated with diesel oil. Bioaugmentation showed the greatest degradation in the light (C12 - C23 fractions (72.7% and heavy (C23 - C40 fractions of TPH (75.2% and natural attenuation was more effective than biostimulation. The greatest dehydrogenase activity was observed upon bioaugmentation of the Long Beach soil (3.3-fold and the natural attenuation of the Hong Kong soil sample (4.0-fold. The number of diesel oil degrading microorganisms and heterotrophic population was not influenced by the bioremediation treatments. The best approach for bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel oil is the inoculum of microorganisms pre-selected from their own environment.Avaliou-se a degradação de hidrocarbonetos de petróleo (HP em solos contaminados com óleo diesel através da atenuação natural, bioestimulação e bioaumentação. A bioaumentação apresentou a maior degradação da fração leve (72,6% e da fração pesada (75,2% de HP e a atenuação natural foi mais efetiva do que a bioestimulação. A maior atividade da dehidrogenase no solo Long Beach e Hong Kong foi observada nos tratamentos bioaumentação e atenuação natural, respectivamente. O número de microrganismos degradadores de diesel e a população de heterotróficos não foi influenciada pelas técnicas de biorremediação. A melhor performance para a biorremediação do solo contaminado com diesel foi obtida quando foram adicionados microrganismos pré-selecionados do ambiente contaminado.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas putida CBF10-2, a Soil Isolate with Bioremediation Potential in Agricultural and Industrial Environmental Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa; Damania, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida CBF10-2 is a microorganism isolated from farmland soil in Fairchild, TX, found to degrade high-impact xenobiotics, including organophosphate insecticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, and both monocyclic and polycyclic aromatics. The versatility of CBF10-2 makes it useful for multipurpose bioremediation of contaminated sites in agricultural and industrial environments. PMID:27417844

  4. PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINING BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOKINETICS OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN DISPERSED, COMPACTED AND INTACT SOIL SYSTEMS TO ENHANCE IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of effective in situ and on-site bioremediation technologies can facilitate the cleanup of chemically-contaminated soil sites. Knowledge of biodegradation kinetics and bioavailability of organic pollutants can facilitate decisions on the efficacy of in situ and o...

  5. The impact on the soil microbial community and enzyme activity of two earthworm species during the bioremediation of pentachlorophenol-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhong; Zhen, Zhen; Wu, Zhihao; Yang, Jiewen; Zhong, Laiyuan; Hu, Hanqiao; Luo, Chunling; Bai, Jing; Li, Yongtao; Zhang, Dayi

    2016-01-15

    The ecological effect of earthworms on the fate of soil pentachlorophenol (PCP) differs with species. This study addressed the roles and mechanisms by which two earthworm species (epigeic Eisenia fetida and endogeic Amynthas robustus E. Perrier) affect the soil microbial community and enzyme activity during the bioremediation of PCP-contaminated soils. A. robustus removed more soil PCP than did E. foetida. A. robustus improved nitrogen utilisation efficiency and soil oxidation more than did E. foetida, whereas the latter promoted the organic matter cycle in the soil. Both earthworm species significantly increased the amount of cultivable bacteria and actinomyces in soils, enhancing the utilisation rate of the carbon source (i.e. carbohydrates, carboxyl acids, and amino acids) and improving the richness and evenness of the soil microbial community. Additionally, earthworm treatment optimized the soil microbial community and increased the amount of the PCP-4-monooxygenase gene. Phylogenic classification revealed stimulation of indigenous PCP bacterial degraders, as assigned to the families Flavobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and Sphingobacteriacea, by both earthworms. A. robustus and E. foetida specifically promoted Comamonadaceae and Moraxellaceae PCP degraders, respectively.

  6. Bioremediation of polychlorinated-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans contaminated soil using simulated compost-amended landfill reactors under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Jer-Horng; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Juu-En

    2016-07-15

    Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between -400 and +80mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37-1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable. PMID:27037469

  7. A geometric construction of traveling waves in a bioremediation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, M.; Doelman, A.; Kaper, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for cleaning contaminated soil. We study an idealized bioremediation model involving a substrate (contaminant to be removed), electron acceptor (added nutrient), and microorganisms in a one-dimensional soil column. Using geometric singular perturbation theory,

  8. A geometric construction of traveling waves in a bioremediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Beck; A. Doelman; T.J. Kaper

    2006-01-01

    Bioremediation is a promising technique for cleaning contaminated soil. We study an idealized bioremediation model involving a substrate (contaminant to be removed), electron acceptor (added nutrient), and microorganisms in a one-dimensional soil column. Using geometric singular perturbation theory,

  9. The ecological and physiological responses of the microbial community from a semiarid soil to hydrocarbon contamination and its bioremediation using compost amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, F; Jehmlich, N; Lima, K; Morris, B E L; Richnow, H H; Hernández, T; von Bergen, M; García, C

    2016-03-01

    The linkage between phylogenetic and functional processes may provide profound insights into the effects of hydrocarbon contamination and biodegradation processes in high-diversity environments. Here, the impacts of petroleum contamination and the bioremediation potential of compost amendment, as enhancer of the microbial activity in semiarid soils, were evaluated in a model experiment. The analysis of phospholipid fatty-acids (PLFAs) and metaproteomics allowed the study of biomass, phylogenetic and physiological responses of the microbial community in polluted semiarid soils. Petroleum pollution induced an increase of proteobacterial proteins during the contamination, while the relative abundance of Rhizobiales lowered in comparison to the non-contaminated soil. Despite only 0.55% of the metaproteome of the compost-treated soil was involved in biodegradation processes, the addition of compost promoted the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkanes up to 88% after 50 days. However, natural biodegradation of hydrocarbons was not significant in soils without compost. Compost-assisted bioremediation was mainly driven by Sphingomonadales and uncultured bacteria that showed an increased abundance of catabolic enzymes such as catechol 2,3-dioxygenases, cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. For the first time, metaproteomics revealed the functional and phylogenetic relationships of petroleum contamination in soil and the microbial key players involved in the compost-assisted bioremediation.

  10. The ecological and physiological responses of the microbial community from a semiarid soil to hydrocarbon contamination and its bioremediation using compost amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, F; Jehmlich, N; Lima, K; Morris, B E L; Richnow, H H; Hernández, T; von Bergen, M; García, C

    2016-03-01

    The linkage between phylogenetic and functional processes may provide profound insights into the effects of hydrocarbon contamination and biodegradation processes in high-diversity environments. Here, the impacts of petroleum contamination and the bioremediation potential of compost amendment, as enhancer of the microbial activity in semiarid soils, were evaluated in a model experiment. The analysis of phospholipid fatty-acids (PLFAs) and metaproteomics allowed the study of biomass, phylogenetic and physiological responses of the microbial community in polluted semiarid soils. Petroleum pollution induced an increase of proteobacterial proteins during the contamination, while the relative abundance of Rhizobiales lowered in comparison to the non-contaminated soil. Despite only 0.55% of the metaproteome of the compost-treated soil was involved in biodegradation processes, the addition of compost promoted the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkanes up to 88% after 50 days. However, natural biodegradation of hydrocarbons was not significant in soils without compost. Compost-assisted bioremediation was mainly driven by Sphingomonadales and uncultured bacteria that showed an increased abundance of catabolic enzymes such as catechol 2,3-dioxygenases, cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. For the first time, metaproteomics revealed the functional and phylogenetic relationships of petroleum contamination in soil and the microbial key players involved in the compost-assisted bioremediation. PMID:26225916

  11. Evaluation of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides and their tolerant microorganisms from an agricultural soil to define its bioremediation feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-García, Alejandro; Vega-Loyo, Libia; Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), nutrients and tolerant microorganisms in an agricultural soil from a locality in Tepeaca, Puebla, Mexico, were determined to define its feasibility for bioremediation. The OCPs detected were heptachlor, aldrin, trans-chlordane, endosulfán I, endosulfán II, 1,1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-trichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE) and endrin aldehyde, with values of 0.69-30.81 ng g(-1). The concentration of hydrocarbons in the soil of Middle Hydrocarbons Fraction (MHF), C10 to C28, was 4608-27,748 mg kg(-1) and 1117-19,610 mg kg(-1) for Heavy Hydrocarbons Fraction (HHF), C28 to C35, due to an oil spill from the rupture of a pipeline. The soil was deficient in nitrogen (0.03-0.07%) and phosphorus (0 ppm), and therefore it was advisable to fertilize to bio-stimulate the native microorganisms of soil. In the soil samples, hydrocarbonoclast fungi 3.72 × 10(2) to 44.6 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s. and hydrocarbonoclast bacteria (0.17 × 10(5) to 8.60 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were detected, with a tolerance of 30,000 mg kg(-1) of diesel. Moreover, pesticideclast fungi (5.13 × 10(2) to 42.2 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s.) and pesticideclast bacteria (0.15 × 10(5) to 9.68 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were determined with tolerance to 20 mg kg(-1) of OCPs. Fungi and bacteria tolerant to both pollutants were also quantified. Therefore, native microorganisms had potential to be stimulated to degrade hydrocarbons and pesticides or both pollutants. The concentration of pollutants and the microbial activity analyzed indicated that bioremediation of the soil contaminated with hydrocarbons and pesticides using bio-stimulation of native microorganisms was feasible.

  12. Evaluation of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides and their tolerant microorganisms from an agricultural soil to define its bioremediation feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-García, Alejandro; Vega-Loyo, Libia; Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), nutrients and tolerant microorganisms in an agricultural soil from a locality in Tepeaca, Puebla, Mexico, were determined to define its feasibility for bioremediation. The OCPs detected were heptachlor, aldrin, trans-chlordane, endosulfán I, endosulfán II, 1,1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-trichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE) and endrin aldehyde, with values of 0.69-30.81 ng g(-1). The concentration of hydrocarbons in the soil of Middle Hydrocarbons Fraction (MHF), C10 to C28, was 4608-27,748 mg kg(-1) and 1117-19,610 mg kg(-1) for Heavy Hydrocarbons Fraction (HHF), C28 to C35, due to an oil spill from the rupture of a pipeline. The soil was deficient in nitrogen (0.03-0.07%) and phosphorus (0 ppm), and therefore it was advisable to fertilize to bio-stimulate the native microorganisms of soil. In the soil samples, hydrocarbonoclast fungi 3.72 × 10(2) to 44.6 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s. and hydrocarbonoclast bacteria (0.17 × 10(5) to 8.60 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were detected, with a tolerance of 30,000 mg kg(-1) of diesel. Moreover, pesticideclast fungi (5.13 × 10(2) to 42.2 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s.) and pesticideclast bacteria (0.15 × 10(5) to 9.68 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were determined with tolerance to 20 mg kg(-1) of OCPs. Fungi and bacteria tolerant to both pollutants were also quantified. Therefore, native microorganisms had potential to be stimulated to degrade hydrocarbons and pesticides or both pollutants. The concentration of pollutants and the microbial activity analyzed indicated that bioremediation of the soil contaminated with hydrocarbons and pesticides using bio-stimulation of native microorganisms was feasible. PMID:25587779

  13. [Comparison of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soil by composting in the spring and winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Wei, Yuan-Song; Yang, Yu; Shen, Ying; Zheng, Jia-Xi

    2010-06-01

    In this study, lab-scale bioremediation experiments of soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) with aerated composting were compared in the Spring and Winter. Results showed that PAHs degradation rate in the winter was higher than that in the spring, and the total PAHs degradation rates were over 70% for both Pile 1 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 1: 1) and Pile 2 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 3: 1), but the PAHs degradation rate of Pile 1 as 74.61% was higher than that of Pile 2 the degradation rates of low, middle, high benzene-ring types PAHs were 66.46%, 79.12%, 75.88%, respectively. After composting most of kinds of PAHs contents in soil were less than 1 000 microg/kg (dry weight) except BbF, for example, BbF contents of these two piles in the Spring, 25 000 microg/kg and 20 000 microg/kg, respectively, were much higher than those in the winter experiments, both less than 5 000 microg/kg. The first reaction order model was used to simulate degradation of PAHs during composting, and results showed that the model was fitted better in winter (R2 > 0.6) than in spring, and the half-life of PAHs degradation in winter was about 13 d.

  14. 浅谈污染土壤的生物修复%Discussion on Bioremediation of Polluted Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘有哲

    2015-01-01

    随着我国人口的迅速增长、社会工业化速度的加快.在经济迅速发展的同时,人类向自然界中排放的有毒和有害化学物质越来越多,这对我们的环境,尤其是对我们的土壤污染极其严重.本文论述了土壤环境的特征、土壤中主要的污染物质、污染土壤生态修复的基本原理、以及对生物修复方面研究的展望.%With the rapid growth of China's population,the high speed of social industrialization and the rapid development of economy, human beings discharge more and more poisonous and harmful chemicals to the nature, which is very serious pollution to the environment, especially to the soil. This paper discusses the characteristics of soil environment,the main pollutants in soil,the basic principle of soil ecological restoration and the prospect of the research on bioremediation.

  15. Solarization and biosolarization using organic wastes for the bioremediation of soil polluted with terbuthylazine and linuron residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, José; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Lacasa, Alfredo; Navarro, Simón

    2014-10-01

    Strategies for remediation of polluted soils are needed to accelerate the degradation and natural attenuation of pesticides. This study was conducted to assess the effect of solarization (S) and biosolarization (BS) during the summer season using organic wastes (composted sheep manure and sugar beet vinasse) for the bioremediation of soil containing residues of terbuthylazine and linuron. The results showed that both S and BS enhanced herbicide dissipation rates compared with the non-disinfected control, an effect which was attributed to the increased soil temperature and organic matter. Linuron showed similar behavior under S and BS conditions. However, terbuthylazine was degraded to a greater extent in the biosolarization experiment using sugar beet vinasse than in the both the solarization and biosolarization experiments using composted sheep manure treatments. The main organic intermediates detected during the degradation of terbuthylazine and linuron were identified, enabling the main steps of degradation to be proposed. The results confirm that both S and BS techniques can be considered as a remediation tools for polluted soils containing these herbicides.

  16. Phytoremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils Artificially Polluted Using Plant-Associated-Endophytic Bacteria and Dactylis glomerata as the Bioremediation Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałązka, Ann; Gałązka, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of soil microorganisms to the contamination of soil artificially polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated in pot experiments. The plant used in the tests was cock's foot (Dactylis glomerata). Three different soils artificially contaminated with PAHs were applied in the studies. Three selected PAHs (anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) were used at the doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg d.m. of soil and diesel fuel at the doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg d.m. of soil. For evaluation of the synergistic effect of nitrogen fixing bacteria, the following strains were selected: associative Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas stutzerii. Additionally, in the bioremediation process, the inoculation of plants with a mixture of the bacterial strains in the amount of 1 ml suspension per 500 g of soil was used. Chamber pot-tests were carried out in controlled conditions during four weeks of plant growth period. The basic physical, microbiological and biochemical properties in contaminated soils were determined. The obtained results showed a statistically important increase in the physical properties of soils polluted with PAHs and diesel fuel compared with the control and also an important decrease in the content of PAHs and heavy metals in soils inoculated with Azospirillum spp. and P. stutzeri after cock's foot grass growth. The bioremediation processes were especially intensive in calcareous rendzina soil artificially polluted with PAHs.

  17. Phytoremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils Artificially Polluted Using Plant-Associated-Endophytic Bacteria and Dactylis glomerata as the Bioremediation Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałązka, Ann; Gałązka, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of soil microorganisms to the contamination of soil artificially polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated in pot experiments. The plant used in the tests was cock's foot (Dactylis glomerata). Three different soils artificially contaminated with PAHs were applied in the studies. Three selected PAHs (anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) were used at the doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg d.m. of soil and diesel fuel at the doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg d.m. of soil. For evaluation of the synergistic effect of nitrogen fixing bacteria, the following strains were selected: associative Azospirillum spp. and Pseudomonas stutzerii. Additionally, in the bioremediation process, the inoculation of plants with a mixture of the bacterial strains in the amount of 1 ml suspension per 500 g of soil was used. Chamber pot-tests were carried out in controlled conditions during four weeks of plant growth period. The basic physical, microbiological and biochemical properties in contaminated soils were determined. The obtained results showed a statistically important increase in the physical properties of soils polluted with PAHs and diesel fuel compared with the control and also an important decrease in the content of PAHs and heavy metals in soils inoculated with Azospirillum spp. and P. stutzeri after cock's foot grass growth. The bioremediation processes were especially intensive in calcareous rendzina soil artificially polluted with PAHs. PMID:26638532

  18. In-situ bioremediation of soil polluted by fuel oil, Strasbourg, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1987, a 17,000 gallon fuel oil spill occurred on an industrial site in Strasbourg, France. The Bureau de Recherche Geologique et Miniere (French equivalent to the US Bureau of Mines and the US Geological Survey), and ESYS, a subsidiary of ELF AQUITAINE, a French based oil, chemical, and pharmaceutical corporation, jointly developed a strategy to remediate this site. In-situ bioremediation with addition of exogenous bacteria, as well as hydrogen peroxide and a surfactant, was the process selected for the clean-up. This paper describes the clean-up operation and the results obtained

  19. GRACE BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES - DARAMEND™ BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Dearborn's DARAMEND™ Bioremediation Technology was developed to treat soils/sediment contaminated with organic contaminants using solid-phase organic amendments. The amendments increase the soil’s ability to supply biologically available water/nutrients to micro...

  20. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated saline-alkaline soils of the former Lake Texcoco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur-Galvis, L A; Alvarez-Bernal, D; Ramos-Valdivia, A C; Dendooven, L

    2006-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as phenanthrene, anthracene and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are toxic for the environment. Removing these components from soil is difficult as they are resistant to degradation and more so in soils with high pH and large salt concentrations as in soil of the former lake Texcoco, but stimulating soil micro-organisms growth by adding nutrients might accelerate soil restoration. Soil of Texcoco and an agricultural Acolman soil, which served as a control, were spiked with phenanthrene, anthracene and BaP, added with or without biosolid or inorganic fertilizer (N, P), and dynamics of PAHs, N and P were monitored in a 112-day incubation. Concentrations of phenanthrene did not change significantly in sterilized Acolman soil, but decreased 2-times in unsterilized soil and >25-times in soil amended with biosolid and NP. The concentration of phenanthrene in unsterilized soil of Texcoco was 1.3-times lower compared to the sterilized soil, 1.7-times in soil amended with NP and 2.9-times in soil amended with biosolid. In unsterilized Acolman soil, degradation of BaP was faster in soil amended with biosolid than in unamended soil and soil amended with NP. In unsterilized soil of Texcoco, degradation of BaP was similar in soil amended with biosolid and NP but faster than in the unamended soil. It was found that application of biosolid and NP increased degradation of phenanthrene, anthracene and BaP, but to a different degree in alkaline-saline soil of Texcoco compared to an agricultural Acolman soil.

  1. Biosurfactant from red ash trees enhances the bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil at a former gasworks site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Warren; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent contaminants that accumulate in soil, sludge and on vegetation and are produced through activities such as coal burning, wood combustion and in the use of transport vehicles. Naturally occurring surfactants have been known to enhance PAH-removal from soil by improving PAH solubilization thereby increasing PAH-microbe interactions. The aim of this research was to determine if a biosurfactant derived from the leaves of the Australian red ash (Alphitonia excelsa) would enhance bioremediation of a heavily PAH-contaminated soil and to determine how the microbial community was affected. Results of GC-MS analysis show that the extracted biosurfactant was significantly more efficient than the control in regards to the degradation of total 16 US EPA priority PAHs (78.7% degradation compared to 62.0%) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (92.9% degradation compared to 44.3%). Furthermore the quantification of bacterial genes by qPCR analysis showed that there was an increase in the number of gene copies associated with Gram positive PAH-degrading bacteria. The results suggest a commercial potential for the use of the Australian red ash tree as a source of biosurfactant for use in the accelerated degradation of hydrocarbons.

  2. Biosurfactant from red ash trees enhances the bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil at a former gasworks site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Warren; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Morrison, Paul D; Ball, Andrew S

    2015-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent contaminants that accumulate in soil, sludge and on vegetation and are produced through activities such as coal burning, wood combustion and in the use of transport vehicles. Naturally occurring surfactants have been known to enhance PAH-removal from soil by improving PAH solubilization thereby increasing PAH-microbe interactions. The aim of this research was to determine if a biosurfactant derived from the leaves of the Australian red ash (Alphitonia excelsa) would enhance bioremediation of a heavily PAH-contaminated soil and to determine how the microbial community was affected. Results of GC-MS analysis show that the extracted biosurfactant was significantly more efficient than the control in regards to the degradation of total 16 US EPA priority PAHs (78.7% degradation compared to 62.0%) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (92.9% degradation compared to 44.3%). Furthermore the quantification of bacterial genes by qPCR analysis showed that there was an increase in the number of gene copies associated with Gram positive PAH-degrading bacteria. The results suggest a commercial potential for the use of the Australian red ash tree as a source of biosurfactant for use in the accelerated degradation of hydrocarbons. PMID:26217887

  3. Effect of various amendments on heavy mineral oil bioremediation and soil microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hwan; Oh, Bang-Il; Kim, Jeong-gyu

    2008-05-01

    To examine the effects of amendments on the degradation of heavy mineral oil, we conducted a pilot-scale experiment in the field for 105 days. During the experiment, soil samples were collected and analyzed periodically to determine the amount of residual hydrocarbons and evaluate the effects of the amendments on microbial activity. After 105 days, the initial level of contamination (7490+/-480 mg hydrocarbon kg(-1) soil) was reduced by 18-40% in amended soils, whereas it was only reduced by 9% in nonamended soil. Heavy mineral oil degradation was much faster and more complete in compost-amended soil than in hay-, sawdust-, and mineral nutrient-amended soils. The enhanced degradation of heavy mineral oil in compost-amended soil may be a result of the significantly higher microbial activity in this soil. Among the studied microbial parameters, soil dehydrogenase, lipase, and urease activities were strongly and negatively correlated with heavy mineral oil biodegradation (Pamended soil.

  4. Degradability of n-alkanes during ex situ natural bioremediation of soil contaminated by heavy residual fuel oil (mazut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramadan Mohamed Muftah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that during biodegradation of oil in natural geological conditions, or oil pollutants in the environment, a degradation of hydrocarbons occurs according to the well defined sequence. For example, the major changes during the degradation process of n-alkanes occur in the second, slight and third, moderate level (on the biodegradation scale from 1 to 10. According to previous research, in the fourth, heavy level, when intensive changes of phenanthrene and its methyl isomers begin, n-alkanes have already been completely removed. In this paper, the ex situ natural bioremediation (unstimulated bioremediation, without addition of biomass, nutrient substances and biosurfactant of soil contaminated with heavy residual fuel oil (mazut was conducted during the period of 6 months. Low abundance of n-alkanes in the fraction of total saturated hydrocarbons in the initial sample (identification was possible only after concentration by urea adduction technique showed that the investigated oil pollutant was at the boundary between the third and the fourth biodegradation level. During the experiment, an intense degradation of phenanthrene and its methyl-, dimethyl-and trimethyl-isomers was not followed by the removal of the remaining n-alkanes. The abundance of n-alkanes remained at the initial low level, even at end of the experiment when the pollutant reached one of the highest biodegradation levels. These results showed that the unstimulated biodegradation of some hydrocarbons, despite of their high biodegradability, do not proceed completely to the end, even at final degradation stages. In the condition of the reduced availability of some hydrocarbons, microorganisms tend to opt for less biodegradable but more accessible hydrocarbons.

  5. Bioremediation of Petroleum hydrocarbon by using Pseudomonas species isolated from Petroleum contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly isolated strain Pseudomonas fluorescens (Accession number KF 279042.1 have potential in diesel degradation and can be recommended for bioremediation of sites that are contaminated with diesel. This bacterium was characterized on the basis of microbiological, biochemical and molecular analysis. Bacterial growth optimization was studied based on carbon source, nitrogen source, pH and temperature. The strain was selected based on its ability to show growth in medium containing diesel. In addition, optimum temperature and pH for increased growth by the isolate were found to be 37oC and pH 8.0 indicating the maximum utilization of diesel. At the same time, production of protease and urease enzymes during the utilization of diesel was also assayed following the standard procedures.

  6. Using Plants for the Bioremediation (Phyto-remediation) of Chromium-Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial was made to study the use of hyper accumulator plant species to extract Cr out of contaminated soils. Three soils (A,B, and C) were selected in this experiment, Soil A: Polluted soil from El-Gabal El-Asfer farm. (subjected to sewage effluent irrigation for more than 75 years). Soil B: Polluted soil from Bahtem area (subjected to sewage effluent irrigation for more than 30 years). Soil C: Polluted soil from Mostorud area (irrigated with contaminated water for more than 30 years due to direct discharge of industrial wastewater to irrigation water canals). Four Kg of each air-dried surface soil sample (0-20 cm) were packed in plastic containers in three replicates. Four plant species tested in this study namely, Sorghum (Sorghum Vulgar L.), Clover (Trifolium Pretense L.), Panikum (Panicum antidotal) and Canola (Brassica Napous.); were grown on each tested soil in a complete randomized block experimental design. Plant shoots were harvested every 60 days (three cuts) for sorghum, clover and panikum. In case of canola plants, the shoots were harvested after 60 days (vegetative stage) and 85 days(fruiting stage). The roots of all species were collected after the final cut. Initial and final soil samples were taken for Cr analyses using neutron activation analyses technique (NAA)

  7. Bioremediation of a crude-oil polluted agricultural-soil at Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayotamuno, M. J.; Kogbara, R. B.; Ogaji, S. O. T.; Probert, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    A combination of treatments, consisting of the application of fertilizers and oxygen exposure, was evaluated in situ during a period of six weeks. Conditions of a major spill were simulated by sprinkling crude-oil on experimental cells containing agricultural soil. The remedial treatments were then applied and the soil characteristics analyzed after set periods. Soil physicochemical parameters, such as moisture content, pH value, electrical conductivity as well as organic-carbon and total-nit...

  8. J.R. SIMPLOT EX-SITU BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT OF TNT-CONTAMINATED SOILS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the findings of the second evaluation of the J.R. Simplot Ex-situ Bioremediation Technology also known as the Simplot Anaerobic Bioremediation (SABRE™) process. This technology was developed by the J.R. Simplot Company to biologically degrade nitroaromatic...

  9. Decreasing the contamination and toxicity of a heavily contaminated soil by in situ bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groudev, Stoyan; Georgiev, Plamen; Spasova, Irena; Nikolova, Marina

    2013-04-01

    An experimental plot of 140 m2 consisting of acidic soil heavily contaminated with uranium, non-ferrous metals (mainly Cu, Zn and Cd) and arsenic was treated in situ under real field conditions using the activity of the indigenous soil microflora. This activity was enhanced by suitable changes of some essential environmental factors such as pH and water, oxygen and nutrient contents of the soil. The treatment was connected with solubilization and removal of contaminants from the top soil layers (horizon A) due to the joint action of the soil microorganisms (mainly acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria) and leach solutions (diluted sulphuric acid). The dissolved contaminants were transferred to the soil horizon B and were removed from the soil profile through a system of drainage collecting pipes. The contaminated soil effluents were treated by means of a multi-component passive system consisting of an anoxic alkalizing drain, a permeable reactive multibarrier and a rock filter. The contamination and toxicity of the soil were regularly tested during the cleaning procedure and were considerably decreased at the end of the treatment.

  10. Biostimulatory Effect Of Processed Sewage Sludge In Bioremediation Of Engine Oil Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaluddeen; Kabir; Yerima; Mohammed Bello; Abu; Tijjani Rimi; Deeni; Yusuf,, Abdirizak,

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of sewage sludge on biodegradation of engine oil in contaminated soil. Soil samples were collected from a mechanics workshop in Sokoto metropolis. The Soil samples were taken to the laboratory for isolation of engine oil degrading bacteria. About 1 g of soil sample was used to inoculate 9 ml of trypticase soy broth and incubated at 28oC for 24 h. The growth obtained was sub-cultured in mineral salt medium overlaid with crude oil and allowed to s...

  11. Bioremediation of experimental petroleum spills on mineral soils in the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of nutrient and water enhancement on the biodegradation of petroleum was tested in Antarctic mineral soils. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were applied in solution, with or without gum xanthan or plastic covers, to sites artificially contaminated with distillate. The effectiveness of these procedures was assessed by measuring changes in total petroleum hydrocarbons; heptadecane/pristane and octadecane/phytane ratios; in concentrations of major hydrocarbon components and in microbial numbers and activity. Significantly lower hydrocarbon concentration were recorded after one year in soils treated with fertilizer solutions, but only in the surface 3 cm. These soils also showed lowered heptadecane/pristane and octadecane/phytane ratios and had the highest levels of microbial activity relative to other plots. Soils treated with gum xanthan or covered with plastic had the highest residual hydrocarbon levels. Both treatments inhibited evaporative loss of hydrocarbon, and there were indications that gum xanthan was utilized by the microbiota as an alternative carbon source to distillate. Higher temperatures were recorded under the plastic but no stimulation of biodegradation was detected. Estimated numbers of metabolically active bacteria were in the range 107 to 108 g-1 dry weight of soil, with an estimated biomass of 0.03 to 0.26 mg g-1 soil. Estimated numbers of amoebae were in the range 106 107 g-1 soil (biomass of 2 to 4 mg g-1). The highest populations were recorded in fertilized, contaminated soils, the only soils where petroleum degradation was demonstrated. 23 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Evaluation of microbial population and functional genes during the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil as an effective monitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Aiyoub; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the abundance and diversity of soil n-alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterial communities. It also investigated the quantity of the functional genes, the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the identified bacterial communities and the effect that such HGT can have on biostimulation process. Illumina sequencing was used to detect the microbial diversity of petroleum-polluted soil prior to the biostimulation process, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the bacterial community and functional genes (alkB, phnAc and nah) expressions throughout the biostimulation of petroleum-contaminated soil. The illumine results revealed that γ-proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and δ-proteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial phyla in the contaminated site, and that most of the strains were Gram-negative. The results of the gene expression results revealed that gram-negative bacteria and alkB are critical to successful bioremediation. Failure to maintain the stability of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and functional gene will reduce the extend to which alkanes and PAHs are degraded. According to the results of the study, the application of a C:N:P ratio of was 100:15:1 in the biodegradation experiment resulted in the highest rate at which petroleum hydrocarbons were biodegraded. The diversity of pollutant-degrading bacteria and the effective transfer of degrading genes among resident microorganisms are essential factors for the successful biostimulation of petroleum hydrocarbons. As such, screening these factors throughout the biostimulation process represents an effective monitoring approach by which the success of the biostimulation can be assessed. PMID:26685788

  13. Evaluation of microbial population and functional genes during the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil as an effective monitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Aiyoub; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the abundance and diversity of soil n-alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterial communities. It also investigated the quantity of the functional genes, the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the identified bacterial communities and the effect that such HGT can have on biostimulation process. Illumina sequencing was used to detect the microbial diversity of petroleum-polluted soil prior to the biostimulation process, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the bacterial community and functional genes (alkB, phnAc and nah) expressions throughout the biostimulation of petroleum-contaminated soil. The illumine results revealed that γ-proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and δ-proteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial phyla in the contaminated site, and that most of the strains were Gram-negative. The results of the gene expression results revealed that gram-negative bacteria and alkB are critical to successful bioremediation. Failure to maintain the stability of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and functional gene will reduce the extend to which alkanes and PAHs are degraded. According to the results of the study, the application of a C:N:P ratio of was 100:15:1 in the biodegradation experiment resulted in the highest rate at which petroleum hydrocarbons were biodegraded. The diversity of pollutant-degrading bacteria and the effective transfer of degrading genes among resident microorganisms are essential factors for the successful biostimulation of petroleum hydrocarbons. As such, screening these factors throughout the biostimulation process represents an effective monitoring approach by which the success of the biostimulation can be assessed.

  14. Fenpropathrin biodegradation pathway in Bacillus sp. DG-02 and its potential for bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Chang, Changqing; Deng, Yinyue; An, Shuwen; Dong, Yi Hu; Zhou, Jianuan; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2014-03-12

    The widely used insecticide fenpropathrin in agriculture has become a public concern because of its heavy environmental contamination and toxic effects on mammals, yet little is known about the kinetic and metabolic behaviors of this pesticide. This study reports the degradation kinetics and metabolic pathway of fenpropathrin in Bacillus sp. DG-02, previously isolated from the pyrethroid-manufacturing wastewater treatment system. Up to 93.3% of 50 mg L(-1) fenpropathrin was degraded by Bacillus sp. DG-02 within 72 h, and the degradation rate parameters qmax, Ks, and Ki were determined to be 0.05 h(-1), 9.0 mg L(-1), and 694.8 mg L(-1), respectively. Analysis of the degradation products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of seven metabolites of fenpropathrin, which suggest that fenpropathrin could be degraded first by cleavage of its carboxylester linkage and diaryl bond, followed by degradation of the aromatic ring and subsequent metabolism. In addition to degradation of fenpropathrin, this strain was also found to be capable of degrading a wide range of synthetic pyrethroids including deltamethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, β-cypermethrin, β-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, and permethrin, which are also widely used insecticides with environmental contamination problems with the degradation process following the first-order kinetic model. Bioaugmentation of fenpropathrin-contaminated soils with strain DG-02 significantly enhanced the disappearance rate of fenpropathrin, and its half-life was sharply reduced in the soils. Taken together, these results depict the biodegradation mechanisms of fenpropathrin and also highlight the promising potentials of Bacillus sp. DG-02 in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated soils.

  15. Removal of Pah from clay soil contaminated with diesel oil by bioremediation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diesel oil is one of the most common soil organic pollutants, as a consequence of spilling of storage tank spills and accidental leaks. In Pernambuco State, Northeast part of Brazil, there are several evidences of soil contamination by petroleum derivates due to gas station leaking. (Author)

  16. A radiotracer study of groundwater pollution and bioremediation by a pesticide passing through different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotracer methodology has been used to study the fate of radiolabelled pesticides (e.g. methoprene, carbofuran or others) in soils. The persistence, movement and degradation of a radiolabelled inset growth regulator in deeper zones of two different soils was studied. 6 refs, 1 fig

  17. APPLICATION STRATEGIES AND DESIGN CRITERIA FOR IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF SOIL AND GROUNDWATER IMPACTED BY PAHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotreatability studies conducted in our laboratory used soils from two former wood-treatment facilities to evaluate the use of in situ bioventing and biosparging applications for their potential ability to remediate soil and groundwater containing creosote. The combination of ph...

  18. Removal of Pah from clay soil contaminated with diesel oil by bioremediation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changas-spinelli, A. C. O.; Kato, M. T.; Lima, E. S.; Gavazza, S.

    2009-07-01

    Diesel oil is one of the most common soil organic pollutants, as a consequence of spilling of storage tank spills and accidental leaks. In Pernambuco State, Northeast part of Brazil, there are several evidences of soil contamination by petroleum derivates due to gas station leaking. (Author)

  19. Noncompetitive microbial diversity patterns in soils: their causes and implications for bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James M. Tiedje; Jizhong Zhou; Anthony Palumbo; Nathaniel Ostrom; Terence L. Marsh

    2007-07-05

    This funding provided support for over nine years of research on the structure and function of microbial communities in subsurface environments. The overarching goal during these years was to understand the impact of mixed contaminants, particularly heavy metals like uranium, on the structure and function of microbial communities. In addition we sought to identify microbial populations that were actively involved in the reduction of metals because these species of bacteria hold the potential for immobilizing soluble metals moving in subsurface water. Bacterial mediated biochemical reduction of metals like uranium, technetium and chromium, greatly reduces their mobility through complexation and precipitation. Hence, by taking advantage of natural metabolic capabilities of subsurface microbial populations it is possible to bioremediate contaminated subsurface environments with a cost-effective in situ approach. Towards this end we have i.) identified bacterial populations that have thrived under the adverse conditions at the contaminated FRC site, ii.) phylogenetically identified populations that respond to imposed remediation conditions at the FRC, iii.) used metagenomics to begin a reconstruction of the metabolic web in a contaminated subsurface zone, iv.) investigated the metal reducing attributes of a Gram-positive spore forming rod also capable of dechlorination.

  20. Influence of aggregate sizes and microstructures on bioremediation assessment of field-contaminated soils in pilot-scale biopiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W.; Akbari, A.; Frigon, D.; Ghoshal, S.

    2011-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of soils and groundwater is an environmental concern. Bioremediation has been frequently considered a cost-effective, less disruptive remedial technology. Formation of soil aggregate fractions in unsaturated soils is generally believed to hinder aerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation due to the slow intra-pore diffusion of nutrients and oxygen within the aggregate matrix and to the reduced bioavailability of hydrocarbons. On the other hand, soil aggregates may harbour favourable niches for indigenous bacteria, providing protective microsites against various in situ environmental stresses. The size of the soil aggregates is likely to be a critical factor for these processes and could be interpreted as a relevant marker for biodegradation assessment. There have been only limited attempts in the past to assess petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in unsaturated soils as a function of aggregate size. This study is aimed at investigating the roles of aggregate sizes and aggregate microstructures on biodegradation activity. Field-aged, contaminated, clayey soils were shipped from Norman Wells, Canada. Attempts were made to stimulate indigenous microbial activity by soil aeration and nutrient amendments in a pilot-scale biopile tank (1m L×0.65m W×0.3 m H). A control biopile was maintained without the nutrient amendment but was aerated. The initial concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the field-contaminated soils increased with increasing aggregate sizes, which were classified in three fractions: micro- (250-2000 μm) and macro-aggregates (>2000 μm). Compared to the TPH analyses at whole-soil level, the petroleum hydrocarbon analyses based on the aggregate-size levels demonstrated more clearly the extent of biodegradation of non-volatile, heavier hydrocarbons (C16-C34) in the soil. The removal of the C16-C34 hydrocarbons was 44% in macro-aggregates, but only 13% in meso-aggregates. The increased protein concentrations in macro

  1. Enhanced Bioremediation of Soil Artificially Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons after Amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Nwogu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH, nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P<0.05 in TPH concentrations for both samples at different time intervals. Similarly, there was a gradual decrease in the concentrations of total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in both samples. The culturable hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (CHUB increased steadily from 8.5 × 105 cfu/g to 2.70 × 106 cfu/g and from 8.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.78 × 106 cfu/g for both samples. Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus were isolated from amended sample with Pseudomonas being the predominant isolated bacterial genus. This study demonstrated that C. a. hircus manure is a good biostimulant, which enhanced the activities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria resulting in significant decrease in TPH concentration of COCS.

  2. Enhanced Bioremediation of Soil Artificially Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons after Amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat) Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwogu, T. P.; Azubuike, C. C.; Ogugbue, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS) under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P < 0.05) in TPH concentrations for both samples at different time intervals. Similarly, there was a gradual decrease in the concentrations of total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in both samples. The culturable hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (CHUB) increased steadily from 8.5 × 105 cfu/g to 2.70 × 106 cfu/g and from 8.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.78 × 106 cfu/g for both samples. Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus were isolated from amended sample with Pseudomonas being the predominant isolated bacterial genus. This study demonstrated that C. a. hircus manure is a good biostimulant, which enhanced the activities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria resulting in significant decrease in TPH concentration of COCS. PMID:26770830

  3. Bioremediation of 6 % [w/w] diesel-contaminated mainland soil in singapore: comparison of different biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, M.; Tan, L.R.; Su, Q.; Yang, X. [Building and Environment Division, School of Engineering, Ngee Ann Polytechnic (Singapore); Baxter, M. [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 RU (United Kingdom); Senior, E. [School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland SR1 3SD (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-15

    The efficacy of indigenous microorganisms to degrade diesel oil in contaminated mainland sites in Singapore was investigated. A semi-scale trial was made by spiking topsoil with 6 % [w/w] of diesel oil. The results indicated that in the presence of NPK commercial (Rosasol registered) fertilizer a 53 % reduction in contaminant concentration was recorded after 60 days compared to untreated controls while the addition of a mixture of urea and K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} effected a 48 % reduction in the Total Recoverable Petroleum Hydrocarbons. A commercial culture and an enriched/isolated microbial association proved to be the least effective with 25 and 9 % reductions, respectively. The results confirmed the bioremediation potential of indigenous microorganisms for diesel-oil contaminated mainland soil. Identification of the persistent compounds was done and perceived as a tool in decision-making on strategies for speeding up of the degradation process to achieve clean-up standards in shorter remediation periods. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Bioremediation Techlology of Phthalic Acid Esters in Soil%邻苯二甲酸酯污染土壤的生物修复技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢利清; 叶常茂

    2016-01-01

    邻苯二甲酸酯是一类普遍使用的有机化合物,主要用作增塑剂。由于其具有致癌、致畸和致突变性,近年来引起了广泛的关注。由于农用地膜的广泛使用,邻苯二甲酸酯在农用土壤中均造成了不同程度污染。该文对邻苯二甲酸酯污染土壤的生物修复技术研究进展进行了介绍,总结了细菌、真菌、植物和联合修复是目前邻苯二甲酸酯污染土壤的主要生物修复方式。%Phthalic acid esters(PAEs)are commonly used organic substances,mainly used as plasticizer. Due to their teratogenicity,mutagenicity and carcinogenicity,PAEs have been received considerable attention recently. As the widespread use of agricultural of plastic film,agriculture soil is polluted to different degrees by PAEs.In this pa⁃per,the study and progress of bioremediation of PAEs in soil are included,and the main types of bioremediation in⁃cluding bacteria,fungi,plant and combination bioremediation are summarized.

  5. Present Situation and Prospect of Bioremediation Technology for Soil Pollution%土壤污染的生物修复技术及其研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋红; 吕航; 宋倩; 但德忠

    2009-01-01

    近年来土壤污染呈现加重的趋势,有关污染土壤的修复研究正日益受到重视.生物修复技术是一项用于污染土壤治理的新技术.介绍了污染土壤生物修复技术,综述了近年来国内外土壤生物修复技术的研究和应用现状,并评述了土壤生物修复技术存在的问题以及污染土壤生物修复的发展方向.%In recent years,soil pollution was increasingly becoming an important environmental problem.Bioremediation technology was rapidly developing for treating soil pollution.And it was considered of the most promising technology.This paper briefly introduced the concept of bioremediation and the methods,and focused on the application of bioremediation of organic and heavy metals contamination,as well as reviewed the present problems of bioremediafion and its prospect.

  6. Bioremediation trial on aged PCB-polluted soils--a bench study in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Sigfusson, Bergur; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Guicharnaud, Rannveig

    2014-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose a threat to the environment due to their high adsorption capacity to soil organic matter, stability and low reactivity, low water solubility, toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate. With Icelandic soils, research on contamination issues has been very limited and no data has been reported either on PCB degradation potential or rate. The goals of this research were to assess the bioavailability of aged PCBs in the soils of the old North Atlantic Treaty Organization facility in Keflavík, Iceland and to find the best biostimulation method to decrease the pollution. The effectiveness of different biostimulation additives (N fertiliser, white clover and pine needles) at different temperatures (10 and 30 °C) and oxygen levels (aerobic and anaerobic) were tested. PCB bioavailability to soil fauna was assessed with earthworms (Eisenia foetida). PCBs were bioavailable to earthworms (bioaccumulation factor 0.89 and 0.82 for earthworms in 12.5 ppm PCB soil and in 25 ppm PCB soil, respectively), with less chlorinated congeners showing higher bioaccumulation factors than highly chlorinated congeners. Biostimulation with pine needles at 10 °C under aerobic conditions resulted in nearly 38 % degradation of total PCBs after 2 months of incubation. Detection of the aerobic PCB degrading bphA gene supports the indigenous capability of the soils to aerobically degrade PCBs. Further research on field scale biostimulation trials with pine needles in cold environments is recommended in order to optimise the method for onsite remediation.

  7. Biostimulatory Effect Of Processed Sewage Sludge In Bioremediation Of Engine Oil Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaluddeen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of sewage sludge on biodegradation of engine oil in contaminated soil. Soil samples were collected from a mechanics workshop in Sokoto metropolis. The Soil samples were taken to the laboratory for isolation of engine oil degrading bacteria. About 1 g of soil sample was used to inoculate 9 ml of trypticase soy broth and incubated at 28oC for 24 h. The growth obtained was sub-cultured in mineral salt medium overlaid with crude oil and allowed to stand at 28oC for 72 h. The culture obtained was then maintained on tryticase soy agar plates at 28oC for 48 h. A combination of microscopy and biochemical tests was carried out to identify the colonies. The sewage sludge was obtained from sewage collection point located behind Jibril Aminu Hall of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto and processed i.e. dried grounded and sterilized. A portion of land obtained in a botanical garden was divided into small portions 30 X 30 cm and the soil was excavated in-situ and sterilized in the laboratory. A polythene bag was subsequently used to demarcate between the sterilized soil and the garden soil. The sterilized soil plots were artificially contaminated with equal amount of used engine oil to represent a typical farmland oil spill. The plots were amended with various amount of processed sewage sludge i.e. 200 g 300 g and 400 g respectively. A pure culture of the bacteria was maintained on trypticase soy broth and was introduced into the sterile amended soil. The plots were watered twice daily for ten days. The degree of biodegradation and heavy metal content were assessed using standard procedures and the results obtained indicate a remarkable reduction in poly aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs total petroleum hydrocarbon TPH and heavy metal content.

  8. Influence of pretreatment on efficiency of bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradation has been selected as a technique to treat a Montreal site which was contaminated by oil pipeline spills. A 2500 m3 volume of soil was excavated and stored in piles. Three large closed cells were then constructed for use in on-site biodegradation of the soil. Before proceeding with the on-site biodegradation, a feasibility study was conducted in the laboratory using 20 kg of soil placed in mini-reactors for 188 d of biodegradation at ambient temperature. Before biodegradation began, the soil in certain of the mini-reactors was pretreated by comminuting gravel pieces larger than 0.5 cm in diameter and by mixing the soil with sawdust and nutrients. At predetermined intervals, the soils were analyzed at various locations in the mini-reactors for such parameters as oil and grease concentrations, organic matter content, Kjeldahl nitrogen, humidity, phosphorus, and metals. Emissions of volatile organic compounds and CO2 were also measured. The mean decrease in oil and grease concentration was found to be 89%. No decrease was noted in those soils that had not been pretreated with sawdust and nutrients. An increase in soil pH was noted up to the 50th day of biodegradation, after which the pH decreased gradually. The feasibility study shows the influence of the addition of sawdust on one of the most important environmental parameters during the course of biodegradation: the pH value. Increase in pH can decrease or stop the activity of soil microorganisms. 11 refs., 6 figs

  9. PAHs污染土壤生物修复强化技术研究进展%Research progress in enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 李海波; 孙铁珩; 胡筱敏

    2011-01-01

    为提高生物修复多环芳烃(PAHs)污染土壤的效率,从PAHs生物修复的原理和强化措施出发,综述了PAHs污染土壤生物修复的物理化学强化技术和生物强化技术,分析了各种技术的原理与适用条件,提出了植物强化微生物修复是PAHs污染土壤生物修复的重要发展方向.在进行强化修复的过程中,要注重现场应用和安全性评价.%This paper is aimed to present a general review on the enhanced measures to the bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soil. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are well known as a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and more than 90% of PAHs present in the soil, which are toxic to the environment and pose as a hazard in food chain to human health.Bioremediation technology is the primary method to treat the PAHs contaminated soil and the enhanced measures of bioremediation treatment are essential to improve the degradation rate and adapt to the needs of field application. Referring to the reported literature at home and abroad in recent years, this paper comes out with a detail introduction and discussion on the principles and application of physicalchemical and biological based enhancement. The enhanced measures of physical-chemical included the application of surfactants, nutrient addition and co-metabolic substrate addition as well as the electron acceptors addition and utilization of chemical oxidants. The enhanced measures of bioremediation included the addition of highly efficient PAH-degrading bacteria and immobilization of bacteria, utilization of mycorrhizal fungi and application of bio-surfactants. The combined remediation of phytoremediation and microorganism on the PAHs conlaminated soil is an important direction of development and field application technology. At the same time, safety evaluation in the process of enhanced bioremediation is necessary in order to avoid new pollution and other security risks to

  10. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e; Wang, Kai; Huang, Hua-gang; Zhang, Xincheng; Fang, Hua; Li, Ting-qiang; Alva, A K; He, Zhen-li

    2012-10-15

    The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation strategy for fields co-contaminated with cadmium (Cd), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its metabolites 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) (DDT, DDE, and DDD are collectively called DDs) using an identified Cd-hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii (SA) and DDT-degrading microbes (DDT-1). Initially, inoculation with DDT-1 was shown to increase SA root biomass in a pot experiment. When SA was applied together with DDT-1, the levels of Cd and DDs in the co-contaminated soil decreased by 32.1-40.3% and 33.9-37.6%, respectively, in a pot experiment over 18 months compared to 3.25% and 3.76% decreases in soil Cd and DDs, respectively, in unplanted, untreated controls. A subsequent field study (18-month duration) in which the levels of Cd and DDs decreased by 31.1% and 53.6%, respectively, confirmed the beneficial results of this approach. This study demonstrates that the integrated bioremediation strategy is effective for the remediation of Cd-DDs co-contaminated soils. PMID:22868749

  11. BIOREMEDIATION TRAINING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediation encompasses a collection of technologies which use microbes to degrade or transform contaminants. Three technologies have an established track record of acceptable performance: aerobic bioventing for fuels; enhanced reductive dechlorination for chlorinated solvent...

  12. [Improving Agricultural Safety of Soils Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by In Situ Bioremediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-huan; Pan, Jian-gang; Xu, Shena-jun; Bai, Zhi-hui; Wang, Dong; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the risk of enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crops, reduce the potential hazards of food-sourced PAHs to human and increase the agricultural safety of PAHs contaminated soils, the bio-augmented removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated through in situ remediation by introducing Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS) into the agricultural soil contaminated by PAHs. The 50-times diluted RS was sprayed on leaf surface (in area B) or irrigated to roots (in area D). The treatment of spraying water of the equal amount was taken as the control (A) and the wheat field without any treatment as the blank (CK). Treatments were conducted since wheat seeding. Soil and wheat samples were collected in the mature period to analyze the changes of community structure of the soil microorganisms and the concentration of PAHs in soils and investigate the strengthening and restoration effects of RS on PAHs contaminated soils. Compared to the CK Area, the areas B and D revealed that the variation ratio of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that were the biomarker of soil microorganisms was 29.6%, and the ratio of total PAHs removed was increased 1.59 times and 1.68 times, respectively. The dry weight of wheat grain of 50 spikes was increased by 8.95% and 12.5%, respectively, and the enrichment factor of total PAHs was decreased by 58.9% and 62.2% respectively in the wheat grains. All the results suggested that RS reduced enrichment of PAHs in wheat grains and increased wheat yield, which had great exploitation and utilization potentiality in repairing and improving the agricultural safety of the soils contaminated with PHAs.

  13. Plasmids and aromatic degradation in Sphingomonas for bioremediation : Aromatic ring cleavage genes in soil and rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    SipilÀ, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Microbial degradation pathways play a key role in the detoxification and the mineralization of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are widespread pollutants in soil and constituents of petroleum hydrocarbons. In microbiology the aromatic degradation pathways are traditionally studied from single bacterial strains with capacity to degrade certain pollutant. In soil the degradation of aromatics is performed by a diverse community of micro-organisms. The aim of this thesis was to study biode...

  14. Combined bioremediation of atrazine-contaminated soil by Pennisetum and Arthrobacter sp. strain DNS10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ge, Shijie; Jiang, Mingyue; Jiang, Zhao; Wang, Zhigang; Ma, Bingbing

    2014-05-01

    Strain DNS10 was isolated from the black soil collected from the northeast of China which had been cultivated with atrazine as the sole nitrogen source. Pennisetum is a common plant in Heilongjiang Province of China. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficiency of plant-microbe joint interactions (Arthrobacter sp. DNS10 + Pennisetum) in atrazine degradation compared with single-strain and single-plant effects. Plant-microbe joint interactions degraded 98.10 % of the atrazine, while single strain and single plant only degraded 87.38 and 66.71 % after a 30-day experimental period, respectively. The results indicated that plant-microbe joint interactions had a better degradation effect. Meanwhile, we found that plant-microbe joint interactions showed a higher microbial diversity. The results of microbial diversity illustrated that the positive effects of cropping could improve soil microbial growth and activity. In addition, we planted atrazine-sensitive plants (soybean) in the soil after repair. The results showed that soybean growth in soil previously treated with the plant-microbe joint interactions treatment was better compared with other treatments after 20 days of growth. This was further proved that the soil is more conducive for crop cultivation. Hence, plant-microbe joint interactions are considered to be a potential tool in the remediation of atrazine-contaminated soil.

  15. Potential of grasses and rhizosphere bacteria for bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Paola Mezzari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The techniques available for the remediation of environmental accidents involving petroleum hydrocarbons are generally high-cost solutions. A cheaper, practical and ecologically relevant alternative is the association of plants with microorganisms that contribute to the degradation and removal of hydrocarbons from the soil. The growth of three tropical grass species (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbens and Paspalum notatum and the survival of root-associated bacterial communities was evaluated at different diesel oil concentrations. Seeds of three grass species were germinated in greenhouse and at different doses of diesel (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 g kg-1 soil. Plants were grown for 10 weeks with periodic assessment of germination, growth (fresh and dry weight, height, and number of bacteria in the soil (pots with or without plants. Growth and biomass of B. decumbens and P. notatum declined significantly when planted in diesel-oil contaminated soils. The presence of diesel fuel did not affect the growth of B. brizantha, which was highly tolerant to this pollutant. Bacterial growth was significant (p < 0.05 and the increase was directly proportional to the diesel dose. Bacteria growth in diesel-contaminated soils was stimulated up to 5-fold by the presence of grasses, demonstrating the positive interactions between rhizosphere and hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the remediation of diesel-contaminated soils.

  16. TECHNOLOGY OF SOIL BIOREMEDIATION AND CONVERSION OF CONTAMINATED PHYTOMASS INTO USABLE ENERGY FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej ULICNY

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The work solves scientific problem of decontamination of the soil using biomass. Our investigation was subject to Cu, Pb, Hg and As with aim to examine whether plants are able to accumulate heavy metals. The laboratory experiment was performed in order to determine heavy metals content is the soil before plast sowing and after is harvesting. Amaranth (amaranthus was used as a bioaccumulator. As significant amount of the heawy metals is accumulated in the root, there arise task to harvest plant and its root. Roots leaving in the soil mean retrograde contamination after the plant decomposition. But, there is lack of agricultural machinery able to harvest amaranth together with the root. Next part of the study is focused on the amaranth utilization as energy. Energy value is comparable with other biomass materials as wooden sawdust, grain straw etc. The final phase of the research is dealing with means suitable to trip the solid remainders after burning in the smoke.

  17. Genotoxicity changes in test plot soil: Impact on risk assessment at a contaminated site planning bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collie, S.L.; Donnelly, K.C. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Soil samples from test plots designed to investigate the suitability of biodegradation to reduce levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were collected and solvent-extracted throughout a four-month study. Samples were followed for contaminant concentration and genotoxicity. Test plots were constructed to represent four concentrations of contaminated soil. Although the highest PCP concentration plot was negative in the Salmonella/microsome plate incorporation both with and without metabolic activation at the beginning of the treatment period, these soils became cytotoxic by the end of the study when tested without metabolic activation, and chemical analysis indicated no degradation of PCP. The methanol extract from the lowest PCP concentration plot was positive in the plate incorporation assay at the beginning of the study with an average weighted activity of 29 revertants/gram soil without and 32 revertants/g with metabolic activation at the highest dose level. The mutagenic potential of the methanol extract of this soil increased to an average weighted activity of 306 revertants/g without and 291 revertants/g with metabolic activation, despite a reduction from 46 to below 10 {micro}g PCP/g soil. A human health risk assessment employing the current US/EPA method of incorporating chemical concentration data in calculating cancer risk was then compared with the level of risk that can be inferred from the corresponding bioassay data. These findings emphasize the need for careful remediation design as this step will prove critical in achieving both maximum biodegradation and protection of human health.

  18. Biological quality of soils containing hydrocarbons and efficacy of ecological risk reduction by bioremediation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.J.; Napolitano, G.E.; Sample, B.E.

    1996-06-01

    This project provides technical support to the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF; a consortium of petroleum companies) on environmentally acceptable endpoints that may be used to help assess the ecological risk of petroleum hydrocarbon residuals in soils. The project, was designed in consultation with PERF representatives and focuses on the relationship between {open_quotes}chemically available{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biologically available{close_quotes} measurements of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in soils, a discrepancy of considerable interest to the petroleum industry. Presently, clean-up standards for soils contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) constituents are based on concentrations of TPH, as measured in solvent extracts of soil samples. Interestingly, TPH includes a complex mixture of compounds which differ from one another in molecular weight and toxicity. Based on various studies with insecticides, herbicides and metals, some compounds apparently can slowly permeate into soil particles. If this situation occurs, the particle-embedded compounds may be extractable by use of organic solvents, and yet be unavailable biologically. This hypothesis serves as the central focus for our study. If this hypothesis is correct, then soil clean-up standards based on solvent-extractable TPH data may be more stringent than necessary to achieve a desired level of environmental risk. The economic significance of this possibility is considerable, because clean-up costs to achieve a low-risk status would, in most cases, be lower than those needed to achieve a standard based on present limits, which are based on measurements of {open_quotes}extractable{close_quotes} TPH.

  19. Effect of Bioremediation on Growth of Wheat Plant Cultivated In Contaminated Soil with Heavy Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the impact of BYFA (bacterial, fungal, yeast, and actinomycetes isolates), and bio fertilizers (mycorrhizas and N2 fixers) in remedy the heavy metals -polluted soil and its effect on wheat growth. Basal recommended doses of P and N were applied; the treatments were arranged in completely randomized block design. The results showed a positive effect on growth and N uptake by wheat cultivated in polluted soil with (Zn, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Cd). The data cleared that, the lowest content of Pb in the soil was occurred with composite inoculants plus BFYA (274.57μ g/gm) as compared to the other treatments. Reduction in zinc content in soil was recorded with control + BFYA (272.0 μg/g) compared to other one. Similarly, inoculation with (Azo) + (BFYA) induced a reduction in Cu content in soil, Data of 15N revealed that both the mechanisms of BNF have been occurred. In this respect, it is worthy to mention that, symbiotic bacteria has a considerable role with such cereal crop via BNF or enhancement of plant growth, The inoculation with Rh + AM resulted in the highest percentage of N uptake from fertilizer (29%), followed by AM, then Azo (23.9%, 22.7%, respectively) without BFYA. Another picture was noticed with BFYA whereas the best percentage was recorded with Azospirillum (19.3 %). This treatment is the only one that increased the portion of N derived from fertilizer over those recorded with the control (11.13%). BFYA have the ability to reduce the content of heavy metal in both the contaminated soil and wheat plant. Similar function was detected with bio fertilizers, besides to their effects on enhancement of plant growth via plant growth promotion substances and BNF mechanisms

  20. Intensification of the aerobic bioremediation of an actual site soil historically contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs through bioaugmentation with a non acclimated, complex source of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fava Fabio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biotreatability of actual-site polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB-contaminated soils is often limited by their poor content of autochthonous pollutant-degrading microorganisms. In such cases, inoculation might be the solution for a successful bioremediation. Some pure and mixed cultures of characterized PCB degrading bacteria have been tested to this purpose. However, several failures have been recorded mostly due to the inability of inoculated microbes to compete with autochthonous microflora and to face the toxicity and the scarcity of nutrients occurring in the contaminated biotope. Complex microbial systems, such as compost or sludge, normally consisting of a large variety of robust microorganisms and essential nutrients, would have better chances to succeed in colonizing degraded contaminated soils. However, such sources of microorganisms have been poorly applied in soil bioremediation and in particular in the biotreatment of soil with PCBs. Thus, in this study the effects of Enzyveba, i.e. a consortium of non-adapted microorganisms developed from composted material, on the slurry- and solid-phase aerobic bioremediation of an actual-site, aged PCB-contaminated soil were studied. Results A slow and only partial biodegradation of low-chlorinated biphenyls, along with a moderate depletion of initial soil ecotoxicity, were observed in the not-inoculated reactors. Enzyveba significantly increased the availability and the persistence of aerobic PCB- and chlorobenzoic acid-degrading cultivable bacteria in the bioreactors, in particular during the earlier phase of treatment. It also markedly enhanced PCB-biodegradation rate and extent (from 50 to 100% as well as the final soil detoxification, in particular under slurry-phase conditions. Taken together, data obtained suggest that Enzyveba enhanced the biotreatability of the selected soil by providing exogenous bacteria and fungi able to remove inhibitory or toxic intermediates of

  1. Application of backpropagation artificial neural network prediction model for the PAH bioremediation of polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawoyin, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The backpropagation (BP) artificial neural network (ANN) is a renowned and extensively functional mathematical tool used for time-series predictions and approximations; which also define results for non-linear functions. ANNs are vital tools in the predictions of toxicant levels, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) potentially derived from anthropogenic activities in the microenvironment. In the present work, BP ANN was used as a prediction tool to study the potential toxicity of PAH carcinogens (PAHcarc) in soils. Soil samples (16 × 4 = 64) were collected from locations in South-southern Nigeria. The concentration of PAHcarc in laboratory cultivated white melilot, Melilotus alba roots grown on treated soils was predicted using ANN model training. Results indicated the Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation training algorithm converged in 2.5E+04 epochs at an average RMSE value of 1.06E-06. The averagedR(2) comparison between the measured and predicted outputs was 0.9994. It may be deduced from this study that, analytical processes involving environmental risk assessment as used in this study can successfully provide prompt prediction and source identification of major soil toxicants. PMID:27424056

  2. Bioremediation of oil contaminated soil from service stations. Evaluation of biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological treatment of contaminated soil has received much attention during the last decade. Microbes are known to be able to degrade many oil hydrocarbons. However, research is needed to ensure that new technologies are implemented in a safe and reliable way under Finnish climatic conditions. The main points of interest are the rate of the degradation as well as the survival and efficiency of microbial inoculants possibly introduced during the treatment. During 1993 the biotreatability of oil-contaminated soil from service stations was investigated in cooperation with the Finnish Petroleum Federation. The goal of this field-scale study was to test how fast lubrication oil can be composted during one Finnish summer season and to find out whether microbial inoculants would enhance the degradation rate. The soil was excavated from three different service stations in the Helsinki metropolitan area and was transported to a controlled composting area. The soil was sieved and compost piles, also called biopiles, were constructed on the site. Bark chips were used as the bulking agent and nutrients and lime were added to enhance the biological activity. Two different commercial bacterial inoculants were added to two of the piles. The piles were turned by a tractor-drawn screw-type mixer at two to four weeks interval. Between the mixings, the piles were covered with tarpaulins to prevent evaporation and potential excessive wetting. Several microbiological parameters were determined during the test period as well as the temperature and mineral oil content

  3. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhi-qiang [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); College of Agriculture, Hainan University, Renmin Road 58, Haikou 570228 (China); Yang, Xiao-e, E-mail: xyang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Kai; Huang, Hua-gang; Zhang, Xincheng [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Fang, Hua [Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Ting-qiang [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Alva, A.K. [U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Prosser, WA (United States); He, Zhen-li [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Planting of S. alfredii is an effective technique for phytoextraction of Cd and DDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. DDT-1 increases root biomass of S. alfredii. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. DDT-1 improves the removal efficiency of DDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The plant-microbe strategy is promising for remediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil. - Abstract: The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation strategy for fields co-contaminated with cadmium (Cd), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its metabolites 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) (DDT, DDE, and DDD are collectively called DDs) using an identified Cd-hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii (SA) and DDT-degrading microbes (DDT-1). Initially, inoculation with DDT-1 was shown to increase SA root biomass in a pot experiment. When SA was applied together with DDT-1, the levels of Cd and DDs in the co-contaminated soil decreased by 32.1-40.3% and 33.9-37.6%, respectively, in a pot experiment over 18 months compared to 3.25% and 3.76% decreases in soil Cd and DDs, respectively, in unplanted, untreated controls. A subsequent field study (18-month duration) in which the levels of Cd and DDs decreased by 31.1% and 53.6%, respectively, confirmed the beneficial results of this approach. This study demonstrates that the integrated bioremediation strategy is effective for the remediation of Cd-DDs co-contaminated soils.

  4. Bioremediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil using the Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and DDT-degrading microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Planting of S. alfredii is an effective technique for phytoextraction of Cd and DDs. ► Soil inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. DDT-1 increases root biomass of S. alfredii. ► Soil inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. DDT-1 improves the removal efficiency of DDs. ► The plant-microbe strategy is promising for remediation of Cd-DDT co-contaminated soil. - Abstract: The development of an integrated strategy for the remediation of soil co-contaminated by heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants is a major research priority for the decontamination of soil slated for use in agricultural production. The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation strategy for fields co-contaminated with cadmium (Cd), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its metabolites 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and 1, 1-dichloro-2, 2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) (DDT, DDE, and DDD are collectively called DDs) using an identified Cd-hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii (SA) and DDT-degrading microbes (DDT-1). Initially, inoculation with DDT-1 was shown to increase SA root biomass in a pot experiment. When SA was applied together with DDT-1, the levels of Cd and DDs in the co-contaminated soil decreased by 32.1–40.3% and 33.9–37.6%, respectively, in a pot experiment over 18 months compared to 3.25% and 3.76% decreases in soil Cd and DDs, respectively, in unplanted, untreated controls. A subsequent field study (18-month duration) in which the levels of Cd and DDs decreased by 31.1% and 53.6%, respectively, confirmed the beneficial results of this approach. This study demonstrates that the integrated bioremediation strategy is effective for the remediation of Cd-DDs co-contaminated soils.

  5. Cometabolic bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-15

    Cometabolic bioremediation is probably the most under appreciated bioremediation strategy currently available. Cometabolism strategies stimulate only indigenous microbes with the ability to degrade the contaminant and cosubstrate e.g. methane, propane, toluene and others. This highly targeted stimulation insures that only those microbes that can degrade the contaminant are targeted, thus reducing amendment costs, well and formation plugging, etc. Cometabolic bioremediation has been used on some of the most recalcitrant contaminants, e.g. PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane, atrazine, etc. Methanotrophs have been demonstrated to produce methane monooxygense, an oxidase that can degrade over 300 compounds. Cometabolic bioremediation also has the advantage of being able to degrade contaminants to trace concentrations, since the biodegrader is not dependent on the contaminant for carbon or energy. Increasingly we are finding that in order to protect human health and the environment that we must remediate to lower and lower concentrations, especially for compounds like endocrine disrupters, thus cometabolism may be the best and maybe the only possibility that we have to bioremediate some contaminants.

  6. Bioremediation of soils co-contaminated with heavy metals and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by fruiting body of Clitocybe maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongying; Guo, Shanshan; Jiao, Kai; Hou, Junjun; Xie, Han; Xu, Heng

    2015-08-30

    Pot experiments were performed to investigate the single effect of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) or heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cu+Cd) and the combined effects of metals-TCP on the growth of Clitocybe maxima together with the accumulation of heavy metals as well as dissipation of TCP. Results showed a negative effect of contaminations on fruiting time and biomass of the mushroom. TCP decreased significantly in soils accounting for 70.66-96.24% of the initial extractable concentration in planted soil and 66.47-91.42% in unplanted soil, which showed that the dissipation of TCP was enhanced with mushroom planting. Higher biological activities (bacterial counts, soil respiration and laccase activity) were detected in planted soils relative to unplanted controls, and the enhanced dissipation of TCP in planted soils might be derived from the increased biological activities. The metals accumulation in mushroom increased with the augment of metal load, and the proportion of acetic acid (HOAc) extractable metal in soils with C. maxima was larger than that in unplanted soils, which may be an explanation of metal uptake by C. maxima. These results suggested that the presence of C. maxima was effective in promoting the bioremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals and TCP.

  7. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. Enhancing the biological degradation of hydrocarbon (bioremediation) by adding nutrients to the spill area has been demonstrated to be an effective cleanup tool in more temperate locations. However, this technique has never been considered for restoration in the Arctic because the process of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in this area is very slow. The short growing season and apparent lack of nutrients in the gravel pads were thought to be detrimental to using bioremediation to cleanup Arctic oil spills. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes

  8. BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL BY SLUDGE OIL USING THE BIOPILES AMELIORATED = BIORREMEDIAÇÃO DE SOLO CONTAMINADO POR BORRA DE ÓLEO POR BIOPILHAS MELHORADAS

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Beraldo de Morais; Sâmia Maria Tauk-Tornisielo; Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes Kataoka

    2014-01-01

    The bioremediation of contaminated soil by sludge oil from petroleum refinery using amended biopiles through bio-stimulation and/or bio-augmentation was objective of this work. Four biopiles were constructed as follows: B1. control; B2. Bio-supplemented with oil-sludge-degrading bacteria and fungus; B3. Bio-supplemented and bio-stimulated with nutrients (N and P); B4. Bio-supplemented and bio-stimulated with nutrients and rice husk. The study lasted 50 weeks and three different biodegradation...

  9. Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil%石油污染土壤生物修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾传辉; 陈桂珠

    2001-01-01

    概述了石油降解微生物的种群组成,介绍了几种主要的石油污染土壤的生物修复技术以及这一领域的研究现状,讨论了应用前景。%The composition of the petroleum-degrading microbial populationwas summarized.Several main methods of microbial treatment of petroleum contaminated soils and the study results and current situation in this field were reviewed.The application of this technology in our country in the future was discussed.

  10. Application of genomic tools in bioremediation of atrazine contaminated soil and groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Nousiainen, Aura

    2015-01-01

    The use of pesticides has allowed the efficient use of agricultural soil and provided humans with greater yields and agri-food security. Unfortunately, many pesticides have also adverse effects to the environment or human health, and may end up where they were not intended: the precious groundwater reserves. The use of atrazine, a herbicide used for controlling broad-leaf weeds, was banned in the EU for this reason in 2004, but is still globally one of the most widely used herbicides today. A...

  11. Bioremediation Treatability Studies for Soils Containing Herbicides, Chemicals, and Petroleum Products

    OpenAIRE

    Nies, Loring F.; Mesarch, Matthew B.

    1996-01-01

    Leaking underground storage tanks are widespread throughout the United States. It is estimated that there are 1.4 million underground gasoline storage tanks in the United States, with as many as 75,000 to 100,000 that may be leaking. In Indiana alone, more than 3,500 of the 15,000 registered underground storage tank facilities have reported leaks. Conventional remediation methods often involve pump-and-treat schemes for contaminated water, and excavation and burial of contaminated soil in haz...

  12. Impact of bioaccessible pyrene on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes during Sphingobium sp.- and sophorolipid-enhanced bioremediation in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Wu, Jun; Feng, Yanfang; Shen, Fangyuan; Tian, Da; Liu, Kuan; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin; Yang, Linzhang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-12-30

    Soils are exposed to various types of chemical contaminants due to anthropogenic activities; however, research on persistent organic pollutants and the existence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is limited. To our knowledge, the present work for the first time focused on the bioremediation of soil co-contaminated with pyrene and tetracycline/sulfonamide-resistance genes. After 90 days of incubation, the pyrene concentration and the abundance of the four ARGs (tetW, tetM, sulI, and sulII) significantly decreased in different treatment conditions (psoil treated with sophorolipid alone. Tenax extraction methods and linear correlation analysis indicated a strong positive relationship between the rapidly desorbing fraction (Fr) of pyrene and ARG abundance. Therefore, we conclude that bioaccessible pyrene rather than total pyrene plays a major role in the maintenance and fluctuation of ARG abundance in the soil.

  13. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes. Discussed are the results of a laboratory bioremediation study which simulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbon under arctic conditions

  14. Bioremediation of Chromium (VI from Textile Industry’s Effluent and Contaminated Soil Using Pseudomonas putida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine bacterial colonies were screened for the Cr(VI removal efficiency and out of these three bacterial strains Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp. were isolated from soil and used to remove Cr(VI from aqueous solution. The effect of time and concentrations on the removal rate of hexavalent chromium were studied using batch experiment. Maximum Cr (VI removal was noted 75.0% by Bacillus sp. at 10mg/l, 69.70% by Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 40mg/l and 90.88% by Pseudomonas putida at 10mg/l of synthetic solution, during 96 hours. Among these three bacteria, the maximum Cr(VI removal was reported by Pseudomonas putida on lower concentration. On the basis of highest removal rate, Pseudomonas putida was selected and used for further chromium removal from samples. It was found to be removed the highest Cr(VI by 82.92%, from effluent and 74.41% from soil during 96 hours. The present study depicts that bacteria removes chromium efficiently and this could be used for industrial waste management and other environmental contaminants.

  15. Production of CO2 in crude oil bioremediation in clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro José Baptista

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in clay soil a 45-days experiment. The experiment was conducted using an aerobic fixed bed reactor, containing 300g of contaminated soil at room temperature with an air rate of 6 L/h. The growth medium was supplemented with 2.5% (w/w (NH42SO4 and 0.035% (w/w KH2PO4. Biodegradation of the crude oil in the contaminated clay soil was monitored by measuring CO2 production and removal of organic matter (OM, oil and grease (OandG, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, measured before and after the 45-days experiment, together with total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial count. The best removals of OM (50%, OandG (37% and TPH (45% were obtained in the bioreactors in which the highest CO2 production was achieved.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a biodegradação de petróleo em solo argiloso durante 45 dias de ensaios. Os ensaios de biodegradação foram conduzidos em biorreatores aeróbios de leito fixo, com 300 g de solo contaminado, à temperatura ambiente e com uma vazão de ar de 6 L/h. As deficiências nutricionais foram corrigidas com 2,5% (p/p (NH42SO4 e com 0,035% (p/p KH2PO4. O monitoramento foi realizado em função da produção de CO2, da remoção de matéria orgânica (OM, de óleos e graxas (OandG e de hidrocarbonetos totais de petróleo (TPH, além bactérias heterotróficas totais (BHT e hidrocarbonoclásticas (BHc, no início e após 45 dias. Nos biorreatores onde houve maior crescimento de bactérias hidrocarbonoclásticas e maior produção de CO2, obteve-se os melhores percentuais de remoções de MO (50%, OandG (37% e TPH (45%.

  16. Bioremediation of Soil Pollution in Orchard%果园土壤污染的生物修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝申; 王炳华; 高树青; 刘秀春; 高艳敏; 陈宝江; 杨华

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the bioremediation mechanism of soil pollution. [Method] The effects of applying biological organic fertilizers on the bioremediation of soil pollution in orchard were studid by experiment in orchard field and soil simulative experiment. [Result] The biological organic fertilizers improved the activities of enzymes like polyphenol oxidase, urease, phosphatase, etc. in root-zone soil, promoted the passivation of heavy metals like Cd2+, Pb2+, Cr3+, As6+, etc. in root-zone soil, increased the quantities of useful active bacterium like beneficial fungi, actinomycetes, bacterium, etc. and decreased the quantities of harmful biology (like Fusarium oxysporum, Moniliophthora roreri, Ruselliniu necutrix/Helicobasidium mompa, nematode, etc. [Conclusion] The study results provide some references for the popularization and application of biological organic fertilizers on fruit trees.%[目的]弄清土壤污染的生物修复作用机理.[方法]通过果园田间试验和土壤模拟试验,研究施用果树生物有机肥对果园土壤中酶活性(土壤多酚氧化酶用邻苯三酚比色法测定,蔗糖酶用磷钼酸比色法测定,磷酸酶用磷酸苯二钠法测定,脲酶用靛酚比色法测定)、有害重金属的吸附-解吸作用、土壤微生物区系、有害病源菌数量的影响,以摸清施用果树生物有机肥对果园土壤生物修复的作用.[结果]生物有机肥提高了根域土壤多酚氧化酶、脲酶、磷酸酶的活力,提高幅度分别为0.4~0.7 mg/g、0.09~0.12 mg/g、0.4~0.5 mg/g;降低了土壤蔗糖酶活性,降低幅度为0.4~0.8 mg/g.生物有机肥促进了根域土壤对Pb2+等重金属的钝化.吸附曲线表明,生物有机肥、鸡粪对Pb2+的吸附量在溶液中Pb2+的初始浓度为200 mg/L时达到最大(分别为61.7、24.7 mg/kg),且生物有机肥对Pb2+的吸附量始终大于干鸡粪(高6.0%~20%);解吸曲线表明,生物肥、鸡粪在溶液中Pb2+初始浓度为600 mg

  17. Changes in bacterial community of anthracene bioremediation in municipal solid waste composting soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-ying ZHANG; Qing-feng WANG; Rui WAN; Shu-guang XIE

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting site.Knowledge of changes in microbial structure is useful to identify particular PAH degraders.However,the microbial community in the MSW composting soil and its change associated with prolonged exposure to PAHs and subsequent biodegradation remain largely unknown.In this study,anthracene was selected as a model compound.The bacterial community structure was investigated using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis.The two bimolecular tools revealed a large shift of bacterial community structure after anthracene amendment and subsequent biodegradation.Genera Methylophilus,Mesorhizobium,and Terrimonas had potential links to anthracene biodegradation,suggesting a consortium playing an active role.

  18. Suitability of oil bioremediation in an Artic soil using surplus heating from an incineration facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couto, Nazare; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2014-01-01

    A 168-day period field study, carried out in Sisimiut, Greenland, assessed the potential to enhance soil remediation with the surplus heating from an incineration facility. This approach searches a feasible ex situ remediation process that could be extended throughout the year with low costs...... technologies was even more effective, corroborating the benefits of both techniques in a remediation strategy. However, between day 42 and day 168, there was an opposite remediation trend with all treatments suggesting a stabilization except for natural attenuation, where PHC values continued to decrease....... This enforces the "self-purification" capacity of the system, even at low temperatures. Coupling biostimulation with active heating was the best approach for PHC removal, namely for a short period of time (42 days). The proposed remediation scheme can be considered a reliable option for faster PHC removal...

  19. Bioremediation treatment for cleaning up toxic chemical contaminated soil in field trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Thi Cam Ha; Nguyen Ba Huu; Pham Thi Quynh Vam; Nguyen Thi De; Nguyen Quoc Viet; Nguyen Duong Nha; La Thamh Phuong; Tran Nhu Hoa; Mai Anh Tuan; Pham Huu Ly; Nguyen Van Minh; Le van Hong; Do quang Huy; Dang Vu Minh; Nguyen Duc Hue

    2002-07-01

    At present, in South and Midle of Vietnam there are some US old military bases were contaminated by toxic chemicals (Orange/Dioxins). These soils were heavily contaminated by exposure of toxic chemicals for a long time (30-40 years). Recently several groups of researches working on detoxination by one or other ways and they obtained promissing results. However, up to now there are no single and promisin solutions that help government to select effective projects to cleapu these contaminated areas. In order to find down complex of cleaning methods for remediation of these heavy dioxin contaminated sites based on the results of distribution of native microbial populations in toxic chemical contaminated sites and laboratory detoxination experiments that were performed we carried out field trial in different scales directly in the site of Central Vietnam. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are recognized as toxic pollutants and persists in an environment. These compounds are unintentionally formed in the process of producing chlorine-containing herbicides, and in other industrial processes such as bleaching of paper pulp, combustion of domestic and industrial waste etc. These kinds of contaminants have been found in many environmental matrices such as air, soil and plant. In recent years, there are more and more reports on capacity of microorganisms that are capable of degrading PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs. Particularly, research of German scientists showed that there are many genes that encoded for enzymes involved in PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs degrading pathways were found in bacteria and in several fungal genera etc. Enzymes were involved in oxidation, dechlorination, catalysis or direct ring cleavage, PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs degrading pathways in microorganisms are providing knowledge and experiments for us study of cleaningup these contamiants in Vietnam. Several representative microbial generas are capable degrade dioxin such as

  20. Bioremediation potential of a highly mercury resistant bacterial strain Sphingobium SA2 isolated from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-02-01

    A mercury resistant bacterial strain, SA2, was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this isolate showed 99% sequence similarity to the genera Sphingobium and Sphingomonas of α-proteobacteria group. However, the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with the genus Sphingobium suggesting the strain belongs to Sphingobium sp. Toxicity studies indicated resistance to high levels of mercury with estimated EC50 values 4.5 mg L(-1) and 44.15 mg L(-1) and MIC values 5.1 mg L(-1) and 48.48 mg L(-1) in minimal and rich media, respectively. The strain SA2 was able to volatilize mercury by producing mercuric reductase enzyme which makes it potential candidate for remediating mercury. ICP-QQQ-MS analysis of Hg supplemented culture solutions confirmed that almost 79% mercury in the culture suspension was volatilized in 6 h. A very small amount of mercury was observed to accumulate in cell pellets which was also evident according to ESEM-EDX analysis. The mercuric reductase gene merA was amplified and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence demonstrated sequence homology with α-proteobacteria and Ascomycota group.

  1. Characterisation of Newly Polar Psychrotrophic Streptomycetes Isolates from Polar Soils with Cold Adapted Bioremediation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela COTARLET

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel polar streptomycetes coded 4 Alga, P2C4 and MIUG 12P, isolated from soil and vegetation samples prelevated from East Antarctica, were genetically and biochemically characterized in order to set up the phylogeny and to identify the capability to grow at lower temperature and to generate amylase and protease cold-active. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of isolate coded 4 Alga was 100% identical to sequences of Streptomyces sp. isolates from Norway and from Solomon Islands, which also were the closest relatives of P2C4 (99.53% and MIUG 12P (99.53% isolates. The data emphasised the skills of the strains Streptomyces 4 Alga, Streptomyces P2C4 and Streptomyces MIUG 12P to biosynthesis cold-adapted amylases and proteases suitable in bioconversion processes at low temperature. These results are quit valuable, because only few streptomycetes, particularly psychrotolerant ones, have so far been explored for their enzymatic potential in cold conditions.

  2. Bioremediation using Novosphingobium strain DY4 for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-contaminated soil and impact on microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Li, Ningning; Zhao, Qun; Xie, Shuguang

    2015-04-01

    The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is commonly used for weed control. The ubiquity of 2,4-D has gained increasing environmental concerns. Biodegradation is an attractive way to clean up 2,4-D in contaminated soil. However, information on the bioaugmentation trial for remediating contaminated soil is still very limited. The impact of bioaugmentation using 2,4-D-degraders on soil microbial community remains unknown. The present study investigated the bioremediation potential of a novel degrader (strain DY4) for heavily 2,4-D-polluted soil and its bioaugmentation impact on microbial community structure. The strain DY4 was classified as a Novosphingobium species within class Alphaproteobacteria and harbored 2,4-D-degrading TfdAα gene. More than 50 and 95 % of the herbicide could be dissipated in bioaugmented soil (amended with 200 mg/kg 2,4-D) respectively in 3-4 and 5-7 days after inoculation of Novosphingobium strain DY4. A significant growth of the strain DY4 was observed in bioaugmented soil with the biodegradation of 2,4-D. Moreover, herbicide application significantly altered soil bacterial community structure but bioaumentation using the strain DY4 showed a relatively weak impact.

  3. Use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization in the process of bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, Fernando Reynel Fundora; Martins, Marco Antônio; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilization in the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with diesel fuel using a completely randomized design. Five treatments (uncontaminated soil, T1; soil contaminated with diesel, T2; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake, T3; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with NPK fertilizer, T4; and soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake and NPK fertilizer, T5) and four evaluation periods (1, 60, 120, and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment) were used according to a 4 × 5 factorial design to analyze CO2 release. The variables total organic carbon (TOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) remaining in the soil were analyzed using a 5 × 2 factorial design, with the same treatments described above and two evaluation periods (1 and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment). In T3 and T5, CO2 release was significantly higher, compared with the other treatments. Significant TPH removal was observed on day 180, when percent removal values were 61.9, 70.1, 68.2, and 75.9 in treatments T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, compared with the initial value (T1). PMID:27255323

  4. Comparative plant uptake and microbial degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizospheres of five plant species-- implications for bioremediation of contaminated surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.A. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to collect data that would provide a foundation for the concept of using vegetation to enhance in situ bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. Soil and vegetation (Lespedeza cuneata, Paspalum notatum, Pinus taeda, and Solidago sp.) samples from the Miscellaneous Chemicals Basin (MCB) at the Savannah River Site were used in tests to identify critical plant and microbiological variables affecting the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the root zone. Microbiological assays including phospholipid acid analyses, and {sup 14}C-acetate incorporation were conducted to elucidate differences in rhizosphere and nonvegetated soil microbial communities from the MCB. The microbial activity, biomass, and degradation of TCE in rhizosphere soils were significantly greater than corresponding nonvegetated soils. Vegetation had a positive effect on microbial degradation of {sup 14}C-TCE in whole-plant experiments. Soils from the MCB containing Lespedeza cuneata, Pinus taeda, and Glycine max mineralized greater than 25% of the {sup 14}C- TCE added compared with less than 20% in nonvegetated soils. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the positive role of vegetation in enhancing biodegradation.

  5. Use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization in the process of bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, Fernando Reynel Fundora; Martins, Marco Antônio; da Silva, Alexsandro Araujo; da Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the use of sugarcane filter cake and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilization in the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with diesel fuel using a completely randomized design. Five treatments (uncontaminated soil, T1; soil contaminated with diesel, T2; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake, T3; soil contaminated with diesel and treated with NPK fertilizer, T4; and soil contaminated with diesel and treated with 15 % (wt) filter cake and NPK fertilizer, T5) and four evaluation periods (1, 60, 120, and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment) were used according to a 4 × 5 factorial design to analyze CO2 release. The variables total organic carbon (TOC) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) remaining in the soil were analyzed using a 5 × 2 factorial design, with the same treatments described above and two evaluation periods (1 and 180 days after the beginning of the experiment). In T3 and T5, CO2 release was significantly higher, compared with the other treatments. Significant TPH removal was observed on day 180, when percent removal values were 61.9, 70.1, 68.2, and 75.9 in treatments T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, compared with the initial value (T1).

  6. A Review on Bioremediation Technologies of Organic Pollutants Contaminated Soils%土壤有机污染物生物修复技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周际海; 袁颖红; 朱志保; 姚春阳; 张谷雨; 高琪

    2015-01-01

    biphenyls (PCBs) and Antibiotics (ATBs), worsen soil organic matter pollution, thus making remediation of organic pollutants contaminated soils a pressing issue. The remediation of contaminated soils is a qualitative process in which pollutant concentration is reduced to an acceptable level, or poisonous and harmful pollutants transformed into innoxious substances through absorption, degradation, transfer and transformation in soils using physical, chemical or biological methods. It includes physical remediation technology, chemical remediation technology and bioremediation technology. Among all kinds of soil remediation techniques, bioremediation is receiving more and more attention because of its safety and low cost. Besides, it won’t cause secondary pollution. The bioremediation of organic pollutants contaminated soils consists of phytoremediation technologies, soil fauna remediation technologies and microbial remediation technologies. The microbial bioremediation as an important component of the bioremediation of contaminated soils, boasts the most value in development and application in biological environmental protection. This paper systematically introduces the bioremediation technologies of organic pollutants contaminated soils at home and abroad in terms of their principles, the research progresses, the advantages and limitations. In the meantime, we cast a brief look into the prospects of the research of soil fauna remediation in future. Hopefully, it will provide references for research on bioremediation of organic pollutants contaminated soils.

  7. Study on the Bioremediation of Soil Pollution in Orchard%果园土壤污染生物修复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝申; 王炳华; 高树青; 刘秀春; 高艳敏; 陈宝江; 杨华

    2009-01-01

    [目的]弄清土壤污染的生物修复作用机理.[方法]通过果园田间试验和土壤模拟试验,研究施用果树生物有机肥对果园土壤生物修复的作用.[结果]生物有机肥提高了根域土壤多酚氧化酶、脲酶、磷酸酶等酶的活力;促进了根域土壤对Pb2+等重金属的钝化;增加了有益真菌、放线菌、细菌等活性菌的数量,降低了根腐病菌、疫腐病菌、白/紫纹羽病菌和线虫等有害生物的数量.[结论]该研究为生物有机肥在果树上的推广应用提供了依据.%[ Objective] The aim was to study the bioremediation mechanism of soil pollution. [ Method] The effects of applying biological organic fertilizers on the bioremediation of soil pollution in orchard were studied by orchard field experiment and soil simulation experiment. [Result] The biological organic fertilizers improved the activities of enzymes (like polyphenol oxidase, urease, phosphatase etc) in root-zone soil, promoted the passivation of heavy metals (Pb~(2+)) by root-zone soil, increased the quantity of active bacterium (like beneficial fungi, ac-tinomycetes, bacterium etc) and decreased the quantity of harmful biology (like Fusarium oxysporum, Moniliophthora roreri, Ruselliniu necu-trix/Helicobasidium mompa Tanakae, nematode etc). [Conclusion] The study results provide some references for the popularization and application of biological organic fertilizers on fruit trees.

  8. Characterization of cell-free extracts from fenpropathrin-degrading strain Bacillus cereus ZH-3 and its potential for bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Wenwen; Han, Haitao; She, Changchun; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-08-01

    Synthetic pyrethroid fenpropathrin has received increasing attention because of its environmental contamination and toxic effects on non-target organisms including human beings. Here we report the degradation characteristics of cell-free extracts from fenpropathrin-degrading strain Bacillus cereus ZH-3 and its potential for pyrethroid bioremediation in soils. 50mg·L(-1) of fenpropathrin was decreased to 20.6mg·L(-1) by the enzymatic extracts (869.4mg·L(-1)) within 30min. Kinetic constants Km and Vm were determined to be 1006.7nmol·L(-1) and 56.8nmol·min(-1), respectively. Degradation products were identified as 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde, α-hydroxy-3-phenoxy-benzeneacetonitrile and phenol by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition to degradation of fenpropathrin, the cell-free extracts could degrade other pyrethroids including beta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin and cypermethrin. Additionally, the reaction conditions were optimized. In the sterile and non-sterile soils, 50mg·kg(-1) of fenpropathrin was reduced to 15.3 and 13.9mg·L(-1) in 1d, respectively. Sprayed 100 and 300mg·kg(-1) of fenpropathrin emulsifiable concentrate (EC), up to 84.6% and 92.1% of soil fenpropathrin were removed from soils within 7d, respectively. Taken together, our results depict the biodegradation characteristics of cell-free extracts from B. cereus ZH-3, highlight its promising potential in bioremediation of pyrethroid-contaminated soils and also provide new insights into the utilization of degrading microbes.

  9. Use of emulsified vegetable oil to support bioremediation of TCE DNAPL in soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Mark; Fisher, Angela

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was observed using two soil columns and subsequent reductive dechlorination of TCE was monitored over a three year period. Dyed TCE DNAPL (~ 75 g) was emplaced in one column (DNAPL column), while the second was DNAPL-free (plume column). EVO was added to both columns and partitioning of the EVO into the TCE DNAPL was measured and quantified. TCE (1.9 mM) was added to the influent of the plume column to simulate conditions down gradient of a DNAPL source area and the columns were operated independently for more than one year, after which they were connected in series. Initially limited dechlorination of TCE to cDCE was observed in the DNAPL column, while the plume column supported complete reductive dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Upon connection and reamendment of the plume column with EVO, near saturation levels of TCE from the effluent of the DNAPL column were rapidly dechlorinated to c-DCE and VC in the plume column; however, this high rate dechlorination produced hydrochloric acid which overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the system and caused the pH to drop below 6.0. Dechlorination efficiency in the columns subsequently deteriorated, as measured by the chloride production and Dehalococcoides counts, but was restored by adding sodium bicarbonate buffer to the influent groundwater. Robust dechlorination was eventually observed in the DNAPL column, such that the TCE DNAPL was largely removed by the end of the study. Partitioning of the EVO into the DNAPL provided significant operational benefits to the remediation system both in terms of electron donor placement and longevity.

  10. BIOREMEDIATION TECHNIQUES ON CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED SOILS IN OHIO. Final report includes the quarterly report that ended 12/31/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Hodges; Richard J. Simmers

    1997-05-30

    The purpose of this study is to define the optimum limits of chemical and physical conditions that reduce soil salinity and maximize indigenous aerobic microbiological populations in the bioremediation of oil field waste solids. Specifically, the study centers around treatment of surface contained oily waste having low density and limited solubility in water. Successful remediation is defined by total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction to 1% and no hydrocarbon or salinity impact on ground water resources. The Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission have encouraged oil and gas producing states to identify and develop improved methods such as this to reduce, recycle or treat solid waste generated with the exploration and development of domestic petroleum resources (IOGCC, 1995). With encouragement and funding assistance through the Department of Energy, Ohio is developing these bioremediation practices to protect soil and water resources. Ohio produced 8,300,000 barrels of crude oil in 1996 from wells operated by 4310 registered owners (ODNR, 1996). Good well site housekeeping can minimize spills, however accidental spills inevitably occur with oil production of this magnitude. Development of sound environmental and economical clean-up procedures is essential.

  11. 菌根在污染土壤生物修复中的作用%Effect of Mycorrhiza on Bioremediation of Polluted Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曙光; 林先贵

    2001-01-01

    Mycorrhiza,existing extensively in nature,are symbioticassociations of plant roots with certain soil fungi. They can improve the host plant in nutrient uptake and growth,and hence its endurance and resistance to environmental stress. Therefore,mycorrhiza-accreted plants can be used as a suitable bioremediation carrier. A review is made of studies,at home and abroad,on role of mycorrhiza in bioremediating soils polluted by non-organic,organic and radioactive contaminants.%菌根是土壤真菌-植物根系形成的共生体,广泛存在于自然界中,它能增强植物的吸收能力,改善植物的生长,提高植株的抗逆能力和耐受能力等。所以,菌根化植物可作为很好的生物修复载体。本文主要从无机、有机以及放射性污染3方面对国内外关于菌根在污染土壤生物修复中的作用进行了综述。

  12. J.R. SIMPLOT EX-SITU BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT OF DINOSEB-CONTAMINATED SOILS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the J.R. Simplot Ex-Situ Bioremediation Technology on the degradation of dinoseb (2-set-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol) an agricultural herbicide. This technology was developed by the J.R. Simplot Company (Simplot) to biologically ...

  13. Research Progress in Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil%土壤污染的生物修复技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程芳; 亓恒振; 孙俊玲

    2014-01-01

    Soil contamination has become a serious problem in our country. This paper reviews the research developments and new methods applications in bioremediation. Trends and perspectives of soil remediation are also introduced. We hope this review could be beneficial to further research in this area.%土壤污染已经成为我国当前面临的一个严重的环境问题。本文综述了国内外土壤污染生物修复技术的研究现状,总结了该领域内新技术的应用,并展望了土壤污染修复技术的发展趋势,以期为今后这方面的研究提供参考。

  14. Enhancement of the microbial community biomass and diversity during air sparging bioremediation of a soil highly contaminated with kerosene and BTEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabelitz, Nadja; Machackova, Jirina; Imfeld, Gwenaël; Brennerova, Maria; Pieper, Dietmar H; Heipieper, Hermann J; Junca, Howard

    2009-03-01

    In order to obtain insights in complexity shifts taking place in natural microbial communities under strong selective pressure, soils from a former air force base in the Czech Republic, highly contaminated with jet fuel and at different stages of a bioremediation air sparging treatment, were analyzed. By tracking phospholipid fatty acids and 16S rRNA genes, a detailed monitoring of the changes in quantities and composition of the microbial communities developed at different stages of the bioventing treatment progress was performed. Depending on the length of the air sparging treatment that led to a significant reduction in the contamination level, we observed a clear shift in the soil microbial community being dominated by Pseudomonads under the harsh conditions of high aromatic contamination to a status of low aromatic concentrations, increased biomass content, and a complex composition with diverse bacterial taxonomical branches.

  15. Enhancement of the microbial community biomass and diversity during air sparging bioremediation of a soil highly contaminated with kerosene and BTEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabelitz, Nadja; Heipieper, Hermann J. [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Bioremediation; Machackova, Jirina [Earth Tech CZ s.r.o., Prague (Czech Republic); Imfeld, Gwenael [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Isotope Biogeochemistry; Brennerova, Maria [Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (CZ). Inst. of Microbiology (IMIC); Pieper, Dietmar H.; Junca, Howard [Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Braunschweig (Germany). Biodegradation Research Group

    2009-03-15

    In order to obtain insights in complexity shifts taking place in natural microbial communities under strong selective pressure, soils from a former air force base in the Czech Republic, highly contaminated with jet fuel and at different stages of a bioremediation air sparging treatment, were analyzed. By tracking phospholipid fatty acids and 16S rRNA genes, a detailed monitoring of the changes in quantities and composition of the microbial communities developed at different stages of the bioventing treatment progress was performed. Depending on the length of the air sparging treatment that led to a significant reduction in the contamination level, we observed a clear shift in the soil microbial community being dominated by Pseudomonads under the harsh conditions of high aromatic contamination to a status of low aromatic concentrations, increased biomass content, and a complex composition with diverse bacterial taxonomical branches. (orig.)

  16. Comparative bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons co-contaminated soil by natural attenuation, phytoremediation, bioaugmentation and bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A C; Bagard, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G; Huguenot, D

    2016-09-01

    Biological remediation technologies are an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated through a pot experiment four bioremediation strategies: a) natural attenuation, b) phytoremediation with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), c) bioaugmentation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and d) bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation, for the treatment of a co-contaminated soil presenting moderate levels of heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn at 87, 100 and 110mgkg(-1) DW, respectively) and petroleum hydrocarbons (3800mgkg(-1) DW). As demonstrated by plant biomass and selected physiological parameters alfalfa plants were able to tolerate and grow in the co-contaminated soil, especially when soil was inoculated with P. aeruginosa, which promoted plant growth (56% and 105% increase for shoots and roots, respectively) and appeared to alleviate plant stress. The content of heavy metals in alfalfa plants was limited and followed the order: Zn>Cu>Pb. Heavy metals were mainly concentrated in plant roots and were poorly translocated, favouring their stabilization in the root zone. Bioaugmentation of planted soil with P. aeruginosa generally led to a decrease of plant metal concentration and translocation. The highest degree of total petroleum hydrocarbon removal was obtained for bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation treatment (68%), followed by bioaugmentation (59%), phytoremediation (47%) and natural attenuation (37%). The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of plant and bacteria was the most advantageous option for the treatment of the present co-contaminated soil, as compared to natural attenuation, bioaugmentation or phytoremediation applied alone.

  17. Comparative bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons co-contaminated soil by natural attenuation, phytoremediation, bioaugmentation and bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A C; Bagard, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G; Huguenot, D

    2016-09-01

    Biological remediation technologies are an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated through a pot experiment four bioremediation strategies: a) natural attenuation, b) phytoremediation with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), c) bioaugmentation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and d) bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation, for the treatment of a co-contaminated soil presenting moderate levels of heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn at 87, 100 and 110mgkg(-1) DW, respectively) and petroleum hydrocarbons (3800mgkg(-1) DW). As demonstrated by plant biomass and selected physiological parameters alfalfa plants were able to tolerate and grow in the co-contaminated soil, especially when soil was inoculated with P. aeruginosa, which promoted plant growth (56% and 105% increase for shoots and roots, respectively) and appeared to alleviate plant stress. The content of heavy metals in alfalfa plants was limited and followed the order: Zn>Cu>Pb. Heavy metals were mainly concentrated in plant roots and were poorly translocated, favouring their stabilization in the root zone. Bioaugmentation of planted soil with P. aeruginosa generally led to a decrease of plant metal concentration and translocation. The highest degree of total petroleum hydrocarbon removal was obtained for bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation treatment (68%), followed by bioaugmentation (59%), phytoremediation (47%) and natural attenuation (37%). The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of plant and bacteria was the most advantageous option for the treatment of the present co-contaminated soil, as compared to natural attenuation, bioaugmentation or phytoremediation applied alone. PMID:26524994

  18. Biodegradation and bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, H.-J.

    1996-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994......Anmeldelse af Alexander,M.: Biodegradation and bioremediation. Academic Press, Sandiego, USA, 1994...

  19. TREATABILITY STUDY REPORT OF GREEN MOUNTAIN LABORATORIES, INC.'S BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, TREATMENT OF PCB CONTAMINATED SOILS, AT BEEDE WASTE OIL/CASH ENERGY SUPERFUND SITE, PLAISTOW, NEW HAMPSHIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1998, Green Mountain Laboratories, Inc. (GML) and the USEPA agreed to carry out a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) project to evaluate the effectiveness of GML's Bioremediation Process for the treatment of PCB contaminated soils at the Beede Waste Oil/Cash Ene...

  20. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Portland cement and lime activated persulfate by increasing pH and temperature. • Chemical oxidation achieved BTEX and PAH removal ranging from 55% to 75%. • Activating persulfate with ISS amendments reduced leachability more than NaOH. • Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded PAHs within weeks after ISCO finished. • ISCO, ISS, and anaerobic bioremediation were combined in a single application. - Abstract: Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks

  1. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassidy, Daniel P., E-mail: daniel.cassidy@wmich.edu [Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Srivastava, Vipul J., E-mail: vipul.srivastava@ch2m.com [CH2M HILL, 125S Wacker, Ste 3000, Chicago, IL 60606 (United States); Dombrowski, Frank J., E-mail: frank.dombrowski@we-energies.com [We Energies, 333W Everett St., A231, Milwaukee, WI 53203 (United States); Lingle, James W., E-mail: jlingle@epri.com [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 4927W Willow Road, Brown Deer, WI 53223 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Portland cement and lime activated persulfate by increasing pH and temperature. • Chemical oxidation achieved BTEX and PAH removal ranging from 55% to 75%. • Activating persulfate with ISS amendments reduced leachability more than NaOH. • Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded PAHs within weeks after ISCO finished. • ISCO, ISS, and anaerobic bioremediation were combined in a single application. - Abstract: Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks.

  2. Characterization of successional changes in bacterial community composition during bioremediation of used motor oil-contaminated soil in a boreal climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lijuan; Sinkko, Hanna; Penttinen, Petri; Lindström, Kristina

    2016-01-15

    The widespread use of motor oil makes it a notable risk factor to cause scattered contamination in soil. The monitoring of microbial community dynamics can serve as a comprehensive tool to assess the ecological impact of contaminants and their disappearance in the ecosystem. Hence, a field study was conducted to monitor the ecological impact of used motor oil under different perennial cropping systems (fodder galega, brome grass, galega-brome grass mixture and bare fallow) in a boreal climate zone. Length heterogeneity PCR characterized a successional pattern in bacterial community following oil contamination over a four-year bioremediation period. Soil pH and electrical conductivity were associated with the shifts in bacterial community composition. Crops had no detectable effect on bacterial community composition or complexity. However, the legume fodder galega increased soil microbial biomass, expressed as soil total DNA. Oil contamination induced an abrupt change in bacterial community composition at the early stage, yet the effect did not last as long as the oil in soil. The successional variation in bacterial community composition can serve as a sensitive ecological indicator of oil contamination and remediation in situ.

  3. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Daniel P; Srivastava, Vipul J; Dombrowski, Frank J; Lingle, James W

    2015-10-30

    Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks.

  4. Bioremediation of contaminated mixtures of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil by aerated in-vessel composting in the Atacama Region (Chile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since early 1900s, with the beginning of mining operations and especially in the last decade, small, although repetitive spills of fuel oil had occurred frequently in the Chilean mining desert industry during reparation and maintenance of machinery, as well as casual accidents. Normally, soils and sawdust had been used as cheap readily available sorbent materials of spills of fuel oil, consisting of complex mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Chilean legislation considers these fuel oil contaminated mixtures of soil and sawdust as hazardous wastes, and thus they must be contained. It remains unknown whether it would be feasible to clean-up Chilean desert soils with high salinity and metal content, historically polluted with different commercial fuel oil, and contained during years. Thus, this study evaluated the feasibility of aerated in-vessel composting at a laboratory scale as a bioremediation technology to clean-up contaminated desert mining soils (fuel concentration > 50,000 mg kg-1) and sawdust (fuel concentration > 225,000 mg kg-1) in the Atacama Region. The composting reactors were operated using five soil to sawdust ratios (S:SD, 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 0:1, on a dry weight basis) under mesophilic temperatures (30-40 deg. C), constant moisture content (MC, 50%) and continuous aeration (16 l min-1) during 56 days. Fuel oil concentration and physico-chemical changes in the composting reactors were monitored following standard procedures. The highest (59%) and the lowest (35%) contaminant removals were observed in the contaminated sawdust and contaminated soil reactors after 56 days of treatment, respectively. The S:SD ratio, time of treatment and interaction between both factors had a significant effect (p < 0.050) on the contaminant removal. The results of this research indicate that bioremediation of an aged contaminated mixture of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil is feasible. This study recommends a S:SD ratio 1:3 and a correct

  5. Pilot scale ex-situ bioremediation of heavily PAHs-contaminated soil by indigenous microorganisms and bioaugmentation by a PAHs-degrading and bioemulsifier-producing strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guang-Dong; Xu, Yang; Jin, Jing-Hua; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Luo, Mu; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2012-09-30

    This study aims at the remediation of heavily PAH-contaminated soil containing 375 mg of total PAHs per kilogram dry soil. Pilot scale bioremediation experiments were carried out by three approaches with contaminated soil from abandoned sites of Beijing Coking Plant using outdoor pot trials. The first approach was bioaugmentation with a bacterial strain which degrades PAH and produces bioemulsifier, the second approach comprised of biostimulation of indigenous microorganisms with supplementing nutrients and the last approach involved the combination of both biostimulation and bioaugmentation. An on-site land farming group was set as a control in which the total PAHs and 4-6 ring-PAHs were reduced by 23.4% and 10.1%, respectively after 175 days. Meanwhile, in the first approach group, the total PAHs and 4-6 ring-PAHs were reduced by 26.82% and 35.36%, respectively; in the second approach group both percentages were 33.9% and 11.0%, respectively; while in the third approach group, these pollutants were reduced by 43.9% and 55.0%, respectively. The results obtained suggested that biostimulation and bioaugmentation combined could significantly enhance the removal of PAHs in the contaminated soil.

  6. Biorremediação de solos contaminados com hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques

    2007-08-01

    capacity to degrade them, which results in its accumulation in the atmosphere and contamination of the ecosystems. A strategy for PAHs elimination from the soil is through the bioremediation, where microorganisms having capacity to metabolize these compounds will transform them in inert substances, CO2 and water. However, this biotechnology can be limited by the lack of specific HAP microbial-degraders in soil, by unfavorable environmental conditions to these microorganisms or by the low bioavailability of those contaminants to the microorganisms. To overcome these limitations and to promote an efficient removal of the pollutants to the atmosphere, several bioremediation techniques were developed as passive bioremediation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, landfarming, composting and bioreactors. This revision aims at discussing microbial metabolism of PAHs, present the main chemical and physical factors that influence the survival and the activity of these microorganisms and to show the bioremediation techniques that are being used now for the PAHs removal in soil.

  7. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil to combat toxicity on Withania somnifera through seed priming with biosurfactant producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amar Jyoti; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Soil contaminated by Petroleum oil cannot be utilized for agricultural purposes due to hydrocarbon toxicity. Oil contaminated soil induces toxicity affecting germination, growth and productivity. Several technologies have been proposed for bioremediation of oil contaminated sites, but remediation through biosurfactant producing plant growth promontory rhizobacteria (PGPR) is considered to be most promising methods. In the present study the efficacy of seed priming on growth and pigment of Withania somnifera under petroleum toxicity is explored. Seeds of W. somnifera were primed with biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas sp. AJ15 with plant growth promoting traits having potentiality to utilized petroleum as carbon source. Results indicates that plant arose from priming seeds under various petroleum concentration expressed high values for all the parameters studied namely germination, shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight and pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoid) as compared to non primed seed. Hence, the present study signifies that petroleum degrarding biosurfactant producing PGPR could be further used for management and detoxification of petroleum contaminated soils for growing economically important crops. PMID:27016896

  8. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil to combat toxicity on Withania somnifera through seed priming with biosurfactant producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amar Jyoti; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Soil contaminated by Petroleum oil cannot be utilized for agricultural purposes due to hydrocarbon toxicity. Oil contaminated soil induces toxicity affecting germination, growth and productivity. Several technologies have been proposed for bioremediation of oil contaminated sites, but remediation through biosurfactant producing plant growth promontory rhizobacteria (PGPR) is considered to be most promising methods. In the present study the efficacy of seed priming on growth and pigment of Withania somnifera under petroleum toxicity is explored. Seeds of W. somnifera were primed with biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas sp. AJ15 with plant growth promoting traits having potentiality to utilized petroleum as carbon source. Results indicates that plant arose from priming seeds under various petroleum concentration expressed high values for all the parameters studied namely germination, shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight and pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoid) as compared to non primed seed. Hence, the present study signifies that petroleum degrarding biosurfactant producing PGPR could be further used for management and detoxification of petroleum contaminated soils for growing economically important crops.

  9. Integrated Nanozero Valent Iron and Biosurfactant-Aided Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    He Zhang; Baiyu Zhang; Bo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) have been identified as environmental hazards for years. Due to historical issues, a considerable amount of PCBs was released deep underground in Canada. In this research, a nanoscale zero valent iron- (nZVI-) aided dechlorination followed by biosurfactant enhanced soil washing method was developed to remove PCBs from soil. During nZVI-aided dechlorination, the effects of nZVI dosage, initial pH level, and temperature were evaluated, respectively. Five levels of nZV...

  10. Bioremediation of Cd and carbendazim co-contaminated soil by Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii associated with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wendan; Wang, Huan; Li, Tingqiang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jie; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a bioremediation strategy for cadmium (Cd) and carbendazim co-contaminated soil using a hyperaccumulator plant (Sedum alfredii) combined with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Paracoccus sp., Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas sp.). A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions for 180 days with S. alfredii and/or carbendazim-degrading strains grown in soil artificially polluted with two levels of contaminants (low level, 1 mg kg(-1) Cd and 21 mg kg(-1) carbendazim; high level, 6 mg kg(-1) Cd and 117 mg kg(-1) carbendazim). Cd removal efficiencies were 32.3-35.1 % and 7.8-8.2 % for the low and high contaminant level, respectively. Inoculation with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains significantly (P < 0.05) increased Cd removal efficiencies at the low level. The carbendazim removal efficiencies increased by 32.1-42.5 % by the association of S. alfredii with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains, as compared to control, regardless of contaminant level. Cultivation with S. alfredii and inoculation of carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains increased soil microbial biomass, dehydrogenase activities and microbial diversities by 46.2-121.3 %, 64.2-143.4 %, and 2.4-24.7 %, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis revealed that S. alfredii stimulated the activities of Flavobacteria and Bradyrhizobiaceae. The association of S. alfredii with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains enhanced the degradation of carbendazim by changing microbial activity and community structure in the soil. The results demonstrated that association of S. alfredii with carbendazim-degrading bacterial strains is promising for remediation of Cd and carbendazim co-contaminated soil. PMID:22529002

  11. Sugarcane bagasse as support for immobilization of Bacillus pumilus HZ-2 and its use in bioremediation of mesotrione-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Chen, Shaohua; Ding, Jie; Xiao, Ying; Han, Haitao; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    The degrading microorganisms isolated from environment usually fail to degrade pollutants when used for bioremediation of contaminated soils; thus, additional treatments are needed to enhance biodegradation. In the present study, the potential of sugarcane bagasse as bacteria-immobilizing support was investigated in mesotrione biodegradation. A novel isolate Bacillus pumilus HZ-2 was applied in bacterial immobilization, which was capable of degrading over 95 % of mesotrione at initial concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 mg L(-1) within 4 days in flask-shaking tests. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the bacterial cells were strongly absorbed and fully dispersed on bagasse surface after immobilization. Specially, 86.5 and 82.9 % of mesotrione was eliminated by bacteria immobilized on bagasse of 100 and 60 mesh, respectively, which indicated that this immobilization was able to maintain a high degrading activity of the bacteria. Analysis of the degradation products determined 2-amino-4-methylsulfonylbenzoic acid (AMBA) and 4-methylsulfonyl-2-nitrobenzoic acid (MNBA) as the main metabolites in the biodegradation pathway of mesotrione. In the sterile soil, approximately 90 % of mesotrione was degraded after supplementing 5.0 % of molasses in bacteria-bagasse composite, which greatly enhanced microbial adaptability and growth in the soil environment. In the field tests, over 75 % of mesotrione in soil was degraded within 14 days. The immobilized preparation demonstrated that mesotrione could be degraded at a wide range of pH values (5.0-8.0) and temperatures (25-35 °C), especially at low concentrations of mesotrione (5 to 20 mg kg(-1)). These results showed that sugarcane bagasse might be a good candidate as bacteria-immobilizing support to enhance mesotrione degradation by Bacillus p. HZ-2 in contaminated soils.

  12. Bioremediation in Germany: Markets, technologies, and leading companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation has become an internationally accepted remediation tool. Commercial bioremediation activities take place in many European countries, but Germany and the Netherlands are the clear European leaders, with both having a long history of public and private sector activity in biological technologies. The German bioremediation market has been driven by government regulation, in particular the waste laws that apply to contaminated soils. The 1994 German market for bioremediation is estimated at $70 to 100 million (US $). There are at least 150 companies active in bioremediation in Germany, most of which practice bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, either in situ or ex situ. Because of their predominance in the current European market, German firms are well positioned to expand into those nations in the European Union (EU) currently lacking an environmental business infrastructure

  13. Biodegradation of 2,3,7,8 TCDD by anaerobic and aerobic microcosms collected from bioremediation treatments for cleaning up dioxin contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Dang Thi; Tuan, Mai Anh; Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Sanh, Nguyen Thi [Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) (Viet Nam). Inst. of Biotechnology; Sau, Trinh Khac [Vietnam-Russian Tropical Center (Viet Nam); Papke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    There are many microbes that can degrade polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurants (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been isolated including purified bacteria, actinomycetes, white rods, filamentous fungi, anaerobes and also anaerobic and aerobic consortia. Bioremediation one of biological remediation has been studied as hopeful alternative to physical and chemical treatments that using for cleaning up PCDDs, PCDFs. In Vietnam for cleaning up ''hot spot'' of some former military air bases, bioremediation has been studying in different scales of Danang site. After 18 to 24 month treatments, the reduction of toxicity was significally detected. In order to study biodegradability by different groups and one of dominated strain that are existing microorganisms in our treatments, the investigation of 2,3,7,8 TCDD anaerobic and aerobic degradations was carried out in the laboratory condition. Anaerobic microbial consortium containing three different bacteria such as two Gram- negative vibrio and rod and one gram positive cocoides bacteria. This consortium could degrade 118 pg TEQ/ml 2,3,7,8 TCDD after 133 days under sulfate reduction. Concentration of 2,3,7,8 TCDD in the soil extract that adding to medium at starting point of cultivation was 144.6 pg TEQ/ml. About 81% toxicity was removed. Aerobic consortium containing all three Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. After 9 day shaking at 180 rpm/min and 30 C, 85.6 % of 164.45 pg TEQ/ml 2,3,7,8 TCDD was removed. Other preliminary results of study of 2,3,7,8 TCDD biodegradation as sole carbon and energy by show that this strain FDN30 could remove 43,45 pg TEQ/ml (59%) of 73,1 pgTEQ/ml adding dioxin after two weeks. These findings explain why high concentration of contaminants in treated soil was decreased after two year treatment. Indigenous microorganisms play leading role in the detoxification of 2,3,7,8 TCDD in contaminated soils.

  14. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal; Atanu Jana; Mr. Abhijit Datta; Sarma, Priyangshu M.; Banwari Lal; Jayati Datta

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste) and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of th...

  15. Isolation of Lead Resistant Bacteria from Lead Contaminated Soil Samples Collected from Sundar Industrial Estate and their Potential Use in Bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial waste water pollution is one of the most controversial problem especially in countries like Pakistan. Human activities and the release of industrial waste have resulted the accumulation of metals in the environment. Noxious chemicals like heavy metals include cadmium, lead, chromium, copper, nickel, etc. that pollute the soils, ground water, sediments and surface waters re present in soluble form. Biosorpotion is a form of bioremediation by which metal ions are adsorbed from polluted site by microorganisms. Samples collected from industrial area were analyzed for lead contamination by Flame Atomic Spectrophotometer. Soil samples of Sundar Industrial Estate were highly resistant to different concentrations (300ppm, 800ppm, and 1600ppm) of Pb+2 whereas, the sample PbFa-458 showed maximum (127.9819mg/L) absorption of Pb+2, so can be used for environmental cleanup. From 24 selected lead resistant strains PbFa-136, PbFa-287, PbFa-960 showed resistance to multimetals, multidrug and high lead concentrations i.e 1800ppm, 2000ppm. Lead resistant strains were predicted as Klebsiella or Eenterobacter, Bacillus, Shigella, Salmonella and Enteroccocus. (author)

  16. Study on the Change Law of Petroleum Component in Soil Bioremediation%土壤生物修复过程中石油类组分变化规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑玉全; 郑经堂

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究土壤生物修复过程中石油类组分的变化规律.[方法]采用微生物修复和植物修复法对油污土壤进行修复,通过分析土壤生物修复过程中石油类含量厦组分的变化来评价污染土壤的生物修复效果.[结果]随着修复时间的延长,土壤中矿物油可降到3 000 mg/kg以下;土壤中石油类总烃所占比例大幅下降,而沥青质所占比例明显上升;修复前土壤中石油类以C24为主,微生物修复后(41 d)主碳峰为C29,植物修复后(139 d)主碳峰为C17和C18.[结论]该研究为今后油污土壤生物修复效果的评价提供了科学依据.%[ Objective] Our study was carried out to research the change law of petroleum component in soil bioremediation. [ Method] By means of microbial remediation and plant remediation to restore oily soil, the bioremediation effect of oily soil was assessed based on analysis on the change of petroleum content and component in soil bioremediation. [ Result ] With the increase of remediation time, mineral oil in soil decreased to below 3 000 mg/kg; the proportion of total hydrocarbon in petroleum went down greatly, while asphaltene proportion in petroleum went up obviously; the main carbon peak of petroleum in soil was C24 before bioremediation and C29 after microbial remediation (41 d), while it changed into C17 and C18 after plant remediation ( 139 d). [ Conclusion] Our study could provide scientific reference for the assessment on the bioremediation effect of oily soil in the further.

  17. Bioremediation of BTEX hydrocarbons: Effect of soil inoculation with the toluenegrowing fungus Cladophialophora sp strain T1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenafeta, F.X.; Ballerstedt, H.; Gerritse, J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2004-01-01

    The biodegradation of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, (BTEX) and methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was studied in soil microcosms. Soil inoculation with the toluene-metabolising fungusCladophialophora sp. strain T1 was evaluated in sterile and non-sterile soil. Induction of biodegr

  18. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balba, T. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most prevalent contaminants in subsurface soil and groundwater are petroleum hydrocarbons. This paper presented bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons as one of the most promising treatment technologies. Petroleum hydrocarbons are categorized into four simple fractions: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes. Bioremediation refers to the treatment process whereby contaminants are metabolized into less toxic or nontoxic compounds by naturally occurring organisms. The various strategies include: use of constitutive enzymes, enzyme induction, co-metabolism, transfer of plasmids coding for certain metabolic pathways, and production of biosurfactants to enhance bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds. Three case studies were presented: (1) bioremediation of heavy oils in soil at a locomotive maintenance yard in California, involving a multi-step laboratory treatability study followed by a field demonstration achieving up to 94 per cent removal of TPH in less than 16 weeks, (2) bioremediation of light oils in soil at an oil refinery in Germany where a dual process was applied (excavation and in-situ treatment), achieving an 84 per cent reduction within 24 weeks, and (3) bioremediation of oil-contaminated desert soil in Kuwait which involved landfarming, composting piles, and bioventing soil piles, achieving an 80 per cent reduction within 12 months. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  19. 16种EPA-PAHs复合污染土壤的菌群修复%Bioremediation of 16 EPA-PAHs combined contaminated-soil with microbial consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李政; 赵朝成; 张云波; 赵东风

    2012-01-01

    通过富集筛选获得一组PAHs降解混合菌群和3株降解单菌,利用变性梯度凝胶电泳(DGGE)技术分析混合菌群的组成,对16种多环芳烃(PAHs)复合污染土壤进行生物修复,同时考察混合菌群和单菌株在PAHs复合污染土壤中的生物修复效果.结果表明:混合菌群主要由3株已分离获得的降解单菌和5株未可分离培养的单菌组成;经过30 d的生物修复,混合菌群对土壤中总PAHs的降解率(54.17%)高于单一菌株(28.40%,31.95%,24.64%),并且对高相对分子质量PAHs的降解表现出了较大的优势,4环、5环、6环PAHs的降解率分别可达到71.26%、39.76%和42.86%;利用混合菌群来修复16种PAHs复合污染的土壤,可以避免一些未可分离培养的关键菌株的丢失,使PAHs的降解更加全面有效.%For bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( PAHs) combined contaminated-soil, a microbial consortium and three strains were isolated from PAHs contaminated-soil containing sixteen US Environmental Protection Agency priority control PAHs. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to analyze the structure of the microbial consortium , and the biodegradation effect of PAHs mixtures with the inoculation of mixed microbial consortium and single strain was studied. The results show that the consortium is mainly composed of three isolated strains and five uncultured bacterias. After 30 days bioremediation, the degradation efficiency of total PAHs by microbial consortium (54. 17% ) is higher than any single strain's (28. 40% ,31. 95% ,24. 64% ). Microbial consortium shows a great advantage in degradation of high relative molecular mass PAHs, and the degradation efficiencies of four-rings, five-rings and six-rings PAHs are 71. 26% , 39. 76% , 42. 86% , respectively. Microbial consortium is capable of degrading PAHs which can avoid the loss of key strains and has a good application prospect in the bioremediation of PAHs

  20. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  1. A novel arsenic methyltransferase gene of Westerdykella aurantiaca isolated from arsenic contaminated soil: phylogenetic, physiological, and biochemical studies and its role in arsenic bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shikha; Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Meher, Alok Kumar; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Bansiwal, Amit Kumar; Pande, Veena; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-03-01

    Elevated arsenic concentration in the environment and agricultural soil is a serious concern to crop production and human health. Among different detoxification mechanisms, the methylation of arsenic is a widespread phenomenon in nature. A number of microorganisms are able to methylate arsenic, but less is known about the arsenic metabolism in fungi. We identified a novel arsenic methyltransferase (WaarsM) gene from a soil fungus, Westerdykella aurantiaca. WaarsM showed sequence homology with all known arsenic methyltransferases having three conserved SAM binding motifs. The expression of WaarsM enhanced arsenic resistance in E. coli (Δars) and S. cerevisiae (Δacr2) strains by biomethylation and required endogenous reductants, preferably GSH, for methyltransferase activity. The purified WaarsM catalyzes the production of methylated arsenicals from both AsIII and AsV, and also displays AsV reductase activity. It displayed higher methyltransferase activity and lower KM 0.1945 ± 0.021 mM and KM 0.4034 ± 0.078 mM for AsIII and AsV, respectively. S. cerevisiae (Δacr2) cells expressing WaarsM produced 2.2 ppm volatile arsenic and 0.64 ppm DMA(v) with 0.58 ppm volatile arsenicals when exposed to 20 ppm AsV and 2 ppm AsIII, respectively. Arsenic tolerance in rice after co-culture with genetically engineered yeast suggested its potential role in arsenic bioremediation. Thus, characterization of WaarsM provides a potential strategy to reduce arsenic concentration in soil with reduced arsenic accumulation in crops grown in arsenic contaminated areas, and thereby alleviating human health risks. PMID:26776948

  2. Ecotoxicological characteristic of a soil polluted by radioactive elements and heavy metals before and after its bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, P.; Groudev, S.; Spasova, I.; Nikolova, M.

    2012-04-01

    Cinnamon soils from southeastern Bulgaria are heavily polluted with radionuclides (uranium, radium) and toxic heavy metals (copper and lead) due to the winds transportation of fine particles from flotation dumps to the soil surface. As a result of this, the polluted soils are characterized by a slightly alkaline pH (7.82) and positive net neutralization potential (+136.8 kg CaCO3/t). A fresh sample of cinnamon soil was subjected to remediation under laboratory conditions in four lysimeters each containing 70 kg of soil. The preliminary study revealed that most of the pollutants were presented as carbonate, reducible and oxidisable mobility fractions, i.e. pollutants ions were specifically adsorbed by carbonate and ferric iron minerals or were capsulated in sulfides. The applied soil treatment was connected with leaching of the pollutants located mainly in the horizon A, their transportation through the soil profile as soluble forms, and their precipitation in the rich-in-clay subhorizon B3. The efficiency of leaching depended on the activity of the indigenous microflora and on the chemical processes connected with solubilization of pollutants and formation of stable complexes with some organic compounds, chloride and hydrocarbonate ions. These processes were considerably enhanced by adding hay to the horizon A and irrigating the soil with water solutions containing the above-mentioned ions and some nutrients. After 18 months of treatment, each of the soil profiles in the different lysimeters was divided into five sections reflecting the different soil layers. The soil in these sections was subjected to a detailed chemical analysis and the data obtained were compared with the relevant data obtained before the start of the experiment. The best leaching of pollutants from horizon A was measured in the variants where soil mulching was applied. For example, the best leaching of lead (54.5 %) was found in the variant combining this technique and irrigation with solutions

  3. 放射性污染土壤生物修复的研究进展%Research advances review over the bioremediation of soil contaminated by radionuclide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范婷; 张晓文; 吕俊文; 唐东山; 陈亮

    2011-01-01

    土壤中放射性核素主要为天然来源和人为来源.而人为来源主要包括核试验、核武器制造、核能生产、核事故、放射性同位素的生产应用和矿物的开采冶炼等.综述了放射性核素污染土壤的植物修复、菌根修复、微生物修复等生物修复技术的研究进展,侧重探讨了这3种修复技术的协同作用,并对其研究的发展方向及今后的应用前景进行了讨论.%The present paper would like to give a general revision of research advances on the bioremediation of soil contaminated by ra-dionuclide. As the nuclear industry has been developing fast, the ra-dionuclide in the soil has become one of the major factors threatening human health and eco-toxicology. And, in turn, it has been found from the research channels that the rqain sources of the radionuclide pollution in the soil are coming from the nuclear tests, nuclear weapons production, the energy production of the nuclear power stations, nuclear accidents, as well as the production and application of radioisotopes and refining and application of minerals. It is just for the above reasons that we believe it necessary to point out the ever more great significance of such research advances in helping to reclaim the contaminated land soil and then illustrate some more effective and efficient new pollution-reducing and -removing techniques. Among them, the bioremediation technology is universally considered to be safest and most reliable. What is more, it also enjoys the obvious technological advantages of low cost, subtle disturbance on the environment with its capability of removing pollutants from the surrounding conditions of soil or water along with the radioactive contaminations. In addition, we also think it worthwhile to make a review of their new research advances, such as, phytoremediation, microbial remediation and mycorhiza remediation technologies. In spite of this, we would also like to put our emphasis on the limitations

  4. 根际环境内污染土壤的生物修复研究%Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil Within the Rhizosphere Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克中; 朱永恒

    2012-01-01

    The rhizosphere is an important environmental interface, and plays an extremely important role in the bioremediation of contaminated soil, thus,it become a hot topic in the current soil and environmental sci- ence. This article firstly discusses the absorption, degradation, fixation ecological functions of plant roots and root exudates to remedy contaminated soils, accumulate and solidify heavy metals, and absorb and degrade or- ganic pollutants in rhizosphere. And then it analyzes the adsorption, oxidation--reduction and chemotaxis functions of bacteria to remedy the heavy mentals and organic pollutants in contaminated soils in the rhizo- sphere environment. Moreover,it also introduces the absorption barriers and chelation functions of mycorrhi- zal fungi in the rhizosphere environment. Finally,it discusses the crushing, decomposition, digestion and en- richment functions of the soil fauna in the rhizosphere. Besides, the article also points out the directions of fu- ture research.%指出了根际环境是根系和土壤相互耦合的生态和环境界面,对根际环境在污染修复过程中的研究成为当前土壤学和土壤生态学研究中的一个重要课题。总结了根际环境内根系和根系分泌物对污染土壤中重金属,有机污染物的吸收、降解、固定的生态功能;根际环境内的细菌对污染土壤中重金属,有机污染物的吸附、氧化一还原以及趋化性作用;根际环境内的菌根真菌对污染土壤中重金属,有机污染物的吸收、屏障及螯合作用;根际环境内的土壤动物对污染土壤中重金属,有机污染物的破碎、分解、消化和富集作用,并探讨了应该加深的研究方向。

  5. Petroleum contaminated soil in Oman: evaluation of bioremediation treatment and potential for reuse in hot asphalt mix concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Hassan, Hossam; Al-Oraimi, Salem

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study that aims at evaluating the leaching characteristics of petroleum contaminated soils as well as their application in hot mix asphalt concrete. Soil samples are environmentally characterized in terms of their total heavy metals and hydrocarbon compounds and leachability. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) present in the PCS before and after treatment was determined to be 6.8% and 5.3% by dry weight, indicating a reduction of 1% in the TPH of PCS due to the current treatment employed. Results of the total heavy metal analysis on soils indicate that the concentrations of heavy metals are lower when extraction of the soil samples is carried out using hexane in comparison to TCE. The results show that the clean soils present in the vicinity of contaminated sites contain heavy metals in the following decreasing order: nickel (Ni), followed by chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V). The current treatment practice employed for remediation of the contaminated soil reduces the concentrations of nickel and chromium, but increases the concentrations of all remaining heavy metals. PMID:16957858

  6. Assessment of the physicochemical and microbiological status of western Niger Delta soil for crude oil pollution bioremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejechi, Bernard O; Ozochi, Chizoba A

    2015-06-01

    The physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil across the western Niger Delta area of Nigeria were determined to assess its potential for natural remediation of crude oil pollution. The pH (oil-producing area, 6.1 ± 1.1; non-oil producing, 5.9 ± 0.9) and temperature (28-35 °C in both areas) were favourable to natural remediation, while the fluctuating moisture (7.7-45.6 %) and the dominant sandy soil textural classes (70 %) were limitations. The carbon nitrogen phosphorus (CNP) ratio markedly exceeded recommended 100:10:1, while the cation exchange capacity was below acceptable range. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and hydrocarbon-utilising and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (mean range log10 3.8 ± 1.5-6.52 ± 0.9 cfu/g) were favourable having markedly exceeded the minimum counts required. Crude oil loss was highest in loam soil, but significantly (P = 0.00) increased in all soil textural classes including sandy soils after amendment with cow dung/poultry dropping and manual aeration in laboratory and 8-month field tests as indicated by two-way ANOVA. Thus, the overall assessment is that while CNP can be viewed as the major limiting factor to natural oil pollution remediation in the western Niger Delta soil, its influence can be minimised by the amendment indicated in the study.

  7. Assessment of the physicochemical and microbiological status of western Niger Delta soil for crude oil pollution bioremediation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejechi, Bernard O; Ozochi, Chizoba A

    2015-06-01

    The physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil across the western Niger Delta area of Nigeria were determined to assess its potential for natural remediation of crude oil pollution. The pH (oil-producing area, 6.1 ± 1.1; non-oil producing, 5.9 ± 0.9) and temperature (28-35 °C in both areas) were favourable to natural remediation, while the fluctuating moisture (7.7-45.6 %) and the dominant sandy soil textural classes (70 %) were limitations. The carbon nitrogen phosphorus (CNP) ratio markedly exceeded recommended 100:10:1, while the cation exchange capacity was below acceptable range. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and hydrocarbon-utilising and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (mean range log10 3.8 ± 1.5-6.52 ± 0.9 cfu/g) were favourable having markedly exceeded the minimum counts required. Crude oil loss was highest in loam soil, but significantly (P = 0.00) increased in all soil textural classes including sandy soils after amendment with cow dung/poultry dropping and manual aeration in laboratory and 8-month field tests as indicated by two-way ANOVA. Thus, the overall assessment is that while CNP can be viewed as the major limiting factor to natural oil pollution remediation in the western Niger Delta soil, its influence can be minimised by the amendment indicated in the study. PMID:25995137

  8. Advanced Review of Microbial Bio-remediating Organic Polluted Soils%有机污染土壤的微生物修复研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓锋; 张磊

    2013-01-01

    Soil pollution has become a global environmental issue in recent years, and the remediation for polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) has been more aware because of their potential carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Bioremediation is a very promising new environmental technology in light of its economic and no secondary pollution characteristics. Based on up-date publications worldwide, this paper mainly review PAHs and PCBs pollution remediation by microbial procedures in soil by focusing on introduction of development on screening microbial species which can degrade and adsorption these two organic pollutants, as well as on the methods and mechanism of microbial remediation to proceed systematically integrated effect. At last, we sum the trend of this researching field in China.%土壤污染已经成为全球性的重要环境问题之一.多环芳烃(polyaromatic hydrocarbon,PAHs)和多氯联苯(polychlorinated biphenyl,PCBs)等有机污染物具有潜在的致癌性和致畸性,其修复研究近年来受到广泛关注.微生物修复技术既经济且无二次污染,具有其他修复技术难以比拟的优势.结合最新文献,综合阐述了目前利用微生物修复这2种有机污染物的研究进展及存在问题,重点介绍了降解微生物的筛选、降解过程和机理的研究成果,综合评述了微生物修复有机污染土壤的发展方向和发展趋势.

  9. Isolation and characterization of atrazine-degrading Arthrobacter sp. AD26 and use of this strain in bioremediation of contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qingyan; LI Ying; ZHU Xikun; CAI Baoli

    2008-01-01

    A bacterial strain (AD26) capable of utilizing atrazine as a sole nitrogen source for growth was isolated from an industrial wastewatersample by enrichment culture. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified AD26 as anArthrobacter sp. PCR assays indicated that AD26contained atrazine-degrading genes trzN and atzBC. The trzN gene of AD26 only differs from the trzN ofArthrobacter aurescens TC1by one base (A→T at 907) and one amino acid (Met→Leu at 303). The specific activity of trzN of AD26 in crude cell extract was0.28 U/mg, which was 1.2 times that of TC 1. This strain has shown faster growth and atrazine-degradation rates in atrazine-containingminimal media than two well characterized atrazine-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. ADP and Arthrobacter aurescens TC 1. Afterincubating for 48 h at 30℃, the OD600 of AD26 reached 2.6 compared with 1.33 of ADP. AD26 was capable of degrading 500 mg/Lof atrazine in minimal medium at 95% in 72 h, while the degradative rates by TC1 and ADP were only 90% and 86%, respectively. Abioremediation trial of contaminated soil has indicated that AD26 can degrade as high as 98% of atrazine contained in soil (300 mg/kg)after incubating for 20 d at 26℃, nominating this strain as a good candidate for use in bioremediation programs.

  10. 含盐量对石油污染土壤生物修复的影响%Effect of the salt contentin soil on bioremediation of soil by contaminated petroleum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓; 李德生; 唐景春; 张清敏; 高晶

    2013-01-01

    模拟野外漫灌洗盐并控制洗盐次数得到不同含盐量的土壤,比较单纯生物刺激、生物刺激加生物强化处理对不同含盐量的石油污染土壤的修复效果.结果表明:无论是单纯的生物刺激,还是生物刺激加生物强化处理下,土壤含盐量均有一定程度的降低,可有效提高石油烃的降解率.当土壤含盐量为0.22%(质量分数)时,添加4%菌剂修复第3天时,石油烃降解率可达24.98%;当土壤含盐量为0.01%时,生物刺激加生物强化处理28 d后石油烃的降解率是单纯生物强化的1.1倍;低含盐量添加4%菌剂处理下土壤石油烃降解率是高含盐量加4%菌剂处理的1.22倍.各处理下土壤脱氢酶活性随着培养时间逐渐增强,pH则随着培养时间有所下降,土壤盐碱性得到改良;土壤环境得到改善,微生物的种类及数量增加.%This study attempts to analyze the effects of different concentrations of soil salinityon bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil using biostimulation appended bioaugmentation or not. The saline-alkali soil collected from Tianjin Dagang oilfield and leached several times by analog field irrigation. The results showed that both the bioremediation-could reduce the soil salt content and raise oil petroleum hydrocarbon degradation rate. When soil salt content on the degree of 0. 22% , biostimulation appended bioaugmentation could raise oil degradation rate to 24. 98% after 3 days remediation. When soil salt content was on the degree of 0.01% , after 28 days biostimulation, the degradation rate by using biostimulation appended bioaugmentation was 1. 1 times higher than that using pure biostimulation. The degradation rate of the low salt content soil was 1. 22 times higher than that of the high salt content soilunder biostimulation appended bioaugmentation treatment. As the incubation time extended, soil dehydrogenase activity gradually increased, while soil pH value declined and soil

  11. 铁细菌A生物修复铅铜污染土壤%Bioremediation of soil contaminated by Pb2+or Cu2+using iron bacteria A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许朝阳; 柏庭春; 孟涛; 周锋; 吕惠; 庞一山

    2015-01-01

    为改善生物修复重金属污染土壤的方法,利用铁细菌A代谢作用形成的铁基络合物对Pb2+、Cu2+污染土进行生物修复。采用不同灌浆方式研究修复效果;借助扫描电镜( SEM)、X射线衍射( XRD)、傅里叶转换红外光谱( FTIR)等方法对铁基络合物的组成和结构进行分析与表征,分析重金属的沉积机理。结果表明:1次生物灌浆后有效态Pb2+、Cu2+含量分别减少64.6%~70.4%和47.6%~49.2%,2次灌浆后分别减少75.1%~85.5%和73.3%~78.9%;微区分析显示,铁基络合物晶形较差,但含有具有优异絮凝效能、较大比表面积的施氏矿物及碱式磷酸铁等物质。铁基络合物通过吸附和共沉作用实现了对污染环境中重金属的固定。%In order to improve the method for bioremediation of soil contaminated by heavy metals, iron-based complexes produced by the metabolism of iron bacteria A were used to remediate soil contaminated by Pb2+or Cu2+. The effects of bioremediation through different grouting methods were investigated. Methods including scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) , X-ray diffraction ( XRD) , and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR) were used to identify the composition and structure of iron-based complexes and to analyze the deposition mechanism of heavy metals. Results showed that the concentrations of available Pb2+ and Cu2+ in soil decreased by 64. 6% to 70. 4% and 47. 6% to 49. 2%, respectively, after one round of bio-grouting, and decreased by 75. 1% to 85. 5%and 73. 3% to 78. 9%, respectively, after two rounds of bio-grouting. Microscopy analyses showed that the iron-based complexes, which contained schwertmannite and Ferrum oxydatum phosphate, as well as other substances with excellent flocculation efficiency and large specific surface area, had poor crystalline form, but could fix heavy metals in a contaminated environment through adsorption and co-precipitation.

  12. BACTERIAL COMMUNITY DYNAMICS AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY BIODIESEL AND DIESEL/BIODIESEL BLENDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, G I; Junior, C S; Oliva, T C; Subtil, D F; Matsushita, L Y; Chaves, A L; Lutterbach, M T; Sérvulo, E F; Agathos, S N; Stenuit, B

    2015-01-01

    The gradual introduction of biodiesel in the Brazilian energy landscape has primarily occurred through its blending with conventional petroleum diesel (e.g., B20 (20% biodiesel) and B5 (5% biodiesel) formulations). Because B20 and lower-level blends generally do not require engine modifications, their use as transportation fuel is increasing in the Brazilian distribution networks. However, the environmental fate of low-level biodiesel blends and pure biodiesel (B100) is poorly understood and the ecotoxicological-safety endpoints of biodiesel-contaminated environments are unknown. Using laboratory microcosms consisting of closed reactor columns filled with clay loam soil contaminated with pure biodiesel (EXPB100) and a low-level blend (EXPB5) (10% w/v), this study presents soil ecotoxicity assessement and dynamics of culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Most-probable-number (MPN) procedures for enumeration of bacteria, dehydrogenase assays and soil ecotoxicological tests using Eisenia fetida have been performed at different column depths over the course of incubation. After 60 days of incubation, the ecotoxicity of EXPB100-derived samples showed a decrease from 63% of mortality to 0% while EXPB5-derived samples exhibited a reduction from 100% to 53% and 90% on the top and at the bottom of the reactor column, respectively. The dehydrogenase activity of samples from EXPB100 and EXPB5 increased significantly compared to pristine soil after 60 days of incubation. Growth of aerobic bacterial biomass was only observed on the top of the reactor column while the anaerobic bacteria exhibited significant growth at different column depths in EXPB100 and EXPB5. These preliminary results suggest the involvement of soil indigenous microbiota in the biodegradation of biodiesel and blends. However, GC-FID analyses for quantification of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons and targeted sequencing of 16S rRNA tags using illumina platforms will provide important

  13. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial diversity in soils contaminated long-term with PAHs and heavy metals: Implications to bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Diversity, distribution and composition of bacterial community of soils contaminated long-term with both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were explored for the first time following 454 pyrosequencing. Strikingly, the complete picture of the Gram positive (+ve) and Gram negative (-ve) bacterial profile obtained in our study illustrates novel postulates that include: (1) Metal-tolerant and PAH-degrading Gram -ves belonging to the class Alphaproteobacteria persist relatively more in the real contaminated sites compared to Gram +ves, (2) Gram +ves are not always resistant to heavy metal toxicity, (3) Stenotrophomonas followed by Burkholderia and Pseudomonas are the dominant genera of PAH degraders with high metabolic activity in long-term contaminated soils, (4) Actinobacteria is the predominant group among the Gram +ves in soils contaminated with high molecular weight PAHs that co-exist with toxic heavy metals like Pb, Cu and Zn, (5) Microbial communities are nutrient-driven in natural environments and (6) Catabolically potential Gram +/-ves with diverse applicability to remediate the real contaminated sites evolve eventually in the historically-polluted soils. Thus, the most promising indigenous Gram +/-ve strains from the long-term contaminated sites with increased catabolic potential, enzymatic activity and metal tolerance need to be harnessed for mixed contaminant cleanups.

  14. Monitoring of ground water quality and heavy metals in soil during large scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste in India: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Mandal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation using microbes has been well accepted as an environmentally friendly and economical treatment method for disposal of hazardous petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated waste (oily waste and this type of bioremediation has been successfully conducted in laboratory and on a pilot scale in various countries, including India. Presently there are no federal regulatory guidelines available in India for carrying out field-scale bioremediation of oily waste using microbes. The results of the present study describe the analysis of ground water quality as well as selected heavy metals in oily waste in some of the large-scale field case studies on bioremediation of oily waste (solid waste carried out at various oil installations in India. The results show that there was no contribution of oil and grease and selected heavy metals to the ground water in the nearby area due to adoption of this bioremediation process. The results further reveal that there were no changes in pH and EC of the groundwater due to bioremediation. In almost all cases the selected heavy metals in residual oily waste were within the permissible limits as per Schedule – II of Hazardous Waste Management, Handling and Transboundary Movement Act, Amendment 2008, (HWM Act 2008, by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF, Government of India (GoI.

  15. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: GRACE DEARBORN INC. DARAMEND™ BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DARAMEND™ Bioremediation Technology may be applied to the remediation of soils and sediments contaminated by a wide variety of organic contaminants including chlorinated phenols, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and petroleum hydrocarbons. The technology may be ap...

  16. Review on AM Fungi and Plant Bioremediation of Petroleumcontaminated Soil%丛枝菌根真菌-植物联合修复石油污染土壤研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山宝琴; 刘亚峰; 付小康; 王彩琴; 薛婷

    2011-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) are ubiquitous symbiotic associations between plants and microbes found in natural ecosystems. AM fungi are essential components of sustainable soil-plant systems. Indigenous and exogenous AM fungi infection can increase the bioremediation efficiency of petroleum-contaminated soil by improving soil microenvironment in the rhizosphere of host plant and by influencing microbial activities. Existing researches showed that AM bioremediation is an available and effective technology. Effects of AM fungi and plant bioremediation were discussed, as well as analysis of the limitations and distance between the research development and practical application. Progress and achievement of AM biotechnology were introduced including its main shortcomings and application prospect of AM bioremediation to petroleum-contaminated soil, which aimed at facilitating the practical application of AM biotechnology in oil contaminated soil.%丛枝菌根(Arbuscular mycorrhiza,AM)是由丛枝菌根真菌与植物根系所建立的一种互惠共生体,在自然界分布广泛,具有降解复杂有机污染物的能力.石油污染土壤中,利用土著的或外接的丛枝菌根真菌可以明显改善植物根际环境,提高土壤生物活性,从而加速土壤中石油污染物的降解.现有研究已证明丛枝菌根真菌修复石油污染土壤的可行性,并就丛枝菌根真菌与土壤其它微生物及植物联合修复效果等进行了多方面的有益探索,然而这一技术的研发与实际应用尚有很大距离.文章重点综述了国内外丛枝菌根真菌-植物联合修复石油污染土壤的研究现状,并探讨了这一生物修复技术在石油污染土壤治理中存在的限制因素、发展趋势和应用前景,旨在促进菌根生物技术在石油污染土壤修复中的应用与发展.

  17. In situ groundwater bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.

    2009-02-01

    In situ groundwater bioremediation of hydrocarbons has been used for more than 40 years. Most strategies involve biostimulation; however, recently bioaugmentation have been used for dehalorespiration. Aquifer and contaminant profiles are critical to determining the feasibility and strategy for in situ groundwater bioremediation. Hydraulic conductivity and redox conditions, including concentrations of terminal electron acceptors are critical to determine the feasibility and strategy for potential bioremediation applications. Conceptual models followed by characterization and subsequent numerical models are critical for efficient and cost effective bioremediation. Critical research needs in this area include better modeling and integration of remediation strategies with natural attenuation.

  18. Primary Study on the Bio-remediation of Oil Contaminated Soil of Karamay Oilfield%克拉玛依石油污染土壤生物修复的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东风; 吴伟林; 张云波; 杨海滨; 赵朝成

    2012-01-01

    The optimal launch conditions were investigated by study on the bio-remediation of oil contaminated soil of Karamay oilfield, and the changes of soil physicochemical properties, microbiological characteristics, oil components were also studied during the soil bioremediation. The results showed that the main factors of bioremediation were the bacteria dosage, moisture content and manure dosage. The optimal launch conditions were as follows: microbial dosage per 1 kg oil polluted soil of 200 mL, moisture content of 15%, chicken manure of 20 g, wheat bran of 50 g and surfactant of 30 mL. The oil degradation rate reached 56. 31% after 75 d bioremediation under above condition. The physicochemical properties and microbiological characteristics of the soil were significant changed at different stages of bioremediation, the urease, dehydrogenase activities decreased and catalase activity increased. The four components separation test and simulation distillation experiments for oil sample from oil polluted soil after bioremediation showed that the degradation ability order of the hydrocarbon components by microbe from high to low was saturated, aromatic, resin and asphaltene. The short chain n-alkanes (C12— C14 ) were first degraded by bacteria, which could not be detected after 70 d degradation. The GC peak shape of n-alkanes changed greatly, from symmetrical to "left slow, right steep", and the relative content of isoparaffin increased, the base line of GC was significantly elevated.%进行了克拉玛依石油污染土壤生物模拟修复实验,考察了最佳启动条件,分析了在生物修复过程中土壤理化性质、微生物学特性、石油烃组分的变化.结果表明,影响生物修复效果的主要因子为菌剂的投加量、水分含量以及鸡粪投加量;最佳启动条件为每1 kg污染土壤菌剂投加量200mL、水分含量15%、鸡粪投加量120 g、麦糠投加量50 g、表面活性剂30mL,经75 d修复后

  19. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: NEW YORK STATE MULTI-VENDOR BIOREMEDIATION - R.E. WRIGHT ENVIRONMENTAL, INC.'S IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R.E. Wright Environmental, Inc.‘s (REWEI) In-situ Bioremediation Treatment System is an in-situ bioremediation technology for the treatment of soils contaminated with organic compounds. According to the Developer, contaminated soils are remediated in-situ by stimulating the a...

  20. Response of Soil Microbial Community to the Bioremediation of Soil Contaminated with PAHs%土壤微生物群落对多环芳烃污染土壤生物修复过程的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶; 林先贵; 刘魏魏; 尹睿

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of bacterial community in soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) was investigated during the plant-microbe remediation enhanced by biosurfactant rhamnolips(RH),using the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(PCR-DGGE) method.The results showed that Shannon-Weaver diversity index was only 3.17 before bioremediation,and increased to 3.24-3.45 after bioremediation,in particular,highest value was found in the treatment of alfalfa(AL) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(AM) and PAHs-degrading bacteria(DB) among all the treatments.The clustering analysis showed that the similarities of soil bacterial community of AL,AL+RH,AL+AM and AL+AM+RH were above 90%.At the same time,the similarity of AL+DB was much closer to those of the four treatments mentioned above.Additionally,when the bacterial communities of AL+DB+RH,AL+DB+AM and AL+DB+AM+RH were grouped together,the similarities of these three treatments were also higher than 80%.By sequence alignment,it was found that the predominant and characteristic bands in DGGE patterns were closely related with PAHs-degrading bacteria,such as Bacillus,Pseudomonas,Acidobacteria,Sphingmonas,Rhodopseudomonas,Firmicutes,and Methylocytaceae.Application of rhamnolipids in plant-microbe bioremediation not only improved the bioavailability of PAHs,but also had a simultaneous influence on the diversity of soil bacterial community,resulting in the efficient promotion of PAHs removal from soils.%采用聚合酶链式反应-变性梯度凝胶电泳(PCR-DGGE)方法,研究了土壤微生物群落多样性对生物表面活性剂强化的植物-微生物联合修复多环芳烃(PAHs)污染土壤的响应.结果表明,细菌群落的Shannon-Weaver指数修复前为3.17,修复后为3.24~3.45,多样性整体呈上升趋势,其中以植物-菌根真菌-降解菌处理最高,但各处理间无显著差异(P〉0.05).聚

  1. Enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharfe, K. [CleanEARTH Solutions Ltd., Concord, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    An enhanced in situ aerobic bioremediation process was described. The process used microbe supporting emulsifications to enhance bioavailability as well as to attenuate microbe competition and boost microbial production. Microbes were added prior to application and rapidly initiated bioremediation once applied to impacted areas. The microbe supporting emulsifiers were metabolically active. The study showed that exposed surface areas increased as hydrocarbon masses were divided, which in turn increased the water/substrate interface where microbial action occurred. Nutrients were used to ensure that crowding and waste accumulation were attenuated in order to ensure that the speed of growth and reproduction progressed exponentially. Water-carrying bacteria, enzymes and nutrients were adsorbed to the soil's particle surface and then diffused between particles. The sequestered hydrocarbons were then emulsified and removed in order to be bioremediated. It was concluded that biological catalysts were used to increase microbial activity and to trigger anabolic responses in microbes. Details of a biocatalyst laboratory solution analysis were also included. tabs., figs.

  2. Hazards and Bioremediation of Oil-pollutants in Soil Yellow River Delta and Coastal Wetland%黄河三角洲滨海湿地土壤石油污染危害及生物修复技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玉广; 刘超; 李秀启; 陈秀丽; 陈有光; 董贯仓; 刘峰; 王亚楠; 冷春梅; 朱士文

    2011-01-01

    概述了黄河三角洲滨海湿地土壤石油污染现状和石油污染物对该地区土壤、水、空气以及对人类自身造成的危害,论述了石油污染土壤的各种生物修复技术特点及适用范围,并对生物修复技术的研究进展进行了热点分析,最后结合“蓝、黄”两大发展战略对黄河三角洲滨海湿地石油污染土壤修复治理进行了展望.%The status of oil-contaminated soil in the Yellow River delta and coastal wetland region and its hazards to soil, water, air, and human being in the area were overviwed in this article. Then varieties of bioremediation techniques, their characteriazation and utilization scope were outlined; and the research focus of the bioremediation was reviewed. In the end, accompanied by two national economic development strategies: "Eco-efficient Yellow River Delta Economic Zone Development Plan" & "Blue Shandong Peninsula Economic Zone Development Plan", the procspect of Oil-contaminated soil remediation was briefly presented.

  3. Effect of Soft Enzyme Activities During Bioremediation of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil%石油污染土壤生物修复对土壤酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华金; 朱能武; 杨崇; 党志; 吴平霄

    2013-01-01

    土壤酶活性是土壤微生物生物化学过程的综合反映.为了探究石油污染土壤生物修复过程中土壤酶活性变化规律研究,采用筛选和分离的3株对石油烃有良好降解效果的降解菌构建了混合菌体系,开展了石油污染土壤模拟生物修复实验,考察了不同修复时期土壤石油烃残留量、石油烃表观降解率以及四种土壤酶(脲酶、过氧化氢酶、脱氢酶、脂肪酶)活性的变化.结果表明,石油污染土壤经40d生物修复后,石油烃表观降解率达到64.4%.在石油污染土壤的生物修复过程中,脲酶活性在0~24d上升较快,24d后趋于稳定;过氧化氢酶和脱氢酶活性的变化规律相似,均在前期上升随后略有下降;脂肪酶活性有一个快速上升阶段(0~16d),而后又出现明显的下降.进一步统计分析表明,脲酶与石油烃残留量呈显著负相关性(r=-0.916,P<0.05);过氧化氢酶和脱氢酶活性与石油烃残留量呈极显著负相关性,相关系数分别为-0.974(P<0.01)和-0.969(P<0.01);而脂肪酶活性与石油烃残留量的相关性不显著(P>0.05).%Soil enzyme activity comprehensively reflects the soil microorganism biochemical process.In order to explore the changes of soil enzyme activities during bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil,constructed crude oil degrading bacterial consortium were built withthree strains isolated from oil-contaminated soil,bioremediation experiments of crude oil-contaminated soil were conducted,and the change of total petroleum hydrocarbon(TPH),apparent degradation effciencies and soil enzyme activities (urease,catalase,dehydrogenase and lipase) were examined during the crude oil-contaminated soil bioremediation.The results showed that the apparent degradation effciency of crude oil reached 64.4% after 40 d of bioremediation.Urease activity rapidly increased during 0~24 d,then tended to be stable.The catalase activity and dehydrogenase activity

  4. STUDY OF BIOREMEDIATION USING IRON BACTERIA FOR ARTIFICIALLY ZINC POLLUTION SOIL%铁细菌修复锌污染土壤的试验研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许朝阳; 柏庭春; 黄建璋; 庞一山; 周锋

    2016-01-01

    利用铁细菌A代谢作用形成的铁基络合物,对Zn2+污染土进行生物灌浆修复,借助X射线衍射( XRD)、扫描电镜( SEM)、傅里叶转换红外光谱( FTIR)等方法对铁基络合物进行鉴定,并分析重金属的沉积机理。结果表明:经三次灌浆后,有效态Zn2+的浓度减少了64�7%~73�3%。显微技术测试显示:铁基络合物晶形不明显,但含有优异絮凝效能、比表面积大的施氏矿物等物质,其通过吸附和共沉作用实现了对污染环境中重金属的固定。%Bio⁃grouting using iron⁃based complexes produced by the metabolism of iron bacteria A was conducted to remediate artificially zinc pollution soil and the effect of bioremediation was investigated. Scanning Electron Microscopy ( SEM) , X⁃ray Diffraction ( XRD) , and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ( FTIR) were used to identify the composition and the structure of iron⁃based complexes and analyze the deposition mechanism of heavy metal. The results showed that the concentration of available Zn2+ in soil reduced by 64�7% ~73�3% after three times bio⁃grouting. Microscopy analyses showed that the iron⁃based complexes, which containing schwertmannite, as well as other substances with excellent flocculation efficiency and large specific surface area, had poor crystalline form, but could fix heavy metals in a contaminated environment through adsorption and co⁃precipitation.

  5. Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER's tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER's and Office of Energy Research's (OER's) commitment to supporting DOE's environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE's environmental problems

  6. Bioremediation at a petroleum refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a summary of three projects at the Mobil Refinery in Torrance, California where bioremediation technologies were successfully employed for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The three projects represent variations of implementation of bioremediation, both in-situ and ex-situ. Soil from all of the projects was considered non-hazardous designated waste under the California Code of Regulations, Title 23, section 2522. The projects were permitted and cleanup requirements were defined with the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board. In all of the projects, different methods were used for supplying water, oxygen, and nutrients to the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria to stimulate growth. The Stormwater Retention Basin Project utilized in-situ mechanical mixing of soils to supply solid nutrients and oxygen, and a self-propelled irrigation system to supply water. The Tank Farm Lake project used an in-situ active bioventing technology to introduce oxygen, moisture, and vapor phase nutrients. The Tank 1340X247 project was an ex-situ bioventing remediation project using a drip irrigation system to supply water and dissolved nutrients, and a vapor extraction system to provide oxygen

  7. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process. PMID:24291585

  8. In situ bioremediation of nitrate and perchlorate in vadose zone soil for groundwater protection using gaseous electron donor injection technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Patrick J; Trute, Mary M

    2006-12-01

    When present in the vadose zone, potentially toxic nitrate and perchlorate anions can be persistent sources of groundwater contamination. Gaseous electron donor injection technology (GEDIT), an anaerobic variation of petroleum hydrocarbon bioventing, involves injecting electron donor gases, such as hydrogen or ethyl acetate, into the vadose zone, to stimulate biodegradation of nitrate and perchlorate. Laboratory microcosm studies demonstrated that hydrogen and ethanol promoted nitrate and perchlorate reduction in vadose zone soil and that moisture content was an important factor. Column studies demonstrated that transport of particular electron donors varied significantly; ethyl acetate and butyraldehyde were transported more rapidly than butyl acetate and ethanol. Nitrate removal in the column studies, up to 100%, was best promoted by ethyl acetate. Up to 39% perchlorate removal was achieved with ethanol and was limited by insufficient incubation time. The results demonstrate that GEDIT is a promising remediation technology warranting further validation.

  9. 石油污染湿地土壤生物修复研究进展%Research Progress on Bioremediation of Petroleum-contaminated Soils in Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚兴艳; 于君宝; 王雪宏; 谢文军; 韩广轩; 马向明; 陈景春; 林乾欣

    2012-01-01

    plant and microbial. Therefore, It would be become the future focus of the bioremediation study for petroleum-contaminated soils in wetlands that lowering petroleum pollution concentrations within the biodegradable scope of plants and microbial and improving the efficiency of the degradation of combined plants and microbial.

  10. The influence of nickel on the bioremediation of multi-component contaminated tropical soil: microcosm and batch bioreactor studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Natália Franco; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Rizzo, Andrea Camardella de Lima; Tsai, Siu Mui; da Cunha, Cláudia Duarte

    2015-07-01

    Large petrochemical discharges are responsible for organic and inorganic pollutants in the environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of nickel, one of the most abundant inorganic element in crude oil and the main component of hydrogen catalysts for oil refining, on the microbial community structure in artificially petroleum-contaminated microcosms and in solid phase bioreactor studies. In the presence of metals, the oil biodegradation in microcosms was significantly delayed during the first 7 days of operation. Also, increasing amounts of moisture generated a positive influence on the biodegradation processes. The oil concentration, exhibiting the most negative influence at the end of the treatment period. Molecular fingerprinting analyses (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis--DGGE) indicated that the inclusion of nickel into the contaminated soil promoted direct changes to the microbial community structure. By the end of the experiments, the results of the total petroleum hydrocarbons removal in the bioreactor and the microcosm were similar, but reductions in the treatment times were observed with the bioreactor experiments. An analysis of the microbial community structure by DGGE using various markers showed distinct behaviors between two treatments containing high nickel concentrations. The main conclusion of this study was that Nickel promotes a significant delay in oil biodegradation, despite having only a minor effect over the microbial community.

  11. Design of a new rotating drum bioreactor operated at atmospheric pressure on the bioremediation of a polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Meza, Miguel A; Chávez-Gómez, Benjamín; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Barrera-Cortés, Josefina

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports the effect of the operation and design characteristics of rotating drum bioreactors (RDBs) aerated by natural convection and applied to the treatment of a soil highly polluted with weathered total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (55,000 +/- 2,600 mg/kg). The parameters studied were length to diameter ratio (L/D), rotating speed (N) and lifter type. The highest TPH removal (59.6 +/- 0.7%) was obtained with the RDB of the lowest L/D ratio (1.5). Removals diminished by 27, 36 and 56%, with a ratio increment of 2.1, 3.1 and 5.1, respectively. Increment of the N, at an optimal value and lifter change from straight to helicoidal showed an improvement on the TPH removal of 20 and 30%, respectively. According to these results, slurry surface renewal through the variation of the N and the change of slurry flow was able to improve TPH removal in RDBs operated by natural convection. PMID:19847461

  12. Quantification of decreasing of human health risk by bioremediation of a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons; Quantificacao do decrescimo de risco associado a biorremediacao de um solo contaminado por hidrocarbonetos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cristiane A.; Castilhos, Zuleica C.; Rizzo, Andrea C.L. [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral (CETEM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leite, Selma G.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of four different bioremediation processes in the decrease of organic pollutants present in a soil contaminated with crude oil, using a toxicological approach based on the human health risk assessment methodology (USEPA, 1989). The different techniques of bioremediation utilized (biostimulation, bioaugmentation and addition of enzymatic solution) were efficient in the removal of the organic pollutants, especially of PAHs, considered highly recalcitrant. In the human health risk assessment, the exposure pathway that resulted in higher hazards of no-carcinogenic effects and risks of carcinogenic effects in the population (children and adult) was dermal contact with soil. The pollutant that contributed more in the different exposure pathways was benzo(a)pyrene. When carcinogenic and no-carcinogenic effects in children and adults were evaluated, the different treatments showed efficiency, once they were capable to reduce the risk and the hazard index (HI) bellow target levels (< 1 x 10{sup -4} and 1, respectively), showing that these treatments were efficient to decrease the potential damage in the exposed population. (author)

  13. BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL BY SLUDGE OIL USING THE BIOPILES AMELIORATED = BIORREMEDIAÇÃO DE SOLO CONTAMINADO POR BORRA DE ÓLEO POR BIOPILHAS MELHORADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Beraldo de Morais

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioremediation of contaminated soil by sludge oil from petroleum refinery using amended biopiles through bio-stimulation and/or bio-augmentation was objective of this work. Four biopiles were constructed as follows: B1. control; B2. Bio-supplemented with oil-sludge-degrading bacteria and fungus; B3. Bio-supplemented and bio-stimulated with nutrients (N and P; B4. Bio-supplemented and bio-stimulated with nutrients and rice husk. The study lasted 50 weeks and three different biodegradation stages were found during this period: an initial stage in which the reduction of oil and grease was greatest (up to 10 weeks; a stage with low biodegradation rates of the residue (10-30 weeks, and a late stage (30-50 weeks in which it was observed an increase of the oily sludge biodegradation after the biopiles were covered with black plastic in thirtieth week. This procedure increased the internal temperature of biopiles and showed the importance of this parameter in the biodegradation process. The bio-stimulation using rice husk improved soil aeration and allowed the development of microorganisms added and increased their metabolic activities; consequently, the oil and grease removal was greater (79.1%. The bacteria and fungus added in biopiles B2 and B3 did not survive, so it is necessary to produce inoculum more competitive and adapted. The biopiles system proved to be a viable technology for the bioremediation of soil polluted by oily sludge from petroleum refinery and the bio-stimulation by addition of materials such as rice husk increases its efficiency. = A biorremediação de solo contaminado por borra de óleo de refinaria de petróleo por meio de biopilhas bioestimuladas e/ou bioenriquecidas foi objetivo deste trabalho. Quatro biopilhas foram construídas, sendo: B1. controle; B2. adicionada de inóculo constituído por bactérias e fungos degradadores de borra de óleo; B3. adicionada de inóculo e nutrientes (N e P; B4. com inóculo, nutrientes

  14. Study on Combined Bioindicators in Ecotoxicity Monitoring of Oil-contaminated Soil during Bioremediation%微生物修复石油污染土壤的生态毒性指示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟航; 朱能武; 尹富华; 王华金; 党志

    2015-01-01

    order to explore the soil ecotoxicity patterns and biological indicator effects, bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil were conducted. Oil degrading bacterial consortium were built with three strains isolated from oil-contaminated soil. Bacterial luminescence, chlorophyll a and carotene contents, and soil catalase activity was employed to evaluate the ecotoxicity of soil sampled in different bioremediation phases. Good consistency can be obtained among phytotoxicity tests, soil enzyme activity and Photobacterium phosphoreum ecotoxicity tests. The results showed that the application of a mixed bacterial consortium was illustrated to effectively remediate oil-contaminated soil due to the high TPH removal efficiency, which reduced the crude oil concentration from 5 000 mg·kg-1 soil to 1 781 mg·kg-1 in only 40 d. The maximum inhibition of bacterial luminescence for Photobacterium phosphoreum in the dichloromethane/dimethyl sulfoxide extracts was observed at the initial stage of bioremediation and gradually dropped to normal. Compared with the control group, the chlorophyll a content of Triticum acstivnm L. was significantly inhibited in the different phases of bioremediation. In soils S1, the chlorophyll a content decreased by 39.3%to (1.36±0.04) mg·g-1. A significant negative correlation can be found between soil catalase activity and the residue of petroleum hydrocarbon. The correlation coefficient is-0.973. Soil extract on the 8th day of the bioremediation remained constant at a relative luminosity of 18.1%, with toxicity equivalent to that of 0.187 mg·L-1 HgCl2. Therefore, bacterial luminescence, phytotoxicity (inhibition of chlorophyll a and carotene contents), and soil catalase activity could potentially be sensitive indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation techniques.

  15. Fungi in Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, G. M.

    2001-12-01

    Bioremediation research has concentrated on organic pollutants, although the range of substances that can be transformed or detoxified by microorganisms includes both natural and synthetic organic materials and inorganic pollutants. The majority of applications developed to date involve bacteria, with a distinct lack of appreciation of the potential roles and involvement of fungi in bioremediation, despite clear evidence of their metabolic and morphological versatility. This book highlights the potential of filamentous fungi, including mycorrhizas, in bioremediation and discusses the physiology and chemistry of pollutant transformations.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of the utilization of biopiles technology to the bioremediation of the soil of Guamare/RN (Brazil); Avaliacao preliminar da aplicacao da tecnologia de biopilhas para a biorremediacao do solo de Guamare/RN (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edmilson P.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Duarte, Marcia M.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Costa, Alex S.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of biopiles to the bioremediation of the soil of Stabilization Station of Guamare-RN-Brazil. The evaluation was performed by the characterization of the soil, tests of biodegradation in laboratory scale and by the use of a complete 2{sup 3} factorial design with triplicate at the central point. The input variables were: Nitrogen concentration; diesel-oil concentration; and inoculum concentration. The response variable was the percentage gravimetric loss of organic matter. Statistical analyses of the main factors and their interactions on the response variable were performed using contour curves and Pareto obtained from the software STATISTICA for Windows, Release 5.5. The results showed that biopiles technology can be used to remediate eventual contaminated areas in that region. (author)

  17. Research Advances in Application of Microorganism in Biological Control and Soil Bioremediation%微生物在生物防治和土壤修复中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安霞

    2011-01-01

    Extensive application of chemical insecticides results in insects and pathogens resistance to these insecticides, pollution of soil and crops, potential hazards to environment and human health. It will be of great significance to make use of microorganism in biological control and soil bioremediation for eontinuable development of agriculture.%长期以来,大量化学农药的使用不仅造成的了病原菌和害虫的抗药性,还导致了土壤和作物中的农药残留,而利用微生物进行生物防治和土壤修复可以同时解决上述问题,对农业的可持续发展具有重要意义。

  18. Biodegradation efficiency and optimum growth conditions of bacterial strains isolated from a petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil: Evaluation of the selected strain efficiency for contaminated soil bioremediation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kotas, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory scale batch studies were performed in order to determine the optimum growth conditions and diesel oil biodegradation ability of the selected strain isolated from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil. These results were used to evaluate the potential of the selected strain for in situ application in PRB remediation technology.

  19. Study on construction of degradable microorganisms for lubricant-castor and its bioremediation to soil%蓖麻基润滑油降解菌群的构建及对土壤的修复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌禄; 赵璇; 王玉荣; 孟祥云

    2011-01-01

    以添加蓖麻基润滑油的土壤为模拟实验对象,从大港油田油井附近受污染的土壤和污水中筛选出优势降解菌株,构建高效降解菌群,确定了BM-1+BM-2+BM-4+BM-5菌株为最佳组合.将菌群投加到模拟被润滑油污染的土壤中进行生物修复,以土壤生物活性及土壤呼吸强度作为考核指标,40 d后土壤含油量从89 g·kg-1下降到24 g·kg-1,降解率达73.03%,比自然条件下降解率提高34.83%.结果表明,投加该菌群的污染土壤生物修复能力强于未投加菌群的污染土壤;蓖麻基润滑油为可生物降解型油品.%Through the experiments of lubricant-castor degradation, a series of microorganisms were screened to construct a high-effective microbial consortium, and confirmed the optimal combination was BM-I+BM-2+BM-4+BM-5.Adding it to the soil polluted by lubricant-castor for biological repairing, with soil respiration intensity and biological activity of change as indicators ofbioremediation, the results showed that during the process of40-day bioremediation, the degradation rate was improved by 34.83% compared with that in nature condition, plus bacteria bioremediation of soil strength significantly larger than that without bacteria with soil samples, lubricant-castor was biodegradable oil.

  20. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: GRACE DEARBORN INC.'S DARAMEND BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Dearborn's DARAMEND Bioremediation Technology was developed to treat soils/sediment contaminated with organic contaminants using solid-phase organic amendments. The amendments increase the soil's ability to supply biologically available water/nutrients to microorganisms and...

  1. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ bioremediation of crude oil spills relies on either the indigenous microbes at the polluted site, whose degradative abilities are accelerated by adding such agents as fertilizers or dispersants, or on introducing pollutant-degrading microbes into the site (possibly accompanied by stimulatory chemicals). The bioremediation method to be used at a specific site must be selected to be suitable for that site and its environmental conditions. The basic components of bioremediation are outlined and the background information needed to understand the chemical and biological limitations of the technique are presented. Specifically, the microbial community, the crude oil substrate composition, and biological limiting factors are discussed. Generalized examples of bioremediation applications are illustrated. 10 refs

  2. 聚合物污染土壤的微生物固定化修复%Microbial immobilization bioremediation of HPAM-containing soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江红; 徐瑞丹; 潘洋; 芦艳

    2013-01-01

    从大庆油田采油污水污染土壤中筛选出以聚丙烯酰胺为唯一氮源和唯一碳源的4株聚丙烯酰胺降解菌R1、R2、R3、Y3.通过游离菌与固定化菌降解聚丙烯酰胺效果的实验数据比较,证明了微生物固定化法降解聚丙烯酰胺具有优势.因此,采用微生物固定法修复采油污水污染土壤,通过固定化颗粒的制备难易程度、强度、费用及对聚丙烯酰胺和原油的去除率等条件,比较了5种包埋固定化制备方法,考察了优选出的包埋固化法对土壤中污染物的降解能力.结果表明:PVA+海藻酸钠+添加剂法得到的固定化颗粒强度好,操作简单,不易破损,且费用低,对土壤中聚丙烯酰胺去除率为79.5%,对原油的去除率可达到98.7%.对筛选出的4种菌株鉴定得知R1为芽孢乳杆菌属,R2为微球菌属,R3、Y3为假单胞菌属菌株.%Four kinds of polyacrylamide(HPAM)-degrading bacteria Rl, R2, R3 and Y3 were obtained by separation and purification experiments from petroleum-contaminated soil of Daqing Oil Field, in which HPAM is used as the only nitrogen source and the sole carbon source. In order to improve the biodegradation effect of pollutants in oil fields and reduce the loss of bacteria, the bioremediation method of immobilized microorganism was utilized. Five kinds of embedding immobilization methods were compared, including difficulty degree of immobilized granules preparation, strength, cost and removal rate of oil and HPAM. The degradation performance of embedding immobilization methods on soil pollutant was investigated. The experimental results showed that the immobilized microorganism granules made by polyvinyl alcohols (PVA)+sodium alginate+additives had high strength, simple operation, not easy dilapidation and low cost. Degradation rate of HPAM reached 79.6% and degradation rate of crude oil reached 98.7%. Rl was affiliated to Sporolactobacillus sp., R2 was affiliated to Micrococcus sp. and R3 and Y3

  3. Review of Remediation Technologies for Oil -Contaminated Soil and Effect of Different Soil Amendments on Bioremediation Efficacy%石油污染土壤的原位生物修复技术和多种土壤改良剂应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚俊腾; 王志

    2016-01-01

    土壤中的石油污染是一类严重的环境危害.针对石油污染的土壤修复技术有物理法、化学法和生物法.其中原位生物修复法由于简易性和生态可持续等优点成为了具有前景的一个发展方向.土壤改良剂的选取和添加是原位生物修复法中重要的一个部分,对生物修复的改进起到了至关重要的作用.土壤改良剂的种类有无机改良剂、有机改良剂和吸附性改良剂.以N、P、K为主的无机改良剂主要为生物生长提供营养元素;有机改良剂则可提高石油污染物流动性,提供生物碳源;吸附改良剂则通过吸附污染物,减少毒性,提供生物生长依附.通过对不同种类改良剂的分析和讨论,可为生物修复发展提供进一步的理论基础.%Oil pollution incurred during transporting and refining is a big environmental concern, because the heavy hydrocar-bons in oil can cause serious damage to soil and the species residing in soil .The remediation technologies targeting oil-polluted sites are generally categorized into three types-physical, chemical and biological remediation methods .Among them, bioremedi-ation is considered a promising technology by academia and industry due to its cost-effective and eco-friendly features.Soil a-mendments, such as inorganic fertilizers, organic amendments and adsorbents, play a vital role in bioremediation process.The appropriate selection of soil amendments and the addition ratio can improve removal efficiency and accelerate treatment processes . This paper reviews all the soil amendments and their effect on bioremediation process, hoping to provide some expertise for further development of bioremediation technology.

  4. Research Progress on the Bioremediation Technology of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Contaminated Soil%多环芳烃污染土壤生物修复技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辉; 王海霞; 李晓军; 毛华军; 吴海燕; 于秀娜; 罗宏宇

    2011-01-01

    With the biomass fuels widely used, the area and extent of the PAH-Contaminated soil increased quickly. Thus, the study on the remediation technology of PAH-Contaminated soil is becoming extremely urgent. Compared with physical and chemical remediation, bioremediation is cheap, effective and secondary pollution-free. Plant-microbial remediation system is the most effective technology with the largest market potential. The paper introduces in details the mechanism and application of microbial and plant-microbial remediation, and forecasts the development tendency of the bioremediation of polyeyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soil.%多环芳烃污染土壤的面积伴随着生物质燃料的广泛应用不断增加,污染程度亦随之增强,研究污染土壤高效修复方法已刻不容缓.生物修复相对于物理和化学修复具有费用低、效果好、不产生二次污染等优点.植物-微生物联合修复体系则是其中最为高效、最具市场潜力的修复技术.详细介绍了微生物修复与植物-微生物联合修复技术的机理及应用, 并展望了多环芳烃污染土壤生物修复的发展趋势.

  5. Bioremediation of chlorothalonil-contaminated soil by utilizing Pseudomonas sp.strain CTN-3%假单胞菌菌株CTN-3对百菌清污染土壤的生物修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光利; 陈宏宏; 毕萌; 李顺鹏

    2012-01-01

    Chlorothalonil is the priority organic pollutant listed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. To utilize the function of microbial degradation in the bioremediation of chlorothalonil-contaminated soil is of practical significance. In this study, a chlorothalonil-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain CTN-3 isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil was used to examine the chlorothalonil-degrading capacity of the strain and related affecting factors in a microcosm. In sterilized soil, the effect of CTN-3 on chlorothalonil degradation was better than that in unsterilized soil. Various factors, including soil pH, temperature, initial chlorothalonil concentration, and inoculum size, affected the degradation of chlorothalonil by the strain. With the inoculum size of 10 CFU · g-1soil, the CTN-3 at 15-30 ℃ and pH 5. 8-8. 3 could effectively degrade 10-200 mg · kg-1 of chlorothalonil, suggesting that the strain CTN-3 had great potential in the bioremediation of chlorothalonil-contaminated soil.%百菌清被美国环境保护署列为优先控制污染物,利用微生物的降解作用修复被污染的土壤、清除环境中的污染物等具有重要的现实意义.假单胞菌(Pseudomonas sp.)菌株CTN-3是一株从污染土壤中分离得到的百菌清降解菌,考察了其在实验室条件下对百菌清污染土壤的生物修复能力及其影响因素.结果表明:降解菌株在灭菌土壤中的降解效果略好于未灭菌土壤;在外源添加降解菌106 CFU·g-1、温度15 ~ 30℃和pH5.8~8.3条件下,该菌株能有效降解土壤中10 ~200 mg·kg-1的百菌清.菌株CTN-3在百菌清污染土壤的生物修复中具有良好的应用前景.

  6. Bioremediation of Phenanthrene Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Belviso

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Las mejores condiciones metabólicas para la biodegradación de hidrocarburos por un consorcio microbiano seleccionado de un suelo natural fueron investigadas para mejorar la eficacia de los procesos de la bioremediación para la limpieza de aguas y de suelos contaminados. El fenantreno es uno de los contaminantes más recalcitrantes a la descomposición microbiana y el más difícil de eliminar. Un consorcio microbiano fue seleccionado de un suelo no contaminado usando un medio selectivo que contenía el fenantreno como única fuente de carbono; El ADN fue extraído de las colonias microbianas purificadas y el ADNr 16S fue PCR-amplificado y ordenado para la caracterización. Con objeto de mejorar la biodisponibilidad del fenantreno, las ¿, ¿, ¿-, ciclodextrina fueron probadas como coadyuvantes. Las cinéticas de degradación fueron realizadas: en presencia de ¿-, B-, ¿-, ciclodextrina en fase acuosa a 28°C y 37°C; en presencia de ¿-ciclodextrina en fase fangosa a 37°C y en fase sólida a temperatura ambiente. La concentración del fenantreno fue detectada por HPLC. La degradación del fenantreno depende del tipo de ciclodextrinas y de la temperatura. En fase acuosa, el efecto combinado de la temperatura y la adición de ciclodextrina mejora la degradación del fenantreno, y la B-ciclodextrina es el mejor coadyuvante cuando está combinado a una temperatura de 37°C. En fase fangosa, la tasa de degradación fue más baja que en la fase sólida, indicando un papel más importante de la disponibilidad del aire que de la temperatura en el proceso de biodegradación. El consorcio microbiano fue caracterizado. En conclusión, la bioaugmentación de consorcios microbianos autóctonos, el aumento de la biodisponibilidad por B-ciclodextrina, la alta temperatura ambiental y la buena aireación del suelo dan lugar a una disminución significativa (el 50% en 35 días del fenantreno en suelos contaminados.

  7. Enhanced bioremediation as a cost effective approach following thermally enhanced soil vapour extraction for sites requiring remediation of chlorinated solvents - 16296

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally enhanced bioremediation can be a more cost-effective alternative to full scale in-situ thermal treatment especially for sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents, where reductive dechlorination is or might be a dominant biological step. The effect of Thermally Enhanced Soil Vapour Extraction (TESVE) on indigenous microbial communities and the potential for subsequent biological polishing of chlorinated solvents was investigated in field trials at the Western Storage Area (WSA) - RSRL (formerly United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA) Oxfordshire, UK. The WSA site had been contaminated with various chemicals including mineral oil, chloroform, trichloroethane (TCA), carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene (PCE). The contamination had affected the unsaturated zone, groundwater in the chalk aquifer and was a continuing source of groundwater contamination below the WSA. During TESVE the target treatment zone was heated to above the boiling point of water increasing the degree of volatilization of contaminants of concern (CoC), which were mobilised and extracted in the vapour phase. A significant reduction of concentrations of chlorinated solvent in the unsaturated zone was achieved by the full-scale application of TESVE - In Situ Thermal Desorption (ISTD) technology. The rock mass temperature within target treatment zone remained in the range of 35 deg. - 44 deg. C, 6 months after cessation of heating. The concentration of chlorinated ethenes and other CoC were found to be significantly lower adjacent to the thermal treatment area and 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower within the thermal treatment zone. Samples were collected within and outside the thermal treatment zone using BioTrapsR (passive, in- situ microbial samplers) from which the numbers of specific bacteria were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods of analysis. High populations of reductive de-chlorinators such as Dechalococcoides spp. and Dehalobacter spp

  8. In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

  9. 二氯喹啉酸污染土壤生物修复的研究现状与发展方向%Progress and Development Direction of Bioremediation for Quinclorac-contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐丹; 任立伟; 卢滇楠; 刘永民

    2016-01-01

    为有效控制除草剂二氯喹啉酸对后茬作物的危害,恢复农田的种植能力,介绍了二氯喹啉酸的作用机理以及危害烟草等作物生长的原因,简述了采用物理、化学及生物法修复二氯喹啉酸残留土壤的研究进展,分析并指出3类方法的优势与不足。深入剖析了生物法降解二氯喹啉酸所取得的研究成果,提出外源微生物的安全性难以保障、缺少多菌种协同修复及相关机理研究,以及如何处理基因工程与生物修复的关系等问题是掣肘二氯喹啉酸生物修复走向实际应用的关键。上述问题的解决可能成为二氯喹啉酸污染土壤生物修复研究的发展方向。%In order to reduce the impact of herbicide-quinclorac to the after-reap crops and restore the farmland's capacity to support farming, this paper gave a brief introduction to the weed control mechanism of quinclorac and reviewed the recent progresses of the remediation techniques for quinclorac-contaminated soil, which were categorized into physical, chemical and biological techniques, pointing out the pros and cons of three methods. Furthermore, research on biodegradation of quinclorac conducted was discussed. The safety of exogenous microbes, the lack of researches on synergetic remediation of co-strains consortia and the usage of gene engineering microbes in bioremediation are the critical questions in putting the bioremediation techniques into practical application. Through the researches on above problems, the bioremediation techniques of quinclorac-contaminated soil may be developed.

  10. Biorremediação de um solo contaminado com antraceno sob diferentes condições físicas e químicas Bioremediation of a soil contaminated with anthracene under different chemical and physical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O antraceno e os demais hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (HAPs podem ser removidos do solo pela biorremediação, cuja eficiência é limitada se as condições físicas e químicas não forem favoráveis à sobrevivência e à atividade dos microrganismos degradadores. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência do pH, da umidade e da disponibilidade de nitrogênio, de fósforo, de ferro e de enxofre na biorremediação de um solo contaminado com antraceno. Para tanto, amostras de um solo arenoso foram contaminadas em laboratório com 500mg kg-1 de antraceno e a mineralização desse poluente foi quantificada por respirometria. As maiores mineralizações ocorreram nos tratamentos com as maiores umidades e os pH avaliados. A adição de 100kg ha-1 ou mais de nitrogênio no solo e a redução da relação C HAP-N para valores inferiores a 120:17 diminuíram a mineralização do antraceno. O aumento da disponibilidade do fósforo, do ferro e do enxofre e a presença de amplas relações C HAP:P no solo não influenciaram a mineralização do antraceno. A correção do pH e o adequado fornecimento de água possibilitaram a biorremediação desse solo em curto período de tempo.The anthracene, as well as the others polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, can be removed from the soil by bioremediation, whose efficiency is limited under unfavorable physical and chemical conditions to the survival and activity of the microbial degraders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of pH, water content, and nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and sulfur concentrations in the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with anthracene. Samples of a sandy soil were contaminated in laboratory with anthracene (500mg kg-1 and the mineralization was evaluated by respirometry. The highest anthracene mineralization was verified in the soil with the highest water content and pH value studied. The addition of 100kg ha-1 nitrogen in the soil

  11. 石油污染土壤的生物修复室内模拟实验研究%Experimental study on bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭辉; 晁群芳; 徐鑫; 李磊

    2012-01-01

    在实验室模拟的条件下,利用从克拉玛依的石油污染土壤中筛选出的4株高效降解菌,以石油烃降解率、脱氢酶活性、呼吸强度、微生物量碳氮和土壤毒性作为评价指标,研究不加生物菌剂不翻耕、不加生物菌剂翻耕、加生物菌剂不翻耕、加生物菌剂翻耕、加固定化菌剂不翻耕和加固定化菌剂翻耕6种不同实验条件对石油污染土壤修复的效果。结果表明,在63 d的修复过程中,加固定化菌剂翻耕实验F组的石油去除率达到了78.7%,比不加生物菌剂不翻耕实验A组的石油去除率提高了49.5%。随着土壤毒性逐渐降低,玉米(Zea mays L.)和赤子爱胜蚓(Eisenia fetida)可以在F组土壤中良好的生长,达到了修复的效果。%The bioremediation effect of six different methods on oil-contaminated soil,by using of four strains isolated in oil-contaminated soil of Karamay areas,was studied under laboratory simulative conditions.All these methods were implemented by certain treatment on the contaminated soil,including:natural condition(without strain inoculums as well as ploughing),only ploughing,only bacteria strain inoculums,bacteria strain inoculums and ploughing,only immobilized microbial agents,immobilized microbial agents and ploughing,meanwhile,the biodegradation efficiency,dehydrogenase activity,microbial biomass and toxicity of the studied soil were strictly monitored during these six different treatments in pot experiments.The results showed that the removal efficiency of group F,with ploughing and immobilized microbial agents,was 78.7%.It was 49.5% higher than that of group A with neither strain inoculums nor ploughing in 63 days.Due to the decreasing of the soil toxicity,Zea mays L.and Eisenia fetida could grow well,which suggested that the bioremediation worked well.

  12. Bioremediation of quinolin-contaminated soil by white rot fungi%白腐真菌对受喹啉污染模拟土壤的生物修复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿晶晶; 王玲; 王晓书; 沈珊; 任大军

    2011-01-01

    通过引入白腐真菌对受喹啉污染的模拟土壤进行生物修复.结果表明,白腐真菌对受喹啉污染土壤的生物修复是可行的;土壤含水率升高,喹啉去除率提高;投菌量越大,喹啉的去除效果越显著;不同pH土壤中的白腐真菌对喹啉降解差异不大,添加木屑能为白腐真菌提供额外的营养源,对土壤中喹啉的降解起到了促进作用.%White rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus was selected to degrade quinoline in simulated soil,and the effect of soil moisture,fungi inoculum size,soil pH and wood dust on degradation efficiency was investigated. Results showed it was feasible to bioremediation quinolin-contaminated soil by white rot fungi. The removal rate of quinoline was increased with'increasing the soil moisture,higher inoculim size of fungi resulted in a higher degradation rate of quinoline,while soil pH had little effect on quinoline degradation. Addition of wood dust could promote quinoline degradation for it provided nutrition source to white rot fungi. The mechanism of quinoline degradation by white rot fungi still needed further exploration and study.

  13. 外源微生物对土壤中烟嘧磺隆的降解作用研究%Bioremediation of exogenous degrading bacteria to the nicosulfuron-contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓亮; 于佩博; 高鹤南; 张浩

    2011-01-01

    为了探索外源微生物N80(Serratia marcecens)对烟嘧磺隆污染土壤生物修复的可行性,在实验室条件下,分析了温度、土壤pH值、接菌量、农药初始质量比等因素对N80降解烟嘧磺隆效果的影响.同时以小白菜、甜菜、菠菜为供试作物,采用室内盆栽试验法处理污染土壤,液相色谱仪(UVD)测定土壤中烟嘧磺降残留量.结果表明:1)向污染土壤中添加外源微生物菌株N80可以促进土壤中烟嘧磺隆的降解,第30d时,最高降解率可达79.7%;2)N80降解污染土壤中烟嘧磺隆的最适宜条件为25℃,pH=7.0,接种量108 cfu/g,初始质量比10mg/kg.研究表明,向污染土壤中接种一定量的外源微生物菌株N80可以有效降低土壤中烟嘧磺隆的残留量,减轻烟嘧磺隆对敏感作物的药害,达到了预期的生物修复效果.%The present essay is to give a general introduction to our experimental study of the bioremediation for the nicosulfuron contaminated soil by using exogenous microbial N80 (serratia marcecens, isolated in our lab). First of all, we have examined the bioremediate function of N80 strain-a kind of serratia marcecens in the nicosulfuron contaminated soil under laboratory conditions. Analyzing it carefully let us make clear that of all the essential factors of degrading nicosulfuron by N80, the temperature, pH of the soil, the inoculation and initial nicosulfuron concentration are the key ones. It has also become possible to measure the soil residues of the nicosulfuron because of using the liquid chromatography ( UVD). The results of our measurements indicate that N80 grows with nicosulfuron as the unique nitrogen source at the optimal temperature range of 25 ℃ with its pH value being 7.0 in the soil. As a result of the nicosulfuron degradation by N80, the enzyme activity tends to be reduced by the improper temperature and pH value. However, adding N80 can speed up the nicosulfuron degradation in the soil at a rate of 10 mg

  14. Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil Using Bio-Slurry Reactor Process%生物反应器法处理油泥污染土壤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海荣; 姜昌亮; 赵彦; 李培军; 许华夏; 杨桂芬

    2001-01-01

    Bio-remidiation possibility of soil contaminated by oil mud,and the optimization of the technological conditions for the bioremediation were studied using bio-slurry reactor in pilot-scale.A group of micro-orgamism which are addicted to oil and rich in both amount and species in oil contaminated soil was discovered.Fusarium sp.was screeded for its high crude oil degradation rate.Oil mud with high concentration of crude oil was mixed with clean soil in the ratio of 1∶1,and 10% complex organic fertilizer and inorganic nutrients in proper proportion were added before treatment. Particularly,microbiological agent of indigenous superior strains for crude oil degradation was applied. Other operative conditions of the reactor included 25℃ for temperature and intermittent venting. After 75 days operation,the contents of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in oil mud was decreased from 43.39 to 0.72g*kg-1.The degradation rate of TPH reached 98.3% under optimal conditions.

  15. 四种石油污染土壤生物修复技术研究%Bioremediation on 4 Soils Contaminated by Petroleum Oils Using Prepared Bed Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海荣; 李培军; 孙铁珩; 姜昌亮; 许华夏; 张春桂; 马学军; 姚德明

    2001-01-01

    In this investigation, the soils contaminated by crude oil fromLiaohe Oil Field were treated using prepared bed bioremediation technology. The results showed that degrading rate of TPHs were reached 38%—60% after 84 days treatment, when the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in soils were in a range of 25.8 g·kg-1 —77.2 g·kg-1. It was found that the composition of the oils greatly affected the degradation rate, having a degradation order of different oils as pollutants in soils with: thin oil > high condensed oil > thick oil > extremely thick oil. It has been indicated that the bioremediation of soil contaminated by oil is a practical technology.%在实验室小试和现场中试的基础上,采用预制床处理工艺对辽河油田4种不同类型石油污染土壤进行实用规模的生物处理技术研究。工程运行结果表明,当稀油、稠油、特稠油和高凝油污染土壤中石油烃总量(TPH)为25.8—77.2g.kg-1时,经过84d的运行,TPH去除率为38%—60%。TPH的降解速率除与微生物的生长环境有关外还与石油的理化性质密切相关。4种油污染土壤的降解速率依次为:稀油>高凝油>稠油>特稠油,TPH的组分对其降解速率有重要影响。本研究为大规模石油污染土壤异位生物修复提供了技术支持

  16. Bioremediation of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frank Fanqing; Keasling, Jay D; Tang, Yinjie J

    2013-05-14

    The present invention provides a method comprising the use of microorganisms for nanotoxicity study and bioremediation. In some embodiment, the microorganisms are bacterial organisms such as Gram negative bacteria, which are used as model organisms to study the nanotoxicity of the fullerene compounds: E. coli W3110, a human related enterobacterium and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, an environmentally important bacterium with versatile metabolism.

  17. Evaluation of effectiveness of bioremediation based on PAHs desorption characteristics in soil%基于土壤中多环芳烃解吸特性的生物修复效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟茂生; 姜林; 夏天翔; 姚珏君; 丁爱中; 陈刚

    2012-01-01

    The desorption characteristics of four targeted PAHs ( fluoranthene, benz[ a] anthracene, benzo [ a] pyrene, benzo[ ghil perylene) in soil before and after biopile treatment was studied by using XAD-2 assisted desorption experiment and the bioremediation effectiveness was further evaluated based on the study of the desorption results. The findings revealed that the accumulative amount of desorbed PAHs in the experiment increased with time while the desorption rate decreased, which followed the "dual - phase" desorption model. The fast desorbable part of the four PAHs was 32% - 70% before bioremediation and dropped down to 14% -39% after 6 month bioremediation. The remediation effectiveness based on the bioavailable fluoranthene, benz[ a] anthracene, benzol a] pyrene, benzo[ ghi] perylene was 82.9% ,79.7% ,64.9% ,54.3% , respectively, which were higher than those calculated based on the total concentration of each contaminant, which was about 61.0% ,51.7% ,37.2% ,38.7% correspondingly.%采用XAD-2树脂辅助解吸方法测试了生物堆修复前后土壤中荧蒽、苯并(a)蒽、苯并(a)芘、苯并苝这4种PAHs的解吸特性,并根据解吸结果进行了生物修复效果评价.结果表明,土壤中这4种PAHs的累计解吸量随解吸时间延长而增加,但解吸速率逐渐降低,符合"两阶段"解吸模型,生物修复前土壤中不同种类PAHs"快解吸"量占PAHs总量的32%~70%,修复后土壤中不同种类PAHs"快解吸"量占PAHs总量的14%~39%.经过6个月的生物修复,基于生物可利用含量变化的荧蒽、苯并(a)蒽、苯并(a)芘、苯并苝修复效率依次为82.9%、79.7%、64.9%、54.3%,,明显高于基于PAHs总含量的生物修复效率61.0%、51.7%、37.2%、38.7%.

  18. Natural and accelerated bioremediation research program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This draft plan describes a ten-year program to develop the scientific understanding needed to harness and develop natural and enhanced biogeochemical processes to bioremediate contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater at DOE facilities. The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) developed this program plan, with advice and assistance from DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). The program builds on OHER`s tradition of sponsoring fundamental research in the life and environmental sciences and was motivated by OHER`s and Office of Energy Research`s (OER`s) commitment to supporting DOE`s environmental management mission and the belief that bioremediation is an important part of the solution to DOE`s environmental problems.

  19. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils by cold-adapted microorganisms:Research advance%低温微生物修复石油烃类污染土壤研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世杰; 王翔; 卢桂兰; 汪群慧; 李发生; 郭观林

    2011-01-01

    Cold-adapted microorganisms such as psychrotrophs and psychrophiles widely exist in the soils of sub-Arctic, Arctic, Antarctic, alpine, and high mountains, being the important microbial resources for the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperature. Using the unique advantage of cold-adapted microorganisms to the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in low temperature region has become a research hotspot. This paper summarized the category and cold-adaptation mechanisms of the microorganisms able to degrade petroleum hydrocarbon at low temperature, biodegradation characteristics and mechanisms of different petroleum fractions under the action of cold-adapted microorganisms. bio-stimulation techniques for improving biodegradation efficiency, e. g. , inoculating petroleum-degrading microorganisms and adding nutrients or bio-surfactants. and the present status of applying molecular biotechnology in this research field,aimed to provide references to the development of bioremediation techniques for petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.%耐冷菌、嗜冷菌等低温微生物广泛存在于极地、高山以及高纬度等土壤环境中,是石油烃类污染物在低温条件下降解与转化的重要微生物资源.利用低温微生物的独特优势,石油污染土壤的低温生物修复技术的研究成为当前热点领域.本文系统综述了低温石油烃降解菌的分类及冷适机制,低温微生物对不同类型石油烃组分的降解特征和降解机理,低温环境中接种降解菌、添加营养物质和表面活性剂等强化技术在石油污染土壤中生物修复的应用.以及微生物分子生物学技术在低温微生物降解石油烃的研究现状,为拓展我国石油污染土壤生物修复技术提供参考.

  20. Application of Fingerprinting Molecular Methods in Bioremediation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpouzas, Dimitrios G.; Singh, Brajesh K.

    Bioremediation has been identified as a beneficial and effective strategy for the removal of recalcitrant environmental contaminants. Bioaugmentation of polluted environments with exogenous degrading microorganisms constitutes a major strategy of bioremediation. However, the ecological role of these strains and their impact on the endogenous microbial community of the micro-ecosystems where they are released should be known. Fingerprinting PCR-based methods, like denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), could be used in studies exploring the ecology of pollutant-degrading microorganisms and their effects on the structure of the soil microbial community. This chapter provides a brief outline of the technical details involved in the application of DGGE and TRFLP fingerprinting in soil microbial ecology, with particular reference to bioremediation studies.

  1. Augmented In Situ Subsurface Bioremediation Process™BIO-REM, Inc. - Demonstration Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Augmented In Situ Subsurface Bioremediation Process™ developed by BIO-REM, Inc., uses microaerophilic bacteria and micronutrients (H-10) and surface tension depressants/penetrants for the treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils and groundwater. The bacteria utilize hydroc...

  2. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: J.R. SIMPLOT EX-SITU BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY: DINOSEB

    Science.gov (United States)

    The J.R. Simplot Ex-Situ Bioremediation Technology is designed to anaerobically degrade nitroaromatic and energetic compounds in soils and liquids without forming identifiable toxic intermediate compounds produced by other biotreatment methods. This technology was evaluated un...

  3. 可可毛色二孢茵对焦化厂土壤多环芳烃污染修复%Bioremediation of PAHs Contaminated Soil from Beijing Coking Plant by Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志远; 王翠苹; 刘海滨; 孙红文

    2012-01-01

    利用新型菌种可可毛色二孢菌(Lasiodiplodia theobromae)对北京焦化厂实际土壤PAHs污染进行修复,研究了该菌种在Tween 80和HPCD两种表面活性剂作用下对北京焦化厂土壤PAHs污染的强化修复效果,并探讨了修复过程中酶活动态变化及其与PAHs降解关系.结果表明,在L.theobromae作用下,焦化厂土壤中PAHs降解率在第70 d达到45.3%,比控制组提高了30个百分点;当Tween 80和HPCD在最佳含量(2 g.kg-1和1 g.kg-1)时,土壤中PAHs降解率达65.8%和63.9%,比控制组提高约50个百分点.因此,研究证实L.theobromae是实际土壤PAHs污染修复的可选菌种,表面活性剂与L.theobromae联合修复实际土壤PAHs污染修复是一种可选技术.在单一L.theobromae修复组和表面活性剂强化L.theobromae修复组中,土壤中过氧化氢酶和转化酶酶活性比控制组土壤中酶活性均提高2倍左右,表明L.theobromae可能产生过氧化氢酶和转化酶或者该菌种与土著微生物有协同作用.相关性分析表明,过氧化氢酶和转化酶活性最大值与PAHs降解率相关系数分别是0.781和0.837,转化酶活性与降解率的相关性高于过氧化氢酶.%Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing Coking Plant was performed using a novel fungal strain Lasiodiplodia theobromae(L.theobromae).Moreover,enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of Tween 80 and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin(HPCD).The correlation of the dynamics of enzyme activities during remediation and the degradation of PAHs was analyzed.The results showed that the degradation rate of PAHs increased to 45.3% on the 70th day after addition of L.theobromae,which was 30 percentage points higher than that of the control group.At an optimum concentration of 2 g·kg-1 for Tween 80 and 1 g·kg-1 for HPCD,the degradation rate of PAHs was enhanced to 65.8% and 63.9%,respectively,which was 50

  4. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of oil to environmentally benign chemicals such as water and carbon dioxide by 'hydrocarbon-eating' bacteria is described. The emphasis is on a new process to selectively increase the population of 'oil eating' bacteria, a development that became the foundation for the second-generation bioremediation accelerator, Inipol EAP-22. Second-generation bioremediation products focus on providing nitrogen and phosphorus, chemicals that are not present in crude oil in readily available form, but are essential for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids and the energy metabolism of the bacteria. Providing these chemicals in the proper amounts encourages the preferential growth of oil-degrading microbes already present in the local biomass, thus overcoming the major limiting factor for biodegradation. These second-generation bioremediation products also have strong oleophilic properties engineered into them, to assure that the nutrients essential for the bacteria are in contact with the oil. The first major test for second-generation bioremediation accelerators came with the clean-up of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez, a disaster that contaminated more than 120 kilometres of Alaskan beaches along the shores of Prince William Sound. The Inipol EAP-22 successfully held the nutrients in contact with the oil for the duration of the treatment period, despite constant exposure to the washing action of the surf and occasional heavy rainstorms. Today, the accelerator is routinely used in cleaning up all types of ordinary spills including diesel fuel spills along railway right-of-ways, truck yards and refinery sludge. Conditions under which the application of the accelerator is likely to be most successful are described

  5. Predicting bioremediation of hydrocarbons: laboratory to field scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diplock, E E; Mardlin, D P; Killham, K S; Paton, G I

    2009-06-01

    There are strong drivers to increasingly adopt bioremediation as an effective technique for risk reduction of hydrocarbon impacted soils. Researchers often rely solely on chemical data to assess bioremediation efficiently, without making use of the numerous biological techniques for assessing microbial performance. Where used, laboratory experiments must be effectively extrapolated to the field scale. The aim of this research was to test laboratory derived data and move to the field scale. In this research, the remediation of over thirty hydrocarbon sites was studied in the laboratory using a range of analytical techniques. At elevated concentrations, the rate of degradation was best described by respiration and the total hydrocarbon concentration in soil. The number of bacterial degraders and heterotrophs as well as quantification of the bioavailable fraction allowed an estimation of how bioremediation would progress. The response of microbial biosensors proved a useful predictor of bioremediation in the absence of other microbial data. Field-scale trials on average took three times as long to reach the same endpoint as the laboratory trial. It is essential that practitioners justify the nature and frequency of sampling when managing remediation projects and estimations can be made using laboratory derived data. The value of bioremediation will be realised when those that practice the technology can offer transparent lines of evidence to explain their decisions. PMID:19232804

  6. Immobilization of bacteria isolated from the mining areas on polymeric supports for bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today pollution is an important environmental problem. Many bacteria have the ability to degrade several types of pollutants in various media (soil, water and air) are used in bioremediation. The present work is to study bacterial diversity colonizing contaminated soil from a mining site in the region of Gafsa and Sfax phosphogypsum and evaluate their potential in bioremediation. Three bacterial strains were selected based on the presence of pigments. These strains have been studied for their tolerances of strontium. Selected strains, was assessed for its bioremediation potential to confirm his use in the biodeppolution processes.

  7. Study on Soil Properties Variation in Bioremediation Process for North and South Oil Shale Dump in Maoming%茂名南、北排土场生物修复中土壤性状变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 郭先霞; 李璐

    2012-01-01

    During the oil shale production in Maoming, Guangdong Province, ihere are 2.4 × 108 t waste residue in two waste dumps that cover an area of 8. 1 km2 located in the north and south of the mine pit. The physicochemical properties, microbe quantity and biochemical activity of soil on different test plots of bare land and 5-year plantation in the north oil shale dump and 16-year plantation and grassland for 20-year natural remediation in the soulh oil shale dump were compared and analyzed. The results demonstrated that soil at the oil shale dump in the north was desiccated, impoverished of nutrient, and strongly acidified, and,that after 16 years of plantation, the amount of microbe in the soil of oil shale dump in the south turned to be more than that in the bare land, enzyme activity and soil respiration rate increased significantly and' soil physicochemical properties were also improved, whereas after 5 years of plantation, these test indexes remained almost unchanged in oil shale dump in the north. Studies also indicated that plantation of Acacia auricalaformis is better than that of Eucalyptus for soil improvement of oil shale. The results showed that the process of bioremediation for waste dump of oil shale is very slow, so it is imperative that we take measures, such as making plantations, to accelerate bioremediation for oil shale dump.%广东茂名在油页岩生产过程中共产生废渣2.4×108t,堆放场占地面积8.1 km2,分别堆放在采矿场的南北两地,称为南、北排土场.通过对北排土场裸地、植林5年和南排土场植林16年、天然恢复20年的草地试验区的理化性质、土壤微生物数量及英生化活性进行对比分析,结果表明:北排裸地土壤含水差、贫瘠、酸性强;植林16年多的南排土壤理化性质、微生物、酶活性以及土壤呼吸都明显改善;但植林5年的北排土壤与裸地相差土壤性状变化不大.研究还发现,大叶相思树种对土壤改良的效果比桉

  8. Study on the bioremediation of indole-contaminated soil by white rot fungi%白腐真菌对受吲哚污染模拟土壤的修复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任大军; 鲍欣; 瞿晶晶; 张元元; 许琴; 张淑琴; 吴高明

    2013-01-01

    White rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus was selected to degrade indole in simulated soil.The degradation processes of single indole and indole with co-metabolism substrate of quinoline were studied.Results showed that it was feasible to bioremediate indole-contamianted soil by white rot fungi.The pH value of soil had little effect on indole degradation.Addition of wood dust could promote indole degradation as it provided extra nutrition source to white rot fungi.Indole and quinoline could be degraded efficiently by white rot fungi,but indole degradation was inhibited by quionline.%选用白腐真菌对受吲哚污染的模拟土壤进行生物修复,研究了白腐真菌对吲哚单基质体系和以喹啉作为吲哚的共代谢因子的共基质体系的降解过程.结果表明:白腐真菌对受吲哚污染土壤的生物修复是可行的;不同pH土壤中的白腐真菌对吲哚降解差异不大;添加木屑能为白腐真菌提供额外的营养源,对土壤中吲哚的降解起到了促进作用.白腐真菌可以同时对吲哚和喹啉进行生物修复,喹啉对吲哚的降解主要产生抑制作用.

  9. Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments. In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system. To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ. Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de

  10. Combined use of Mediterranean local resources for restoring TCE-Contaminated soils. The bioremediation effect of Dittrichia viscosa and vermicomposted olive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolic intermediates are resistant to biodegradation in aerobic subsurface environments, which contributes to their persistence in soils and polluted groundwater. In this study, the combined action of Dittricha viscosa (L.) and vermicomposted olive waste for the remediation of a TCE-contaminated soil was analyzed. (Author)

  11. Affecting Factors of Bioremediation in Improving Soil Contaminated by Thickened Oil%石油烃降解混合菌修复稠油污染土壤的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董亚明; 刘其友; 赵东风; 赵朝成; 高泊

    2013-01-01

    Thickened oil causes inevitably the serious contamination of edatope and impacts human health and environment in its mining,storage,transportation,refining and using process.It is necessary to take effective measures for improving soil contaminated by thickened oil.The microbial screened consortium KL9-1 was used to research the bioremediation for improving soil contaminated by thickened oil,and the factors in the biodegradation progress were studied.The results showed that the pH value,inoculum size,soil N/P,surfactant dosage,tillage frequency,watering frequency and raising agent affected significantly the bioremediation.In the soil contaminated by thickened oil per kilogram,the initial conditions of pH of 8.0,inoculum of 70.0 mL,N/P of 3:1 and surfactant dosage of 4.0 g were controlled,the soil was watered every two days and plowed every four days,rice husks were used as a raising agent,and the petroleum hydrocarbon degradation rate could be as high as 54.07% after carrying out a biodegradation for 70 days.%稠油在开采、贮运、炼制加工及使用过程中,不可避免的污染土壤环境,对人体健康和环境造成严重影响,因此有必要采取有效措施对稠油污染土壤进行修复.利用筛选获得的石油烃降解混合菌KL9-1,对稠油污染土壤进行修复研究,考察修复过程中的影响因素.结果表明:pH、接种量、土壤中N/P、表面活性剂用量、翻耕频率、浇水频率和膨松剂种类等因素对污染土壤修复有明显的影响.在每千克稠油污染土壤体系中,控制初始pH为8.0,接种量为70.0 mL,N:P为3:1,表面活性剂用量为4.0g,每2d浇水1次,4d翻耕1次,稻壳作为膨松剂,在此条件下经过70 d的生物修复,石油烃降解率最高可达54.07%.

  12. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vara Saritha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Two fungi (unidentified were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of these fungi was also tested, and the clearance zone was obtained in the plate assay.

  13. POTENTIAL FUNGI FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vara Saritha; Avasn Maruthi; Mukkanti, K.

    2010-01-01

    Two fungi (unidentified) were isolated from soil and marine environ-ments. These isolates were used for bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluent at the laboratory scale. The treatment resulted in the reduction of color, lignin, and COD of the effluent in the order of 78.6%, 79.0%, and 89.4% in 21 days. A major part of reductions in these parameters occurred within 5 days of the treatment, which was also characterized by a steep decline in the pH of the effluent. The enzyme activity of t...

  14. Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5 on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22% among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76% compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5% as compared to uninoculated control soils (12% at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil.

  15. Brevibacterium frigoritolerans as a Novel Organism for the Bioremediation of Phorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyal, Monu; Gupta, V K; Mandal, Kousik; Jindal, Vikas

    2015-11-01

    Phorate, an organophosphorus insecticide, has been found effective for the control of various insect pests. However, it is an extremely hazardous insecticide and causes a potential threat to ecosystem. Bioremediation is a promising approach to degrade the pesticide from the soil. The screening of soil from sugarcane fields resulted in identification of Brevibacterium frigoritolerans, a microorganism with potential for phorate bioremediation was determined. B. frigoritolerans strain Imbl 2.1 resulted in the active metabolization of phorate by between 89.81% and 92.32% from soils amended with phorate at different levels (100, 200, 300 mg kg(-1) soil). But in case of control soil, 33.76%-40.92% degradation were observed. Among metabolites, sulfone was found as the main metabolite followed by sulfoxide. Total phorate residues were not found to follow the first order kinetics. This demonstrated that B. frigoritolerans has potential for bioremediation of phorate both in liquid cultures and agricultural soils. PMID:26205232

  16. Brevibacterium frigoritolerans as a Novel Organism for the Bioremediation of Phorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyal, Monu; Gupta, V K; Mandal, Kousik; Jindal, Vikas

    2015-11-01

    Phorate, an organophosphorus insecticide, has been found effective for the control of various insect pests. However, it is an extremely hazardous insecticide and causes a potential threat to ecosystem. Bioremediation is a promising approach to degrade the pesticide from the soil. The screening of soil from sugarcane fields resulted in identification of Brevibacterium frigoritolerans, a microorganism with potential for phorate bioremediation was determined. B. frigoritolerans strain Imbl 2.1 resulted in the active metabolization of phorate by between 89.81% and 92.32% from soils amended with phorate at different levels (100, 200, 300 mg kg(-1) soil). But in case of control soil, 33.76%-40.92% degradation were observed. Among metabolites, sulfone was found as the main metabolite followed by sulfoxide. Total phorate residues were not found to follow the first order kinetics. This demonstrated that B. frigoritolerans has potential for bioremediation of phorate both in liquid cultures and agricultural soils.

  17. Bioremediation of PAHs and VOCs: Advances in clay mineral-microbial interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Rusmin, Ruhaida; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Bioremediation is an effective strategy for cleaning up organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Advanced bioremediation implies that biotic agents are more efficient in degrading the contaminants completely. Bioremediation by microbial degradation is often employed and to make this process efficient, natural and cost-effective materials can serve as supportive matrices. Clay/modified clay minerals are effective adsorbents of PAHs/VOCs, and readily available substrate and habitat for microorganisms in the natural soil and sediment. However, the mechanism underpinning clay-mediated biodegradation of organic compounds is often unclear, and this requires critical investigation. This review describes the role of clay/modified clay minerals in hydrocarbon bioremediation through interaction with microbial agents in specific scenarios. The vision is on a faster, more efficient and cost-effective bioremediation technique using clay-based products. This review also proposes future research directions in the field of clay modulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbons.

  18. 复合茵群的构建及其对石油污染土壤修复的研究%Construction of Multiple Bacterial Consortium and Its Application in Bioremediation of Petroleum-contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵硕伟; 沈嘉澍; 沈标

    2011-01-01

    used in bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil.it could remove more than 50% petroleum in soil. In condition of 10~30℃, pH 6.5-9.5 and inoculum106 CFU ·g-1, the consortium D could degrade petroleum faster. The results indicated that Consortium D had potential used in bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil.

  19. 中原油田石油污染土壤原位生物修复技术实验研究%Experimental study on in-situ bioremediation technique for oil contaminated soil in Zhongyuan Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立; 张发旺; 刘少玉; 何泽; 张胜

    2011-01-01

    The degradation microbial communities which were lab selective enrichment cultured from oil polluted soil of Zhongyuan Oil Field could fast grow using crude oil as carbon source.These microbial communities binding with Ryegrass and Alfalfa were used in experiments on combined in-situ bioremediation of oil contaminated soil.The experimental area was divided into five: microbial communities with Ryegrass,microbial communities with Alfalfa,only microbial communities,only Ryegrass and blank.After 99 d bioremediation,the cumulative degradation rate of petroleum hydrocarbon could reach 43.27% to 67.38%,which were much higher in the two areas of microbial communities with Ryegrass or Alfalfa.Whereas the cumulative degradation rate of blank area was lower than 2.5%.Those results showed that the selected microbial communities could obviously degrade the oil polluted soil in central plains oil field.The experimental results indicated that the inoculated degradation microbial communities generally need 1~3 d adaptive phase then being active,few nutriment such as soluble salt,NO-3,Cl-,etc could infiltrate into the lower soil layer(50 cm).The nitrogen fixation of Alfalfa roots may cause the distinct increase of NH+4.In addition,some factors containing temperature,water,oxygen,nutriment and minigeoenvirorment were optimized in the experiments.%通过实验室选择性富集培养,从中原油田石油污染土壤中获得了能以中原原油为碳源快速生长的石油降解菌群。结合黑麦草(Ryegrass)和苜蓿(Alfalfa),采用该降解菌群对原油污染土壤进行了原位生物联合修复实验。接入降解菌的实验区分种植黑麦草、种植苜蓿、未种植区,另设黑麦草区和空白区。经过99 d的生物修复,石油烃累计降解率达43.27%~67.38%,尤以2个微生物植物联合区修复效果为最佳,而空白区的累计降解率不足2.5%,说明所选菌群对中原油田污染土壤有明显的降解作用

  20. 降解菌HQ-C-01对克百威污染土壤的生物修复%Bioremediation of Carbofuran-contaminated Soil by Degrading Fungi Stain HQ-C-01

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 陈少华; 胡美英; 郝卫宁

    2011-01-01

    Under the lab simulated conditions, the bioremediation of Fungi Stain HQ-C-01 on carbofiiran-contaminated soil and the factors affecting the degradation capacity were studied, meanwhile the influences of carbofuran and Fungi Stain HQ-C-01 on soil microflora were also investigated. The results showed that there was positive correlation between the degradation rate and the inoculation quantity. The degradation rate for SO mg/kg carbofuran after 10 days was 82.89% with 2.09× 108 CFU/g inoculation quantity. The degradation rate was low if the inoculation quantity was less than 106 CFU/g. The effect of soil moisture on the degradation rate was obvious, the degradation rate was best (85.32%) when soil moisture was 600 g/kg, but was lower when soil moisture lower than 200 g/kg. Fungi Stain HQ-C-01 had higher degradation rate when the temperature ranged from 25°C to 3S°C. Soil Ph value influenced the degradation rate significantly, the degradation rate for SO mg/kg carbofuran after 10 days reached highest (85.629%) when soil Ph value was about 7. Carbofuran has certain influence on soil microflora by intensively stimulating soil fungi, but the application of Fungi Stain HQ-C-01 can remit the influence and thus can remediate the contaminated soil.%在室内模拟条件下,研究了降解菌HQ-C-01(Pichia anomala)对克百威污染土壤的修复作用及其影响因素,同时研究了克百威及该菌株对土壤微生物的影响.结果表明,克百威降解率与降解菌HQ-C-01接种量呈正相关,降解菌接种量为2.09× 108 CFU/g干土时,对土壤中50 mg/kg克百威10天降解率达82.89%;当降解菌接种量低于106 CFU/g干土时,降解菌对克百威的降解效果较弱.土壤含水量显著影响降解菌对克百威的降解率,含水量为600 g/kg时降解效果最好,降解率达85.32%,而当含水量低于200 g/kg时降解效果较差.在温度范围25℃~35℃降解菌对克百威都具有较好的降解效果.不同土壤pH值对降解菌

  1. COVALENT BINDING OF REDUCED METABOLITES OF [15N3] TNT TO SOIL ORGANIC MATTER DURING A BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS ANALYZED BY 15N NMR SPECTROSCOPY. (R826646)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence is presented for the covalent binding ofbiologically reduced metabolites of 2,4,6-15N3-trinitrotoluene(TNT) to different soil fractions (humic acids, fulvicacids, and humin) using liquid 15N NMR spectroscopy. Asilylation p...

  2. Oil bioremediation processes in Brazilian marine environments : laboratory simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation methods have been used in Brazil to remediate contaminated soils from refinery residues. In particular, bioremediation is a process that can reduce the amount of oil that reaches shorelines, by enhancing natural biodegradation. This presentation presents the results of a laboratory study in which seawater contaminated with light crude oil was bioremediated in a period of 28 days using NPK fertilizer. Whole oil gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the hydrocarbon fractions were used to determine the extent of oil biodegradation. It was determined that natural degradation occurred in the first 4 days, and mostly through the evaporation of light end n-alkanes. Biodegradation of n-alkanes was found to be most effective after 7 days, and no changes were observed in the relative abundance of steranes and triterpanes. It appears that the addition of NPK nutrient reduces the biodegradation potential of polyaromatic compounds. Seawater samples were also measured to determine the efficiency of bioremediation. The use of NPK fertilizer resulted in higher toxicity after 14 days probably due to the creation of metabolites as polyaromatic compounds biodegrade. Non toxic levels were found to be reestablished after 28 days of bioremediation. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Bioremediation of marine oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is presented of the scientific and technological developments in the area of bioremediation and biodegradation of marine oil pollution. A number of allied technologies are also considered. The basic technology in bioremediation involves adding fertilizers to an oil spill to enhance the natural process of oil biodegradation. Bioremediation can be applied to open systems such as beach or land spills, or in closed and controlled environments such as storage containers, specially constructed or modified bioreactors, and cargo tanks. The major advantage of using closed environments is the opportunity to control the physical and nutritional parameters to optimize the rate of biodegradation. An evaluation of the state of the art of bioremediation in Canada is also included. Recommendations are made to involve the Canadian Transportation Development Centre in short-term research projects on bioremediation. These projects would include the use of a barge as a mobile bioreactor for the treatment of off-loaded oily waste products, the use of in-situ bioremediation to carry out extensive cleaning, degassing, and sludge remediation on board an oil tanker, and the use of a barge as a mobile bioreactor and facility for the bioremediation of bilges. 51 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs

  4. Isolamento e seleção de fungos para biorremediação a partir de solo contaminado com herbicidas triazínicos Isolation and screening of fungi to bioremediation from triazine herbicide contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A biorremediação é uma tecnologia que utiliza o metabolismo de microrganismos para eliminação ou redução, a níveis aceitáveis, de poluentes presentes no ambiente. Os herbicidas triazínicos são usados intensivamente no controle de ervas daninhas, principalmente na cultura de milho. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, isolar fungos filamentosos de solos contaminados com herbicidas triazínicos (atrazine e simazine e selecionar os microrganismos isolados quanto à capacidade de crescimento em meio adicionado de atrazine. Os microrganismos foram isolados, cultivados em meio Ágar-Batata-Dextrose (BDA acidificado com ácido tartárico 10%, adicionado de 50 mg.Kg-1 de atrazine e incubados por 5 dias a 25ºC. Foi realizada a medida diária do crescimento fúngico e calculada a velocidade de crescimento radial através de regressão linear dos raios das colônias utilizando-se a equação r(t = a + VCR .t (r:raio; t: tempo; VCR: velocidade de crescimento radial. Os resultados de VCR foram analisados através de Anova simples e do teste de Tukey, para comparação de médias. Foram isolados 15 fungos, pertencentes aos gêneros Aspergillus, Penicillium e Trichoderma. As maiores VCRs foram obtidas com fungos Aspergillus (A1 e Penicillium (AS1, isolados de solo contaminado com atrazine e atrazine adicionado de simazine, respectivamente, que apresentaram VCRs de 1,57 mm.d-1 e 1,28 mm.d-1. O crescimento dos fungos em meio contaminado com a atrazine indica a possibilidade de utilização desses fungos em estudos de biorremediação de solos contaminados com herbicidas triazínicos.Bioremediation is a technology that uses microrganism metabolism to quickly eliminate or reduce pollutants to acceptable levels into the environment. The triazine herbicides are intensively used to control harmful grass in the culture of maize. The aim of this work was to isolate filamentous fungi from soil contaminated with triazine herbicides and screening these fungi due to

  5. Mineralization of PCBs by the genetically modified strain Cupriavidus necator JMS34 and its application for bioremediation of PCBs in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Juan Matias; Acevedo, Francisca; Gonzalez, Myriam; Seeger, Michael [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Lab. de Microbiologia Molecular y Biotecnologia

    2010-07-15

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are classified as ''high-priority pollutants''. Diverse microorganisms are able to degrade PCBs. However, bacterial degradation of PCBs is generally incomplete, leading to the accumulation of chlorobenzoates (CBAs) as dead-end metabolites. To obtain a microorganism able to mineralize PCB congeners, the bph locus of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, which encodes one of the most effective PCB degradation pathways, was incorporated into the genome of the CBA-degrading bacterium Cupriavidus necator JMP134-X3. The bph genes were transferred into strain JMP134-X3, using the mini-Tn5 transposon system and biparental mating. The genetically modified derivative, C. necator strain JMS34, had only one chromosomal insertion of bph locus, which was stable under nonselective conditions. This modified bacterium was able to grow on biphenyl, 3-CBA and 4-CBA, and degraded 3,5-CBA in the presence of m-toluate. The strain JMS34 mineralized 3-CB, 4-CB, 2,4{sup '}-CB, and 3,5-CB, without accumulation of CBAs. Bioaugmentation of PCB-polluted soils with C. necator strain JMS34 and with the native B. xenovorans LB400 was monitored. It is noteworthy that strain JMS34 degraded, in 1 week, 99% of 3-CB and 4-CB and approximately 80% of 2,4{sup '}-CB in nonsterile soil, as well as in sterile soil. Additionally, the bacterial count of strain JMS34 increased by almost two orders of magnitude in PCB-polluted nonsterile soil. In contrast, the presence of native microflora reduced the degradation of these PCBs by strain LB400 from 73% (sterile soil) to approximately 50% (nonsterile soil). This study contributes to the development of improved biocatalysts for remediation of PCB-contaminated environments. (orig.)

  6. Bioremediation of Carbendazim by Streptomyces albogriseolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridhima Arya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbendazim (methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate, or MBC is a benzimidazole fungicide which is used to protect crops against the attack of fungi. MBC has a half-life of about 3-12 months and remain persistent in the environment which may lead to many harmful consequences. Besides chemical and photo-catalytic degradation of pesticides, microbial degradation has now been evolved as a much effective and safer way to eliminate these harmful compounds from the environment. However, in the literature very few reports are available where microbial community is involved in degrading MBC. Hence, the present study was planned to investigate the role of microbes isolated from the field soils for the bioremediation of MBC. Soil samples were collected from wheat fields of northern regions of India. Enrichment culture technique was employed to isolate the bacterium which was found to be growing at higher concentrations of MBC up to 500µg/ml. After biochemical and morphological analysis, the bacterium was identified as Streptomyces albogriseolus. Streptomyces albogriseolus was found to degrade MBC in a time-dependent manner from the initial concentration of 29 ppm to 285.67ppb and 62.73ppb in 24hrs and 48hrs respectively. LCMS-MS analysis was carried out to detect 2-aminobenzimidazole, a metabolite formed after degradation in 10 hrs of growth which eventually disappeared after 24hrs of growth. The strain Streptomyces albogriseolus holds a promising potential to be an efficient MBC bioremediation agent.

  7. BIOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS: A FLEXIBLE VARIABLE SPEED TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons has evolved into a number of different processes. These processes include in-situ aquifer bioremediation, bioventing, biosparging, passive bioremediation with oxygen release compounds, and intrinsic bioremediation. Although often viewe...

  8. ORD RESEARCH PRIORITIES IN BIOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORD is conducting research on bioremediation impacting Superfund sites, RCRA facilities, underground storage tanks and oil spills. Work supporting Superfund is focused on understanding monitored natural recovery in sediments for contaminants including PCBs and PAHs. Under RCRA,...

  9. Mechanisms of mercury bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, A M M; Macaskie, L E; Brown, N L

    2002-08-01

    Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals, and has significant industrial and agricultural uses. These uses have led to severe localized mercury pollution. Mercury volatilization after its reduction to the metallic form by mercury-resistant bacteria has been reported as a mechanism for mercury bioremediation [Brunke, Deckwer, Frischmuth, Horn, Lunsdorf, Rhode, Rohricht, Timmis and Weppen (1993) FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 11, 145-152; von Canstein, Timmis, Deckwer and Wagner-Dobler (1999) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 5279-5284]. The reduction/volatilization system requires to be studied further, in order to eliminate the escape of the metallic mercury into the environment. Recently we have demonstrated three different mechanisms for mercury detoxification in one organism, Klebsiella pneumoniae M426, which may increase the capture efficiency of mercury.

  10. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some years now UK and European oil spill response agencies, together with oil companies having an exploration or production interest in the European area, have been developing interest in the possible use of bioremediation techniques in combatting oil spills. The interest has accelerated in the aftermath of Exxon Valdez but there is significant scepticism over the actual value of the technique. The promise of increased rates of oil degradation, using bacteria or nutrients, does not yet appear to have been properly validated and there is concern over possible knock-on environmental effects. In consequence the response agencies are reluctant to bring the technique into their current combat armory. Some of the questions raised are: What efficacious techniques are available and how were they proven? On what type of oils can they be used? What is the scope for their use (at sea, type of coastline, temperature limitations, etc.)? What are the short and long term effects? Does bioremediation really work and offer a potential tool for oil spill clean-up? How do cleaning rates compare with natural recovery? There are many others. The view of the European Commission is that there should be a coordinated effort to answer these questions, but that effort should be properly targeted. I concur strongly with this view. The tasks are too large and varied for piecemeal attention. The European Commission wishes to initiate appropriate coordinated work, directed at the needs of European nations but which will subsequently inform the international response community through the International Maritime Organization and its Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Cooperation initiative

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: NEW YORK STATE MULTI-VENDOR BIOREMEDIATION - ENSR CONSULTING AND ENGINEERING/LARSEN ENGINEERS EX-SITU BIOVAULT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ENSR Biovault Treatment Process is an ex-situ bioremediation technology for the treatment of organic contaminated soils. Contaminated soils placed in specially designed soil piles, referred to as biovaults, are remediated by stimulating the indigenous soil microbes to prolife...

  12. Development and applications of a DNA labeling method with magnetic nanoparticles to study the role of horizontal gene transfer events between bacteria in soil pollutant bioremediation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetal, J; Frénéa-Robin, M; Haddour, N; Vézy, C; Zanini, L F; Ciuta, G; Dempsey, N M; Dumas-Bouchiat, F; Reyne, G; Bégin-Colin, S; Felder-Flesh, D; Ghobril, C; Pourroy, G; Simonet, P

    2015-12-01

    Horizontal gene transfers are critical mechanisms of bacterial evolution and adaptation that are involved to a significant level in the degradation of toxic molecules such as xenobiotic pesticides. However, understanding how these mechanisms are regulated in situ and how they could be used by man to increase the degradation potential of soil microbes is compromised by conceptual and technical limitations. This includes the physical and chemical complexity and heterogeneity in such environments leading to an extreme bacterial taxonomical diversity and a strong redundancy of genes and functions. In addition, more than 99 % of soil bacteria fail to develop colonies in vitro, and even new DNA-based investigation methods (metagenomics) are not specific and sensitive enough to consider lysis recalcitrant bacteria and those belonging to the rare biosphere. The objective of the ANR funded project “Emergent” was to develop a new culture independent approach to monitor gene transfer among soil bacteria by labeling plasmid DNA with magnetic nanoparticles in order to specifically capture and isolate recombinant cells using magnetic microfluidic devices. We showed the feasibility of the approach by using electrotransformation to transform a suspension of Escherichia coli cells with biotin-functionalized plasmid DNA molecules linked to streptavidin-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Our results have demonstrated that magnetically labeled cells could be specifically retained on micromagnets integrated in a microfluidic channel and that an efficient selective separation can be achieved with the microfluidic device. Altogether, the project offers a promising alternative to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering the extent of horizontal gene transfer events mediated by electro or natural genetic transformation mechanisms in complex environments such as soil. PMID:26498963

  13. Concept and advances of applied bioremediation for organic pollutants in soil and water%土壤与水体有机污染的生物修复及其应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆仁; 刘秀梅; 崔岩山; 董艺婷

    2001-01-01

    系统论述了土壤、水有机污染物的主要来源、特点、有机污染生物修复的概念、应用范围、成功实例与研究进展等,特别是对于泄漏石油污染的生物成功降解方法、效果,土壤中易爆炸物如TNT、废水中有机污染物的有效降解等,评价了生物修复所具有的突出优势。对有机、无机污染物降解过程中植物、微生物筛选、基因修饰、分子克隆与转基因植物方面近年来所取得的惊人成果与突破性进展,无疑正激励着人们开拓更大的应用范围。预计不久的将来,更多具有环境净化与生物修复功能的商业性综合技术与高效性工程生物将投入应用。%Major sources and characteristics of organic pollutants in soil and water were systematically reviewed. It deals with the concept, application and advances of bioremediation.The success in biodegradation of petroleum spill, some hazardous pollutants, waste water treatment and other striking results in the field and laboratory were described. The advances in screening, gene modification and genetic engineering etc. have obtained some successful approaches. As more progress made in this area, it is estimated that integrated techniques with more effective engineered plants or microbes will meet peoples' requirement in the future.

  14. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons using sewage sludge as an alternative source of nutrients; Biorremediacion de suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos empleando lodos residuales como fuente alterna de nutrientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Prado, Adriana [Instituto Tecnologico de Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail: adriana.martinez@orst.edu; Perez Lopez, Ma. Elena [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (IPN-CIIDIR) Unidad Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico); Pinto Espinoza, Joaquin; Gurrola Nevarez, Blanca Amelia; Osorio Rodriguez, Ana Lilia [Instituto Tecnologico de Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this research an aerobic bioremediation process, of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil, was evaluated using residual sludge (biosolids) from a local domestic wastewater treatment plant, as an alternative micro and macro nutrient source. Contamination of the soil resulted from accidental spills with hydrocarbons, mainly diesel, gasoline, and residual oils, from the San Antonio mining unit which belongs to Goldcorp Mexico Company, located in Tayoltita, from the municipality of San Dimas, Durango. Laboratory and pilot experiments were conducted, adjusting soil water content to field capacity and carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio to 10:1, evaluating the effect of addition of nutrients, density of the material being remediated, and the influence of soil particle size in the remediation process. It was demonstrated that the biosolids stimulated the native microorganisms of the polluted soil; consequently the hydrocarbon degradation process was accelerated. The hydrocarbons were used as carbon and electron donor source, coupling the oxidation-reduction reaction with oxygen which served as the electron acceptor. Treated soil was remediated and reached the maximum permissible limit (MPL), established in the Mexican current regulations (NOM-138-SEMARNAT/SS-2003), at both stages, and it is recommended as an optional process to the mining company to fulfill with the Clean Industry Program. [Spanish] En la presente investigacion se evaluo el proceso de biorremediacion aerobica de un suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos de petroleo empleando lodos residuales (biosolidos), provenientes de una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales (PTAR) domesticas de la localidad, como fuente alterna de macro y micronutrientes. La contaminacion del suelo fue resultado de derrames accidentales de diesel, aceite y grasas en la unidad minera San Antonio perteneciente al grupo Goldcorp Mexico, ubicada en el municipio de San Dimas, en Tayoltita, Durango. Se realizaron experimentos a escala

  15. Effects of bioremediation agents on oil degradation in mineral and sandy salt marsh sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although bioremediation for oil spill cleanup has received considerable attention in recent years, its satisfactory use in the cleanup of oil spills in the wetland environment is still generally untested. A study of the often most used bioremediation agents, fertiliser, microbial product and soil oxidation, as a means of enhancing oil biodegradation in coastal mineral and sandy marsh substrates was conducted in controlled greenhouse conditions. Artificially weathered south Louisiana crude oil was applied to sods of marsh (soil and intact vegetation) at the rate of 2 l m-2. Fertiliser application enhanced marsh plant growth, soil microbial populations, and oil biodegradation rate. The live aboveground biomass of Spartina alterniflora with fertiliser application was higher than that without fertiliser. The application of fertiliser significantly increased soil microbial respiration rates, indicating the potential for enhancing oil biodegradation. Bioremediation with fertiliser application significantly reduced the total targeted normal hydrocarbons (TTNH) and total targeted aromatic hydrocarbons (TTAH) remaining in the soil, by 81% and 17%, respectively, compared to those of the oil controls. TTNH/hopane and TTAAH/hopane ratios showed a more consistent reduction, further suggesting an enhancement of oil biodegradation by fertilisation. Furthermore, soil type affected oil bioremediation; the extent of fertiliser-enhanced oil biodegradation was greater for sandy (13% TTNH remaining in the treatments with fertiliser compared to the control) than for mineral soils (26% of the control), suggesting that fertiliser application was more effective in enhancing TTNH degradation in the former. Application of microbial product and soil oxidant had no positive effects on the variables mentioned above under the present experimental conditions, suggesting that microbial degraders are not limiting biodegradation in this soil. Thus, the high cost of microbial amendments during

  16. A case study of the intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver Basin operated by Amoco Production Co. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways including aerobic oxidation, Fe{sup 3+} reduction, and sulfate reduction. In laboratory experiments the addition of gas condensate hydrocarbons to saturated soil from the gas production site stimulated sulfate reduction under anaerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions, and nitrate and Fe{sup 3+} reduction under oxygen-limiting conditions, compared to biotic controls that lacked hydrocarbon and sterile controls. The sulfate reduction corresponded to a reduction in the amount of toluene relative to other hydrocarbons. These results confirmed that subsurface soils at the gas production site have the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons.

  17. 砷污染土壤的生物修复研究进展%Research Advance in Bioremediation of Soil Polluted by Arsenic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金红

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the research advance in the microbial remediation, phytoremediation and plant - microbial remediation of soil polluted by arsenic at home and abroad was summarized, and the existing problems and the developmental prospects in this field in the future were analyzed.%综述了国内外对砷污染土壤微生物修复、植物修复及微生物-植物修复技术的应用等方面的研究进展,并对该领域存在的问题和今后的发展趋势作了具体的分析.

  18. Isolation, characterization and development of bacteria in the Mine Gafsa for applications in bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today pollution represents an important environmental problem. Bacterial ability to bioremediate many types of pollutants in different matrixes (soil, water, and air) have been widely acknowledged. The goal of the present work is to isolate from contaminated soil of Gafsa, in Tunisia, bacterial strains to evaluate their potential for bioremediation. Soil from the mining area of Gafsa was collected. Initially, many bacterial strains were isolated in TGY agar (Tryptone/Glucose/Yeast extract agar) based on the presence of pigments. The primary bacterial selection was performed using heavy metals and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of a metal-resistant bacterium, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. Isolated metal-resistant bacterium was checked for its potential to resistant to gamma radiation. Selected strain, Micrococcus luteus S7, was assessed for its bioremediation potential of matrixes artificially contaminated under laboratory conditions for its future use in developing a bio product for contaminated soil inoculation.

  19. Toxicity of fungal-generated silver nanoparticles to soil-inhabiting Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a rhizospheric bacterium responsible for plant protection and bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Indarchand R. [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, S.G.B. Amravati University, Amravati 444602, Maharashtra (India); Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science, Nipat Niranjan Nagar, Caves Road, Aurangabad 431004, Maharashtra (India); Anderson, Anne J. [Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84321 (United States); Rai, Mahendra, E-mail: mahendrarai@sgbau.ac.in [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, S.G.B. Amravati University, Amravati 444602, Maharashtra (India); Laboratório de Química Biológica, Instituto de Química, UNICAMP, Cidade Universitária “Zefferino Vaz” Barão Geraldo, CEP 13083-970, Caixa Postal 6150, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • This study incorporates the mycosynthesis of AgNPs and their characterisation by various methods. • A first attempt demonstrating the toxicity assessment of AgNPs on beneficial soil microbe. • Use of biosensor in Pseudomonas putida KT2440, gave accurate antimicrobial results. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention due to their beneficial properties. But toxicity issues associated with them are also rising. The reports in the past suggested health hazards of silver nanoparticles at the cellular, molecular, or whole organismal level in eukaryotes. Whereas, there is also need to examine the exposure effects of silver nanoparticle to the microbes, which are beneficial to humans as well as environment. The available literature suggests the harmful effects of physically and chemically synthesised silver nanoparticles. The toxicity of biogenically synthesized nanoparticles has been less studied than physically and chemically synthesised nanoparticles. Hence, there is a greater need to study the toxic effects of biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles in general and mycosynthesized nanoparticles in particular. In the present study, attempts have been made to assess the risk associated with the exposure of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles on a beneficial soil microbe Pseudomonas putida. KT2440. The study demonstrates mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterisation by UV–vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, nanosight LM20 – a particle size distribution analyzer and TEM. Silver nanoparticles obtained herein were found to exert the hazardous effect at the concentration of 0.4 μg/ml, which warrants further detailed investigations concerning toxicity.

  20. Toxicity of fungal-generated silver nanoparticles to soil-inhabiting Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a rhizospheric bacterium responsible for plant protection and bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study incorporates the mycosynthesis of AgNPs and their characterisation by various methods. • A first attempt demonstrating the toxicity assessment of AgNPs on beneficial soil microbe. • Use of biosensor in Pseudomonas putida KT2440, gave accurate antimicrobial results. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention due to their beneficial properties. But toxicity issues associated with them are also rising. The reports in the past suggested health hazards of silver nanoparticles at the cellular, molecular, or whole organismal level in eukaryotes. Whereas, there is also need to examine the exposure effects of silver nanoparticle to the microbes, which are beneficial to humans as well as environment. The available literature suggests the harmful effects of physically and chemically synthesised silver nanoparticles. The toxicity of biogenically synthesized nanoparticles has been less studied than physically and chemically synthesised nanoparticles. Hence, there is a greater need to study the toxic effects of biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles in general and mycosynthesized nanoparticles in particular. In the present study, attempts have been made to assess the risk associated with the exposure of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles on a beneficial soil microbe Pseudomonas putida. KT2440. The study demonstrates mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterisation by UV–vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, nanosight LM20 – a particle size distribution analyzer and TEM. Silver nanoparticles obtained herein were found to exert the hazardous effect at the concentration of 0.4 μg/ml, which warrants further detailed investigations concerning toxicity

  1. Promotion of arsenic phytoextraction efficiency in the fern Pteris vittata by the inoculation of As-resistant bacteria: a soil bioremediation perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eLampis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of arsenic phytoextraction by the fern Pteris vittata growing in arsenic-contaminated soil, with or without the addition of selected rhizobacteria isolated from the polluted site. The bacterial strains were selected for arsenic resistance, the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite, and the ability to promote plant growth. P. vittata plants were cultivated for 4 months in a contaminated substrate consisting of arsenopyrite cinders and mature compost. Four different experimental conditions were tested: i non-inoculated plants; ii plants inoculated with the siderophore-producing and arsenate-reducing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. P1III2 and Delftia sp. P2III5 (A; iii plants inoculated with the siderophore and indoleacetic acid-producing bacteria Bacillus sp. MPV12, Variovorax sp. P4III4 and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. P4V6 (B, and iv plants inoculated with all five bacterial strains (AB. The presence of growth-promoting rhizobacteria increased plant biomass by up to 45% and increased As removal efficiency from 13% without bacteria to 35% in the presence of the mixed inoculum. Molecular analysis confirmed the persistence of the introduced bacterial strains in the soil and resulted in a significant impact on the structure of the bacterial community.

  2. In situ bioremediation using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Situ Bioremediation (ISB) is the term used in this report for Gaseous Nutrient Injection for In Situ Bioremediation. This process (ISB) involves injection of air and nutrients (sparging and biostimulation) into the ground water and vacuum extraction to remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from the vadose zone concomitant with biodegradation of the VOCs. This process is effective for remediation of soils and ground water contaminated with VOCs both above and below the water table. A full-scale demonstration of ISB was conducted as part of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration: VOCs in Soils and Ground Water at Nonarid Sites. This demonstration was performed at the Savannah River Site from February 1992 to April 1993

  3. The Kwajalein bioremediation demonstration: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base, located in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) in the east-central Pacific Ocean, has significant petroleum hydrocarbon contamination resulting from years of military activities. Because of its remoteness, the lack of on-site sophisticated remediation or waste disposal facilities, the amenability of petroleum hydrocarbons to biodegradation, and the year-round temperature favorable for microbial activity, USAKA requested, through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), that a project be conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using bioremediation for environmental restoration of contaminated sites within the atoll. The project was conducted in four distinct phases: (1) initial site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies, (2) selection of the demonstration area and collection of soil columns, (3) laboratory column biotreatability studies, and (4) an on-site bioremediation demonstration. The results of phases (1) and (3) have been detailed in previous reports. This report summarizes the results of phases (1) and (3) and presents phases (2) and (4) in detail

  4. The Kwajalein bioremediation demonstration: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.R. Jr.; Walker, A.B.

    1994-12-01

    The US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base, located in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) in the east-central Pacific Ocean, has significant petroleum hydrocarbon contamination resulting from years of military activities. Because of its remoteness, the lack of on-site sophisticated remediation or waste disposal facilities, the amenability of petroleum hydrocarbons to biodegradation, and the year-round temperature favorable for microbial activity, USAKA requested, through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), that a project be conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using bioremediation for environmental restoration of contaminated sites within the atoll. The project was conducted in four distinct phases: (1) initial site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies, (2) selection of the demonstration area and collection of soil columns, (3) laboratory column biotreatability studies, and (4) an on-site bioremediation demonstration. The results of phases (1) and (3) have been detailed in previous reports. This report summarizes the results of phases (1) and (3) and presents phases (2) and (4) in detail.

  5. ENHANCED BIOREMEDIATION OF COAL - TAR-CONTAMINATED SOIL. INCLUDES THE SEMIANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 01, 1998 - JUNE 30, 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Under the conditions used in these experiments, the use of low-level energy acoustic energy did not result in improvements in the biodegradation of PAHs in a PAH-contaminated soil compared to an untreated control. Expected impacts on biodegradation rates by the acoustic energy could not be evaluated as the data were not conducive to this determination. The acoustic energy was only supplied to the treated samples during 10 minutes per day (0.6944 % of a day). It is possible that using longer treatment times, more exposure to the acoustic energy, and alternate types of contamination might have been able to demonstrate the purported ability of acoustic energy to desorb nonpolar contaminants and improve their biodegradation rate and endpoint.

  6. U.S. bioremediation market: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of bioremediation for full-scale cleanup has increased dramatically throughout the past 10 years. This growth in activity is expected to continue through the year 2000. It is estimated that fewer than 10 companies offered field-level bioremedial services prior to 1985. Although the market today still is dominated by a small number of companies, the total number of firms claiming to offer services and/or products for bioremediation purposes has grown to over 1,000. It is estimated that aggregate bioremediation revenues for 1994 through 2000 will equal $2 to $3 billion (1994 dollars). This revenue will be generated in the initial part of this 7-year period primarily from underground storage cleanup, with revenues from hazardous waste sites becoming an increasingly important factor by accounting for the majority of revenues in the latter years. Market opportunities exist in technology development and implementation including biosparging, centralized treatment facilities for petroleum-contaminated soils, biofilters, and improvements in the cost-effectiveness of the technology

  7. Characterization of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons during a landfarming bioremediation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maletić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfarming bioremediation was performed over 2 years on soil heavily polluted with weathered oil and oil derivatives: 23200 mg kg-1 of mineral oil, 35300 mg kg-1 total hydrocarbons, and 8.65 mg kg-1 of total PAHs. During the experiment, mineral oil, total hydrocarbon and PAH concentrations decreased by approximately 53%, 27% and 72%, respectively. A GC/MS-Scan was used to identify the crude oil components that persist after bioremediation treatment of contaminated soil and the metabolites generated during this process. The data shows that in weathered-hydrocarbons contaminated soil, the number of initially detected compounds after the bioremediation process further decreased over a 2 year period, and at the same time several new compounds were observed at the end of experiment. Higher persistence was also shown for heavier n-alkanes and branched alkanes, which could be detected over a longer period of time. The analysis highlights the importance of n-alkanes, their substituted derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the most significant pollutants.

  8. Microbial inoculants and fertilization for bioremediation of oil in wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation is an attractive alternative to physical methods of oil spill cleanup in wetlands where the ecosystem can be easily damaged. Because populations of oil-degrading microorganisms are usually low in wetlands, there is potential for increasing bioremediation through bioaugmentation in conjunction with N and P supplementation. Eight microbial inoculant products were added to microcosms containing soil from a salt marsh. Four of these products were also used in mesocosms containing Spartina alterniflora grown in a glasshouse. In unfertilized microcosms, the extent of oil degraded as measured by carbon dioxide evolution during 90 days, was 30% higher in the product with the highest activity than was recorded in the control with oil by 36%. None of the products when added to the fertilized soil increased activity above that of the fertilized control with oil. Addition of oil to microcosms increased populations of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, but bioaugmentation products did not increase populations. Neither addition of products nor fertilization enhanced the disappearance of oil in mesocosms in the glasshouse. Approximately 50% of the weathered oil disappeared in 41 d for all treatments. Because bioaugmentation did not enhance oil degradation, it seems that natural populations of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms were adequate in the salt marsh soil for bioremediation

  9. Isolation and characterization of a cold-resistant PCB209-degrading bacterial strain from river sediment and its application in bioremediation of contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liping; Wang, Hu; Wang, Xuntao

    2016-01-01

    A cold-resistant bacterium (strain QL) that can degrade 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decachlorobiphenyl (PCB209) was isolated from Wei-he River sediment. Strain QL was identified as a rod-shaped gram-negative bacterial strain, which was further identified as Comamonas testosteroni. C. testosteroni has never been reported to be capable of degrading PCB209 at low temperatures. In this study, the degradation characteristics showed that strain QL could grow with PCB209 as the sole carbon source at low temperatures (10 ± 0.5 °C). More significantly, strain QL of 40% inoculation volume was able to completely degrade PCB209 in 140 h (initial concentration of PCB209 was 100-500 µg L(-1) at 10 ± 0.5 °C and pH 7-8). The degradation process proceeded with zero-order reaction kinetics. Moreover, both laboratory simulation and real-world field experiments demonstrated that strain QL was effective in practical applications of PCB209 biodegradation in contaminated soil.

  10. Distribution of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria across a coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS environment: implications for passive bioremediation by tidal inundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen eLing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS constitute a serious and global environmental problem. Oxidation of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air generates sulfuric acid with consequently negative impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Tidal inundation represents one current treatment strategy for CASS, with the aim of neutralizing acidity by triggering microbial iron- and sulfate-reduction and inducing the precipitation of iron-sulfides. Although well-known functional guilds of bacteria drive these processes, their distributions within CASS environments, as well as their relationships to tidal cycling and the availability of nutrients and electron acceptors, are poorly understood. These factors will determine the long-term efficacy of passive CASS remediation strategies. Here we studied microbial community structure and functional guild distribution in sediment cores obtained from ten depths ranging from 0-20 cm in three sites located in the supra-, inter- and sub-tidal segments, respectively, of a CASS-affected salt marsh (East Trinity, Cairns, Australia. Whole community 16S rRNA gene diversity within each site was assessed by 454 pyrotag sequencing and bioinformatic analyses in the context of local hydrological, geochemical and lithological factors. The results illustrate spatial overlap, or close association, of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in an environment rich in organic matter and controlled by parameters such as acidity, redox potential, degree of water saturation, and mineralization. The observed spatial distribution implies the need for empirical understanding of the timing, relative to tidal cycling, of various terminal electron-accepting processes that control acid generation and biogeochemical iron and sulfur cycling.

  11. In Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethenes in Hydraulically-Tight Sediments: Challenges and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Komai, T.

    2011-12-01

    Chlorinated ethenes, like perchloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE), have been widely used by many industries, especially in developed countries like Japan. Because of their wide applications, lack of proper regulation, poor handing, storage and disposal practices in the past, chlorinated ethenes have become a type of the most prevalent contaminants for soils and groundwater pollution. For the sake of their degradability, bioremediation has been considered as a potentially cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach for cleanup of chlorinated ethenes in situ. In this presentation, we briefly overview the status of soil and groundwater pollution, the recent amendment of the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan, comparison between the bioremediation and other techniques like pump and treat, and the mechanisms of reductive dechlorination, direct oxidation and co-metabolism of chlorinated ethenes. We then introduce and discuss some recent challenges and advancements in in-situ bioremediation including technologies for accelerating bio-degradation of chlorinated ethenes, technologies for assessing diffusive properties of dissolved hydrogen in hydraulically-tight soil samples, and combination of bioremediation with other techniques like electro-kinetic approach. Limiting factors that may cause incomplete remediation and/or ineffectiveness of bioremediation are examined from biochemical, geochemical and hydro-geological aspects. This study reconfirmed and illustrated that: 1) The key factor for an effective bioremediation is how to disperse a proper accelerating agent throughout the polluted strata, 2) The effective diffusion coefficient of dissolved hydrogen in geologic media is relatively big and is almost independent on their permeability, and 3) To effectively design and perform an accelerated bioremediation, a combination of natural migration with pressurized injection and/or other approaches, like electro-migration, for stimulating mass

  12. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-06-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ‘black box’ in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Finally, understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ‘black box’.

  13. Microorganism as a tool of bioremediation technology for cleaning environment: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term bioremediation has been introduced to describe the process of using biological agents to remove toxic waste from environment. Bioremediation is the most effective management tool to manage the polluted environment and recover contaminated soil. The hazardous wastes generated from the chemical processes/operations are being treated using physico-chemical and biological methods by the respective industries to meet the prescribed standard as per the Environmental Protection Act, 1986. The wastes treated by the respective industries are collected at Common Effluent Treatment Plant, before discharge into the environment. After the treatment of collected waste at Common Effluent Treatment Plant, the solid and treated effluents are segregated and disposed of into the soil- water environment. In spite of the present treatment technology, the organic pollutants are found persisting in the soil-water environment above their acceptable level. Hence, bioremediation is an innovative technology that has the potential to alleviate the toxic contamination.

  14. Remediation of hexachlorobenzene contaminated soils by rhamnolipid enhanced soil washing coupled with activated carbon selective adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinzhong; Chai, Lina; Lu, Xiaohua; Lin, Yusuo; Zhang, Shengtian

    2011-05-15

    The present study investigates the selective adsorption of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from rhamnolipid solution by a powdered activated carbon (PAC). A combined soil washing-PAC adsorption technique is further evaluated on the removal of HCB from two soils, a spiked kaolin and a contaminated real soil. PAC at a dosage of 10 g L(-1) could achieve a HCB removal of 80-99% with initial HCB and rhamnolipid concentrations of 1 mg L(-1) and 3.3-25 g L(-1), respectively. The corresponding adsorptive loss of rhamnolipid was 8-19%. Successive soil washing-PAC adsorption tests (new soil sample was subjected to washing for each cycle) showed encouraging leaching and adsorption performances for HCB. When 25 g L(-1) rhamnolipid solution was applied, HCB leaching from soils was 55-71% for three cycles of washing, and HCB removal by PAC was nearly 90%. An overall 86% and 88% removal of HCB were obtained for kaolin and real soil, respectively, by using the combined process to wash one soil sample for twice. Our investigation suggests that coupling AC adsorption with biosurfactant-enhanced soil washing is a promising alternative to remove hydrophobic organic compounds from soils. PMID:21397398

  15. Research Advances of the Effects of Environmental Copper Pollution and Bioremediation of Cu--Contaminated Soil%环境铜污染影响及修复的研究现状综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵英; 李维; 陈顺德; 葛方兰; 曾礼华; 王琼

    2011-01-01

    Copper has become one of the main elements of heavy metal contamination of environment. This paper summaries the research advances of the impacts of Cu pollution on biology(including plant, animal and microbe). The current study of the impacts of Cu pollution on high--grade plants focuses on growth index, photosynthesis, cytoarchitecture, cell division, enzyme system and absorption of other nutrient element; there are many studies about the impacts of high concentration Cu on high--grade animals, mentally on performance index, important copper enzyme, metabolic enzyme and the change of the structure and function of important histoorgan; the study of the impacts of Cu pollution on microbes focuses on microbial biomass and microbial community structure. And some measures of reducing Cu pollution and bioremedi- ation o{ Cu--contaminated soil are also discussed.%综述了铜污染对不同生物(包括植物、动物、土壤微生物)影响的研究现状,指出了Cu污染对高等植物毒害作用的研究目前主要集中在对植物生长指标、光合作用、细胞结构、细胞分裂、酶系统和其他营养元素的吸收上;高Cu对高等动物毒害作用的研究非常多,目前主要集中在对动物生产性能、体内重要的铜酶、代谢酶及重要组织器官结构功能的影响;Cu污染对土壤微生物影响的研究主要集中在微生物量及微生物群落结构的变化。探讨了尽量减少铜污染和进行修复的措施。

  16. Breeding Cadmium-Resistant Strains by Genome Shuffling and Bioremediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil%基因组改组选育抗镉菌及生物修复镉污染土壤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜春晓; 王婷; 张彦峰; 孙红文

    2012-01-01

    In order to acquire microorganism species with greater capacity to fix heavy metal pollutants in soil, genome shuffling technology was for the first time applied for cultivating strains with high cadmium (Cd) -resistance and accumulation potential. After three rounds of shuffling, two fused strains named F178 and F185 were obtained, whose minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) to cadmium was 4.0 mmol/L and 4.2 mmol/L, respectively, much higher than the MIC of the six original strains (0.08-0.25 mmol/L). The bioremediation effects of the two fused species were checked by pot experiment spiked with Cd concentration of (10 ± 0.4) mg/kg. NovoGro, a fertilizer made from the waste of an enzyme producer, was simultaneously added to support the activity of the organisms in soil. Results of the bioaugmentation experiment show that single inoculation with strain F178 and strain F185 reduces Cd concentration in the root tissue of radish to 0.3 mg/kg and 0.4 mg/kg, respectively, while Cd concentration in the control is 2.24 mg/kg. The biomass of radish is significantly improved, nearly 2 times that of the control. When co-inoculated with strain F178 and strain F185, the concentration of Cd in the root tissue of radish is further reduced to 0.17 mg/kg, meeting the FAO/WHO food safety standards (0.2 mg/kg).%为了获得对土壤重金属污染物具有高效固定能力的微生物,将基因组改组技术用于构造对镉具有高效耐受性和富集性微生物.以前期获得的6株抗镉诱变菌为出发菌株,经3轮基因组改组获取2株高抗镉融合茵—F178和F185,对镉最小受抑制浓度为4.0 mmol/L和4.2 mmol/L,与出发菌株(0.08~0.25 mmol/L)相比显著提高.盆栽实验考察2株菌对(10±0.4)mg/kg镉污染土壤的修复效果.同时添加诺沃肥,F178和F185分别显著降低萝卜体内的镉含量至0.3 mg/kg和0.4 mg/kg,而对照组萝卜体内镉的含量达2.24 mg/kg;生物量得到显著提高,是对照的近2倍.添加F178和F185进

  17. Walking softly : using bioremediation to reclaim sites leaves a smaller footprint than traditional dig-and-dump technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in the bioremediation industry in Alberta were outlined. The market for bioremediation services in the United States alone is estimated to hit $1 billion by 2010 and has become a staple of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's emergency management practices in the event of an oil spill. Alberta Environment has recently updated its policies and guidance documents on contaminated sites management, and is planning a manual that will include best bioremediation practices. Advances in the science and technology of bioremediation and a rise in environmental awareness have contributed to the sector's growth in recent years. In the past, oil companies in Alberta typically reclaimed sites by digging up contaminated soil and trucking it to landfills. Recent techniques developed by industry and bioremediation experts now mean that soil profiles can remain undisturbed, and biological treatment amendments are often introduced into the fractures to destroy contaminants where they lie. The National Research Council's Biotechnology Research Institute (NRC-BRI) is now conducting research to identify and profile unknown micro-organisms to improve conditions for the breakdown of toxins. Bioremediation techniques are also being used in urban redevelopment. It was concluded that while the environmental industry is regulatory-driven, many oil and mining companies are deciding to invest in remediation instead of waiting until a later date. A list of new bioremediation partnerships with industry, government and municipalities was also provided. 2 figs

  18. Kinetics of in situ bioremediation of Hanford groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and may require the remediation of existing contaminated groundwaters. In situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCl4, nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on-going effort to quantify the biological and chemical reactions that would occur during in situ bioremediation

  19. Effect of bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil on soil enzyme activity%柴油污染土壤生物修复对土壤酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉瑛; 李冰

    2009-01-01

    The biodegradation tests of diesel oil contaminated soil were investigated in this paper. The relationship of the diesel oil degradation efficiency to the biological activeties such as soil enzyme activities (catalase, dehydrogenase and lipase) and the microbial amounts were analyzed during the biodegradation tests. The results showed that catalase, dehydrogenase and lipase in soil increased after the soil was contaminated by diesel oil, and the lipase in soil decreased with the hydrocarbons degraded in biodegradation tests followed. And there were positive correlations between lipase activity to microbial counts and degradation efficiency of diesel oil. So the soil lipase activity is an excellent indicator of biological activity for monitoring diesel oil decontamination.%在柴油污染土壤的生物修复过程中,分析了土壤中柴油降解菌数量和3种土壤酶活性(过氧化氢酶、脱氢酶和脂酶)等生物活性指标与土壤中柴油去除率的相关性.结果表明,土壤受到柴油污染后的一段时间后过氧化氢酶、脱氢酶和脂酶的活性上升,而后随着土壤中石油烃的降解,脂酶又不断降低.进一步分析表明脂酶活性与柴油降解率及柴油降解菌数量都具有很好的正相关性,可以采用土壤脂酶活性来指示柴油生物降解成效.

  20. Diagnosis of In Situ Metabolic State and Rates of Microbial Metabolism During In Situ Uranium Bioremediation with Molecular Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovley, Derek R

    2012-11-28

    The goal of these projects was to develop molecule tools to tract the metabolic activity and physiological status of microorganisms during in situ uranium bioremediation. Such information is important in able to design improved bioremediation strategies. As summarized below, the research was highly successful with new strategies developed for estimating in situ rates of metabolism and diagnosing the physiological status of the predominant subsurface microorganisms. This is a first not only for groundwater bioremediation studies, but also for subsurface microbiology in general. The tools and approaches developed in these studies should be applicable to the study of microbial communities in a diversity of soils and sediments.

  1. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

    2003-09-30

    an insoluble salt in the sediment. In other cases, the opposite occurs--the solubility of the altered species increases, increasing the mobility of the contaminant and allowing it to be more easily flushed from the environment. Both of these kinds of transformations present opportunities for bioremediation of metals and radionuclides--either to lock them in place, or to accelerate their removal. DOE's goal is to reduce the risk and related exposure to ground water, sediment, and soil contamination at Department of Energy facilities. Subsurface bioremediation of metals and radionuclides at the site of contamination (in situ bioremediation) is not yet in widespread use. However, successful in situ applications of bioremediation to petroleum products and chlorinated solvents provide experience from which scientists can draw. Taken together, the accomplishments in these areas have led scientists and engineers to be optimistic about applying this technology to the mixtures of metals and radionuclides that are found at some of the most contaminated DOE sites. This primer examines some of the basic microbial and chemical processes that are a part of bioremediation, specifically the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. The primer is divided into six sections, with the information in each building on that of the previous. The sections include features that highlight topics of interest and provide background information on specific biological and chemical processes and reactions. The first section briefly examines the scope of the contamination problem at DOE facilities. The second section gives a summary of some of the most commonly used bioremediation technologies, including successful in situ and ex situ techniques. The third discusses chemical and physical properties of metals and radionuclides found in contaminant mixtures at DOE sites, including solubility and the most common oxidation states in which these materials are found. The fourth section is an

  2. [Bioremediation of chromium (VI) contaminated site by reduction and microbial stabilization of chromium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Liu, Xi-Wen; Xu, Qian; Shi, Wei-Lin

    2014-10-01

    Chromium (VI) contaminated soil samples were collected from a chemical plant in Suzhou. Firstly, the reduced soil was prepared by adding reagent (Stone-sulfure reagent) into polluted soil to transfer most chromium (VI) into chromium (III), then a nutrient solution was introduced into the reduced soil, and the stabilized soil was obtained after 60 days culturing. The chromium (VI) content of the three kinds of soil was analyzed. The results showed that the chromium (VI) content in toxicity characteristic leaching liquid (TCLL) dropped by 96. 8% (from 8.26 mg · L(-1) to 0.26 mg · L(-1)), and the total chromium content dropped by 95.7% (from 14.66 mg · L(-1) to 0.63 mg · L(-1)) after bioremediation in 5% nutrient solution. Additionally, the durability of chromium stabilization was tested by potassium permanganate oxidation and sterilization of microbe-treated soil. After oxidation, the chromium (VI) content in TCLL of the reduced soil was increased from 8.26 mg · L(-1) to 14.68 mg · L(-1). However, the content after bioremediation was decreased to 2.68 mg · L(-1). The results of sterilization demonstrated that the death of microbe had no significant effect on the stabilization of chromium. Consequently, the research in this paper demonstrated the feasibility of bioremediation of chromium (VI) polluted soil through reduction followed by stabilization/soilidification, and provided a technique with low cost but high efficiency.

  3. In situ vadose zone bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick; Ponsin, Violaine

    2014-06-01

    Contamination of the vadose zone with various pollutants is a world-wide problem, and often technical or economic constraints impose remediation without excavation. In situ bioremediation in the vadose zone by bioventing has become a standard remediation technology for light spilled petroleum products. In this review, focus is given on new in situ bioremediation strategies in the vadose zone targeting a variety of other pollutants such as perchlorate, nitrate, uranium, chromium, halogenated solvents, explosives and pesticides. The techniques for biostimulation of either oxidative or reductive degradation pathways are presented, and biotransformations to immobile pollutants are discussed in cases of non-degradable pollutants. Furthermore, research on natural attenuation in the vadose zone is presented.

  4. In situ petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation in the Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greer, C.; Bell, T.; Lee, K.; Delisle, S.; Kovanen, D.; Craig, D.; Juck, D. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on the in-situ bioremediation of diesel contaminated soils at the Canadian Forces Station CFS-Alert, in the Arctic. The soil was amended with monoammonium phosphate (MAP). The operation was designed to take place in a 2 month period during the brief thaw season. This presentation described the installation of the bioventing stacks, the turning of soil, and the application of an oxygen release compound (ORC) at the surface of the permafrost. A significant decrease in petroleum hydrocarbons (PC) was noted over 2 months. The effect of MAP amendment was a slight decrease in biomass in the pristine environment and a significant increase in biomass in the contaminated environment. The alkB gene was found to be important in the biodegradation of alkanes. Stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify active organisms. This bioremediation study showed that even in harsh Arctic climates, soils that are moderately contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons can be remediated effectively and economically via biodegradation. tabs., figs.

  5. Change of isoprenoids, steranes and terpanes during ex situ bioremediation of mazut on industrial level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beškoski Vladimir P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the ex situ bioremediation of soil contaminated by mazut (heavy residual fuel oil in the field scale (600 m3. A treatment-bed (thickness 0.4 m consisted of mechanically mixed mazut-contaminated soil, softwood sawdust as the additional carbon source and crude river sand, as bulking and porosity increasing material. The inoculation/reinoculation was conducted periodically using a biomass of a consortium of zymogenous microorganisms isolated from the bioremediation substrate. The biostimulation was performed through addition of nutritious substances (N, P and K. The aeration was improved by systematic mixing of the bioremediation system. After 50 days, the number of hydrocarbon degraders increased 100 times. Based on the changes in the group composition, the average biodegradation rate during bioremediation was 24 mg/kg/day for the aliphatic fraction, 6 mg/kg/day for the aromatic fraction, and 3 mg/kg/day for the nitrogen-sulphuroxygen compounds (NSO-asphaltene fraction. In the saturated hydrocarbon fraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS in the single ion-monitoring mode (SIM was applied to analyse isoprenoids pristane and phytane and polycyclic molecules of sterane and triterpane type. Biodegradation occurred during the bioremediation process, as well as reduction of relative quantities of isoprenoids, steranes, tri- and tetracyclic terpanes and pentacyclic terpanes of hopane type.

  6. The bioremediation, solution at the land´s pollution caused by hydrocarbon in Sergio Soto oil Refinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Blanco Valdivia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The land´s polution caused by hydrocarbon in Sergio Soto oil refinery constituted a problem for the technicians of this entity that in coordination with the Petroleum Investigations Center (CEINPET, carried out a study for the application of the bioremediation in the company. The area to this purpose was determined and the soil impacted was deposit on it, this soil was homogenized with an appropriate equipment (agricultural tractor. The fertilizers were added and the removal stage was made in order to help the soil oxygenation. They were carried out samples and analysis obtaining satisfactory results with the application of the bioremediation in the company.

  7. Bioremediation of Oil Spills in Cold Environments: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Si-Zhong; JIN Hui-Jun; WEI Zhi; HE Rui-Xia; JI Yan-Jun; LI Xiu-Mei; YU Shao-Peng

    2009-01-01

    Oil spills have become a serious problem in cold environments with the ever-increasing resource exploitation,transportation,storage,and accidental leakage of oil.Several techniques,including physical,chemical,and biological methods,are used to recover spilled oil from the environment.Bioremediation is a promising option for remediation since it is effective and economic in removing oil with less undue environmental damages.However,it is a relatively slow process in cold regions and the degree of success depends on a number of factors,including the properties and fate of oil spilled in cold environments,and the major microbial and environmental limitations of bioremediation.The microbial factors include bioavailability of hydrocarbons,mass transfer through the cell membrane,and metabolic limitations.As for the environmental limitations in the cold regions,the emphasis is on soil temperatures,freeze-thaw processes,oxygen and nutrients availability,toxicity,and electron acceptors.There have been several cases of success in the polar regions,particularly in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.However,the challenges and constraints for bioremediation in cold environments remain large.

  8. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  9. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP)

  10. Preliminary technology report for Southern Sector bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was designed to demonstrate the potential of intrinsic bioremediation and phytoremediation in the Southern Sector of the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site. A subsurface plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) is present in the Lost Lake aquifer upgradient of the study site and is predicted to impact the area at some point in the future. The surface area along the Lost lake aquifer seep line where the plume is estimated to emerge was identified. Ten sites along the seep line were selected for biological, chemical, and contaminant treatability analyses. A survey was undertaken in this area to to quantify the microbial and plant population known to be capable of remediating TCE and PCE. The current groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient of the zone of influence was determined. No TCE or PCE was found in the soils or surface water from the area tested at this time. A TCE biodegradation treatability test was done on soil from the 10 selected locations. From an initial exposure of 25 ppm of TCE, eight of the samples biodegraded up to 99.9 percent of all the compound within 6 weeks. This biodegradation of TCE appears to be combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity as intermediates that were detected in the treatability test include vinyl chloride (VC) and the dichloroethenes (DCE) 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene. The TCE biological treatability studies were combines with microbiological and chemical analyses. The soils were found through immunological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis to have a microbial population of methanotrophic bacteria that utilize the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) and cometabolize TCE

  11. Diverse Metabolic Capacities of Fungi for Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Radhika; Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Purohit, Hemant J

    2016-09-01

    Bioremediation refers to cost-effective and environment-friendly method for converting the toxic, recalcitrant pollutants into environmentally benign products through the action of various biological treatments. Fungi play a major role in bioremediation owing to their robust morphology and diverse metabolic capacity. The review focuses on different fungal groups from a variety of habitats with their role in bioremediation of different toxic and recalcitrant compounds; persistent organic pollutants, textile dyes, effluents from textile, bleached kraft pulp, leather tanning industries, petroleum, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and pesticides. Bioremediation of toxic organics by fungi is the most sustainable and green route for cleanup of contaminated sites and we discuss the multiple modes employed by fungi for detoxification of different toxic and recalcitrant compounds including prominent fungal enzymes viz., catalases, laccases, peroxidases and cyrochrome P450 monooxygeneses. We have also discussed the recent advances in enzyme engineering and genomics and research being carried out to trace the less understood bioremediation pathways.

  12. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

    2003-09-30

    an insoluble salt in the sediment. In other cases, the opposite occurs--the solubility of the altered species increases, increasing the mobility of the contaminant and allowing it to be more easily flushed from the environment. Both of these kinds of transformations present opportunities for bioremediation of metals and radionuclides--either to lock them in place, or to accelerate their removal. DOE's goal is to reduce the risk and related exposure to ground water, sediment, and soil contamination at Department of Energy facilities. Subsurface bioremediation of metals and radionuclides at the site of contamination (in situ bioremediation) is not yet in widespread use. However, successful in situ applications of bioremediation to petroleum products and chlorinated solvents provide experience from which scientists can draw. Taken together, the accomplishments in these areas have led scientists and engineers to be optimistic about applying this technology to the mixtures of metals and radionuclides that are found at some of the most contaminated DOE sites. This primer examines some of the basic microbial and chemical processes that are a part of bioremediation, specifically the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. The primer is divided into six sections, with the information in each building on that of the previous. The sections include features that highlight topics of interest and provide background information on specific biological and chemical processes and reactions. The first section briefly examines the scope of the contamination problem at DOE facilities. The second section gives a summary of some of the most commonly used bioremediation technologies, including successful in situ and ex situ techniques. The third discusses chemical and physical properties of metals and radionuclides found in contaminant mixtures at DOE sites, including solubility and the most common oxidation states in which these materials are found. The fourth section is an

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls fractioning assessment in aqueous bioremediation assy with phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Sangely, Matthieu; Sablayrolles, Caroline; Vialle, Claire; Strehaiano, Pierre; Thannberger, Laurent; Vignoles, Mireille

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to growing environmental concerns in public opinion, bioremediation processes are more and more used to decontaminate soils from organic compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be world wide spread persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade PCBs in water, and soil As POPs, PCBs can also be adsorbed onto organic matter, such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium mycelium. This study aims at estimating the fractioni...

  14. BIOREMEDIATION OF LOW GRADE ORES

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Mishra*

    2016-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper is on a Bioremediation for the recovery of zinc from mining waste i.e. Low grade ore of Hindustan Zinc Limited. They are waste product for the mines, as the recovery process is expensive compared to the recovery product moreover it causes lots of pollution   Bioleaching Studies were carried out at different pH using mixed culture grown from mine water. Recovery of zinc in control set (without culture) was 8% in 37 days and at the same pH ...

  15. Bioremediation strategies for removal of residual atrazine in the boreal groundwater zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, Aura O; Björklöf, Katarina; Sagarkar, Sneha; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Kapley, Atya; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

    2015-12-01

    Strategies for bioremediation of atrazine, a pesticide commonly polluting groundwater in low concentrations, were studied in two boreal nonagricultural soils. Atrazine was not mineralized in soil without bioremediation treatments. In biostimulation treatment with molasses, up to 52% of atrazine was mineralized at 10 °C, even though the degradation gene copy numbers did not increase. Incubations with radioactively labeled atrazine followed by microautoradiographic analysis revealed that bioremediation strategies increased the relative proportion of active degraders from 0.3 up to 1.9% of the total bacterial count. These results indicate that atrazine degradation might not solely be facilitated by atzA/trzN-atzB genes. In combined biostimulation treatment using citrate or molasses and augmentation with Pseudomonas citronellolis ADP or Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1, up to 76% of atrazine was mineralized at 30 °C, and the atrazine degradation gene numbers increased up to 10(7) copies g(-1) soil. Clone libraries from passive samplers in groundwater monitoring wells revealed the presence of phylogenetic groups formerly shown to include atrazine degraders, and the presence of atrazine degradation genes atzA and atzB. These results show that the mineralization of low concentrations of atrazine in the groundwater zone at low temperatures is possible by bioremediation treatments.

  16. Bioremediation strategies for removal of residual atrazine in the boreal groundwater zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, Aura O; Björklöf, Katarina; Sagarkar, Sneha; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Kapley, Atya; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

    2015-12-01

    Strategies for bioremediation of atrazine, a pesticide commonly polluting groundwater in low concentrations, were studied in two boreal nonagricultural soils. Atrazine was not mineralized in soil without bioremediation treatments. In biostimulation treatment with molasses, up to 52% of atrazine was mineralized at 10 °C, even though the degradation gene copy numbers did not increase. Incubations with radioactively labeled atrazine followed by microautoradiographic analysis revealed that bioremediation strategies increased the relative proportion of active degraders from 0.3 up to 1.9% of the total bacterial count. These results indicate that atrazine degradation might not solely be facilitated by atzA/trzN-atzB genes. In combined biostimulation treatment using citrate or molasses and augmentation with Pseudomonas citronellolis ADP or Arthrobacter aurescens strain TC1, up to 76% of atrazine was mineralized at 30 °C, and the atrazine degradation gene numbers increased up to 10(7) copies g(-1) soil. Clone libraries from passive samplers in groundwater monitoring wells revealed the presence of phylogenetic groups formerly shown to include atrazine degraders, and the presence of atrazine degradation genes atzA and atzB. These results show that the mineralization of low concentrations of atrazine in the groundwater zone at low temperatures is possible by bioremediation treatments. PMID:26239066

  17. Approach of Bioremediation in Olive Oil and Dairy Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hamid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation methods are a promising way of dealing with soil and subsoil contamination by organic substances. This biodegradation process is supported by micro-organisms which use the organic carbon from the pollutants as energy source and cells building blocks. There are several advantages of the implementation of such methods but mainly they have to do with the lack of interference with the ecology of the ecosystem. This study presents the use of technique in numerous ways such as olive oil industry and dairy industry. Although the use of bioremediation technique is not innovative in food industry and microbiology. The use of herbicides, pesticides and contaminated chemicals are producing pollutant compounds in ecosystem which is effecting the environment. Bioremediation method is very constructive method to converted contaminated compounds into non contaminated compounds.

  18. Key Factors Controlling the Applicability and Efficiency of Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethenes In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Komai, T.

    2012-12-01

    Bioremediation has been considered as one of environmentally friendly and cost effective approaches for cleaning up the sites polluted by organic contaminants, such as chlorinated ethenes. Although bioremediation, in its widest sense, is not new, and many researches have been performed on bioremediation of different kinds of pollutants, an effective design and implication of in situ bioremediation still remains a challenging problem because of the complexity. Many factors may affect the applicability and efficiency of bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in situ, which include the type and concentration of contaminants, biological, geological and hydro-geological conditions of the site, physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater and soils to be treated, as well as the constraints in engineering. In this presentation, an overview together with a detailed discussion on each factor will be provided. The influences of individual factors are discussed using the data obtained or cited from different sites and experiments, and thus under different environmental conditions. The results of this study illustrated that 1) the establishment of microbial consortium is of crucial importance for a complete degradation of chlorinated ethenes, 2) in situ control of favorable conditions for increasing microbial activities for bio-degradation through a designed pathway is the key to success, 3) the focus of a successful remediation system is to design an effective delivery process that is capable of producing adequate amendment mixing of contaminant-degrading bacteria, appropriate concentrations of electron acceptors, electron donors, and microbial nutrients in the subsurface treatment area.

  19. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants: a review of processes and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R T; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N; Thornton, S F

    2014-07-01

    There is current interest in finding sustainable remediation technologies for the removal of contaminants from soil and groundwater. This review focuses on the combination of electrokinetics, the use of an electric potential to move organic and inorganic compounds, or charged particles/organisms in the subsurface independent of hydraulic conductivity; and bioremediation, the destruction of organic contaminants or attenuation of inorganic compounds by the activity of microorganisms in situ or ex situ. The objective of the review is to examine the state of knowledge on electrokinetic bioremediation and critically evaluate factors which affect the up-scaling of laboratory and bench-scale research to field-scale application. It discusses the mechanisms of electrokinetic bioremediation in the subsurface environment at different micro and macroscales, the influence of environmental processes on electrokinetic phenomena and the design options available for application to the field scale. The review also presents results from a modelling exercise to illustrate the effectiveness of electrokinetics on the supply electron acceptors to a plume scale scenario where these are limiting. Current research needs include analysis of electrokinetic bioremediation in more representative environmental settings, such as those in physically heterogeneous systems in order to gain a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms on both electrokinetics and bioremediation in those scenarios. PMID:24875868

  20. Plant selection for bioremediation of Mn polluted soils and their improvement effects%锰污染土壤修复的植物筛选与改良效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳林男; 吴晓芙; 郭丹丹; 陈永华

    2012-01-01

    . Accounted for by its ability of tolerance to high level of Mn pollution, B. papyrifera was shown to be an ideal pioneer tree species for bio-remediation of Mn polluted soils. Rapid growth and well developed root system of this species were observed even when its root manganese content exceeded 493 mg·kg-1. L quihoui had the highest manganese transportation ratio among the tested plant species. The manganese transfer coefficient (the ratio of above- to below-ground uptake) found for L. quihoui was 6.28 in the control and the total above-ground manganese uptake of this species reached 7.92 mg/pot. Addition of remediation reagents (a mixture of organic manure, mineral adsorbent and Mn-tollerant bacteriea) did not only enhance to certain extent both the plant survival and growth rates but also reduced the heavy metal contents in plant roots. However, the remediation effect on plant growth was not found to be significant. The adequate proportion of the remediation reagent quantity needs to be further investigated.