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Sample records for biosurfactant production technology

  1. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific

  2. Biotechnological opportunities in biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geys, Robin; Soetaert, Wim; Van Bogaert, Inge

    2014-12-01

    In the recent years, biosurfactants proved to be an interesting alternative to petrochemically derived surfactants. Two classes of biosurfactants, namely glycolipids and lipopeptides, have attracted significant commercial interest. Despite their environmental advantages and equal performance, commercialization of these molecules remains a challenge due to missing acquaintance of the applicants, higher price and lack of structural variation. The latter two issues can partially be tackled by screening for novel and better wild-type producers and optimizing the fermentation process. Yet, these traditional approaches cannot overcome all hurdles. In this review, an overview is given on how biotechnology offers opportunities for increased biosurfactant production and the creation of new types of molecules, in this way enhancing their commercial potential. PMID:24995572

  3. Production and Biomedical Applications of Probiotic Biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariq, Anila; Saeed, Ayesha

    2016-04-01

    Biosurfactants have been widely used for environmental and industrial applications. However, their use in medical field is still limited. Probiotic biosurfactants possess an immense antimicrobial, anti-adhesive, antitumor, and antibiofilm potential. Moreover, they have an additional advantage over conventional microbial surfactants because probiotics are an integral part of normal human microflora and their biosurfactants are innocuous to human. So, they can be effectively exploited for medicinal use. Present review is aimed to discourse the production and biomedical applications of probiotic biosurfactants. PMID:26742771

  4. Enhanced biosurfactant production through cloning of three genes and role of esterase in biosurfactant release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Sunil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biosurfactants have been reported to utilize a number of immiscible substrates and thereby facilitate the biodegradation of panoply of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Olive oil is one such carbon source which has been explored by many researchers. However, studying the concomitant production of biosurfactant and esterase enzyme in the presence of olive oil in the Bacillus species and its recombinants is a relatively novel approach. Results Bacillus species isolated from endosulfan sprayed cashew plantation soil was cultivated on a number of hydrophobic substrates. Olive oil was found to be the best inducer of biosurfactant activity. The protein associated with the release of the biosurfactant was found to be an esterase. There was a twofold increase in the biosurfactant and esterase activities after the successful cloning of the biosurfactant genes from Bacillus subtilis SK320 into E.coli. Multiple sequence alignment showed regions of similarity and conserved sequences between biosurfactant and esterase genes, further confirming the symbiotic correlation between the two. Biosurfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis SK320 and recombinant strains BioS a, BioS b, BioS c were found to be effective emulsifiers, reducing the surface tension of water from 72 dynes/cm to as low as 30.7 dynes/cm. Conclusion The attributes of enhanced biosurfactant and esterase production by hyper-producing recombinant strains have many utilities from industrial viewpoint. This study for the first time has shown a possible association between biosurfactant production and esterase activity in any Bacillus species. Biosurfactant-esterase complex has been found to have powerful emulsification properties, which shows promising bioremediation, hydrocarbon biodegradation and pharmaceutical applications.

  5. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants by basidiomycetous yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-05-01

    BSs (biosurfactants) produced by various micro-organisms show unique properties (e.g. mild production conditions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility) compared with chemically synthesized surfactants. The numerous advantages of BSs have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries but also in environmental protection and energy-saving technology. Among BSs, glycolipid types are the most promising, owing to their high productivity from renewable resources and versatile biochemical properties. MELs (mannosylerythritol lipids), which are glycolipid BSs abundantly produced by basidiomycetous yeasts such as strains of Pseudozyma, exhibit not only excellent interfacial properties, but also remarkable differentiation-inducing activities against human leukaemia cells. MELs also show high binding affinity towards different immunoglobulins and lectins. Recently, a cationic liposome bearing MEL has been demonstrated to increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells. These features of BSs should broaden their application in new advanced technologies. In the present review the current status of research and development on glycolipid BSs, especially their production by Pseudozyma yeasts, is described. PMID:19341364

  6. Biosurfactant production using mixed cultures under non-aseptic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of surfactants is of increasing interest for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater and soil. Surfactants increase the accessibility of adsorbed hydrocarbons and mobilize immiscible petroleum hydrocarbons for treatment. Biosurfactants have the advantage of biodegradability and non-toxicity over their synthetic counterparts, and can be produced from renewable sources. In this study the production of biosurfactant from molasses was investigated in continuously stirred batch reactors. The effects of substrate concentration, yeast extract and peptone on biomass accumulation and biosurfactant production were investigated. Biosurfactant production was quantified by surface tension reduction and critical micelle dilution (CMD). Biosurfactant production was directly correlated with biomass production, and was improved with the addition of yeast extract. Centrifugation of the whole broth reduced surface tension. The performance of the biosurfactant produced from molasses under non-aseptic condition is comparable to other published results

  7. Biosurfactant Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Renewable Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Thavasi, R.; Subramanyam Nambaru, V. R. M.; Jayalakshmi, S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Banat, Ibrahim M.

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with production and characterization of biosurfactant from renewable resources by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biosurfactant production was carried out in 3L fermentor using waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Maximum biomass (11.6 mg/ml) and biosurfactant production (8.6 mg/ml) occurred with peanut oil cake at 120 and 132 h respectively. Characterization of the biosurfactant revealed that, it is a lipopeptide with chemical composition of protein (50.2%) and lipid (49.8...

  8. Renewable resources for biosurfactant production by yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Fontes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the production of a biosurfactant synthesized by Yarrowia lipolytica using different renewable resources as carbon source was investigated. Crude glycerol, a biodiesel co-product, and clarified cashew apple juice (CCAJ, an agroindustrial residue, were applied as feedstocks for the microbial surfactant synthesis. The microorganism was able to grow and produce biosurfactant on CCAJ and crude glycerol, achieving maximum emulsification indexes of 68.0% and 70.2% and maximum variations in surface tension of 18.0 mN.m-1and 22.0 mN.m-1, respectively. Different organic solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate and chloroform - methanol were tested for biosurfactant extraction. Maximum biosurfactant recovery was obtained with chloroform - methanol (1:1, reaching 6.9 g.L-1for experiments using CCAJ and 7.9 g.L-1for media containing crude glycerol as carbon source.The results herein obtained indicate that CCAJ and the co-product of biodiesel production are appropriate raw materials for biosurfactant production by Y. lipolytica.

  9. Production of microbial glycolipid biosurfactants and their antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial glycolipids produced by bacteria or yeast as secondary metabolites, such as sophorolipids (SLs), rhamnolipids (RLs) and mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are “green” biosurfactants desirable in a bioeconomy. High cost of production is a major hurdle toward widespread commercial use of bios...

  10. Identification of potential local isolated for biosurfactant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Zahra; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Moazami, Nasrin; Hamzah, Ainon; Fooladi, Taybeh

    2013-11-01

    Biosurfactant are amphiphilic molecule that have received increasing attention in recent years because of their role in the growth of microorganisms on water-insoluble hydrophobic materials such as hydrocarbons as well as their commercial potential in the cosmetics, food, oil recovery and agricultural industries. In this study a potential biosurfactant producing strain was isolated from several soil samples of Terengganu oil refinery, Malaysia and selected during preliminary screening using hemolytic activity, oil spreading and drop collapsed technique. Isolates with at least more than one positive response to these three methods were subjected to complementary screening by measuring surface tension reduction as well as emulsification capacity. The biosurfactant produced by isolated 5M was able to reduced surface tension of culture medium from 60 mN/m to30mN/m. The biochemical and morphological characterization, 16SrRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolated 5M belongs to bacillus groups. The maximum production of biosurfactant by Bacillus 5M was observed after 48 h of incubation.

  11. Optimization, production and characterization of glycolipid biosurfactant from the marine actinobacterium, Streptomyces sp. MAB36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Sivasankar, Palaniappan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-05-01

    A potential glycolipid biosurfactant producer Streptomyces sp. MAB36 was isolated from marine sediment samples. Medium composition and culture conditions for the glycolipid biosurfactant production by Streptomyces sp. MAB36 were optimized, using two statistical methods: Plackett-Burman design was applied to find out the key ingredients and conditions for the best yield of glycolipid biosurfactant production and central composite design was used to optimize the concentration of the four significant variables, starch, casein, crude oil and incubation time. Fructose and yeast extract were the best carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of the glycolipid biosurfactant. Biochemical characterizations including FTIR and MS studies suggested the glycolipid nature of the biosurfactant. The isolated glycolipid biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of water from 73.2 to 32.4 mN/m. The purified glycolipid biosurfactant showed critical micelle concentrations of 36 mg/l. The glycolipid biosurfactant was effective at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentration. The purified glycolipid biosurfactant showed strong antimicrobial activity. Thus, the strain Streptomyces sp. MAB36 has proved to be a potential source of glycolipid biosurfactant that could be used for the bioremediation processes in the marine environment. PMID:24061563

  12. Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis B30 and its application in enhancing oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Joshi, Sanket; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Shibulal, Biji

    2014-02-01

    The fermentative production of biosurfactants by Bacillus subtilis strain B30 and the evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood were investigated. Different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, date molasses, cane molasses) were tested to determine the optimal biosurfactant production. The isolate B30 produced a biosurfactant that could reduce the surface tension and interfacial tension to 26.63±0.45 mN/m and 3.79±0.27 mN/m, respectively in less than 12h in both glucose or date molasses based media. A crude biosurfactant concentration of 0.3-0.5 g/l and critical micelle dilution (CMD) values of 1:8 were observed. The biosurfactants gave stable emulsions with wide range of hydrocarbons including light and heavy crude oil. The biosurfactants were partially purified and identified as a mixture of lipopeptides similar to surfactin, using high performance thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The biosurfactants were stable over wide range of pH, salinity and temperatures. The crude biosurfactant preparation enhanced light oil recovery by 17-26% and heavy oil recovery by 31% in core-flood studies. The results are indicative of the potential of the strain for the development of ex situ microbial enhanced oil recovery processes using glucose or date molasses based minimal media. PMID:24240116

  13. Study on mechanisms of biosurfactant-enhanced composting technology for waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.Y.; Huang, G.H.; Chen, B.; Xi, B.D.; Maqsood, I. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Composting is increasingly being used for solid waste treatment. The efficiency of solid waste composting might be enhanced using biosurfactants produced by microbial activities. This study was conducted to characterize the effect of biosurfactant on solid waste biodegradation throughout the composting process. The method employed involves shredding solid waste, followed by a treatment in an 8-litre (L) batch reactor. Biosurfactant production was monitored daily along with characteristics and maturity degree. Surface tension and emulsification capacity were of particular concern. The measurement of indices such as humic acid carbon (CHA) and fulvic acid carbon (CFA) were used to evaluate the maturity degree. The results indicated that the highest level of biosurfactant concentration was achieved on the third day, and within two days, related emulsification capacity reached its peak. This study confirmed the presence of biosurfactants and their function during the composting process. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. Genetic analysis of biosurfactant production in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewald, Sandra; Josephs, Katharina; Bölker, Michael

    2005-06-01

    The dimorphic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis produces large amounts of surface-active compounds under conditions of nitrogen starvation. These biosurfactants consist of derivatives of two classes of amphipathic glycolipids. Ustilagic acids are cellobiose lipids in which the disaccharide is O-glycosidically linked to 15,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. Ustilipids are mannosylerythritol lipids derived from acylated beta-d-mannopyranosyl-d-erythritol. Whereas the chemical structure of these biosurfactants has been determined, the genetic basis for their biosynthesis and regulation is largely unknown. Here we report the first identification of two genes, emt1 and cyp1, that are essential for the production of fungal extracellular glycolipids. emt1 is required for mannosylerythritol lipid production and codes for a protein with similarity to prokaryotic glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of macrolide antibiotics. We suggest that Emt1 catalyzes the synthesis of mannosyl-d-erythritol by transfer of GDP-mannose. Deletion of the gene cyp1 resulted in complete loss of ustilagic acid production. Cyp1 encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase which is highly related to a family of plant fatty acid hydroxylases. Therefore we assume that Cyp1 is directly involved in the biosynthesis of the unusual 15,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. We could show that mannosylerythritol lipid production is responsible for hemolytic activity on blood agar, whereas ustilagic acid secretion is required for long-range pheromone recognition. The mutants described here allow for the first time a genetic analysis of glycolipid production in fungi. PMID:15932999

  15. Factorial Design to Optimize Biosurfactant Production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Gizele Cardoso Fontes; Priscilla Filomena Fonseca Amaral; Marcio Nele; Maria Alice Zarur Coelho

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve biosurfactant production by Yarrowia lipolytica IMUFRJ 50682, a factorial design was carried out. A 24 full factorial design was used to investigate the effects of nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate, yeast extract, and peptone) on maximum variation of surface tension (ΔST) and emulsification index (EI). The best results (67.7% of EI and 20.9 mN m−1 of ΔST) were obtained in a medium composed of 10 g 1−1 of ammonium ...

  16. Optimization of biosurfactant production by Bacillus brevis using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foukia E. Mouafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate and validate a statistical model for maximizing biosurfactant productivity by Bacillus brevis using response surface methodology. In this respect, twenty bacterial isolates were screened for biosurfactant production using hemolytic activity, oil spreading technique, and emulsification index (E24. The most potent biosurfactant-producing bacterium (B. brevis was used for construction of the statistical response surface model. The optimum conditions for biosurfactant production by B. brevis were: 33 °C incubation temperature at pH 8 for 10 days incubation period and 8.5 g/L glucose concentration as a sole carbon source. The produced biosurfactant (BS (73% exhibited foaming activity, thermal stability in the range 30–80 °C for 30 min., pH stability, from 4 to 9 and antimicrobial activity against (Escherichia coli. The BS gave a good potential application as an emulsifier.

  17. Production of biosurfactants for application in the removal of environmental contaminants generated in the petroleum industry; Producao de biossurfactantes para aplicacao na remocao de contaminantes ambientais gerados na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarubbo, Leonie A.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M. de; Farias, Charles B.B.; Santos, Valdemir A. dos [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the application of microbial surfactants in removing crude oil and marine environment located in the proximity of the Pernambuco Thermoelectric. Two biosurfactants were produced by yeasts Candida sphaerica and C. lipolytica grown in industrial wastes during 72 and 144 hours, respectively. The surface tensions of the biomolecules (25 mN/m) were determined, the production yields were estimated (8 and 9 g/L) and the CMC determined (0.03%). The biosurfactants were applied to samples of sea water and rocks contaminated with petroleum and motor oil. The results demonstrated the oil dispersant action of the biosurfactant from C. sphaerica and the emulsifying ability of the biosurfactant from C. lipolytica. Percentages removals of 100% of oil and petroleum were obtained for both biosurfactants. The possibility of application of biosurfactants in the remediation of oil polluted environments motivates the advancement of research to develop this alternative technology for effective use in the Termope Thermoelectric treatment systems. (author)

  18. Factorial Design to Optimize Biosurfactant Production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizele Cardoso Fontes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve biosurfactant production by Yarrowia lipolytica IMUFRJ 50682, a factorial design was carried out. A 24 full factorial design was used to investigate the effects of nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate, yeast extract, and peptone on maximum variation of surface tension (ΔST and emulsification index (EI. The best results (67.7% of EI and 20.9 mN m−1 of ΔST were obtained in a medium composed of 10 g 1−1 of ammonium sulfate and 0.5 g 1−1 of yeast extract. Then, the effects of carbon sources (glycerol, hexadecane, olive oil, and glucose were evaluated. The most favorable medium for biosurfactant production was composed of both glucose (4% w/v and glycerol (2% w/v, which provided an EI of 81.3% and a ΔST of 19.5 mN m−1. The experimental design optimization enhanced ΔEI by 110.7% and ΔST by 108.1% in relation to the standard process.

  19. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens growing on molasses and its application in phenol degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryantia, Venty; Marliyana, Soerya Dewi; Wulandari, Astri

    2015-12-01

    A molasses based medium for the biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens was developed, where the effect of pre-treated of molasses and medium composition were evaluated. Biosurfactant production was followed by measuring optical density (OD), surface tension and emulsifying index (E24) over 12 days of fermentation. The optimum condition for the biosurfactant production was obtained when a medium containing of 8 g/L nutrient broth, 5 g/L NaCl, 1 g/L NH4NO3 and 5% v/v pre-treated molasses with centrifugation was used as media with 3 days of fermentation. The biosurfactant was identified as a rhamnolipid type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 801 mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 51 mN/m. The biosurfactants had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. Biosurfactant was able to emulsify various hydrocarbons, which were able to decrase the interfacial tension about 50-75% when benzyl chloride, anisaldehyde and palm oil were used as immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant exhibited the E24 value of about 50% and the stable emulsion was reached up to 30 days when lubricant was used as an immiscible compound. Up to 68% of phenol was degraded in the presence of biosurfactant within 15 days, whereas only 56% of phenol was degraded in the absence of biosurfactant. Overall, the results exhibited that molasses are recommended for the rhamnolipids production which possessed good surface-active properties and had potential application in the enhancement of phenol degradation.

  20. Optimization of cultural conditions for biosurfactant production by Pleurotus djamor in solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, Zulfiye; Ozturk Urek, Raziye

    2015-11-01

    Being eco-friendly, less toxic, more biodegradable and biocompatible, biological surfactants have higher activity and stability compared to synthetic ones. In spite of the fact that there are abundant benefits of biosurfactants over the synthetic congeners, the problem related with the economical and large scale production proceeds. The utilization of several industrial wastes in the production media as substrates reduces the production cost. This current study aims optimization of biosurfactant production conditions by Pleurotus djamor, grown on sunflower seed shell, grape wastes or potato peels as renewable cheap substrates in solid state fermentation. After determination of the best substrate for biosurfactant production, we indicate optimum size and amount of solid substrate, volume of medium, temperature, pH and Fe(2+) concentrations on biosurfactant production. In optimum conditions, by reducing water surface tension to 28.82 ± 0.3 mN/m and having oil displacement diameter of 3.9 ± 0.3 cm, 10.205 ± 0.5 g/l biosurfactant was produced. Moreover, chemical composition of biosurfactant produced in optimum condition was determined by FTIR. Lastly, laboratory's large-scale production was carried out in optimum conditions in a tray bioreactor designed by us and 8.9 ± 0.5 g/l biosurfactant was produced with a significant surface activity (37.74 ± 0.3 mN/m). With its economical suggestions and applicability of laboratory's large-scale production, this work indicates the possibility of using low cost agro-industrial wastes as renewable substrates for biosurfactant production. Therefore, using economically produced biosurfactant will reduce cost in several applications such as bioremediation, oil recovery and biodegradation of toxic chemicals. PMID:25865657

  1. Lactic Acid and Biosurfactants Production from Residual Cellulose Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla Rivera, Oscar Manuel; Arzate Martínez, Guillermo; Jarquín Enríquez, Lorenzo; Vázquez Landaverde, Pedro Alberto; Domínguez González, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The increasing amounts of residual cellulose films generated as wastes all over the world represent a big scale problem for the meat industry regarding to environmental and economic issues. The use of residual cellulose films as a feedstock of glucose-containing solutions by acid hydrolysis and further fermentation into lactic acid and biosurfactants was evaluated as a method to diminish and revalorize these wastes. Under a treatment consisting in sulfuric acid 6% (v/v); reaction time 2 h; solid liquid ratio 9 g of film/100 mL of acid solution, and temperature 130 °C, 35 g/L of glucose and 49% of solubilized film was obtained. From five lactic acid strains, Lactobacillus plantarum was the most suitable for metabolizing the glucose generated. The process was scaled up under optimized conditions in a 2-L bioreactor, producing 3.4 g/L of biomass, 18 g/L of lactic acid, and 15 units of surface tension reduction of a buffer phosphate solution. Around 50% of the cellulose was degraded by the treatment applied, and the liqueurs generated were useful for an efficient production of lactic acid and biosurfactants using L. plantarum. Lactobacillus bacteria can efficiently utilize glucose from cellulose films hydrolysis without the need of clarification of the liqueurs. PMID:26293409

  2. In-Situ Anaerobic Biosurfactant Production Process For Remediation Of DNAPL Contamination In Subsurface Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, J. D.; Nambi, I. M.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and remediation of aquifers contaminated with hydrophobic contaminants require insitu production of biosurfactants for mobilization of entrapped hydrophobic liquids. Most of the biosurfactant producing microorganisms produce them under aerobic condition and hence surfactant production is limited in subsurface condition due to lack of oxygen. Currently bioremediation involves expensive air sparging or excavation followed by exsitu biodegradation. Use of microorganisms which can produce biosurfactants under anaerobic conditions can cost effectively expedite the process of insitu bioremediation or mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of anaerobic biosurfactant production in three mixed anaerobic cultures prepared from groundwater and soil contaminated with chlorinated compounds and municipal sewage sludge was investigated. The cultures were previously enriched under complete anaerobic conditions in the presence of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) for more than a year before they were studied for biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant production under anaerobic conditions was simulated using two methods: i) induction of starvation in the microbial cultures and ii) addition of complex fermentable substrates. Positive result for biosurfactant production was not observed when the cultures were induced with starvation by adding PCE as blobs which served as the only terminal electron acceptor. However, slight reduction in interfacial tension was noticed which was caused by the adherence of microbes to water-PCE interface. Biosurfactant production was observed in all the three cultures when they were fed with complex fermentable substrates and surface tension of the liquid medium was lowered below 35 mN/m. Among the fermentable substrates tested, vegetable oil yielded highest amount of biosurfactant in all the cultures. Complete biodegradation of PCE to ethylene at a faster rate was also observed when vegetable oil was amended to the

  3. Investigation of biosurfactant production by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shila khajavi shojaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biosurfactants are unique amphipathic molecules with extensive application in removing organic and metal contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate production of biosurfactant and determine optimal conditions to produce biosurfactant by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI. Materials and methods: In this study, effect of carbon source, temperature and incubation time on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Hemolytic activity, emulsification activity, oil spreading, drop collapse, cell hydrophobicity and measurement of surface tension were used to detect biosurfactant production. Then, according to the results, the optimal conditions for biosurfactant production by and Bacillus subtilis WPI was determined. Results: In this study, both bacteria were able to produce biosurfactant at an acceptable level. Glucose, kerosene, sugarcane molasses and phenanthrene used as a sole carbon source and energy for the mentioned bacteria. Bacillus subtilis WPI produced maximum biosurfactant in the medium containing kerosene and reduced surface tension of the medium to 33.1 mN/m after 156 hours of the cultivation at 37°C. Also, the highest surface tension reduction by Bacillus pumilus 1529 occurred in the medium containing sugarcane molasses and reduce the surface tension of culture medium after 156 hours at 37°C from 50.4 to 28.83 mN/m. Discussion and conclusion: Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI had high potential in production of biosurfactant and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons and Phenanthrene. Therefore, it could be said that these bacteria had a great potential for applications in bioremediation and other environmental process.

  4. Biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus erythropolis and its application to oil removal

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    Graziela Jardim Pacheco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different nutrients on biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus erythropolis was investigated. Increasing the concentration of phosphate buffer from 30 up through 150 mmol/L stimulated an increase in biosurfactant production, which reached a maximum concentration of 285 mg/L in shaken flasks. Statistical analysis showed that glycerol, NaNO3,MgSO4 and yeast extract had significant effects on production. The results were confirmed in a batchwise bioreactor, and semi-growth-associated production was detected. Reduction in the surface tension, which indicates the presence of biosurfactant, reached a value of 38 mN/m at the end of 35 hours. Use of the produced biosurfactant for washing crude oil-contaminated soil showed that 2 and 4 times the critical micellar concentration (CMC were able to remove 97 and 99% of the oil, respectively, after 1 month of impregnation.

  5. Low-cost fermentative medium for biosurfactant production by probiotic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J.A.; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-01-01

    Potential use of alternative fermentative medium for biosurfactant production by Lactococcus lactis 53 and Streptococcus thermophilus A was studied. Suitable models were established to describe the response of the experiments pertaining to glucose, lactose or sucrose consumption, cell growth and biosurfactant production. Synthetic media MRS and M17 broth were used as control experiments. When the synthetic media were replaced by cheaper alternative media, as cheese whey and molasses, ferme...

  6. Boolean Models of Biosurfactants Production in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Adrien; Rossignol, Gaelle; Comet, Jean-Paul; Bernot, Gilles; Guespin-Michel, Jannine; Merieau, Annabelle

    2012-01-01

    Cyclolipopeptides (CLPs) are biosurfactants produced by numerous Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. CLP production is known to be regulated at least by the GacA/GacS two-component pathway, but the full regulatory network is yet largely unknown. In the clinical strain MFN1032, CLP production is abolished by a mutation in the phospholipase C gene () and not restored by complementation. Their production is also subject to phenotypic variation. We used a modelling approach with Boolean networks, which takes into account all these observations concerning CLP production without any assumption on the topology of the considered network. Intensive computation yielded numerous models that satisfy these properties. All models minimizing the number of components point to a bistability in CLP production, which requires the presence of a yet unknown key self-inducible regulator. Furthermore, all suggest that a set of yet unexplained phenotypic variants might also be due to this epigenetic switch. The simplest of these Boolean networks was used to propose a biological regulatory network for CLP production. This modelling approach has allowed a possible regulation to be unravelled and an unusual behaviour of CLP production in P. fluorescens to be explained. PMID:22303435

  7. Optimization of low-cost biosurfactant production from agricultural residues through response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadipour, N; Lotfabad, T Bagheri; Yaghmaei, S; RoostaAzad, R

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds capable of reducing surface tension and interfacial tension. Biosurfactants are produced by various microorganisms. They are promising replacements for chemical surfactants because of biodegradability, nontoxicity, and their ability to be produced from renewable sources. However, a major obstacle in producing biosurfactants at the industrial level is the lack of cost-effectiveness. In the present study, by using corn steep liquor (CSL) as a low-cost agricultural waste, not only is the production cost reduced but a higher production yield is also achieved. Moreover, a response surface methodology (RSM) approach through the Box-Behnken method was applied to optimize the biosurfactant production level. The results found that biosurfactant production was improved around 2.3 times at optimum condition when the CSL was at a concentration of 1.88 mL/L and yeast extract was reduced to 25 times less than what was used in a basic soybean oil medium (SOM). The predicted and experimental values of responses were in reasonable agreement with each other (Pred-R(2) = 0.86 and adj-R(2) = 0.94). Optimization led to a drop in raw material price per unit of biosurfactant from $47 to $12/kg. Moreover, the biosurfactant product at a concentration of 84 mg/L could lower the surface tension of twice-distilled water from 72 mN/m to less than 28 mN/m and emulsify an equal volume of kerosene by an emulsification index of (E24) 68% in a two-phase mixture. These capabilities made these biosurfactants applicable in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), hydrocarbon remediation, and all other petroleum industry surfactant applications. PMID:25748124

  8. Production of biosurfactant by hydrocarbon degrading Rhodococcus ruber and Rhodococcus erythropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicca Flávio Correa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available There is world wide concern about the liberation of hydrocarbons in the environment, both from industrial activities and from accidental spills of oil and oilrelated compounds. Biosurfactants, which are natural emulsifiers of hydrocarbons, are produced by some bacteria, fungi and yeast. They are polymers, totally or partially extracellular, with an amphipathyc structure, which allows them to form micelles that accumulate at the interface between liquids of different polarities such as water and oil. This process is based upon the ability of biosurfactants to reduce surface tension, blocking the formation of hydrogen bridges and certain hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. The ability of biosurfactant production by five strains of Rhodococcus isolated from oil prospecting sites was evaluated. Surface tension measurement and emulsifying index were used to quantify biosurfactant production. The influence of environmental conditions was also investigated - pH, temperature, medium composition, and type of carbon source - on cell growth and biosurfactant production. Strain AC 239 was shown to be a potential producer, attaining 63% of emulsifying index for a Diesel-water binary system. It could be used, either directly on oil spills in contained environments, or for the biotechnological production of biosurfactant.

  9. Response surface optimization of the medium components for the production of biosurfactants by probiotic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    L. R. Rodrigues; J.A. Teixeira; Oliveira, Rosário; Mei, Henny van der

    2006-01-01

    Optimization of the medium for biosurfactants production by probiotic bacteria (Lactococcus lactis 53 and Streptococcus thermophilus A) was carried out using response surface methodology. Both biosurfactants were proved to be growth-associated, thus the desired response selected for the optimization was the biomass concentration. The selected factors based on MRS medium for L. lactis 53 growth were peptone, meat extract, yeast extract, lactose, ammonium citrate and KH2PO4. For S. thermophi...

  10. Production and properties of biosurfactants from a newly isolated Pseudomonas fluorescens HW-6 growing on hexandecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasileva-Tonkova, E.; Galabova, D. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Dept. of Microbial Biochemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Stoimenova, E.; Lalchev, Z. [Dept. of Biochemistry, Sofia Univ. ' ' St. Kliment Ohridski' ' , Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2006-07-15

    The newly isolated from industrial wastewater Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HW-6 produced glycolipid biosurfactants at high concentrations (1.4-2.0 g 1{sup -1}) when grown on hexadecane as a sole carbon source. Biosurfactants decreased the surface tension of the air/water interface by 35 mN m{sup -1} and possessed a low critical micelle concentration value of 20 mg 1{sup -1}, which indicated high surface activity. They efficiently emulsified aromatic hydrocarbons, kerosene, n-paraffins and mineral oils. Biosurfactant production contributed to a significant increase in cell hydrophobicity correlated with an increased growth of the strain on hexadecane. The results suggested that the newly isolated strain of Ps. fluorescens and produced glycolipid biosurfactants with effective surface and emulsifying properties are very promising and could find application for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted sites. (orig.)

  11. Genetic Analysis of Biosurfactant Production in Ustilago maydis

    OpenAIRE

    Hewald, Sandra; Josephs, Katharina; Bölker, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The dimorphic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis produces large amounts of surface-active compounds under conditions of nitrogen starvation. These biosurfactants consist of derivatives of two classes of amphipathic glycolipids. Ustilagic acids are cellobiose lipids in which the disaccharide is O-glycosidically linked to 15,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. Ustilipids are mannosylerythritol lipids derived from acylated β-d-mannopyranosyl-d-erythritol. Whereas the chemical structure of these biosurfact...

  12. Biosurfactants production by yeasts using soybean oil and glycerol as low cost substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Raphael Accorsini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are bioactive agents that can be produced by many different microorganisms. Among those, special attention is given to yeasts, since they can produce many types of biosurfactants in large scale, using several kinds of substrates, justifying its use for industrial production of those products. For this production to be economically viable, the use of residual carbon sources is recommended. The present study isolated yeasts from soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons and assessed their capacity for producing biosurfactants in low cost substrates. From a microbial consortium enriched, seven yeasts were isolated, all showing potential for producing biosurfactants in soybean oil. The isolate LBPF 3, characterized as Candida antarctica, obtained the highest levels of production - with a final production of 13.86 g/L. The isolate LBPF 9, using glycerol carbon source, obtained the highest reduction in surface tension in the growth medium: approximately 43% of reduction after 24 hours of incubation. The products obtained by the isolates presented surfactant activity, which reduced water surface tension to values that varied from 34 mN/m, obtained from the product of isolates LBPF 3 and 16 LBPF 7 (respectively characterized as Candida antarctica and Candida albicans to 43 mN/m from the isolate LPPF 9, using glycerol as substrate. The assessed isolates all showed potential for the production of biosurfactants in conventional sources of carbon as well as in agroindustrial residue, especially in glycerol.

  13. Biosurfactants production by yeasts using soybean oil and glycerol as low cost substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsini, Fábio Raphael; Mutton, Márcia Justino Rossini; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes Macedo; Benincasa, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Biosurfactants are bioactive agents that can be produced by many different microorganisms. Among those, special attention is given to yeasts, since they can produce many types of biosurfactants in large scale, using several kinds of substrates, justifying its use for industrial production of those products. For this production to be economically viable, the use of residual carbon sources is recommended. The present study isolated yeasts from soil contaminated with petroleum oil hydrocarbons and assessed their capacity for producing biosurfactants in low cost substrates. From a microbial consortium enriched, seven yeasts were isolated, all showing potential for producing biosurfactants in soybean oil. The isolate LBPF 3, characterized as Candida antarctica, obtained the highest levels of production - with a final production of 13.86 g/L. The isolate LBPF 9, using glycerol carbon source, obtained the highest reduction in surface tension in the growth medium: approximately 43% of reduction after 24 hours of incubation. The products obtained by the isolates presented surfactant activity, which reduced water surface tension to values that varied from 34 mN/m, obtained from the product of isolates LBPF 3 and 16 LBPF 7 (respectively characterized as Candida antarctica and Candida albicans) to 43 mN/m from the isolate LPPF 9, using glycerol as substrate. The assessed isolates all showed potential for the production of biosurfactants in conventional sources of carbon as well as in agroindustrial residue, especially in glycerol. PMID:24031810

  14. Optimization of environmental factors for improved production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS29 on glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Deka, Suresh; Deka, Manab; Sarma, Hemen

    2012-08-01

    A biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa RS29 (identified on the basis of 16S rDNA analysis) with good foaming and emulsification properties has been isolated from crude oil contaminated sites. Optimization of different environmental factors was carried out with an objective to achieve maximum production of biosurfactant. Production of biosurfactant was estimated in terms of surface tension reduction and emulsification (E24) index. It was recorded that the isolated strain produced highest biosurfactant after 48 h of incubation at 37.5 °C, with a pH range of 7-8 and at salinity Ammonium nitrate used in the experiment was the best nitrogen source for the growth of biomass of P. aeruginosa RS29. On the other hand sodium and potassium nitrate enhanced the production of biosurfactant (Surface tension, 26.3 and 26.4 mN/m and E24 index, 80 and 79% respectively). The CMC of the biosurfactant was 90 mg/l. Maximum biomass (6.30 g/l) and biosurfactant production (0.80 g/l) were recorded at an optimal C/N ratio of 12.5. Biochemical analysis and FTIR spectra confirmed that the biosurfactant was rhamnolipid in nature. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of C(8) and C(10) fatty acid components in the purified biosurfactant. PMID:22144225

  15. Crude glycerol from biodiesel industry as substrate for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylane de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol, a co-product of the biodiesel industry, may be a suitable raw material for the production of high added-value compounds by the microorganisms. This study aimed to use the glycerol obtained from the biodiesel production process as the main carbon source for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results indicated that the strain lowered the surface tension of the cell-free fermented broth to 31.5 ± 1.6 mN/m, indicating the production of biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC = 33.6 mN/m obtained was similar to the previously reported for biossurfactants isolated from other Bacillus. The produced biosurfactant was able to emulsify n-hexadecane and soybean oil.

  16. Use of weathered diesel oil as a low-cost raw material for biosurfactant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Mariano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the capability of biosurfactant production by Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, using weathered diesel oil from a long-standing spillage as raw material. The effect of the culture media (Robert or Bushnell-Haas and of the carbon source (spilled diesel oil or commercial diesel oil on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Erlenmeyer flasks (250 mL containing the cell broth were agitated (240 rpm for 144 h at 27±2ºC. Biosurfactant production was monitored according to the De Nöuy ring method using a Krüss K6 tensiometer. Considering the possibility of intracellular storage of biosurfactant in the cell wall of the cultures S. hominis and K. palustris, experiments were also done applying ultrasound as a way to rupture the cells. For the conditions studied, the cultures did not indicate production of biosurfactants. Results obtained with a hydrocarbon biodegradability test based on the redox indicator 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol showed that only the commercial diesel was biodegraded by the cultures.

  17. Potential production of biosurfactants under electric field supplied to clayey soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, L.; Elektorowicz, M.

    1999-07-01

    The possibility of the introduction of nutrients and bacteria into clayey soil using electrokinetic methodology makes bioremediation more popular. However, biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is limited by their low solubility. The potential production of biosurfactants in clayey soil under the electric field was presented in this study. The electrokinetic cell tests were carried out to investigate the production of biosurfactants in the contaminated soil and soil without contaminants. The results showed that there was 1.5 times higher production in the soil contaminated by phenanthrene than that without it. In the middle of the electrokinetic cell, there are more biosurfactants produced than at the anode and the cathode areas. It was observed that there was migration of micelles with the electromigration and electroosmosis. In spite of the anionic properties of biosurfactant, the movement of the micelle was only partially directed to the anode. It was also observed that the electroosmosic flow transported micelles to the cathode. The results suggested the possibility of production of biosurfactants under the electric field and uniform distribution in the subsoil. The results could find a direct applicability in the enhanced remediation of PAH-contaminated sites.

  18. Optimization of biosurfactant production in soybean oil by rhodococcus rhodochrous and its utilization in remediation of cadmium-contaminated solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, Venty; Hastuti, Sri; Andriani, Dewi

    2016-02-01

    Biosurfactant production by Rhodococcus rhodochrous in soybean oil was developed, where the effect of medium composition and fermentation time were evaluated. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved when a medium containing 30 g/L TSB (tryptic soy broth) and 20% v/v soybean oil was used as media with 7 days of fermentation. Biosurfactant was identified as glycolipids type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 896 mg/L. The biosurfactant had oil in water emulsion type and was able to reduce the surface tension of palm oil about 52% which could stabilize the emulsion up to 12 days. The batch removal of cadmium metal ion by crude and partially purified biosurfactants have been examined from synthetic aqueous solution at pH 6. The results exhibited that the crude biosurfactant had a much better adsorption ability of Cd(II) than that of partially purified biosurfactant. However, it was found that there was no significant difference in the adsorption of Cd(II) with 5 and 10 minutes of contact time. The results indicated that the biosurfactant could be used in remediation of heavy metals from contaminated aqueous solution.

  19. Applying Neural Network to Dynamic Modeling of Biosurfactant Production Using Soybean Oil Refinery Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoufe Tayyebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. Production of biosurfactants via fermentation of immiscible wastes has the dual benefit of creating economic opportunities for manufacturers, while improving environmental health. A predictor system, recommended in such processes, must be scaled-up. Hence, four neural networks were developed for the dynamic modeling of the biosurfactant production kinetics, in presence of soybean oil or refinery wastes including acid oil, deodorizer distillate and soap stock. Each proposed feed forward neural network consists of three layers which are not fully connected. The input and output data for the training and validation of the neural network models were gathered from batch fermentation experiments. The proposed neural network models were evaluated by three statistical criteria (R2, RMSE and SE. The typical regression analysis showed high correlation coefficients greater than 0.971, demonstrating that the neural network is an excellent estimator for prediction of biosurfactant production kinetic data in a two phase liquid-liquid batch fermentation system. In addition, sensitivity analysis indicates that residual oil has the significant effect (i.e. 49% on the biosurfactant in the process.

  20. Production of Biosurfactant by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Grown on Cashew Apple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Maria V. P.; Souza, Maria C. M.; Benedicto, Sofia C. L.; Bezerra, Márcio S.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Saavedra Pinto, Gustavo A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    In this work, the ability of biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in batch cultivation using cashew apple juice (CAJ) and mineral media was evaluated. P. aeruginosa was cultivated in CAJ, which was supplemented with peptone (5.0 g/L) and nutritive broth. All fermentation assays were performed in Erlenmeyer flasks containing 300 mL, incubated at 30°C and 150 rpm. Cell growth (biomass and cell density), pH, and superficial tension were monitored vs time. Surface tension was reduced by 10.58 and 41% when P. aeruginosa was cultivated in nutrient broth and CAJ supplemented with peptone, respectively. These results indicated that CAJ is an adequate medium for growth and biosurfactant production. Best results of biosurfactant production were obtained when CAJ was supplemented with peptone.

  1. Effect of unconventional carbon sources on biosurfactant production and its application in bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana; Joshi, Nidhi; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-11-01

    The potential of an alkaliphilic bacterium Klebsiella sp. strain RJ-03, to utilize different unconventional carbon sources for the production of biosurfactant was evaluated. The biosurfactant produced using corn powder, potato peel powder, Madhuca indica and sugarcane bagasse containing medium, exhibited significantly higher viscosity and maximum reduction in surface tension as compared to other substrates. Among several carbon substrates tested, production of biosurfactant was found to be the highest with corn powder (15.40 ± 0.21 g/l) as compared to others. The comparative chemical characterization of purified biosurfactant was done using advance analytical tools such as NMR, FT-IR, SEM, GPC, MALDI TOF-TOF MS, GC-MS, TG and DSC. Analyses indicated variation in the functional groups, monosaccharide composition, molecular mass, thermostability. Higher yield with cheaper raw materials, noteworthy stress tolerance of CP-biosurfactant toward pH and salt as well as compatibility with chemical surfactants and detergents revealed its potential for commercialization and application in bioremediation. PMID:23994788

  2. Production of Biosurfactant in 2L Bioreactor Using Sludge Palm Oil as a Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. JAMAL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sludge palm oil was utilized as a raw material for process optimization in a stirred tank bioreactor for the biosurfactant production. Optimized parameters include temperature, agitation and aeration while the pH and media compositions such as NaNO3, NaCl, FeSO4, Meat extract, and glucose have been fixed from the previous study. The design of this research was made by using the Design-Expert software (2 level factorial design. Surface tension was used as indirect indicator for biosurfactant production. After model validation, yield of biosurfactant was found to be highest when surface tension was at its lowest value (<24 mN/m at temperature of 300C , agitation 300 rpm and around 0.5 vvm of aeration with percentage error less than 10% between observed value and predicted value. The finding in this research can be applied to produce biosurfactant in large amount from the less expensive material such as sludge palm oil by using the same optimized model equation.ABSTRAK: Dalam kajian ini, enapcemar kelapa sawit digunakan sebagai bahan mentah untuk pengoptimuman proses dalam bioreaktor bagi penghasilan biosurfactant. Parameter yang dioptimumkan termasuk suhu, pergolakan dan pengudaraan manakala pH dan komposisi media seperti NaNO3, NaCl, FeSO4, ekstrak daging, dan glukos telah ditetapkan daripada kajian sebelumnya. Reka bentuk kajian ini telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan perisian Design Expert (2 Level factorial design. Tegangan permukaan digunakan sebagai penunjuk tidak langsung untuk penghasilan biosurfactant. Selepas pengesahan, hasil biosurfactant didapati terbanyak apabila tegangan permukaan pada nilai terendah (<24 mN/m pada suhu 300C, pergolakan 300 rpm, dan sekitar 0.5 vvm pengudaraan dengan margin perbezaan kurang daripada 10% antara nilai sebenar cerapan dan nilai yang diramalkan. Penemuan dalam kajian ini boleh digunakan untuk menghasilkan biosurfactant dalam jumlah yang besar dari bahan yang murah seperti enapcemar kelapa

  3. Enhancement of Bacillus subtilis Lipopeptide Biosurfactants Production through Optimization of Medium Composition and Adequate Control of Aeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhouha Ghribi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biosurfactants has increased considerably in recent years, as they are potentially used in many commercial applications in petroleum, pharmaceuticals, biomedical, and food processing industries. Since improvement of their production was of great importance to reduce the final coast, cultural conditions were analyzed to optimize biosurfactants production from Bacillus subtilis SPB1 strain. A high yield of biosurfactants was obtained from a culture of B. subtilis using carbohydrate substrate as a carbon source; among carbohydrates, glucose enhanced the best surfactin production. The optimum glucose concentration was 40 g/L. Higher amount of biosurfactants was obtained using 5 g/L of urea as organic nitrogen source and applying C/N ratio of 7 with ammonium chloride as inorganic nitrogen source. The highest amount of biosurfactants was recorded with the addition of 2% kerosene. Moreover, it was shown, using an automated full-controlled 2.6 L fermenter, that aeration of the medium, which affected strongly the growth regulated biosurfactants synthesis by the producing cell. So that, low or high aerations lead to a decrease of biosurfactants synthesis yields. It was found that when using dissolved oxygen saturation of the medium at 30%, biosurfactants production reached 4.92 g/L.

  4. Yeast extract stimulates production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masaaki; Nagahama, Takahiko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai; Hatada, Yuji

    2011-06-01

    We improved the culture conditions for a biosurfactant producing yeast, Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62. We found that yeast extract greatly stimulates MEL production. Furthermore, we demonstrated a highly efficient production of MELs in the improved medium by fed-batch cultivation. The final concentration of MELs reached 129 ± 8.2g/l for one week. PMID:21393057

  5. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: From discovery to application in contemporary technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikalović Milena G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhamnolipids are most likely the next generation of biosurfactants which will reach the market. They should follow closely after alkyl polyglycosides, already established in the biosurfactants market, and sophorolipids, which can be found in several cleaning agents. However, the greatest number of recent publications and patents among glycolipid biosurfactants has been dedicated to rhamnolipids. Produced mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, rhamnolipids are mixtures of different rhamnolipid congeners, which show physico-chemical properties that differ from those of single congeners, with the most abundant structure in the mixture having the largest impact on the overall characteristics of the total mixture. Characteristics of biodegradability, low toxicity, production from renewable sources and antimicrobial (particularly antifungal activity together make rhamnolipid biosurfactants particularly promising for broad commercial application. Although to date, bioremediation has been the major topic filed for patents utilizing rhamnolipids, an increasing number of patents for applications in cosmetics, agronomy and food industries, formulation of cleaners and nanotechnology indicates their future implementation in these fields. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  6. Optimization of crude oil degradation by Dietzia cinnamea KA1, capable of biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavynifard, Amirarsalan; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was isolation and characterization of a crude oil degrader and biosurfactant-producing bacterium, along with optimization of conditions for crude oil degradation. Among 11 isolates, 5 were able to emulsify crude oil in Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) among which one isolate, named KA1, showed the highest potency for growth rate and biodegradation. The isolate was identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The optimal conditions were 510 mM NaCl, pH 9.0, 35 °C, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4 Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2 PO4 . Gravimetric test and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy technique (GC-MS) showed that Dietzia cinnamea KA1 was able to utilize and degrade 95.7% of the crude oil after 5 days, under the optimal conditions. The isolate was able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil, glycerol or whey as the sole carbon sources, but bacterial growth was occurred using molasses with no biosurfactant production. This is the first report of biosurfactant production by D. cinnamea using crude oil, glycerol and whey and the first study to report a species of Dietzia degrading a wide range of hydrocarbons in a short time. PMID:26615815

  7. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics. PMID:23280539

  8. Evaluation of orange peel for biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis and their ability to degrade naphthalene and crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Arthala Praveen; Janardhan, Avilala; Viswanath, Buddolla; Monika, Kallubai; Jung, Jin-Young; Narasimha, Golla

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-positive bacterium was isolated from mangrove soil and was identified as Bacillus licheniformis (KC710973). The potential of a mangrove microorganism to utilize different natural waste carbon substrates for biosurfactant production and biodegradation of hydrocarbons was evaluated. Among several substrates used in the present study, orange peel was found to be best substrate of biosurfactant yield with 1.796 g/L and emulsification activity of 75.17 % against diesel. Fourier transform in...

  9. Comparison of some indigenous bacterial strains of pseudomonas ssp. for production of biosurfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some indigenous pseudomonas spp. were found to have the ability of emulsification, lowering the surface and interfacial tensions, and formation of high reciprocal CMCs. Six strains of Pseudomonas spp were compared for biosurfactant production grown on hexadecane. Supernatant from whole culture broth of these strains could lower surface tension from 65 mN/m to 28-32 nM/m, interfacial tension from 40 nM/m to 1-3 mN/m and had high reciprocal CMCs. When compared for emulsification ability by the culture broth of these strains, the emulsification index (E24) was found to range between 60-65. Biosurfactant containing culture broth of some strains could retain the property up to 80 C, pH of 13 and sodium chloride concentration for 17% which indicates their possible role in some depleted oil well. (author)

  10. Oil degradation and biosurfactant production by the deep sea bacterium Dietzia maris As-13-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanpeng; Cai, Bobo; Shao, Zongze

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations of extreme environments have revealed numerous bioactive natural products. However, biosurfactant-producing strains from deep sea extreme environment are largely unknown. Here, we show that Dietzia maris As-13-3 isolated from deep sea hydrothermal field could produce di-rhamnolipid as biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the purified di-rhamnolipid was determined to be 120 mgL(-1), and it lowered the surface tension of water from 74 ± 0.2 to 38 ± 0.2 mN m(-1). Further, the alkane metabolic pathway-related genes and di-rhamnolipid biosynthesis-related genes were also analyzed by the sequencing genome of D. maris As-13-3 and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), respectively. Q-PCR analysis showed that all these genes were induced by n-Tetradecane, n-Hexadecane, and pristane. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report about the complete pathway of the di-rhamnolipid synthesis process in the genus Dietzia. Thus, our study provided the insights into Dietzia in respects of oil degradation and biosurfactant production, and will help to evaluate the potential of Dietzia in marine oil removal. PMID:25566224

  11. Oil degradation and biosurfactant production by the deep sea bacterium Dietzia maris As-13-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanpeng; Cai, Bobo; Shao, Zongze

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations of extreme environments have revealed numerous bioactive natural products. However, biosurfactant-producing strains from deep sea extreme environment are largely unknown. Here, we show that Dietzia maris As-13-3 isolated from deep sea hydrothermal field could produce di-rhamnolipid as biosurfactant. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the purified di-rhamnolipid was determined to be 120 mgL−1, and it lowered the surface tension of water from 74 ± 0.2 to 38 ± 0.2 mN m−1. Further, the alkane metabolic pathway-related genes and di-rhamnolipid biosynthesis-related genes were also analyzed by the sequencing genome of D. maris As-13-3 and quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), respectively. Q-PCR analysis showed that all these genes were induced by n-Tetradecane, n-Hexadecane, and pristane. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report about the complete pathway of the di-rhamnolipid synthesis process in the genus Dietzia. Thus, our study provided the insights into Dietzia in respects of oil degradation and biosurfactant production, and will help to evaluate the potential of Dietzia in marine oil removal. PMID:25566224

  12. Simultaneous Production of Biosurfactants and Bacteriocins by Probiotic Lactobacillus casei MRTL3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepansh Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are ubiquitous and well-known commensal bacteria in the human and animal microflora. LAB are extensively studied and used in a variety of industrial and food fermentations. They are widely used for humans and animals as adjuvants, probiotic formulation, and dietary supplements and in other food fermentation applications. In the present investigation, LAB were isolated from raw milk samples collected from local dairy farms of Haryana, India. Further, the isolates were screened for simultaneous production of biosurfactants and bacteriocins. Biosurfactant produced was found to be a mixture of lipid and sugar similar to glycolipids. The bacteriocin obtained was found to be heat stable (5 min at 100°C. Further, DNA of the strain was extracted and amplified by the 16S rRNA sequencing using universal primers. The isolate Lactobacillus casei MRTL3 was found to be a potent biosurfactant and bacteriocin producer. It seems to have huge potential for food industry as a biopreservative and/or food ingredient.

  13. Production of biosurfactants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA 1 isolated in oil environments

    OpenAIRE

    L.M. Santa Anna; Sebastian, G.V.; E.P. Menezes; ALVES T. L. M.; Santos, A.S.(LAFEX, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); N. Pereira Jr.; D.M.G. Freire

    2002-01-01

    The potential production of rhamnolipid-type biosurfactants is assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, which was isolated from oil production wastewater in the Northeast of Brazil. These production of molecules using different carbon (n-hexadecane, paraffinic oil, glycerol and babassu oil) and nitrogen sources (NaNO3, (NH4)2SO4 and CH4N2O) was studied. The best results were obtained when using glycerol as substrate. A C/N ratio ...

  14. Investigation of Antimicrobial Activity and Statistical Optimization of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 Biosurfactant Production in Solid-State Fermentation

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    Dhouha Ghribi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, several applications of biosurfactants with medical purposes have been reported. Biosurfactants are considered relevant molecules for applications in combating many diseases. However, their use is currently extremely limited due to their high cost in relation to that of chemical surfactants. Use of inexpensive substrates can drastically decrease its production cost. Here, twelve solid substrates were screened for the production of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant and the maximum yield was found with millet. A Plackett-Burman design was then used to evaluate the effects of five variables (temperature, moisture, initial pH, inoculum age, and inoculum size. Statistical analyses showed that temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content had significantly positive effect on SPB1 biosurfactant production. Their values were further optimized using a central composite design and a response surface methodology. The optimal conditions of temperature, inoculum age, and moisture content obtained under the conditions of study were 37°C, 14 h, and 88%, respectively. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of this compound was carried out against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. The results demonstrated that this biosurfactant exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against microorganisms with multidrug-resistant profiles. Its activity was very effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumonia, and so forth.

  15. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSVP20 isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and its physicochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Adgaba, Nuru; Khan, Khalid Ali; Pruthi, Vikas; Al-Waili, Noori

    2015-11-01

    Among 348 microbial strains isolated from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, five were selected for their ability to produce biosurfactant based on battery of screening assay including hemolytic activity, surface tension reduction, drop collapse assay, emulsification activity, and cell surface hydrophobicity studies. Of these, bacterial isolate DSVP20 was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCBI GenBank accession no. GQ865644) based on biochemical characterization and the 16S rDNA analysis, and it was found to be a potential candidate for biosurfactant production. Maximum biosurfactant production recorded by P. aeruginosa DSVP20 was 6.7 g/l after 72 h at 150 rpm and at a temperature of 30 °C. Chromatographic analysis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) revealed that it was a glycolipid in nature which was further confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bioremediation studies using purified biosurfactant showed that P. aeruginosa DSVP20 has the ability to degrade eicosane (97%), pristane (75%), and fluoranthene (47%) when studied at different time intervals for a total of 7 days. The results of this study showed that the P. aeruginosa DSVP20 and/or biosurfactant produced by this isolate have the potential role in bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. PMID:26146372

  16. Biosurfactant production by Serratia rubidaea SNAU02 isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil and its physico-chemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, S; Parthasarathi, R

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize and optimize the growth media for biosurfactant production from Serratia rubidaea SNAU02 isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India. The biosurfactant produced by S. rubidaea SNAU02, was able to reduce the surface tension to 34.4 mN m(-1) in MSM medium. The biosurfactant was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The GC-MS analysis shows that dirhamnolipid was detected in abundance as predominant congener than monorhamnolipid. The response surface methodology (RSM) -central composite design (CCD) was performed to optimize the media for biosurfactant production. The maximum emulsification index was obtained under the optimal condition of 29.31 g L(-1) mannitol; 2.06 g L(-1) yeast extract, medium pH 6.97 and 5.69 g L(-1) NaCl. The biosurfactant produced by S. rubidaea recovered 92% of used engine oil adsorbed to a sand sample, suggested the potential application in microbial enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation. PMID:23993704

  17. Production of Biosurfactant in 2L Bioreactor Using Sludge Palm Oil as a Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jamal; Md. Zahangir Alam; E. A. Zainuddin; and W. M. F. W. Nawawi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, sludge palm oil was utilized as a raw material for process optimization in a stirred tank bioreactor for the biosurfactant production. Optimized parameters include temperature, agitation and aeration while the pH and media compositions such as NaNO3, NaCl, FeSO4, Meat extract, and glucose have been fixed from the previous study. The design of this research was made by using the Design-Expert software (2 level factorial design). Surface tension was used as indirect indicator for...

  18. Biosurfactants production in biofilm reactor and their recovery by pertraction [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chtioui, O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on production and isolation of microbial surfactants with interesting properties for application in agriculture, petrol industry, pollution remediation and pharmaceutical fields. The biosurfactant production was performed by free and immobilized aerobic cells of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332. This strain produces lipopeptides of the surfactin and fengycin families. The colonizing behavior of Bacillus subtilis strain was evaluated under several experimental and cultural conditions at different sterile solid materials with modified surface properties. After preliminary screening tests with five polymer materials, polypropylene foamed with powder activated carbon (PPch was selected for cells immobilization and production of lipopeptides. The aims of work are to develop a new technology using the specificity of a biofilm reactor as well as a perspective continuous separation based on a liquid membrane technique (known also as pertraction. Using the classical aerated reactor the lipopeptides generate extensive foaming that imposes difficulties on plant-scale process realization. In order to avoid this drawback, while using the new type reactor conditions, the air was injected over the surface of cultural medium. With this configuration, the biofilm on the solid support and the culture medium are alimented in oxygen directly from the interfaces. The obtained results showed that the production of both lipopeptides and especially of the fengycin was greatly enhanced by the immobilization. The longer time of preliminary cells colonization enhanced highly the production of surfactin, especially at the beginning of fermentation process (the first 24 h. This effect was less evident after 48 h fermentation. To confirm the applicability of the liquid membrane process to lipopeptides recovery from aqueous media, including fermentation broth, extraction behavior of the lipopeptides into organic solvents was studied. For both lipopeptides

  19. Biosurfactants in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev, Dhara P.; Cameotra, Swaranjit S.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and ...

  20. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles, Martínez-Toledo; Refugio, Rodríguez-Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils) supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil. PMID:24294259

  1. Utilization of palm oil decanter cake as a novel substrate for biosurfactant production from a new and promising strain of Ochrobactrum anthropi 2/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noparat, Pongsak; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-03-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium, isolate 2/3, was isolated from mangrove sediment in the south of Thailand. It was evaluated as a potential biosurfactant producer. The highest biosurfactant production (4.52 g/l) was obtained when the cells were grown on a minimal salt medium containing 25 % (v/v) palm oil decanter cake and 1 % (w/v) commercial monosodium glutamate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. After microbial cultivation at 30 °C in an optimized medium for 96 h, the biosurfactant produced was found to reduce the surface tension of pure water to 25.0 mN/m with critical micelle concentrations of 8.0 mg/l. The stability of the biosurfactant at different salinities, pH and temperature and also its emulsifying activity was investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pH and salt concentrations. The biosurfactant obtained was confirmed as a glycolipid type biosurfactant by using a biochemical test, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, MNR and mass spectrometry. The crude biosurfactant showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and also had the ability to emulsify oil and enhance polyaromatic hydrocarbons solubility. PMID:24081911

  2. Environmental applications of biosurfactants: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacwa-Płociniczak, Magdalena; Płaza, Grażyna A; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2011-01-01

    Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide variety of industrial and biotechnological applications. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the applications of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms in hydrocarbon and metal remediation technologies. PMID:21340005

  3. Environmental Applications of Biosurfactants: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaranjit Singh Cameotra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons and metals. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology of environments contaminated with these pollutants is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. The diversity of biosurfactants makes them an attractive group of compounds for potential use in a wide variety of industrial and biotechnological applications. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances in the applications of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms in hydrocarbon and metal remediation technologies.

  4. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskatepe, Banu; Yildiz, Sulhiye; Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956). The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production. PMID:26413070

  5. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kaskatepe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956. The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  6. Simultaneous production of detergent stable keratinolytic protease, amylase and biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis PF1 using agro industrial waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Bhange

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to optimize simultaneous production of keratinolytic protease, amylase and biosurfactant from feather meal, potato peel and rape seed cake in a single media by response surface methodology to evaluate their biochemical properties for detergent additive. The optimization was carried out using 20 run, 3 factor and 5-level of central composite design on design expert software which resulted in a 1.2, 0.84 and 2.28 fold increase in protease, amylase and biosurfactant production. The proteolytic activity was found to be optimum at pH 9.0 and 60 °C while optimum amylolytic activity was recorded at pH 6.0 and 70 °C respectively. Both enzymes were found to be stable in the presence of organic solvents, ionic and commercial detergent and oxidizing agents. The biosurfactant was extracted with chloroform and was found to be stable at varying pH and temperature; however a reduction in the activity was observed at temperature higher than 70 °C. The isolated enzymes and biosurfactants may find applications in the effective removal of stains.

  7. Production of Enzymes from Agroindustrial Wastes by Biosurfactant-Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fábio Cavalcante Barros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in the genus Bacillus are the source of several enzymes of current industrial interest. Hydrolases, such as amylases, proteases, and lipases, are the main enzymes consumed worldwide and have applications in a wide range of products and industrial processes. Fermentation processes by Bacillus subtilis using cassava wastewater as a substrate are reported in the technical literature; however, the same combination of microorganisms and this culture medium is limited or nonexistent. In this paper, the amylase, protease, and lipase production of ten Bacillus subtilis strains previously identified as biosurfactant producers in cassava wastewater was evaluated. The LB1a and LB5a strains were selected for analysis using a synthetic medium and cassava wastewater and were identified as good enzyme producers, especially of amylases and proteases. In addition, the enzymatic activity results indicate that cassava wastewater was better than the synthetic medium for the induction of these enzymes.

  8. Production of Enzymes from Agroindustrial Wastes by Biosurfactant-Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Francisco Fábio Cavalcante; Simiqueli, Ana Paula Resende; de Andrade, Cristiano José; Pastore, Gláucia Maria

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Bacillus are the source of several enzymes of current industrial interest. Hydrolases, such as amylases, proteases, and lipases, are the main enzymes consumed worldwide and have applications in a wide range of products and industrial processes. Fermentation processes by Bacillus subtilis using cassava wastewater as a substrate are reported in the technical literature; however, the same combination of microorganisms and this culture medium is limited or nonexistent. In this paper, the amylase, protease, and lipase production of ten Bacillus subtilis strains previously identified as biosurfactant producers in cassava wastewater was evaluated. The LB1a and LB5a strains were selected for analysis using a synthetic medium and cassava wastewater and were identified as good enzyme producers, especially of amylases and proteases. In addition, the enzymatic activity results indicate that cassava wastewater was better than the synthetic medium for the induction of these enzymes. PMID:23533780

  9. Avaliação cinética da produção de biossurfactantes bacterianos Bacteria biosurfactants production kinetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Heidtmann Pinto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants present advantages in relation to the synthetic surfactants, as the biodegradability and low toxicity, and can be applied in the food industry, in pharmaceutical products, cosmetics and in the petroleum recovery. This paper aimed at selecting bacteria for biosurfactant production, evaluating the surface tension and the emulsifying activity and studying the fermentation process kinetics. The pure culture of Corynebacterium aquaticum showed capacity to promote emulsions formation and presented the smallest surface tension (28.8 mN m-1, and, in general, larger kinetic parameters, being selected as biosurfactant producer.

  10. Biosurfactant production through Bacillus sp. MTCC 5877 and its multifarious applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Farhan; Gautam, Gunjan; Edgard, Gnansounou; Negi, Sangeeta

    2016-08-01

    In this study Bacillus sp. MTCC5877 was explored for the production of biosurfactant (BSs) and various carbon sources 1% (w/v), 0.5% (w/v) nitrogen sources were tested at different pH, and temperature. Yield was measured in terms of Emulsification index (EI), Oil Displacement Area (ODA) and Drop Collapse Area (DCA) and maximum emulsification activities of BSs were found (E24) 50%, 76% and 46%, respectively, and maximum ODA of 5.0, 6.2 and 4.7cm, were shown respectively. The BS was able to reduce the surface tension of water from 72 to 30mN/m and 72 to 32mN/m. Structural compositions of BS were confirmed by FTIR, GC-MS and NMR. Anti-adhesive property of BS was determined and found effective against biofilm formation. It could remove 73% Cd from vegetable which confirms its application in food industry. PMID:27013189

  11. Auto-production of biosurfactants reverses the coffee ring effect in a bacterial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempels, Wouter; de Dier, Raf; Mizuno, Hideaki; Hofkens, Johan; Vermant, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The deposition of material at the edge of evaporating droplets, known as the ‘coffee ring effect’, is caused by a radially outward capillary flow. This phenomenon is common to a wide array of systems including colloidal and bacterial systems. The role of surfactants in counteracting these coffee ring depositions is related to the occurrence of local vortices known as Marangoni eddies. Here we show that these swirling flows are universal, and not only lead to a uniform deposition of colloids but also occur in living bacterial systems. Experiments on Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggest that the auto-production of biosurfactants has an essential role in creating a homogeneous deposition of the bacteria upon drying. Moreover, at biologically relevant conditions, intricate time-dependent flows are observed in addition to the vortex regime, which are also effective in reversing the coffee ring effect at even lower surfactant concentrations.

  12. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Toledo Ángeles; Rodríguez-Vázquez Refugio

    2013-01-01

    In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus), P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients). The results were compared against...

  13. Exploration on production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants using native Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAVISH BHAT

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are structurally diverse surface-active molecules, produced on living surfaces, mostly microbial cell surfaces or excreted extracellularly. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants have wide spectrum use and are predominantly produced by the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, 75 Pseudomonas strains isolated from distinct native habitats were screened following oil spreading technique, methylene blue agar method, hemolytic blood agar method and surface tension measurement of the cell free culture. Ten selected isolates were tested for their ability to produce rhamnolipid biosurfactants in glycerol mediated broth. The best among them, Pa24, was confirmed as Pseudomonas aeruginosa through 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Experiments carried out on the ability of P. aeruginosa strain Pa24 revealed its potential to utilize range of vegetable oils such as coconut oil, palm oil, jatropha oil, neem oil and mineral glycerol as sole source of carbon and produce rhamnolipid biosurfactant. The extracted biosurfactant was characterized by thin layer chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography as mixture of di-rhamnolipid and mono-rhamnolipid biosurfactants. The crude extract of rhamnolipid was tested in-vitro for antifungal activity against Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora infestans and the MIC50 were found to be 815.8 ppm and 373.9 ppm, respectively. Further exploration on different renewable carbon sources including agriculture industrial wastes to produce rhamnolipid biosurfactants can improve the efficiency and reduce the environmental pollution through waste discharge from these industries.

  14. In situ biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon removal by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 in bioaugmented and biostimulated oil-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Toledo Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ biosurfactant (rhamnolipid production by Pseudomonas putida CB-100 was achieved during a bioaugmented and biostimulated treatment to remove hydrocarbons from aged contaminated soil from oil well drilling operations. Rhamnolipid production and contaminant removal were determined for several treatments of irradiated and non-irradiated soils: nutrient addition (nitrogen and phosphorus, P. putida addition, and addition of both (P. putida and nutrients. The results were compared against a control treatment that consisted of adding only sterilized water to the soils. In treatment with native microorganisms (non-irradiated soils supplemented with P. putida, the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH was 40.6%, the rhamnolipid production was 1.54 mg/kg, and a surface tension of 64 mN/m was observed as well as a negative correlation (R = -0.54; p < 0.019 between TPH concentration (mg/kg and surface tension (mN/m, When both bacteria and nutrients were involved, TPH levels were lowered to 33.7%, and biosurfactant production and surface tension were 2.03 mg/kg and 67.3 mN/m, respectively. In irradiated soil treated with P. putida, TPH removal was 24.5% with rhamnolipid generation of 1.79 mg/kg and 65.6 mN/m of surface tension, and a correlation between bacterial growth and biosurfactant production (R = -0.64; p < 0.009 was observed. When the nutrients and P. putida were added, TPH removal was 61.1%, 1.85 mg/kg of biosurfactants were produced, and the surface tension was 55.6 mN/m. In summary, in irradiated and non-irradiated soils, in situ rhamnolipid production by P. putida enhanced TPH decontamination of the soil.

  15. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Khadydja F. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  16. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  17. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  18. Production of biosurfactants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA 1 isolated in oil environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Anna L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential production of rhamnolipid-type biosurfactants is assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, which was isolated from oil production wastewater in the Northeast of Brazil. These production of molecules using different carbon (n-hexadecane, paraffinic oil, glycerol and babassu oil and nitrogen sources (NaNO3, (NH42SO4 and CH4N2O was studied. The best results were obtained when using glycerol as substrate. A C/N ratio of 60/1 and use of sodium nitrate as nitrogen source resulted in higher production of the rhamnolipid, expressed by rhamnose (3.16 g/L and by the yield in relation to biomass (Yp/x = 0.70 g/g. Additionally, physical-chemical characteristics of the spent broth with and without cells were studied, providing a low critical micelle concentration of 19 mg/L and toxicity values of 13 and 13.8 mg/L using two test organisms, the micro crustacean Daphnia similis and the bacterium Vibrio fisheri (Microtox, respectively.

  19. Effects of biosurfactant production by indigenous soil microorganisms on bioremediation of a co-contaminated soil in batch experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, F.; Mulligan, C.N. [Concordia Univ., Centre for Building Studies, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The challenge of remediating soils that are contaminated with both hydrocarbon compounds and metals was discussed, with particular reference to an in-situ bioremediation technique that was developed in the 1970s to deal with contaminated soils. The technique involves a two-stage process where water with added oxygen and nutrients is applied onto and injected into a contaminated area to stimulate the indigenous microbial populations in the soil. In addition to using organic pollutants as their carbon source, microorganisms can facilitate the removal of metals from the soil matrix and attenuate the toxicity of certain metals. Extraction wells placed downstream of the contaminated soils are used to remove and treat the water to eliminate any mobilized contaminants. This paper presented the results of batch experiments that evaluated the feasibility of biosurfactant production for the purpose of bioremediating a soil contaminated with aged petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The first phase of the study examined the growth of the native microbial population and the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, the production of biosurfactant and the mobilization of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and metals into the aqueous phase. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was observed in both soil and soil amended with nitrogen and phosphorous. However, the nutrient-amended soil had higher biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, where 36 per cent of TPH was degraded by the end of the 50 day experiment, compared to 15 per cent for the non-amended soils. The concentration of biosurfactants in the same period increased 3 times their critical micelle concentration. It was concluded that biosurfactant production enhances the bioremediation of co-contaminated soils. 36 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  20. Production and characterization of a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid B, from sugarcane juice by Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Ishibashi, Yuko; Hirose, Naoto; Wada, Koji; Takahashi, Makoto; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2011-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants excreted by fungal strains. They show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730 has been reported mainly to produce a mono-acetylated and di-acylated MEL, MEL-B, from sucrose as sole carbon source. In order to make biosurfactant production more efficient, we focused our attention on the use of sugarcane juice, one of the most economical resources. The fungal strain produced MEL-B at the yield of 12.7 g/L from only sugarcane juice containing 22.4% w/w sugars. Supplementation with organic (yeast extract, peptone, and urea) and inorganic (sodium nitrate and ammonium nitrate) nitrogen sources markedly enhanced the production yield. Of the nitrogen sources, urea gave the best yield. Under optimum conditions, the strain produced 25.1 g/L of MEL-B from the juice (19.3% sugars) supplemented with 1 g/L of urea in a jar fermenter at 25 °C over 7 d. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface-tension at the CMC for the present MEL-B were 3.7×10(-6) M and 25.2 mN/m respectively. On water-penetration scan, the biosurfactant efficiently formed the lamella phase (L(α)) and myelins over a wide range of concentrations, indicating excellent surface-active and self-assembling properties. More significantly, the biosurfactant showed a ceramide-like skin-care property in a three-dimensional cultured human skin model. Thus, sugarcane juice is likely to be effective in glycolipid production by U. scitaminea NBRC 32730, and should facilitate the application of MELs. PMID:21737925

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS STRAIN JF-2 FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; M. Folmsbee; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Our work focuses on the use of microorganisms to recover petroleum hydrocarbons that remain entrapped after current recovery technologies reach their economic limit. Capillary forces between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are largely responsible for trapping the hydrocarbons in the pores of the rock and large reductions in the interfacial tension between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (1-3, 10, 11). Microorganisms produce a variety of biosurfactants (4), several of which generate the ultra low interfacial tensions needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (4, 5, 8). In particular, the lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 reduces the interfacial tension between hydrocarbon and aqueous phases to very low levels (<0.016 mN/m) (8) (9). B. mojavensis JF-2 grows under the environmental conditions found in many oil reservoirs, i. e., anaerobic, NaCl concentrations up to 80 g l{sup -1}, and temperatures up to 45 C (6, 7), making it ideally suited for in situ applications. However, anaerobic growth of B. mojavensis JF-2 was inconsistent and difficult to replicate, which limited its use for in situ applications. Our initial studies revealed that enzymatic digests, such as Proteose Peptone, were required for anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2. Subsequent purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose Peptone resulted in the identification of the growth-enhancing factor as DNA or deoxyribonucleosides. The addition of salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, E. coli DNA or synthetic DNA (single or double stranded) to Medium E all supported anaerobic growth of JF-2. Further, we found that JF-2 required all four deoxyribonucleosides (deoxyadeonosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine) for growth under strict anaerobic conditions. The requirement for the deoxyribonucleosides did not occur under aerobic growth conditions. DNA was not used as a sole energy source; sucrose was required

  2. Molasses as a whole medium for biosurfactants production by Bacillus strains and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimmai, Atipan; Sobhon, Vorasan; Maneerat, Suppasil

    2011-09-01

    Two types of biosurfactant (BS)-producing bacteria, Bacillus licheniformis TR7 and Bacillus subtilis SA9, were isolated from mangrove sediment in the south of Thailand. The BS production was done by using only molasses as a whole medium for growth and production. Under optimized conditions, the yields of TR7 and SA9 BS were found to be 3.30 and 3.78 g/l, respectively. It could reduce the surface tension of pure water to 28.5 and 29.5 mN/m, with the critical micelle concentrations of about 10 and 30 mg/l, respectively. Good thermal, pH, and salt stability were exhibited. Both BSs could recover oil more effectively than the two synthetic surfactants. In addition, TR7 and SA9 BS could enhance the solubility of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Thus, these BSs have the potential for the removal of oil and PAHs from the combined contaminated environment and facilitate its bioremediation. These studies indicate that molasses, as a renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resource, can be used for important biotechnological processes. PMID:21509601

  3. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma siamensis CBS 9960 and their interfacial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-05-01

    The search for a novel producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), was undertaken on the basis of the analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences of yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. In the course of the investigation, Pseudozyma siamensis CBS 9960, which is closely related to Pseudozyma shanxiensis, a known MEL-C producer but with a different morphology, was found to accumulate a large amount of glycolipids. On thin layer chromatography, the extracellular glycolipids showed nearly the same spots as those of the MELs produced by P. shanxiensis. However, the result of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the present strain has a much higher glycolipid production yield than P. shanxiensis. From the structural characterization by (1)H and (13)C NMR, the major glycolipid (more than 84% of the total) was identified as a mixture of 4-O-[(2',4'-di-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol and 4-O-[(4'-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl-2'-O-butanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, both of which are types of MEL-C. The present MEL-C possessed a short-chain acid (C(2) or C(4)) at the C-2' position and a long-chain acid (C(16)) at the C-3' position of the mannose moiety, and thus, the hydrophobic part was considerably different from that of conventional MELs, which mainly possess two medium-chain acids (C(10)) at the C-2' and C-3' positions. Under optimal growth conditions with safflower oil in a shake culture, the total amount of MELs reached approximately 19 g/l after 9 d at 25 degrees C. We further investigated the interfacial properties of the present MEL-C, considering its unique hydrophobic structure. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at the CMC of the MEL were 4.5 x 10(-6) M and 30.7 mN/m, respectively. In addition, on a water penetration scan, the MEL efficiently formed the liquid crystal phases such as hexagonal (H) and lamella (L(a)) at a wide range of

  4. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed. PMID:23956227

  5. Production of biosurfactant and antifungal compound by fermented food isolate Bacillus subtilis 20B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket; Bharucha, Chirag; Desai, Anjana J

    2008-07-01

    A biosurfactant producing strain, Bacillus subtilis 20B, was isolated from fermented food in India. The strain also showed inhibition of various fungi in in-vitro experiments on Potato Dextrose Agar medium. It was capable of growth at temperature 55 degrees C and salts up to 7%. It utilized different sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbons and oil as a carbon source, with preference for sugars. In glucose based minimal medium it produced biosurfactant which reduced surface tension to 29.5 mN/m, interfacial tension to 4.5 mN/m and gave stable emulsion with crude oil and n-hexadecane. The biosurfactant activity was stable at high temperature, a wide range of pH and salt concentrations for five days. Oil displacement experiments using biosurfactant containing broth in sand pack columns with crude oil showed 30.22% recovery. The possible application of organism as biocontrol agent and use of biosurfactant in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is discussed. PMID:17855083

  6. Sulfur source-mediated transcriptional regulation of the rhlABC genes involved in biosurfactants production by Pseudomonas sp. strain AK6U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Wael; El Nayal, Ashraf M.; Ramadan, Ahmed R.; Abotalib, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Despite the nutritional significance of sulfur, its influence on biosurfactants production has not been sufficiently studied. We investigated the expression of key biosurfactants production genes, rhlABC, in cultures of Pseudomonas sp. AK6U grown with inorganic or organic sulfur sources. AK6U grew with either inorganic sulfate (MgSO4), dibenzothiophene (DBT), or DBT-sulfone as a sole sulfur source in the presence of glucose as a carbon source. The AK6U cultures produced variable amounts of biosurfactants depending on the utilized sulfur source. Biosurfactants production profile of the DBT cultures was significantly different from that of the DBT-sulfone and inorganic sulfate cultures. The last two cultures were very similar in terms of biosurfactants productivity. Biosurfactants yield in the DBT cultures (1.3 g/L) was higher than that produced by the DBT-sulfone (0.5 g/L) and the inorganic sulfate (0.44 g/L) cultures. Moreover, the surface tension reduction in the DBT cultures (33 mN/m) was much stronger than that measured in the DBT-sulfone (58 mN/m) or inorganic sulfate (54 mN/m) cultures. RT-qPCR revealed variations in the expression levels of the rhlABC genes depending on the sulfur source. The DBT cultures had higher expression levels for the three genes as compared to the DBT-sulfone and inorganic sulfate cultures. There was no significant difference in the expression profiles between the DBT-sulfone and the MgSO4 cultures. The increased expression of rhlC in the DBT cultures is indicative for production of higher amounts of dirhamnolipids compared to the DBT-sulfone and inorganic sulfate cultures. The gene expression results were in good agreement with the biosurfactants production yields and surface tension measurements. The sulfur source mediates a fine-tuned mechanism of transcriptional regulation of biosurfactants production genes. Our findings can have an impact on industrial production of biosurfactants and other biotechnological processes like

  7. USE OF BUTTER MILK AND POULTRY-TRANSFORMING WASTES FOR ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF Bacillus subtilis SPB1 BIOSURFACTANT IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida Zouari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are valuable microbial amphiphilic molecules with effective surface-active and biological properties applicable to several industries and processes. Microorganisms synthesize them, especially during growth on water-immiscible substrates, providing an alternative to chemically prepared conventional surfactants. Microbial surfactants are not yet a sustainable alternative to chemically synthesized surfactants seeing their potentially high production charges. This study highlights the use of low-cost agro-industrial raw material for fermentative production of biosurfactants. The Box–Behnken Design and response surface methodology were employed to optimize the concentrations of the ratio butter milk /distilled water, poultry-transforming wastes and inoculum size for lipopeptide biosurfactant production by B.subtilis SPB1 in submerged fermentation.The best production yield was about 12.61 ± 0.7 g/L of crude lipopeptide biosurfactant. It can be obtained when using a ratio butter milk /distilled water of 1.5, poultry-transforming wastes of 23g/L and an inoculum size of 0.12. In comparison to the highest biosurfactant production yield reported for Bacillus subtilis SPB1, three fold increases were obtained.

  8. Production of biosurfactants for environment remediation contaminated with oil and derivatives; Producao de biossurfactantes para remediacao de ambiente contaminados com petroleo e derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriano Henrique Soares de; Guimaraes, Juliana Aguilar; Hiluy Filho, Joao Jose; Lopes, Ada Amelia Sanders [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: hiluy@ufc.br

    2003-07-01

    Biosurfactants are emulsifiers of hydrocarbons produced by bacteria, yeast and fungi. They are polymers that form micelles and stay at the interface between liquid of different polarities. This work aim to study the development of the biosurfactant production process and its application related to oil sludge. This research has been done in three different steps: the Acinetobacter iwoffii inoculation, its growth in a nutritive broth and the fermentation under specific conditions. It was used three different kind of substrates: ethanol, glycerol and kerosene for comparison. The surfactant potential was evaluated by the emulsification indexes with suspension biomass and efficiency tests with oil sludge. Preliminary results show that biosurfactant production by Acinetobacter iwoffii can be a feasible process due to the satisfactory emulsification indexes that have been obtained. (author)

  9. Estudo da produção de biossurfactante em caldo de fermentação Study on the production of biosurfactant fermentation broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Messias Bueno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium isolated from soil contaminated by hydrocarbon was studied and, by biochemical tests and analysis of PCR, the presence of Bacillus pumilus was identified. The production of biosurfactant was optimized, test of oil degradation and antimicrobial activity determination. The results showed that pH 5.0 and 7.0, 72 h of fermentation, sucrose and sugar cane juice (2% had best yields. The bacterium is able to degrade crude oil and displays bacteriostatic and fungistatic activity. From the analysis of proximate composition of biosurfactant found the presence of biopolymer formed by a lipopolysaccharide-protein complex.

  10. Production and characterization of microbial biosurfactants for potential use in oil-spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, M E; Colonna, W J; Patra, P; Zhang, H; Green, C; Reznik, G; Pynn, M; Jarrell, K; Nyman, J A; Somasundaran, P; Glatz, C E; Lamsal, B P

    2014-02-01

    Two biosurfactants, surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate, were produced from genetically-modified strains of Bacillus subtilis on 2% glucose and mineral salts media in shake-flasks and bioreactors. Biosurfactant synthesis ceased when the main carbohydrate source was completely depleted. Surfactin titers were ∼30-fold higher than fatty acyl-glutamate in the same medium. When bacteria were grown in large aerated bioreactors, biosurfactants mostly partitioned to the foam fraction, which was recovered. Dispersion effectiveness of surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate was evaluated by measuring the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). The CMC values for surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate in double deionized distilled water were 0.015 and 0.10 g/L, respectively. However, CMC values were higher, 0.02 and 0.4 g/L for surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate, respectively, in 12 parts per thousand Instant Ocean®[corrected].sea salt, which has been partly attributed to saline-induced conformational changes in the solvated ionic species of the biosurfactants. The DORs for surfactin and fatty acyl-glutamate were 1:96 and 1:12, respectively, in water. In Instant Ocean® solutions containing 12 ppt sea salt, these decreased to 1:30 and 1:4, respectively, suggesting reduction in oil dispersing efficiency of both surfactants in saline. Surfactant toxicities were assessed using the Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis, which is common in estuarine habitats of the Gulf of Mexico. Surfactin was 10-fold more toxic than fatty acyl-glutamate. A commercial surfactant, sodium laurel sulfate, had intermediate toxicity. Raising the salinity from 5 to 25 ppt increased the toxicity of all three surfactants; however, the increase was the lowest for fatty acyl-glutamate. PMID:24411443

  11. Efficient production of di- and tri-acylated mannosylerythritol lipids as glycolipid biosurfactants by Pseudozyma parantarctica JCM 11752(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising biosurfactants known, because of their multifunctionality and biocompatibility. In order to attain an efficient production of MELs, Pseudozyma parantarctica JCM 11752(T), which is a newly identified strain of the genus, was examined for the productivity of MELs at different culture conditions. The yeast strain showed significant cell growth and production of di-acylated MELs even at 36 degrees C. In contrast, on conventional high-level MEL producers including P. rugulosa, the MEL yield considerably decreased with an increase of the cultivation temperature at over 30 degrees C. On P. parantarctica, soybean oil and sodium nitrate were the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Under the optimal conditions on a shake-flask culture at 34 degrees C, the amount of di-acylated MELs reached over 100 g/L by intermittent feeding of only soybean oil. Interestingly, the yeast strain produced tri-acylated MELs as well as di-acylated ones when grown on the medium containing higher soybean oil concentrations than 8% (vol/vol). The production of tri-acylated MELs was significantly accelerated at between 34 and 36 degrees C. With 20 % (vol/vol) of soybean oil at 34 degrees C, the yield of tri-acylated MELs reached 22.7 g/L. The extracellular lipase activity considerably depended on the culture temperature, and became the maximum at 34 degrees C; this would bring the accelerated production of tri-acylated MELs. Accordingly, the present strain of P. parantarctica provided high efficiency in MEL production at elevated temperatures compared to conventional MEL producers, and would thus be highly advantageous for the commercial production of the promising biosurfactants. PMID:18781056

  12. Effect of nutrients and fermentation conditions on the production of biosurfactants using rhizobacteria isolated from fique plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura M. Pedroza-Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To isolate biosurfactant-producing microorganisms from the rhizosphere of fique and to select the best genus to evaluate theeffect of nutritional and fermentation conditions on the production of rhamnolipids. Materials and methods. Rhizospheric soil wassampled in three areas of Cauca. The best genus was selected for the experimental designs (Plackett Burman and 22 factorial and to find theproduction conditions for the growth kinetics at an Erlenmeyer flask scale. Results. Isolates from the rhizosphere of fique plants were fromgroups (or genera of Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Actinomycetes, being Pseudomonas the more responsive in preliminary testing foremulsification. From the results of the experimental designs and the kinetics of production, we found that rhamnose synthesis associatedwith rhamnolipids (3.2 g/l and emulsification (68% EC24 was significantly favored (p <0.0001 by cultivating an inoculum of 10% v/vof Pseudomonas fluorescens in a medium composed of: soybean oil 2% (v/v, K2HPO40.2% (w/v, yeast extract 0.4 g/l, NH4NO33.7 g/l, 1 ml trace elements (CoCl320 mg/l, H3BO330 mg/l, ZnSO410 mg/l, Cu2SO41 mg/l, Na2MoO43 mg/l, FeSO410 mg/l MnSO42,6 mg/l and pH 7.2. Conclusion. Of all the microbial genera isolated from the rhizosphere of fique, Pseudomonas fluorescens had the greatestpotential in the production of biosurfactants of the rhamnolipids family.

  13. In-situ production of biosurfactants: An alternative method for dispersing and bioremediating marine oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of surfactant producing bacteria for the dispersion of oil spills was conducted. Isolation procedures, shoreline experiments, flume basin experiments, and simulated open sea meso-scale experiments and results were described. Bacteria strains were obtained from several locations world-wide, though more success was experienced with strains from colder regions. Two strains were used in the meso-scale experiment. A rapid reduction in the aliphatic fraction of the dispersed oil was observed. Most strains were found to be capable of dispersing crude oils with differing compositions. Efforts to emulsify oil-in-water on an artificial shoreline with biosurfactants producing bacteria showed only limited success in mobilizing the oil. 8 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs

  14. Production of a novel glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylmannitol lipid, by Pseudozyma parantarctica and its interfacial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Masaru; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-07-01

    The development of a novel glycolipid biosurfactant was undertaken using the high-level producers of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) such as Pseudozyma parantarctica, Pseudozyma antarctica, and Pseudozyma rugulosa. Besides the conventional MELs (MEL-A, MEL-B, and MEL-C), these yeasts produced an unknown glycolipid when they were cultivated in a medium containing 4% (w/v) olive oil and 4% (w/w) mannitol as the carbon source. The unknown glycolipid extracted from the culture medium of P. parantarctica JCM 11752(T) displayed the spot with lower mobility than that of known MELs on TLC and provided mainly two peaks identical to mannose and mannitol on high-performance liquid chromatography after acid hydrolysis. Based on structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, the novel glycolipid was composed of mannose and mannitol as the hydrophilic sugar moiety and was identified as mannosylmannitol lipid (MML). Of the strains tested, P. parantarctica JCM 11752(T) gave the best yield of MML (18.2 g/L), which comprised approximately 35% of all glycolipids produced. We further investigated the interfacial properties of the MML, considering the unique hydrophilic structure. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at CMC of the MML were 2.6 x 10(-6) M and 24.2 mN/m, respectively. In addition, on a water-penetration scan, the MML efficiently formed not only the lamella phase (Lalpha) but also the myelins at a wide range of concentrations, indicating its excellent self-assembling properties and high hydrophilicity. The present glycolipid should thus facilitate the application of biosurfactants as new functional materials. PMID:19296097

  15. Applications of biosurfactants in the petroleum industry and the remediation of oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cássia F S Silva, Rita; Almeida, Darne G; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills. PMID:25029542

  16. Applications of Biosurfactants in the Petroleum Industry and the Remediation of Oil Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia F. S. Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  17. Biosurfactants: a sustainable replacement for chemical surfactants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2012-09-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants produced by bacteria and yeasts provide significant opportunities to replace chemical surfactants with sustainable biologically produced alternatives in bulk commercial products such as laundry detergents and surface cleaners. Sophorolipids are already available in sufficient yield to make their use feasible while rhamnolipids and mannosylerythritol lipids require further development. The ability to tailor the biosurfactant produced to the specific needs of the product formulation will be an important future step. PMID:22618240

  18. Isolation and Identification of Lactobacilli From Cheese, Yoghurt and Silage by 16S rDNA Gene and Study of Bacteriocin and Biosurfactant Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Peymanfar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: The Lactobacilli belong to lactic acid bacteria, whose primary fermentation end product from sugars is lactic acid and that is why foods are conserved. Lactic acid bacteria have been used for millennia in the production of silage. Therefore, they are an indispensable part of intestinal microflora in human and animals. .Objectives: This research meant to isolate lactic acid bacteria with significant effects from different environments. .Materials and Methods: In this study, heterofermentative LAB were isolated from cheese, yoghurt and corn silage in Broujerd ,Iran. The standard biochemical methods were applied. Acid tolerance was studied by exposure to acidic PBS and growth in bile salt was measured by the spectrophotometric method. The isolated bacteria were studied for antagonistic effects on environment isolated E.coli, bacteriocin and biosurfactant production. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and amplified by PCR method. .Results: The 3 isolates from cheese, yoghurt and silage were effective against isolated E.coli and could produce biosurfactants. Phylogenic relationships of the 3 potential candidates were determined comparing the 16Sr DNA gene sequences, they were found to be as 3 isolates of Lactobacillus buchneri, L.brevis and L.kefiri that were effective on the isolated E.coli from environment. .Conclusions: It was found that the isolated bacteria produced biosurfactants that had a great potential for different industries.

  19. Isolation of basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis and production of glycolipid biosurfactant, a diastereomer type of mannosylerythritol lipid-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Takashima, Masako; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2010-10-01

    The producers of glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid-B (MEL-B), were isolated from leaves of Perilla frutescens on Ibaraki in Japan. Four isolates, 1D9, 1D10, 1D11, and 1E5, were identified as basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma tsukubaensis by rDNA sequence and biochemical properties. The structure of MEL-B produced by these strains was analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods, and was determined to be the same as the diastereomer MEL-B produced by P. tsukubaensis NBRC 1940. Of these isolates, P. tsukubaensis 1E5 (JCM 16987) is capable of producing the largest amount of the diastereomer MEL-B from vegetable oils. In order to progress the diastereomer MEL-B production by strain 1E5, factors affecting the production, such as carbon and organic nutrient sources, were further examined. Olive oil and yeast extract were the best carbon and nutrient sources, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, a maximum yield, productivity, and yield coefficient of 73.1 g/L, 10.4 g L(-1) day(-1), and 43.5 g/g were achieved by feeding of olive oil in a 5-L jar-fermenter culture using strain 1E5. PMID:20652239

  20. Extracellular production of a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, by Candida sp. SY16 using fed-batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Sik; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Yoon, Byung-Dae

    2006-04-01

    Candida sp. strain SY16 produces a glycolipid-type biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL-SY16), which can reduce the surface tension of a culture broth from 72 to 30 dyne cm(-1) and highly emulsify hydrocarbons when cultured in soybean-oil-containing media. As such, laboratory-scale fermentation for MEL-SY16 production was performed using optimized conditions. In batch fermentation, MEL-SY16 was mainly produced during the stationary phase of growth, and the concentration of MEL-SY16 reached 37 g l(-1) after 200 h. The effect of pH control on the production of MEL-SY16 was also examined in batch fermentation. The highest production yield of MEL-SY16 was when the pH was controlled at 4.0, and the production was significantly improved compared to batch fermentation without pH control. In fed-batch fermentation, glucose and soybean oil (1:1, w/w) were used in combination as the initial carbon sources for cell growth, and soybean oil was used as the feeding carbon source during the MEL production phase. The feeding of soybean oil resulted in the disappearance of any foam and a sharp increase in the MEL production until 200 h, at which point the concentration of MEL-SY16 was 95 g l(-1). Among the investigated culture systems, the highest MEL-SY16 production and volumetric production rate were achieved with fed-batch fermentation. PMID:16133323

  1. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of hydrophobic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameotra, S.S.; Makkar, R.S. [Inst. of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-01-15

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and - philic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures-lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crude on sludge, and pesticides call be toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds that pollute the environment. They are released into the environment as a result of oil spillage and by-products of coal treatment processes. The low water solubility of these compounds limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of pollutants has potential hioremediation applications.

  2. Removal of PAH using electrokinetic transport of biosurfactants in clayey soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria, E.; Lin, J. [Dept. of Building Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The electrokinetic introduction of non-toxic, biodegradable surfactants (produced ex-situ) to remediate PAH-contaminated soil was investigated. The lab tests demonstrated the possibility of removal of organic contaminants from clayey soil without hazardous impact to the environment. The rhamnolipids (biosurfactants), produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to increase the solubility of PAHs into the aqueous phase, were used in the enhancement of electrokinetic remediation. This study determined the potential on-site production of biosurfactants that was directly introduced to soil by means of electrokinetics. The average removal of phenanthrene achieved 74% in the presence of biosurfactants above CMC. The remaining compounds are left for biodegradation. These results contribute to the development of a new remediation technology - bioelectrokinetics. (orig.)

  3. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are “green” amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS – lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents. PMID:25904907

  4. Effects of critical medium components on the production of antifungal lipopeptides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Q-426 exhibiting excellent biosurfactant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengchao; Quan, Chunshan; Jin, Liming; Wang, Lina; Wang, Jianhua; Fan, Shengdi

    2013-03-01

    In this study, influence of three critical parameters nitrogen sources, initial pH and metal ions was discussed in the production of antifungal lipopeptides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Q-426. The results revealed that lipopeptide biosynthesis might have relations with the population density of strain Q-426 and some special amino acids. Also, the alkali-resistant strain Q-426 could grow well in the presence of Fe(2+) ions below 0.8 M l(-1) and still maintain the competitive advantage below 0.2 M l(-1). Moreover, lipopeptides exhibited significant inhibitory activities against Curvularia lunata (Walk) Boed even at the extreme conditions of temperature, pH and salinity. Finally, biosurfactant properties of lipopeptides mixture were evaluated by use with totally six different methods including bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons assay, lipase activity, hemolytic activity, emulsification activity, oil displacement test and surface tension measurement. The research suggested that B. amyloliquefaciens Q-426 may have great potential in agricultural and environmental fields. PMID:23329061

  5. Production of different types of mannosylerythritol lipids as biosurfactants by the newly isolated yeast strains belonging to the genus Pseudozyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masaaki; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kakugawa, Koji; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-06-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which are abundantly secreted by yeasts, are one of the most promising biosurfactants known. To obtain various types of MEL and to attain a broad range of applications for them, screening of novel producers was undertaken. Thirteen strains of yeasts were successfully isolated as potential MEL producers; they showed high production yields of MEL of around 20 g l(-1) from 40 g l(-1) of soybean oil. Based on the taxonomical study, all the strains were classified to be the genus Pseudozyma. It is interesting to note that they were categorized into three groups according to their production patterns of MEL. The first group, which included 11 strains taxonomically closely related to high-level MEL producers such as Pseudozyma antarctica and Pseudozyma aphidis, mainly produced 4-O-[(4',6'-di-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-A) together with 4-O-[(6'-mono-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-B) and 4-O-[(4'-mono-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-C) as the minor components. The second group of one strain, which was related to Pseudozyma tsukubaensis, predominantly produced MEL-B. The third group of one strain, which was closely related to Pseudozyma hubeiensis, mainly produced MEL-C; this is the first observation of the efficient production of MEL-C from soybean oil. Moreover, the major fatty acids of the obtained MEL-C were C(6), C(12), and C(16) acids, and were considerably different from those of the other MEL hitherto reported. The biosynthetic manner for MEL is thus likely to significantly vary among the Pseudozyma strains; the newly isolated strains would enable us to attain a large-scale production of MEL and to obtain various types of MEL with different hydrophobic structures. PMID:17505770

  6. Bio-surfactants production from low cost substrate and degradation of diesel oil by a Rhodococcus strain; Production de biosurfactants sur un substrat economique et degradation du gasoil par une souche du genre Rhodococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadouk, Z.; Tazerouti, A. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie H. Boumediene (USTHB), Lab. de Synthese Organique, Faculte de Chimie, Algiers (Algeria); Sadouk, Z.; Hacene, H. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie H. Boumediene (USTHB), Lab. de Microbiologie, Faculte des Sciences Biologiques, Algiers (Algeria)

    2008-07-01

    The ability of a Rhodococcus strain to produce surface-active agents from residual sunflower frying oil (RSFO) has been screened in batch cultures. During cultivation with RSFO at the concentration 3% (vol/vol), the strain has synthesized extra-cellular compounds which increase the E{sub 24} emulsion index of the culture medium up to 63%. In their crude form, these substances lower the surface tension of water until 31.9 mN m{sup -1}. The exponential growth with RSFO as the sole carbon source has developed at a specific growth rate {mu} = 0.55 d{sup -1}. The critical micelle concentration of the crude product reached the value 287 mg L{sup -1} ({gamma}CMC = 31.9 mN m{sup -1}). After methyl-esterification, the lipid fraction of bio-surfactants has been analyzed by GC-MS in EI, which reveals the presence of fatty acid methyl esters. The microorganism was also cultivated with the diesel oil as the sole carbon source at the concentration 1% (vol/vol): the active growth phase has developed at rate = 0.02 d{sup -1}, without production of emulsifying substance: the microorganism seems to develop different modes of substrate uptake, according to the nature of the carbon source. The potential use of surface-active agents synthesized on RSFO by Rhodococcus erythropolis 16 LM.USTHB is in the oil industry with minimum purity specification, so that crude preparation could be used, at low cost, in clean-up of hydrocarbons contaminated sites and for enhanced oil recovery. (authors)

  7. Biosurfactant-enhanced soil bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaric, N.; Lu, G.; Velikonja, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    Bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals is a viable alternative method for clean-up and remedy of hazardous waste sites. The final objective in this approach is to convert the parent toxicant into a readily biodegradable product which is harmless to human health and/or the environment. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons in soil can also efficiently be enhanced by addition or in-situ production of biosufactants. It was generally observed that the degradation time was shortened and particularly the adaptation time for the microbes. More data from our laboratories showed that chlorinated aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-dichlorophenol, a herbicide Metolachlor, as well as naphthalene are degraded faster and more completely when selected biosurfactants are added to the soil. More recent data demonstrated an enhanced biodegradation of heavy hydrocarbons in petrochemical sludges, and in contaminated oil when biosurfactants were present or were added prior to the biodegradation process.

  8. Bio-surfactants production from low cost substrate and degradation of diesel oil by a Rhodococcus strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of a Rhodococcus strain to produce surface-active agents from residual sunflower frying oil (RSFO) has been screened in batch cultures. During cultivation with RSFO at the concentration 3% (vol/vol), the strain has synthesized extra-cellular compounds which increase the E24 emulsion index of the culture medium up to 63%. In their crude form, these substances lower the surface tension of water until 31.9 mN m-1. The exponential growth with RSFO as the sole carbon source has developed at a specific growth rate μ = 0.55 d-1. The critical micelle concentration of the crude product reached the value 287 mg L-1 (γCMC = 31.9 mN m-1). After methyl-esterification, the lipid fraction of bio-surfactants has been analyzed by GC-MS in EI, which reveals the presence of fatty acid methyl esters. The microorganism was also cultivated with the diesel oil as the sole carbon source at the concentration 1% (vol/vol): the active growth phase has developed at rate = 0.02 d-1, without production of emulsifying substance: the microorganism seems to develop different modes of substrate uptake, according to the nature of the carbon source. The potential use of surface-active agents synthesized on RSFO by Rhodococcus erythropolis 16 LM.USTHB is in the oil industry with minimum purity specification, so that crude preparation could be used, at low cost, in clean-up of hydrocarbons contaminated sites and for enhanced oil recovery. (authors)

  9. Biosurfactant Mediated Biosynthesis of Selected Metallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna A. Płaza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing a reliable experimental protocol for the synthesis of nanomaterials is one of the challenging topics in current nanotechnology particularly in the context of the recent drive to promote green technologies in their synthesis. The increasing need to develop clean, nontoxic and environmentally safe production processes for nanoparticles to reduce environmental impact, minimize waste and increase energy efficiency has become essential in this field. Consequently, recent studies on the use of microorganisms in the synthesis of selected nanoparticles are gaining increased interest as they represent an exciting area of research with considerable development potential. Microorganisms are known to be capable of synthesizing inorganic molecules that are deposited either intra- or extracellularly. This review presents a brief overview of current research on the use of biosurfactants in the biosynthesis of selected metallic nanoparticles and their potential importance.

  10. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, using sucrose by fungal and yeast strains, and their interfacial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Ishibashi, Yuko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-10-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were produced from glucose and sucrose without vegetable oils. Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317, Ustilago maydis NBRC 5346, U. scitaminea NBRC 32730, and P. siamensis CBS 9960 produced mainly MEL-A, MEL-A, MEL-B, and MEL-C respectively. The sucrose-derived MELs showed excellent interfacial properties: low critical micelle concentration as well as that of oil-derived MELs. PMID:19809166

  11. Stimulation of rhamnolipid biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U by organosulfur compounds provided as sulfur sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Ismail

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Pseudomonas aeruginosa AK6U strain produced rhamnolipid biosurfactants to variable extents when grown on MgSO4 or organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources and glucose as a carbon source. Organosulfur cultures produced much higher biosurfactants amounts compared to the MgSO4 cultures. The surface tension of the growth medium was reduced from 72 mN/m to 54 and 30 mN/m in cultures containing MgSO4 and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DM-DBT, respectively. AK6U cultures produced different rhamnolipid congener profiles depending on the provided sulfur source. The dibenzothiophene (DBT culture produced more diverse and a higher number of rhamnolipid congeners as compared to the DBT-sulfone and MgSO4 cultures. The number of mono-rhamnolipid congeners in the DBT culture was also higher than that detected in the DBT-sulfone and MgSO4 cultures. Di-rhamnolipids dominated the congener profiles in all the analyzed cultures. The sulfur source can have a profound impact on the quality and quantity of the produced biosurfactants.

  12. Applications of Biosurfactants in the Petroleum Industry and the Remediation of Oil Spills

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rita de Cássia F. S.; Darne G. Almeida; Rufino, Raquel D.; Juliana M. Luna; Santos, Valdemir A.; Leonie Asfora Sarubbo

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportati...

  13. Production of glycolipidic bio surfactants by environment bacteria: diversity and physiological part; Production de biosurfactants glycolipidiques par les bacteries de l`environnement: diversite et role physiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arino, S.

    1996-10-09

    About a hundred bacterial strains, isolated from soils, polluted or not by hydrocarbons, were tested for their capacity to excrete glycosides. The biggest productions were obtained for a soluble carbon source (glycerol) in a culture medium limited in the nitrogen source. In these conditions, 18 g/l of rhamnose lipids were produced by train Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1 in a 200 h culture. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GL1, Cellulomonas celulans SA43 and Rhodococcus erythropolis DSM 43060 were studied in detail. The bio-surfactants produced were identified respectively as rhamnose lipids, oligosaccharide lipids and trehalose lipids, using various original analytical methods. Sugars and fatty acids composing these glycolipids had been shown to be usual components of the outer part of the cell wall in these microbial species. Moreover, cell hydrophobicity of the producing bacteria varied in time during culture. These results showed that both the cell wall and the extracellular glycolipids take part in the process of hydrocarbon uptake in the polluted environments. As other bacteria of the same species from different origins present the same characteristics, it may be concluded that glycolipid excretion does not constitute a specific response for hydrocarbon assimilation. In fact, a more general physiological role of glycolipids, concerning modifications of hydrophobic interfaces between the producing bacteria and their surrounding environment, could explain the production of glycolipids, and could also be utilized in hydrocarbon uptake. (author)

  14. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.; Jackson, B.E.; Stuadt, M.; Frey, W.

    2003-01-16

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  15. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by a smut fungus, Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Ishibashi, Yuko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-03-23

    A smut fungus Ustilago scitaminea NBRC 32730 on sugar cane (Saccharum) was found to accumulate a large amount of glycolipids in the culture medium. As a result of structural characterization, the main glycolipid was identified as MEL-B, 4-O-beta-(2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl-6'-O-acetyl-D-mannopyranosyl)-erythritol. The MEL-B was sufficiently produced from a variety of sugars such as sucrose, glucose, fructose, and mannose. Olive oil and methyl oleate were also available as carbon sources to produce MEL-B. However, these residual oils made product recovery very complicated. Under optimal conditions, a maximum MEL yield of 12.8 g/l was achieved by feeding of sucrose. PMID:19270362

  16. Performance of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 on the formation of oil / biosurfactant / water emulsion: study of the phase behaviour of emulsified systems

    OpenAIRE

    M.Sousa; I. T. Dantas; F. X. Feitosa; A. E. V. Alencar; S. A. Soares; V.M.M. Melo; L.R.B. Gonçalves; H. B. de Sant'Ana

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the phase behaviour of emulsified systems (oil + biosurfactant + water) was analyzed. The biosurfactant was produced in a 4-L batch bioreactor by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005, using residual glycerine from biodiesel production as a carbon source. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis (LAMI005) consists of a lipope...

  17. Application of biosurfactant in oil spill management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surfactants are surface active agents which reduce surface tension and interfacial tension between two immiscible phases and help in emulsification. Toxicity, nonbiodegradability, and limited structural types of chemical surfactants have initiated the need for effective substitutes. Biosurfactants, which are synthesized by specific microbial cultures, have surface active properties comparable to chemical surfactants. They are compounds that can help in oil spill cleanup operations without presenting the problem posed by chemical surfactants. Two bacterial cultures were isolated from oil-contaminated soil and were used for biosurfactant production. The biosurfactants produced by Bacillus licheniformis, BS1, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, BS2, in mineral media containing glucose as the carbon source belong to the class of lipoprotein and glycolipid, respectively. They were found to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water and water-hexadecane system from 72 dynes/cm and 40 dynes/cm to 28 to 30 dynes/cm and 1 to 3 dynes/cm, respectively. These results were comparable with chemical surfactants with respect to surface tension reduction (Slic Gone 34 dynes/ cm and Castrol 30 dynes/cm). The low interfacial tension allows the formation of stable emulsion. The two cultures were grown on different substrates, namely, glucose, mannitol, glycerol, hexadecane, oily sludge, and crude oil. Emulsion formation of hexadecane in water was tested with the cell-free broth containing biosurfactant from the respective substrate broths. Emulsions of 56% stability to 100% stability were obtained from these biosurfactant-containing broths. Both biosurfactants were able to emulsify crude oil. A surfactant's ability to form a stable emulsion is the first step in oil spill cleanup. The emulsified oil can then be acted upon very easily by the microorganism under study

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY IN MODEL POROUS SYSTEMS AND COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF BIOSURFACTANT-MEDIATED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; S.K. Maudgalya; R. Knapp; M. Folmsbee

    2004-05-31

    Current technology recovers only one-third to one-half of the oil that is originally present in an oil reservoir. Entrapment of petroleum hydrocarbons by capillary forces is a major factor that limits oil recovery (1, 3, 4). Hydrocarbon displacement can occur if interfacial tension (IFT) between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases is reduced by several orders of magnitude. Microbially-produced biosurfactants may be an economical method to recover residual hydrocarbons since they are effective at low concentrations. Previously, we showed that substantial mobilization of residual hydrocarbon from a model porous system occurs at biosurfactant concentrations made naturally by B. mojavensis strain JF-1 if a polymer and 2,3-butanediol were present (2). In this report, we include data on oil recovery from Berea sandstone experiments along with our previous data from sand pack columns in order to relate biosurfactant concentration to the fraction of oil recovered. We also investigate the effect that the JF-2 biosurfactant has on interfacial tension (IFT). The presence of a co-surfactant, 2,3-butanediol, was shown to improve oil recoveries possibly by changing the optimal salinity concentration of the formulation. The JF-2 biosurfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that biosurfactant solutions with concentrations ranging from 10 to 60 mg/l in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of the residual oil present in Berea sandstone cores. When PHPA was used alone, about 10% of the residual oil was recovered. Thus, about 10% of the residual oil recovered in these experiments was due to the increase in viscosity of the displacing fluid. Little or no oil was recovered at

  19. Selection of microorganisms for biosurfactant production using agroindustrial wastes Seleção de microrganismos para a produção de biossurfatantes em resíduos agroindustriais

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Nitschke; Cristina Ferraz; Gláucia M. Pastore

    2004-01-01

    Biosurfactant production by some bacterial isolates using molasses, milk whey and cassava flour wastewater (manipueira) as substrates was evaluated and compared with the production in conventional medium. Isolates growing in manipueira medium decreased the surface tension around 42%, the highest reduction among all the substrates tested. From the eleven isolates tested, eight were able to decrease the surface tension to levels below 30 mN/m using manipueira as substrate. The isolates LB5a, LB...

  20. The role of salicylate and biosurfactant in inducing phenanthrene degradation in batch soil slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Avery; Singhal, Naresh; Elliot, Roy; Swift, Simon

    2010-05-01

    The majority of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sorb strongly to soil organic matter posing a complex barrier to biodegradation. Biosurfactants can increase soil-sorbed PAHs desorption, solubilisation, and dissolution into the aqueous phase, which increases the bioavailability of PAHs for microbial metabolism. In this study, biosurfactants, carbon sources, and metabolic pathway inducers were tested as stimulators of microorganism degradation. Phenanthrene served as a model PAH and Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17484 was used as the phenanthrene degrading microorganism for the liquid solutions and soil used in this investigation. Bench-scale trials demonstrated that the addition of rhamnolipid biosurfactant increases the apparent aqueous solubility of phenanthrene, and overall degradation by at least 20% when combined with salicylate or glucose in liquid solution, when compared to solutions that contained salicylate or glucose with no biosurfactant. However, salicylate addition, with no biosurfactant addition, increased the total degradation of phenanthrene 30% more than liquid systems with only biosurfactant addition. In soil slurries, small amounts of biosurfactant (0.25 g/L) showed a significant increase in total removal when only biosurfactant was added. In soil slurries containing salicylate, the effects of biosurfactant additions were negligible as there was greater than 90% removal, regardless of the biosurfactant concentration. The results of experiments performed in this study provide further evidence that an in situ enhancement strategy for phenanthrene degradation could focus on providing additional carbon substrates to induce metabolic pathway catabolic enzyme production, if degradation pathway intermediates are known. PMID:20146061

  1. Production of biosurfactant lipopeptides Iturin A, fengycin and surfactin A from Bacillus subtilis CMB32 for control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyoung Il; Ryu, Jaewon; Kim, Young Hwan; Chi, Youn-Tae

    2010-01-01

    A bacterial strain isolated from soil for its potential to control the anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was identified as a Bacillus subtilis. Bacillus subtilis CMB32 produced antifungal agents on M9 broth at 30degreesC. Biosurfactant lipopeptides produced by Bacillus subtilis CMB32 were precipitated by adjusting to pH 2 and extracting using chloroform/methanol, and then were purified using column chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Molecular masses of the lipopeptides were estimated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as (a) 1080, (b) 1486, and (c) 1044 Da, respectively. They had cyclic structures and amino acid compositions of (a) Pro, Asx, Ser, Tyr, Glx, (b) Glx, Tyr, Thr, Ala, Pro, Ile, and (c) Glx, Leu, Val, Asx, respectively. Further analysis revealed that Bacillus subtilis CMB32 produced three antifungal lipopeptides: (a) iturin A, (b) fengycin, and (c) surfactin A. PMID:20134245

  2. Characterization and Emulsification Properties of Rhamnolipid and Sophorolipid Biosurfactants and Their Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thu T.; Sabatini, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their non-toxic nature, biodegradability and production from renewable resources, research has shown an increasing interest in the use of biosurfactants in a wide variety of applications. This paper reviews the characterization of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants based on their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and their ability to form microemulsions with a range of oils without additives. The use of the biosurfactants in applications such as detergency and vegetable oil extrac...

  3. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from palm oil contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kanokrat Saisa-ard; Atipan Saimmai; Suppasil Maneerat

    2014-01-01

    Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from 89 different soil samples contaminated with palm oil in 35 palm oil industry sites in the south of Thailand. The phylogenetic diversity of the isolates was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Among 1,324 colonies obtained, 134 isolates released extracellular biosurfactant when grown on low-cost substrates by a drop collapsing test. Among these, the 53 isolates that showed the highest biosurfactant production on different substra...

  4. Isolation and characterization of a biosurfactant-producing Fusarium sp. BS-8 from oil contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Muneer A; Kanwal, Tayyaba; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia; Fatima, Nighat

    2014-01-01

    This study reports characterization of a biosurfactant-producing fungal isolate from oil contaminated soil of Missa Keswal oil field, Pakistan. It was identified as Fusarium sp. BS-8 on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic morphology, and 18S rDNA gene sequence homology. The biosurfactant-producing capability of the fungal isolates was screened using oil displacement activity, emulsification index assay, and surface tension (SFT) measurement. The optimization of operational parameters and culture conditions resulted in maximum biosurfactant production using 9% (v/v) inoculum at 30°C, pH 7.0, using sucrose and yeast extract, as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. A C:N ratio of 0.9:0.1 (w/w) was found to be optimum for growth and biosurfactant production. At optimal conditions, it attained lowest SFT (i.e., 32 mN m(-1) ) with a critical micelle concentration of ≥ 1.2 mg mL(-1) . During 5 L shake flask fermentation experiments, the biosurfactant productivity was 1.21 g L(-1) pure biosurfactant having significant emulsifying index (E24 , 70%) and oil-displacing activity (16 mm). Thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analyses indicated a lipopeptide type of the biosurfactant. The Fusarium sp. BS-8 has substantial potential of biosurfactant production, yet it needs to be fully characterized with possibility of relatively new class of biosurfactants. PMID:24850435

  5. Advances in production technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative Production Technology, Individualised Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising Production Systems and Human Factors in Production Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of production is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of production, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  6. Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tabatabaee, M Mazaheri Assadi, AA Noohi,VA Sajadian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants or surface-active compounds are produced by microoaganisms. These molecules reduce surface tension both aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. In this study, isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria were assessed. The potential application of these bacteria in petroleum industry was investigated. Samples (crude oil were collected from oil wells and 45 strains were isolated. To confirm the ability of isolates in biosurfactant production, haemolysis test, emulsification test and measurement of surface tension were conducted. We also evaluated the effect of different pH, salinity concentrations, and temperatures on biosurfactant production. Among importance features of the isolated strains, one of the strains (NO.4: Bacillus.sp showed high salt tolerance and their successful production of biosurfactant in a vast pH and temperature domain and reduced surface tension to value below 40 mN/m. This strain is potential candidate for microbial enhanced oil recovery. The strain4 biosurfactant component was mainly glycolipid in nature.

  7. Analytical modeling and numerical optimization of the biosurfactants production in solid-state fermentation by Aspergillus fumigatus - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.17818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Castiglioni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental, analytical and numerical study to optimize the biosurfactants production in solid-state fermentation of a medium containing rice straw and minced rice bran inoculated with Aspergillus fumigatus. The goal of this work was to analytically model the biosurfactants production in solid-state fermentation into a column fixed bed bioreactor. The Least-Squares Method was used to adjust the emulsification activity experimental values to a quadratic function semi-empirical model. Control variables were nutritional conditions, the fermentation time and the aeration. The mathematical model is validated against experimental results and then used to predict the maximum emulsification activity for different nutritional conditions and aerations. Based on the semi-empirical model the maximum emulsification activity with no additional hydrocarbon sources was 8.16 UE·g-1 for 112 hours. When diesel oil was used the predicted maximum emulsification activity was 8.10 UE·g-1 for 108 hours.

  8. Characterization and emulsification properties of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu T; Sabatini, David A

    2011-01-01

    Due to their non-toxic nature, biodegradability and production from renewable resources, research has shown an increasing interest in the use of biosurfactants in a wide variety of applications. This paper reviews the characterization of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants based on their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and their ability to form microemulsions with a range of oils without additives. The use of the biosurfactants in applications such as detergency and vegetable oil extraction for biodiesel application is also discussed. Rhamnolipid was found to be a hydrophilic surfactant while sophorolipid was found to be very hydrophobic. Therefore, rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants in mixtures showed robust performance in these applications. PMID:21541055

  9. Characterization and Emulsification Properties of Rhamnolipid and Sophorolipid Biosurfactants and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu T. Nguyen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to their non-toxic nature, biodegradability and production from renewable resources, research has shown an increasing interest in the use of biosurfactants in a wide variety of applications. This paper reviews the characterization of rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants based on their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and their ability to form microemulsions with a range of oils without additives. The use of the biosurfactants in applications such as detergency and vegetable oil extraction for biodiesel application is also discussed. Rhamnolipid was found to be a hydrophilic surfactant while sophorolipid was found to be very hydrophobic. Therefore, rhamnolipid and sophorolipid biosurfactants in mixtures showed robust performance in these applications.

  10. Utilization of response surface for optimization of the production of a biosurfactant with application in the removal of petroleum-derived; Utilizacao de superficie de resposta para a otimizacao da producao de um biossurfactante com aplicacao na remocao de derivado de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarubbo, Leonie A.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Farias, Charles B.B.; Santos, Valdemir A. dos [Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The surfactants, amphipathic compounds capable of reducing the surface tension of aqueous media, find application in many industries, especially in the petroleum, cosmetic and food, such as dispersants, emulsifiers and surfactants. With the necessity of environmental preservation, surfactants of micro-organisms origin, in substitution of synthetic surfactants, have become very attractive, since they are biodegradable and less toxic although their production costs are still high because of the substrates used and of the purification processes involved. Considering the need to reduce costs associated with the production of microbial surfactants, a strain of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas, isolated from the port area was cultured in medium containing low-cost agro-industrial wastes, molasses and corn steep liquor, as substrates according a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) in order to evaluate the influence of independent variables molasses and corn steep liquor concentrations on the response variable surface tension. The biosurfactant was able to reduce the water surface tension from 71 mN / m to values around 27.5 mN / m. The dispersion ability and the capacity of oil removal of the surfactant was demonstrated. The possibility of application of biosurfactants in the remediation of oil polluted environments motivates the advancement of research to develop this technology for effective use in treatment of contaminated soils and waters. (author)

  11. Structural Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of a Biosurfactant Obtained From Bacillus pumilus DSVP18 Grown on Potato Peels

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biosurfactants constitute a structurally diverse group of surface-active compounds derived from microorganisms. They are widely used industrially in various industrial applications such as pharmaceutical and environmental sectors. Major limiting factor in biosurfactant production is their production cost. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate biosurfactant production under laboratory conditions with potato peels as the sole source of carbon source. Materials and Met...

  12. Performance of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005 on the formation of oil / biosurfactant / water emulsion: study of the phase behaviour of emulsified systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sousa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the phase behaviour of emulsified systems (oil + biosurfactant + water was analyzed. The biosurfactant was produced in a 4-L batch bioreactor by Bacillus subtilis LAMI005, using residual glycerine from biodiesel production as a carbon source. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analyses demonstrated that the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis (LAMI005 consists of a lipopeptide similar to surfactin. The influences of temperature and the composition of oil + biosurfactant + water were determined by using phase diagrams. Three types of oil were used, namely: motor oil, hydrogenated naphthenic oil (NH140 and castor bean oil. The emulsified systems were analyzed using optical micrography. The results presented here indicated that the biosurfactant produced in this work presents a potential use as stabilizing agent for oil-in-water emulsions.

  13. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A. P.; J.A. Teixeira; L. R. Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of resi...

  14. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  15. Rhamnolipid biosurfactants: evolutionary implications, applications and future prospects from untapped marine resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, George Seghal; Ninawe, Arun Shivanth; Lipton, Anuj Nishanth; Pandian, Vijayalakshmi; Selvin, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Rhamnolipid-biosurfactants are known to be produced by the genus Pseudomonas, however recent literature reported that rhamnolipids (RLs) are distributed among diverse microbial genera. To integrate the evolutionary implications of rhamnosyl transferase among various groups of microorganisms, a comprehensive comparative motif analysis was performed amongst bacterial producers. Findings on new RL-producing microorganism is helpful from a biotechnological perspective and to replace infective P. aeruginosa strains which ultimately ensure industrially safe production of RLs. Halotolerant biosurfactants are required for efficient bioremediation of marine oil spills. An insight on the exploitation of marine microbes as the potential source of RL biosurfactants is highlighted in the present review. An economic production process, solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial and industrial waste would increase the scope of biosurfactants commercialization. Potential and prospective applications of RL-biosurfactants including hydrocarbon bioremediation, heavy metal removal, antibiofilm activity/biofilm disruption and greener synthesis of nanoparticles are highlighted in this review. PMID:25641324

  16. Nanocellulose production technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tozluoğlu, Ayhan; ÇÖPÜR, Yalçın; Özyürek, Ömer; Çıtlak, Sema

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, technological developments in the area of nanotechnology have dramatically improved the technology. Some research have particularly been accomplished on medical and textile industries in Turkey. Even studies in forest industy on the subject have gained importance in the world, there is so limited research in Turkey. The aim of this review is to inform researches specifically studiying on wood science about nanocellulose production and uses. This review includes methods of nan...

  17. Co-produção de lipase e biossurfactante em estado sólido para utilização em biorremediação de óleos vegetais e hidrocarbonetos Lipases and biosurfactant production by solid state fermentation for utilization in bioremediation of vegetable oils and hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilásia Guimarães Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently lipases have been increasing in prominence due to its wide industrial application. The lipase production can be influenced by different variables such as the producing microorganism, carbon sources, aeration and agitation conditions, inductor type and the geometry of the reactor. Biosurfactants are composites of surface active produced by microbial cells which reduce superficial and interfacial tensions. The objective of this study was to verify the influence of different process variables in the lipase production during a fermentative process. The results showed that the concomitant production of lipases and biosurfactant was possible in different cultivation conditions.

  18. Synthesis of rhamnolipid biosurfactant and mode of hexadecane uptake by Pseudomonas species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pooja

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms have devised ways by which they increase the bioavailability of many water immiscible substrates whose degradation rates are limited by their low water solubility. Hexadecane is one such water immiscible hydrocarbon substrate which forms an important constituent of oil. One major mechanism employed by hydrocarbon degrading organisms to utilize such substrates is the production of biosurfactants. However, much of the overall mechanism by which such organisms utilize hydrocarbon substrate still remains a mystery. Results With an aim to gain more insight into hydrocarbon uptake mechanism, an efficient biosurfactant producing and n-hexadecane utilizing Pseudomonas sp was isolated from oil contaminated soil which was found to produce rhamnolipid type of biosurfactant containing a total of 13 congeners. Biosurfactant action brought about the dispersion of hexadecane to droplets smaller than 0.22 μm increasing the availability of the hydrocarbon to the degrading organism. Involvement of biosurfactant was further confirmed by electron microscopic studies. Biosurfactant formed an emulsion with hexadecane thereby facilitating increased contact between hydrocarbon and the degrading bacteria. Interestingly, it was observed that "internalization" of "biosurfactant layered hydrocarbon droplet" was taking place suggesting a mechanism similar in appearance to active pinocytosis, a fact not earlier visually reported in bacterial systems for hydrocarbon uptake. Conclusion This study throws more light on the uptake mechanism of hydrocarbon by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We report here a new and exciting line of research for hydrocarbon uptake involving internalization of biosurfactant covered hydrocarbon inside cell for subsequent breakdown.

  19. Ex situ treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, Ana Belén; Paradelo, Remigio; Rubinos, David; Devesa-Rey, Rosa; Cruz, José Manuel; Barral, María Teresa

    2011-09-14

    The utilization of biosurfactants for the bioremediation of contaminated soil is not yet well established, because of the high production cost of biosurfactants. Consequently, it is interesting to look for new biosurfactants that can be produced at a large scale, and it can be employed for the bioremediation of contaminated sites. In this work, biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus growing in hemicellulosic sugars solutions, with a similar composition of sugars found in trimming vine shoot hydrolysates, were employed in the bioremediation of soil contaminated with octane. It was observed that the presence of biosurfactant from L. pentosus accelerated the biodegradation of octane in soil. After 15 days of treatment, biosurfactants from L. pentosus reduced the concentration of octane in the soil to 58.6 and 62.8%, for soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of hydrocarbon, respectively, whereas after 30 days of treatment, 76% of octane in soil was biodegraded in both cases. In the absence of biosurfactant and after 15 days of incubation, only 1.2 and 24% of octane was biodegraded in soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of octane, respectively. Thus, the use of biosurfactants from L. pentosus, as part of a well-designed bioremediation process, can provide mechanisms to mobilize the target contaminants from the soil surface to make them more available to the microbial population. PMID:21797277

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were re-grown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0

  1. Naphthalene degradation and biosurfactant activity by Bacillus cereus 28BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleva, B.; Christova, N. [Inst. of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jordanov, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-08-01

    Biosurfactant activity and naphthalene degradation by a new strain identified as Bacillus cereus 28BN were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of n-alkanes, naphthalene, crude oil and vegetable oils. The biosurfactants were detected by the surface tension lowering of the medium, thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analysis. With (2%) naphthalene as the sole carbon source, high levels of rhamnolipids at a concentration of 2.3 g l{sup -1} were determined in the stationary growth. After 20 d of incubation 72 {+-} 4% of the initial naphthalene was degraded. This is the first report for a Bacillus cereus rhamnolipid producing strain that utilized naphthalene under aerobic conditions. The strain looks promising for application in environmental technologies. (orig.)

  2. Rape phosphatide concentrate in the technologies of surfactants production by the Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Koretska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Due to the fact that the production of microbial surfactants is limited by the low yield of end products and high cost of processes, the actual task is to optimize and reduce the cost of the technology of biosurfactants synthesis. One of the solutions of this problem is to use the industrial wastes, including rape phosphatide concentrate (PC. Materials and methods. Hexadecane and rape phosphatide concentrate (2% were used as a carbon source in a nutrient medium for the cultivation of bacteria. Lipids were extracted from a cell mass and supernatant by the mixture of chloroform-methanol 2:1. The qualitative analysis of metabolites was performed by a thin layer chromatography. Results and discussion. The peculiarities of synthesis of biosurfactants by strains G. rubripertincta UCM Aс-122 and R. erythropolis Au-1 during the growth on the nutrient media with rape phosphatide concentrate as a carbon source was studied. Quantity of biomass was 9.4 – 10.1 g/l, exopoly mers –8.9-9.5 g/l and the content of cellbound trehalose lipids was 1.37 – 2.26 g/l; whereas the content of exogenous trehalose lipids –metabolites of R. erythropolis Au-1 was 2.95 g/l. It was found that the addition of trehalose lipids (0.01 g/l to the nutrient medium caused the increase of biomass on 14.6 –17.0 % and cell-bound lipids on 13.9 –15.5 %. Conclusions. Rape phosphatide concentrate is economically viable carbon source in the technologies of surfactant production by Actinobacteria. Its use promotes an increasing of exogenous surfactants strain R. erythropolisAu-1 in 3-fold compared with cultivation on nutrient medium with hexadecane. Trehalose lipids show a stimulating effect on growth and synthesis of biosurfactants by strains of G. rubripertincta UCM Ac-122 and R. erythropolisAu-1.

  3. Influence of biosurfactants on mass transfer, biodegradation, and transport of mixed wastes in multiphase systems: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.M., Brusseau, M.L. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States), Dept. of Soil, Water and Environmental Science

    1997-01-17

    The overall results of this project suggest that is situ treatment with biosurfactants has the potential to be an effective,economical, and nontoxic remediation technology. Specifically, we have demonstrated that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant may be used to increase the apparent solubility and biodegradation rate of organic compounds.

  4. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr., D.P.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    2002-05-28

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  5. Optimization of fermentation conditions for biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis-1101%生物表面活性剂生产Bacillus subtilis-1101发酵过程优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志军; 王艳红; 阮洪生; 黄玉兰

    2012-01-01

    应用中心组合试验设计和响应面分析方法对影响枯草芽孢杆菌Bacillus subtilis-1101产生表面活性剂的发酵过程进行优化.结果表明,枯草芽孢杆菌Bacillus subtilis-1101产生表面活性剂的最佳发酵条件为发酵温度29.1℃,初始pH值为4.9,装液量为56mL.在此条件下进行实验,结果最大排油圈为7.08cm,与模型预测值接近.说明响应面分析方法是优化表面活性剂生产的有力工具.%The variables which affect the biosurfactant production of Bacillus subtilis-1101 were investigated through the central composite design combined with response surface methodology. Results indicated that the optimal conditions should be temperature 29.1%, initial pH 4.9, and the liquid volume 56mL respectively, and the maximum diameter of oil expulsion were 7.03 cm. The results showed that the experimental values agreed with the predicted values well. Results of these experiments indicated that response surface methodology was a powerful method for optimization of biosurfactant production.

  6. Flood Resilient Technological Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Monnot, J. V.; Marquez Paniagua, P.; Pámpanas, P.; Paz Abuín, S.; Prendes, P.; Videra, O.; U. P. M. Smartest Team

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of the paradigm shift of the EU water policy (Directive 2007/60/EC, EC 2003) from defense to living with flood, floods shall be faced in the future through resilient solutions, seeking to improve the permanence of flood protection, and getting thus beyond traditional temporary and human-relying solutions. But the fact is that nowadays "Flood Resilient (FRe) Building Technological Products" is an undefined concept, and concerned FRe solutions cannot be even easily identified. "FRe Building Technological materials" is a wide term involving a wide and heterogeneous range of solutions. There is an interest in offering an identification and classification of the referred products, since it will be useful for stakeholders and populations at flood risk for adopting the most adequate protections when facing floods. Thus, a previous schematic classification would enable us at least to identify most of them and to figure out autonomous FRe Technological Products categories subject all of them to intense industrial innovative processes. The flood resilience enhancement of a given element requires providing it enough water-repelling capacity, and different flood resilient solutions can be sorted out: barriers, waterproofing and anticorrosive. Barriers are palliative solutions that can be obtained either from traditional materials, or from technological ones, offering their very low weight and high maneuverability. Belonging barriers and waterproofing systems to industrial branches clearly different, from a conceptual point of view, waterproofing material may complement barriers, and even be considered as autonomous barriers in some cases. Actually, they do not only complement barriers by their application to barriers' singular weak points, like anchors, joints, but on the other hand, waterproofing systems can be applied to enhance the flood resilience of new building, as preventive measure. Anticorrosive systems do belong to a clearly different category

  7. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TSBSO 3.8, a biosurfactant-producing strain with biotechnological potential for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Souza, Pamella Macedo; de Araújo, Livia Vieira; Barros, Thalita Gonçalves; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Seldin, Lucy

    2015-12-01

    A screening for biosurfactant-producing bacteria was conducted with 217 strains that were isolated from environmental samples contaminated with crude oil and/or petroleum derivatives. Although 19 promising biosurfactant producers were detected, strain TSBSO 3.8, which was identified by molecular methods as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, drew attention for its production of a high-activity compound that presented an emulsification activity of 63% and considerably decreased surface (28.5 mN/m) and interfacial (11.4 mN/m) tensions in Trypticase Soy Broth culture medium. TSBSO 3.8 growth and biosurfactant production were tested under different physical and chemical conditions to evaluate its biotechnological potential. Biosurfactant production occurred between 0.5% and 7% NaCl, at pH values varying from 6 to 9 and temperatures ranging from 28 to 50 °C. Moreover, biosurfactant properties remained the same after autoclaving at 121 °C for 15 min. The biosurfactant was also successful in a test to simulate microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the surface active compound was a surfactin, known as a powerful biosurfactant that is commonly produced by Bacillus species. The production of a high-efficiency biosurfactant, under some physical and chemical conditions that resemble those experienced in an oil production reservoir, such as high salinities and temperatures, makes TSBSO 3.8 an excellent candidate and creates good expectations for its application in MEOR. PMID:26350801

  8. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from palm oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokrat Saisa-ard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant-producing bacteria were isolated from 89 different soil samples contaminated with palm oil in 35 palm oil industry sites in the south of Thailand. The phylogenetic diversity of the isolates was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Among 1,324 colonies obtained, 134 isolates released extracellular biosurfactant when grown on low-cost substrates by a drop collapsing test. Among these, the 53 isolates that showed the highest biosurfactant production on different substrates were found to belong to 42 different bacterial genera. Among these sixteen (Caryophanon; Castellaniella; Filibacter; Geminicoccus; Georgenia; Luteimonas; Mesorhizobium; Mucilaginibacter; Nubsella; Paracoccus; Pedobacter; Psychrobacter; Rahnella; Sphingobium; Sphingopyxis and Sporosarcina were first reported as biosurfactant-producing strains. By using low-cost, agro-industrial by-products or wastes, Azorhizobium doebereinerae AS54 and Geminicoccus roseus AS73 produced extracellular biosurfactant, which exhibited the lowest surface tension reduction (25.5 mN/m and highest emulsification activity (69.0% when palm oil decanter cake and used palm oil was used as a carbon sources, respectively. Overall, this is the first study of a phylogenetic analysis of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from palm oil refinery industry site and their ability to produce biosurfactant on renewable substrates.

  9. [Advance in glycolipid biosurfactants--mannosylerythritol lipids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Linlin; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Jin; Dong, Yachen; Xu, Tengyang; He, Guoqing; Chen, Qihe

    2013-09-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), mainly produced by Ustilago and Pseudozyma, are surface active compounds that belong to the glycolipid class of biosurfactants. MELs have potential application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries due to their excellent surface activities and other peculiar bioactivities. In recent years, the research field of MELs has regained much attention abroad. However, MELs are rarely studied in China. In this review, the producing microorganisms and production conditions, diverse structures, biochemical properties, structure-function relationship and biosynthetic pathways of MELs are described. Some research problems and prospects are summarized and discussed as well. PMID:24409686

  10. Aggregate productivity and aggregate technology

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto Basu; John G. Fernald

    1997-01-01

    Aggregate productivity and aggregate technology are meaningful but distinct concepts. We show that a slightly-modified Solow productivity residual measures changes in economic welfare, even when productivity and technology differ because of distortions such as imperfect competition. We then present a general accounting framework that identifies several new non-technological gaps between productivity and technology, gaps reflecting imperfections and frictions in output and factor markets. Empi...

  11. Nano Manufacturing - Products and Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    The use of micro and nano technologies in components and products not only sets new demands to the manufacturing technologies. Product concepts have to be rethought and redefined in order to implement the micro and nano technologies into functional systems. Both a technology driven and a product...... driven approach can be used in this process. A framework for the product driven approach in nano manufacturing is presented and discussed. The general discussion will be supported by case studies covering polymers and metals....

  12. Screening of biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains using glycerol from the biodiesel synthesis as main carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, M; Melo, V M M; Rodrigues, S; Sant'ana, H B; Gonçalves, L R B

    2012-08-01

    Glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, was evaluated as carbon source for biosurfactant production. For this reason, seven non-pathogenic biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains, isolated from the tank of chlorination at the Wastewater Treatment Plant at Federal University of Ceara, were screened. The production of biosurfactant was verified by determining the surface tension value, as well as the emulsifying capacity of the free-cell broth against soy oil, kerosene and N-hexadecane. Best results were achieved when using LAMI005 and LAMI009 strains, whose biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of the broth to 28.8 ± 0.0 and 27.1 ± 0.1 mN m(-1), respectively. Additionally, at 72 h of cultivation, 441.06 and 267.56 mg L(-1) of surfactin were produced by LAMI005 and LAMI009, respectively. The biosurfactants were capable of forming stable emulsions with various hydrocarbons, such as soy oil and kerosene. Analyses carried out with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis LAMI009 and LAMI005 was compatible with the commercially available surfactin standard. The values of minimum surface tension and the CMC of the produced biosurfactant indicated that it is feasible to produce biosurfactants from a residual and renewable and low-cost carbon source, such as glycerol. PMID:22218992

  13. Isolation and characterization of halophilic Bacillussp. BS3 able to produce pharmacologically important biosurfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MBS Donio; SFA Ronica; V Thanga Viji; S Velmurugan; J Adlin Jenifer; M Michaelbabu; T Citarasu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To characterize the pharmacological importance of biosurfactants isolated from halophilicBacillus spBS3.Methods:HalophilicBacillus sp.BS3 was isolated from solar salt works, identified by16S rRNA sequencing and was used for screening their biosurfactant production.Characters of the biosurfactant and their anticancer activity were analyzed and performed in mammary epithelial carcinoma cell at different concentrations.Results:The biosurfactant were characterized byTLC,FTIR andGC-MS analysis and identified as lipopeptide type.GC-MS analysis revealed that, the biosurfactant had various compounds including13-Docosenamide,(Z);Mannosamine,9- andN,N,N',N'-tetramethyl.Surprisingly the antiviral activity was found against shrimp white spot syndrome virus(WSSV) by suppressing the viral replication and significantly raised shrimp survival(P<0.01).Anticancer activity performed in the mammary epithelial carcinoma cell at different concentrations of biosurfactants, among the various concentrations of biosurfactants such as0.00025,0.0025,0.025,0.25 and2.5μg, the 0.25 μg concentration suppressed the cells significantly(P<0.05) to24.8%.Conclusions:Based on the findings, the present study concluded that, there is a possibility to develop eco-friendly antimicrobial and anticancer drugs from the extremophilic origin.

  14. Biosurfactant as a Promoter of Methane Hydrate Formation: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Arora; Swaranjit Singh Cameotra; Rajnish Kumar; Chandrajit Balomajumder; Anil Kumar Singh; Santhakumari, B.; Pushpendra Kumar; Sukumar Laik

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates (NGHs) are solid non-stoichiometric compounds often regarded as a next generation energy source. Successful commercialization of NGH is curtailed by lack of efficient and safe technology for generation, dissociation, storage and transportation. The present work studied the influence of environment compatible biosurfactant on gas hydrate formation. Biosurfactant was produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain A11 and was characterized as rhamnolipids. Purified rhamnolipids r...

  15. Development of Microorganisms with Improved Transport and Biosurfactant Activity for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; K.E. Duncan; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; Randy R. Simpson; N.Ravi; D. Nagle

    2005-08-15

    The project had three objectives: (1) to develop microbial strains with improved biosurfactant properties that use cost-effective nutrients, (2) to obtain biosurfactant strains with improved transport properties through sandstones, and (3) to determine the empirical relationship between surfactant concentration and interfacial tension and whether in situ reactions kinetics and biosurfactant concentration meets appropriate engineering design criteria. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns and Berea sandstone cores when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of residual oil from Berea sandstone cores. Even low biosurfactant concentrations (16 mg/l) mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon (29%). The bio-surfactant lowered IFT by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. A mathematical model that relates oil recovery to biosurfactant concentration was modified to include the stepwise changes in IFT as biosurfactant concentrations changes. This model adequately predicted the experimentally observed changes in IFT as a function of biosurfactant concentration. Theses data show that lipopeptide biosurfactant systems may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; D.P. Nagle, Jr.; Kathleen Duncan; N. Youssef; M.J. Folmsbee; S. Maudgakya

    2003-06-26

    Biosurfactants enhance hydrocarbon biodegradation by increasing apparent aqueous solubility or affecting the association of the cell with poorly soluble hydrocarbon. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. One pore volume of cell-free culture fluid with 900 mg/l of the biosurfactant, 10 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1000 mg/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer mobilized 82% of the residual hydrocarbon. Consistent with the high residual oil recoveries, we found that the bio-surfactant lowered the interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. The lipopeptide biosurfactant system may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Previously, we reported that Proteose peptone was necessary for anaerobic growth and biosurfactant production by B. mojavensis JF-2. The data gathered from crude purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose peptone suggested that it consisted of nucleic acids; however, nucleic acid bases, nucleotides or nucleosides did not replace the requirement for Proteose Peptone. Further studies revealed that salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, Echerichia coli DNA and synthetic DNA replaced the requirement for Proteose peptone. In addition to DNA, amino acids and nitrate were required for anaerobic growth and vitamins further improved growth. We now have a defined medium that can be used to manipulate growth and biosurfactant

  17. Screening Three Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Prediction of Biosurfactant-Producer Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Dehghan-Noudeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The chemical surfactants have some disadvantages; especially, toxicity and no biodegradability. Approach: Biosurfactants were the structurally diverse group of surface-active molecules synthesize by micro-organisms. The microbial surfactants were interesting, because of the biodegradable and have many applications in industry, agriculture, medicine. Results: In the present study, the production of biosurfactant by three strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PTCC 1074, 1310 and 1430 was investigated. The hemolytic and foam forming activity of different strains were studied and consequently, P. aeruginosa PTCC 1074 was selected as the suitable strain. P. aeruginosa PTCC 1074 was grown in the nutrient broth medium and biosurfactant production was evaluated every 24 h by emulsification index and surface tension for the best of production time. After that, in order to get maximum production of biosurfactant, the selected strain was grown with different additives in nutrient broth and the best culture medium was found. The biosurfactant was isolated from the supernatant and its amphipathic structure was confirmed by chemical methods. Conclusion: Biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1074 would be considered as a suitable surfactant in industries due to its low toxicity.

  18. Antibiofilm Activity of Biosurfactant Producing Coral Associated Bacteria Isolated from Gulf of Mannar

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathi, Alwar Ramanujam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2014-01-01

    Coral Associated Bacteria (CAB) (N = 22) isolated from the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera were screened for biosurfactants using classical screening methods; hemolysis test, lipase production, oil displacement, drop collapse test and emulsifying activity. Six CAB (U7, U9, U10, U13, U14, and U16) were found to produce biosurfactants and were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Providencia rettgeri, Psychrobacter sp., Bacillus flexus, Bacillus anthracis, Psychrobacter sp....

  19. Algal and microbial exopolysaccharides: new insights as biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Michel, José de Jesús; Olmos-Soto, Jorge; Morales-Guerrero, Eduardo Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Currently, efforts are being made to utilize more natural biological systems as alternatives as a way to replace fossil forms of carbon. There is a growing concern at global level to have nontoxic, nonhazardous surface-active agents; contrary to synthetic surfactants, their biological counterparts or biosurfactants play a primary function, facilitating microbial presence in environments dominated by hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. Algal and microbial biosurfactants/bioemulsifiers from marine and deep-sea environments are attracting major interest due to their structural and functional diversity as molecules actives of surface and an alternative biomass to replace fossil forms of carbon. Algal and microbial surfactants are lipid in nature and classified as glycolipids, phospholipids, lipopeptides, natural lipids, fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolic bioactive products are applicable in a number of industries and processes, viz., food processing, pharmacology, and bioremediation of oil-polluted environments. This chapter presents an update of the progress and potentialities of the principal producers of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-type biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers, viz., macro- and microalgae (cyanobacteria and diatoms) and bacteria from marine and extreme environments. Particular interest is centered into new sources and applications, viz., marine and deep-sea environments and promissory uses of these EPSs as biosurfactants/emulsifiers and other polymeric roles. The enormous benefits of these molecules encourage their discovery, exploitation, and development of new microbial EPSs that could possess novel industrial importance and corresponding innovations. PMID:25300549

  20. Application of biosurfactant from Sphingobacterium spiritivorum AS43 in the biodegradation of used lubricating oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noparat, Pongsak; Maneerat, Suppasil; Saimmai, Atipan

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the application of biosurfactant from Sphingobacterium spiritivorum AS43 using molasses as a substrate and fertilizer to enhance the biodegradation of used lubricating oil (ULO). The cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria, the emulsification activity, and the biodegradation efficiency of ULO were measured. The bacterial adhesion in the hydrocarbon test was used to denote the cell surface hydrophobicity of the used bacterial species. The results indicate a strong correlation between cell surface hydrophobicity, emulsification activity, and the degree of ULO biodegradation. The maximum degradation of ULO (62 %) was observed when either 1.5 % (w/v) of biosurfactant or fertilizer was added. The results also revealed that biosurfactants alone are capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizer. The data indicate the potential for biosurfactant production by using low-cost substrate for application in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons or oils. PMID:24590892

  1. Evidence for a role of biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens in the spoilage of fresh aerobically stored chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Glen E; Bentley, Jessica A; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-08-01

    Fresh chicken meat is a fat-rich environment and we therefore hypothesised that production of biosurfactants to increase bioavailability of fats may represent one way in which spoilage bacteria might enhance the availability of nutrients. Numbers of Pseudomonas were determined on a total of 20 fresh and 20 spoiled chicken thighs with skin. A total of 400 randomly isolated Pseudomonas colonies from fresh (200) and spoiled (200) chicken were screened for the presence of biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant producing strains represented 5% and 72% of the Pseudomonas spp. isolates from fresh (mean count 2.3 log(10) cfu g(-1)) and spoiled (mean count 7.4 log(10) cfu g(-1)) chicken skin, respectively. Partially-purified biosurfactants derived from a subgroup of four Pseudomonasfluorescens strains obtained through the screening process were subsequently used to investigate the role that the addition of these compounds plays in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken. Emulsification potential of the four selected biosurfactants was measured against a range of hydrocarbons and oils. All four biosurfactants displayed a greater ability to emulsify rendered chicken fat than hydrocarbons (paraffin liquid, toluene and hexane) and oils (canola, olive, sunflower and vegetable). Storage trials (4 °C) of chicken meat treated with the four selected biosurfactants revealed a significantly greater (P biosurfactant treated samples, as compared to untreated samples on each day (0, 1, 2, 3) of storage. For biosurfactant treated samples the greatest increase in total aerobic count (1.3-1.7 log(10) cfu g(-1)) occurred following one day of incubation. These results indicate that biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas spp. may play an important role in the spoilage of aerobically stored chicken meat by making nutrients more freely available and providing strains producing them with a competitive advantage. PMID:21569958

  2. PDT (Product Data Technology), Production and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that products are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce products dramatically....... The use of ICT in engineering of products constitutes product data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation...

  3. Microbiological Production of Surfactant from Agricultural Residuals for IOR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Greg Alan; Bruhn, Debby Fox; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Noah, Karl Scott; Thompson, David Neal

    2002-04-01

    Utilization of surfactants for improved oil recovery (IOR) is an accepted technique with high potential. However, technology application is frequently limited by cost. Biosurfactants (surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms) are not widely utilized in the petroleum industry due to high production costs associated with use of expensive substrates and inefficient product recovery methods. The economics of biosurfactant production could be significantly impacted through use of media optimization and application of inexpensive carbon substrates such as agricultural process residuals. Utilization of biosurfactants produced from agricultural residuals may 1) result in an economic advantage for surfactant production and technology application, and 2) convert a substantial agricultural waste stream to a value-added product for IOR. A biosurfactant with high potential for use is surfactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, produced by Bacillus subtilis. Reported here is the production and potential IOR utilization of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 21332) from starch-based media. Production of surfactants from microbiological growth media based on simple sugars, chemically pure starch medium, simulated liquid and solid potato-process effluent media, a commercially prepared potato starch in mineral salts, and process effluent from a potato processor is discussed. Additionally, the effect of chemical and physical pretreatments on starchy feedstocks is discussed.

  4. Production technologies in Ethiopian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kidane, Asmerom; Abler, David G.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the characteristics of and choice among two production technologies in Ethiopian agriculture, one with fertilizer and the other without, using 1989-90 farm-level data. For northwest and central Ethiopia, fertilizer usage determinants are estimated simultaneously with technology-specific production functions. For southern Ethiopia, where fertilizer is rarely used, a single production function is estimated. Three conclusions emerge. First, fertilizer use is not significant...

  5. Poultry meat products, technology of production, market

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Petr

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on poultry meat and its products. A definition of meat, sources of meat, types of poultry production and own goal of the thesis are explained in the first chapter. Then there are described technological processes of poultry treatment in common with a veterinary and hygienic supervision which provides a check of the production and processing of poultry meat. In addition, there are mentioned some manufacturing companies which are engaged in poultry processing. The third a...

  6. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  7. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  8. Biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial action of lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by heavy metal tolerant strain Bacillus cereus NK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Muthu Irulappan; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Deepak, Venkataraman; Gracerosepat, Raja; Srisakthi, Kandasamy; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2011-07-01

    Biosurfactants are worthful microbial amphiphilic molecules with efficient surface-active and biological properties applicable to several industries and processes. Among them lipopeptides represent a class of microbial surfactants with increasing scientific, therapeutic and biotechnological interests. A heavy metal tolerant Bacillus strain has been isolated and the biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial activity of biosurfactant produced by the strain have been studied. Biosurfactant production was confirmed by the conventional screening methods including hemolytic activity, drop collapsing test, oil displacement test, emulsification and lipase production assays. The biosurfactant produced by this strain was a lipopeptide and exhibited strong surface activity. The biosurfactant has been characterized using FTIR, TLC and HPLC. The minimum active dose of this biosurfactant when compared with the other chemical surfactants was found as 0.150±0.06 μg. The critical micelle concentration was found to be 45 mg/l. The biosurfactant was found to be stable and active over a wide range of pH, temperature and NaCl concentration. It was also able to emulsify a wide range of hydrocarbons and oils thereby extending its application for the bioremediation of oil contaminated sites. The biosurfactant exhibited significant reduction in biofilm formation by pathogens and showed potent antimicrobial activity against various gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. Agar diffusion assay for heavy metal resistance showed that the isolate was resistant to ferrous, lead and zinc. Considering the biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial property of biosurfactant, it can be utilized as a potential therapeutic molecule for numerous microbial infections. The heavy metal resistance of the strain can also be harnessed as an invaluable biological tool for in situ bioremediation. PMID:21458961

  9. Biosurfactant production for application in soil remediation contaminated by oil: study of the virulence factors; Producao de biosurfactantes para aplicacao em remediacao de solos contaminados por petroleo: estudo dos fatores de virulencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; Pereira, Marcos Dias; Freire, Denise Maria Guimaraes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Kronemberger, Frederico de Araujo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Biosurfactants are amphipatic molecules produced by microorganisms. The rhamnolipid (RML) is a group of those molecules, most produced by strains of Pseudomonas. In this present work, the effect of superficial aeration on the production of rhamnolipids and virulence factors, from proteins produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, isolated from oil extraction wells, was evaluated. Cell growth, glycerol and nitrate consumption, rhamnolipid production, nonspecific proteases, total proteins and elastases where investigated on different flask volume/medium volume relations (Vf/Vm): 1:0,15, 1:0,30, 1:0,50 and 1:0,70. It was observed that better oxygenation leaded to better results on the rhamnolipid production. Two peaks of elastase activity were noted, showing possible presence of two types of elastases that could be dislocated on fermentation time, due to the oxygenation degree. The major production of rhamnolipid was found on the 1:0,50 condition and different non-specific proteases standards were found due to the oxygenation degrees. (author)

  10. Selection of microorganisms for biosurfactant production using agroindustrial wastes Seleção de microrganismos para a produção de biossurfatantes em resíduos agroindustriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Nitschke

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant production by some bacterial isolates using molasses, milk whey and cassava flour wastewater (manipueira as substrates was evaluated and compared with the production in conventional medium. Isolates growing in manipueira medium decreased the surface tension around 42%, the highest reduction among all the substrates tested. From the eleven isolates tested, eight were able to decrease the surface tension to levels below 30 mN/m using manipueira as substrate. The isolates LB5a, LB2a, LB262, LBB and LB1a that gave surface tension about 26 mN/m were identified as Bacillus sp. Natural manipueira (high solids content and decanted manipueira (no solids were investigated as culture media for biosurfactant production by selected microorganisms. Natural manipueira medium showed minimum surface tension of 28 mN/m (LB5a isolate whereas for decanted manipueira the lowest value was 26 mN/m (isolate LB2a. Average diameter of growth on manipueira agar was 7.2 cm for isolate LB5a suggesting a high growth capacity on this substrate. Manipueira comprises a potential alternative culture medium for biosurfactant production by the selected isolates.Alguns isolados bacterianos foram avaliados quanto à capacidade de produção de biossurfatantes a partir de melaço, soro de leite e manipueira como substratos. A produção nestes meios alternativos foi comparada com a produção em meio de cultura convencional. Dentre os meios testados, a manipueira demonstrou a maior percentagem de redução na tensão superficial atingindo valores ao redor de 42%. Dos onze isolados testados, oito foram capazes de diminuir a tensão superficial para níveis inferiores à 30mN/m utilizando manipueira como substrato. Os isolados LB 5a, LB2a, LB262, LBB e LB1a apresentaram tensão superficial em torno de 26 mN/m sendo selecionados e posteriormente identificados como pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus sp. A manipueira natural (alto teor de sólidos e a manipueira decantada (aus

  11. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil to combat toxicity on Withania somnifera through seed priming with biosurfactant producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amar Jyoti; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Soil contaminated by Petroleum oil cannot be utilized for agricultural purposes due to hydrocarbon toxicity. Oil contaminated soil induces toxicity affecting germination, growth and productivity. Several technologies have been proposed for bioremediation of oil contaminated sites, but remediation through biosurfactant producing plant growth promontory rhizobacteria (PGPR) is considered to be most promising methods. In the present study the efficacy of seed priming on growth and pigment of Withania somnifera under petroleum toxicity is explored. Seeds of W. somnifera were primed with biosurfactant producing Pseudomonas sp. AJ15 with plant growth promoting traits having potentiality to utilized petroleum as carbon source. Results indicates that plant arose from priming seeds under various petroleum concentration expressed high values for all the parameters studied namely germination, shoot length, root length, fresh and dry weight and pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoid) as compared to non primed seed. Hence, the present study signifies that petroleum degrarding biosurfactant producing PGPR could be further used for management and detoxification of petroleum contaminated soils for growing economically important crops. PMID:27016896

  12. Optimization and characterization of a new lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by marine Brevibacterium aureum MSA13 in solid state culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghal Kiran, G; Anto Thomas, T; Selvin, Joseph; Sabarathnam, B; Lipton, A P

    2010-04-01

    The biosurfactant production of a marine actinobacterium Brevibacterium aureum MSA13 was optimized using industrial and agro-industrial solid waste residues as substrates in solid state culture (SSC). Based on the optimization experiments, the biosurfactant production by MSA13 was increased to threefold over the original isolate under SSC conditions with pre-treated molasses as substrate and olive oil, acrylamide, FeCl(3) and inoculums size as critical control factors. The strain B. aureum MSA13 produced a new lipopeptide biosurfactant with a hydrophobic moiety of octadecanoic acid methyl ester and a peptide part predicted as a short sequence of four amino acids including pro-leu-gly-gly. The biosurfactant produced by the marine actinobacterium MSA13 can be used for the microbially enhanced oil recovery processes in the marine environments. PMID:19959354

  13. New technologies in biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of biodiesel is nowadays affected by the cost of the raw materials, because the currently used method of preparation requires highly refined vegetable oils containing very low amounts of free fatty acids and moisture. Alternatively, less expensive technologies are possible using heterogeneous catalysts. In the present paper examples of these new technologies, based on the use of heterogeneous catalysts, in the production of biodiesel are described and discussed.

  14. Characterization of biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus spp. and their activity against oral streptococci biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciandrini, Eleonora; Campana, Raffaella; Casettari, Luca; Perinelli, Diego R; Fagioli, Laura; Manti, Anita; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo; Papa, Stefano; Baffone, Wally

    2016-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can interfere with pathogens through different mechanisms; one is the production of biosurfactants, a group of surface-active molecules, which inhibit the growth of potential pathogens. In the present study, biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, and Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 were dialyzed (1 and 6 kDa) and characterized in term of reduction of surface tension and emulsifying activity. Then, aliquots of the different dialyzed biosurfactants were added to Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811 in the culture medium during the formation of biofilm on titanium surface and the efficacy was determined by agar plate count, biomass analyses, and flow cytometry. Dialyzed biosurfactants showed abilities to reduce surface tension and to emulsifying paraffin oil. Moreover, they significantly inhibited the adhesion and biofilm formation on titanium surface of S. mutans and S. oralis in a dose-dependent way, as demonstrated by the remarkable decrease of cfu/ml values and biomass production. The antimicrobial properties observed for dialyzed biosurfactants produced by the tested lactobacilli opens future prospects for their use against microorganisms responsible of oral diseases. PMID:27102127

  15. Antibiofilm activity of biosurfactant producing coral associated bacteria isolated from gulf of mannar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathi, Alwar Ramanujam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2014-12-01

    Coral Associated Bacteria (CAB) (N = 22) isolated from the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera were screened for biosurfactants using classical screening methods; hemolysis test, lipase production, oil displacement, drop collapse test and emulsifying activity. Six CAB (U7, U9, U10, U13, U14, and U16) were found to produce biosurfactants and were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Providencia rettgeri, Psychrobacter sp., Bacillus flexus, Bacillus anthracis, Psychrobacter sp., and Bacillus pumilus respectively. Their cell surface hydrophobicity was determined by Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon assay and the biosurfactants produced were extracted and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Since the biosurfactants are known for their surface modifying capabilities, antibiofilm activity of positive isolates was evaluated against biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC10145. Stability of the active principle exhibiting antibiofilm activity was tested through various temperature treatments ranging from 60 to 100 °C and Proteinase K treatment. CAB isolates U7 and U9 exhibited stable antibiofilm activity even after exposure to higher temperatures which is promising for the development of novel antifouling agents for diverse industrial applications. Further, this is the first report on biosurfactant production by a coral symbiont. PMID:25320434

  16. Improvement of radioisotope production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespreading and deepgoing applications of radioisotopes results the increasing demands on both quality and quantity. This in turn stimulating the production technology to be improved unceasingly to meet the different requirements on availability, variety, facility, purity, specific activity and specificity. The major approaches of achieving these improvements including: optimizing mode of production; enhancing irradiation conditions; amelioration target arrangement; adapting nuclear process and inventing chemical processing. (author)

  17. Screening and evaluation of biosurfactant-producing strains isolated from oilfield wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Chen, Yitong; Xu, Ruidan; Jia, Yunpeng

    2013-06-01

    The six biosurfactant-producing strains, isolated from oilfield wastewater in Daqing oilfield, were screened. The production of biosurfactant was verified by measuring the diameter of the oil spreading, measuring the surface tension value and emulsifying capacity against xylene, n-pentane, kerosene and crude oil. The experimental result showed three strains (S2, S3, S6) had the better surface activity. Among the three strains, the best results were achieved when using S2 strain. The diameter of the oil spreading of the biosurfactant produced by S2 strain was 14 cm, its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was 21.8 mg/l and the interfacial tension between crude oil and biosurfactant solution produced by S2 strain reduced to 25.7 mN/m. The biosurfactant produced by S2 strain was capable of forming stable emulsions with various hydrocarbons, such as xylene, n-pentane, kerosene and crude oil. After S2 strain treatment, the reduction rate of oil viscosity was 51 % and oil freezing point reduced by 4 °C. PMID:24426104

  18. A novel biosurfactant produced by Aureobasidium pullulans L3-GPY from a tiger lily wild flower, Lilium lancifolium Thunb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Shik Kim

    Full Text Available Yeast biosurfactants are important biotechnological products in the food industry, and they have medical and cosmeceutical applications owing to their specific modes of action, low toxicity, and applicability. Thus, we have isolated and examined biosurfactant-producing yeast for various industrial and medical applications. A rapid and simple method was developed to screen biosurfactant-producing yeasts for high production of eco-friendly biosurfactants. Using this method, several potential niches of biosurfactant-producing yeasts, such as wild flowers, were investigated. We successfully selected a yeast strain, L3-GPY, with potent surfactant activity from a tiger lily, Lilium lancifolium Thunb. Here, we report the first identification of strain L3-GPY as the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans. In addition, we isolated a new low-surface-tension chemical, designated glycerol-liamocin, from the culture supernatant of strain L3-GPY through consecutive chromatography steps, involving an ODS column, solvent partition, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and an ODS Sep-Pak cartridge column. The chemical structure of glycerol-liamocin, determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicates that it is a novel compound with the molecular formula C33H62O12. Furthermore, glycerol-liamocin exhibited potent biosurfactant activity (31 mN/m. These results suggest that glycerol-liamocin is a potential novel biosurfactantfor use in various industrial applications.

  19. Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Single and Binary Mixed Rhamnolipid-Sophorolipid Biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dandan; Liang, Shengkang; Yan, Lele; Shang, Yujun; Wang, Xiuli

    2016-07-01

    Biosurfactants are promising additives for surfactant enhanced remediation (SER) technologies due to their low toxicity and high biodegradability. To develop green and efficient additives for SER, the aqueous solubility enhancements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) by rhamnolipid (RL) and sophorolipid (SL) biosurfactants were investigated in single and binary mixed systems. The solubilization capacities were quantified in terms of the solubility enhancement factor, molar solubilization ratio (MSR), and micelle-water partition coefficient (). Rughbin's model was applied to evaluate the interaction parameters (β) in the mixed RL-SL micelles. The solubility of the PAHs increased linearly with the glycolipid concentration above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) in both single and mixed systems. Binary RL-SL mixtures exhibited greater solubilization than individual glycolipids. At a SL molar fraction of 0.7 to 0.8, the solubilization capacity was the greatest, and the MSR and reached their maximum values, and β values became positive. These results suggest that the two biosurfactants act synergistically to increase the solubility of the PAHs. The solubilization capacity of the RL-SL mixtures increased with increasing temperature and decreased with increasing salinity. The aqueous solubility of phenanthrene reached a maximum value at pH of 5.5. Moreover, the mixed RL-SL systems exhibited a strong ability to solubilize PAHs, even in the presence of heavy metal ions. These mixed biosurfactant systems have the potential to improve the performance of SER technologies using biosurfactants to solubilize hydrophobic organic contaminants by decreasing the applied biosurfactant concentration, which reduces the costs of remediation. PMID:27380091

  20. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-10-15

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs. PMID:23911831

  1. Mobilization and co-transport of pyrene in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 biosurfactants in sandy soil columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafrance, P.; Lapointe, M.

    1998-12-31

    Washing technologies are currently applied for the remediation of contaminated soils. The efficiency of biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to mobilize some hydrocarbons sorbed on soils has already been demonstrated. However, few studies have been made to define optimal procedures for the injection of these rhamnolipids in soil. This study examines (1) the efficiency of the biosurfactants produced by P. aeruginosa UG2 to mobilize pyrene from a contaminated sandy loam as compared to that of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS); (2) the injection procedures that might affect the efficiency of pyrene mobilization using UG2 biosurfactants; and (3) the co-transport of UG2 biosurfactants and pyrene. Based on the experimental results, it would be advantageous to use a high UG2 biosurfactant concentration, a high pore water velocity, and possibly a flow interruption of more than 15 h in order to reduce the injected volume and the duration of the treatment required. The 0.25% UG2 biosurfactant concentration greatly enhanced pyrene transport and could facilitate contaminant recovery.

  2. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Abdullah, Shakila; Salim, Mohd Razman

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 "Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30" (Fulazzaky et al., 2015) [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments. PMID:27077083

  3. Biosurfactant and Heavy Metal Resistance Activity of Streptomyces spp. Isolated from Saltpan Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmipathy Deepika

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes were isolated from the marine soil samples collected at the Ennore saltpan and were screened for biosurfactant and heavy metal resistance activity. Biosurfactant activity was evaluated by haemolysis, drop collapsing test and lipase production. Similarly heavy metal resistance was determined by tube method and agar diffusion method. Among them, two actinomycetes isolates VITDDK1 and VITDDK2 exhibited significant biosurfactant and heavy metal resistance activity. Based on the Hideo Nonomura’s key for classification of actinomycetes, the isolate VITDDK1 was similar to Streptomyces orientalis and VITDDK2 to Streptomyces aureomonopodiales. However molecular phylogeny based on neighbour-joining method showed 99% similarity of VITDDK1 with Streptomyces sp. A403Ydz-QZ and 93% similarity of VITDDK2 with Streptomyces sp. strain 346.

  4. Structural Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of a Biosurfactant Obtained From Bacillus pumilus DSVP18 Grown on Potato Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Gupta, Sonam; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad; Pruthi, Parul; Pruthi, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biosurfactants constitute a structurally diverse group of surface-active compounds derived from microorganisms. They are widely used industrially in various industrial applications such as pharmaceutical and environmental sectors. Major limiting factor in biosurfactant production is their production cost. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate biosurfactant production under laboratory conditions with potato peels as the sole source of carbon source. Materials and Methods: A biosurfactant-producing bacterial strain (Bacillus pumilus DSVP18, NCBI GenBank accession no. GQ865643) was isolated from motor oil contaminated soil samples. Biochemical characteristics of the purified biosurfactant were determined and its chemical structure was analyzed. Stability studies were performed and biological activity of the biosurfactant was also evaluated. Results: The strain, when grown on modified minimal salt media supplemented with 2% potato peels as the sole carbon source, showed the ability to reduce Surface Tension (ST) value of the medium from 72 to 28.7 mN/m. The isolated biosurfactant (3.2 ± 0.32 g/L) was stable over a wide range of temperatures (20 - 120 ºC), pH (2-12) and salt concentrations (2 - 12%). When characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it was found to be a lipopeptide in nature, which was further confirmed by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (mass peak 1044.60) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. Data showed that the isolated biosurfactant at the concentration range of 30 - 35 µg/ml had strong antimicrobial activity when tested against standard strains of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Paenibacillus larvae. Conclusions: Potato peels were proved to be potentially useful substrates for biosurfactant production by B. pumilus DSVP18. The strain possessed a

  5. Characterisation, surface properties and biological activity of a biosurfactant produced from industrial waste by Candida sphaerica UCP0995 for application in the petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Sarubbo, Leonie A; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria

    2013-02-01

    The development of less toxic, biodegradable, surfactants, such as biosurfactants, is a key strategy for acquiring environmentally friendly compounds. The aim of the present study was to employ an optimised medium containing 9% ground nut oil refinery residue and 9% corn steep liquor for the production of a biosurfactant by Candida sphaerica. Fermentation was carried out at 28 °C and 200 rpm for 144 h. Biosurfactant yield was 9 g/l. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of the medium to 25 mN/m, with a critical micelle concentration of 0.025%. The product demonstrated stability with regard to surface tension reduction and emulsification in a range of temperatures (5-120 °C) and pH values (2-12) as well as tolerance to high concentrations of NaCl (2-10%). Hydrophobicity tests indicate two possible insoluble substrate uptake mechanisms: direct interfacial uptake and biosurfactant-mediated transfer (cell contact with emulsified or solubilised hydrocarbons). The biosurfactant was characterised as an anionic glycolipid consisting of 70% lipids and 15% carbohydrates and demonstrated no toxicity to the microcrustacean Artemia salina or the vegetables Brassica oleracea, Solanum gilo, Lactuca sativa L. and Brassica oleracea L. The biosurfactant recovered 95% of motor oil adsorbed to a sand sample, demonstrating considerable potential for use in bioremediation processes, especially in the petroleum industry. PMID:23006562

  6. Reuse-based software production technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Software reuse is viewed as a key technology to improve software product quality and productivity. This paper discusses a series of technologies related with software reuse and software component technology: component model, which describes component's essential characteristics; component acquisition technology, of which domain engineering is the main approach; component management technology, of which component library is the kernel; application integration and composition technology, of which application engineering is the main approach; software evolution technology, of which software reengineering is the main approach, etc. This paper introduces the software development environment: JadeBird Software Production Line System, which effectively integrates the above-mentioned technologies.

  7. A Novel Glycolipid Biosurfactant Confers Grazing Resistance upon Pantoea ananatis BRT175 against the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek D N; Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric; Stavrinides, John

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea is a versatile genus of bacteria with both plant- and animal-pathogenic strains, some of which have been suggested to cause human infections. There is, however, limited knowledge on the potential determinants used for host association and pathogenesis in animal systems. In this study, we used the model host Dictyostelium discoideum to show that isolates of Pantoea ananatis exhibit differential grazing susceptibility, with some being resistant to grazing by the amoebae. We carried out a high-throughput genetic screen of one grazing-resistant isolate, P. ananatis BRT175, using the D. discoideum pathosystem to identify genes responsible for the resistance phenotype. Among the 26 candidate genes involved in grazing resistance, we identified rhlA and rhlB, which we show are involved in the biosynthesis of a biosurfactant that enables swarming motility in P. ananatis BRT175. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the biosurfactant was shown to be a glycolipid with monohexose-C10-C10 as the primary congener. We show that this novel glycolipid biosurfactant is cytotoxic to the amoebae and is capable of compromising cellular integrity, leading to cell lysis. The production of this biosurfactant may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and could contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. IMPORTANCE The genetic factors used for host interaction by the opportunistic human pathogen Pantoea ananatis are largely unknown. We identified two genes that are important for the production of a biosurfactant that confers grazing resistance against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We show that the biosurfactant, which exhibits cytotoxicity toward the amoebae, is a glycolipid that incorporates a hexose rather than rhamnose. The production of this biosurfactant may confer a competitive advantage in the environment and could potentially contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. PMID:27303689

  8. An efficient thermotolerant and halophilic biosurfactant-producing bacterium isolated from Dagang oil field for MEOR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Richnow, Hans; Yao, Jun; Jain, Anil

    2014-05-01

    Dagang Oil field (Petro China Company Limited) is one of the most productive oil fields in China. In this study, 34 biosurfactant-producing strains were isolated and cultured from petroleum reservoir of Dagang oil field, using haemolytic assay and the qualitative oil-displacement test. On the basis of 16S rDNA analysis, the isolates were closely related to the species in genus Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Bacillus. One of the isolates identified as Bacillus subtilis BS2 were selected for further study. This bacterium was able to produce a type of biosurfactant with excessive foam-forming properties at 37ºC as well as at higher temperature of 55ºC. The biosurfactant produced by the strain BS2 could reduce the surface tension of the culture broth from 70.87 mN/m to 28.97 mN/m after 8 days of incubation at 37ºC and to 36.15 mN/m after 20 days of incubation at 55ºC, respectively. The biosurfactant showed stability at high temperature (up to 120ºC), a wide range of pH (2 to 12) and salt concentrations (up to 12%) offering potential for biotechnology. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of extracted biosurfactant tentatively characterized the produced biosurfactant as glycolipid derivative. Elemental analysis of the biosurfactant by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) reveals that the biosurfactant was anionic in nature. 15 days of biodegradation of crude oil suggested a preferential usage of n-alkane upon microbial metabolism of BS2 as a carbon substrate and consequently also for the synthesis of biosurfactants. Core flood studies for oil release indicated 9.6% of additional oil recovery over water flooding at 37ºC and 7.2% of additional oil recovery at 55 ºC. Strain BS2 was characterized as an efficient biosurfactant-producing, thermotolerant and halophillic bacterium and has the potential for application for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) through water flooding in China's oil fields even in situ as adapted to reservoir chemistry and

  9. NASA Technologies for Product Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Fred, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1975 bar codes on products at the retail counter have been accepted as the standard for entering product identity for price determination. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Data Matrix symbol has become accepted as the bar code format that is marked directly on a part, assembly or product that is durable enough to identify that item for its lifetime. NASA began the studies for direct part marking Data Matrix symbols on parts during the Return to Flight activities after the Challenger Accident. Over the 20 year period that has elapsed since Challenger, a mountain of studies, analyses and focused problem solutions developed by and for NASA have brought about world changing results. NASA Technical Standard 6002 and NASA Handbook 6003 for Direct Part Marking Data Matrix Symbols on Aerospace Parts have formed the basis for most other standards on part marking internationally. NASA and its commercial partners have developed numerous products and methods that addressed the difficulties of collecting part identification in aerospace operations. These products enabled the marking of Data Matrix symbols in virtually every situation and the reading of symbols at great distances, severe angles, under paint and in the dark without a light. Even unmarkable delicate parts now have a process to apply a chemical mixture called NanocodesTM that can be converted to a Data Matrix. The accompanying intellectual property is protected by 10 patents, several of which are licensed. Direct marking Data Matrix on NASA parts virtually eliminates data entry errors and the number of parts that go through their life cycle unmarked, two major threats to sound configuration management and flight safety. NASA is said to only have people and stuff with information connecting them. Data Matrix is one of the most significant improvements since Challenger to the safety and reliability of that connection. This presentation highlights the accomplishments of NASA in its efforts to develop

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL MEASURES TO IMPROVE AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCT QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Gladkov, V.; Kruglov, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the basic technological measures aimed at improving product quality in automotive industry. While paying due attention to solving organizational and technological problems, including the development of certification systems for production processes, it is also necessary to improve the technical standards of specific technologies, equipment and materials as they largely determine product quality. Special emphasis is given to the importance of improving the production of auto...

  11. 生物表面活性剂应用研究进展%Progress on the Applications of Biosurfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江红; 陈逸桐; 贾云鹏; 芦艳

    2013-01-01

    生物表面活性剂是由微生物产生的天然产物,具有表面活性高、对环境无污染、生物可降解性及良好的抑菌作用等优于化学合成的表面活性剂的独特性质.本文对生物表面活性剂的特性、分类及其制备方法进行了介绍,对生物表面活性剂在石油工业、环境工业、医药、食品、农业和化妆品工业等领域的应用进行了总结,展望了生物表面活性剂的良好应用前景.%Biosurfactants are natural products produced by microorganisms.The biosurfactants have unique properties,such as,high surface activity,environmental friendliness,biodegradable and good anti-microbial activity,which chemical surfactants do not have.Herein the properties,classifications and preparation methods of biosurfactants are introduced in brief.The applications of biosurfactants in various fields such as petroleum exploit,environmental protection,preparation of medicals,food products as well as agriculture and cosmetics are summarized.The prospect in the development of the biosurfactants is predicted.

  12. Rhamnolipids in perspective: gene regulatory pathways, metabolic engineering, production and technological forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Leticia; Vilela, Leonardo F; Almeida, Rodrigo V; Neves, Bianca C

    2016-01-25

    Rhamnolipids have emerged as a very promising class of biosurfactants in the last decades, exhibiting properties of great interest in several industrial applications, and have represented a suitable alternative to chemically-synthesized surfactants. This class of biosurfactants has been extensively studied in recent years, aiming at their large-scale production based on renewable resources, which still require high financial costs. Development of non-pathogenic, high-producing strains has been the focus of a number of studies involving heterologous microbial hosts as platforms. However, the intricate gene regulation network controlling rhamnolipid biosynthesis represents a challenge to metabolic engineering and remains to be further understood and explored. This article provides an overview of the biosynthetic pathways and the main gene regulatory factors involved in rhamnolipid production within Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the prototypal producing species. In addition, we provide a perspective view into the main strategies applied to metabolic engineering and biotechnological production. PMID:26409933

  13. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Biofuel Production is the topic covered in this edition.

  14. Contributions of biosurfactants to natural or induced bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawniczak, Lukasz; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2013-03-01

    The number of studies dedicated to evaluating the influence of biosurfactants on bioremediation efficiency is constantly growing. Although significant progress regarding the explanation of mechanisms behind biosurfactant-induced effects could be observed, there are still many factors which are not sufficiently elucidated. This corresponds to the fact that although positive influence of biosurfactants is often reported, there are also numerous cases where no or negative effect was observed. This review summarizes the recent finding in the field of biosurfactant-amended bioremediation, focusing mainly on a critical approach towards potential limitations and causes of failure while investigating the effects of biosurfactants on the efficiency of biodegradation and phytoextraction processes. It also provides a summary of successive steps, which should be taken into consideration when designing biosurfactant-related treatment processes. PMID:23400445

  15. Innovative production technology ethanol from sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers the technological aspects of production of ethanol from nontraditional for Russian Federation crops - sweet sorghum. Presents the technological scheme of alcohol production and fuel pellets from sweet sorghum. Special attention is paid to assessing the efficiency of alcohol production from sweet sorghum. The described advantage of sugar content in stem juice of sweet sorghum compared with other raw materials. Allegedly, the use of the technology for producing alcohol from sweet sorghum allows to save resources.

  16. Contributions of biosurfactants to natural or induced bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Ławniczak, Łukasz; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The number of studies dedicated to evaluating the influence of biosurfactants on bioremediation efficiency is constantly growing. Although significant progress regarding the explanation of mechanisms behind biosurfactant-induced effects could be observed, there are still many factors which are not sufficiently elucidated. This corresponds to the fact that although positive influence of biosurfactants is often reported, there are also numerous cases where no or negative effect was observed. Th...

  17. Enrichment and identification of biosurfactant-producing oil field microbiota utilizing electron acceptors other than oxygen and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryachko, Yuriy; Semler, Diana; Vogrinetz, John; Lemke, Markus; Links, Matthew G; McCarthy, E Luke; Haug, Brenda; Hemmingsen, Sean M

    2016-08-10

    Microorganisms indigenous to an oil reservoir were grown in media containing either sucrose or proteins in four steel vessels under anoxic conditions at 30°C and 8.3MPa for 30days, to enrich biosurfactant producers. Fermentation of substrate was possible in the protein-containing medium and either fermentation or respiration through reduction of sulfate occurred in the sucrose-containing medium. Growth of microorganisms led to 3.4-5.4-fold surface tension reduction indicating production of biosurfactants in amounts sufficient for enhancement of gas-driven oil recovery. Analysis of sequenced cpn60 amplicons showed that Pseudomonas sp. highly similar to biosurfactant producing P. fluorescens and to Pseudomonas sp. strain TKP predominated, and a bacterium highly similar to biosurfactant producing Bacillus mojavensis was present in vessels. Analysis of 16S rDNA amplicons allowed only genus-level identification of these bacteria. Thus, cpn60-amplicon analysis was a more relevant tool for identification of putative biosurfactant producers than 16S rDNA-amplicon analysis. PMID:27212608

  18. Inequality, product durability and the adoption of new technology products

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl

    2001-01-01

    The analysis highlights how inequality and the cost of producing durability influence the degree to which new technology products are adopted in an economy. It is shown that redistribution may both increase and lower technology dispersion. If inequality is large at the outset, redistribution may lower technology dispersion. On the other hand, if inequality is low at the outset, more redistribution will be beneficial for the adoptation of new technology products. For intermediate cases the eff...

  19. N-Acyl-L-homoserine lactone autoinducers control production of an extracellular lipopeptide biosurfactant required for swarming motility of Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindum, Peter Wurtz; Anthoni, U; Christophersen, Carsten;

    1998-01-01

    A nonswarming Serratia liquefaciens mutant deficient in serrawettin W2 production was constructed by transposon mutagenesis. Sequence homology indicated that insertion had occurred in gene swrA, which encodes a putative peptide synthetase. Expression of swrA is controlled by quorum sensing....

  20. Whey: technologies for coproducts production

    OpenAIRE

    Maura Pinheiro Alves; Renam de Oliveira Moreira; Paulo Henrique Rodrigues Júnior; Mayra Carla de Freitas Martins; Ítalo Tuler Perrone; Antônio Fernandes de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present article was to present the principles of whey processability. In order to reach these objectives, the article presents the whey proteins, the membrane filtration process and the spray drying technology. The main technologies for use whey are presented: whey protein beverages, whey powder, whey protein concentrate powder, whey protein isolate powder and powders of whey protein fractions.

  1. Technological Competition a Qualitative Product Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Marco

    1998-01-01

    In this work, it is proposed to consider the evolution of markets for technological innovative products as a co-evolutionary process, where the product characteristics are the results of the interaction between producers technological advances and buyers’ preferences evolution. A methodological discussion identifies some necessary properties for a model to study this issue. A model of technological competition is developed, and its results discussed, to test a possible implemen...

  2. [Naturally engineered glycolipid biosurfactants leading to distinctive self-assembling properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-05-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) are functional amphiphilic compounds produced by a variety of microorganisms. They show unique properties (e.g. mild production conditions, lower toxicity, and environmental compatibility) compared to chemically synthesized counterparts. The numerous advantages of BS have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries but in energy and environmental technologies as well. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are one of the most promising BS known, and are produced at yields of over 100 g/l from vegetable oils by yeast strains belonging to the genus Pseudozyma. MELs exhibit excellent surface-active and self-assembling properties leading to the formation of different lyotropic liquid crystals such as sponge (L(3)), bicontinuous cubic (V(2)) and lamella (L(alpha)) phases. They also show versatile biochemical actions, including antitumor and differentiation-inducing activities against human leukemia cells, rat pheochromocytoma cells and mouse melanoma cells. MELs also display high binding affinity toward different immunoglobulins and lectins, indicating great potentials as new affinity ligands for the glycoproteins. More significantly, the cationic liposomes bearing MELs increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells via membrane fusion processes. The yeast BS should thus be novel nanobiomaterials, and broaden their applications in various advanced technologies. PMID:18451615

  3. Biosurfactan Production by Bacillus sp. Isolated from Petroleum Contaminated Soils of Sirri Island

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. Jazeh; F Forghani; Deog-Hwan Oh

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Biosurfactants are active surface components produced by some bacteria and fungi. These molecules reduce surface and interfacial tension in aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures. The most important application of biosurfactants is in oil industry to enhance oil quality and facilitate oil extraction. The aim of this study was to isolate biosurfactant producing bacteria and optimize the conditions like temperature and pH for maximum biosurfactant production. Approach: Sa...

  4. Does Information Technology Raise Japan's Productivity?

    OpenAIRE

    Takuji Fueki; Takuji Kawamoto

    2008-01-01

    A standard growth accounting exercise indicates that, after Japan's "lost decade," its overall total-factor-productivity (TFP) growth has increased notably since 2000. This productivity revival has been limited, however, to information technology (IT) production--has not been a broad-based productivity acceleration like that seen in the United States after the mid-1990s. This paper examines the relationship between IT and productivity gains by employing the "augmented" growth accounting frame...

  5. Interactions between biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas and Phytophthora species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas bacteria produce a wide variety of antimicrobial metabolites, including soap-like compounds referred to as biosurfactants. The results of this thesis showed that biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas bacteria are effective in controlling Phytophthora foot rot disease of black p

  6. HTTR workshop (workshop on hydrogen production technology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various research and development efforts have been performed to solve the global energy and environmental problems caused by large consumption of fossil fuels. Research activities on advanced hydrogen production technology by the use of nuclear heat from high temperature gas cooled reactors, for example, have been flourished in universities, research institutes and companies in many countries. The Department of HTTR Project and the Department of Advanced Nuclear Heat Technology of JAERI held the HTTR Workshop (Workshop on Hydrogen Production Technology) on July 5 and 6, 2004 to grasp the present status of R and D about the technology of HTGR and the nuclear hydrogen production in the world and to discuss about necessity of the nuclear hydrogen production and technical problems for the future development of the technology. More than 110 participants attended the Workshop including foreign participants from USA, France, Korea, Germany, Canada and United Kingdom. In the Workshop, the presentations were made on such topics as R and D programs for nuclear energy and hydrogen production technologies by thermo-chemical or other processes. Also, the possibility of the nuclear hydrogen production in the future society was discussed. The workshop showed that the R and D for the hydrogen production by the thermo-chemical process has been performed in many countries. The workshop affirmed that nuclear hydrogen production could be one of the competitive supplier of hydrogen in the future. The second HTTR Workshop will be held in the autumn next year. (author)

  7. Biosurfactant producing microorganisms and its application to enhanced oil recovery at lab scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, J. A.; J.A. Teixeira; Soares, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process where microorganisms and their metabolites are used to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. Stimulation of biosurfactant production by indigenous microorganisms can reduce the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir. The studied reservoir is characterized by alternated oil and water sand layers, with an average porosity of 25% and a permeability of 50 mD. It’s a flat structure at 450 m dept...

  8. Synthesis of rhamnolipid biosurfactant and mode of hexadecane uptake by Pseudomonas species

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Pooja; Cameotra Swaranjit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Microorganisms have devised ways by which they increase the bioavailability of many water immiscible substrates whose degradation rates are limited by their low water solubility. Hexadecane is one such water immiscible hydrocarbon substrate which forms an important constituent of oil. One major mechanism employed by hydrocarbon degrading organisms to utilize such substrates is the production of biosurfactants. However, much of the overall mechanism by which such organisms ...

  9. Rhizoremediation of Petrol Engine Oil Using Biosurfactants Producing Microbial Consortium in Mustard Crop

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Kumar; Rajesh Kumar; Anita Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of soil / water resources by petroleum products poses severe threats to underground water and soil quality. In the present study biosurfactant producing bacterial cultures were used to degrade petrol engine oil under in situ conditions in the plant rhizosphere system. Two bacterial isolates used in this study were recovered from Haldia oil refinery sites and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (JX100389) and P. moraviensis (JX149542). Application of consortium C2, (Pseudomonas ...

  10. Microbial biosurfactants: challenges and opportunities for future exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2012-11-01

    The drive for industrial sustainability has pushed biosurfactants to the top of the agenda of many companies. Biosurfactants offer the possibility of replacing chemical surfactants, produced from nonrenewable resources, with alternatives produced from cheap renewable feedstocks. Biosurfactants are also attractive because they are less damaging to the environment yet are robust enough for industrial use. The most promising biosurfactants at the present time are the glycolipids, sophorolipids produced by Candida yeasts, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) produced by Pseudozyma yeasts, and rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas. Despite the current enthusiasm for these compounds several residual problems remain. This review highlights remaining problems and indicates the prospects for imminent commercial exploitation of a new generation of microbial biosurfactants. PMID:22901730

  11. Effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant on solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shudong; Pi, Yongrui; Bao, Mutai; Zhang, Cong; Zhao, Dongwei; Li, Yiming; Sun, Peiyan; Lu, Jinren

    2015-12-15

    Rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing bacteria, Bacillus Lz-2, was isolated from oil polluted water collected from Dongying Shengli oilfield, China. The factors that influence PAH solubilization such as biosurfactant concentration, pH, ionic strength and temperature were discussed. The results showed that the solubilities of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene increased linearly with the rise of rhamnolipid biosurfactant dose above the biosurfactant critical micelle concentration (CMC). Furthermore, the molar solubilization ratio (MSR) values decreased in the following order: naphthalene>phenanthrene>pyrene. However, the solubility percentage increased and followed the opposite order: pyrene>phenanthrene>naphthalene. The solubilities of PAHs in rhamnolipid biosurfactant solution increased with the rise of pH and ionic strength, and reached the maximum values under the conditions of pH11 and NaCl concentration 8 g · L(-1). The solubility of phenanthrene and pyrene increased with the rise of temperature. PMID:26494247

  12. The emulsifying effect of biosurfactants produced by food spoilage organisms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianah O. Ogunmola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food spoilage organisms were isolated using standard procedures on Nutrient Agar, Cetrimide Agar and Pseudomonas Agar Base (supplemented with CFC. The samples were categorized as animal products (raw fish, egg, raw chicken, corned beef, pasteurized milk and plant products (vegetable salad, water leaf (Talinium triangulare, boiled rice, tomatoes and pumpkin leaf (Teifairia occidentalis.They were characterised as Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Serratia rubidaea, Corynebacterium pilosum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus laterosporus, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus macerans, Alcaligenes faecalis and Alcaligenes eutrophus. Preliminary screening for biosurfactant production was done using red blood haemolysis test and confirmed by slide test, drop collapse and oil spreading assay. The biosurfactant produced was purified using acetone and the composition determined initially using Molisch’s test, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The components were found to be ethanol, amino acids, butoxyacetic acid, hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, lauryl peroxide, octadecanoic acid and phthalic acid. The producing organisms grew readily on several hydrocarbons such as crude oil, diesel oil and aviation fuel when used as sole carbon sources.  The purified biosurfactants produced were able to cause emulsification of kerosene (19.71-27.14% as well as vegetable oil (16.91-28.12% based on the emulsification index. This result suggests that the isolates can be an asset and further work can exploit their optimal potential in industries.

  13. Cleaner production technology for the NDT industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses te wastes generated from the conduct of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and operations like NDT film processing and the systems to reduce water pollution and the film system quality control. Discussions on clean technology production concepts and philosophy is also discussed. A case study on cleaner production technology where a process and equipment modifications and a product substitution were implemented is presented. The equipment modification and product substitution eliminated the use of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in its cleaning operation. (Author)

  14. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Reservoir enhancements and production technology sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusseault, M.B. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences, Porous Media Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    Criteria used to select production technologies for reservoirs with high levels of sand production were discussed. The paper examined a range of thermal recovery methods including cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) and steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). VAPEX, hybrid steam, and in situ combustion processes were reviewed. The review indicated that reservoir processes that involve high levels of sand production, high pressures, and high temperatures can cause changes in porosity and breach or shear barriers and shale beds within reservoirs. The changes can be beneficial to technologies designed to reduce flow path lengths in gravity drainage processes. Reservoir scale changes associated with cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) and steam injection technologies were also discussed. It was concluded that careful sequencing of technologies can have a significant impact on recovery rates. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Recommendation Technologies for Configurable Products

    OpenAIRE

    Falkner, Andreas; Siemens AG Austria; Felfernig, Alexander; Graz University of Technology; Haag, Albert; SAP AG

    2011-01-01

    State of the art recommender systems support users in the selection of items from a predefined assortment (for example, movies, books, and songs). In contrast to an explicit definition of each individual item, configurable products such as computers, financial service portfolios, and cars are repre¬sented in the form of a configuration knowledge base that describes the properties of allowed instances. Although the knowledge representation used is different compared to non-confi¬gurable produc...

  17. Informative technologies in the material products designing

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; R. Honysz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of materials products designing is to optimize their functional properties in terms of technological, economic and ecological aspects.Design/methodology/approach: Materials science is an example of a field, in which informative technologies used to understand and anticipate the construction of materials and their properties has a significant success.Findings: Innovation and development of new informative technologies and the widespread use of modern materials will be esse...

  18. Integrated Micro Product and Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the issues of integrated micro product and technology development. The implications of the decisions in the design phase on the subsequent manufacturing processes are considered vital. A coherent process chain is a necessary prerequisite for the realisation of the industrial...... potential of micro technology....

  19. Extracellular aromatic biosurfactant produced by Tsukamurella pseudospumae and T. spumae during growth on n-hexadecane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, Johannes H; Kraft, Axel; Heißler, Stefan; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Luy, Burkhard; Schwack, Wolfgang; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2015-10-10

    Biosurfactants are surface-active agents produced by microorganisms and show increasing significance in various industrial applications. A great variety of these secondary metabolites are described to occur within actinomycetes, amongst trehalose lipids and oligosaccharide lipids produced by the family Tsukamurellaceae. This study reports on the production of not yet described compounds with surface active behavior by non-pathogenic Tsukamurella pseudospumae and Tsukamurella spumae during growth on hydrophobic carbon sources. Extracts of the purified compounds differ in terms of structure and performance properties to other biosurfactants described within their family. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of aromatic moieties within the surfactant produced, which to date is only known to occur within phenolic glycolipids of some mycobateria. PMID:26223030

  20. Industrial Technology and the Productivity Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, John W.

    1982-01-01

    The role of industrial technology in addressing productivity encompasses work experience and attitude, quality assurance, research and development, time and motion studies, plant layout and flow diagramming, cost analysis, production process selection, maintenance, computer applications, materials and inventory requirements, safety programming,…

  1. Gantry technology in organic crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Dr. Winfried

    2002-01-01

    Gantry technology in organic crop production Winfried Schäfer Agrifood Research Finland, Agricultural Engineering Research, Objectives: Costs of agricultural machinery and farm buildings are substantial, comprising about 40% of production costs also in organic farming. What are the tasks of agricultural machinery and agricultural engineering research in organic farming? Which agricultural engineering results support the basic principles of organic farming? ...

  2. Technology's Impact on Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Amann; Ellis Deweese; Deborah Shipman

    2009-06-30

    As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) - entitled Technology's Impact on Production: Developing Environmental Solutions at the State and National Level - the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has been tasked with assisting state governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, specifically in relation to orphaned and abandoned wells and wells nearing the end of productive life. Project goals include: (1) Developing (a) a model framework for prioritization and ranking of orphaned or abandoned well sites; (b) a model framework for disbursement of Energy Policy Act of 2005 funding; and (c) a research study regarding the current status of orphaned wells in the nation. (2) Researching the impact of new technologies on environmental protection from a regulatory perspective. Research will identify and document (a) state reactions to changing technology and knowledge; (b) how those reactions support state environmental conservation and public health; and (c) the impact of those reactions on oil and natural gas production. (3) Assessing emergent technology issues associated with wells nearing the end of productive life. Including: (a) location of orphaned and abandoned well sites; (b) well site remediation; (c) plugging materials; (d) plug placement; (e) the current regulatory environment; and (f) the identification of emergent technologies affecting end of life wells. New Energy Technologies - Regulating Change, is the result of research performed for Tasks 2 and 3.

  3. Selective cultures for the isolation of biosurfactant producing bacteria: comparison of different combinations of environmental inocula and hydrophobic carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Patrícia M; Louvado, António; Oliveira, Vanessa; Coelho, Francisco J C R; Almeida, Adelaide; Gomes, Newton C M; Cunha, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The potential of estuarine microniches as reservoirs of biosurfactant-producing bacteria was evaluated by testing different combinations of inocula and hydrophobic carbon sources. Selective cultures using diesel, petroleum, or paraffin as hydrophobic carbon sources were prepared and inoculated with water from the surface microlayer, bulk sediments, and sediment of the rhizosphere of Halimione portulacoides. These inocula were compared regarding the frequency of biosurfactant-producing strains among selected isolates. The community structure of the selective cultures was profiled using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene fragments at the end of the incubation. The DGGE profiles corresponding to the communities established in selective cultures at the end of the incubation revealed that communities were different in terms of structural diversity. The highest diversity was observed in the selective cultures containing paraffin (H (') = 2.5). Isolates were obtained from the selective cultures (66) and tested for biosurfactant production by the atomized oil assay. Biosurfactant production was detected in 17 isolates identified as Microbacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Serratia. The combination of estuarine surface microlayer (SML) water as inoculum and diesel as carbon source seems promising for the isolation of surfactant-producing bacteria. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology to view the supplemental file. PMID:23379272

  4. Novel rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain NY3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Maiqian; Yin, Xihou; Ren, Chunyan; Wang, Yang; Xu, Feng; Shen, Qirong

    2010-01-01

    A novel rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain NY3 was isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil samples. Strain NY3 was characterized by its extraordinary capacity to produce structurally diverse rhamnolipids. A total of 25 rhamnolipid components and 37 different parent molecular ions, representing various metal ion adducts (Na(+), 2Na(+) and K(+)), were detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Among these compounds are ten new rhamnolipids. In addition to its biosurfactant production, strain NY3 was shown to be capable of efficient degradation of PAHs as well as synergistic improvement in the degradation of high molecular weight PAHs by its biosurfactant. These findings have added novel members to the rhamnolipid group and expanded current knowledge regarding the diversity and productive capability of rhamnolipid biosurfactants from a single specific strain with variation of only one carbon source. Additionally, this paper lays the foundation for improvement in the yield of NY3BS and study of the degradation pathway(s) of PAHs in P. aeruginosa strain NY3. PMID:20580808

  5. Biosurfactant as a Promoter of Methane Hydrate Formation: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Kumar, Rajnish; Balomajumder, Chandrajit; Singh, Anil Kumar; Santhakumari, B.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Laik, Sukumar

    2016-02-01

    Natural gas hydrates (NGHs) are solid non-stoichiometric compounds often regarded as a next generation energy source. Successful commercialization of NGH is curtailed by lack of efficient and safe technology for generation, dissociation, storage and transportation. The present work studied the influence of environment compatible biosurfactant on gas hydrate formation. Biosurfactant was produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain A11 and was characterized as rhamnolipids. Purified rhamnolipids reduced the surface tension of water from 72 mN/m to 36 mN/m with Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) of 70 mg/l. Use of 1000 ppm rhamnolipids solution in C type silica gel bed system increased methane hydrate formation rate by 42.97% and reduced the induction time of hydrate formation by 22.63% as compared to water saturated C type silica gel. Presence of rhamnolipids also shifted methane hydrate formation temperature to higher values relative to the system without biosurfactant. Results from thermodynamic and kinetic studies suggest that rhamnolipids can be applied as environment friendly methane hydrate promoter.

  6. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  7. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  8. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  9. Technology transfers, foreign investment and productivity spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Talbot, Theodore Purdendu; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the productivity of host country domestic firms. We rely on a specially designed survey of over 4000 manufacturing firms in Vietnam, and separate out productivity gains along the supply chain (obtained through direct...... transfers of knowledge/technology between linked firms) from productivity effects through indirect FDI spillovers. In addition to identifying indirect vertical productivity spillovers from FDI, our results show that there are productivity gains associated with direct linkages between foreign-owned and...

  10. Reforming technology for syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane forming reactions using either steam or CO2 have been known to industry for a long time. These endothermic reactions require the investment of a relatively large amount of energy. German researchers, in the 1970's, conceived and developed the idea to use this reaction and the reverse methanation reaction in a closed loop for the transportation and distribution of nuclear heat. The idea was also adopted for use with solar energy as a heat source. Utilizing solar energy as the heat source, the Weismann Institute of Science has fabricated, installed and operated a complete loop capable of the conversion and transportation of over 400 kW of heat. This system can be operated with a wide range of CO2/H2O/CH4 feed mixtures. Steam reforming is the common reforming reaction in the ''open loop'' mode for the purpose of synthesis gas production. This is accomplished with a large excess of steam on a nickel catalyst. However, it has only recently been recognized that there is also a substantial market for CO2 reforming. The CO2/CH4 mixture in various proportions exists in many places and has, so far, not been used efficiently. The sources for this mixture are biogas produced in anaerobic digestion processes and gas resources such as the NATUNA gas field in Indonesia, and many others. Therefore, the system of CO2/CH4 deserves more attention. Commercial catalysts used for steam reforming based on nickel are not suitable for this system. Therefore, other catalysts based on Rhodium and Ruthenium have been developed and some performance data is presented in this paper. Also presented is a conceptual schematic layout of a CO2 reforming plant and matching methanator. A computer code for a detailed design of the entire loop in a commercial size system has been prepared where optimized operational conditions as well as equipment parameters can be determined. (author). 3 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Technical Integration of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These works focus on the development of attainment indices for nuclear hydrogen key technologies, the analysis of the hydrogen production process and the performance estimation for hydrogen production system, and the assessment of the nuclear hydrogen production economy. To estimate the attainments of the key technologies in progress with the performance goals of GIF, itemized are the attainment indices based on SRP published in VHTR R and D steering committee of Gen-IV. For assessing the degree of attainments in comparison with the final goals of VHTR technologies in progress of researches, subdivided are the prerequisite items conformed to the NHDD concepts established in a preconceptual design in 2005. The codes for analyzing the hydrogen production economy are developed for calculating the unit production cost of nuclear hydrogen. We developed basic R and D quality management methodology to meet design technology of VHTR's needs. By putting it in practice, we derived some problems and solutions. We distributed R and D QAP and Q and D QAM to each teams and these are in operation. Computer simulations are performed for estimating the thermal efficiency for the electrodialysis component likely to adapting as one of the hydrogen production system in Korea and EED-SI process known as the key components of the hydrogen production systems. Using the commercial codes, the process diagrams and the spread-sheets were produced for the Bunsen reaction process, Sulphuric Acid dissolution process and HI dissolution process, respectively, which are the key components composing of the SI process

  12. Current biodiesel production technologies: A comparative review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► In this paper we review the technologies related to biodiesel production. ► 4 Primary approaches reviewed are direct use and blending of oils, micro-emulsions, pyrolysis and transesterification method. ► Both advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel production methods are also discussed. ► The most common technology of biodiesel production is transesterification of oils. ► Selection of a transesterification method depends on the amount of FFA and water content of the feedstock. - Abstract: Despite the high energy demand in the industrialized world and the pollution problems caused by widespread use of fossil fuels, the need for developing renewable energy sources with less environmental impacts are increasing. Biodiesel production is undergoing rapid and extensive technological reforms in industries and academia. The major obstacle in production and biodiesel commercialization path is production cost. Thus, in previous years numerous studies on the use of technologies and different methods to evaluate optimal conditions of biodiesel production technically and economically have been carried out. In this paper, a comparative review of the current technological methods so far used to produce biodiesel has been investigated. Four primary approaches to make biodiesel are direct use and blending of vegetable oils, micro-emulsions, thermal cracking (pyrolysis) and transesterification. Transesterification reaction, the most common method in the production of biodiesel, is emphasized in this review. The two types of transestrification process; catalytic and non-catalytic are discussed at length in the paper. Both advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel production methods are also discussed.

  13. Production and characterization of lipopeptide biosurfactant%生物表面活性剂生产菌的鉴定及其发酵优化和产物性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丽丽; 杨晓锋; 李爽; 于平儒; 王菊芳

    2011-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing bacterium SCU T09 given by South China Sea Institute of 0 ceanology was classified as Bacillus sp.according to its 16S rDNA sequences.The cultural conditions of the strain were prim arily optim ized.The optimun carbon and nitrogen source were cassava starch and beef extract,respectively.Under the conditions of 1% NaCl,pH 6.5 and 28℃,the biom ass and em ulsifying ability reached the maxim um values.Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thin layer chrom atography analysis revealed that SCU T09 produced lipopep tide biosurfactant in the process of metabolism.It could reduce surface tension of water to 27 mN/m,and its critical m icelle concen tration (CMC) was 0.2g/L.%由中国科学院南海海洋研究所提供的一株生物表面活性剂生产菌,经菌落、菌体形态和16S rDNA序列分析,鉴定为芽孢杆菌属,命名为Bacillus SCUT09.初步优化了该菌株的培养条件,最佳碳、氮源分别为木薯淀粉、牛肉膏,最利于Bacillus SCUT09生长和生物表面活性剂积累的条件为:NaCl 1%,pH 6.5,28 ℃.经薄层色谱和傅里叶红外光谱分析,该菌株代谢产生的生物表面活性剂为脂肽类物质,能将水的表面张力降到27 mN/m,临界胶束浓度为0.2 g/L.

  14. Bioreactor technology for production of valuable algal products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Cai; Cao, Ying

    1998-03-01

    Bioreactor technology has long been employed for the production of various (mostly cheap) food and pharmaceutical products. More recently, research has been mainly focused on the development of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high—value products. This paper reports the employment of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high-value biomass and metabolites by microalgae. These high-value products include microalgal biomass as health foods, pigments including phycocyanin and carotenoids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The processes involved include heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures using organic substrates as the carbon source. We have demonstrated that these bioreactor cultivation systems are particularly suitable for the production of high-value products from various microalgae. These cultivation systems can be further modified to improve cell densities and productivities by using high cell density techniques such as fed-batch and membrane cell recycle systems. For most of the microalgae investigated, the maximum cell concentrations obtained using these bioreactor systems in our laboratories are much higher than any so far reported in the literature.

  15. Supporting data for identification of biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from agro-food industrial effluet. The identification of the potential bacterial strain using a polymerase chain reaction of the 16S rRNA gene analysis was closely related to Serratia marcescens with its recorded strain of SA30 “Fundamentals of mass transfer and kinetics for biosorption of oil and grease from agro-food industrial effluent by Serratia marcescens SA30” (Fulazzaky et al., 2015 [1]; however, many biochemical tests have not been published yet. The biochemical tests of biosurfactant production, haemolytic assay and cell surface hydrophobicity were performed to investigate the beneficial strain of biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Here we do share data collected from the biochemical tests to get a better understanding of the use of Serratia marcescens SA30 to degrade oil, which contributes the technical features of strengthening the biological treatment of oil-contaminated wastewater in tropical environments.

  16. Marketing mix for consumer high technology products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes an analysis upon the variables of marketing mix for high technology products used for individual consumption. There are exposed the essential aspects related to marketing policies and strategies used by high technology companies for providing consumers the best solutions tailored to their needs. A special attention is given to the necessity for inclusion in the marketing mix of the fifth element – the assistance and informational support for customers.

  17. TECHNICAL REFINEMENT OF GRAIN CROP PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslov G. G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been suggested the courses of refinement of the crop production technologies, has been studied the efficiency of multipurpose assemblies (MPA in the process of mechanization of plant growing, which provide the production of competitive agricultural products, more perfect machinery construction and tools, improving the quality of automated tasks completion, the issues of machine stock renovation, raising the effectiveness of their use, complexity of tasks, integrity and continuity of the working process, environmental safety of the production. The high level of the complex task performance is based on combining several technological operations, completed during a single pass of MPA, drastically refining the basic variants of the technologies. Using the example of the multipurpose assembly Vector for stubble tillage, introduction of mineral fertilizers, planting of intercrops and packing of soil, we can observe a significant advantage of the suggested technology in comparison with using a mass produced single-function machine. Combining several technological operations in a single MPA pass guarantees agritechnical, ecological, energetic and economic efficiency. However, no attention is still paid to the issue of the crop losses decrease (direct and indirect during harvesting, as well as to the problem of the complexity of postharvest tasks simultaneously with harvesting (tillage, planting of intercrops, introducing fertilizers, etc. In the current article we have provided the results of these studies. Respecting the regulations of environmental safety of technical units leads to the soil fertility raise and the pollution decrease of agricultural products. All of them are carried out in the technical support of the crop production technologies

  18. Production technologies for Lower Fars HO, Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusseault, M.B. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Oskui, R.P. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Kuwait City (Kuwait); Farhad, B.; Sammak, I.A.; Naqi, A.A. [Kuwait Oil Co., Kuwait City (Kuwait)

    2008-07-01

    The Lower Fars (LF) oil deposits in Kuwait are shallow, viscous, and have high porosities and permeabilities. Studies have indicated that the deposits can be produced at a cheaper cost but with the same technologies currently used in Canadian heavy oil reservoirs. This paper reviewed technologies suitable for the region, and discussed the development of a selection process for various sections of the LF region. Production data from pilot programs conducted in the region over the past 2 decades were used in the study, as well as a geological overview of the LF region. The paper considered the challenges and benefits associated with cold production with horizontal wells; cold heavy oil production (CHOPS), cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); horizontal well cyclic steam stimulation (HCS); and vapour extraction (VAPEX) technologies. Results of the study showed that a variety of EOR technologies are suitable for the region, including thermal methods and cold production techniques. Technology sequences will be selected based on thickness and reservoir rock and fluid characteristics. A general screening approach is now being developed to ensure that the most economic methods are selected. 12 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  19. Informative technologies in the material products designing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of materials products designing is to optimize their functional properties in terms of technological, economic and ecological aspects.Design/methodology/approach: Materials science is an example of a field, in which informative technologies used to understand and anticipate the construction of materials and their properties has a significant success.Findings: Innovation and development of new informative technologies and the widespread use of modern materials will be essential for promoting economic development in the near future by application of entirely new, interdisciplinary field of science: computational materials science.Practical implications: The use of informative technologies allows exploring in a short time and at low expense, many solutions for the design of the mechanical properties of materials and their simulation beyond the standardized range.Originality/value: The most important benefit of material designing is the ability of suitable selection of material (or its manufacturing for various applications with use of informative technologies.

  20. Software productivity improvement through software engineering technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgarry, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    It has been estimated that NASA expends anywhere from 6 to 10 percent of its annual budget on the acquisition, implementation and maintenance of computer software. Although researchers have produced numerous software engineering approaches over the past 5-10 years; each claiming to be more effective than the other, there is very limited quantitative information verifying the measurable impact htat any of these technologies may have in a production environment. At NASA/GSFC, an extended research effort aimed at identifying and measuring software techniques that favorably impact productivity of software development, has been active over the past 8 years. Specific, measurable, software development technologies have been applied and measured in a production environment. Resulting software development approaches have been shown to be effective in both improving quality as well as productivity in this one environment.

  1. Technological progresses in monoclonal antibody production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, E.; Costa, A R; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become vitally important to modern medicine and are currently one of the major biopharmaceutical products in development. However, the high clinical dose requirements of mAbs demand a greater biomanufacturing capacity, leading to the development of new technologies for their large-scale production, with mammalian cell culture dominating the scenario. Although some companies have tried to meet these demands by creating bioreactors of increased capacity, the op...

  2. Organizational Redesign, Information Technologies and Workplace Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Dostie, Benoit; Jayaraman, Rajshri

    2008-01-01

    Using a large longitudinal, nationally representative workplace-level dataset, we explore the productivity gains associated with computer use and organizational redesign. The empirical strategy involves the estimation of a production function, augmented to account for technology use and organizational design, correcting for unobserved heterogeneity. We find large returns associated with computer use. We also find that computer use and organizational redesign may be complements or substitutes ...

  3. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameotra, S.S.; Bollag, J.M. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (USA). Soil Biochemical Lab.

    2003-07-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by it wide variety of micro-organisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures - lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids, and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic compounds that pollute the environment. They are released to the environment its a result of spillage of oil and byproducts of coal treatment processes. The low water solubility of PAHs limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of PAHs has potential applications in bioremediation.

  4. Technological progresses in monoclonal antibody production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Costa, Ana Rita; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2010-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become vitally important to modern medicine and are currently one of the major biopharmaceutical products in development. However, the high clinical dose requirements of mAbs demand a greater biomanufacturing capacity, leading to the development of new technologies for their large-scale production, with mammalian cell culture dominating the scenario. Although some companies have tried to meet these demands by creating bioreactors of increased capacity, the optimization of cell culture productivity in normal bioreactors appears as a better strategy. This review describes the main technological progresses made with this intent, presenting the advantages and limitations of each production system, as well as suggestions for improvements. New and upgraded bioreactors have emerged both for adherent and suspension cell culture, with disposable reactors attracting increased interest in the last years. Furthermore, the strategies and technologies used to control culture parameters are in constant evolution, aiming at the on-line multiparameter monitoring and considering now parameters not seen as relevant for process optimization in the past. All progresses being made have as primary goal the development of highly productive and economic mAb manufacturing processes that will allow the rapid introduction of the product in the biopharmaceutical market at more accessible prices. PMID:20043321

  5. Technology transfer through integrated production engineering software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, D.; Hill, A.D. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wu, G. [Petroleum Engineering Consulting, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    As the hand-held calculator revolutionized the capabilities of engineers 20 years ago, the desk-top computer is revolutionizing technology transfer in engineering practice today. For example, more than 10,000 independent oil/gas producers in the U.S., most of whom have difficulty gaining access to the most updated technology, rely on personal computers to keep up with the explosion of information and engineering process developments. In almost all petroleum companies, technical staffs are becoming small, and often, one or a few engineers serve as geologists and reservoir, drilling, and production engineers. Their needs demand software that is up to date, easy to understand and use, and able to run on small computers. This paper presents an integrated production software system, that can assist a production engineer with the design of an optimal well production system and can be used as training and technology transfer aids. Based on the new book Petroleum Production Systems, the software focuses on production engineering diagnosis and design tasks in reservoir inflow performance and well deliverability, skin identification and calculation, multiphase flow in pipes, well testing analysis, hydraulic fracturing design, acidizing design and artificial life design. The latest models and correlations describing these processes are incorporated in the package.

  6. Functions and potential applications of glycolipid biosurfactants--from energy-saving materials to gene delivery carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Dai; Isoda, Hiroko; Nakahara, Tadaatsu

    2002-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) produced by various microorganisms show unique properties (e.g., mild production conditions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility) compared to their chemical counterparts. The numerous advantages of BS have prompted applications not only in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries but in environmental protection and energy-saving technology as well. Glycolipid BS are the most promising, due to high productivity from renewable resources and versatile biochemical properties. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL), which are glycolipid BS produced by a yeast Candida antarctrica, exhibit not only excellent interfacial properties but also remarkable differentiation-inducing activities against human leukemia cells. MEL also show a potential anti-agglomeration effect on ice particles in ice slurry used for cold thermal storage. Recently, the cationic liposome bearing MEL has been demonstrated to increase dramatically the efficiency of gene transfection into mammalian cells. These features of BS should broaden its applications in new advanced technologies. The current status of research and development on glycolipid BS, especially their function and potential applications, is discussed. PMID:16233292

  7. Functional Roles of Biosurfactants in Bacterial and Environmental Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Belcher, Richard Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Biosurfactants are amphipathic molecules exuded by bacteria that play critical roles in a variety of bacterial and environmental processes due to their interfacial interactions. The involvement of biosurfactants in these processes has vast potential to enhance bioremediation and expedite swarming motility, to name a few, and research into this arena is pivotal. Surface tension reduction by surface active agents can induce swarming motility lending competence of plant growth-promoting soil ino...

  8. Managing Input during Assistive Technology Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Mi

    2011-01-01

    Many different sources of input are available to assistive technology innovators during the course of designing products. However, there is little information on which ones may be most effective or how they may be efficiently utilized within the design process. The aim of this project was to compare how three types of input--from simulation tools,…

  9. Biomass recycling heat technology and energy products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakaev, R. B.; Gergelizhiu, P. S.; Kazakov, A. V.; Zavorin, A. S.

    2014-10-01

    Relevance is determined by necessity of utilizing of local low-grade fuels by energy equpment. Most widespread Tomsk oblast (Russian Federation region) low-grade fuels are described and listed. Capability of utilizing is analysed. Mass balances of heat-technology conversion materials and derived products are described. As a result, recycling capability of low-grade fuels in briquette fuel is appraised.

  10. Integrated Micro Product and Technology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the issues of integrated micro product and technology development. The implications of the decisions in the design phase on the subsequent manufacturing processes are considered vital. A coherent process chain is a necessary prerequisite for the realisation of the industrial p...

  11. Technologies for production of electrticity or heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the production of ''Energi 2000 - Handlingsplan for en baeredygtig udvikling'' (Energy 2000 - Plan of Management for a Sustaniable Development) a summary and evaluation of various electric power and heat production technolgies was produced. Technologies in relation to fusion, wind energy, solar energy, wave energy, heat storage, electric power storage and hydrogen are dealt with. In each case a description of the technological development in the relevant field, also in relation to long (2030), middle (2015) and short term (2000) commercial aspects, is given. The technology is also explained in relation to energy and socio-economical aspects. The consequences of the utilization of the mentioned technologies with regard to the total energy and electric power systems and aspects of Danish industrial policy are considered. Suggestions are presented as to future subjects for research and development in relation to each technology. A number of these technologies are not yet used commercially. The descriptions are thus given on the basis of development on a global basis. (author) 32 tabs., 31 ills., 19 refs

  12. Development of RI Target Production Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was accomplished with an aim of productive technical development on the 'enriched target' which is used essentially in radioisotope production. The research was advanced systematically with target production pilot system configuration and core technical development. We composed Yb-176 productive pilot system which equip the chemical purification technique of medical treatment level and proved its capability. Possibilities to separate Zn-67 by the method of using the polarizing light in principle and to separate Zn-70 by the method of using the double optical pumping in theory were also proved. RI target production technologies are recognized excessively with monopolistic techniques of part atomic energy advanced nations such as Russia and US and they are come, but we prepared the opportunity will be able to complete a full cycle of like (RI material production -> RI target production -> RI application) with this project accomplishment. When considering only the direct demand of stable isotope which is used in various industrial, we forecast with the fact that RI target markets will become larger with the approximately 5 billion dollars in 2020 and this technology will contribute in the domestic rising industry creation with high value added

  13. Systematic Discrimination of Advanced Hydrogen Production Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V. Park; Michael W. Patterson

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, in concert with industry, is developing a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate high temperature heat applications to produce hydrogen and electricity or to support other industrial applications. A key part of this program is the production of hydrogen from water that would significantly reduce carbon emissions compared to current production using natural gas. In 2009 the INL led the methodical evaluation of promising advanced hydrogen production technologies in order to focus future resources on the most viable processes. This paper describes how the evaluation process was systematically planned and executed. As a result, High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis was selected as the most viable near-term technology to deploy as a part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project.

  14. Transformative technologies for the forest products sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, A. [Andrew Garner and Associates (Canada); Kerekes, D. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-06-15

    Four recently commissioned White Papers on transformative technologies for the Canadian forest sector on (1) pulp and paper; (2) biochemicals; (3) bioenergy; and (4) wood products were reviewed. Pulp and paper innovations include ultra-filled mineral paper and hemicellulose-based bonding agents; super reinforcement market pulp; the use of wood pulp as a reinforcement in structural plastics; and the development of commercial scale extraction technologies for cellulose nanocrystals. Bioenergy technologies included advanced thermochemical systems involving pyrolysis and gasification; and bioconversion methods involving enzymes to isolate the basic chemicals of wood. In the biochemicals paper, it was noted that a large range of chemicals and plastics can theoretically be produced from biomass carbohydrates. Twelve building block chemicals now have been identified that can be derived from hemicellulose and cellulose. Other topics included advances in hemicellulose pre-extraction before pulping; lignin-based chemicals; and pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals derived from tree extractives. Opportunities for fully engineered building systems for residential and non-residential construction such as factory-made floor and wall assemblies were examined in the transformative technologies paper. It was concluded that new sensing and tracking technologies may soon transform wood flow management in Canadian forests using a more detailed knowledge of wood and fibre quality to maximize end product margins. 2 figs.

  15. Production technologies for reduced alcoholic wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Leigh M; Blackman, John W; Agboola, Samson O

    2012-01-01

    The production and sale of alcohol-reduced wines, and the lowering of ethanol concentration in wines with alcohol levels greater than acceptable for a specific wine style, poses a number of technical and marketing challenges. Several engineering solutions and wine production strategies that focus upon pre- or postfermentation technologies have been described and patented for production of wines with lower ethanol concentrations than would naturally arise through normal fermentation and wine production techniques. However, consumer perception and acceptance of the sensory quality of wines manufactured by techniques that utilize thermal distillation for alcohol removal is generally unfavorable. This negative perception from consumers has focused attention on nonthermal production processes and the development or selection of specific yeast strains with downregulated or modified gene expression for alcohol production. The information presented in this review will allow winemakers to assess the relative technical merits of each of the technologies described and make decisions regarding implementation of novel winemaking techniques for reducing ethanol concentration in wine. PMID:22260123

  16. Pseudomonas Lipopeptide Biosurfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lise

    Pseudomonas lipopetide biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with a broad range of natural functions. Due to their surface active properties, it has been suggested that Pseudomonas lipopetides potentially play a role in biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds and have essential functions in...... biofilm formation, however, detailed studies of these roles have not yet been carried out. The overall aim of this PhD project was therefore to elucidate in more depth the roles played by Pseudomonas lipopetides in pollutant biodegradation and biofilm formation. This study investigated the effect of the...... Pseudomonas lipopeptides belonging to different structural groups on important biodegradation parameters, mainly; solubilization and emulsification of hydrophobic pollutants (alkanes and PAHs) and increase of cell surface hydrophobicity of bacterial degraders. Ultimately, it was tested if these parameters led...

  17. Multiple Roles of Biosurfactants in Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satputea, Surekha K; Banpurkar, Arun G; Banat, Ibrahim M; Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N; Patil, Rajendra H; Gade, Wasudev N

    2016-01-01

    Microbial growth and biofilms formation are a continuous source of contamination on most surfaces with biological, inanimate, natural or man-made. The use of chemical surfactants in daily practice to control growth, presence or adhesion of microorganisms and ultimately the formation of biofilms and biofouling is therefore becoming essential. Synthetic surfactants are, however, not preferred or ideal and biologically derived surface active biosurfactants (BSs) molecules produced mainly by microorganisms are therefore becoming attractive and sought by many industries. The search for innovative and interesting BS molecules that have effective antimicrobial activities and to use as innovative alternatives to chemical surfactants with added antimicrobial value among many other advantages has been ongoing for some time. This review discusses the various roles of BS molecules in association with biofilm formation. Recent updates on several mechanisms involved in biofilm development and control are presented vide this article. PMID:26786675

  18. Produção de biotensoativos a partir de resíduos de óleos e gorduras Fats and oils wastes as substrates for biosurfactant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Georges Valadares Almeida de Oliveira Costa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou a seleção de microrganismos com capacidade de produzir biotensoativos a partir de resíduos de óleos e gorduras gerados em restaurantes e indústrias alimentícias. Borra de soja, gordura de frango, gordura vegetal hidrogenada e óleo de soja usado em frituras foram estudados como fonte de carbono. Os isolados LMI 6c e LMI 7a, ambos pertencentes ao gênero Pseudomonas, foram selecionados como potenciais produtores de biotensoativos. Dentre os resíduos propostos, a borra de soja foi considerada o melhor substrato, gerando 9,69 g.L-1 de ramnolipídios e uma tensão superficial de 31 mN/m.The purpose of this study was to select microorganisms that were able to produce biosurfactants from fats and oils wastes generated by the food industry and restaurants. Soybean soapstock, chicken fat, hydrogenated vegetable fat and soybean frying oil were evaluated as alternative substrates. Pseudomonas sp. isolates LMI 6c and LMI 7a showed a capacity to utilize the substrates and to produce rhamnolipid surfactants. Soybean soapstock was considered the best substrate, generating 9.69 g.L-1 of rhamnolipids and a surface tension of 31 mN/m.

  19. Biosurfactant gene clusters in eukaryotes: regulation and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Sophie L K W; De Maeseneire, Sofie L; Ciesielska, Katarzyna; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Soetaert, Wim

    2014-04-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are a class of secondary metabolites representing a wide variety of structures that can be produced from renewable feedstock by a wide variety of micro-organisms. They have (potential) applications in the medical world, personal care sector, mining processes, food industry, cosmetics, crop protection, pharmaceuticals, bio-remediation, household detergents, paper and pulp industry, textiles, paint industries, etc. Especially glycolipid BSs like sophorolipids (SLs), rhamnolipids (RLs), mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) and cellobioselipids (CBLs) have been described to provide significant opportunities to (partially) replace chemical surfactants. The major two factors currently limiting the penetration of BSs into the market are firstly the limited structural variety and secondly the rather high production price linked with the productivity. One of the keys to resolve the above mentioned bottlenecks can be found in the genetic engineering of natural producers. This could not only result in more efficient (economical) recombinant producers, but also in a diversification of the spectrum of available BSs as such resolving both limiting factors at once. Unraveling the genetics behind the biosynthesis of these interesting biological compounds is indispensable for the tinkering, fine tuning and rearrangement of these biological pathways with the aim of obtaining higher yields and a more extensive structural variety. Therefore, this review focuses on recent developments in the investigation of the biosynthesis, genetics and regulation of some important members of the family of the eukaryotic glycolipid BSs (MELs, CBLs and SLs). Moreover, recent biotechnological achievements and the industrial potential of engineered strains are discussed. PMID:24531239

  20. Developing Technology Products - A Physicist's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burka, Michael

    2014-03-01

    There are many physicists working in the industrial sector. We rarely have the word physicist in our job title; we are far more commonly called engineers or scientists. But, we are physicists, and we succeed because our training in physics has given us the habits of mind and the technical skills that one needs to solve complex technical challenges. This talk will explore the transition from physics research to technology product development using examples from my own career, first as a postdoctoral fellow and research scientist on the LIGO project, and then developing products in the spectroscopy, telecommunications, and medical device industries. Approaches to identifying and pursuing opportunities in industry will be discussed.

  1. Ethanol production in China: Potential and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising oil demand in China has resulted in surging oil imports and mounting environmental pollution. It is projected that by 2030 the demand for fossil fuel oil will be 250 million tons. Ethanol seems to be an attractive renewable alternative to fossil fuel. This study assesses China's ethanol supply potential by examining potential non-food crops as feedstock; emerging conversion technologies; and cost competitiveness. Results of this study show that sweet sorghum among all the non-food feedstocks has the greatest potential. It grows well on the available marginal lands and the ASSF technology when commercialized will shorten the fermentation time which will lower the costs. Other emerging technologies such as improved saccharification and fermentation; and cellulosic technologies will make China more competitive in ethanol production in the future. Based on the estimated available marginal lands for energy crop production and conversion yields of the potential feedstocks, the most likely and optimistic production levels are 19 and 50 million tons of ethanol by 2020. In order to achieve those levels, the roadmap for China is to: select the non-food feedstock most suitable to grow on the available marginal land; provide funding to support the high priority conversion technologies identified by the scientists; provide monetary incentives to new and poor farmers to grow the feedstocks to revitalize rural economy; less market regulation and gradual reduction of subsidies to producers for industry efficiency; and educate consumers on the impact of fossil fuel on the environment to reduce consumption. Since the share of ethanol in the overall fuel demand is small, the impact of ethanol on lowering pollution and enhancing fuel security will be minimal. (author)

  2. Isotope production technologies from a regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses isotope production technologies from a regulatory perspective. The regulator is the CNSC which has the mandate to protect the health, safety and security of persons and the environment and to implement Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Nuclear facilities regulated by CNSC include linear accelerator (medical), pool irradiator (industrial) and Pelletron (research) as well as cyclotrons.

  3. Cereal production and technology adoption in Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Bingxin; Nin-Pratt, Alejandro; Funes, José; Gemessa, Sinafikeh Asrat

    2011-01-01

    The Ethiopian government has been promoting a package-driven extension that combines credit, fertilizers, improved seeds, and better management practices. This approach has reached almost all farming communities, representing about 2 percent of agricultural gross domestic product in recent years. This paper is the first to look at the extent and determinants of the adoption of the fertilizer-seed technology package promoted in Ethiopia using nationally representative data from the Central Sta...

  4. Technological choice generating normalized CES production functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matveenko, Andrei; Matveenko, V.

    Vol. 20. Genève: DEGIT Virtual Research Center , 2015, s. 1-33. [DEGIT /20./. Genève (CH), 03.09.2015-04.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV260126 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : technological сhoice * CES production Subject RIV: AH - Economics https://www.unige.ch/degit/sessions-details/

  5. Nuclear Hydrogen Production Technology Development In Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy use of fossil fuels in the 20th century to support an economic growth through the world has invoked the problems of a global warming and a supply-shortage of energy resources. Hydrogen fuel with a fuel cell is a promising solution to the energy problem especially for the transportation sector. To fuel the hydrogen economy, KAERI is developing the technology for a realization of a nuclear hydrogen production system

  6. Food product tracing technology capabilities and interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tejas; Zhang, Jianrong Janet

    2013-12-01

    Despite the best efforts of food safety and food defense professionals, contaminated food continues to enter the food supply. It is imperative that contaminated food be removed from the supply chain as quickly as possible to protect public health and stabilize markets. To solve this problem, scores of technology companies purport to have the most effective, economical product tracing system. This study sought to compare and contrast the effectiveness of these systems at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. It also determined if these systems can work together to better secure the food supply (their interoperability). Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) hypothesized that when technology providers are given a full set of supply-chain data, even for a multi-ingredient product, their systems will generally be able to trace a contaminated product forward and backward through the supply chain. However, when provided with only a portion of supply-chain data, even for a product with a straightforward supply chain, it was expected that interoperability of the systems will be lacking and that there will be difficulty collaborating to identify sources and/or recipients of potentially contaminated product. IFT provided supply-chain data for one complex product to 9 product tracing technology providers, and then compared and contrasted their effectiveness at analyzing product tracing information to identify the contaminated ingredient and likely source, as well as distribution of the product. A vertically integrated foodservice restaurant agreed to work with IFT to secure data from its supply chain for both a multi-ingredient and a simpler product. Potential multi-ingredient products considered included canned tuna, supreme pizza, and beef tacos. IFT ensured that all supply-chain data collected did not include any proprietary information or information that would otherwise

  7. Straw for energy production. Technology - Environment - Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Nielsen, C.; Larsen, M.G.; Nielsen, V.; Zielke, U.; Kristensen, J.K.; Holm-Christensen, B.

    1998-12-31

    `Straw for Energy Production`, second edition, provides a readily accessible background information of special relevance to the use of straw in the Danish energy supply. Technical, environmental, and economic aspects are described in respect of boiler plants for farms, district heating plants, and combined heat and power plants (CHP). The individual sections deal with both well-known, tested technology and the most recent advances in the field of CHP production. This publication is designed with the purpose of reaching the largest possible numbers of people and so adapted that it provides a valuable aid and gives the non-professional, general reader a thorough knowledge of the subject. `Straw for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  8. Product with service, technology with business model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakao, Tomohiko; McAloone, Tim C.

    2011-01-01

    /Service-Systems (PSS) design. This paper first explains PSS design as a type of an expansion of the engineering design of a physical product. Secondly, it gives a review of PSS research and a projection of future research issues, also ranging out into untraditional fields of research. Finally, it presents a new......Looking back over the last decade, the importance of an expanded understanding of engineering design has been shared within the engineering design community. Presented concepts and methods to support such expansion include Functional Product Development, Service Engineering, and Product...... promising concept beyond PSS design; via an integrated development of technology and business model. This can be of particular interest for further research, especially due to its high freedom for designers....

  9. Supercritical fluids technology for clean biofuel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongsheng Wen; H.Jiang; Kai Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels are liquid or gaseous fuels that are predominantly produced from biomass for transport sector applications.As biofuels are renewable,sustainable,carbon neutral and environmentally benign,they have been proposed as promising alternative fuels for gasoline and diesel engines.This paper reviews state-of-the-art application of the supercritical fluid(SCF)technique in biofuels production that includes biodiesel from vegetable oils via the transesterification process,bio-hydrogen from the gasification and bio-oil from the lique-faction of biomass,with biodiesel production as the main focus. The global biofuel situation and biofuel economics are also reviewed.The SCF has been shown to be a promising technique for future large-scale biofuel production,especially for biodiesel production from waster oil and fat.Compared with conventional biofuel production methods,the SCF technology possesses a number of advantages that includes fast inetics,high fuel production rate,ease of continuous operation and elimination of the necessity of catalysts.The harsh operation environment,i.e. the high temperature and high pressure,and its request on the materials and associated cost are the main concerns for its wide application.

  10. Technical Integration of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These works focus on the development of attainment indices for nuclear hydrogen key technologies, the analysis of the hydrogen production process and the performance estimation for hydrogen production systems, and the assessment of the nuclear hydrogen production cost. For assessing the degree of attainments in comparison with the final goals of VHTR technologies in progress of researches, subdivided are the prerequisite items confirmed to the NHDD concepts. We developed and applied R and D quality management methodology to meet 'Development of Key Technologies for Nuclear Hydrogen' project. And we also distributed R and D QAM and R and D QAP to each teams and are in operation. The preconceptual flow diagrams of SI, HTSE, and HyS processes are introduced and their material and energy balances have been proposed. The hydrogen production thermal efficiencies of not only the SI process as a reference process but also the HTSE and HyS processes were also estimated. Technical feasibility assessments of SI, HTSE, and HyS processes have been carried out by using the pair-wise comparison and analytic hierarchy process, and it is revealed that the experts are considering the SI process as the most feasible process. The secondary helium pathway across the SI process is introduced. Dynamic simulation codes for the H2S04vaporizer, sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide decomposers, and HI decomposer on the secondary helium pathway and for the primary and secondary sulfuric acid distillation columns, HIx solution distillation column, and preheater for HI vapor have been developed and integrated

  11. A biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strain enhances oil recovery under simulated reservoir conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Costa, Rita; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, João A. P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. In situ stimulation of microorganisms that produce biosurfactants and degrade heavy oil fractions reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir and decreases oil viscosity, thus promoting its flow and increasing oil production. Bacillus subtilis #573, isolated from crude oil s...

  12. Antibiotic and Biosurfactant Properties of Cyclic Lipopeptides Produced by Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from the Sugar Beet Rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, T H; Sørensen, D.; Tobiasen, C.; Andersen, J B; Christophersen, C.; Givskov, M.; Sørensen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) with antibiotic and biosurfactant properties are produced by a number of soil bacteria, including fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. To provide new and efficient strains for the biological control of root-pathogenic fungi in agricultural crops, we isolated approximately 600 fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from two different agricultural soils by using three different growth media. CLP production was observed in a large proportion of the strains (approximately 60%) inhabiting...

  13. Candida tropicalis BPU1, a novel isolate from the rumen of the Malabari goat, is a dual producer of biosurfactant and polyhydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priji, Prakasan; Unni, K N; Sajith, S; Benjamin, Sailas

    2013-03-01

    This unique study reports a new strain (BPU1) of Candida tropicalis isolated from the rumen of the Malabari goat, showing dual production of biosurfactant and polyhydroxybutyrate. C. tropicalis strain BPU1, a facultative anaerobe, was tuned to become an aerobe in specially designed flask, the Benjamin flask. The puffy circular colonies were smooth, white-to-cream in colour, with pseudo-filaments. The strain fermented glucose, sucrose, maltose and dextrose, but not lactose and cellulose. It assimilated (NH4 )2 SO4 , peptone, glycine and arginine, but not NaNO3 , as the nitrogen source. Interestingly, it utilized groundnut oil (up to 0.3%) in a specially designed basal mineral salt medium (BSM). Its capability for dual production of a biosurfactant and a polyhydroxybutyarate (PHB) was explored by various methods from the BSM-oil medium. Extracted biosurfactant from 6 day-old culture was biochemically characterized as a complex of lipid and carbohydrate with an Rf value of 0.88 by thin layer chromatography. Its PHB production was confirmed by specific staining methods with Nile blue sulphate, Sudan black B and Sudan 3. Briefly, this first-ever report gives ample physical evidence for the dual production of a glycolipid (biosurfactant) and PHB by C. tropicalis strain BPU1 on a specially designed medium, which would open up elaborate research on this yeast. PMID:23447374

  14. Possibilities and challenges for biosurfactants use in petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfumo, Amedea; Rancich, Ivo; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2010-01-01

    Biosurfactants are a group of microbial molecules identified by their unique capabilities to interact with hydrocarbons. Emulsification and de-emulsification, dispersion, foaming, wetting and coating are some of the numerous surface activities that biosurfactants can achieve when applied within systems such as immiscible liquid/liquid (e.g., oil/water), solid/ liquid (e.g., rock/oil and rock/water) and gas/liquid. Therefore, the possibilities of exploiting these bioproducts in oil-related sciences are vast and made petroleum industry their largest possible market at present. The role of biosurfactants in enhancing oil recovery from reservoirs is certainly the best known; however they can be effectively applied in many other fields from transportation of crude oil in pipeline to the clean-up of oil storage tanks and even manufacturing of fine petrochemicals. When properly used, biosurfactants are comparable to traditional chemical analogues in terms of performances and offer advantages with regard to environment protection/conservation. This chapter aims at providing an up-to-date overview of biosurfactant roles, applications and possible future uses related to petroleum industry. PMID:20545279

  15. Physicochemical and microbiological effects of biosurfactant on the remediation of HOC-contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Guangming; ZHONG Hua; HUANG Guohe; FU Haiyan

    2005-01-01

    Remediation of soil contaminated by hydrophobic organic compounds using biosurfactants as additives involves interactions between soil matrix, hydrophobic organic compound contaminants, biosurfactants and microorganisms. In this paper, the mechanism for biosurfactants to enhance the contaminant degradation is basically revealed. Biosurfactants can enhance solubilization of the contaminants in the soil matrix, change their mass transfer properties into the aqueous phase, as well as affect their sorption properties. Furthermore, biosurfactants can act on microorganisms and change their surface properties, accordingly cause new growth and uptake behavior of the bacteria in the soil matrix. Both the physicochemical and the microbiological effects can basically increase the bioavailability of the contaminants and enhance their degradation.

  16. Technologies for Production of Heat and Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-04-01

    Biomass is a desirable source of energy because it is renewable, sustainable, widely available throughout the world, and amenable to conversion. Biomass is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components. Cellulose is generally the dominant fraction, representing about 40 to 50% of the material by weight, with hemicellulose representing 20 to 50% of the material, and lignin making up the remaining portion [4,5,6]. Although the outward appearance of the various forms of cellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, municipal solid waste (MSW), or agricultural residues, is different, all of these materials have a similar cellulosic composition. Elementally, however, biomass varies considerably, thereby presenting technical challenges at virtually every phase of its conversion to useful energy forms and products. Despite the variances among cellulosic sources, there are a variety of technologies for converting biomass into energy. These technologies are generally divided into two groups: biochemical (biological-based) and thermochemical (heat-based) conversion processes. This chapter reviews the specific technologies that can be used to convert biomass to energy. Each technology review includes the description of the process, and the positive and negative aspects.

  17. Agricultural R&D, technology and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesse, J; Thirtle, C

    2010-09-27

    The relationships between basic and applied agricultural R&D, developed and developing country R&D and between R&D, extension, technology and productivity growth are outlined. The declining growth rates of public R&D expenditures are related to output growth and crop yields, where growth rates have also fallen, especially in the developed countries. However, growth in output value per hectare has not declined in the developing countries and labour productivity growth has increased except in the EU. Total factor productivity has generally increased, however it is measured. The public sector share of R&D expenditures has fallen and there has been rapid concentration in the private sector, where six multinationals now dominate. These companies are accumulating intellectual property to an extent that the public and international institutions are disadvantaged. This represents a threat to the global commons in agricultural technology on which the green revolution has depended. Estimates of the increased R&D expenditures needed to feed 9 billion people by 2050 and how these should be targeted, especially by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), show that the amounts are feasible and that targeting sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia can best increase output growth and reduce poverty. Lack of income growth in SSA is seen as the most insoluble problem. PMID:20713401

  18. Development of fission Mo-99 production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I. and others

    2001-05-01

    This R and D project is planed to supply domestic demands of Mo-99 through fission route, and consequently this project will be expected to rise up utilization of HANARO and KAERI's capability for marketing extension into domestic and oversea radiopharmaceutical market. HEU and LEU target types are decided and designed for fission Mo-99 production in domestic. Experimental study of target fabrication technology was performed and developed processing equipments. And conceptual design of target loading/unloading in/from HANARO device are performed. Tracer test of Mo-99 separation and purification process was performed, test results reach to Mo-99 recovery yield above 80% and decontamination factor above 1600. Combined Mo-99 separation and purification process was decided for hot test scheduled from next year, and performance test was performed. Conceptual design for modification of existing hot cell for fission Mo-99 production facility was performed and will be used for detail design. Assumption for the comparison of LEU and HEU target in fission Mo-99 production process were suggested and compared of merits and demerits in view of fabrication technology and economy feasibility.

  19. Product with service, technology with business model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakao, Tomohiko; McAloone, Tim C.

    Looking back over the last decade, the importance of an expanded understanding of engineering design has been shared within the engineering design community. Presented concepts and methods to support such expansion include Functional Product Development, Service Engineering, and Product/Service-S...... promising concept beyond PSS design; via an integrated development of technology and business model. This can be of particular interest for further research, especially due to its high freedom for designers.......Looking back over the last decade, the importance of an expanded understanding of engineering design has been shared within the engineering design community. Presented concepts and methods to support such expansion include Functional Product Development, Service Engineering, and Product....../Service-Systems (PSS) design. This paper first explains PSS design as a type of an expansion of the engineering design of a physical product. Secondly, it gives a review of PSS research and a projection of future research issues, also ranging out into untraditional fields of research. Finally, it presents a new...

  20. Hydrogen from coal: Production and utilisation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although coal may be viewed as a dirty fuel due to its high greenhouse emissions when combusted, a strong case can be made for coal to be a major world source of clean H2 energy. Apart from the fact that resources of coal will outlast oil and natural gas by centuries, there is a shift towards developing environmentally benign coal technologies, which can lead to high energy conversion efficiencies and low air pollution emissions as compared to conventional coal fired power generation plant. There are currently several world research and industrial development projects in the areas of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) systems. In such systems, there is a need to integrate complex unit operations including gasifiers, gas separation and cleaning units, water gas shift reactors, turbines, heat exchangers, steam generators and fuel cells. IGFC systems tested in the USA, Europe and Japan employing gasifiers (Texaco, Lurgi and Eagle) and fuel cells have resulted in energy conversions at efficiency of 47.5% (HHV) which is much higher than the 30-35% efficiency of conventional coal fired power generation. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are the front runners in energy production from coal gases. These fuel cells can operate at high temperatures and are robust to gas poisoning impurities. IGCC and IGFC technologies are expensive and currently economically uncompetitive as compared to established and mature power generation technology. However, further efficiency and technology improvements coupled with world pressures on limitation of greenhouse gases and other gaseous pollutants could make IGCC/IGFC technically and economically viable for hydrogen production and utilisation in clean and environmentally benign energy systems. (author)

  1. Production chain and innovative technologies for living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Arbizzani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The continued growth of residential demand, coupled with the significant decline of the housing market, is encouraging the development of many procedural and constructive experiments on the theme of affordable housing for a range of users increasingly unable to access home ownership. The spread of an approach to planning that is socially, economically and technologically sustainable, represents a culture of quality that is once more measurable, which makes it possible today to define innovative building models for the industrial and production chain. The use of innovative and integrated industrialised building systems may be one of the supporting factors in the achievement of the objectives of social housing.

  2. Natural emulsifiers - Biosurfactants, phospholipids, biopolymers, and colloidal particles: Molecular and physicochemical basis of functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian; Gumus, Cansu Ekin

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing consumer pressure for commercial products that are more natural, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, including foods, cosmetics, detergents, and personal care products. Industry has responded by trying to identify natural alternatives to synthetic functional ingredients within these products. The focus of this review article is on the replacement of synthetic surfactants with natural emulsifiers, such as amphiphilic proteins, polysaccharides, biosurfactants, phospholipids, and bioparticles. In particular, the physicochemical basis of emulsion formation and stabilization by natural emulsifiers is discussed, and the benefits and limitations of different natural emulsifiers are compared. Surface-active polysaccharides typically have to be used at relatively high levels to produce small droplets, but the droplets formed are highly resistant to environmental changes. Conversely, surface-active proteins are typically utilized at low levels, but the droplets formed are highly sensitive to changes in pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Certain phospholipids are capable of producing small oil droplets during homogenization, but again the droplets formed are highly sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. Biosurfactants (saponins) can be utilized at low levels to form fine oil droplets that remain stable over a range of environmental conditions. Some nature-derived nanoparticles (e.g., cellulose, chitosan, and starch) are effective at stabilizing emulsions containing relatively large oil droplets. Future research is encouraged to identify, isolate, purify, and characterize new types of natural emulsifier, and to test their efficacy in food, cosmetic, detergent, personal care, and other products. PMID:27181392

  3. Biosurfactant-producing yeasts widely inhabit various vegetables and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masaaki; Maruoka, Naruyuki; Furuta, Yoshifumi; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of biosurfactant-producing yeasts from food materials was accomplished. By a combination of a new drop collapse method and thin-layer chromatography, 48 strains were selected as glycolipid biosurfactant producers from 347 strains, which were randomly isolated from various vegetables and fruits. Of the producers, 69% were obtained from vegetables of the Brassica family. Of the 48 producers, 15 strains gave relatively high yields of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), and were identified as Pseudozyma yeasts. These strains produced MELs from olive oil at yields ranging from 8.5 to 24.3 g/L. The best yield coefficient reached 0.49 g/g as to the carbon sources added. Accordingly, MEL producers were isolated at high efficiency from various vegetables and fruits, indicating that biosurfactant producers are widely present in foods. The present results should facilitate their application in the food and related industries. PMID:25036844

  4. Isolation of biosurfactant-producing marine bacteria and characteristics of selected biosurfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Phetrong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant-producing marine bacteria were isolated from oil-spilled seawater collected from harbors and docks in Songkhla Province, Thailand. Haemolytic activity, emulsification activity toward nhexadecane,emulsion of weathered crude oil, drop collapsing test as well as oil displacement test were used to determine biosurfactant producing activity of marine bacteria. Among two-hundred different strains, 40strains exhibited clear zone on blood agar plates. Only eight strains had haemolytic activity and were able to emulsify weathered crude oil in marine broth during cultivation. Eight strains named SM1-SM8 wereidentified by 16S rRNA as Myroides sp. (SM1; Vibrio paraheamolyticus (SM2; Bacillus subtilis (SM3; Micrococcus luteus (SM4; Acinetobacter anitratus (SM6; Vibrio paraheamolyticus (SM7 and Bacilluspumilus (SM8. However, SM5 could not be identified. Strain SM1 showed the highest emulsification activity against weathered crude oil, by which the oil was emulsified within 24 h of cultivation. In addition, strainSM1 exhibited the highest activity for oil displacement test and emulsification test toward n-hexadecane. The emulsification activity against n-hexadecane of crude extract of strain SM1 was stable over a broadrange of temperature (30-121oC, pH (5-12 and salt concentration (0-9% NaCl, whereas CaCl2 showed an adverse effect on emulsifying activity.

  5. Advanced technologies for power and fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, J.U.; Mann, A.N. [US Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Lab., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) being conducted by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a government and industry co-funded effort. The program's purpose is to demonstrate new generation of innovative, environmentally friendly processes that enhance the utilization of coal to meet increasing demand for electric power and fuels. Program demonstration areas include environmental control, advanced power generation, fuels production, and industrial applications. The CCT Program has now grown to maturity, with over 50% of the projects selected having successfully completed their demonstration goals and objectives. Under the CCT Program, nine advanced electric power generation projects and five coal processing for clean fuels projects were selected for full scale commercial demonstration. This paper provides the status, accomplishments and results of the most widely accepted technologies currently being commercialized under these two categories. The projects are (1) Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) at Jacksonville Electric Authority; (2) Integrated Gasification Combined-cycle (IGCC) at Wabash River, Tampa Electric and Kentucky Pioneer; and (3) Eastman Chemical's production of methanol via coal gasification using the LPMEOH{trademark} process. 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Glycolipid biosurfactants: main properties and potential applications in agriculture and food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface, respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They have received much practical attention as biopesticides for controlling plant diseases and protecting stored products. As a result of their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit the preservation of plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, as a result of their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. Furthermore, the valorization of food byproducts via the production of glycolipid biosurfactant has received much attention because it permits the bioconversion of byproducts on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from fermentation media. Accordingly, different strategies have been developed to extract and purify glycolipids. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27098847

  7. Characterization of the genus Pseudozyma by the formation of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-03-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica is one of the best producers of the glycolipid biosurfactants known as mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which show not only excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In order to obtain a variety of producers, all the species of the genus were examined for their production of MELs from soybean oil. Pseudozyma fusiformata, P. parantarctica and P. tsukubaensis were newly identified to be MEL producers. Of the strains tested, P. parantarctica gave the best yield of MELs (30 g L(-1)). The obtained yield corresponded to those of P. antarctica, P. aphidis and P. rugulosa, which are known high-level MEL producers. Interestingly, P. parantarctica and P. fusiformata produced mainly 4-O-[(4',6'-di-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-d-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-A), whereas P. tsukubaensis produced mainly 4-O-[(6'-mono-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alkanoyl)-beta-d-mannopyranosyl]-meso-erythritol (MEL-B). Consequently, six of the nine species clearly produced MELs. Based on the MEL production pattern, the nine species seemed to fall into four groups: the first group produces large amounts of MELs; the second produces both MELs and other biosurfactants; the third mainly produces MEL-B; and the fourth is non-MEL-producing. Thus, MEL production may be an important taxonomic index for the Pseudozyma yeasts. PMID:17328742

  8. Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-derived biosurfactant on the gene expression profile of essential adhesion genes (gtfB, gtfC and ftf of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Salehi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococci are the main causative agents in plaque formation and mutans streptococci are the principle etiological agent of dental plaque and caries. The process of biofilm formation is a step-wise process, starting with adhesion of planktonic cells to the surfaces. It is now a well known fact that expression of glucosyltransferases (gtfs and fructosyltransferase (ftf genes play a critical role in the initial adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to the tooth surface, which results in the formation of dental plaques and consequently caries and other periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we have determined the effect of biosurfactants purified from Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM20016 culture on gene expression profile of gftB/C and fft of S. mutans (ATCC35668 using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The application of biosurfactant caused considerable down-regulation of the expression of all three genes under study. The reduction in gene expression was statistically very significant (P > 0.0001 for all three genes. Conclusions: Inhibition of these genes by the extracted L. reuteri biosurfactant shows the emergence of a powerful alternative to the presently practicing alternatives. In view of the importance of these gene products for S. mutans attachment to the tooth surface, which is the initial important step in biofilm production and dental caries, we believe that the biosurfactant prepared in this study could be considered as a step ahead in dental caries prevention.

  9. Social software supported technology monitoring for custom built products

    OpenAIRE

    Schimpf, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Industries with a focus on custom-built products are facing constantly changing requirements for product and process specifications with regard to the development and production of each single product. These changing requirements influence the development, integration and application of technologies. Due to the growing level of technological complexity of custom-built products in particular, the importance of a structured method to help evaluate, store and communicate information on technolog...

  10. Choice of Flexible Production Technologies Under Strategic Delegation

    OpenAIRE

    Bárcena Ruiz, Juan Carlos; Olaizola Ortega, María Norma

    2004-01-01

    This work analyzes a managerial delegation model in which firms can choose between a flexible production technology which allows them to produce two different products and a dedicated production technology which limits production to only one product. We analyze whether the incentives to adopt the flexible technology are smaller or greater in a managerial delegation model than under strict profit maximization. We obtain that the asymmetric equilibrium in which only one firm adopts the flexible...

  11. New elements in production technology and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title of this presentation embraces quite a wide scope, however, focus will be on Mobile Production Systems (MPSs) and in particular on Floating Production, Storage and Offloading Units (FPSOs), for which there is presently a remarkable boost in interest particularly in the North Sea area. Over the last 20 years, pioneered by the Argyll TW 58 in 1975, 11 mobile systems have been/are active in the North Sea, i.e. a growth of one for each second year. In 1994 alone a number of eight mobile production systems were contracted of which seven were FPSOs. This boost is following nine years of successful operation of the Petrojarl 1 and is also clearly linked to the success of the Kerr-McGee's Gryphon A project. The title of this presentation reflects new elements in this business; the upturn in interest for FPSOs introduces new ways of thinking and acting. In this paper, the new elements are divided into the general trends; new commercial elements and new technological elements

  12. Vermouth: technology of production and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, P S; Joshi, V K; Panesar, R; Abrol, G S

    2011-01-01

    The aperitif wine, known as vermouth, is primarily prepared by adding a mixture of herbs and spices or their extract to a base wine. As such, it could also be called aromatized liquor, or a fortified wine. Various plant parts, such as seeds, wood, leaves, bark, or roots in dry form can be used in flavoring. These additives may be infused, macerated, or distilled in a base white wine, or added at various stages of preparation. The final liquid is filtered, pasteurized, and fortified (by the addition of alcohol). Some vermouths are sweetened, whereas other are left unsweetened (dry vermouth). These tend to have a bitterish finish. The two versions differ in alcohol content as well. Vermouths are most commonly prepared from grape-based wines, but fruit-based wines made from mango, apple, plum, sand pear, and wild apricot may also be used. These possess distinct physicochemical and sensory qualities from standard vermouths. The review gives comprehensive information on the historical developments and technology of vermouth production, the various spices and herbs used in its production, and its quality characteristics. In addition, the chapter also discusses the commercial potential of nongrape fruits in vermouth production. PMID:21867897

  13. Development of fission Mo production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility study is accomplished in this project for the development of fission moly production. The KAERI process proposed for development in KAERI is discussed together with those of the American Cintichem and Russian IPPE, each of which would be plausible for introduction whenever the indigenous development is not much feasible. For the conceptual design of the KAERI irradiation target, analysis method is set up and some preliminary analysis is performed accordingly for the candidate design. To establish chemical process concepts for the afore-mentioned three processes, characteristics, operation conditions, and the management of the generated wastes are investigated. Basic requirements of hotcell facilities for chemical processing and a possible way of utilizing the existing hotcells are discussed in parallel with the counter-measures for the construction of new hotcell facilities. Various conditions of target irradiation for fission moly production in Hanaro are analyzed. Plan for introduction of the relevant technology introduction and for procurement of highly enriched uranium are considered. On the basis of assuming some conditions, the economic feasibility study for fission moly production is also overviewed. (author). 22 refs., 28 tabs., 24 figs

  14. Modelling architectures in multi-product oriented technology development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir

    derivative products are not completely defined. Yet, decisions need to be made during technology development on the capabilities to be provided through the development to fulfil future application requirements,provide a foundation for future products, and development of a production system capable of...... producing future products and supporting technology development through prototype production.To support technology development aimed at a broad range of application requirements,two modelling frameworks are introduced: the product technology architecture modelling framework and the production architecture......This thesis investigates the use of architecture modelling in a technology development context.This context presents greater uncertainties than more mature new product development. Applications—the use of products based on the technology being developed—are not fully identified and the requirements...

  15. Product lifecycle-oriented virtual assembly technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-hua; NING Ru-xin; YAO Jun; WAN Bi-le

    2006-01-01

    VA (virtual assembly) provides a more efficient,intuitive and convenient method for assembly process modeling,simulation and analysis.Previous researches about VA are almost isolated and dispersive,and have not established the understanding and definition of VA from a macroscopical and integrated view.Based on the analysis of the connotations of VA,a PLO-VATA (product lifecycle-oriented virtual assembly technology architecture) is proposed,in this architecture,VA is decomposed into four basic elements:principles and methodology of DFA (design for assembly),assembly analysis and evaluation,virtual assembly model and virtual assembly toolkits.Immersion,concurrence,integration and collaboration are the four main characteristics of VA being put forward.The key techniques of VA including virtual assembly model,virtual assembly analysis and evaluation,and virtual assembly process planning are discussed.Finally,a prototype system is built to validate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  16. Enhanced biological control of phytophthora blight of pepper by biosurfactant-producing pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyilmaz, Umit; Benlioglu, Kemal

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas isolates from different crop plants were screened for in vitro growth inhibition of Phytophthora capsici and production of biosurfactant. Two in vivo experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains against Phytophthora blight of pepper by comparing two fungicide treatments [acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ASM + mefenoxam]. Bacterial isolates were applied by soil drenching (1 × 10(9) cells/ml), ASM (0.1 μg a.i./ml) and ASM + mefenoxam (0.2 mg product/ml) were applied by foliar spraying, and P. capsici inoculum was incorporated into the pot soil three days after treatments. In the first experiment, four Pseudomonas strains resulted in significant reduction from 48.4 to 61.3% in Phytophthora blight severity. In the second experiment, bacterial treatments combining with olive oil (5 mL per plant) significantly enhanced biological control activity, resulting in a reduction of disease level ranging from 56.8 to 81.1%. ASM + mefenoxam was the most effective treatment while ASM alone was less effective in both bioassays. These results indicate that our Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (6L10, 6ba6 and 3ss9) that have biosurfactant-producing abilities are effective against P. capsici on pepper, and enhanced disease suppression could be achieved when they were used in combination with olive oil. PMID:25288970

  17. Technological Standardization, Endogenous Productivity and Transitory Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, J; Schmidt, J.

    2014-01-01

    We uncover technological standardization as a microeconomic mechanism which is vital for the implementation of new technologies, in particular general purpose technologies. The interdependencies of these technologies require common rules (“standardization”) to ensure compatibility. Using data on standardization, we are therefore able to identify technology shocks and analyze their impact on macroeconomic variables. First, our results show that technology shocks diffuse slowly and generate a p...

  18. Biosurfactant-and-Bioemulsifier Produced by a Promising Cunninghamella echinulata Isolated from Caatinga Soil in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadielly R. Andrade Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Mucoralean fungus was isolated from Caatinga soil of Pernambuco, Northeast of Brazil, and was identified as Cunninghamella echinulata by morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests. This strain was evaluated for biosurfactant/bioemulsifier production using soybean oil waste (SOW and corn steep liquor (CSL as substrates, added to basic saline solution, by measuring surface tension and emulsifier index and activity. The best results showed the surface water tension was reduced from 72 to 36 mN/m, and an emulsification index (E24 of 80% was obtained using engine oil and burnt engine oil, respectively. A new molecule of biosurfactant showed an anionic charge and a polymeric chemical composition consisting of lipids (40.0% w/w, carbohydrates (35.2% w/w and protein (20.3% w/w. In addition, the biosurfactant solution (1% demonstrated its ability for an oil displacement area (ODA of 37.36 cm2, which is quite similar to that for Triton X-100 (38.46 cm2. The stability of the reduction in the surface water tension as well as of the emulsifier index proved to be stable over a wide range of temperatures, in pH, and in salt concentration (4%–6% w/v. The biosurfactant showed an ability to reduce and increase the viscosity of hydrophobic substrates and their molecules, suggesting that it is a suitable candidate for mediated enhanced oil recovery. At the same time, these studies indicate that renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources can be used for important biotechnological processes.

  19. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND FOOD PRODUCTION SUSTAINABILITY IN BANGLADESH AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Sanzidur

    1999-01-01

    Although `Green Revolution' technology is the major technological breakthrough in agricultural history, which is adopted by nations worldwide, including Bangladesh, to boost their foodgrain production, it is increasingly felt that productivity from this new agricultural technology is declining and is a threat to sustainability of economic development. The present study attempted to evaluate the role of technological change in augmenting aggregate crop growth and sustaining food production for...

  20. Effects of sludge retention time and biosurfactant on the treatment of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in a petrochemical industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, D T; Gok, O

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-scale aerobic activated sludge reactor (AASR) system was employed to investigate the effects of sludge retention time (SRT) on the removal of three polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with low benzene rings [(acenaphthene (ACT), fluorene (FLN) and phenanthrene (PHE)] and six PAHs with high benzene rings [(benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DahA), benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP)] in the presence of rhamnolipid (RD), emulsan (EM) and surfactine (SR) biosurfactants. This study showed that biosurfactants enhance the PAH biodegradation by increasing the biomass growth. RD exhibits a better performance than the other biosurfactants in the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and PAHs. At a RD concentration of 15 mg/L aerobic treatment for 25 days, SRT was enough to remove over 95% of total PAHs, and COD(dis). Under the same conditions 75% of COD originating from the inert organics (COD(inert)) and 96% of COD originating from the inert soluble microbial products (COD(imp)) were removed. At 25 days SRT and 15 mg/L RD concentration, about 88% of PAHs were biodegraded by the AASR system, 4% were accumulated in the system, 3% were released in the effluent, and 5% remained in the waste sludge. PMID:22156134

  1. Aerial photography in peat production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, possibilities of using aerial photography in peat technology were studied experimentally, the frequency of self-heating in peat stockpiles was surveyed and the effect of compacting on the inner temperature in a self-heated milled peat stockpile was studied. Air photographs can be used in several sub-fields of the peat production. On the basis of these photos it is possible to draw conclusions from the environmental impacts of peat production, from conditions in the peat field, and from qualitative and moisture differences of surface peat. In addition, aerial photography can be utilised in updating bog maps. On the basis of aerial thermal photography in autumns 1987 - 1993, 29 % of milled peat stockpiles, and 4 % of sod peat stockpiles were found to be self-heated. The susceptibility to self-heating varied at different peatlands. The effect of compacting with a bulldozer was studied at three self-heated test stock-piles, two of which were compacted. The inner temperatures in the test stockpiles decreased significantly over the three-month monitoring period. The falls in the inner temperature of all three stockpiles were identical. Compacting did not have any significant effect on the temperature fall or on the rate of fall. The number of test stockpiles (3) is insufficient to give any statistical reliability. (orig.)

  2. Avaliação da biodegradação de parafinas e da produção de biosurfactante por Bacillus subtilis na presença de petróleo Evaluation of paraffins biodegradation and biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis in the presence of crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Queiroga

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os experimentos com Bacillus subtilis para avaliação da tensão superficial foram realizados com meio de cultivo contendo como nutrientes básicos 0,4% de ions nitrato e 4% de glicose, na presença de petróleo. A produção de surfactina foi observada pela redução da tensão superficial do meio de cultura fermentado. Surfactina foi isolada a partir do meio de cultura fermentado por B. subtilis, por precipitação ácida seguida de extração com clorofórmio-metanol. A avaliação da composição dos alcanos lineares (parafinas foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa. Observamos uma significativa redução da tensão superficial do meio de cultura indicando que a produção de biosurfactante não foi inibida pela presença de parafina, e que as parafinas leves podem ter sido consumidas.Bacillus subtilis experiments for surface tension evaluation were accomplished with culture medium containing 0.4% nitrate ions and 4% glucose basic nutrient in the presence of crude oil. Surfactin production was observed by surface tension reduction of the culture broth. Surfactin was isolated from Bacillus subtilis fermented broth, by acid-precipitation followed by extraction with chloroform-methanol. Evaluation of the linear alkanes composition was performed by capillary gas chromatography. We observed a significant reduction of the surface tension of the fermented broth indicating that the biosurfactant production was not inhibited by the crude oil presence, and that the light paraffins might have been consumed.

  3. Isolation and screening of glycolipid biosurfactant producers from sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Hirose, Naoto; Kitamoto, Dai

    2012-01-01

    Forty-three fungal producers for glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were isolated from leaves and smuts of sugarcane plants. These isolates produced MELs with sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The strains were taxonomically categorized into the genera Pseudozyma and Ustilago on the basis of partial sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene. PMID:22972331

  4. Formation and stabilization of nanoemulsions using biosurfactants: Rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Long; McClements, David Julian

    2016-10-01

    Nanoemulsions are used in the food, cosmetics, personal care and pharmaceutical industries to provide desirable optical, textural, stability, and delivery characteristics. In many industrial applications, it is desirable to formulate nanoemulsions using natural ingredients so as to develop label-friendly products. Rhamnolipids are biosurfactants isolated from certain microorganisms using fermentation processes. They are glycolipids that have a polar head consisting of rhamnose units and a non-polar tail consisting of a hydrocarbon chain. In this study, the interfacial characteristics of this natural surfactant at medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil-water interfaces were characterized, and its ability to form nanoemulsions was compared to that of another natural surfactant (quillaja saponins). The influence of rhamnolipid concentration, homogenization pressure, and oil type on the mean droplet diameter of emulsions produced by microfluidization was determined. Rhamnolipids were highly effective at forming small droplets (d32values (5-9), salt concentrations (<100mM NaCl) and temperatures (20-90°C). However, droplet aggregation was observed at highly acidic (pH 2-4) and high ionic strength (200-500mM NaCl) conditions. These effects were attributed to a reduction in electrostatic repulsion at low pH and high salt levels. Rhamnolipid-coated droplets had a high negative charge at neutral pH that decreased in magnitude with decreasing pH. These results indicate that rhamnolipids are effective natural surfactants that may be able to replace synthetic surfactants in certain commercial applications. PMID:27372634

  5. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AG1 biosurfactant: Putative receptor diversity and histopathological effects on Tuta absoluta midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Boukedi, Hanen; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Chaib, Ikbel; Laarif, Asma; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim

    2015-11-01

    The use of biosurfactant in pest management has received much attention for the control of plant pathogens, but few studies reported their insecticidal activity. The present study describes the insecticidal activity of biosurfactant extracted from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain AG1. This strain produces a lipopeptide biosurfactant exhibiting an LC50 of about 180ng/cm(2) against Tuta absoluta larvae. Accordingly, the histopathologic effect of this biosurfactant on T. absoluta larvae showed serious damages of the midgut tissues including rupture and disintegration of epithelial layer and cellular vacuolization. By PCR, we showed that this biosurfactant could be formed by several lipopeptides and polyketides including iturin, fengycin, surfactin, bacyllomicin, bacillaene, macrolactin and difficidin. Binding experiment revealed that it recognized five putative receptors located in the BBMV of T. absoluta with sizes of 68, 63, 44, 30 and 19kDa. Therefore, biosurfactant AG1 hold potential for use as an environmentally friendly agent to control the tomato leaf miner. PMID:26299754

  6. Strategies for administration of biosurfactants-producing pseudomonads in closed hydroponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hultberg, Malin; Holmkvist, Anna; Alsanius, Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    Zoospore-producing oomycetes are major plant pathogens of particular concern in hydroponic systems. Compared with pesticides, biocontrol using antagonistic microorganisms is a sustainable approach to control oomycetes. Previous research has demonstrated that biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms are potentially useful components of a sustainable biocontrol strategy. In this study three ways of supplying a biosurfactant-producing strain to a recirculating hydroponic cu...

  7. Agent Technology in Agile Multiparallel Manufacturing and Product Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Moergestel, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis describes the application of agent technology in product manufacturing and product support. Important issues in the requirements of modern production are short time to market, requirement-driven production and low cost small quantity production. To meet these requirements special low cost

  8. Investigating Consumer Purchase Behavior in Related Technology Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sriram; Chintagunta, Pradeep K.; Agarwal, Manoj K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a framework of durable goods purchasing behavior in related technology product categories that incorporates the following aspects unique to technology product purchases. First, it accounts for consumers' anticipation of declining prices (or increasing quality) over time. Second, the durable nature of technology products implies that even if two categories are related as complements, consumers may stagger their purchases over several periods. Third, the forward-looking consumer deci...

  9. Research on Digital Product Modeling Key Technologies of Digital Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guoping; ZHOU Zude; HU Yefa; ZHAO Liang

    2006-01-01

    With the globalization and diversification of the market and the rapid development of Information Technology (IT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), the digital revolution of manufacturing is coming. One of the key technologies in digital manufacturing is product digital modeling. This paper firstly analyzes the information and features of the product digital model during each stage in the product whole lifecycle, then researches on the three critical technologies of digital modeling in digital manufacturing-product modeling, standard for the exchange of product model data and digital product data management. And the potential signification of the product digital model during the process of digital manufacturing is concluded-product digital model integrates primary features of each stage during the product whole lifecycle based on graphic features, applies STEP as data exchange mechanism, and establishes PDM system to manage the large amount, complicated and dynamic product data to implement the product digital model data exchange, sharing and integration.

  10. Technological challenges in thermal plasma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal plasmas, generated by electric arc discharges, are used in a variety of industrial applications. The electric arc is a constricted electrical discharge with a high temperature in the range 6000-25,000 K. These characteristics are useful in plasma cutting, spraying, welding and specific areas of material processing. The thermal plasma technology is an enabling process technology and its status in the market depends upon its advantages over competing technologies. A few technological challenges to enhance the status of plasma technology are to improve the utilisation of the unique characteristics of the electric arc and to provide enhanced control of the process. In particular, new solutions are required for increasing the plasma-material interaction, controlling the electrode roots and controlling the thermal power generated by the arcing process. In this paper, the advantages of plasma technology, its constraints and future challenges for technology developments are highlighted. 36 refs., 14 figs

  11. Is rhamnolipid biosurfactant useful in cadmium phytoextraction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jia; Stacey, Samuel P. [Adelaide Univ., Glen Osmond, SA (Australia). Soil and Land Systems; McLaughlin, Mike J. [Adelaide Univ., Glen Osmond, SA (Australia). Soil and Land Systems; CSIRO Land and Water, Agricultural Sustainable Flagship, Environmental Biogeochemistry Program, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA (Australia); Kirby, Jason K. [CSIRO Land and Water, Agricultural Sustainable Flagship, Environmental Biogeochemistry Program, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, SA (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    Successful chelant-assisted phytoextraction requires application of an eco-friendly metal-complexing agent which enhances metal uptake but does not pose a significant risk of off-site movement of metals. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant has been used to enhance cadmium (Cd) removal from contaminated soil by washing. It has a strong affinity for Cd compared to some other hazardous metals, suggesting that rhamnolipid could be useful in Cd phytoextraction. This study investigated the potential use of rhamnolipid to enhance Cd phytoextraction. Adsorption patterns of rhamnolipid in soils were investigated by batch adsorption experiments. Hydrophobicity of rhamnolipid-metal complexes were determined by assessing partitioning in an octanol/water system. Phytotoxicity of rhamnolipid to maize (Zea mays) and chelant-assisted phytoextraction efficiency of maize and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were determined in pot experiments. The results showed that rhamnolipid was prone to adsorb strongly to soil at low application rates (0.1-1.7 mM) possibly due to its hydrophobic interactions with soil organic matter, hence reducing its capacity to complex and transport metals to plant roots. Rhamnolipid mobility increased (i.e. decreased soil phase partitioning) at elevated concentrations ({proportional_to}4.4 mM), which increased soil solution Cd concentrations possibly due to its reduced hydrophobic nature. The use of rhamnolipid at concentrations >4.4 mM severely reduced maize biomass yield, reducing the potential for chelant-assisted phytoextraction. At lower concentrations of rhamnolipid (0.02-1.4 mmol/kg), there was insignificant enhancement of Cd accumulation by plant (Z. mays and H. annuus) shoots, likely through strong retention of the chelant (or Cd-associated rhamnolipid) on soil surfaces. High rates of rhamnolipid addition to soils in this study caused severe phytotoxicity to maize and sunflower. Lower rates of rhamnolipid addition to soils in this study did not improve Cd

  12. Production Well Performance Enhancement using Sonication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, Michael A; Ityokumbul, M Thaddeus; Watson, Robert W; Eltohami, Eltohami; Farias, Mario; Heckman, Glenn; Houlihan, Brendan; Karoor, Samata Prakash; Miller, Bruce G; Mohammed, Nazia; Olanrewaju, Johnson; Ozdemir, Mine; Rejepov, Dautmamed; Sadegh, Abdallah A; Quammie, Kevin E; Zaghloul, Jose; Hughes, W Jack; Montgomery, Thomas C

    2005-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a sonic well performance enhancement technology that focused on near wellbore formation damage. In order to successfully achieve this objective, a three-year project was defined. The entire project was broken into four tasks. The overall objective of all this was to foster a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in sonic energy interactions with fluid flow in porous media and adapt such knowledge for field applications. The fours tasks are: • Laboratory studies • Mathematical modeling • Sonic tool design and development • Field demonstration The project was designed to be completed in three years; however, due to budget cuts, support was only provided for the first year, and hence the full objective of the project could not be accomplished. This report summarizes what was accomplished with the support provided by the US Department of Energy. Experiments performed focused on determining the inception of cavitation, studying thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions, investigating sonic energy interactions with glass beads and oil, and studying the effects of sonication on crude oil properties. Our findings show that the voltage threshold for onset of cavitation is independent of transducer-hydrophone separation distance. In addition, thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions contributed to the mobilization of deposited paraffins and waxes. Our preliminary laboratory experiments suggest that waxes are mobilized when the fluid temperature approaches 40°C. Experiments were conducted that provided insights into the interactions between sonic wave and the fluid contained in the porous media. Most of these studies were carried out in a slim-tube apparatus. A numerical model was developed for simulating the effect of sonication in the nearwellbore region. The numerical model developed was validated using a number of standard testbed problems. However, actual application of the model for scale

  13. Alcohol, biomass energy: technological and economical aspects of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some technological and economical aspects of sugar cane and alcohol production in Brazil since 1975 until nowadays. The evolution of their production is analysed and the relationship between cost-benefit and ethanol consumption is discussed

  14. Precision Agriculture Technology Adoption for Cotton Production

    OpenAIRE

    Paxton, Kenneth W.; Mishra, Ashok K.; Chintawar, Sachin; Larson, James A.; Roberts, Roland K.; English, Burton C.; Lambert, Dayton M.; Marra, Michele C.; Larkin, Sherry L.; Reeves, Jeanne M.; Martin, Steven W

    2010-01-01

    Many studies on the adoption of precision technologies have generally used logit models to explain the adoption behavior of individuals. This study investigates factors affecting the number of specific types of precision agriculture technologies adopted by cotton farmers. Particular attention is given to the influence of spatial yield variability on the number of precision farming technologies adopted, using a Count data estimation procedure and farm-level data. Results indicate that farmers ...

  15. Information Technology, Efficient Restructuring and the Productivity Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Grüner, Hans Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Labor productivity in the US has recently grown more strongly than in most European countries. It is often argued that the American productivity increase is due to the widespread introduction of new information and communication technologies (ICT). But why have the same technologies not similarly increased Europe's labour productivity? This paper provides a theoretical explanation for this productivity puzzle based on an extension of Radner's (1992) model of hierarchical i...

  16. Rhizoremediation of Petrol Engine Oil Using Biosurfactants Producing Microbial Consortium in Mustard Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil / water resources by petroleum products poses severe threats to underground water and soil quality. In the present study biosurfactant producing bacterial cultures were used to degrade petrol engine oil under in situ conditions in the plant rhizosphere system. Two bacterial isolates used in this study were recovered from Haldia oil refinery sites and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (JX100389 and P. moraviensis (JX149542. Application of consortium C2, (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. moraviensis degraded 79.02 % petrol engine oil @ 2% in the soil planted with mustard (Brassica juncea var. Kranti crop after 120 days. GC-MS of biodegraded fuel showed the presence of new product like hexadecanoic acid 2, oxo-methyl ester.

  17. Technology for Hybrid Pepper Seed Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    History of hybrid pepper seed production, the status of annually balanced production, and innovative techniques for the large-scale seed production in China are reviewed. Helped by the technological breakthroughs in these fields, China has been the largest base for hybrid pepper seed production in the world.

  18. Technology of pastry products for healthy nutrition purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavadynska Olena

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility of using the carrot puree and oil from pumpkin seeds in the preparation of pastry product. Production technology and regulatory documentation for pastry products were developed and nutritional value of products was investigated.

  19. Agent Technology in Agile Multiparallel Manufacturing and Product Support

    OpenAIRE

    van Moergestel, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis describes the application of agent technology in product manufacturing and product support. Important issues in the requirements of modern production are short time to market, requirement-driven production and low cost small quantity production. To meet these requirements special low cost production platforms have been developed in our research. These reconfigurable platforms are called equiplets. A grid of these equiplets connected by a fast network is capable of producing a varie...

  20. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report identifies the commercial and near-commercial (emerging) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - TETRATEC PTFE TECHNOLOGIES TETRATEX 8005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  2. NBD-conjugated biosurfactant (MEL-A) shows a new pathway for transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yoshinobu; Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2007-11-20

    Gene transfection is a fundamental technology for molecular and cell biology, and also clinical gene therapy. A variety of non-viral vectors have been investigated for gene transfection, but their gene delivery had remained an inefficient process. Recently, we found that a biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL)-A, dramatically increased the efficiency in transfection of plasmid DNA mediated by cationic liposomes. However, its mechanism has not been understood yet. Here we examined the mechanism of the transfection mediated by cationic liposomes with NBD-conjugated MEL-A. We found that MEL-A first gradually distributed on the intracellular membranes through the plasma membranes of target cells, while the cationic liposomes with MEL-A fused to the plasma membranes in 20-35 min. Thereafter, the oligonucleotide released from the vesicles was immediately transferred to the nucleus. The present results showed a new role of non-viral vectors in transfection. PMID:17884224

  3. Digital Mock-up Technology in Product Development and Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xu; ZHANG Pandeng; YANG Cheng; XU Zhongming

    2006-01-01

    After introducing the present status of digital mock-up (DMU) technology in product development and research, the modeling and its key technologies in product design are described. The architecture of digital design platform system for main DMU model is developed. Based on the architecture, a method of skeleton design has been applied to the development of digital design system.

  4. Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-12-01

    DOE's Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress summarizes the technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. Published in December 2005, it fulfills the requirement under section 812 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  5. A User Centered Approach to Developing Emergent Technology Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Schlegel, Tanja; Lykke, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Current participatory design methods do not allow designers to gain the insight required to develop products with emerging technologies, that is, products that do not have any precedents in the users’ knowledge base and experience. This poses challenges to the designers, as input from users cannot...... methodological issues related to user involvement in the implementation of emerging technologies in the consumer electronics industry....

  6. Production of Construction Materials Using Advanced Recycling Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Waste reduction, material reuse, and use of recycle-content products can be focused on the management system somewhat. In contrast, material recycling is the technical issue how to create new materials using wastes. Thus, three advanced recycling technologies; 1) Synthetic Lightweight Aggregate technology (SLA), 2) Clean Coal Technology (CCT), and 3) RP-1 Polymer Identification System are introduced.

  7. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla

    for industrial production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesiswas to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed...... their energy efficiencies were evaluated by use of the process model. For each technology the scale-up enzyme production was simulated at industrial scale based on equal mass transfer. The technical feasibility of each technology was assessed based on prior knowledge of successful implementation at...... industrial scale and mechanical complexity of the fermentation vessel. The airlift reactor was identified as a potential high energy efficiency technology for enzyme production with excellent chances for success. Two different pilot plant configurations of the airlift reactor technology were tested in nine...

  8. Removal of Mercury by Foam Fractionation Using Surfactin, a Biosurfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Atla, Shashi B.; Jyoti Prakash Maity; Wei Pan; Hung-Tsan Liu; Min-Jen Tseng; Wun Rong Li; Chien-Yen Chen; A. Satyanarayana Reddy; Chien-Cheng Chen; Hau-Ren Chen

    2011-01-01

    The separation of mercury ions from artificially contaminated water by the foam fractionation process using a biosurfactant (surfactin) and chemical surfactants (SDS and Tween-80) was investigated in this study. Parameters such as surfactant and mercury concentration, pH, foam volume, and digestion time were varied and their effects on the efficiency of mercury removal were investigated. The recovery efficiency of mercury ions was highly sensitive to the concentration of the surfactant. The h...

  9. Productivity, Efficiency and Technological Change in Indian Ports

    OpenAIRE

    De, Prabir; Buddhadeb Ghosh

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the relationship between productivity, efficiency and technological change in Indian ports. By employing a comparative static framework, we have shown that Indian ports have witnessed a significant technological metamorphosis in terms of capital use. Increasing use of overhead capital has produced significant improvement in productivities. These findings have important implications for the application of new technology in the port sector in LDCs, particularly in...

  10. Interfaces between technology development, product development and production : Critical factors and a conceptual model

    OpenAIRE

    Lakemond, Nicolette; Johansson, Glenn; Magnusson, Thomas; Säfsten, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    Interfaces between technology development, product development, and production must be managed in order to avoid misfits between technology and product concepts and ensure the fit of the product design and the production process. In this paper, critical challenges related to these interfaces are studied based on in-depth case studies of ten product development projects at five manufacturing firms, two workshops and a questionnaire. Our findings indicate that factors related to synchronisation...

  11. Technological innovations in sales of banking products

    OpenAIRE

    Semenyuta Оlga; Bychkova Irina

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the features of the remote client service related to the behavior of consumers of retail banking products in terms of the use of remote service channels. Analyze the level of awareness of the remote service channels and barriers considered use of remote service channels on the acquisition of retail banking products based on the segmentation of consumer groups. Based on the findings developed proposals to promote remote service channels using banking products in the retai...

  12. Functional product development - discussing knowledge enabling technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Nergård, Henrik; Ericson, Åsa; Bergström, Mattias; Sandberg, Stefan; Larsson, Tobias; Törlind, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The purpose in this paper is to discuss new demands on computer tools to support decisions in functional product development. To do that, a tentative picture of changes in product development motivated by the concept of functional products has to be outlined to serve as a basis for the discussions. The concept of functional products affects the business as a whole. The hardware will be offered to customers as one part incorporated in a total offer. The offer as a whole compromise services rel...

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF PSEUDOZYMA HUBEIENSIS Y10BS025 AS A POTENT PRODUCER OF GLYCOLIPID BIOSURFACTANT MANNOSYLERYTHRITOL LIPIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Sari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mannosylerythritol Lipids (MEL’s are glycolipid biosurfactants that contain 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-meso-erythritol as a hydrophilic moiety and fatty acids as a hydrophobic moiety. MEL’s are abundantly produced by several kinds of microorganism and are one of the most promising biosurfactants currently known. The search for a novel endogenous producer of MEL’s was undertaken based on the available collection of the yeast strains from the genus Pseudozyma. Using thin layer chromatography and based on morphological and molecular taxonomic analysis using the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit 26S rRNA gene, Pseudozyma hubeiensis Y10BS025 was found to be a potential producer of MEL’s from soybean oil. The structure of the major glycolipid produced by the strain was analyzed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and was found to be similar to those of well known MEL-A, -B and -C respectively. Under improved shaking culture conditions, using yeast extract as nitrogen source and soybean oil as substrate, a maximum yield of 115±3.2 g.L-1 of MEL’s for 8 days of fermentation was achieved. The major fatty acids of MEL’s produced by P. hubeiensis Y10BS025 were C-18 acids, considerably different from those of MEL-C produced by other Pseudozyma strains such as P. antarctica and P. shanxiensis. The main product, MEL-C produced by P. hubeiensis Y10BS025 exhibited surface-tension-lowering activity. The results demonstrated that the newly isolated P. hubeiensis Y10BS025 provided high efficiency in MEL’s production and would thus be highly advantageous in commercial production of promising biosurfactants.

  14. Federalism and technological change in blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Zachary

    2009-12-01

    Recent research has shown how federalism affects health care finance, health care reform, and health policy innovation. The purpose of this article is to extend this research program to study the linkages between federalism and technological change. It does so using comparative case studies spanning five countries to examine innovation and diffusion of two blood technologies-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA blood tests) and heat treatment-in response to the threat to the blood supply posed by HIV during the 1980s. Prior research has produced three contradictory models of the federalism-innovation relationship. This article attempts to resolve these contradictions, posits new hypotheses, and highlights sources of omitted variable bias that have important implications for understanding technological change. The case studies show that overall decentralization, rather than federalism alone, aids technological progress by allowing its supporters to "venue shop" around political resistance. Decentralization also makes the state less vulnerable to capture by status-quo interest groups. Moreover, political decentralization may have a positive effect on technological diffusion, but a far weaker effect on innovation. Thus, prior research that conflates these two effects should be revisited. PMID:20018985

  15. Efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    This study describes the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactants in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals from the soil samples collected from industrial dumping site. High concentrations of heavy metals (like iron, lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt and zinc) and petroleum hydrocarbons were present in the contaminated soil samples. Lipopeptide biosurfactant, consisting of surfactin and fengycin was obtained from Bacillus subtilis A21. Soil washing with biosurfactant solution removed significant amount of petroleum hydrocarbon (64.5 %) and metals namely cadmium (44.2 %), cobalt (35.4 %), lead (40.3 %), nickel (32.2 %), copper (26.2 %) and zinc (32.07 %). Parameters like surfactant concentration, temperature, agitation condition and pH of the washing solution influenced the pollutant removing ability of biosurfactant mixture. Biosurfactant exhibited substantial hydrocarbon solubility above its critical micelle concentration. During washing, 50 % of biosurfactant was sorbed to the soil particles decreasing effective concentration during washing process. Biosurfactant washed soil exhibited 100 % mustard seed germination contradictory to water washed soil where no germination was observed. The results indicate that the soil washing with mixture of lipopeptide biosurfactants at concentrations above its critical micelle concentration can be an efficient and environment friendly approach for removing pollutants (petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metals) from contaminated soil. PMID:23681773

  16. Functional, genetic and chemical characterization of biosurfactants produced by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida 267

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, M.; Tran, H.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida strain 267, originally isolated from the rhizosphere of black pepper, produces biosurfactants that cause lysis of zoospores of the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The biosurfactants were characterized, the biosynthesis gene(s) partially identif

  17. FDI and Technology Spillovers under Vertical Product Di erentiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodaka Morita; Xuan Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    When Northern firms undertake FDI in the South, the superior technology they bring to their Southern operations spills over to Southern firms. Technology spillovers accompanied by FDI often enable Southern firms to enhance their product quality. This paper explores a model that incorporates quality-enhancing spillovers in an international duopoly model of vertical product differentiation. We find that the Northern firm, when it chooses to undertake FDI, strategically reduces its product quali...

  18. The productivity of French Technology Transfer Offices after government reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Curi; Cinzia Daraio; Patrick Llerena

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the productivity change of the French Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) after the introduction of the July 1999 Innovation Law and the New Public Management Oriented Reform. By using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)-based Malmquist Productivity Index, we find an average increase in the short-term productivity of the French TTOs driven by both positive efficiency and technology change. The bootstrap analysis reveals that these improvements are ascribed to 50% of the TTOs sy...

  19. Technological Diversity and Future Product Diversity in the Drug Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cantner, Uwe; Plotnikova, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the topic of related R&D and innovation strategies of large firms. We ask what determines the diversity of a firm's product portfolio. More specifically, we try to explain large firms' expansion into new product markets driven by the characteristics of their technological knowledge. Empirically, we study firms in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries, using relevant data on product development and technological knowledge. We find a positive relationship between the d...

  20. Alternate feedstocks and technologies for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. biodiesel production is presently estimated at 800 million gallons annually, and this fuel is no longer a research curiosity - it is entering the nation’s fuel infrastructure. Some estimates are that production will reach nearly twice that value in the next 10 to 12 years. This would stress a...

  1. Developments in China's Onshore Oilfield Production Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Dengtai; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ As of the end of 1996, China had 330 onshore oilfields in production with a total annual output of 141 × 106 t. Water flooded reserves accounted for 85% of total development reserves, with annual oil output from water flooded reserves accounting for 88% of total annual oil production.

  2. Development of fission Mo-99 production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission Mo-99 is the only parent nuclide of Tc-99m, an extremely useful tool for mdeical diagnosis, with an estimated usage of greater than 80% of nuclear medicine applicatons. HEU and LEU targets to optimize in HANARO irradiation condition suggested and designed for domestic production of fission Mo-99. The optimum process conditions are established in each unit process to meet quality requirements of fission Mo-99 products, and the results of performance test in combined process show Mo separation and purification yield of the above 97%. The concept of Tc generator production process is established, and the result of performance test show Tc production yield of 98.4% in Tc generator procuction process. The drafts is prepared for cooperation of technical cooperation and business investment with foreign country. Evaluation on economic feasibility is accompanied for fission Mo-99 and Tc-99m generator production

  3. Development of fission Mo-99 production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I. and others

    2000-05-01

    Fission Mo-99 is the only parent nuclide of Tc-99m, an extremely useful tool for mdeical diagnosis, with an estimated usage of greater than 80% of nuclear medicine applicatons. HEU and LEU targets to optimize in HANARO irradiation condition suggested and designed for domestic production of fission Mo-99. The optimum process conditions are established in each unit process to meet quality requirements of fission Mo-99 products, and the results of performance test in combined process show Mo separation and purification yield of the above 97%. The concept of Tc generator production process is established, and the result of performance test show Tc production yield of 98.4% in Tc generator procuction process. The drafts is prepared for cooperation of technical cooperation and business investment with foreign country. Evaluation on economic feasibility is accompanied for fission Mo-99 and Tc-99m generator production.

  4. Strategies for fuel cell product development. Developing fuel cell products in the technology supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the high cost of research and development and the broad spectrum of knowledge and competences required to develop fuel cell products, many product-developing firms outsource fuel cell technology, either partly or completely. This article addresses the inter-firm process of fuel cell product development from an Industrial Design Engineering perspective. The fuel cell product development can currently be characterised by a high degree of economic and technical uncertainty. Regarding the technology uncertainty: product-developing firms are more often then not unfamiliar with fuel cell technology technology. Yet there is a high interface complexity between the technology supplied and the product in which it is to be incorporated. In this paper the information exchange in three current fuel cell product development projects is analysed to determine the information required by a product designer to develop a fuel cell product. Technology transfer literature suggests that transfer effectiveness is greatest when the type of technology (technology uncertainty) and the type of relationship between the technology supplier and the recipient are carefully matched. In this line of thinking this paper proposes that the information required by a designer, determined by the design strategy and product/system volume, should be met by an appropriate level of communication interactivity with a technology specialist. (author)

  5. Biosurfactants and increased bioavailability of sorbed organic contaminants: Measurements using a biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation of sites contaminated with hydrophobic materials that sorb onto the soil matrix is very difficult due to reduced microbial (bio)availability. Following biosurfactant addition, we have measured an increase in contaminant bioavailability by using a lux biosensor. Direct microbial bioavailability was determined by using a genetically engineered microbial bioreporter strain of Pseudomonas putida. This strain was engineered so the lux genes, which code for light production, are transcriptionally fused with genes that code for contaminant degradation and are thus induced in the presence of specific compounds. By using a bioreporter we can quantify the actual microbial bioavailability of the contaminants and compare it to concentrations measured by other analytical methods (e.g. gas chromatograph). It is possible that these values are not equal to each other. Thus, bioremediation rates may not be accurately predicted if bioavailability is not considered

  6. Characterization of new glycolipid biosurfactants, tri-acylated mannosylerythritol lipids, produced by Pseudozyma yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-07-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudozyma yeasts. They show not only the excellent interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In the course of MEL production from soybean oil by P. antarctica and P. rugulosa, some new extracellular glycolipids (more hydrophobic than the previously reported di-acylated MELs) were found in the culture medium. The most hydrophobic one was identified as 1-O-alka(e)noyl-4-O-[(4',6'-di-O-acetyl-2',3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, namely tri-acylated MEL. Others were tri-acylated MELs bearing only one acetyl group. The tri-acylated MEL could be prepared by the lipase-catalyzed esterification of a di-acylated MEL with oleic acid implying that the new glycolipids are synthesized from di-acylated MELs in the culture medium containing the residual fatty acids. PMID:17417694

  7. Technological innovations in sales of banking products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenyuta Оlga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the remote client service related to the behavior of consumers of retail banking products in terms of the use of remote service channels. Analyze the level of awareness of the remote service channels and barriers considered use of remote service channels on the acquisition of retail banking products based on the segmentation of consumer groups. Based on the findings developed proposals to promote remote service channels using banking products in the retail segment of consumers.

  8. Factorial design evaluation of oil removal from fibrous sorbents by bio-surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of bio-surfactant for the removal of oil from used polypropylene nonwoven sorbents and to investigate the effect of basic parameters such as sorbent type, washing time, surfactant dosage and temperature. Bio-surfactants are biodegradable and can also enhance the biodegradation of oil by increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds. Factorial design was employed to examine the oil removal from used sorbents by bio-surfactant. The study revealed that pore size, bio-surfactant concentration, temperature and washing time exhibit different effects on oil removal for different types of oil. For crude oil and 25% weathered (weight loss from crude oil by evaporation), pore size and washing time are significant factors influencing oil removal from used sorbents. For 50% weathered oil, temperature appears to be most significant factor influencing oil removal. It has been shown that bio-surfactant washing has considerable potential for recycling used oil sorbents. (authors)

  9. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  10. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Gregoria Mitropoulou; Viktor Nedovic; Arun Goyal; Yiannis Kourkoutas

    2013-01-01

    Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their poten...

  11. Immobilization Technologies in Probiotic Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoria Mitropoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various supports and immobilization/encapsulation techniques have been proposed and tested for application in functional food production. In the present review, the use of probiotic microorganisms for the production of novel foods is discussed, while the benefits and criteria of using probiotic cultures are analyzed. Subsequently, immobilization/encapsulation applications in the food industry aiming at the prolongation of cell viability are described together with an evaluation of their potential future impact, which is also highlighted and assessed.

  12. The power of design product innovation in sustainable energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Reinders, Angele H; Brezet, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Power of Design offers an introduction and a practical guide to product innovation, integrating the key topics that are necessary for the design of sustainable and energy-efficient products using sustainable energy technologies. Product innovation in sustainable energy technologies is an interdisciplinary field. In response to its growing importance and the need for an integrated view on the development of solutions, this text addresses the functional principles of various energy technologies next to the latest design processes and innovation methods. From the perspec

  13. Production chain and innovative technologies for living

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio Arbizzani

    2012-01-01

    The continued growth of residential demand, coupled with the significant decline of the housing market, is encouraging the development of many procedural and constructive experiments on the theme of affordable housing for a range of users increasingly unable to access home ownership. The spread of an approach to planning that is socially, economically and technologically sustainable, represents a culture of quality that is once more measurable, which makes it possible today to define innovati...

  14. Technological Advance for Alginate Production in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Carmona G.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Alginates are polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweeds. They are used in food industry, pharmaceutical, textile, among other, because of their properties to give high viscous solution and gel forming. This review describes the optimized process at pilot plant level for alginate production. The process includes washing the algae with HCl at pH 4, extraction of the alginate in Na2CO3 solution at pH 10 and heating to 80oC, dilution of the paste and filtrate with a vacuum rotary filter. Alginate precipitation is carried out by adding CaCl2 filtration. The fibers obtained are treated with HCl to obtain alginic acid. The product is neutralized with Na2CO3 to obtain sodium alginate. The product is dried with hot air, milled, and screened at different mesh sizes. We described the different products obtained and their physical and chemical properties. Finally, costs and barriers found that limit the alginate production at commercial level in Mexico are discussed, including the lack of the industrial design, the international cost of the alginates, the policy to give the seaweeds beds concessions, and the role of the investors.

  15. Development of the cyclotron radioisotope production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Yong Sup; Chun, K.S.; Yang, S.D.; Lee, J.D.; Ahn, S.H.; Yun, Y.K.; Park, H.; Lee, J.S.; Chai, J.S.; Kim, U.S.; Hong, S.S.; Lee, M.Y.; Park, C.W.; Baik, S. K.; Kim, E. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, J. H

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute the advance of nuclear medicine and to the improvement of human health through the development of various accelerator radionuclides and mass production with automization of production. The results obtained from this study are following: 1) In order to introduce 30 MeV high current cyclotron, the specification of cyclotron has been made, the building site was selected and we drew the draw-up of cyclotron. The cyclotron installation contract was postponed until the financial resources could be secured. 2) For a development high purity 1-123 producing system, a Xe-124 target system, a temperature measurement system of the inner part of the target and a target window were fabricated. A Xe-124 gas target recovery system and a full production system of 1-123 was drew up. 3) For a development of a therapeutic nuclide At-211, a target for the production of At-211 via {sup 209}Bi(alpha, 2n) reaction was fabricated. Produced At-211 was separated by distillation method. 4) For development of beta-emitting nuclides, Ti-45, C-11, F{sub 2}-18, beam irradiation system suitable for each target were fabricated. 5) For automatic production of Ga-67, automated module and PLC program was made 6) For the quality control of radiopharmaceuticals, analytical method of thallium and copper by polarography was investigated and established.

  16. Snake antivenoms: adverse reactions and production technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VM Morais

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antivenoms have been widely used for more than a century for treating snakebites and other accidents with poisonous animals. Despite their efficacy, the use of heterologous antivenoms involves the possibility of adverse reactions due to activation of the immune system. In this paper, alternatives for antivenom production already in use were evaluated in light of their ability to minimize the occurrence of adverse reactions. These effects were classified according to their molecular mechanism as: anaphylactic reactions mediated by IgE, anaphylactoid reactions caused by complement system activation, and pyrogenic reactions produced mainly by the presence of endotoxins in the final product. In the future, antivenoms may be replaced by humanized antibodies, specific neutralizing compounds or vaccination. Meanwhile, improvements in antivenom quality will be focused on the obtainment of a more purified and specific product in compliance with good manufacturing practices and at an affordable cost.

  17. Innovative Canadian Process Technology For Biodiesel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johar, Sangat; Norton, Kevin

    2010-09-15

    The need for increasing renewable and alternative energy in the global energy mix has been well recognized by Governments and major scientific forums to reduce climate change impact for this living planet. Biodiesel has very high potential for GHG emission reduction. An innovative process developed in Canada provides solution to mitigate the feedstock, yield and quality issues impacting the industry. The Biox process uses a continuous process which reduces reaction times, provides > 99% yield of high quality biodiesel product. The process is feedstock flexible and can use cheaper higher FFA feedstock providing a sustainable approach for biodiesel production.

  18. Recent advances in membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Bagley, David M; Leung, Kam Tin; Liss, Steven N; Liao, Bao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The bioeconomy, and in particular, biorefining and bioenergy production, have received considerable attention in recent years as a shift to renewable bioresources to produce similar energy and chemicals derived from fossil energy sources, represents a more sustainable path. Membrane technologies have been shown to play a key role in process intensification and products recovery and purification in biorefining and bioenergy production processes. Among the various separation technologies used, membrane technologies provide excellent fractionation and separation capabilities, low chemical consumption, and reduced energy requirements. This article presents a state-of-the-art review on membrane technologies related to various processes of biorefining and bioenergy production, including: (i) separation and purification of individual molecules from biomass, (ii) removal of fermentation inhibitors, (iii) enzyme recovery from hydrolysis processes, (iv) membrane bioreactors for bioenergy and chemical production, such as bioethanol, biogas and acetic acid, (v) bioethanol dehydration, (vi) bio-oil and biodiesel production, and (vii) algae harvesting. The advantages and limitations of membrane technologies for these applications are discussed and new membrane-based integrated processes are proposed. Finally, challenges and opportunities of membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production in the coming years are addressed. PMID:22306168

  19. Sustainable technology as a basis of cleaner production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present work is characterization of the clean technology and cleaner production inrelation to sustainable development and environmental requirements.Design/methodology/approach: The paper desrcibes the general cleaner production aims, which are correspondto the prevention criteria of the IPPC-Directive. It presents cleaner production practises and technologies andexamines the methods of successful application of cleaner production practises in companies, which want torealize proecological targets.Findings: The minimization of waste and reductions in material and energy inputs are the most importantenvironmental aims. Sustainable technological development and innovations do not automatically lead to totalreduction of environmental burden of industrial production. However, technological innovation is an importantfactor and seems to play a central role in the long-term initiation of cleaner production.Practical implications: Sustainable technology is usually connected with the design and analysis of complex,integrated management systems and sustainable development and it is a central target in environmental scienceand growth of global economies.Originality/value: Environmental improvement of companies strategy by application the idea of cleanerproduction linked with sustainable technologies leads to produce environmentally friendly products and leadsto increas the position of company on the market.

  20. Production technology of high strength reinforcement rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurev; A.; B.; Chinokalov; V.; Y.; Efimov; O.; Y.; Zezikov; M.; V.; Myskova; N.; V.

    2005-01-01

    At present JSC "ZSMK" is the largest producer of building reinforcement steel in Russia. One of the most essential conditions for holding our positions on this products market is the increase of assortment and quality of rolled metal.……

  1. Henkel Technologies and Products for China Aerospace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Cichon; Helen Wei Li; Alex Wong; Stan Lehmann; Raymond Wong

    2006-01-01

    Epoxy structural adhesives and composites have been in use for many years for the construction of aerospace vehicles. Henkel provides many epoxy products. Many other resin systems have been evaluated and several, such as imide,phenolic and cyanate ester, have also achieved significant use. Henkel's newly developed "Epsilon" chemistry demonstrates unique features that benefit application in aerospace structure that use adhesives and composites.

  2. Membrane reactor technology for ultrapure hydrogen production

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Charudatta Subhash

    2005-01-01

    The suitability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for stationary and vehicular applications because of its low operating temperatures, compactness, higher power density, cleaner exhausts and higher efficiencies compared to conventional internal combustion engines and gas turbines adds to the already soaring demand for hydrogen production for refinery and petrochemical applications.

  3. Technologies on the Horizon for Product Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry Fred, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Configuration management. Component/system to report. Unique item identifier (UID). Aftemarket undocumented configuration change. Revolutionary new brake system. Traceability of critical parts. Automatic identification used at many levels. Product ID problems that inhibited traceability. Direct part marking enables life cycle tracking.

  4. Application of 3F integrated technology in new product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3F integrated technology is a reliability analysis technology consisted of two modules, i.e., FMECA and FTA, by methods based on a comprehensive analysis of potential failure prediction and improvement of function modules and the FRACAS prototype known fault closed-loop control function module. The research ideas that 3F integrated technology be applied to the whole process of new product development was described. The process model and the implementation of the operation flow of 3F integrated technology in the new product development were focused, and presentation of its case-specific process of implementation was given. Finally, for the 3F integrated technology and its application in new product development, pending development study were proposed. (authors)

  5. Leveraging Technology for Productivity and Best Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Arnold

    2015-04-01

    The case described herein, illustrates the comfortable interplay that can be achieved between traditional techniques and new technologies. At the patient's first visit in the dental office, traditional tools can be used to gather records, and an old-fashioned dialogue was employed to determine the patient's goals for treatment. Creation of a digital treatment simulation by TransLab gives the dentist, dental laboratory team, and the patient a tangible picture to review and discuss. This collaboration helps to ensure that all parties have the same expectations, before proceeding any further with the actual treatment procedures. PMID:26470565

  6. GROUP TECHNOLOGY IN CONTEXT OF THE PRODUCT CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Debnárová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the intensive competitive environment of the global economy, the survival of even the most well-established the world manufacturers depends on the ability to improve continuously quality while reducing costs. The resulting higher productivity is the key to market leadership and gaining sustainable competitive advantage. This paper outlines a group technology and classification of products which improve productivity, quality, inventory management of a company and reduce production times.

  7. Effect of biosurfactant[0] on the sorption of phenanthrene onto original and H2O2-treated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Xiaohong; ZHAN Xinhua; ZHOU Lixiang

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of biosurfactant on sorption of phenanthrene (PHE) onto the original or H2O2-treated black loamy soil (typic isohumisols) and red sandy soil (typic ferralisols). The sorption isotherms were performed with the original and "soft" carbon-removed soils in the presence and absence of biosurfactant (200 mg/L). The sorption and degradation of biosurfactant were investigated. The result showed that organic matter played an important role in PHE sorption onto the black loamy and red sandy soils, and the PHE sorption isotherms on the "soft" carbon-removed soils exhibited more nonlinearity than those on the original soils. The values of partition coefficient (Kd) on the original black loamy soil with or without 200 mg/L biosurfactant were 181.6 and 494.5 mL/g, respectively. Correspondingly, in the red sandy soil, Kd was 246.4 and 212.8 mL/g in the presence or absence of biosurfactant, respectively. The changes of Kd suggested that biosurfactant inhibited PHE sorption onto the black loamy soil, but facilitated PHE sorption onto the red sandy soil. The nonlinearity of PHE sorption isotherm was decreased in the presence of biosurfactant. Site specific sorption might occur during PHE sorption onto both the original and the "soft" carbon-removed soils in the presence of biosurfactant. It was noted that biosurfactant could also be sorbed onto soils. The maximal sorption capacity of the red sandy soil for biosurfactant was (76.9 ± 0.007) μg/g, which was 1.31 times that of black loamy soil. Biosurfactant was degraded quickly in the two selected soils, and 92% of biosurfactant were mineralized throughout the incubation experiment for 7 d. It implied that biosurfactant should be added frequently when the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils was conducted through PAH desorption approach facilitated by biosurfactant.

  8. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normov D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents issues related to the use of electric technologies in agricultural production. The work contains the results of theoretical and practical application of ozone in agriculture

  9. Technology transfers, foreign investment and productivity spillovers: evidence from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Talbot, Theodore Purdendu;

    . Productivity externalities from upstream sectors are associated with joint venture foreign investors while downstream sectors experience direct technology transfers from upstream wholly foreign owned investors. Spillovers from FDI through backward linkages are also detected but only when competition from...

  10. Productive educational technologies in teaching foregn language and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Sannikova, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    This article is devoted to looking for productive educational technologies in learning a foreign language and culture with the use of ICT-based on the student-centered strategy that implements the method of projects.

  11. Technology for production of shelf stable fruit cubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technology has been developed for the production of intermediate moisture fruit cubes using a combination of osmotic dehydration and infrared drying. Fruits like pineapple, papaya, mango, banana and apple can be successfully converted into intermediate moisture products in the form of fruit cubes using this technology. The fruit cubes can blend very well as natural nutritious supplements with breakfast cereals and in certain food preparations like ice creams, milk shakes, jellies and custards. The product is microbiologically safe for consumption and can be stored at ambient storage condition for more than six months. This technology is an effective alternative for post harvest processing and preservation of ripened fruits. Fruit jam is an additional by-product generated by the process. This technology has been transferred to TT and CD, BARC

  12. Technological capabilities, institutions and firm productivity: a multilevel study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goedhuys, M.; Srholec, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2015), s. 122-139. ISSN 0957-8811 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : productivity * innovation * technological capability Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.851, year: 2014

  13. Buildings R&D Breakthroughs: Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weakley, Steven A.

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and characterize commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects funded by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2011.

  14. Buildings R&D Breakthroughs. Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-04-01

    This report identifies and characterizes commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects sponsored by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009.

  15. Production of nanomaterials: physical and chemical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Are define nanomaterials those materials which have at least one dimension in the range between 1 and 100 nm. By the term nanotechnology refers, instead, to the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at the atomic and molecular level. The materials brought to the nanometric dimensions take particular chemical-physical properties different from the corresponding conventional macro materials. Speaking about the structure of nanoscale, you can check some basic properties materials (eg. Melting temperature, magnetic and electrical properties) without changing its chemical composition. In this perspective are crucial knowledge and control of production processes in order to design and get the nanomaterial more suitable for a specific application. For this purpose, it describes a series of processes of production of nanomaterials with application examples.

  16. Technology of production of polychrome lustre

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Gloria; Tite, Michael S.; Molera Marimon, Judit; Climent-Font, Aurelio; Pradell, Trinitat

    2014-01-01

    Lustre is a decoration consisting of a few hundreds of nanometres thick surface layer of silver and copper metal nanoparticles incorporated into the glaze. Polychrome lustreware with several combinations of colours and shines was produced in Abbasid Iraq in the 9th century AD. Three colour combinations, black plus red, white-silvery plus red-coppery and yellow-golden plus red-coppery, have been studied, and the materials and methods of production determined. Two separated firings the first fo...

  17. Snake antivenoms: adverse reactions and production technology

    OpenAIRE

    VM Morais; H Massaldi

    2009-01-01

    Antivenoms have been widely used for more than a century for treating snakebites and other accidents with poisonous animals. Despite their efficacy, the use of heterologous antivenoms involves the possibility of adverse reactions due to activation of the immune system. In this paper, alternatives for antivenom production already in use were evaluated in light of their ability to minimize the occurrence of adverse reactions. These effects were classified according to their molecular mechanism ...

  18. Production Technologies and the Phillips Curve

    OpenAIRE

    G. Chichilnisky; Heal, G.

    1983-01-01

    In an economy with increasing returns to scale in production, wage changes and unemployment levels are shown to fluctuate systematically. Such fluctuations are part of the stable long-run configuration of the economy. They generate data sets in which wage changes show a negative Phillips-type correlation with the level of unemployment. This negative correlation is a reflection of the conventional Walrasian price adjustment process in the labor market, and does not imply that across equilibria...

  19. Economic Analysis of Pharmaceutical Technologies in Modern Beef Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, John D.; Ibarburu, Maro A.

    2007-01-01

    Cattle production is the largest single agricultural sector in the U.S. with cash receipts of $49.2 billion in 2005. Like the rest of agriculture cattle producers have adopted efficiency and quality improving technology to meet consumer demands for a safe, wholesome, and affordable food supply. This research uses meta analysis to combine over 170 research trials evaluating pharmaceutical technologies in the cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot segments of beef production. These results were used to...

  20. Estimation of Production Technology for Turkish Textile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dağ, Nesrin

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study examines the production technology in Turkish textile manufacturing industry, for the period 1988-2008. It is analyzed whether the production technology can be represented by a cost function or a profit function. A translog cost function is estimated and endogeneity of the output level is analyzed. The estimated translog cost function is also evaluated with hypothesis testing to verify the statistically significance of the independent variables. It is illustrated that th...

  1. INFLUENCE OF STARTING CULTURES IN HAM PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterenko A. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For today, creation of the technologies, allowing lowering the cost price of manufacture of meat products, thus guaranteeing the consumer the same set of quality standards is very important. Due to biotechnology development, working out and introduction of the new technologies focused on an intensification of a complex of difficult biochemical transformations which proceed in meat raw materials by manufacture of sausage products became possible

  2. INFLUENCE OF STARTING CULTURES IN HAM PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nesterenko A. A.; Zaytseva Y. A.

    2014-01-01

    For today, creation of the technologies, allowing lowering the cost price of manufacture of meat products, thus guaranteeing the consumer the same set of quality standards is very important. Due to biotechnology development, working out and introduction of the new technologies focused on an intensification of a complex of difficult biochemical transformations which proceed in meat raw materials by manufacture of sausage products became possible

  3. Nano-enabled environmental products and technologies - opportunities and drawbacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Christensen, Frans; Brinch, Anna; Kjølholt, Jesper;

    on the (Danish) market, as well as products and technologies, which are still in R&D and it will provide a qualitative overview of health and environmental pros and cons of these technologies. The project has focused on technologies applied in: 1) purification of water and wastewater, 2) remediation...... of soil and groundwater, 3) cleaning of air, 4) reduction of energy consumption and 5) for improving hygiene in the health care sector by utilizing the antibacterial properties of certain nanomaterials....

  4. Technologies for the next generation of production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bertran Subirana, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of the last technological progresses is driving an evolution in different areas, making many of our daily tasks easier. In the production field the progress of new technological systems such as Cyber-­Physical Systems or Internet of Things is helping to create the so-called ‘factories of the future’, also known as Smart Factories. Some governmental initiatives developed in several countries are encouraging the implementation of these technologies in industry...

  5. Technological Progress and Worker Productivity at Different Ages

    OpenAIRE

    John Laitner; Dmitriy Stolyarov

    2005-01-01

    Economists have long thought of technological progress as a primary determinant of rising living standards over time. One might think of technological progress as increasing the “effectiveness” of labor, thereby raising the amount of output that each unit of labor can produce. The purpose of this paper is to ask whether, as an empirical matter, technological progress increases the productivity of workers evenly, or whether it augments the effectiveness of young workers the most. As low birthr...

  6. Effects of sludge retention time (SRT) and biosurfactant on the removal of polyaromatic compounds and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Gok, Oguzhan

    2011-12-15

    A laboratory-scale aerobic activated sludge reactor (AASR) system was employed to investigate the effects of SRT on the removal of three less hydrophobic and six more hydrophobic PAHs in the presence of rhamnolipid (RD), emulsan (EM) and surfactine (SR) biosurfactants. Among the biosurfactants it was found that RD exhibits a better performance than the others in the removal of PAHs. At a RD of 15 mg l(-1) aerobic treatment for 25 days SRT was enough to remove over 90% of the total PAHs, 88% of the COD originating from the inert organics (COD(inert)) and 93% of the COD originating from the inert soluble microbial products (COD(imp)). At this SRT and RD concentration, about 96-98% of the RD was biodegraded by the AASR system, 1.2-1.4% was accumulated in the system, 1.1-1.3% was released in the effluent, and 1.2-1.4% remained in the waste sludge. The addition of electron acceptors (NO(3)(-1), SO(4)(-2)) and increasing of temperature up to 45°C enhanced the PAH yields. The most effective PAH degradation occurred in high-oxygenated and neutral pH conditions. The PAH concentration affecting half of the Daphnia magna organism (EC(50) value) was reduced from EC(50)=45.02 ng ml(-1) to the PAH concentration affecting only 6% of the live Daphnia magna (EC(6)=5.30 ng ml(-1)) at the end of the aerobic treatment at a SRT of 25 days. Toxicity removals originating from the PAHs were 96%. PMID:22023905

  7. Technological Advance for Alginate Production in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Carmona G.; Rodríguez-Montesinos Y.E.; Arvizu-Higuera D.L.; Reyes-Tisnado R.; Murillo-Álvarez J.I.; Muñoz-Ochoa M.

    2012-01-01

    Alginates are polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweeds. They are used in food industry, pharmaceutical, textile, among other, because of their properties to give high viscous solution and gel forming. This review describes the optimized process at pilot plant level for alginate production. The process includes washing the algae with HCl at pH 4, extraction of the alginate in Na2CO3 solution at pH 10 and heating to 80oC, dilution of the paste and filtrate with a vacuum rotary filter. Algi...

  8. CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANKIT KUMAR

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid, C3H4OH(COOH3, (Scheele and Wehmer 1897 can be generally manufactured by chemical synthesis which is not much preferred now-a-days because of high costs involved in it and also by fermentation of sugar containing sources in the presence of fungus Aspergillus niger. Citric acid is used in confections and soft drinks ( as a flavouring agent, in metal-cleaning compositions, and in improving the stability of foods and other organic substances by suppressing the deleterious action of dissolved metal salts. Fermentation results in the breakdown of complex organic substances into simpler ones through the action of catalysis. This project involves the production of citric acid from fungal strain of Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, using various sources like cane molasses, beet molasses, sweet potato and grape sugar by employing submerged and surface fermentation. The fermentation process has been carried out at ph 4.5 and temperature 28 0C. The recovery of citric acid from fermented broth is generally performed through three procedures-precipitation, extraction and adsorption(mainly using ion-exchange resins. The main aim of the project is to achieve a cost reduction in citric acid production by using less expensive substrates.

  9. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant against Fusarium sacchari--the causal organism of pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debahuti; Handique, Pratap Jyoti; Deka, Suresh

    2014-06-01

    Pokkah boeng disease on sugarcane caused by the fungus Fusarium sacchari results considerable damage to the crop leading to top rot, the most serious and advanced stage of pokkah boeng, where the growing point is killed and the entire top of the plant dies. In the present study, the effect of rhamnolipid biosurfactant as an antifungal agent against F. sacchari to control pokkah boeng disease was investigated. On the basis of surface tension reduction, 12 bacterial isolates were selected as potent biosurfactant producers and eight of them showed antagonistic effect against F. sacchari. Among the eight, the isolate DS9 was found as the effective inhibitor of the fungus in vitro which was further evaluated using its biosurfactant present in whole culture, cell-free culture supernatant and crude biosurfactant at various concentrations. Reductions of fungal growths were found more with crude biosurfactant. By sequencing 16S rRNA, DS9 was identified as P. aeruginosa and the produced biosurfactant was characterized as rhamnolipid by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The rhamnolipid biosurfactant inhibits phytopathogenic fungi F. sacchari and therefore seems to be a good biocontrol agent to control pokkah boeng disease of sugarcane. PMID:23687052

  10. Emulsification potential of a newly isolated biosurfactant-producing bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. strain TA6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavandi, Mahmoud; Mohebali, Ghasemali; Haddadi, Azam; Shakarami, Heidar; Nuhi, Ashrafossadat

    2011-02-01

    An indigenous biosurfactant producing bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. strain TA6 was isolated from Iranian oil contaminated soil using an efficient enrichment and screening method. During growth on sucrose and several hydrocarbon substrates as sole carbon source, the bacterium could produce biosurfactants. As a result of biosurfactant synthesis, the surface tension of the growth medium was reduced from 68mNm(-1) to values below 30mNm(-1). The biosurfactant was capable of forming stable emulsions with various hydrocarbons ranging from pentane to light motor oil. Preliminary chemical characterization revealed that the TA6 biosurfactant consisted of extracellular lipids and glycolipids. The biosurfactant was stable during exposure to high salinity (10% NaCl), elevated temperatures (120°C for 15min) and within a wide pH range (4.0-10.0). The culture broth was effective in recovering up to 70% of the residual oil from oil-saturated sand packs which indicates the potential value of the biosurfactant in enhanced oil recovery. PMID:21030223

  11. Crude oil biodegradation aided by biosurfactants from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 or its culture broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants. PMID:25985416

  12. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Persian Gulf (Bushehr provenance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2014-09-15

    Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted. PMID:25037876

  13. INVESTIGATION ON ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED BY PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS ISOLATED FROM MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindammal M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this present study is to investigate the antimicrobial activity of rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens MFS03 isolated from mangrove forest soil using groundnut oil cake as substrate. The biosurfactant was extracted with an equal amount of ethyl acetate and the concentrated extract was subjected to FT-IR analysis. The important adsorption bands at 3466.24, 2926.45, 1743.47, 1407.30 and 1162.26 cm-1indicate the chemical structure of rhamnolipid. The rhamnolipid biosurfactant was investigated for the potential antimicrobial activity by using disc-diffusion method against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistance S. aureus Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and a yeast (Candida albicans. The biosurfactant showed distinct antibacterial activity towards tested bacteria and shows an antifungal activity against yeast. The biosurfactant with different concentration was performed for the evaluation of antimicrobial activity. Maximum antimicrobial activity of the biosurfactant (50µl was observed in S. aureus (23 mm and it was found that the biosurfactant activity was dependent on the concentration. So it could be used as a therapeutic agent in pharmaceutical application.

  14. Technology Diffusion and Productivity Growth in Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Jonathan; Staiger, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We draw on macroeconomic models of diffusion and productivity to explain empirical patterns of survival gains in heart attacks. Using Medicare data for 2.8 million patients during 1986–2004, we find that hospitals rapidly adopting cost-effective innovations such as beta blockers, aspirin, and reperfusion, had substantially better outcomes for their patients. Holding technology adoption constant, the marginal returns to spending were relatively modest. Hospitals increasing the pace of technology diffusion (“tigers”) experienced triple the survival gains compared to those with diminished rates (“tortoises”). In sum, small differences in the propensity to adopt effective technology lead to wide productivity differences across hospitals. PMID:26989267

  15. PRODUCTION OF PROTOTYPE PARTS USING DIRECT METAL LASER SINTERING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Sedlak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional methods of modern materials preparation include additive technologies which involve the sintering of powders of different chemical composition, granularity, physical, chemical and other utility properties. The technology called Rapid Prototyping, which uses different technological principles of producing components, belongs to this type of material preparation. The Rapid Prototyping technology facilities use photopolymers, thermoplastics, specially treated paper or metal powders. The advantage is the direct production of metal parts from input data and the fact that there is no need for the production of special tools (moulds, press tools, etc.. Unused powder from sintering technologies is re-used for production 98% of the time, which means that the process is economical, as well as ecological.The present paper discusses the technology of Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS, which falls into the group of additive technologies of Rapid Prototyping (RP. The major objective is a detailed description of DMLS, pointing out the benefits it offers and its application in practice. The practical part describes the production and provides an economic comparison of several prototype parts that were designed for testing in the automotive industry.

  16. Co-Simulation Technology for Complex Product Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊光楞; 陈小波; 郭滨; 蹇佳; 王成龙

    2002-01-01

    First analyze the simulation requirements in complex product design, then propose the approach to full applying simulation to complex product design, and present the key enable technology with respect to modeling, simulation running, VV&A,evaluation and decision making and supporting platform.

  17. Isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Persian Gulf (Bushehr provenance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated from Persian Gulf. • There is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in the Persian Gulf. • These bacteria are very useful for management of oil pollution in the sea. - Abstract: Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted

  18. BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM-WASTE BY BIOSURFACTANT-PRODUCING BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; Kamlesh Jangid, K; Krystyna Lukasik, K; Grzegorz Nalecz-Jawecki, G; Topher Berry, T

    2007-05-16

    The degradation of petroleum waste by mixed bacterial cultures which produce biosurfactants: Ralstonia pickettii SRS (BP-20), Alcaligenes piechaudii SRS (CZOR L-1B), Bacillus subtilis (1'- 1a), Bacillus sp. (T-1) and Bacillus sp. (T'-1) was investigated. The total petroleum hydrocarbons were degraded substantially (91 %) by the mixed bacterial culture in 30 days (reaching up to 29 % in the first 72 h). Similarly, the toxicity of the biodegraded petroleum waste decreased 3 times after 30 days as compared to raw petroleum waste. Thus, the mixed bacterial strains effectively clean-up the petroleum waste and they can be used in other bioremediation processes.

  19. Productivity effects of technology diffusion induced by an energy tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the political discussion, the economy-wide effects of an energy tax have gained considerable attention. So far, macroeconomic analyses have focused on either (positive or negative) costs triggered by an energy tax, or on the efficiency gains resulting from new energy taxes combined with lower distortionary taxes. By contrast, the innovative effects of climate protection measures have not yet been thoroughly analysed. This paper explores the productivity effects of a 50 per cent energy tax in the German industry sector employing a technology-based, three-step bottom-up approach. In the first step, the extensive IKARUS database is used to identify the technological adjustments arising from an energy tax. In the second step, the technologies are classified into different clusters. In the third step, the productivity effects generated by the technological adjustments are examined. The results imply that an energy tax induces mainly sector-specific and process-integrated technologies rather than add-on and cross-cutting technologies. Further, it is shown that the energy-saving technologies tend to increase productivity. This is particularly the case for process-integrated, sector specific technologies. (author)

  20. Traditional technologies of fuels production for air-jet engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Бойченко С. В.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Available energy resources for various fuels, mainly for gas-turbine engines are presented in the given article. Traditional technologies for jet fuels production from nonrenewable raw materials, such as crude oil, coal, natural gas, oil-shales and others are analyzed in details. Cause and effect relationship between production and use of such fuels and their impact on natural environment is defined. The timeliness and necessity for development of alternative technologies of aviation biofuels production are determined in the given article.

  1. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-07-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  2. Evaluation of biosurfactants grown in corn oil by Rhodococcus rhodochrous on removing of heavy metal ion from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, Venty; Hastuti, Sri; Pujiastuti, Dwi

    2016-02-01

    The potential application of biosurfactants to remove heavy metal ion from aqueous solution by batch technique was examined. The glycolipids type biosurfactants were grown in a media containing of 20% v/v corn oil with 7 days of fermentation by Rhodococcus rhodochrous. The biosurfactants reduced the surface tension of water of about 51% from 62 mN/m to 30 mN/m. The biosurfactant increased the E24 of water-palm oil emulsion of about 55% from 43% to 97% and could maintain this E24 value of above 50% for up to 9 days. Heavy metal ion removal, in this case cadmium ion, by crude and patially purified biosurfactants has been investigated from aqueous solution at pH 6. Adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 1.74 and 1.82 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by partially purified biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 0.79 and 1.34 mg/g, respectively. The results demonstrated that the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant was higher than that of by partially purified biosurfactant. The results suggested that the biosurfactant could be used in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.

  3. Evaluation of biosurfactants grown in corn oil by Rhodococcus rhodochrous on removing of heavy metal ion from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential application of biosurfactants to remove heavy metal ion from aqueous solution by batch technique was examined. The glycolipids type biosurfactants were grown in a media containing of 20% v/v corn oil with 7 days of fermentation by Rhodococcus rhodochrous. The biosurfactants reduced the surface tension of water of about 51% from 62 mN/m to 30 mN/m. The biosurfactant increased the E24 of water-palm oil emulsion of about 55% from 43% to 97% and could maintain this E24 value of above 50% for up to 9 days. Heavy metal ion removal, in this case cadmium ion, by crude and patially purified biosurfactants has been investigated from aqueous solution at pH 6. Adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 1.74 and 1.82 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by partially purified biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 0.79 and 1.34 mg/g, respectively. The results demonstrated that the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant was higher than that of by partially purified biosurfactant. The results suggested that the biosurfactant could be used in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution

  4. Evaluation of biosurfactants grown in corn oil by Rhodococcus rhodochrous on removing of heavy metal ion from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryanti, Venty, E-mail: venty@mipa.uns.ac.id; Hastuti, Sri; Pujiastuti, Dwi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The potential application of biosurfactants to remove heavy metal ion from aqueous solution by batch technique was examined. The glycolipids type biosurfactants were grown in a media containing of 20% v/v corn oil with 7 days of fermentation by Rhodococcus rhodochrous. The biosurfactants reduced the surface tension of water of about 51% from 62 mN/m to 30 mN/m. The biosurfactant increased the E24 of water-palm oil emulsion of about 55% from 43% to 97% and could maintain this E24 value of above 50% for up to 9 days. Heavy metal ion removal, in this case cadmium ion, by crude and patially purified biosurfactants has been investigated from aqueous solution at pH 6. Adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 1.74 and 1.82 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by partially purified biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 0.79 and 1.34 mg/g, respectively. The results demonstrated that the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant was higher than that of by partially purified biosurfactant. The results suggested that the biosurfactant could be used in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.

  5. DIRECTION OF DEVELOPMENT FOR NATION'S PETROCHEMICAL PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Baohai

    2001-01-01

    @@ As a result of remarkable advance over the past several dozen years with continuous development of technology, rapid increase of new products, and steady expansion in production scope, China's petrochemical industry has grown into a well-established industrial system composed of more than 20 trades,providing over 40,000 kinds of product which are complete in range and generally serialized in variety.

  6. Learning about materials science and technology by deconstructing modern products

    OpenAIRE

    Horsewell, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Get the attention of young engineering students, interest and inspire them. Encourage them to think about materials science and technology by looking at the consumer products and gadgets that interest them. Analyse what modern products are constructed of, and how and why the materials and the processes have been chosen in their manufacture i.e. deconstruct modern products. Suitable items can easily be found in personal communication and entertainment, including all manner of sports goods. Fur...

  7. Where's the productivity growth (from the information technology revolution)?

    OpenAIRE

    Donald S. Allen

    1997-01-01

    Information technology has advanced rapidly in the last two or three decades, and an equivalent rapid gain in economy-wide productivity has been anticipated. Productivity statistics, however, do not support this expectation. Although productivity growth has risen since the slowdown witnessed in the 1970s, it can hardly be described as phenomenal. Donald S. Allen discusses some of the current explanations for this apparent disparity and suggests that, as the workforce catches up to the technol...

  8. An Investigation of the Medical Isotope Production Reactor technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this feasibility study is to provide technical information for the decision making on the construction of a medical isotope (MI) production reactor in Korea. This study concerns the technologies of medical isotopes production in terms of the chemical processes for the isotope recovery and purification as well as the solution fuel reactor technology. The medical isotopes under consideration are Mo-99 and Sr-89. The work includes the survey and evaluation of technologies relevant to the MIP(Medical Isotope Producer; named for a reactor facility under consideration in Korea), establishment of top-tier design requirements, and making proposals for the full verification and/or enhancement of current technologies. Because the MIP concept is based on the Russian technology with ARGUS, we focused on the investigation of the ARGUS technology as well as chemical processes developed and experimented in the Kurchatov Institute. The Mo and Sr processes are evaluated as 'proven' and 'conceptually proven' technology, respectively, while the solution reactor technology is as 'proven' in terms of design, construction, and operation. However, for implementing the technology based on the ARGUS to the MIP, which has higher power level and use lower enrichment fuel, several issues arose such as the verification of the performance of Mo process, reactor system design enhancement for accommodating defense-in-depth concept, and so on

  9. Bioconversion technologies of crude glycerol to value added industrial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Garlapati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude glycerol that is produced as the by-product from biodiesel, has to be effectively utilized to contribute to the viability of biodiesel. Crude glycerol in large amounts can pose a threat to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to convert this crude glycerol into valued added products using biotechnological processes, which brings new revenue to biodiesel producers. Crude glycerol can serve as a feedstock for biopolymers, poly unsaturated fatty acids, ethanol, hydrogen and n-butanol production and as a raw material for different value added industrial products. Hence, in this review we have presented different bioconversion technologies of glycerol to value added industrial products.

  10. Local power production at the end consumer - appropriate technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes and evaluates a selection of technologies which may be adequate for a local power production at the end consumer. Contrary to may other technology surveys it is focused on small-scale production units that also may be of interest to small consumers. For the various technologies the particular technology is described and an evaluation of the suitability to Norwegian conditions is carried out. For each technology the following is described: 1) The technology in general. 2) Construction and technology trends. 3) Environmental conditions, operation and maintenance. 4) Experiences. 5) Key facts/data. It has to be emphasised that all the technologies are in development and this report describes them as they are in 2002 except for general conditions which always will exist. It has not been possible to obtain exact facts regarding the investment costs and the costs for each produced kWhelectricity or kWhheat for many of the technologies because they are new and mass production has not yet started. In an appendix a form is presented for use in obtaining information from equipment suppliers. Later in the project there will be developed a model for calculating the profitability of such investments as well. Technologies such as small-scale wind and hydropower units are the technologies most suited for Norway in a short perspective. In the years to come it is probable that technologies which use biologic fuel/waste of some kind would be used to some extent. In a longer perspective technologies as the Stirling engine and fuel cells may be of interest. The micro gas turbines and combustion engines may be current technologies if the distribution network for natural gas is developed. For these technologies the utilisation of waste heat would approximately double the efficiency and halve the operation costs. Various external conditions will play a major part in the spreading of the local power production. The political, legal and economical external conditions

  11. Thal and technologies for fodder production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate of the study area is arid and semi-arid subtropical, characterized by high summer- temperature (1200 F) with hot dry winds, frequent dust-storms and torrential and erratic rains. Winter is mild, with cold nights having temperature 320 F. The fodder tree species in arid and semi-arid regions are a valuable resource of feeding livestock in these regions during the lean periods of both winter and summer seasons. Fodder trees are properly looked after, not only for their usefulness for fuel and furniture, etc., but good environment would improve the quality of life, along with manifold higher fodder- production for animals. Fodder trees should be lopped only when they are about two to three meters in height and branches more than 7.5 cm thick should not be lopped. Lopping of the whole tree, as usually practiced, is injurious to trees and affects their vigor. Lopping cycle should be such that we get new leaves at the desired time of the year. It is recommended that; (i) proven grass-species, like Cenchrus ciliaris, Lasiurus sindicus, Pennisetum orientale and Panicum antidotale, be introduced in Thai, (ii) the improved varieties of some fodder-crops like oats, berseem, lucerne, sorghum sudan grass hybrid and mott grass being multicut (would cover the scarcity periods) can be introduced in the irrigated areas and (iii) the trees and shrub-species, such as Acacia tortilis, Zizyphus nummularia, Acacia anura, Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica, Tacomella undulate, Zizyphus mauritiana, Calligonum polygonoides, Tamarax aphylla and Albizia lebbeck, can be propagated and promoted in Thai desert. (author)

  12. Isolation of an extremely halophilic arhaeon Natrialba sp. C21 able to degrade aromatic compounds and to produce stable biosurfactant at high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemili-Talbi, Souad; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Akmoussi-Toumi, Siham; Angar, Yassmina; Gana, Mohamed Lamine

    2015-11-01

    Natrialba sp. strain C21 was isolated from oil contaminated saline water in Ain Salah (Algeria) and has exhibited a good potential for degrading phenol (3% v/v), naphthalene (3% v/v), and pyrene (3% v/v) at high salinity with high growth, enzymatic activity and biosurfactant production. Successful metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds of the strain Natrialba sp. C21 appears to require the ortho-cleavage pathway. Indeed, assays of the key enzymes involved in the ring cleavage of catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase indicated that degradation of the phenol, naphthalene and pyrene by strain Natrialba sp. C21 was via the ortho-cleavage pathway. Cells grown on aromatic hydrocarbons displayed greater ortho-activities mainly towards catechol, while the meta-activity was very low. Besides, biosurfactants derived from the strain C21 were capable of effectively emulsifying both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and seem to be particularly promising since they have particular adaptations like the increased stability at high temperature and salinity conditions. This study clearly demonstrates for the first time that strain belonging to the genera Natrialba is able to grow at 25% (w/v) NaCl, utilizing phenol, naphthalene, and pyrene as the sole carbon sources. The results suggest that the isolated halophilic archaeon could be a good candidate for the remediation process in extreme environments polluted by aromatic hydrocarbons. Moreover, the produced biosurfactant offers a multitude of interesting potential applications in various fields of biotechnology. PMID:26334644

  13. Technological products to support the Venezuelan heavy oil development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J.; Negrin, Z.; Duran, M.; Vilera, M.; Santamaria, F. [PDVSA INTEVEP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In Venezuela, important reserves of heavy oil crude are located at the Orinoco oil belt and the challenge is to develop these fields in a safe and environmentally friendly way. To address this challenge, PDVSA Intevep has been developing cutting edge technologies for more than 30 years. The aim of this paper is to present the principal inventions of PDVSA Intevep and their application in the Venezuelan traditional areas. PDVSA Intevep is the technological development and research center of the Venezuelan national oil industry; they own 773 patents, 103 trademarks, 48 copyrights, 13 trade secrets and 35 products used in different technological areas. The technologies presented will be used in the Orinoco oil belt in support of Venezuelan technological sovereignty. PDVSA Intevep has developed and adapted many technologies aimed at putting oil resources at the service of the whole population and ending social inequalities.

  14. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  15. Innovative technologies of waste recycling with production of high performance products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, R.; Ferenets, A. V.; Azimov, Yu I.; Galeeva, A. I.; Gilmanshina, S. I.

    2015-06-01

    The innovative ways of recycling wastes as a tool for sustainable development are presented in the article. The technology of the production of a composite material based on the rubber fiber composite waste tire industry is presented. The results of experimental use of the products in the real conditions. The comparative characteristics of the composite material rubber fiber composite are given. The production technology of construction and repairing materials on the basis of foamed glass is presented.

  16. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This FY 2011 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  17. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-01-08

    This FY 2015 report updates the results of an effort to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 to 5 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from U.S. Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Office in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  18. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-02-01

    This FY 2014 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  19. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-04-30

    This FY 2013 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  20. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This FY 2012 report updates the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  1. Sensoric assessment of the durable meat product depending on the production technology.

    OpenAIRE

    TÁBOR, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with sensoric analysis of the selected types of durable meat products depending on the production technology. By sensoric assessment and subsequent statistic analysis, this diploma thesis pursues to compare fermented durable meat products, made without added starting cultures, with fermented durable meat products, made with added starting cultures, and to determine which of these kinds of products are preferred by the evaluators as well as the consumers. The theoreti...

  2. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  3. Technology benefits associated with Accelerator Production of Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) offers a clean, safe, and reliable means of producing the tritium needed to maintain the nuclear deterrent. Tritium decays away naturally at a rate of ∼5.5%/yr; therefore, the tritium reservoirs in nuclear weapons must be periodically replenished. In recent years this has been accomplished by recycling tritium from weapons being retired from the stockpile. Although this strategy has served well since the last US tritium production reactor was shut down in 1988, a new tritium production capability will be required within 10 yr. Important technology benefits will result from direct utilization of some of the APT proton beam; others could result from advances in the technologies of particle accelerators and high-power spallation targets. These technology benefits are briefly discussed here

  4. Technological progress and productivity in the Quinoa sector

    OpenAIRE

    Birbuet, Juan Cristóbal; Machicado, Carlos Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this case study is to analyze the effect that a significant technological innovation in quinoa processing has had on the productivity of companies devoted to this activity and the impact of such an innovation on the growth and organization of the quinoa cluster in Bolivia, and its possible effects on the future. The study will explain how the boost engendered by technological innovation in quinoa processing has triggered a series of events that have allowed the establish...

  5. Competing with New Product Technologies: A Process Model of Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Shobha S.; Andrew H. Van de Ven

    2000-01-01

    This paper draws upon research in the economics of technical change and in the social construction of technology to develop and test a process model of strategy. We conducted a longitudinal study of leading firms that were sponsoring new and competing product technologies in two industries: the videoplayer industry and the medical diagnostic imaging industry. We built original datasets on the actions of these firms, and then empirically examined the strategy process. Our findings indicate tha...

  6. Microbial electrolysis cells as innovative technology for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen production is becoming increasingly important in view of using hydrogen in fuel cells. However, most of the production of hydrogen so far comes from the combustion of fossil fuels and water electrolysis. Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC), also known as Bioelectrochemically Assisted Microbial Reactor, is an ecologically clean, renewable and innovative technology for hydrogen production. Microbial electrolysis cells produce hydrogen mainly from waste biomass assisted by various bacteria strains. The principle of MECs and their constructional elements are reviewed and discussed. Keywords: microbial Electrolysis Cells, hydrogen production, waste biomass purification

  7. Evaluating Banking Productivity and Information Technology Using the Translog Production Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madueme Ifeoma Stella

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This empirical study tried to assess the impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT on the productivity of the Nigerian banking sector. Impact on Productivity was conceptualized as ability to make positive contributions to output after deductions for depreciation and labour expenses has been made. The Trancendental Logarithimic Production function and the CAMEL rating were used for the study. Results showed that bank output such as loans and other assets increased significantly to changes in expenditure on information communication technology. Information communication technology labour expenses impacted more on bank output more than capital expenditure on ICT gadgets. The recommendation centered on the need to increase investments in information technology in order to increase productivity of banks. This is based on the purview that increased productivity in many instances leads to improved operational efficiency and profitability which are the laudable goals of any banking establishment.

  8. Biodegradation of diesel oil by a novel microbial consortium: comparison between co-inoculation with biosurfactant-producing strain and exogenously added biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Mnif, Sami; Sahnoun, Rihab; Maktouf, Sameh; Ayedi, Younes; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-10-01

    Bioremediation, involving the use of microorganisms to detoxify or remove pollutants, is the most interesting strategy for hydrocarbon remediation. In this aim, four hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from oil-contaminated soil in Tunisia. They were identified by the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, as Lysinibacillus bronitolerans RI18 (KF964487), Bacillus thuringiensis RI16 (KM111604), Bacillus weihenstephanensis RI12 (KM094930), and Acinetobacter radioresistens RI7 (KJ829530). Moreover, a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis SPB1, confirmed to increase diesel solubility, was tested to increase diesel biodegradation along with co-inoculation with two biosurfactant-producing strains. Culture studies revealed the enhancement of diesel biodegradation by the selected consortium with the addition of SPB1 lipopeptide and in the cases of co-inoculation by biosurfactant-producing strain. In fact, an improvement of about 38.42 and 49.65 % of diesel degradation was registered in the presence of 0.1 % lipopeptide biosurfactant and when culturing B. subtilis SPB1 strain with the isolated consortium, respectively. Furthermore, the best improvement, evaluated to about 55.4 %, was recorded when using the consortium cultured with B. subtilis SPB1 and A. radioresistens RI7 strains. Gas chromatography analyses were correlated with the gravimetric evaluation of the residual hydrocarbons. Results suggested the potential applicability of the selected consortium along with the ex situ- and in situ-added biosurfactant for the effective bioremediation of diesel-contaminated water and soil. PMID:25994261

  9. Cookies from composite wheat-sesame peels flours: dough quality and effect of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Raida; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-03-01

    Sesame coat is a valuable by-product. The study was carried out on sesame peels flour at different replacing levels of white wheat flour in five cookies dough formulations. The functional properties of composite flours such as swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foam capacity, gelatinization temperature, least gelation concentration and bulk density were increased with increase in the sesame peels flour incorporation along with wheat flour. Texture analysis of dough revealed that, the addition of sesame peels flour affected the quality of dough in terms of hardness, cohesion, adhesion and breaking strength. Cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour showed interesting physical properties with lower moisture content and higher spread factor than those made by white wheat flour. But, their hardness increase with the increase of the replacement ratio and their color becomes indesirable. Interestingly, sensory results indicated that cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour were acceptable at a level that not exceeds 30% of incorporation. By the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant at 0.1%, the dough texture profile was significantly improved and the action of this bioemulsifier was more pronounced than a commercial emulsifier known as glycerol monostearate. With the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant on cookies' dough, we manage to obtain cookies softer and with better overall quality. PMID:26471616

  10. Characterization of new types of mannosylerythritol lipids as biosurfactants produced from soybean oil by a basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma shanxiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. These show not only the excellent surface-active properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In course of MEL production from soybean oil by P. shanxiensis, new extracellular glycolipids (more hydrophilic than the previously reported MELs) were found in the culture medium. As a result of the structural characterization, the glycolipids were identified as a mixture of 4-O-[(2', 4'-di-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol and 4-O-[(4'-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl-2'-O-butanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol. Interestingly, the new MELs possessed a much shorter chain (C(2) or C(4)) at the C-2' position of the mannose moiety compared to the MELs hitherto reported, which mainly possess a medium-chain acid (C(10)) at the position. They would thus show higher hydrophilicity and/or water-solubility, and expand the development of the environmentally advanced yeast biosurfactants. PMID:17898510

  11. Manufacturing technology: a changing challenge to improved productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-03

    This is GAO's study of how the U.S. compares to other nations in applying modern manufacturing technology by discrete parts, batch process manufacturers. These manufacturers constitute over 35 percent of the manufacturing firms in the U.S. and they manufacture most of the items procured by the Federal government. There are sufficient indications that the private sector is having difficulty maintaining its productivity in dealing with rapid changes in manufacturing technology. Moreover, the Federal government is the largest single purchaser of manufactured goods and if technology and productivity falter then the cost of these goods will increase accordingly. It appears that foreign competitors have an advantage of being able to exploit, develop, and diffuse manufacturing technology faster than the U.S. The U.S. will need to take a positive stance to improve its own diffusion of manufacturing technology so as to enhance productivity and remain competitive, it is observed in the report. GAO concludes that the U.S. needs to make manufacturing productivity a national priority to remain internationally competitive and to maintain strong industries. Although the study focuses primarily on discrete parts, batch-processing industries engaged in various forms of metal working, principally metal cutting, the principles, problems, and potential for improved growth through computer-integrated manufacturing apply equally to other areas of manufacturing, such as plastics, glass, and metal forming. The opportunities for improved productivity through automation in the service sector of the economy are great. Computer-integrated manufacturing is already taking place. Factors other than technology, investment capital, employee-management attitudes and relationships, institutional characteristics, monetary policy, raw material endowment, are interwoven to make up a nation's productivity. (MCW)

  12. Isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Richard W; Huynh, Kelvin V; Hoang, Timothy V; Crowley, David E

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to identify culturable surfactant-producing bacterial species that inhabit the 40,000-year-old natural asphalt seep at the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA. Using phenanthrene, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and tryptic soy broth as growth substrates, culturable bacteria from the tar pits yielded ten isolates, of which three species of gamma-proteobacteria produced biosurfactants that accumulated in spent culture medium. Partially purified biosurfactants produced by these strains lowered the surface tension of water from 70 to 35-55 mN/m and two of the biosurfactants produced 'dark halos' with the atomized oil assay, a phenomenon previously observed only with synthetic surfactants. Key findings include the isolation of culturable biosurfactant-producing bacteria that comprise a relatively small fraction of the petroleum-degrading community in the asphalt. PMID:22851192

  13. Wastewater treatment enhancement by applying a lipopeptide biosurfactant to a lignocellulosic biocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ameneiro, M; Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2015-10-20

    In this work, a natural lipopeptide biosurfactant obtained from corn steep liquor was included in the formulation of a lignocellulosic biocomposite used for the treatment of wastewater. The results obtained indicate that the dye sorption capacity of the hydrogel containing hydrolysed vineyard pruning waste can be significantly promoted via surfactant modification using natural detergents. The elimination of dye compounds and the removal of sulphates were increased around 10% and 62%, respectively, when the biocomposite modified with biosurfactant was used. This outcome can be intrinsically related to the rougher, rounder, more compact and better-emulsified sphere achieved after the addition of the lipopeptide biosurfactant. The bioadsorption process followed a pseudo-second order kinetic model and both intraparticle diffusion and liquid film diffusion were involved in the bioadsorption mechanism. Therefore, the utilisation of biosurfactants shows great potential in the formulation of eco-friendly adsorbents for environmental application. PMID:26256175

  14. Adoption of Improved Cotton Production Technologies in Katsina State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Adeniji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The research broadly aims at providing information on the technology adoption behaviour of cotton farmers in Katsina State of Nigeria., The study was conducted in 2001 farming season in the Sudan savanna ecological zone where Samcot 8, 9, 10 and other production packages have been introduced to farmers. The sample consisted of 250 farmers selected from Funtua, Daudawa and Malumfashi, in Katsina State. The results indicated a high rate of awareness in the zone. The main sources of information were extension agents and the use of radio. The rate of adoption of improved practice was 78%. The results showed that most sampled farmers were not aware of the complete set of technologies studied. Among the technologies, farmer’s awareness of herbicides was least (15% while the use of fertilizer recorded (85%. The major reasons for non adoption of improved technologies were inadequate knowledge and non-availability of these technologies.

  15. Innovative applications of technology for nuclear power plant productivity improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, and new requirements and commitments. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the goal to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New plants are expected to perform more productively than current plants. In order to achieve and increase high productivity, it is necessary to look at innovative applications of modern technologies and new concepts of operation. The Electric Power Research Inst. is exploring and demonstrating modern technologies that enable cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and shifts to even higher performance levels, as well as provide tools for high performance in new plants. Several modern technologies being explored can provide multiple benefits for a wide range of applications. Examples of these technologies include simulation, visualization, automation, human cognitive engineering, and information and communications technologies. Some applications using modern technologies are described. (authors)

  16. Biohydrogen Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Technology and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the various renewable energy sources, biohydrogen is gaining a lot of traction as it has very high efficiency of conversion to usable power with less pollutant generation. The various technologies available for the production of biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass such as direct biophotolysis, indirect biophotolysis, photo, and dark fermentations have some drawbacks (e.g., low yield and slower production rate, etc., which limits their practical application. Among these, metabolic engineering is presently the most promising for the production of biohydrogen as it overcomes most of the limitations in other technologies. Microbial electrolysis is another recent technology that is progressing very rapidly. However, it is the dark fermentation approach, followed by photo fermentation, which seem closer to commercialization. Biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass is particularly suitable for relatively small and decentralized systems and it can be considered as an important sustainable and renewable energy source. The comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA of biohydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass and its comparison with other biofuels can be a tool for policy decisions. In this paper, we discuss the various possible approaches for producing biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass which is an globally available abundant resource. The main technological challenges are discussed in detail, followed by potential solutions.

  17. Hydrocarbon assimilation and biosurfactant production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, A K; Käppeli, O; Fiechter, A; Reiser, J.

    1991-01-01

    We isolated transposon Tn5-GM-induced mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG201 that were unable to grow in minimal media containing hexadecane as a carbon source. Some of these mutants lacked extracellular rhamnolipids, as shown by measuring the surface and interfacial tensions of the cell culture supernatants. Furthermore, the concentrated culture media of the mutant strains were tested for the presence of rhamnolipids by thin-layer chromatography and for rhamnolipid activities, including hem...

  18. Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Industrial production in high-wage countries like Germany is still at risk. Yet, there are many counter-examples in which producing companies dominate their competitors by not only compensating for their specific disadvantages in terms of factor costs (e.g. wages, energy, duties and taxes) but rather by minimising waste using synchronising integrativity as well as by obtaining superior adaptivity on alternating conditions. In order to respond to the issue of economic sustainability of industrial production in high-wage countries, the leading production engineering and material research scientists of RWTH Aachen University together with renowned companies have established the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”. This compendium comprises the cluster’s scientific results as well as a selection of business and technology cases, in which these results have been successfully implemented into industrial practice in close cooperation with more than 30 companies of ...

  19. Rhamnolipid (biosurfactant) effects on cell aggregation and biodegradation of residual hexadecane under saturated flow conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, D C; Y. Zhang; Miller, R M

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of low concentrations of a rhamnolipid biosurfactant on the in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbon entrapped in a porous matrix. Experiments were performed with sand-packed columns under saturated flow conditions with hexadecane as a model hydrocarbon. Application of biosurfactant concentrations greater than the CMC (the concentration at which the surfactant molecules spontaneously form micelles or vesicles [0.03 mM]) resulted primarily...

  20. Isolation and partial characterization of a biosurfactant produced by streptococcus thermophilus A

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, L. R.; Teixeira, J.A.; Mei, Henny van der; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of the surface active components from the crude biosurfactant produced by Streptococcus thermophilus A was studied. A fraction rich in glycolipids was obtained by the fractionation of crude biosurfactant using hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Molecular (by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and elemental compositions (by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) were determined. Critical micelle concentration achieved was 20 g/l, allowing for a surfac...

  1. Reducing COD level on oily effluent by utilizing biosurfactant-producing bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Franco Carvalho Jacobucci; Maria Raquel de Godoy Oriani; Lucia Regina Durrant

    2009-01-01

    Two bacteria isolated from crude oil contaminated soil, Pantoea agglomerans and Planococcus citreus, produced biosurfactants utilizing 1.5% of kerosene and olive oil as the sole carbon sources, respectively. The bacteria and the biosurfactants produced were introduced to oily effluent, arising from margarine and soap industry. Emulsification activities were determined by increases in the absorbance of the oil-in-water emulsions at 610 nm, whereas the water-in-oil emulsions were expressed as t...

  2. Biosurfactants from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BU03 enhance the solubility and biodegradation of phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyong; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2009-03-01

    A thermophilic bacterial strain, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus BU03, with a biosurfactant-producing capability, was isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil with an improved procedure which employed the solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e. naphthalene in agar plate, as a selection criterion. Crude biosurfactant was recovered from the culture of BU03 by extraction with n-hexane, and its properties were investigated. Biosurfactants from A. calcoaceticus BU03 constitute a thermo-stable mixture, composed of different agents with surface activities. At their critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 152.4 mg L(-1), the crude biosurfactants produced from A. calcoaceticus BU03 decreased the air-water surface tension to 38.4 mN m(-1). In thermophilic conditions, the emulsifying activity is 2.8 times that of Tween 80. The effects of the biosurfactants produced by A. calcoaceticus on the solubility and biodegradation of PAHs were investigated in batch systems. Biosurfactants produced by A. calcoaceticus BU03 at 25 times their CMC significantly increased the apparent aqueous solubility of phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR) and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) to 54.3, 6.33 and 2.08 mg L(-1), respectively. In aqueous system, the biosurfactants at concentrations of 0.5 CMC and 1 CMC slightly enhanced the biodegradation of PHE by a consortium of PAH-degrading microrganisms. Results indicate that biosurfactants from A. calcoaceticus BU03 have potential to enhance the removal of PAHs from contaminated sites. PMID:19438062

  3. Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria From Oily Skin Areas of Small Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Azizollah Ebrahimi; Najmeh Tashi; Sharareh Lotfalian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Biosurfactants or microbial surfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by a variety of microorganisms. They are a structurally diverse group of surface-active molecules and are highly sought after biomolecules for both present and future applications.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify biosurfactant producing bacteria from the ear canal and inguinal areas (oily skin areas) of dogs and cats.Materials and Methods: Eighty inguinal a...

  4. Role of a waste-derived polymeric biosurfactant in the sol-gel synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Perrone, Daniele G.; Magnacca, Giuliana;

    2014-01-01

    area in the synthesized oxide, whereas TEM and XRD data indicate that particle size decreases by increasing biosurfactant amount. These results suggest that biosurfactant molecules play a role in the nucleation step, during the formation of the titanium dioxide particles. The biosurfactant amount in...... the synthesis mixture affects also the hydrophilicity of the titanium dioxide surface, as demonstrated by water-adsorption microcalorimetry measurements, but the results suggest that this aspect is also connected to crystal nucleation and growth during the oxide formation....

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL REFINEMENT OF GRAIN CROP PRODUCTION INVOLVING MACHINERY APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslov G. G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been suggested the courses of the machine technologies refinement in the process of spiked cereals production. The course of their technical update was studied in our previous article. There were analyzed the drawbacks of the modern machine production of crops and we presented the course of their elimination due to the technology optimization, resource and energy preservation, machine technologies of soil improvement and new innovative technological solutions. The suggested technology optimization was designed taking into account rigorous alternation of crops in the rotation, optimizing of breeds and crossbreeds, application of intermediate crops simultaneously with harvesting the previous crop, introducing progressive methods of chemical treatment and synchronous tillage. The resource and energy preservation is based on the combination of technological operations coinciding with the tasks in agricultural terms during a single machinery pass across the field, application of the mobile power unit (UPU-450, low- and ultralow capacity spraying, optimization of choice of certain agrimethods in the process of crop production and the resource calculation of estimated crop yield. In the set of soil improvement courses we have studied the mechanization of the restoration processes of natural soil formation, defecate introduction, the use of stubbly remains, compulsory presence of permanent grasses in crop rotation. New innovative solutions in the crop production technologies include the refinement of the mechanization facilities in tillage, spraying, new methods of crop harvesting (unwinnowed bread, root tow, cleaning of thrashed heap after the harvesting, etc. We have analyzed the ways of mechanization of “organic farming” and seed treatment with biologic mixtures

  6. Production Technologies And Exchange Relations In International Industrial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hallén, L; Johanson, J.; Seyed Mohamed, N

    1986-01-01

    Based on interviews with marketers in British, German, and Swedish industrial firms, 237 relationships to customers are investigated with regard to the latent factors adaptation and contact intensity. A Lisrel model is developed, which shows that these factors are present in the total material as well as in two of the three specified technological categories, i.e. in relationships to customers with unit and mass production but not in relationships to customers with process production. Further...

  7. Process intensification technologies for biodiesel production reactive separation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, A A

    2014-01-01

    This book is among the first to address the novel process intensification technologies for biodiesel production, in particular the integrated reactive separations. It provides a comprehensive overview illustrated with many industrially relevant examples of novel reactive separation processes used in the production of biodiesel (e.g. fatty acid alkyl esters): reactive distillation, reactive absorption, reactive extraction, membrane reactors, and centrifugal contact separators. Readers will also learn about the working principles, design and control of integrated processes, while also getting a

  8. Biohydrogen Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Technology and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop Singh; Surajbhan Sevda; Ibrahim M. Abu Reesh; Karolien Vanbroekhoven; Dheeraj Rathore; Deepak Pant

    2015-01-01

    Among the various renewable energy sources, biohydrogen is gaining a lot of traction as it has very high efficiency of conversion to usable power with less pollutant generation. The various technologies available for the production of biohydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass such as direct biophotolysis, indirect biophotolysis, photo, and dark fermentations have some drawbacks (e.g., low yield and slower production rate, etc.), which limits their practical application. Among these, metabolic ...

  9. Technology Diffusion and Productivity Growth in Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Skinner; Douglas Staiger

    2009-01-01

    Inefficiency in the U.S. health care system has often been characterized as "flat of the curve" spending providing little or no incremental value. In this paper, we draw on macroeconomic models of diffusion and productivity to better explain the empirical patterns of outcome improvements in heart attacks (acute myocardial infarction). In these models, small differences in the propensity to adopt technology can lead to wide and persistent productivity differences across countries -- or in our ...

  10. Role of technological service in the production of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles are summed up of quality assurance in concrete production and of technology services operations. Compression strength is the basic concrete property being monitored. Regular assessment of cube strength can be computer-aided. One test is performed per 100 m3 of production. Also concrete strength in structures is determined, this either using bodies removed from the structures or using nondestructive tests. (M.D.). 3 refs

  11. Screening of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qinhong; Zhang, Baiyu; Chen, Bing; Song, Xing; Zhu, Zhiwen; Cao, Tong

    2015-05-01

    From offshore oil and gas platforms in North Atlantic Canada, crude oil, formation water, drilling mud, treated produced water and seawater samples were collected for screening potential biosurfactant producers. In total, 59 biosurfactant producers belong to 4 genera, namely, Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Halomonas, and Pseudomonas were identified and characterized. Phytogenetic trees based on 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (16S rDNA) were constructed with isolated strains plus their closely related strains and isolated strains with biosurfactant producers in the literature, respectively. The distributions of the isolates were site and medium specific. The richness, diversity, and evenness of biosurfactant producer communities in oil and gas platform samples have been analyzed. Diverse isolates were found with featured properties such as effective reduction of surface tension, producing biosurfactants at high rate and stabilization of water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. The producers and their corresponding biosurfactants had promising potential in applications such as offshore oil spill control, enhancing oil recovery and soil washing treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. PMID:25903403

  12. Biosurfactant-producing strains in enhancing solubilization and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Wang, Hang; Chen, Xuehua; Liu, Na; Bao, Suriguge

    2014-07-01

    Three biosurfactant-producing strains designated as BS-1, BS-3, and BS-4 were screened out from crude oil-contaminated soil using a combination of surface tension measurement and oil spreading method. Thin layer chromatography and infrared analysis indicated that the biosurfactants produced by the three strains were lipopeptide, glycolipid, and phospholipid. The enhancement of solubilization and biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater employing biosurfactant-producing strains was investigated. The three strain mixtures led to more solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater, and the solubilization rate was 10.5 mg l−1. The combination of biosurfactant-producing strains and petroleum-degrading strains exhibited a higher biodegradation efficiency of 85.4 % than the petroleum-degrading strains (71.2 %). Biodegradation was enhanced the greatest with biosurfactant-producing strains and petroleum-degrading strains in a ratio of 1:1. Fluorescence microscopy images illustrate that the oil dispersed into smaller droplets and emulsified in the presence of biosurfactant-producing strains, which attached to the oil. Thus, the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater was enhanced. PMID:24659382

  13. Characterization of biosurfactants from indigenous soil bacteria recovered from oil contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Govind; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Anita

    2015-09-01

    Three bacterial isolates (G1, G2 and G3) characterized as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Lysinibacillus fusiformis and Bacillus safensis were recovered from contaminated soil of oil refinery. These bacterial isolates produced biosurfactants in MSM medium in stationary phase. Biosurfactants were characterized on the basis of their emulsifying properties with petrol, diesel, mobil oil and petrol engine oil. Reduction in surface tension (below 40 mN m(-1)) and blood hemolysis were also included in biosurfactants characterization. Emulsification indices of G1, G2 and G3 were in the range of 98.82, 23.53 and 58.82 for petrol; 29.411,1.05 and 70.588 for diesel; 35.31, 2.93 and 17.60 for mobil oil and 35.284, 58.82 and 17.647 for petrol engine oil respectively. Dry weight of the extracted biosurfactant was 4.6, 1.4 and 2.4 g I(-1) for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. Structural analysis of the biosurfactants by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed significant differences in the bonding pattern of individual biosurfactant. PMID:26521551

  14. Partial characterization of biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and comparison with sodium dodecyl sulphate for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, A B; Paradelo, R; Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Gudiña, E; Rodrigues, L; Teixeira, J A; Domínguez, J M; Barral, M T

    2013-01-01

    The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-). The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage), as well as CH2-CH3 and C-O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg(-1) of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment. PMID:23691515

  15. PRODUCTIVE EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING FOREGN LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Vladimirovna Sannikova

    2013-01-01

    This article is devoted to looking for productive educational technologies in learning a foreign language and culture with the use of ICT-based on the student-centered strategy that implements the method of projects.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-47

  16. Identification of an educational production function for diverse technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclung, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Production function analysis used to estimate the cost effectiveness of three alternative technologies in higher education: traditional instruction, instructional television, and computer-assisted instruction is presented. Criteria and selection of a functional form are outlined and a general discussion of variable selection and measurement is presented.

  17. Production of Liquid Biofuels from Biomass: Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is an overview of the emerging technologies that have been developed recently or are in the process of development for ethanol (biofuel) production from agricultural residues. In this direction numerous advances have been made. Problems associated with inhibitor generation and detoxification,...

  18. Technological capabilities, institutions and firm productivity: a multilevel study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goedhuys, M.; Srholec, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2015), s. 122-139. ISSN 0957-8811 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/10/2310 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : productivity * innovation * technological capability Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.851, year: 2014

  19. Membrane technology in production of biofuels : tried-and-tested technology improves new biofuel processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-15

    Membrane filtration technology, long used in many industrial process streams, is now being adopted in biofuels production and integrated biorefineries, particularly in second generation cellulosic ethanol processes. Second-generation bio-ethanol processes seek to optimize fuel recovery and secondary products from the feedstock and obtain a better value fuel. Membranes are being used to improve bioprocesses, lower energy costs, and increase product recovery. Membranes are engineered physical barriers used in processes for liquid/liquid and liquid/solid separation, permitting the passage of materials only up to a certain size, shape, or character. In biodiesel processes, membranes are being increasingly used to facilitate water reuse. The technology is being explored for use in the production of organic acids, which can form the base for biodegradable plastics. Integrated biorefineries are using microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis. Membranes are being used in fermentation with mesophilic and thermophilic organisms to produce biofuels and organic and amino acids. Membrane technology is low cost relative to using evaporators for recovering or removing water, and it is promising for continuous fermentation, as it helps retain microbial biomass in the fermenter while allowing liquid to be drawn out continuously. Membrane technology developed for use at wastewater treatment plants is being applied in biodiesel production, which produces wash water that is high in contaminants. Membrane technology is part of a wave of biofuel research and demonstration plants.

  20. Productivity of irrigation technologies in the White Volta basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, E. A.; van der Zaag, P.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Odai, S. N.

    Parts of the White Volta basin in northern Ghana and southern Burkina Faso have witnessed a spectacular rise of irrigated agriculture since about 2000, largely without government support, and seems to have been triggered by a strong and growing demand for vegetables, notably tomatoes in the urban centres of southern Ghana. It is interesting to note the variety of different irrigation technologies that individual and groups of smallholder farmers adopted, adapted and implemented. Some technologies are well-known, such as those associated with conventional sources of water like small and large reservoirs; others have been rarely described in literature, such as temporal shallow wells and alluvial dugouts. This paper describes and characterises these different irrigation technologies and conducts a comparative analysis of their productivities, in terms of crop yield, water use and financial returns. The study was conducted in three neighbouring and transboundary watersheds (Anayari, Atankwidi and Yarigatanga) located in the Upper East Region of Ghana and southern Burkina Faso. For the study, 90 tomato farmers with different irrigation technologies were surveyed during one crop season (2007/2008). The results show that adequate fertilizer application is the major contributor to irrigation productivity. Technologies characterised by relatively small farm sizes are better managed by the surveyed farmers because they are able to provide adequate water and crop nutrients thus resulting in higher productivity, and high profit margins. Apart from technologies that depend on reservoirs, all other technologies surveyed in the paper are farmer driven and required no government support. This ongoing type of endogenous irrigation development provides a strong backing that the way forward in sub-Saharan Africa is for governments to create policies that facilitate poor farmers becoming irrigation entrepreneurs. Such policies should aim to enhance the reliability of markets (both

  1. Innovation in Feed Technology for Self Sufficiency in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is self sufficient in poultry production to meet the local demand for broiler and egg, mainly derived from modern poultry rather than the local village chicken. Feed may contribute up to 70% of total cost of poultry production. Poultry feed is formulated using least cost feed formulation technique to meet the bird requirement and composed by several ingredients both locally available and imported materials. Feed ingredients are classified based on energy sources, protein sources, agro-industrial by products, mineral sources and supplements. In many cases the poultry feed was supplemented with additives (antibiotics, enzymes, preservatives, etc. to improve animal performance. In 2005, Indonesian feed production reached almost 7 million tonnes and comprised around 85% as poultry feed, while the rest for aquaculture, swine and others. Poultry feed is based on corn-soy diet and average corn usage may reach more than 55% while soybean meal more than 23%. Ingredients requirement has been calculated based on the feed production and in order to fulfill the requirement. In 2006, Indonesia will import more than 1.6 million tonnes of corn from Argentina, USA and China, and more than 1.5 million tonnes of protein meal due to insufficiency of the local production. Major problems related in feed production are raw materials supply, quality and price fluctuation along with limited information. Several research have been conducted to use unconventional ingredients as protein sources such as local beans, leguminous seeds, leaf protein, animal by products but they were limited in availability. Research to improve protein level from carbohydrate source or by products had been attempted but it was not feasible for commercial feed industry. In future, technology innovation should be developed based on the existing problems related with feed industry including the areas to improve production efficiency, managing feed quality, processing technology and feed

  2. Development of interface technology for nuclear hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These works focus on the development of attainment indices for nuclear hydrogen key technologies, the analysis of the hydrogen production process and the performance estimation for hydrogen production systems, and the assessment of the nuclear hydrogen production economy. The codes for analyzing the hydrogen production economy are developed for calculating the unit production cost of nuclear hydrogen. We developed basic R and D quality management methodology to meet design technology of VHTR's needs. By putting it in practice, we derived some problems and solutions. We distributed R and D QAP and Q and D QAM to each teams and these are in operation. Computer simulations are performed for estimating the thermal efficiency for the electrodialysis component likely to adapting as one of the hydrogen production system in Korea and EED-SI process known as the key components of the hydrogen production systems. Using the commercial codes, the process diagrams and the spread-sheets were produced for the Bunsen reaction process, Sulphuric Acid dissolution process and HI dissolution process, respectively, which are the key components composing of the SI process

  3. Supply chain production model with preservation technology under fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to characterize the preservation technology for deteriorating items to reduce the deterioration rate. This model assumes a single producer and single supplier and formulates a production model with a time varying rate of deterioration rate. Here production and demand are treated as a fuzzy variables and total cost is minimized for both the crisp and fuzzy model. Shortage is allowed on the supplier’s part, which is partially backlogged. A solution procedure is presented to determine an optimal replenishment cycle and total cost per unit time, which is a convex function of preservation technology cost. Results have been validated with relevant example. In a way, the proposed model provides a unique theory to reduce the deterioration rate for the production model.

  4. A Critical Review on Superchilling Preservation Technology in Aquatic Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chun-hua; YUan Chun-hong; YE Xing-qian; HU Ya-qin; CHEn Shi-guo; and LiU Dong-hong

    2014-01-01

    aquatic product, known as one of the good resources for white meat, has been widely accepted by the consumers due to its high protein, low fat, especially low cholesterol. With the fast development of living standards around the world, the consumer demands for high quality, nutrition, safety and freshness of ifshery food are increasing. Thus, high efifcient preservation technologies for aquatic products become particularly important. Superchilling is one of the controlled-temperature preservation technologies for seafood. Aquatic products can be kept in better quality under superchilling conditions. This review introduced the principle and development of superchilling process, mainly focusing on research progresses and technical dififculties of superchilling. The growth mechanism of ice crystals and the feasibility of application of computational lfuid dynamics in analyzing the temperatures variation and ice crystals during superchilling progress were also discussed, which will provide theoretical foundation for its improvement and application.

  5. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  6. Wood chip production technology and costs for fuel in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.

    2007-12-15

    This work has been done in the project where the main target is to evaluate the technology and economy to use bush biomass for power production in Namibia. The project has been financed by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland and the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry of the Republic of Namibia. The target of this study is to calculate the production costs of bush chips at the power plant using the current production technology and to look possibilities to develop production technology in order to mechanize production technology and to decrease the production costs. The wood production costs are used in feasibility studies, in which the technology and economy of utilization of wood chips for power generation in 5, 10 and 20 MW electric power plants and for power generation in Van Eck coal fired power plant in Windhoek are evaluated. Field tests were made at Cheetah Conservation Farm (CCF) in Otjiwarongo region. CCF is producing wood chips for briquette factory in Otjiwarongo. In the field tests it has been gathered information about this CCF semi-mechanized wood chip production technology. Also new machines for bush biomass chip production have been tested. A new mechanized production chain has been designed on the basis of this information. The production costs for the CCF semi-mechanized and the new production chain have been calculated. The target in the moisture content to produce wood chips for energy is 20 w-%. In the semi-mechanized wood chip production chain the work is done partly manually, and the supply chain is organized into crews of 4.8 men. The production chain consists of manual felling and compiling, drying, chipping with mobile chipper and manual feeding and road transport by a tractor with two trailers. The CCF production chain works well. The chipping and road transport productivity in the semimechanized production chain is low. New production machines, such as chainsaw, brush cutter, lawn mover type cutter, rotator saw in skid

  7. Learning about materials science and technology by deconstructing modern products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy

    processes have been chosen in their manufacture i.e. deconstruct modern products. Suitable items can easily be found in personal communication and entertainment, including all manner of sports goods. Further, the current pace of materials product development ensures that using these objects to focus......Get the attention of young engineering students, interest and inspire them. Encourage them to think about materials science and technology by looking at the consumer products and gadgets that interest them. Analyse what modern products are constructed of, and how and why the materials and the...... teaching encourages and demands constant modernisation of the course and the materials being presented. A consideration of material and process selection for components in a modern product can be a dynamic starting point for a course on materials science and engineering; providing inspiration and showing...

  8. Assessment of the magnesium primary production technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flemings, M.C.; Kenney, G.B.; Sadoway, D.R.; Clark, J.P.; Szekely, J.

    1981-02-01

    At current production levels, direct energy savings achievable in primary magnesium production are 1.2 milliquads of energy per annum. Were magnesium to penetrate the automotive market to an average level of 50 pounds per vehicle, the resultant energy savings at the production stage would be somewhat larger, but the resulting savings in gasoline would conserve an estimated 325 milliquads of energy per year. The principal barrier to more widespread use of magnesium in the immediate future is its price. A price reduction of magnesium of 10% would lead to widespread conversion of aluminum die and permanent mold castings to magnesium. This report addresses the technology of electrolytic and thermic magnesium production and the economics of expanded magnesium production and use.

  9. Digital Linear Tape (DLT) technology and product family overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignos, Demetrios

    1994-01-01

    The demand that began a couple of years ago for increased data storage capacity continues. Peripheral Strategies (a Santa Barbara, California, Storage Market Research Firm) projects the amount of data stored on the average enterprise network will grow by 50 percent to 100 percent per year. Furthermore, Peripheral Strategies says that a typical mid-range workstation system containing 30GB to 50GB of storage today will grow at the rate of 50 percent per year. Dan Friedlander, a Boulder, Colorado-based consultant specializing in PC-LAN backup, says, 'The average NetWare LAN is about 8GB, but there are many that have 30GB to 300GB.....' The substantial growth of storage requirements has created various tape technologies that seek to satisfy the needs of today's and, especially, the next generations's systems and applications. There are five leading tape technologies in the market today: QIC (Quarter Inch Cartridge), IBM 3480/90, 8mm, DAT (Digital Audio Tape) and DLT (Digital Linear Tape). Product performance specifications and user needs have combined to classify these technologies into low-end, mid-range, and high-end systems applications. Although the manufacturers may try to position their products differently, product specifications and market requirements have determined that QIC and DAT are primarily low-end systems products while 8mm and DLT are competing for mid-range systems applications and the high-end systems space, where IBM compatibility is not required. The 3480/90 products seem to be used primarily in the IBM market, for interchangeability purposes. There are advantages and disadvantages for each of the tape technologies in the market today. We believe that DLT technology offers a significant number of very important features and specifications that make it extremely attractive for most current as well as emerging new applications, such as Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM). This paper will demonstrate why we think that the DLT technology and family

  10. Identification of Pseudozyma graminicola CBS 10092 as a producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Masaru; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    A basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma graminicola CBS 10092, was found to accumulate a large amount of glycolipids in the cultured medium when grown on soybean oil as the sole carbon source. Based on thin layer chromatography, the extracellular glycolipids gave spots corresponding to those of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are highly functional and promising biosurfactants. From the structural characterization by 1H and 13C NMR, the main product was identified as 4-O-[(4'-mono-O-acetyl-2', 3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, which is a highly hydrophilic derivative of MELs known as MEL-C. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the main product, MEL-C, comprised approximately 85% of all the MELs, and the total amount reached approximately 10 g/L for 7 days. The fatty acids of the present MEL-C consisted of mainly C6, C8 and C14 acids, considerably different from those of MEL-C produced by other Pseudozyma strains such as P. antarctica and P. shanxiensis. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface-tension at CMC of the MEL-C were 4.0 x 10(-6) M and 24.2 mN/m, respectively, while those of MEL-A, the most intensively studied MEL, were 2.7 x 10(-6) M and 28.4 mN/m, respectively. This implied that the MEL-C has higher hydrophilicity than conventional MELs hitherto reported. In addition, on a water-penetration scan, the MEL-C efficiently formed the lamella phase (Lalpha) at a wide range of concentrations, indicating its excellent self-assembling properties. From these results, the newly identified MELs produced by P. graminicola are likely to have great potential for use in oil-in-water type emulsifiers and/or washing detergents, and would thus facilitate a broad range of applications for the promising yeast biosurfactants. PMID:18198469

  11. Electrolytic hydrogen fuel production with solid polymer electrolyte technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titterington, W. A.; Fickett, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    A water electrolysis technology based on a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) concept is presented for applicability to large-scale hydrogen production in a future energy system. High cell current density operation is selected for the application, and supporting cell test performance data are presented. Demonstrated cell life data are included to support the adaptability of the SPE system to large-size hydrogen generation utility plants as needed for bulk energy storage or transmission. The inherent system advantages of the acid SPE electrolysis technology are explained. System performance predictions are made through the year 2000, along with plant capital and operating cost projections.

  12. Advanced Decontamination Technologies: High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    The increasing demand for “natural” foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and safe shelf-life, will fulfil the wishes of consumers who prefer preservative-free minimally processed foods, retaining sensorial characteristics of freshness. Moreover, unlike thermal treatment, pressure treatment is not time/mass dependant, thus reducing the time of processing.

  13. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  14. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  15. Bioelectricity production from various wastewaters through microbial fuel cell technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha S Mathuriya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cell technology is a new type of renewable and sustainable technology for electricity generation since it recovers energy from renewable materials that can be difficult to dispose of, such as organic wastes and wastewaters. In the present contribution we demonstrated electricity production by beer brewery wastewater, sugar industry wastewater, dairy wastewater, municipal wastewater and paper industry wastewater. Up to 14.92 mA current and 90.23% COD removal was achieved in 10 days of operation. Keywords: Bioelectricity, COD, Microbial Fuel Cells, Wastewater Received: 12 November 2009 / Received in revised form: 30 November 2009, Accepted: 30 November 2009, Published online: 10 March 2010

  16. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation - Process development and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extractive Fermentation is an ethanol processing strategy in which the operations of fermentation and product recovery are integrated and undertaken simultaneously in a single step. In this process an inert and biocompatible organic solvent is introduced directly into the fermentation vessel to selectively extract the ethanol product. The ethanol is readily recovered from the solvent at high concentration by means of flash vaporization, and the solvent is recycled in a closed loop back to the fermentor. This process is characterized by a high productivity (since ethanol does not build up to inhibitory levels), continuous operation, significantly reduced water consumption, and lower product recovery costs. The technical advantages of this processing strategy have been extensively demonstrated by means of a continuous, fully integrated and computer-controlled Process Demonstration Unit in the authors' laboratory. Numerous features of this technology have been protected by US patent. A thorough economic comparison of Extractive Fermentation relative to modern ethanol technology (continuous with cell recycle) has been completed for both new plants and retrofitting of existing facilities for a capacity of 100 million liters of ethanol per year. Substantial cost savings are possible with Extractive Fermentation ranging, depending on the process configuration, from 5 cents to 16 cents per liter. Activities are under way to transfer this proprietary technology to the private sector

  17. Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesbach, P.A.; Kachur, E.K.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. EPA has issued a final regulation for control of mercury from coal-fired power plants. An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. These adulterated by-products, both ashes and FGD material, represent the greatest challenge to the DOE goal of increased utilization of by-products. The degree of stability of capture by-products and their potential for release of mercury can have a large economic impact on material sales or the approach to disposal. One of the considerations for mercury control technology is the potential trade-off between effective but temporary mercury capture and less effective but more permanent sequestration. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed aqueous leaching procedures on a select subset of the available sample pairs. This report describes batch leaching results for mercury, arsenic, and selenium.

  18. Technology benefits resulting from accelerator production of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the early and most dramatic uses of nuclear transformations was in development of the nuclear weapons that brought World War II to an end. Despite that difficult introduction, nuclear weapons technology has been used largely as a deterrent to war throughout the latter half of the twentieth century. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) offers a clean, safe, and reliable means of producing the tritium (a heavy form of hydrogen) needed to maintain the nuclear deterrent. Tritium decays away naturally at a rate of about 5.5% per year; therefore, the tritium reservoirs in nuclear weapons must be periodically replenished. In recent years this has been accomplished by recycling tritium from weapons being retired from the stockpile. Although this strategy has served well since the last US tritium production reactor was shut down in 1988, a new tritium production capability will be required within ten years. Some benefits will result from direct utilization of some of the APT proton beam; others could result from advances in the technologies of particle accelerators and high power spallation targets. The APT may save thousands of lives through the production of medical isotopes, and it may contribute to solving the nation's problem in disposing of long-lived nuclear wastes. But the most significant benefit may come from advancing the technology, so that the great potential of accelerator applications can be realized during our lifetimes

  19. Application of Modern Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Productivity Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain current high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, new requirements and commitments, unnecessary workloads and stress levels, and human errors. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by the commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the desire by many plants to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New productivity improvement capabilities with measurable economic benefits are needed so that a successful business case can be made for their use. Improved and new instrumentation and control, human-system interface, information and communications technologies used properly can address concerns about cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and enable shifts to even higher performance levels. This can be accomplished through the use of new technology implementations to improve productivity, reduce costs of systemic inefficiencies and avoid unexpected costs. Many of the same type of productivity improvements for operating plants will be applicable for new plants. As new plants are being built, it is important to include these productivity improvements or at least provide the ability to implement them easily later

  20. Cyclotron targets and production technologies used for radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some technical aspects of development and production of cyclotron-made radiopharmaceuticals (excluding PET) are discussed. In this field, nuclear chemistry and pharmacy are in a close contact; therefore, requirements of both should be taken into account. The principles of cyclotron targetry, separation/recovery of materials and synthesis of the active substances are given, as well as issues connected with formulation pharmaceutical forms of radioactive medical products. As the radiopharmaceuticals should fulfil the requirements for in vivo preparations, there exist a variety of demands pertaining to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), which is also briefly discussed. A typical production chain is presented involving the treatment of irradiated cyclotron target, choosing and validation of method for pharmacon synthesis, selection or development of necessary analytical procedures, preparing active substance according pharmaceutical standards, development of dosage form, adoption of final technology procedure and opening the clinical trial. Practical examples of real technologies based on cyclotron-made radionuclides (81Rb, 123I, 68Ge, 211At) are given. Special attention is devoted to the technology of enriched cyclotron targets. Frequently used medicinal products employing some cyclotron-produced active substances are characterised (Rb/Kr or Ge/Ga generators, 123I-labelled MIBG, OIH, MAB's and some others). The cyclotron produced radioactive implants for transluminal coronary angioplasty (radioactive stent) are introduced as an example of a medical device developed for therapeutic application. (author)

  1. Lipase-catalyzed acylation of microbial mannosylerythritol lipids (biosurfactants) and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recke, Verena K; Beyrle, Catharina; Gerlitzki, Melanie; Hausmann, Rudolf; Syldatk, Christoph; Wray, Victor; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Lang, Siegmund

    2013-05-24

    Culturing Pseudozyma aphidis on glucose as main carbon source and soybean oil as co-substrate the mannosylerythritol lipids MEL-A and MEL-B were produced. Based on their excellent surface/interfacial active behavior they possess a high potential among all known biosurfactants. The components of a microbial MEL mixture were purified by medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) and were used as substrates for in vitro enzymatic modifications. Lipase-catalyzed acylations of MEL-A and MEL-B with uncommon fatty acids from other microbial glycolipids-3-hydroxydecanoic acid from rhamnolipids and 17-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid from classical sophorolipids-yielded functionalized products at the C-1 position of the erythritol. The novel products were purified by MPLC and their structures elucidated by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In physicochemical characterization experiments two of the three new glycoconjugates lowered the surface tension of water from 72 mN m(-1) to 27-38 mN m(-1). Moreover the novel compounds inhibited the growth of gram-positive bacteria and showed a potential for anti-tumor-promoting activity. PMID:23584591

  2. Synthesis of Brushite Particles in Reverse Microemulsions of the Biosurfactant Surfactin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Fo Chang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the “green chemistry” use of the biosurfactant surfactin for the synthesis of calcium phosphate using the reverse microemulsion technique was demonstrated. Calcium phosphates are bioactive materials that are a major constituent of human teeth and bone tissue. A reverse microemulsion technique with surfactin was used to produce nanocrystalline brushite particles. Structural diversity (analyzed by SEM and TEM resulted from different water to surfactin ratios (W/S; 250, 500, 1000 and 40,000. The particle sizes were found to be in the 16–200 nm range. Morphological variety was observed in the as-synthesized microemulsions, which consisted of nanospheres (~16 nm in diameter and needle-like (8–14 nm in diameter and 80–100 nm in length noncalcinated particles. However, the calcinated products included nanospheres (50–200 nm in diameter, oval (~300 nm in diameter and nanorod (200–400 nm in length particles. FTIR and XRD analysis confirmed the formation of brushite nanoparticles in the as-synthesized products, while calcium pyrophosphate was produced after calcination. These results indicate that the reverse microemulsion technique using surfactin is a green process suitable for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

  3. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  4. State-of-art of modern technologies for metals production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holappa, L. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Metallurgy

    1995-12-31

    The future raw materials are becoming lower in metal content and more complex, multimetal concentrates will be utilized. This will give challenges for metallurgists to develop new, efficient and energy saving processes. The main impacts for current and future production technologies come from energy need and environmental issues of the production processes themselves as well as the inevitable energy production for the metal making. Metals production consumes huge amount of energy, roughly 10 pct of the global energy consumption is caused by metallurgists. That is the necessity but it also means energy saving is one of the metallurgical industry have been enormous when looking back to the history. Since the 1960`s the efforts of the industry together with the strict legislation in the industrialized countries have conducted to greatly decreased emissions and improved pollution control. Breakthrough of new processes like copper flash smelting has aided this positive progress

  5. 77 FR 26786 - Certain Products Containing Interactive Program and Parental Control Technology; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Containing Interactive Program and Parental Control Technology; Notice of Receipt... products containing interactive ] program and parental control technology. The complaint names as... Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Products Containing Interactive Program and...

  6. 76 FR 72215 - Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guide and Parental Controls Technology; Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guide and Parental Controls Technology; Receipt of... received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guide and Parental... certain products containing interactive program guide and parental controls technology. The...

  7. Effects of sludge retention time (SRT) and biosurfactant on the removal of polyaromatic compounds and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa, E-mail: delya.sponza@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Buca Kaynaklar Campus, 35160 Izmir (Turkey); Gok, Oguzhan [Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Buca Kaynaklar Campus, 35160 Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Acute toxicities in (a) influent wastewater (EC{sub 50} = 45.02 ng ml{sup -1}) and (b) effluent wastewater in aerobic activated sludge reactor at SRT = 25 days (EC{sub 6} = 5.30 ng ml{sup -1}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over 90% of the total PAHs was removed at Rhamnolipid and sludge retention time of 15 mg l{sup -1} and 25 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 93% of the COD originating from the inert organics was removed in the aerobic reactor. 96-97% of the Rhamnolipid was biodegraded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The EC50 value was reduced from EC{sub 50} = 45.02 ng ml{sup -1} to C{sub 6} = 5.30 ng ml{sup -1} with Daphnia magna. Toxicity removals originating from the PAHs were 96%. - Abstract: A laboratory-scale aerobic activated sludge reactor (AASR) system was employed to investigate the effects of SRT on the removal of three less hydrophobic and six more hydrophobic PAHs in the presence of rhamnolipid (RD), emulsan (EM) and surfactine (SR) biosurfactants. Among the biosurfactants it was found that RD exhibits a better performance than the others in the removal of PAHs. At a RD of 15 mg l{sup -1} aerobic treatment for 25 days SRT was enough to remove over 90% of the total PAHs, 88% of the COD originating from the inert organics (COD{sub inert}) and 93% of the COD originating from the inert soluble microbial products (COD{sub imp}). At this SRT and RD concentration, about 96-98% of the RD was biodegraded by the AASR system, 1.2-1.4% was accumulated in the system, 1.1-1.3% was released in the effluent, and 1.2-1.4% remained in the waste sludge. The addition of electron acceptors (NO{sub 3}{sup -1}, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}) and increasing of temperature up to 45 Degree-Sign C enhanced the PAH yields. The most effective PAH degradation occurred in high-oxygenated and neutral pH conditions. The PAH concentration affecting half of the Daphnia magna organism (EC{sub 50} value) was reduced from EC{sub 50} = 45.02 ng ml{sup -1} to the PAH

  8. Effects of sludge retention time (SRT) and biosurfactant on the removal of polyaromatic compounds and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Acute toxicities in (a) influent wastewater (EC50 = 45.02 ng ml−1) and (b) effluent wastewater in aerobic activated sludge reactor at SRT = 25 days (EC6 = 5.30 ng ml−1). Highlights: ► Over 90% of the total PAHs was removed at Rhamnolipid and sludge retention time of 15 mg l−1 and 25 days. ► 93% of the COD originating from the inert organics was removed in the aerobic reactor. 96–97% of the Rhamnolipid was biodegraded. ► The EC50 value was reduced from EC50 = 45.02 ng ml−1 to C6 = 5.30 ng ml−1 with Daphnia magna. Toxicity removals originating from the PAHs were 96%. - Abstract: A laboratory-scale aerobic activated sludge reactor (AASR) system was employed to investigate the effects of SRT on the removal of three less hydrophobic and six more hydrophobic PAHs in the presence of rhamnolipid (RD), emulsan (EM) and surfactine (SR) biosurfactants. Among the biosurfactants it was found that RD exhibits a better performance than the others in the removal of PAHs. At a RD of 15 mg l−1 aerobic treatment for 25 days SRT was enough to remove over 90% of the total PAHs, 88% of the COD originating from the inert organics (CODinert) and 93% of the COD originating from the inert soluble microbial products (CODimp). At this SRT and RD concentration, about 96–98% of the RD was biodegraded by the AASR system, 1.2 1.4% was accumulated in the system, 1.1–1.3% was released in the effluent, and 1.2–1.4% remained in the waste sludge. The addition of electron acceptors (NO3−1, SO4−2) and increasing of temperature up to 45 °C enhanced the PAH yields. The most effective PAH degradation occurred in high-oxygenated and neutral pH conditions. The PAH concentration affecting half of the Daphnia magna organism (EC50 value) was reduced from EC50 = 45.02 ng ml−1 to the PAH concentration affecting only 6% of the live Daphnia magna (EC6 = 5.30 ng ml−1) at the end of the aerobic treatment at a SRT of 25 days. Toxicity removals originating from the

  9. Trapping technology for gaseous fission products from voloxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to review the different technologies for trapping the gaseous wastes containing Cs, Ru, Tc, 14C, Kr, Xe, I and 3H from a voloxidation process. Based on literature reviews and KAERI's experimental results on the gaseous fission products trapping, appropriate trapping method for each fission product has been selected considering process reliability, simplicity, decontamination factor, availability, and disposal. Specifically, the most promising trapping method for each fission product has been proposed for the development of the INL off-gas trapping system. A fly ash filter is proposed as a trapping media for a cesium trapping unit. In addition, a calcium filter is proposed as a trapping media for ruthenium, technetium, and 14C trapping unit. In case of I trapping unit, AgX is proposed. For Kr and Xe, adsorption on solid is proposed. SDBC (Styrene Divinyl Benzene Copolymer) is also proposed as a conversion media to HTO for 3H. This report will be used as a useful means for analyzing the known trapping technologies and help selecting the appropriate trapping methods for trapping volatile and semi-volatile fission products, long-lived fission products, and major heat sources generated from a voloxidation process. It can also be used to design an off-gas treatment system

  10. Trapping technology for gaseous fission products from voloxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, J. J.; Park, G. I.; Jung, I. H.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, G. H.; Yang, M. S

    2005-05-15

    The objective of this report is to review the different technologies for trapping the gaseous wastes containing Cs, Ru, Tc, {sup 14}C, Kr, Xe, I and {sup 3}H from a voloxidation process. Based on literature reviews and KAERI's experimental results on the gaseous fission products trapping, appropriate trapping method for each fission product has been selected considering process reliability, simplicity, decontamination factor, availability, and disposal. Specifically, the most promising trapping method for each fission product has been proposed for the development of the INL off-gas trapping system. A fly ash filter is proposed as a trapping media for a cesium trapping unit. In addition, a calcium filter is proposed as a trapping media for ruthenium, technetium, and {sup 14}C trapping unit. In case of I trapping unit, AgX is proposed. For Kr and Xe, adsorption on solid is proposed. SDBC (Styrene Divinyl Benzene Copolymer) is also proposed as a conversion media to HTO for {sup 3}H. This report will be used as a useful means for analyzing the known trapping technologies and help selecting the appropriate trapping methods for trapping volatile and semi-volatile fission products, long-lived fission products, and major heat sources generated from a voloxidation process. It can also be used to design an off-gas treatment system.

  11. Product Drawing Management System Based on Group Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the development and widely used of the compute r technology, the CAD has been more and more used in the process of designing prod uct. The number of the engineering drawings will greatly increase because of the continually appearance of the new products. As a result, it has become a badly needed to be solved problem for us that how to rapidly and efficiently search an d appropriately preserve and manage the drawings. In this paper, a method of bui lding the product drawing management system for extr...

  12. Recent development of ductile cast iron production technology in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Qizhou

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in the production and technology of ductile cast iron castings in China is reviewed. The manufacture and process control of as-cast ductile iron are discussed. The microstructure, properties and application of partial austenitization normalizing ductile iron and austempered ductile iron (ADI are briefl y depicted. The new development of ductile iron production techniques, such as cored-wire injection (wire-feeding nodularization process, tundish cover ladle nodularizing process, horizontal continuous casting, and EPC process (lost foam for ductile iron castings, etc., are summarized.

  13. Recent development of ductile cast iron production technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Qizhou; Wei Bokang

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in the production and technology of ductile cast iron castings in China is reviewed.The manufacture and process control of as-cast ductile iron are discussed.The microstructure.properties and application of partial austenitization normalizing ductile iron and austempered duclile iron(ADI)are briefly depicted.The new development of duclile iron production techniques,such as cored-wire injection(wire-feeding nodularization)process,tundish cover ladle nodularizing process,horizontal continuous casting,and EPC process (lost foam)for ductile iron castings,etc.,are summarized.

  14. Elusive prize: enormous coal gas potential awaits production technology breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2002-01-07

    The expanded gas pipeline grid has excess capacity, and gas resources are declining. There is increasing interest in development of Canada's resources of coalbed methane (CBM). The chairman of the Canadian Coalbed Methane Forum estimates that Canada has more than 3,000 trillion ft{sup 3} of gas awaiting suitable technology. PanCanadian and MGV Energy conducted a CBM exploration and pilot study on the Palliser spread in southern Alberta. Results from 23 of 75 wells are encouraging. The study is being accelerated and expanded to include an additional 50 wells elsewhere in Alberta. Some scientists anticipate commercial CBM production within two years. Problems facing developers include the large land holdings necessary for economic CBM production and the disposal of coal formation water. It is anticipated that U.S. technology will be modified and used. The potential for CBM development at Pictou in Nova Scotia and in British Columbia in the foothills is considered. 3 figs.

  15. Biogas and BioFertilizer Production Using Green Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basically, it is technology which created and used in a way that conserves natural resources and the environment. This technology also can be environmental friendly because the use of this technology is supposed to reduce the amount of waste and pollution that is created during production and consumption. These food wastes will come from animal bone, crab skeleton, fish skeleton, rice, noodle, vegetable and others. We collect all of these wastes and then keep it in plants, and then we make sure that this waste will turn into biogas via anaerobic digestion. All of these involved hydrolysis, fermentation, aceto genesis and methano genesis process. Methane that produced will be used in biomass plant to generate electricity. Meanwhile bio fertilizer that produced will be applied on agriculture sectors as fertilizer for plants.

  16. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

  17. A new biosurfactant produced by Candida glabrata UCP 1002: characteristics of stability and application in oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Moura de Luna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The production of a new biosurfactant by Candida glabrata UCP1002 was studied to evaluate the influence of the concentration of the cotton seed oil, glucose and yeast extract. The dynamics of the growth and surfactant production were showed for all the cultivation conditions studied. The best emulsification of the n-hexadecane, quantified by the emulsifying index was observed in the medium containing 7.5% cotton seed oil, 5% glucose and 0.3% yeast extract. The isolated biosurfactant showed a CMC of 2.5% and the surface tension at that point showed to be 31mN/m. The potential application of the biosurfactant in oil recovery from the sand, in acid and alkaline environments and over exposure to high salinity and different temperatures was demonstrated by the percentage of oil removal and by the stability of the surface tension, respectively.A produção de um novo biossurfactante por Candida glabrata UCP1002 foi inicialmente investigada com a finalidade de avaliar a influência da concentração dos substratos óleo de algodão, glicose e extrato de levedura. As cinéticas de crescimento e de produção do surfactante foram demonstradas para todas as condições de cultivo testadas. A melhor emulsificação do nhexadecano, quantificada através do índice de emulsificação foi observada na condição de cultivo contendo 7,5% de óleo de algodão, 5% de glicose e 0,3% de extrato de levedura. O biossurfactante produzido apresentou uma concentração micelar crítica de 2,5%, sendo a tensão superficial nesse ponto de 31mN/m. O potencial de aplicação do biossurfactante na recuperação de óleo de areia contaminada, em condições ácidas e alcalinas, bem como sob exposição a altas salinidades e diferentes temperaturas, foram demonstrados com base no percentual de remoção do óleo e na estabilidade da tensão superficial, respectivamente.

  18. Timing of Technology Adoption and Product Market Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Milliou, Chrysovalantou; Petrakis, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how product market competition affects firms' timing of adopting a new technology as well as whether the market provides sufficient adoption incentives. It shows that adoption dates differ not only among symmetric firms but also among markets with Cournot and Bertrand competition. More specifically, Cournot competition can lead to earlier adoption than Bertrand competition. It shows also that competition toughness does not always reinforce adoption incentives. When goods a...

  19. Development of Laser Application Technology for Stable Isotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Do Young; Ko, Kwang Hoon; Kwon, Duck Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-04-15

    Tl-203 is used as a source material to produce Tl-201 radioisotope which is produced in a cyclotron by irradiating the enriched Tl-203 target. Tl-201 is a radiopharmaceutical for SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) to diagnose heart diseases and tumors. This Project aim to develop laser application technology to product stable isotopes such as Tl-203, Yb-168, and Yb-176. For this, photoion extraction device, atomic beam generator, dye lasers, and high power IR lasers are developed.

  20. Development of Laser Application Technology for Stable Isotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tl-203 is used as a source material to produce Tl-201 radioisotope which is produced in a cyclotron by irradiating the enriched Tl-203 target. Tl-201 is a radiopharmaceutical for SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) to diagnose heart diseases and tumors. This Project aim to develop laser application technology to product stable isotopes such as Tl-203, Yb-168, and Yb-176. For this, photoion extraction device, atomic beam generator, dye lasers, and high power IR lasers are developed