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Sample records for biosocial developmental model

  1. A biosocial developmental model of borderline personality: Elaborating and extending Linehan's theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Linehan, Marsha M

    2009-05-01

    Over the past several decades, research has focused increasingly on developmental precursors to psychological disorders that were previously assumed to emerge only in adulthood. This change in focus follows from the recognition that complex transactions between biological vulnerabilities and psychosocial risk factors shape emotional and behavioral development beginning at conception. To date, however, empirical research on the development of borderline personality is extremely limited. Indeed, in the decade since M. M. Linehan initially proposed a biosocial model of the development of borderline personality disorder, there have been few attempts to test the model among at-risk youth. In this review, diverse literatures are reviewed that can inform understanding of the ontogenesis of borderline pathology, and testable hypotheses are proposed to guide future research with at-risk children and adolescents. One probable pathway is identified that leads to borderline personality disorder; it begins with early vulnerability, expressed initially as impulsivity and followed by heightened emotional sensitivity. These vulnerabilities are potentiated across development by environmental risk factors that give rise to more extreme emotional, behavioral, and cognitive dysregulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. A Biosocial Developmental Model of Borderline Personality: Elaborating and Extending Linehan’s Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several decades, research has focused increasingly on developmental precursors to psychological disorders that were previously assumed to emerge only in adulthood. This change in focus follows from the recognition that complex transactions between biological vulnerabilities and psychosocial risk factors shape emotional and behavioral development beginning at conception. To date, however, empirical research on the development of borderline personality is extremely limited. Indeed, in the decade since M. M. Linehan initially proposed a biosocial model of the development of borderline personality disorder, there have been few attempts to test the model among at-risk youth. In this review, diverse literatures are reviewed that can inform understanding of the ontogenesis of borderline pathology, and testable hypotheses are proposed to guide future research with at-risk children and adolescents. One probable pathway is identified that leads to borderline personality disorder; it begins with early vulnerability, expressed initially as impulsivity and followed by heightened emotional sensitivity. These vulnerabilities are potentiated across development by environmental risk factors that give rise to more extreme emotional, behavioral, and cognitive dysregulation. PMID:19379027

  3. A Biosocial Developmental Model of Borderline Personality: Elaborating and Extending Linehan's Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several decades, research has focused increasingly on developmental precursors to psychological disorders that were previously assumed to emerge only in adulthood. This change in focus follows from the recognition that complex transactions between biological vulnerabilities and psychosocial risk factors shape emotional and behavioral…

  4. Stopping tuberculosis: a biosocial model for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortblad, Katrina F; Salomon, Joshua A; Bärnighausen, Till; Atun, Rifat

    2015-12-05

    Tuberculosis transmission and progression are largely driven by social factors such as poor living conditions and poor nutrition. Increased standards of living and social approaches helped to decrease the burden of tuberculosis before the introduction of chemotherapy in the 1940s. Since then, management of tuberculosis has been largely biomedical. More funding for tuberculosis since 2000, coinciding with the Millennium Development Goals, has yielded progress in tuberculosis mortality but smaller reductions in incidence, which continues to pose a risk to sustainable development, especially in poor and susceptible populations. These at-risk populations need accelerated progress to end tuberculosis as resolved by the World Health Assembly in 2015. Effectively addressing the worldwide tuberculosis burden will need not only enhancement of biomedical approaches but also rebuilding of the social approaches of the past. To combine a biosocial approach, underpinned by social, economic, and environmental actions, with new treatments, new diagnostics, and universal health coverage, will need multisectoral coordination and action involving the health and other governmental sectors, as well as participation of the civil society, and especially the poor and susceptible populations. A biosocial approach to stopping tuberculosis will not only target morbidity and mortality from disease but would also contribute substantially to poverty alleviation and sustainable development that promises to meet the needs of the present, especially the poor, and provide them and subsequent generations an opportunity for a better future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental Education Evaluation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Miller, Mitzi; And Others

    A developmental education evaluation model designed to be used at a multi-unit urban community college is described. The purpose of the design was to determine the cost effectiveness/worth of programs in order to initiate self-improvement. A needs assessment was conducted by interviewing and taping the responses of students, faculty, staff, and…

  6. The New Wave of Childhood Studies: Breaking the Grip of Bio-Social Dualism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kevin William

    2012-01-01

    The article takes as its starting point a new wave of researchers who use concepts such as "hybridity" and "multiplicity" in a bid to move the study of childhood beyond the strictures of what Lee and Motzkau call "bio-social dualism", whereby the division between the "natural child" of developmental psychology and the "social child" of…

  7. Sex differences, evolutionary psychology and biosocial theory : Biosocial theory is no alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxen, Marc F.

    Biosocial theory claims that evolution did not design human psychological sex differences. It argues that these are the result of the allocation of men and women into different sex roles, based on physical differences. This article argues, however, that biosocial theory is not an alternative to

  8. Biosocial Models of Deviant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Describes biological influences on criminality. Illustrative data suggest a biological sex difference in criminality and heritable differences in this trait among individuals. Methods of isolating environmental influences are described. Author notes that using environment-friendly behavior genetic research designs is not only proper but would…

  9. Beyond traditional developmental models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Alexander; zu Knyphausen-Aufseß, Dodo; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    outcome. The implication for entrepreneurs is that, beyond discovering a potential venture idea, substantial development efforts are required to form a sustainable business model. For entrepreneurship research, our model is a first step towards an integrative discussion of new venture emergence aimed...

  10. Biosocial Research in Social Work Journals: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Brandy R.; Boutwell, Brian B.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Naeger, Sandra; Dell, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    Background: Despite an emphasis on a biopsychosocial understanding of human behavior and the relevance of biosocial research to social work practice, it is unclear whether social work is contributing to biosocial research and knowledge. Methods: Systematic review procedures were employed to locate studies that included biological variables (e.g.,…

  11. Biosocial risks of food: international aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Corvo

    2017-01-01

    Food consumption is influenced by a series of issues that affect both individuals, and people and cultures of the different parts of the world. It studies biosocial risks that have dramatic implications: obesity, anorexia and bulimia; malnutrition and hunger, involving more than 800 million people; the waste food, a real paradox of the global world; the land grabbing. These are very different problems because of causes and dynamics, but all of them require a profound change to be affected: a great...

  12. Biosocial risks of food: international aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Corvo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food consumption is influenced by a series of issues that affect both individuals, and people and cultures of the different parts of the world. It studies biosocial risks that have dramatic implications: obesity, anorexia and bulimia; malnutrition and hunger, involving more than 800 million people; the waste food, a real paradox of the global world; the land grabbing. These are very different problems because of causes and dynamics, but all of them require a profound change to be affected: a greater awareness of eating behaviour, an educational action on food topics, an intervention of regulatory institutions, local and international, which guarantees a fair market for products and food sovereignty.

  13. [Biosocial phenomena in unicellular organisms (exemplified by data concerning Prokaryota)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleskin, A V

    2009-01-01

    This review deals with the issue of applicability of biosocial concepts and terms to microorganisms. The main emphasis is placed on recent data obtained in studies of bacteria. They demonstrate various forms of collective behavior including affiliation (cohesion), cooperation, coordinated aggression, and avoidance behavior (vis-a-vis "outgroups"). Bacterial systems are also characterized by contact and distant communication; the latter mediated by chemical signals (including pheromones/autoinducers employed by quorum-sensing systems) or physical factors. Bacteria form supracellular systems (colonies, biofilms, flocs, etc.) that can be regarded as bacterial biosocial systems, by analogy to animal congregations. These bacterial biosocial systems are characterized by coherence, life-cycle ("culture ontogeny" in N.D. Yerusalimsky's usage), and hierarchical or network organization. Bacterial cells in biosocial systems are morphologically differentiated and, in a large number of bacterial species, functionally specialized. Cells collectively form structures that function as "organs" of the whole biosocial system (exemplified by water channels, colony-coating membranes, hemoprotein-containing hemosomes, and extracellular matrix as the structural basis of a colony/biofilm). The biosocial approach to microorganisms promotes interactions between microbiology, cytology, and ethology. It is also of practical value for medicine and biotechnology.

  14. Research Models in Developmental Behavioral Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; Pearson, Douglas T.

    Developmental models currently used by child behavioral toxicologists and teratologists are inadequate to address current issues in these fields. Both child behavioral teratology and toxicology scientifically study the impact of exposure to toxic agents on behavior development: teratology focuses on prenatal exposure and postnatal behavior…

  15. Biosocial characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergana K. Panayotova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is known as a complex disorder that combines both genetic and environmental factors. Different genes have been tested as candidates for association with schizophrenia and different environmental factors have been examined in many studies on epidemiology of schizophrenia. Specific environmental factors, such as nonspecific stress, mental and physical abuse, maternal diet during pregnancy, drug use, living in an urban setting, migration, seasonal effects on birth and exposure to infections, have been discussed as possible risk for schizophrenia. The present preliminary study is focused on the relations between biological and social characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia with different cognitive levels, emotional and creative styles. Descriptive statistics, the Student's t-test and SPSS software, were used to analyse the relations mentioned. Differences between sexes and these concerning age of individuals (risk level of inheritance, ABO blood group distribution, triggering factors, aggressive behavior, single or multiple suicide attempts, levels of education and creative talents were indicated and discussed. The study identifies important trends and discuses essential biosocial relations in context of the knowledge for schizophrenia in Bulgaria. Future comparative investigations, including genetic markers and psychogenetic approaches, should be used in complex, in order to characterize the reasons for developing paranoid schizophrenia and the possible relations between biological, psychological and social factors better.

  16. Experimental models of developmental hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argumedo, G S; Sanz, C R; Olguín, H J

    2012-02-01

    Hypothyroidism is a systemic disease resulting from either thyroid gland's anatomical and functional absence or lack of hypophyseal stimulation, both of which can lead to deficiency in thyroid hormone (TH) production. TH is essential for human and animal development, growth, and function of multiple organs. Children with deficient TH can develop alterations in central nervous system (CNS), striated muscle, bone tissue, liver, bone marrow, and cardiorespiratory system. Among the clinical outlook are signs like breathing difficulty, cardiac insufficiency, dysphagia, and repeated bronchial aspiration, constipation, muscle weakness, cognitive alterations, cochlear dysfunction, reduced height, defects in temperature regulation, anaemia, jaundice, susceptibility to infection, and others. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that TH is very essential for normal brain development. Other research work based on mice pointed out that a reduced level of TH in pregnant mother leads to congenital hypothyroidism in animal models and it is associated with mental retardation, deep neurologic deficiency that impacts on cognitive, learning, and memory functions. The principal experimental model studies that have focused on hypothyroidism are reviewed in this study. This is important on considering the fact that almost all animal species require thyroid hormones for their metabolism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Avian models in teratology and developmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M; Flentke, George R; Garic, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The avian embryo is a long-standing model for developmental biology research. It also has proven utility for toxicology research both in ovo and in explant culture. Like mammals, avian embryos have an allantois and their developmental pathways are highly conserved with those of mammals, thus avian models have biomedical relevance. Fertile eggs are inexpensive and the embryo develops rapidly, allowing for high-throughput. The chick genome is sequenced and significant molecular resources are available for study, including the ability for genetic manipulation. The absence of a placenta permits the direct study of an agent's embryotoxic effects. Here, we present protocols for using avian embryos in toxicology research, including egg husbandry and hatch, toxicant delivery, and assessment of proliferation, apoptosis, and cardiac structure and function.

  18. Biosocial Determinants of Persistent Schistosomiasis among Schoolchildren in Tanzania despite Repeated Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose E. Donohue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease endemic to Tanzania and other countries of the global south, which is currently being addressed through preventive chemotherapy campaigns. However, there is growing recognition that chemotherapy strategies will need to be supplemented to sustainably control and eventually eliminate the disease. There remains a need to understand the factors contributing to continued transmission in order to ensure the effective configuration and implementation of supplemented programs. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire, to evaluate the biosocial determinants facilitating the persistence of schistosomiasis, among 1704 Tanzanian schoolchildren residing in two districts undergoing a preventive chemotherapeutic program: Rufiji and Mkuranga. A meta-analysis was carried out to select the diagnostic questions that provided a likelihood for predicting infection status. We found that self-reported schistosomiasis continues to persist among the schoolchildren, despite multiple rounds of drug administration.Using mixed effects logistic regression modeling, we found biosocial factors, including gender, socio-economic status, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH-related variables, were associated with this continued schistosomiasis presence. These findings highlight the significant role that social factors may play in the persistence of disease transmission despite multiple treatments, and support the need not only for including integrated technical measures, such as WASH, but also addressing issues of poverty and gender when designing effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control programs.

  19. Computerised modelling for developmental biology : an exploration with case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertens, Laura M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies in developmental biology rely on the construction and analysis of models. This research presents a broad view of modelling approaches for developmental biology, with a focus on computational methods. An overview of modelling techniques is given, followed by several case studies. Using

  20. The fluidity of biosocial identity and the effects of place, space, and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Daniel; Rodriguez Escobar, Jeronimo; Hsu, Yohsiang; Kulathinal, Rob J; Hayes-Conroy, Allison

    2018-02-01

    Public and scientific conceptions of identity are changing alongside advances in biotechnology, with important relevance to health and medicine. In particular, biological identity, once predominantly conceived as static (e.g., related to DNA, dental records, fingerprints) is now being recognized as dynamic or fluid, mirroring contemporary understandings of psychological and social identity. The dynamism of biological identity comes from the individual body's unique relationship with the world surrounding it, and therefore may best be described as biosocial. This paper reviews advances in scientific understandings of identity and presents a model that contrasts prior static approaches to biological identity from more recent dynamically-relational ones. This emerging viewpoint is of broad significance to health and medicine, particularly as medicine recognizes the significance of biography - i.e. the multiple, dense interactions imparted on a body across spatio-temporal dimensions - to phenotypic prediction, especially disease risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Asian flus in ethnographic and political context: A biosocial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Arthur M; Bloom, Barry R; Saich, Anthony; Mason, Katherine A; Aulino, Felicity

    2008-04-01

    This collection highlights some of the social, cultural, political and economic factors that must be considered in developing a biosocial approach to pandemic influenza control and prevention. To date, most discussions of the current spread of avian influenza and a predicted human influenza pandemic have lacked rigorous analysis of the local contexts in which flus arise and in which the effects of a pandemic would most strongly be felt. Such local engagement is necessary to the development of an effective and ethical programme of epidemic control. The papers in this special issue take a step towards filling this gap by exploring the local moral worlds associated with avian influenza in China, Indonesia and Thailand.

  2. Smoking education and prevention: a developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, T P; Baldwin, A R

    1992-01-01

    A developmental approach to smoking education and prevention for children and adolescents is proposed. Literature is reviewed concerning the most appropriate agent, content, and presentation, of anti-smoking education for each of three age groups: children to age ten, pre/early adolescents eleven to fifteen, and adolescents fifteen to eighteen. For children to age ten, it is suggested that parents are the best agents of education, with teachers, peers, and the mass media, also playing some role. For pre/early adolescents, peers are suggested as the best agents of education, building onto the earlier and ongoing work of the agents mentioned above. For adolescents, the role of the media hero-figure is discussed. It is emphasized that sources of influence may function additively in affecting the child or adolescent's decisions about smoking, and that education in each stage must build on the stage before.

  3. Why Are There Developmental Stages in Language Learning? A Developmental Robotics Model of Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2017-02-01

    Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between stages. We argue that by taking an embodied view, the interaction between learning mechanisms, the resulting behavior of the agent, and the opportunities for learning that the environment provides can account for the stage-wise development of cognitive abilities. We summarize work relevant to this hypothesis and suggest two simple mechanisms that account for some developmental transitions: neural readiness focuses on changes in the neural substrate resulting from ongoing learning, and perceptual readiness focuses on the perceptual requirements for learning new tasks. Previous work has demonstrated these mechanisms in replications of a wide variety of infant language experiments, spanning multiple developmental stages. Here we piece this work together as a single model of ongoing learning with no parameter changes at all. The model, an instance of the Epigenetic Robotics Architecture (Morse et al 2010) embodied on the iCub humanoid robot, exhibits ongoing multi-stage development while learning pre-linguistic and then basic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. The Complexity of Developmental Predictions from Dual Process Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing developmental predictions from dual-process theories is more complex than is commonly realized. Overly simplified predictions drawn from such models may lead to premature rejection of the dual process approach as one of many tools for understanding cognitive development. Misleading predictions can be avoided by paying attention to several…

  5. A Developmental Model for Educational Planning: Democratic Rationalities and Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Michael; Johnson, Jerry; Reynolds, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The Developmental Democratic Planning (DDP) model frames educational planning as a process that extends beyond the immediate focus of a particular planning effort to acknowledge and cultivate the potential of all members of the organization to fulfill their roles as active participants in the democratic life of the organization. The DDP model…

  6. A Developmental Model of Research Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelo, Renata A.; Loui, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    We studied mentoring relationships between undergraduate and graduate students in a summer undergraduate research program, over three years. Using a grounded theory approach, we created a model of research mentoring that describes how the roles of the mentor and the student can change. Whereas previous models of research mentoring ignored student…

  7. Computer modeling in developmental biology: growing today, essential tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, James

    2017-12-01

    D'Arcy Thompson was a true pioneer, applying mathematical concepts and analyses to the question of morphogenesis over 100 years ago. The centenary of his famous book, On Growth and Form , is therefore a great occasion on which to review the types of computer modeling now being pursued to understand the development of organs and organisms. Here, I present some of the latest modeling projects in the field, covering a wide range of developmental biology concepts, from molecular patterning to tissue morphogenesis. Rather than classifying them according to scientific question, or scale of problem, I focus instead on the different ways that modeling contributes to the scientific process and discuss the likely future of modeling in developmental biology. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Biosocial profile of New Zealand prosthetic eye wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Keith R; Sloan, Brian; Jacobs, Robert J

    2012-10-12

    To describe the biosocial profile of New Zealand (NZ) artificial eye wearers and establish a basis for future research and international comparison. This retrospective study surveyed 431 NZ artificial eye wearers to investigate their ethnicity, gender, age, causes of eye loss, age of current prosthesis, ocular prosthetic maintenance regimes and the extent and severity of discharge associated with prosthesis wear. Approximately 3000 people wear artificial eyes in NZ. Accidents were the main cause of eye loss prior to 1990 and medical conditions have been the main cause since. In the 1960s, the ratio of men to women losing an eye from accidents was 5:1, but during the past decade the ratio was 1.4:1. Socket discharge occurred at least twice daily for one-third of the study group. Approximately 1 in 1440 people wear artificial eyes in NZ. Decline of eye loss due to accidents is consistent with decreasing workplace and traffic accidents and may be due to improved medical management, workplace safety standards and safer roads. Mucoid discharge is prevalent in the anophthalmic population of NZ and an evidence based treatment protocol for discharge associated with prosthesis wear is needed. Research into this distressing condition is planned.

  9. Utility of Small Animal Models of Developmental Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Vickers, Mark H

    2018-01-01

    Any effective strategy to tackle the global obesity and rising noncommunicable disease epidemic requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that underlie these conditions that manifest as a consequence of complex gene-environment interactions. In this context, it is now well established that alterations in the early life environment, including suboptimal nutrition, can result in an increased risk for a range of metabolic, cardiovascular, and behavioral disorders in later life, a process preferentially termed developmental programming. To date, most of the mechanistic knowledge around the processes underpinning development programming has been derived from preclinical research performed mostly, but not exclusively, in laboratory mouse and rat strains. This review will cover the utility of small animal models in developmental programming, the limitations of such models, and potential future directions that are required to fully maximize information derived from preclinical models in order to effectively translate to clinical use.

  10. Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zengrong; Huangfu, Danwei

    2013-02-01

    Developmental biology has long benefited from studies of classic model organisms. Recently, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, have emerged as a new model system that offers unique advantages for developmental studies. Here, we discuss how studies of hPSCs can complement classic approaches using model organisms, and how hPSCs can be used to recapitulate aspects of human embryonic development 'in a dish'. We also summarize some of the recently developed genetic tools that greatly facilitate the interrogation of gene function during hPSC differentiation. With the development of high-throughput screening technologies, hPSCs have the potential to revolutionize gene discovery in mammalian development.

  11. [Modeling developmental aspects of sensorimotor control of speech production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, B J; Birkholz, P; Neuschaefer-Rube, C

    2007-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of the neurophysiology of speech acquisition is important for understanding the developmental aspects of speech perception and production and for understanding developmental disorders of speech perception and production. A computer implemented neural model of sensorimotor control of speech production was developed. The model is capable of demonstrating the neural functions of different cortical areas during speech production in detail. (i) Two sensory and two motor maps or neural representations and the appertaining neural mappings or projections establish the sensorimotor feedback control system. These maps and mappings are already formed and trained during the prelinguistic phase of speech acquisition. (ii) The feedforward sensorimotor control system comprises the lexical map (representations of sounds, syllables, and words of the first language) and the mappings from lexical to sensory and to motor maps. The training of the appertaining mappings form the linguistic phase of speech acquisition. (iii) Three prelinguistic learning phases--i. e. silent mouthing, quasi stationary vocalic articulation, and realisation of articulatory protogestures--can be defined on the basis of our simulation studies using the computational neural model. These learning phases can be associated with temporal phases of prelinguistic speech acquisition obtained from natural data. The neural model illuminates the detailed function of specific cortical areas during speech production. In particular it can be shown that developmental disorders of speech production may result from a delayed or incorrect process within one of the prelinguistic learning phases defined by the neural model.

  12. A developmental social neuroscience model for understanding loneliness in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nichol M L; Yeung, Patcy P S; Lee, Tatia M C

    2018-02-01

    Loneliness is prevalent in adolescents. Although it can be a normative experience, children and adolescents who experience loneliness are often at risk for anxiety, depression, and suicide. Research efforts have been made to identify the neurobiological basis of such distressful feelings in our social brain. In adolescents, the social brain is still undergoing significant development, which may contribute to their increased and differential sensitivity to the social environment. Many behavioral studies have shown the significance of attachment security and social skills in adolescents' interactions with the social world. In this review, we propose a developmental social neuroscience model that extends from the social neuroscience model of loneliness. In particular, we argue that the social brain and social skills are both important for the development of adolescents' perceived loneliness and that adolescents' familial attachment sets the baseline for neurobiological development. By reviewing the related behavioral and neuroimaging literature, we propose a developmental social neuroscience model to explain the heightened perception of loneliness in adolescents using social skills and attachment style as neurobiological moderators. We encourage future researchers to investigate adolescents' perceived social connectedness from the developmental neuroscience perspective.

  13. Developmental model of static allometry in holometabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, Alexander W; Mirth, Christen K; Bates, Peter W

    2008-08-22

    The regulation of static allometry is a fundamental developmental process, yet little is understood of the mechanisms that ensure organs scale correctly across a range of body sizes. Recent studies have revealed the physiological and genetic mechanisms that control nutritional variation in the final body and organ size in holometabolous insects. The implications these mechanisms have for the regulation of static allometry is, however, unknown. Here, we formulate a mathematical description of the nutritional control of body and organ size in Drosophila melanogaster and use it to explore how the developmental regulators of size influence static allometry. The model suggests that the slope of nutritional static allometries, the 'allometric coefficient', is controlled by the relative sensitivity of an organ's growth rate to changes in nutrition, and the relative duration of development when nutrition affects an organ's final size. The model also predicts that, in order to maintain correct scaling, sensitivity to changes in nutrition varies among organs, and within organs through time. We present experimental data that support these predictions. By revealing how specific physiological and genetic regulators of size influence allometry, the model serves to identify developmental processes upon which evolution may act to alter scaling relationships.

  14. A developmental approach to learning causal models for cyber security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugan, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    To keep pace with our adversaries, we must expand the scope of machine learning and reasoning to address the breadth of possible attacks. One approach is to employ an algorithm to learn a set of causal models that describes the entire cyber network and each host end node. Such a learning algorithm would run continuously on the system and monitor activity in real time. With a set of causal models, the algorithm could anticipate novel attacks, take actions to thwart them, and predict the second-order effects flood of information, and the algorithm would have to determine which streams of that flood were relevant in which situations. This paper will present the results of efforts toward the application of a developmental learning algorithm to the problem of cyber security. The algorithm is modeled on the principles of human developmental learning and is designed to allow an agent to learn about the computer system in which it resides through active exploration. Children are flexible learners who acquire knowledge by actively exploring their environment and making predictions about what they will find,1, 2 and our algorithm is inspired by the work of the developmental psychologist Jean Piaget.3 Piaget described how children construct knowledge in stages and learn new concepts on top of those they already know. Developmental learning allows our algorithm to focus on subsets of the environment that are most helpful for learning given its current knowledge. In experiments, the algorithm was able to learn the conditions for file exfiltration and use that knowledge to protect sensitive files.

  15. The relative age effect in sport: a developmental systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattie, Nick; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The policies that dictate the participation structure of many youth sport systems involve the use of a set selection date (e.g. 31 December), which invariably produces relative age differences between those within the selection year (e.g. 1 January to 31 December). Those born early in the selection year (e.g. January) are relatively older—by as much as 12 months minus 1 day—than those born later in the selection year (e.g. December). Research in the area of sport has identified a number of significant developmental effects associated with such relative age differences. However, a theoretical framework that describes the breadth and complexity of relative age effects (RAEs) in sport does not exist in the literature. This paper reviews and summarizes the existing literature on relative age in sport, and proposes a constraints-based developmental systems model for RAEs in sport.

  16. Biosocial Spaces and Neurocomputational Governance: Brain-Based and Brain-Targeted Technologies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben; Pykett, Jessica; Nemorin, Selena

    2018-01-01

    Recently, technologies based on neuroscientific insights into brain function and structure have been promoted for application in education. The novel practices and environments produced by these technologies require new forms of "biosocial" analysis to unpack their implications for education, learning and governance. This article…

  17. Validation of Measures of Biosocial Precursors to Borderline Personality Disorder: Childhood Emotional Vulnerability and Environmental Invalidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Shannon E.; Baer, Ruth A.

    2010-01-01

    Linehan's biosocial theory suggests that borderline personality disorder (BPD) results from a transaction of two childhood precursors: emotional vulnerability and an invalidating environment. Until recently, few empirical studies have explored relationships between these theoretical precursors and symptoms of the disorder. Psychometrically sound…

  18. Bioscience and the Sociology of Education: The Case for Biosocial Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdell, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This article makes a case for biosocial education as a field of research and as a potential framework for education practice. The article engages with sociology of education's contemporary interests in embodiment and affect, the possibilities offered by concept studies, and uses of assemblage and complexity theory for thinking about educational…

  19. A Practitioners’ Perspective on Developmental Models, Metrics and Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Stewart

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article builds on a paper by Stein and Heikkinen (2009, and suggestsways to expand and improve our measurement of the quality of the developmentalmodels, metrics and instruments and the results we get in collaborating with clients. Wesuggest that this dialogue needs to be about more than stage development measured by(even calibrated stage development-focused, linguistic-based, developmental psychologymetrics that produce lead indicators and are shown to be reliable and valid bypsychometric qualities alone. The article first provides a brief overview of ourbackground and biases, and an applied version of Ken Wilber’s Integral OperatingSystem that has provided increased development, client satisfaction, and contribution toour communities measured by verifiable, tangible results (as well as intangible resultssuch as increased ability to cope with complex surroundings, reduced stress and growthin developmental stages to better fit to the environment in which our clients wereengaged at that time. It then addresses four key points raised by Stein and Heikkinen(need for quality control, defining and deciding on appropriate metrics, building a systemto evaluate models and metrics, and clarifying and increasing the reliability and validityof the models and metrics we use by providing initial concrete steps to:• Adopt a systemic value-chain approach• Measure results in addition to language• Build on the evaluation system for instruments, models and metrics suggested byStein & Heikkinen• Clarify and improve the reliability and validity of the instruments, models andmetrics we useWe complete the article with an echoing call for the community of AppliedDevelopmental Theory suggested by Ross (2008 and Stein and Heikkinen, a briefdescription of that community (from our perspective, and a table that builds on Table 2proposed by Stein and Heikkinen.

  20. Developmental trajectories of adolescent popularity: a growth curve modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2006-12-01

    Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were available in Grades 5-12. The popularity and aggression constructs were stable but non-overlapping developmental dimensions. Growth curve models were run with SAS MIXED in the framework of the multilevel model for change [Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press]. Sociometric popularity showed a linear change trajectory; perceived popularity showed nonlinear change. Overt aggression predicted low sociometric popularity but an increase in perceived popularity in the second half of the study. Relational aggression predicted a decrease in sociometric popularity, especially for girls, and continued high-perceived popularity for both genders. The effect of relational aggression on perceived popularity was the strongest around the transition from middle to high school. The importance of growth curve models for understanding adolescent social development was discussed, as well as specific issues and challenges of growth curve analyses with sociometric data.

  1. Polyvagal Theory and developmental psychopathology: emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K

    2007-02-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed.

  2. Polyvagal Theory and Developmental Psychopathology: Emotion Dysregulation and Conduct Problems from Preschool to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K.

    2007-01-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed. PMID:17045726

  3. A model for investigating developmental eye repair in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kha, Cindy X; Son, Philip H; Lauper, Julia; Tseng, Kelly Ai-Sun

    2018-04-01

    Vertebrate eye development is complex and requires early interactions between neuroectoderm and surface ectoderm during embryogenesis. In the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, individual eye tissues such as the retina and lens can undergo regeneration. However, it has been reported that removal of either the specified eye field at the neurula stage or the eye during tadpole stage does not induce replacement. Here we describe a model for investigating Xenopus developmental eye repair. We found that tailbud embryos can readily regrow eyes after surgical removal of over 83% of the specified eye and lens tissues. The regrown eye reached a comparable size to the contralateral control by 5 days and overall animal development was normal. It contained the expected complement of eye cell types (including the pigmented epithelium, retina and lens), and is connected to the brain. Our data also demonstrate that apoptosis, an early mechanism that regulates appendage regeneration, is also required for eye regrowth. Treatment with apoptosis inhibitors (M50054 or NS3694) blocked eye regrowth by inhibiting caspase activation. Together, our findings indicate that frog embryos can undergo successful eye repair after considerable tissue loss and reveals a required role for apoptosis in this process. Furthermore, this Xenopus model allows for rapid comparisons of productive eye repair and developmental pathways. It can also facilitate the molecular dissection of signaling mechanisms necessary for initiating repair. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. A developmental etiological model for drug abuse in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Edwards, Alexis C; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-10-01

    We attempt to develop a relatively comprehensive structural model of risk factors for drug abuse (DA) in Swedish men that illustrates developmental and mediational processes. We examined 20 risk factors for DA in 48,369 men undergoing conscription examinations in 1969-70 followed until 2011 when 2.34% (n=1134) of them had DA ascertained in medical, criminal and pharmacy registries. Risk factors were organized into four developmental tiers reflecting i) birth, ii) childhood/early adolescence, iii) late adolescence, and iv) young adulthood. Structural equational model fitting was performed using Mplus. The best fitting model explained 47.8% of the variance in DA. The most prominent predictors, in order, were: early adolescent externalizing behavior, early adult criminal behavior, early adolescent internalizing behavior, early adult unemployment, early adult alcohol use disorder, and late adolescent drug use. Two major inter-connecting pathways emerged reflecting i) genetic/familial risk and ii) family dysfunction and psychosocial adversity. Generated on a first and tested on a second random half of the sample, a model from these variables predicted DA with an ROC area under the curve of 83.6%. Fifty-nine percent of DA cases arose from subjects in the top decile of risk. DA in men is a highly multifactorial syndrome with risk arising from familial-genetic, psychosocial, behavioral and psychological factors acting and interacting over development. Among the multiple predisposing factors for DA, a range of psychosocial adversities, externalizing psychopathology and lack of social constraints in early adulthood are predominant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards Developmental Models of Psychiatric Disorders in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Howard James Norton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are a diverse set of diseases that affect all aspects of mental function including social interaction, thinking, feeling and mood. Although psychiatric disorders place a large economic burden on society, the drugs available to treat them are often palliative with variable efficacy and intolerable side-effects. The development of novel drugs has been hindered by a lack of knowledge about the etiology of these diseases. It is thus necessary to further investigate psychiatric disorders using a combination of human molecular genetics, gene-by-environment studies, in vitro pharmacological and biochemistry experiments, animal models and investigation of the non-biological basis of these diseases, such as environmental effects.Many psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental retardation and schizophrenia can be triggered by alterations to neural development. The zebrafish is a popular model for developmental biology that is increasingly used to study human disease. Recent work has extended this approach to examine psychiatric disorders as well. However, since psychiatric disorders affect complex mental functions that might be human specific, it is not possible to fully model them in fish. In this review, I will propose that the suitability of zebrafish for developmental studies, and the genetic tools available to manipulate them, provide a powerful model to study the roles of genes that are linked to psychiatric disorders during neural development. The relative speed and ease of conducting experiments in zebrafish can be used to address two areas of future research: the contribution of environmental factors to disease onset, and screening for novel therapeutic compounds.

  6. C. elegans as a model in developmental neurotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkiewicz, Joanna A; Pinkas, Adi; Miah, Mahfuzur R; Weitz, Rebecca L; Lawes, Michael J A; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ijomone, Omamuyovwi M; Aschner, Michael

    2018-03-14

    Due to many advantages Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has become a preferred model of choice in many fields, including neurodevelopmental toxicity studies. This review discusses the benefits of using C. elegans as an alternative to mammalian systems and gives examples of the uses of the nematode in evaluating the effects of major known neurodevelopmental toxins, including manganese, mercury, lead, fluoride, arsenic and organophosphorus pesticides. Reviewed data indicates numerous similarities with mammals in response to these toxins. Thus, C. elegans studies have the potential to predict possible effects of developmental neurotoxicants in higher animals, and may be used to identify new molecular pathways behind neurodevelopmental disruptions, as well as new toxicants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying the "Truly Disadvantaged": A Comprehensive Biosocial Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Connolly, Eric J.; Schwartz, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    There has been significant interest in examining the developmental factors that predispose individuals to chronic criminal offending. This body of research has identified some social-environmental risk factors as potentially important. At the same time, the research producing these results has generally failed to employ genetically sensitive…

  8. Identity and equipment in biosocial collectives: a material-semiotic reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castillo-Sepúlveda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biosociality refers to modes of personal and collective identification that are defined from a biological trait. Diverse investigations that have addressed social formations of this type, have exalted how through interaction processes with socio-technical entities, the identity of involved actors is redefined. In this paper are analysed the implications of participation in biosocial collectives to the humans involved, from the actor-network theory. In that sense, it is described how in these spaces the identity behaves as a composition, involving the association of heterogeneous elements which articulate a human to a number of entities that can transform the definition of the self. Also, are acquired meanings that amplify the spectrum of possible actions to face the uncertainty of the disease itself. By using the term of equipment, described by Foucault and rescued by Rabinow, it is considered that participation in biosocial weaves affects the acquisition of new skills to deal with scenarios of uncertainty. An equipment consists in a continuum of actions aimed to a practical purpose involving the preparation to deal with different contexts, from the association to heterogeneous entities.

  9. What binds biosociality? The collective effervescence of the parent-led conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Rebecca; Bartlett, Andrew; Lewis, Jamie

    2015-02-01

    Questions of community are central to many research settings in the social sciences. Rabinow argued that, in the wake of the Human Genome Project, an increasingly important form of collectivity would be biosociality. Biosociality recognises a central role for biomedical knowledge in constructing genetic identities and producing and reproducing social relationships. Accordingly, it is often imagined as a new form of social solidarity. We draw on observations of parent-led conferences to explore the way in which biosociality is expressed at events organised around a particular genetic syndrome - 22q11 deletion syndrome. The parent-led conferences took place within the United Kingdom between 2007 and 2010 and were observed as part of a multi-sited ethnographic study. By bringing together a geographically dispersed group of people together within the same physical location, conferences offer an ideal platform to empirically examine sociality. Durkheim used the term collective effervescence to describe the collective expression of heightened emotion. We suggest that in the case of the 22q11 deletion syndrome activities discussed in this paper, collective effervescence is a mechanism through which individuals become a collective. We argue that parent-led conferences gather individuals in one location on the basis of common biological factors, but it is the shared emotional experience of being together that consolidates and renews the connection between members. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An examination of the developmental propensity model of conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K; Hink, Laura K; Johnson, Daniel P; Smith Watts, Ashley K; Young, Susan E; Robinson, JoAnn; Waldman, Irwin D; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2016-05-01

    The present study tested specific hypotheses advanced by the developmental propensity model of the etiology of conduct problems in the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study, a prospective, longitudinal, genetically informative sample. High negative emotionality, low behavioral inhibition, low concern and high disregard for others, and low cognitive ability assessed during toddlerhood (age 14 to 36 months) were examined as predictors of conduct problems in later childhood and adolescence (age 4 to 17 years). Each hypothesized antisocial propensity dimension predicted conduct problems, but some predictions may be context specific or due to method covariance. The most robust predictors were observed disregard for others (i.e., responding to others' distress with active, negative responses such as anger and hostility), general cognitive ability, and language ability, which were associated with conduct problems reported by parents, teachers, and adolescents, and change in observed negative emotionality (i.e., frustration tolerance), which was associated with conduct problems reported by teachers and adolescents. Furthermore, associations between the most robust early predictors and later conduct problems were influenced by the shared environment rather than genes. We conclude that shared environmental influences that promote disregard for others and detract from cognitive and language development during toddlerhood also predispose individuals to conduct problems in later childhood and adolescence. The identification of those shared environmental influences common to early antisocial propensity and later conduct problems is an important future direction, and additional developmental behavior genetic studies examining the interaction between children's characteristics and socializing influences on conduct problems are needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A Developmental Model Applied to Problems of Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Hilde S.

    2000-01-01

    This "classic" article (1972) in the field of deaf studies includes some interpretive notes for current readers. The article examines the effect of deafness on basic developmental tasks at each of the eight developmental stages of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development and explains the more successful passage through these…

  12. The power of an ontology-driven developmental toxicity database for data mining and computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling of developmental toxicology presents a significant challenge to computational toxicology due to endpoint complexity and lack of data coverage. These challenges largely account for the relatively few modeling successes using the structure–activity relationship (SAR) parad...

  13. Violent Victimization and Perpetration during Adolescence: Developmental Stage Dependent Ecological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Needham, Belinda L.; Grunden, Leslie N.; Farb, Amy Feldman

    2010-01-01

    Using a variant of the ecological-transactional model and developmental theories of delinquency on a nationally representative sample of adolescents, the current study explored the ecological predictors of violent victimization, perpetration, and both for three different developmental stages during adolescence. We examined the relative influence…

  14. Developmental Education: A Proposed Model For Guidance and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, George M.

    1978-01-01

    Coins a new term for counselors--"developmental education"--which the author defines as developing specific life-coping skills. The article also examines some ethical questions which are related to this intentional manipulation of the human condition. (Author/HMV)

  15. Specifying theories of developmental dyslexia: a diffusion model analysis of word recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeguers, M.H.T.; Snellings, P.; Tijms, J.; Weeda, W.D.; Tamboer, P.; Bexkens, A.; Huizenga, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of word recognition difficulties in developmental dyslexia is still a topic of controversy. We investigated the contribution of phonological processing deficits and uncertainty to the word recognition difficulties of dyslexic children by mathematical diffusion modeling of visual and

  16. Identifying developmental vascular disruptor compounds using a predictive signature and alternative toxicity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying Developmental Vascular Disruptor Compounds Using a Predictive Signature and Alternative Toxicity Models Presenting Author: Tamara Tal Affiliation: U.S. EPA/ORD/ISTD, RTP, NC, USA Chemically induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development can result in a wide...

  17. Bio-Social Variables as Predictors of Teacher Union Leaders' Adherence to Democratic Principles in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejoh, Johnson

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of bio-social variables - educational status, age and family socio-economic background on teacher union leaders' adherence to democratic principles in Ogun State of Nigeria. The study employed the ex-post-facto research design. Five hypotheses were generated and tested using an instrument titled "union…

  18. A developmental, biopsychosocial model for the treatment of children with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Bradley, Susan J

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the therapeutic model and approach used in the Gender Identity Service at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto. The authors describe their assessment protocol, describe their current multifactorial case formulation model, including a strong emphasis on developmental factors, and provide clinical examples of how the model is used in the treatment.

  19. Using Video Modeling to Teach Young Children with Autism Developmentally Appropriate Play and Connected Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheflen, Sarah Clifford; Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Paparella, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Four children with autism were taught play skills through the use of video modeling. Video instruction was used to model play and appropriate language through a developmental sequence of play levels integrated with language techniques. Results showed that children with autism could successfully use video modeling to learn how to play appropriately…

  20. Commentary: role of temperament in developmental models of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B

    2004-03-01

    The articles in this special section provide exciting and useful perspectives on the role of temperament in the development of child and adolescent psychopathology. These articles are valuable both in summarizing what is known and in highlighting issues that must be addressed before further progress can be made. In the future, it will be essential to distinguish between the constructs of temperament and psychopathology in ways that are both scientifically valid and useful to the study of developmental psychopathology. In particular, because existing measures of temperament were not designed to study relations between temperament and psychopathology, new measures are needed that focus on relevant aspects of temperament and are not confounded by the inclusion of items that are close synonyms and antonyms of psychopathology. If circular and mentalistic thinking can be avoided, important advances can be expected from studies of temperament and psychopathology in the context of development.

  1. A developmental systems perspective on epistasis: computational exploration of mutational interactions in model developmental regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Gutiérrez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The way in which the information contained in genotypes is translated into complex phenotypic traits (i.e. embryonic expression patterns depends on its decoding by a multilayered hierarchy of biomolecular systems (regulatory networks. Each layer of this hierarchy displays its own regulatory schemes (i.e. operational rules such as +/- feedback and associated control parameters, resulting in characteristic variational constraints. This process can be conceptualized as a mapping issue, and in the context of highly-dimensional genotype-phenotype mappings (GPMs epistatic events have been shown to be ubiquitous, manifested in non-linear correspondences between changes in the genotype and their phenotypic effects. In this study I concentrate on epistatic phenomena pervading levels of biological organization above the genetic material, more specifically the realm of molecular networks. At this level, systems approaches to studying GPMs are specially suitable to shed light on the mechanistic basis of epistatic phenomena. To this aim, I constructed and analyzed ensembles of highly-modular (fully interconnected networks with distinctive topologies, each displaying dynamic behaviors that were categorized as either arbitrary or functional according to early patterning processes in the Drosophila embryo. Spatio-temporal expression trajectories in virtual syncytial embryos were simulated via reaction-diffusion models. My in silico mutational experiments show that: 1 the average fitness decay tendency to successively accumulated mutations in ensembles of functional networks indicates the prevalence of positive epistasis, whereas in ensembles of arbitrary networks negative epistasis is the dominant tendency; and 2 the evaluation of epistatic coefficients of diverse interaction orders indicates that, both positive and negative epistasis are more prevalent in functional networks than in arbitrary ones. Overall, I conclude that the phenotypic and fitness effects of

  2. From biological and social network metaphors to coupled bio-social wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Anil Kumar, V.S.; Marathe, Madhav V.

    2010-01-01

    Biological and social analogies have been long applied to complex systems. Inspiration has been drawn from biological solutions to solve problems in engineering products and systems, ranging from Velcro to camouflage to robotics to adaptive and learning computing methods. In this paper, we present an overview of recent advances in understanding biological systems as networks and use this understanding to design and analyse wireless communication networks. We expand on two applications, namely cognitive sensing and control and wireless epidemiology. We discuss how our work in these two applications is motivated by biological metaphors. We believe that recent advances in computing and communications coupled with advances in health and social sciences raise the possibility of studying coupled bio-social communication networks. We argue that we can better utilise the advances in our understanding of one class of networks to better our understanding of the other. PMID:21643462

  3. The Sherborne Developmental Movement (SDM) Teaching Model for Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Meirav; Walter, Ofra

    2012-01-01

    Previously, the Sherborne Developmental Movement (SDM) has been found to contribute to the development of emotional competencies in higher education. This study presents and evaluates a teaching model based on SDM for the development of emotional competencies in teacher education. The study examined the contributions of this model to the increase…

  4. Differential Susceptibility to the Environment: Are Developmental Models Compatible with the Evidence from Twin Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Marco

    2016-01-01

    According to models of differential susceptibility, the same neurobiological and temperamental traits that determine increased sensitivity to stress and adversity also confer enhanced responsivity to the positive aspects of the environment. Differential susceptibility models have expanded to include complex developmental processes in which genetic…

  5. Developmental Cascade Model for Adolescent Substance Use from Infancy to Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Lessard, Jared; Colder, Craig R.; Livingston, Jennifer; Casey, Meghan; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade model for adolescent substance use beginning in infancy was examined in a sample of children with alcoholic and nonalcoholic parents. The model examined the role of parents' alcohol diagnoses, depression and antisocial behavior in a cascading process of risk via 3 major hypothesized pathways: first, via parental…

  6. A developmental cascade perspective of paediatric obesity: a conceptual model and scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D; Egan, Kaitlyn N; Montaño, Zorash; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E; Larson, Madeline; St George, Sara M

    2018-04-05

    Considering the immense challenge of preventing obesity, the time has come to reconceptualise the way we study the obesity development in childhood. The developmental cascade model offers a longitudinal framework to elucidate the way cumulative consequences and spreading effects of risk and protective factors, across and within biopsychosocial spheres and phases of development, can propel individuals towards obesity. In this article, we use a theory-driven model-building approach and a scoping review that included 310 published studies to propose a developmental cascade model of paediatric obesity. The proposed model provides a basis for testing hypothesised cascades with multiple intervening variables and complex longitudinal processes. Moreover, the model informs future research by resolving seemingly contradictory findings on pathways to obesity previously thought to be distinct (low self-esteem, consuming sugary foods, and poor sleep cause obesity) that are actually processes working together over time (low self-esteem causes consumption of sugary foods which disrupts sleep quality and contributes to obesity). The findings of such inquiries can aid in identifying the timing and specific targets of preventive interventions across and within developmental phases. The implications of such a cascade model of paediatric obesity for health psychology and developmental and prevention sciences are discussed.

  7. Developmental programming: the concept, large animal models, and the key role of uteroplacental vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L P; Borowicz, P P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A; Luther, J S; Hammer, C J; Maddock Carlin, K R; Grazul-Bilska, A T; Redmer, D A

    2010-04-01

    Developmental programming refers to the programming of various bodily systems and processes by a stressor of the maternal system during pregnancy or during the neonatal period. Such stressors include nutritional stress, multiple pregnancy (i.e., increased numbers of fetuses in the gravid uterus), environmental stress (e.g., high environmental temperature, high altitude, prenatal steroid exposure), gynecological immaturity, and maternal or fetal genotype. Programming refers to impaired function of numerous bodily systems or processes, leading to poor growth, altered body composition, metabolic dysfunction, and poor productivity (e.g., poor growth, reproductive dysfunction) of the offspring throughout their lifespan and even across generations. A key component of developmental programming seems to be placental dysfunction, leading to altered fetal growth and development. We discuss various large animal models of developmental programming and how they have and will continue to contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying altered placental function and developmental programming, and, further, how large animal models also will be critical to the identification and application of therapeutic strategies that will alleviate the negative consequences of developmental programming to improve offspring performance in livestock production and human medicine.

  8. Hydrocephalus and arthrogryposis in an immunocompetent mouse model of ZIKA teratogeny: A developmental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier-Neto, Jose; Carvalho, Murilo; Pascoalino, Bruno dos Santos; Cardoso, Alisson Campos; Costa, Ângela Maria Sousa; Pereira, Ana Helena Macedo; Santos, Luana Nunes; Saito, Ângela; Marques, Rafael Elias; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Consonni, Silvio Roberto; Bandeira, Carla; Costa, Vivian Vasconcelos; Bajgelman, Marcio Chaim; de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes; Cordeiro, Marli Tenorio; Gonzales Gil, Laura Helena Vega; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Granato, Daniela Campos; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Freitas-Junior, Lucio; Holanda de Freitas, Carolina Borsoi Moraes; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Bevilacqua, Estela; Franchini, Kleber

    2017-01-01

    The teratogenic mechanisms triggered by ZIKV are still obscure due to the lack of a suitable animal model. Here we present a mouse model of developmental disruption induced by ZIKV hematogenic infection. The model utilizes immunocompetent animals from wild-type FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J strains, providing a better analogy to the human condition than approaches involving immunodeficient, genetically modified animals, or direct ZIKV injection into the brain. When injected via the jugular vein into the blood of pregnant females harboring conceptuses from early gastrulation to organogenesis stages, akin to the human second and fifth week of pregnancy, ZIKV infects maternal tissues, placentas and embryos/fetuses. Early exposure to ZIKV at developmental day 5 (second week in humans) produced complex manifestations of anterior and posterior dysraphia and hydrocephalus, as well as severe malformations and delayed development in 10.5 days post-coitum (dpc) embryos. Exposure to the virus at 7.5–9.5 dpc induces intra-amniotic hemorrhage, widespread edema, and vascular rarefaction, often prominent in the cephalic region. At these stages, most affected embryos/fetuses displayed gross malformations and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), rather than isolated microcephaly. Disrupted conceptuses failed to achieve normal developmental landmarks and died in utero. Importantly, this is the only model so far to display dysraphia and hydrocephalus, the harbinger of microcephaly in humans, as well as arthrogryposis, a set of abnormal joint postures observed in the human setting. Late exposure to ZIKV at 12.5 dpc failed to produce noticeable malformations. We have thus characterized a developmental window of opportunity for ZIKV-induced teratogenesis encompassing early gastrulation, neurulation and early organogenesis stages. This should not, however, be interpreted as evidence for any safe developmental windows for ZIKV exposure. Late developmental abnormalities correlated with

  9. Hydrocephalus and arthrogryposis in an immunocompetent mouse model of ZIKA teratogeny: A developmental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Xavier-Neto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The teratogenic mechanisms triggered by ZIKV are still obscure due to the lack of a suitable animal model. Here we present a mouse model of developmental disruption induced by ZIKV hematogenic infection. The model utilizes immunocompetent animals from wild-type FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J strains, providing a better analogy to the human condition than approaches involving immunodeficient, genetically modified animals, or direct ZIKV injection into the brain. When injected via the jugular vein into the blood of pregnant females harboring conceptuses from early gastrulation to organogenesis stages, akin to the human second and fifth week of pregnancy, ZIKV infects maternal tissues, placentas and embryos/fetuses. Early exposure to ZIKV at developmental day 5 (second week in humans produced complex manifestations of anterior and posterior dysraphia and hydrocephalus, as well as severe malformations and delayed development in 10.5 days post-coitum (dpc embryos. Exposure to the virus at 7.5-9.5 dpc induces intra-amniotic hemorrhage, widespread edema, and vascular rarefaction, often prominent in the cephalic region. At these stages, most affected embryos/fetuses displayed gross malformations and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, rather than isolated microcephaly. Disrupted conceptuses failed to achieve normal developmental landmarks and died in utero. Importantly, this is the only model so far to display dysraphia and hydrocephalus, the harbinger of microcephaly in humans, as well as arthrogryposis, a set of abnormal joint postures observed in the human setting. Late exposure to ZIKV at 12.5 dpc failed to produce noticeable malformations. We have thus characterized a developmental window of opportunity for ZIKV-induced teratogenesis encompassing early gastrulation, neurulation and early organogenesis stages. This should not, however, be interpreted as evidence for any safe developmental windows for ZIKV exposure. Late developmental abnormalities

  10. Developmental Immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

  11. A Connectionist Model of a Continuous Developmental Transition in the Balance Scale Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapiro, Anna C.; McClelland, James L.

    2009-01-01

    A connectionist model of the balance scale task is presented which exhibits developmental transitions between "Rule I" and "Rule II" behavior [Siegler, R. S. (1976). Three aspects of cognitive development. "Cognitive Psychology," 8, 481-520.] as well as the "catastrophe flags" seen in data from Jansen and van der Maas [Jansen, B. R. J., & van der…

  12. The dynamics of general developmental mechanisms : From Piaget and Vygotsky to dynamic systems models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geert, P

    Dynamic systems theory conceives of development as a self-organizational process. Both complexity and order emerge as a product of elementary principles of interaction between components involved in the developmental process. This article presents a dynamic systems model based on a general dual

  13. A dynamic systems model of basic developmental mechanisms : Piaget, Vygotsky, and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geert, P

    1998-01-01

    A dynamic systems model is proposed on the basis of a general developmental mechanism adopted from the theories of J. Piaget and L. S. Vygotsky, more particularly a mechanism based on the concepts assimilation versus accommodation and actual development versus zone of proximal development. In the

  14. Investigation of a Developmental Model of Risk for Depression and Suicidality Following Spousal Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Zhang, Baohui; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2008-01-01

    Data from a community-based multi-wave investigation were used to examine a developmental model of risk for depression and suicidality following the death of a spouse. Measures of perceived parental affection and control during childhood were administered to 218 widowed adults 11 months after the death of the spouse. Self-esteem, spousal…

  15. Modeling Zebrafish Developmental Toxicity using a Concurrent In vitro Assay Battery (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the development of computational models that predict activity in a repeat-dose zebrafish embryo developmental toxicity assay using a combination of physico-chemical parameters and in vitro (human) assay measurements. The data set covered 986 chemicals including pestic...

  16. Maintaining Vocational Skills of Individuals with Autism and Developmental Disabilities through Video Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laarhoven, Toni; Winiarski, Lauren; Blood, Erika; Chan, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    A modified pre/posttest control group design was used to measure the effectiveness of video modeling on the maintenance of vocational tasks for six students with autism spectrum disorder and/or developmental disabilities. Each student was assigned two vocational tasks at their employment settings and their independence with each task was measured…

  17. Alternative Models to Deliver Developmental Math: Issues of Use and Student Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiewicz, Holly; Ngo, Federick; Fong, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Changing how community colleges deliver developmental education has become a key policy lever to increase student achievement. Alternative development education models reduce the amount of time a student spends in remediation, provide students with supplemental instruction and support, and contextualize content to align with student…

  18. Reproductive/developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity assessment in the nonhuman primate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buse, Eberhard; Habermann, Gunnar; Osterburg, Ingrid; Korte, Rainhart; Weinbauer, Gerhard F.

    2003-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are being used increasingly as a non-rodent animal model during preclinical toxicology and safety assessment on the basis of proven similarity and comparability between nonhuman primates and humans. The validity of the nonhuman primate models applies to many aspects of toxicological testing and holds particularly true for the evaluation of reproductive toxicology and developmental toxicology. More recently, the advent of humanized antibodies and vaccines imposed further demand on nonhuman primate models since many immunotherapeutics do not interact with rodent receptors but frequently only cross-react with primate tissue. In this paper we discuss the suitability of primate models for reproductive, developmental and immunotoxicology testing, and present our initial data on the development of lymphatic organs and immune system in a nonhuman primate model

  19. Thinking outside the boxes: Using current reading models to assess and treat developmental surface dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Caroline; Cupples, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Improving the reading performance of children with developmental surface dyslexia has proved challenging, with limited generalisation of reading skills typically reported after intervention. The aim of this study was to provide tailored, theoretically motivated intervention to two children with developmental surface dyslexia. Our objectives were to improve their reading performance, and to evaluate the utility of current reading models in therapeutic practice. Detailed reading and cognitive profiles for two male children with developmental surface dyslexia were compared to the results obtained by age-matched control groups. The specific area of single-word reading difficulty for each child was identified within the dual route model (DRM) of reading, following which a theoretically motivated intervention programme was devised. Both children showed significant improvements in single-word reading ability after training, with generalisation effects observed for untrained words. However, the assessment and intervention results also differed for each child, reinforcing the view that the causes and consequences of developmental dyslexia, even within subtypes, are not homogeneous. Overall, the results of the interventions corresponded more closely with the DRM than other current reading models, in that real word reading improved in the absence of enhanced nonword reading for both children.

  20. Dampened hippocampal oscillations and enhanced spindle activity in an asymptomatic model of developmental cortical malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eCid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental cortical malformations comprise a large spectrum of histopathological brain abnormalities and syndromes. Their genetic, developmental and clinical complexity suggests they should be better understood in terms of the complementary action of independently timed perturbations (i.e. the multiple-hit hypothesis. However, understanding the underlying biological processes remains puzzling. Here we induced developmental cortical malformations in offspring, after intraventricular injection of methylazoxymethanol (MAM in utero in mice. We combined extensive histological and electrophysiological studies to characterize the model. We found that MAM injections at E14 and E15 induced a range of cortical and hippocampal malformations resembling histological alterations of specific genetic mutations and transplacental mitotoxic agent injections. However, in contrast to most of these models, intraventricularly MAM-injected mice remained asymptomatic and showed no clear epilepsy-related phenotype as tested in long-term chronic recordings and with pharmacological manipulations. Instead, they exhibited a non-specific reduction of hippocampal-related brain oscillations (mostly in CA1; including theta, gamma and HFOs; and enhanced thalamocortical spindle activity during non-REM sleep. These data suggest that developmental cortical malformations do not necessarily correlate with epileptiform activity. We propose that the intraventricular in utero MAM approach exhibiting a range of rhythmopathies is a suitable model for multiple-hit studies of associated neurological disorders.

  1. Recent advances in mathematical modeling of developmental abnormalities using mechanistic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavlock, R J

    1997-01-01

    During the last several years, significant changes in the risk assessment process for developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants have begun to emerge. The first of these changes is the development and beginning use of statistically based dose-response models [the benchmark dose (BMD) approach] that better utilize data derived from existing testing approaches. Accompanying this change is the greater emphasis placed on understanding and using mechanistic information to yield more accurate, reliable, and less uncertain risk assessments. The next stage in the evolution of risk assessment will be the use of biologically based dose-response (BBDR) models that begin to build into the statistically based models factors related to the underlying kinetic, biochemical, and/or physiologic processes perturbed by a toxicant. Such models are now emerging from several research laboratories. The introduction of quantitative models and the incorporation of biologic information into them has pointed to the need for even more sophisticated modifications for which we offer the term embryologically based dose-response (EBDR) models. Because these models would be based upon the understanding of normal morphogenesis, they represent a quantum leap in our thinking, but their complexity presents daunting challenges both to the developmental biologist and the developmental toxicologist. Implementation of these models will require extensive communication between developmental toxicologists, molecular embryologists, and biomathematicians. The remarkable progress in the understanding of mammalian embryonic development at the molecular level that has occurred over the last decade combined with advances in computing power and computational models should eventually enable these as yet hypothetical models to be brought into use.

  2. New models and molecular markers in evaluation of developmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huuskonen, Hannele

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian and non-mammalian embryos and embryonic stem cells may be used as models in mechanistic studies and in testing embryotoxicity of compounds. In addition to conventional culture methods, genetic modifications and use of molecular markers offer significant advantages in mechanistic studies as well as in developing new test methods for embryotoxicity. Zebrafish model has been used for a long time and at present several applications are available. It is an easy vertebral non-mammalian model, whose genome is largely known and several genetic modifications are easily constructed to study gene expression or knocked down genes. Fluorescent marker proteins can be used also in zebrafish to indicate gene activation in transgenic models. Chemical genetics approach has been developed using zebrafish model. This is a new approach to screen small molecules that regulate signaling pathways. Embryonic stem cells have been used in mechanistic studies and mouse embryonic stem cell test has been validated to study embryotoxicity in vitro. This method has been improved using quantitative measurements of molecular endpoints by real-time RT-PCR or fluorescent activated cell sorting methods (FACS). Methods facilitating differentiation to several different cell types are available. We have studied preimplantation mouse embryos as a possible model for in vitro testing. In this method, superovulated and in vivo fertilized preimplantation embryos were collected at morula stage and cultured up to blastocysts. The mouse preimplantation culture test was improved by quantitative gene expression measurement using two-step real-time RT-PCR methods. New endpoints improve the tests of in vitro embryotoxicity because subjective assessments are replaced by objective measurements. In addition, automation is possible and less time is needed for analysis. Thus, high throughput screening will come possible to test large numbers of compounds

  3. Leadership Identity Development: Challenges in Applying a Developmental Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Mainella, Felicia; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.; Wagner, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The leadership identity development (LID) grounded theory (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005) and related LID model (Komives, Longerbeam, Owen, Mainella, & Osteen, 2006) present a framework for understanding how individual college students develop the social identity of being collaborative, relational leaders…

  4. THE DEUTSCH MODEL--INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Univ., NY. Inst. for Developmental Studies.

    THE DEUTSCH INTERVENTION MODEL IS BASED ON THE THEORY THAT ENVIRONMENT PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE SKILLS AND OF FUNCTIONAL USE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPABILITIES. DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN HAVE INTELLECTUAL DEFICITS WHICH MAY BE OVERCOME BY USE OF MATCHED REMEDIAL MEASURES. LANGUAGE SKILLS AND MOTIVATION CAN BE IMPROVED BY TEACHING…

  5. A developmental approach to mentalizing communities: I. A model for social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twemlow, Stuart W; Fonagy, Peter; Sacco, Frank C

    2005-01-01

    A developmental model is proposed applying attachment theory to complex social systems to promote social change. The idea of mentalizing communities is outlined with a proposal for three projects testing the model: ways to reduce bullying and create a peaceful climate in schools, projects to promote compassion in cities by a focus of end-of-life care, and a mentalization-based intervention into parenting style of borderline and substance abusing parents.

  6. BIO-SOCIAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH HYPERTENSION IN HILLY POPULATION OF TEHRI GARHWAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveer Kumar Saxena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is emerging as a major public health problem in India. The diversity and heterogeneity of distribution of the population makes it difficult to arrive at the precise prevalence. Cardiovascular and other chronic diseases are becoming the major causes of morbidity and mortality in India. Now it is found that prevalence of Hypertension also increasing in rural population1. Various risk factors namely age, smoking, salt intake, consumption of alcohol, B.M.I., Diabetes Mellitus are known to be risk factors for many such diseases. The present study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of Hypertension and to identify their biosocial correlates. Objectives: 1.To determines the prevalence of hypertension in rural population. 2. To identify Bio-Social factors associated with hypertension. Study Design: A clinic based study was conducted in Rural Health Training Centre, Block Kirtinagar, District Garhwal of Uttarakhand which is also the field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, V.C.S.G. Govt. Medical Science & Research Institute. Material & Methods: All the patient attending the OPD were interviewed using pretested structured standard questionnaire. Two independent blood pressure reading were taken in sitting position. Hypertension was defined as Systolic blood pressure more than or equal to 140 mm Hg or Diastolic blood pressure more than or equal to 90 mm Hg or those individual currently taking antihypertensive treatment. Study Subjects: A total 1250 rural inhabitant; 19 year and above were screened. Out of which 562 were male & 688 were female. Study Period: January to July 2011. Study Variable: Age, Sex, Socio-economic status, Smoking, Alcoholism, BMI, Salt-Intake, Type of Family, Marital status, Literacy, Diabetes Mellitus, Family History, Occupation., Statistical Analysis: Chi-Square test, Standard error of difference between two mean. Result & Conclusion: Prevalence of Hypertension in rural population was

  7. Developmental models for estimating ecological responses to environmental variability: structural, parametric, and experimental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Julia L; Remais, Justin V

    2014-03-01

    Developmental models that account for the metabolic effect of temperature variability on poikilotherms, such as degree-day models, have been widely used to study organism emergence, range and development, particularly in agricultural and vector-borne disease contexts. Though simple and easy to use, structural and parametric issues can influence the outputs of such models, often substantially. Because the underlying assumptions and limitations of these models have rarely been considered, this paper reviews the structural, parametric, and experimental issues that arise when using degree-day models, including the implications of particular structural or parametric choices, as well as assumptions that underlie commonly used models. Linear and non-linear developmental functions are compared, as are common methods used to incorporate temperature thresholds and calculate daily degree-days. Substantial differences in predicted emergence time arose when using linear versus non-linear developmental functions to model the emergence time in a model organism. The optimal method for calculating degree-days depends upon where key temperature threshold parameters fall relative to the daily minimum and maximum temperatures, as well as the shape of the daily temperature curve. No method is shown to be universally superior, though one commonly used method, the daily average method, consistently provides accurate results. The sensitivity of model projections to these methodological issues highlights the need to make structural and parametric selections based on a careful consideration of the specific biological response of the organism under study, and the specific temperature conditions of the geographic regions of interest. When degree-day model limitations are considered and model assumptions met, the models can be a powerful tool for studying temperature-dependent development.

  8. A Developmental-Contextual Model of Depressive Symptoms in Mexican-Origin Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gayles, Jochebed G.

    2011-01-01

    The current study tested a developmental-contextual model of depressive symptomatology among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin females and their mothers. The final sample was comprised of 271 dyads. We examined the interrelations among cultural (i.e., acculturation dissonance), developmental (i.e., pubertal development and autonomy expectation discrepancies), and interpersonal (i.e., mother-daughter conflict and maternal supportive parenting) factors in predicting adolescents’ depressive symptoms. For both early and middle adolescents, maternal support was negatively associated with mother-daughter conflict and depressive symptoms. Importantly, mother-daughter autonomy expectation discrepancies were positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but this association was found only among early adolescents. Further, mother-daughter acculturation dissonance was positively associated with mother-daughter conflict, but only among middle adolescents. Findings call for concurrently examining the interface of developmental, relational, and cultural factors in predicting female adolescents’ depressive symptomatology and the potential differences by developmental stage (e.g., early vs. middle adolescence) PMID:21967564

  9. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology: nonlinear effects of temperature and developmental stage on developmental rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Van Asch, M.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  10. Different developmental trajectories across feature types support a dynamic field model of visual working memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Vanessa R; Miller, Hilary E; Bohache, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Research on visual working memory has focused on characterizing the nature of capacity limits as "slots" or "resources" based almost exclusively on adults' performance with little consideration for developmental change. Here we argue that understanding how visual working memory develops can shed new light onto the nature of representations. We present an alternative model, the Dynamic Field Theory (DFT), which can capture effects that have been previously attributed either to "slot" or "resource" explanations. The DFT includes a specific developmental mechanism to account for improvements in both resolution and capacity of visual working memory throughout childhood. Here we show how development in the DFT can account for different capacity estimates across feature types (i.e., color and shape). The current paper tests this account by comparing children's (3, 5, and 7 years of age) performance across different feature types. Results showed that capacity for colors increased faster over development than capacity for shapes. A second experiment confirmed this difference across feature types within subjects, but also showed that the difference can be attenuated by testing memory for less familiar colors. Model simulations demonstrate how developmental changes in connectivity within the model-purportedly arising through experience-can capture differences across feature types.

  11. Thyroid Hormone Disruption Effects Lamination of the Neocortex but not the Cerebellum in a Model of Developmental Hypothyroidism and Hypothyroxinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Research on neurodevelopmental changes resulting from thyroid hormone (TH) disruption has important basic and clinical implications. We previously demonstrated, in a rodent model, that developmental hypothyroidism or hypothyroxinemia can cause ...

  12. Biosocial Conservation: Integrating Biological and Ethnographic Methods to Study Human-Primate Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setchell, Joanna M; Fairet, Emilie; Shutt, Kathryn; Waters, Siân; Bell, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation is one of the grand challenges facing society. Many people interested in biodiversity conservation have a background in wildlife biology. However, the diverse social, cultural, political, and historical factors that influence the lives of people and wildlife can be investigated fully only by incorporating social science methods, ideally within an interdisciplinary framework. Cultural hierarchies of knowledge and the hegemony of the natural sciences create a barrier to interdisciplinary understandings. Here, we review three different projects that confront this difficulty, integrating biological and ethnographic methods to study conservation problems. The first project involved wildlife foraging on crops around a newly established national park in Gabon. Biological methods revealed the extent of crop loss, the species responsible, and an effect of field isolation, while ethnography revealed institutional and social vulnerability to foraging wildlife. The second project concerned great ape tourism in the Central African Republic. Biological methods revealed that gorilla tourism poses risks to gorillas, while ethnography revealed why people seek close proximity to gorillas. The third project focused on humans and other primates living alongside one another in Morocco. Incorporating shepherds in the coproduction of ecological knowledge about primates built trust and altered attitudes to the primates. These three case studies demonstrate how the integration of biological and social methods can help us to understand the sustainability of human-wildlife interactions, and thus promote coexistence. In each case, an integrated biosocial approach incorporating ethnographic data produced results that would not otherwise have come to light. Research that transcends conventional academic boundaries requires the openness and flexibility to move beyond one's comfort zone to understand and acknowledge the legitimacy of "other" kinds of knowledge. It is

  13. Multilevel linear modelling of the response-contingent learning of young children with significant developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J; Hamby, Deborah W

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of the study was to isolate the sources of variations in the rates of response-contingent learning among young children with multiple disabilities and significant developmental delays randomly assigned to contrasting types of early childhood intervention. Multilevel, hierarchical linear growth curve modelling was used to analyze four different measures of child response-contingent learning where repeated child learning measures were nested within individual children (Level-1), children were nested within practitioners (Level-2), and practitioners were nested within the contrasting types of intervention (Level-3). Findings showed that sources of variations in rates of child response-contingent learning were associated almost entirely with type of intervention after the variance associated with differences in practitioners nested within groups were accounted for. Rates of child learning were greater among children whose existing behaviour were used as the building blocks for promoting child competence (asset-based practices) compared to children for whom the focus of intervention was promoting child acquisition of missing skills (needs-based practices). The methods of analysis illustrate a practical approach to clustered data analysis and the presentation of results in ways that highlight sources of variations in the rates of response-contingent learning among young children with multiple developmental disabilities and significant developmental delays. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling the developmental patterns of auditory evoked magnetic fields in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Kotecha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As magnetoencephalography (MEG is of increasing utility in the assessment of deficits and development delays in brain disorders in pediatrics, it becomes imperative to fully understand the functional development of the brain in children. METHODOLOGY: The present study was designed to characterize the developmental patterns of auditory evoked magnetic responses with respect to age and gender. Sixty children and twenty adults were studied with a 275-channel MEG system. CONCLUSIONS: Three main responses were identified at approximately 46 ms (M50, 71 ms (M70 and 106 ms (M100 in latency for children. The latencies of M70 and M100 shortened with age in both hemispheres; the latency of M50 shortened with age only in the right hemisphere. Analysis of developmental lateralization patterns in children showed that the latency of the right hemispheric evoked responses shortened faster than the corresponding left hemispheric responses. The latency of M70 in the right hemisphere highly correlated to the age of the child. The amplitudes of the M70 responses increased with age and reached their peaks in children 12-14 years of age, after which they decreased with age. The source estimates for the M50 and M70 responses indicated that they were generated in different subareas in the Heschl's gyrus in children, while not localizable in adults. Furthermore, gender also affected developmental patterns. The latency of M70 in the right hemisphere was proposed to be an index of auditory development in children, the modeling equation is 85.72-1.240xAge (yrs. Our results demonstrate that there is a clear developmental pattern in the auditory cortex and underscore the importance of M50 and M70 in the developing brain.

  15. Model for Service Delivery for Developmental Disorders in Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Syed Usman; Minhas, Fareed Aslam; Iqbal, Zafar; Rahman, Atif

    2015-12-01

    As in many low-income countries, the treatment gap for developmental disorders in rural Pakistan is near 100%. We integrated social, technological, and business innovations to develop and pilot a potentially sustainable service for children with developmental disorders in 1 rural area. Families with developmental disorders were identified through a mobile phone-based interactive voice response system, and organized into "Family Networks." "Champion" family volunteers were trained in evidence-based interventions. An Avatar-assisted Cascade Training and information system was developed to assist with training, implementation, monitoring, and supervision. In a population of ∼30,000, we successfully established 1 self-sustaining Family Network consisting of 10 trained champion family volunteers working under supervision of specialists, providing intervention to 70 families of children with developmental disorders. Each champion was responsible for training and providing ongoing support to 5 to 7 families from his or her village, and the families supported each other in management of their children. A pre-post evaluation of the program indicated that there was significant improvement in disability and socioemotional difficulties in the child, reduction in stigmatizing experiences, and greater family empowerment to seek services and community resources for the child. There was no change in caregivers' well-being. To replicate this service more widely, a social franchise model has been developed whereby the integrated intervention will be "boxed" up and passed on to others to replicate with appropriate support. Such integrated social, technological, and business innovations have the potential to be applied to other areas of health in low-income countries. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Coalescent models for developmental biology and the spatio-temporal dynamics of growing tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadbeck, Patrick; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2016-04-01

    Development is a process that needs to be tightly coordinated in both space and time. Cell tracking and lineage tracing have become important experimental techniques in developmental biology and allow us to map the fate of cells and their progeny. A generic feature of developing and homeostatic tissues that these analyses have revealed is that relatively few cells give rise to the bulk of the cells in a tissue; the lineages of most cells come to an end quickly. Computational and theoretical biologists/physicists have, in response, developed a range of modelling approaches, most notably agent-based modelling. These models seem to capture features observed in experiments, but can also become computationally expensive. Here, we develop complementary genealogical models of tissue development that trace the ancestry of cells in a tissue back to their most recent common ancestors. We show that with both bounded and unbounded growth simple, but universal scaling relationships allow us to connect coalescent theory with the fractal growth models extensively used in developmental biology. Using our genealogical perspective, it is possible to study bulk statistical properties of the processes that give rise to tissues of cells, without the need for large-scale simulations. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. The guinea pig as an animal model for developmental and reproductive toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Meredith S; Wehner, Nancy G

    2009-04-01

    Regulatory guidelines for developmental and reproductive toxicology (DART) studies require selection of "relevant" animal models as determined by kinetic, pharmacological, and toxicological data. Traditionally, rats, mice, and rabbits are the preferred animal models for these studies. However, for test articles that are pharmacologically inactive in the traditional animal models, the guinea pig may be a viable option. This choice should not be made lightly, as guinea pigs have many disadvantages compared to the traditional species, including limited historical control data, variability in pregnancy rates, small and variable litter size, long gestation, relative maturity at birth, and difficulty in dosing and breeding. This report describes methods for using guinea pigs in DART studies and provides results of positive and negative controls. Standard study designs and animal husbandry methods were modified to allow mating on the postpartum estrus in fertility studies and were used for producing cohorts of pregnant females for developmental studies. A positive control study with the pregnancy-disrupting agent mifepristone resulted in the anticipated failure of embryo implantation and supported the use of the guinea pig model. Control data for reproductive endpoints collected from 5 studies are presented. In cases where the traditional animal models are not relevant, the guinea pig can be used successfully for DART studies. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The search for evolutionary developmental origins of aging in zebrafish: a novel intersection of developmental and senescence biology in the zebrafish model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Shuji

    2011-09-01

    Senescence may be considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena during the process of aging. We investigated whether any relationship exists between the regulatory mechanisms that function in early development and in senescence using the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish and a useful model animal for genetic studies. We conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing an apparent senescence phenotype during embryogenesis (embryonic senescence). Some of the genes we thereby identified had already been associated with cellular senescence and chronological aging in other organisms, but many had not yet been linked to these processes. Complete loss-of-function of developmentally essential genes induce embryonic (or larval) lethality, whereas it seems like their partial loss-of-function (i.e., decrease-of-function by heterozygote or hypomorphic mutations) still remains sufficient to go through the early developmental process because of its adaptive plasticity or rather heterozygote advantage. However, in some cases, such partial loss-of-function of genes compromise normal homeostasis due to haploinsufficiency later in adult life having many environmental stress challenges. By contrast, any heterozygote-advantageous genes might gain a certain benefit(s) (much more fitness) by such partial loss-of-function later in life. Physiological senescence may evolutionarily arise from both genetic and epigenetic drifts as well as from losing adaptive developmental plasticity in face of stress signals from the external environment that interacts with functions of multiple genes rather than effects of only a single gene mutation or defect. Previously uncharacterized developmental genes may thus mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. Moreover, unexpected senescence-related genes might also be involved in the early developmental process and

  19. A Field Study of Participant Reactions to a Developmental Assessment Centre: Testing an organisational justice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Harris

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although assessment centres are being increasingly employed for developmental purposes, there has been a dearth of research regarding them. We investigated an organisational justice theory model suggested by Cohen-Charash and Spector (2001 in this relatively novel context. The model included antecedents (e.g., perceived validity, organisational justice perceptions (i.e., distributive justice and procedural justice, and one outcome (i.e., feedback utility perceptions. Most of our hypotheses were supported, suggesting much evidence for this model. The predicted effect for perceived fakability was not supported. Contrary to our hypothesis, distributive justice perceptions were at least as important as procedural justice perceptions in predicting feedback utility perceptions. A direct test of the effect of context on organisational justice theory is recommended.

  20. The Alternative Peer Group: A Developmentally Appropriate Recovery Support Model for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Angela; Collier, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Recovery as the goal for substance use disorder treatment has been a key component of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's mission for the past decade. Consistent with their mission, there is a call for research and development of recovery-oriented systems of care to support affected individuals through all stages of the recovery process. Evidence is emerging to support recovery practice and research for adults, but recovery-oriented models for adolescents are scant. The Alternative Peer Group (APG) is a comprehensive adolescent recovery support model that integrates recovering peers and prosocial activities into evidence-based clinical practice. Employing APG participants' own words, this article will describe the essential elements and three theoretical frameworks underlying the APG model to illustrate how the APG serves as a developmentally appropriate recovery support service for adolescents with substance use disorder.

  1. Human Inspired Self-developmental Model of Neural Network (HIM): Introducing Content/Form Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajíček, Jiří

    This paper presents cross-disciplinary research between medical/psychological evidence on human abilities and informatics needs to update current models in computer science to support alternative methods for computation and communication. In [10] we have already proposed hypothesis introducing concept of human information model (HIM) as cooperative system. Here we continue on HIM design in detail. In our design, first we introduce Content/Form computing system which is new principle of present methods in evolutionary computing (genetic algorithms, genetic programming). Then we apply this system on HIM (type of artificial neural network) model as basic network self-developmental paradigm. Main inspiration of our natural/human design comes from well known concept of artificial neural networks, medical/psychological evidence and Sheldrake theory of "Nature as Alive" [22].

  2. Virtual Embryo: Cell-Agent Based Modeling of Developmental Processes and Toxicities (CSS BOSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial regulation of cellular dynamics is fundamental to morphological development. As such, chemical disruption of spatial dynamics is a determinant of developmental toxicity. Incorporating spatial dynamics into AOPs for developmental toxicity is desired but constrained by the ...

  3. Developmental vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia: the role of animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenrock, S A; Tarantino, L M

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the US population. Based on twin and genome-wide association studies, it is clear that both genetics and environmental factors increase the risk for developing schizophrenia. Moreover, there is evidence that conditions in utero, either alone or in concert with genetic factors, may alter neurodevelopment and lead to an increased risk for schizophrenia. There has been progress in identifying genetic loci and environmental exposures that increase risk, but there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge. Furthermore, very little is known about the specific neurodevelopmental mechanisms upon which genetics and the environment act to increase disposition to developing schizophrenia in adulthood. Vitamin D deficiency during the perinatal period has been hypothesized to increase risk for schizophrenia in humans. The developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency hypothesis of schizophrenia arises from the observation that disease risk is increased in individuals who are born in winter or spring, live further from the equator or live in urban vs. rural settings. These environments result in less exposure to sunlight, thereby reducing the initial steps in the production of vitamin D. Rodent models have been developed to characterize the behavioral and developmental effects of DVD deficiency. This review focuses on these animal models and discusses the current knowledge of the role of DVD deficiency in altering behavior and neurobiology relevant to schizophrenia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D P Paneru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is

  5. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DP Paneru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is recommended.

  6. Developmental hippocampal neuroplasticity in a model of nicotine replacement therapy during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Mahar

    Full Text Available The influence of developmental nicotine exposure on the brain represents an important health topic in light of the popularity of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT as a smoking cessation method during pregnancy.In this study, we used a model of NRT during pregnancy and breastfeeding to explore the consequences of chronic developmental nicotine exposure on cerebral neuroplasticity in the offspring. We focused on two dynamic lifelong phenomena in the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus that are highly sensitive to the environment: granule cell neurogenesis and long-term potentiation (LTP.Pregnant rats were implanted with osmotic mini-pumps delivering either nicotine or saline solutions. Plasma nicotine and metabolite levels were measured in dams and offspring. Corticosterone levels, DG neurogenesis (cell proliferation, survival and differentiation and glutamatergic electrophysiological activity were measured in pups.Juvenile (P15 and adolescent (P41 offspring exposed to nicotine throughout prenatal and postnatal development displayed no significant alteration in DG neurogenesis compared to control offspring. However, NRT-like nicotine exposure significantly increased LTP in the DG of juvenile offspring as measured in vitro from hippocampal slices, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced LTP enhancement previously described in adult rats are already functional in pups.These results indicate that synaptic plasticity is disrupted in offspring breastfed by dams passively exposed to nicotine in an NRT-like fashion.

  7. Aspects of Piaget's cognitive developmental psychology and neurobiology of psychotic disorders - an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Stefan; Grant, Phillip; von Georgi, Richard; Huber, Martin T

    2008-09-01

    Psychological, neurobiological and neurodevelopmental approaches have frequently been used to provide pathogenic concepts on psychotic disorders. However, aspects of cognitive developmental psychology have hardly been considered in current models. Using a hypothesis-generating approach an integration of these concepts was conducted. According to Piaget (1896-1980), assimilation and accommodation as forms of maintenance and modification of cognitive schemata represent fundamental processes of the brain. In general, based on the perceived input stimuli, cognitive schemata are developed resulting in a conception of the world, the realistic validity and the actuality of which is still being controlled and modified by cognitive adjustment processes. In psychotic disorders, however, a disproportion of environmental demands and the ability to activate required neuronal adaptation processes occurs. We therefore hypothesize a failure of the adjustment of real and requested output patterns. As a consequence autonomous cognitive schemata are generated, which fail to adjust with reality resulting in psychotic symptomatology. Neurobiological, especially neuromodulatory and neuroplastic processes play a central role in these perceptive and cognitive processes. In conclusion, integration of cognitive developmental psychology into the existing pathogenic concepts of psychotic disorders leads to interesting insights into basic disease mechanisms and also guides future research in the cognitive neuroscience of such disorders.

  8. A Julia set model of field-directed morphogenesis: developmental biology and artificial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M

    1994-04-01

    One paradigm used in understanding the control of morphogenetic events is the concept of positional information, where sub-organismic components (such as cells) act in response to positional cues. It is important to determine what kinds of spatiotemporal patterns may be obtained by such a method, and what the characteristics of such a morphogenetic process might be. This paper presents a computer model of morphogenesis based on gene activity driven by interpreting a positional information field. In this model, the interactions of mutually regulating developmental genes are viewed as a map from R2 to R2, and are modeled by the complex number algebra. Functions in complex variables are used to simulate genetic interactions resulting in position-dependent differentiation. This is shown to be equivalent to computing modified Julia sets, and is seen to be sufficient to produce a very rich set of morphologies which are similar in appearance and several important characteristics to those of real organisms. The properties of this model can be used to study the potential role of fields and positional information as guiding factors in morphogenesis, as the model facilitates the study of static images, time-series (movies) and experimental alterations of the developmental process. It is thus shown that gene interactions can be modeled as a multi-dimensional algebra, and that only two interacting genes are sufficient for (i) complex pattern formation, (ii) chaotic differentiation behavior, and (iii) production of sharp edges from a continuous positional information field. This model is meant to elucidate the properties of the process of positional information-guided biomorphogenesis, not to serve as a simulation of any particular organism's development. Good quantitative data are not currently available on the interplay of gene products in morphogenesis. Thus, no attempt is made to link the images produced with actual pictures of any particular real organism. A brief

  9. Assessing the Quality of Life of Persons with Developmental Disabilities: Description of a New Model, Measuring Instruments, and Initial Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A conceptual model of quality of life, developed at the Centre for Health Promotion at the University of Toronto (Canada), and associated instrumentation for collecting data from persons with developmental disabilities are presented. Results from a preliminary study with 41 participants support the reliability and validity of the model's…

  10. Psychometric Characteristics of a Measure of Emotional Dispositions Developed to Test a Developmental Propensity Model of Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Applegate, Brooks; Chronis, Andrea M.; Jones, Heather A.; Williams, Stephanie Hall; Loney, Jan; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2008-01-01

    Lahey and Waldman proposed a developmental propensity model in which three dimensions of children's emotional dispositions are hypothesized to transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder, heterogeneity in conduct disorder, and comorbidity with other disorders. To prepare for future tests of this model, a new measure of…

  11. Medical Research Participation as "Ethical Intercorporeality": Caring for Bio-Social Bodies in a Mexican Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzell, Emily

    2017-03-01

    While medical research ethics guidelines frame participants as individual and autonomous, anthropologists emphasize the relational nature of health research participation. I analyze interviews with Mexican male HPV study participants and their wives to examine how research participants themselves focus on relationships when imagining research-related benefits. I argue that couples incorporated the local trope of the Mexican citizenry as a biologically homogeneous national body, which individual members help or harm through their gendered health behavior to understand these benefits. I use the concept of "ethical intercorporeality" to discuss spouses' understandings of themselves as parts of bio-social wholes-the couple, family, and society-that they believed men's research participation could aid both physically and socially. This finding extends the insight that focusing on relationships rather than individuals is necessary for understanding the consequences of medical research by showing how participants themselves might apply this perspective in context-specific ways. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  12. Ontogeny and physiognomy of the epigenetic landscape: A general model to explain developmental systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamayo Orrego, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    The epigenetic landscape is a graphic metaphor proposed by Conrad H. Waddington to explain the development of organisms and their parts. it is depicted as a wavy surface with summits and descending valleys, representing the paths followed by cells along their differentiation process, as part of organismal development. Conrad H. Waddington, regarded as the father of epigenetics, stands out for his theoretical contributions that include the notions of genetic assimilation, canalization of development and epi-genotype. These ideas were inspired by experimental works in developmental biology that lead to the discovery of the organizer in bird embryos, as well as environmentally-induced phenocopies in drosophila. In the current essay, I present an interpretation of the epigenetic landscape and related concepts that highlight the heuristic power of this model and its importance for contemporary biology. This work is a tribute to the life of C. H. Waddington, whose work is still of great significance.

  13. Precursors of adolescent substance use from early childhood and early adolescence: testing a developmental cascade model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W

    2014-02-01

    This study examined developmentally salient risk and protective factors of adolescent substance use assessed during early childhood and early adolescence using a sample of 310 low-income boys. Child problem behavior and proximal family risk and protective factors (i.e., parenting and maternal depression) during early childhood, as well as child and family factors and peer deviant behavior during adolescence, were explored as potential precursors to later substance use during adolescence using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that early childhood risk and protective factors (i.e., child externalizing problems, mothers' depressive symptomatology, and nurturant parenting) were indirectly related to substance use at the age of 17 via risk and protective factors during early and middle adolescence (i.e., parental knowledge and externalizing problems). The implications of these findings for early prevention and intervention are discussed.

  14. Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At least three different models have been proposed: the severity model, the additional deficit model and the component model. We address this issue by comparing children with specific language impairment only, those with dyslexia-only, those with specific language impairment and dyslexia and those with no impairment, using a broad test battery of language skills. We find that specific language impairment and dyslexia do not always co-occur, and that some children with specific language impairment do not have a phonological deficit. Using factor analysis, we find that language abilities across the four groups of children have at least three independent sources of variance: one for non-phonological language skills and two for distinct sets of phonological abilities (which we term phonological skills versus phonological representations). Furthermore, children with specific language impairment and dyslexia show partly distinct profiles of phonological deficit along these two dimensions. We conclude that a multiple-component model of language abilities best explains the relationship between specific language impairment and dyslexia and the different profiles of impairment that are observed. PMID:23413264

  15. Dual Processes in Decision Making and Developmental Neuroscience: A Fuzzy-Trace Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Brainerd, Charles J

    2011-09-01

    From Piaget to the present, traditional and dual-process theories have predicted improvement in reasoning from childhood to adulthood, and improvement has been observed. However, developmental reversals-that reasoning biases emerge with development -have also been observed in a growing list of paradigms. We explain how fuzzy-trace theory predicts both improvement and developmental reversals in reasoning and decision making. Drawing on research on logical and quantitative reasoning, as well as on risky decision making in the laboratory and in life, we illustrate how the same small set of theoretical principles apply to typical neurodevelopment, encompassing childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and to neurological conditions such as autism and Alzheimer's disease. For example, framing effects-that risk preferences shift when the same decisions are phrases in terms of gains versus losses-emerge in early adolescence as gist-based intuition develops. In autistic individuals, who rely less on gist-based intuition and more on verbatim-based analysis, framing biases are attenuated (i.e., they outperform typically developing control subjects). In adults, simple manipulations based on fuzzy-trace theory can make framing effects appear and disappear depending on whether gist-based intuition or verbatim-based analysis is induced. These theoretical principles are summarized and integrated in a new mathematical model that specifies how dual modes of reasoning combine to produce predictable variability in performance. In particular, we show how the most popular and extensively studied model of decision making-prospect theory-can be derived from fuzzy-trace theory by combining analytical (verbatim-based) and intuitive (gist-based) processes.

  16. Dual Processes in Decision Making and Developmental Neuroscience: A Fuzzy-Trace Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    From Piaget to the present, traditional and dual-process theories have predicted improvement in reasoning from childhood to adulthood, and improvement has been observed. However, developmental reversals—that reasoning biases emerge with development —have also been observed in a growing list of paradigms. We explain how fuzzy-trace theory predicts both improvement and developmental reversals in reasoning and decision making. Drawing on research on logical and quantitative reasoning, as well as on risky decision making in the laboratory and in life, we illustrate how the same small set of theoretical principles apply to typical neurodevelopment, encompassing childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and to neurological conditions such as autism and Alzheimer's disease. For example, framing effects—that risk preferences shift when the same decisions are phrases in terms of gains versus losses—emerge in early adolescence as gist-based intuition develops. In autistic individuals, who rely less on gist-based intuition and more on verbatim-based analysis, framing biases are attenuated (i.e., they outperform typically developing control subjects). In adults, simple manipulations based on fuzzy-trace theory can make framing effects appear and disappear depending on whether gist-based intuition or verbatim-based analysis is induced. These theoretical principles are summarized and integrated in a new mathematical model that specifies how dual modes of reasoning combine to produce predictable variability in performance. In particular, we show how the most popular and extensively studied model of decision making—prospect theory—can be derived from fuzzy-trace theory by combining analytical (verbatim-based) and intuitive (gist-based) processes. PMID:22096268

  17. Developmental stress elicits preference for methamphetamine in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womersley, Jacqueline S; Mpeta, Bafokeng; Dimatelis, Jacqueline J; Kellaway, Lauriston A; Stein, Dan J; Russell, Vivienne A

    2016-06-17

    Developmental stress has been hypothesised to interact with genetic predisposition to increase the risk of developing substance use disorders. Here we have investigated the effects of maternal separation-induced developmental stress using a behavioural proxy of methamphetamine preference in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the spontaneously hypertensive rat, versus Wistar Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley comparator strains. Analysis of results obtained using a conditioned place preference paradigm revealed a significant strain × stress interaction with maternal separation inducing preference for the methamphetamine-associated compartment in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Maternal separation increased behavioural sensitization to the locomotor-stimulatory effects of methamphetamine in both spontaneously hypertensive and Sprague-Dawley strains but not in Wistar Kyoto rats. Our findings indicate that developmental stress in a genetic rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may foster a vulnerability to the development of substance use disorders.

  18. Modeling the autistic cell: iPSCs recapitulate developmental principles of syndromic and nonsyndromic ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Reuven, Lihi; Reiner, Orly

    2016-06-01

    The opportunity to model autism spectrum disorders (ASD) through generation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is currently an emerging topic. Wide-scale research of altered brain circuits in syndromic ASD, including Rett Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, Angelman's Syndrome and sporadic Schizophrenia, was made possible through animal models. However, possibly due to species differences, and to the possible contribution of epigenetics in the pathophysiology of these diseases, animal models fail to recapitulate many aspects of ASD. With the advent of iPSCs technology, 3D cultures of patient-derived cells are being used to study complex neuronal phenotypes, including both syndromic and nonsyndromic ASD. Here, we review recent advances in using iPSCs to study various aspects of the ASD neuropathology, with emphasis on the efforts to create in vitro model systems for syndromic and nonsyndromic ASD. We summarize the main cellular activity phenotypes and aberrant genetic interaction networks that were found in iPSC-derived neurons of syndromic and nonsyndromic autistic patients. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  19. Developmental Impact Analysis of an ICT-Enabled Scalable Healthcare Model in BRICS Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrubes Biswas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the need for initiating a healthcare business model in a grassroots, emerging-nation context. This article’s backdrop is a history of chronic anomalies afflicting the healthcare sector in India and similarly placed BRICS nations. In these countries, a significant percentage of populations remain deprived of basic healthcare facilities and emergency services. Community (primary care services are being offered by public and private stakeholders as a panacea to the problem. Yet, there is an urgent need for specialized (tertiary care services at all levels. As a response to this challenge, an all-inclusive health-exchange system (HES model, which utilizes information communication technology (ICT to provide solutions in rural India, has been developed. The uniqueness of the model lies in its innovative hub-and-spoke architecture and its emphasis on affordability, accessibility, and availability to the masses. This article describes a developmental impact analysis (DIA that was used to assess the impact of this model. The article contributes to the knowledge base of readers by making them aware of the healthcare challenges emerging nations are facing and ways to mitigate those challenges using entrepreneurial solutions.

  20. Integrating family work into the treatment of young people with severe and complex depression: a developmentally focused model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Simon; Halperin, Stephen; Blaikie, Simon; Monson, Katherine; Stefaniak, Rachel; Phelan, Mark; Davey, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    Although models of family intervention are clearly articulated in the child and early adolescent literature, there is less clarity regarding family intervention approaches in later adolescence and emerging adulthood. This study provides the rationale and intervention framework for a developmentally sensitive model of time-limited family work in the outpatient treatment of complex youth depression (15-25 years). Derived from current practice in the Youth Mood Clinic (YMC) at Orygen Youth Health, Melbourne, a stepped model of family intervention is discussed. YMC aims to provide comprehensive orientation, assessment and education to all families. For some, a family-based intervention, delivered either by the treating team or through the integration of a specialist family worker, offers an important adjunct in supporting the recovery of the young person. Developmental phases and challenges experienced by the young person with respect to family/caregiver involvement are discussed in the context of two case studies. A developmentally sensitive model is presented with particular attention to the developmental needs and preferences of young people. Formal evaluation of this model is required. Evaluation perspectives should include young people, caregivers, the broader family system (i.e. siblings) and the treating team (i.e. case manager, doctor and family worker) incorporating outcome measurement. Such work determines how best to apply a time-limited family-based intervention approach in strengthening family/caregiver relationships as part of the young person's recovery from severe and complex depression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Concentration change of DA, DOPAC, Glu and GABA in brain tissues in schizophrenia developmental model rats induced by MK-801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Tang, Yamei; Pu, Weidan; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhao, Jingping

    2011-08-01

    To explore the related neurobiochemical mechanism by comparing the concentration change of dopamine (DA), dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC), glutamate (Glu), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain tissues in schizophrenia (SZ) developmental model rats and chronic medication model rats. A total of 60 neonatal male Spragur-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups at the postnatal day 6: an SZ developmental rat model group (subcutaneous injection with MK-801 at the postnatal day 7-10, 0.1 mg/kg, Bid), a chronic medication model group (intraperitoneal injection at the postnatal day 47-60, 0.2 mg/kg,Qd), and a normal control group (injection with 0.9% normal saline during the corresponding periods). DA, DOPAC, Glu, and GABA of the tissue homogenate from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus were examined with Coularray electrochemic detection by high performance liquid chromatogram technique. The utilization rate of DA and Glu was calculated. Compared with the normal control group, the concentration of DA and DOPAC in the mPFC and the hippocampus in the SZ developmental model group significantly decreased (PGABA concentration and Glu utilization rate in the mPFC also decreased (PGABA system decrease in the mPFC and the DA system function reduces in the hippocampus of SZ developmental rats.

  2. Developmental neurotoxicity of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos: from clinical findings to preclinical models and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Richard D; Todd, Spencer W; Lumsden, Eric; Mullins, Roger J; Mamczarz, Jacek; Fawcett, William P; Gullapalli, Rao P; Randall, William R; Pereira, Edna F R; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2017-08-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are pest-control agents heavily used worldwide. Unfortunately, they are also well known for the toxic effects that they can trigger in humans. Clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP insecticides include a well-defined cholinergic crisis that develops as a result of the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Prolonged exposures to levels of OP insecticides that are insufficient to trigger signs of acute intoxication, which are hereafter referred to as subacute exposures, have also been associated with neurological deficits. In particular, epidemiological studies have reported statistically significant correlations between prenatal subacute exposures to OP insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, and neurological deficits that range from cognitive impairments to tremors in childhood. The primary objectives of this article are: (i) to address the short- and long-term neurological issues that have been associated with acute and subacute exposures of humans to OP insecticides, especially early in life (ii) to discuss the translational relevance of animal models of developmental exposure to OP insecticides, and (iii) to review mechanisms that are likely to contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of OP insecticides. Most of the discussion will be focused on chlorpyrifos, the top-selling OP insecticide in the United States and throughout the world. These points are critical for the identification and development of safe and effective interventions to counter and/or prevent the neurotoxic effects of these chemicals in the developing brain. This is an article for the special issue XVth International Symposium on Cholinergic Mechanisms. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Neural progenitor cells as models for high-throughput screens of developmental neurotoxicity: State of the science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breier, J.M.; Gassmann, K.; Kayser, R.; Stegeman, H.; Groot, D.de; Fritsche, E.; Shafer, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    In vitro, high-throughput methods have been widely recommended as an approach to screen chemicals for the potential to cause developmental neurotoxicity and prioritize them for additional testing. The choice of cellular models for such an approach will have important ramifications for the accuracy,

  4. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity Ingrid L. Druwe1, Timothy J. Shafer2, Kathleen Wallace2, Pablo Valdivia3 ,and William R. Mundy2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology...

  5. How an Evolution View of Workplace Mentoring Relationships Helps Avoid Negative Experiences: The Developmental Relationship Mentoring Model in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Rhianon; Cox, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how the use of a specific mentoring model focusing on the evolution of the relationship between mentor and mentee, may influence the incidence of failure. In our research we employed a case study methodology to examine a regional public service mentoring scheme in the UK where a developmental relationship mentoring model…

  6. Effects of Video Self-Modeling on Eliminating Public Undressing by Elementary-Aged Students with Developmental Disabilities during Urination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Takeuchi, Ai; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of video self-modeling (VSM) for eliminating the public undressing of two elementary-aged students with developmental disabilities during urination. A multiple-probe design across participants revealed that the degree of exposed body parts decreased immediately after introduction of VSM. However, exposure…

  7. Understanding Random Effects in Group-Based Trajectory Modeling: An Application of Moffitt’s Developmental Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    The group-based trajectory modeling approach is a systematic way of categorizing subjects into different groups based on their developmental trajectories using formal and objective statistical criteria. With the recent advancement in methods and statistical software, modeling possibilities are almost limitless; however, parallel advances in theory development have not kept pace. This paper examines some of the modeling options that are becoming more widespread and how they impact both empiric...

  8. The Quick Peek Program: A Model for Developmental Screening within Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jill; Norton, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Developmental screening of young children is important in all populations, especially underserved communities with known health care disparities. The American Academy of Pediatrics created guidelines and a toolkit for pediatricians to conduct developmental surveillance and screening, yet these guidelines are not uniformly implemented within…

  9. Predicting the distribution of spiral waves from cell properties in a developmental-path model of Dictyostelium pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Geberth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is one of the model systems of biological pattern formation. One of the most successful answers to the challenge of establishing a spiral wave pattern in a colony of homogeneously distributed D. discoideum cells has been the suggestion of a developmental path the cells follow (Lauzeral and coworkers. This is a well-defined change in properties each cell undergoes on a longer time scale than the typical dynamics of the cell. Here we show that this concept leads to an inhomogeneous and systematic spatial distribution of spiral waves, which can be predicted from the distribution of cells on the developmental path. We propose specific experiments for checking whether such systematics are also found in data and thus, indirectly, provide evidence of a developmental path.

  10. Animal models of human anxiety disorders: reappraisal from a developmental psychopathology vantage point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampis, Valentina; Maziade, Michel; Battaglia, Marco

    2011-05-01

    We are witnessing a tremendous expansion of strategies and techniques that derive from basic and preclinical science to study the fine genetic, epigenetic, and proteomic regulation of behavior in the laboratory animal. In this endeavor, animal models of psychiatric illness are becoming the almost exclusive domain of basic researchers, with lesser involvement of clinician researchers in their conceptual design, and transfer into practice of new paradigms. From the side of human behavioral research, the growing interest in gene-environment interplay and the fostering of valid endophenotypes are among the few substantial innovations in the effort of linking common mental disorders to cutting-edge clinical research questions. We argue that it is time for cross-fertilization between these camps. In this article, we a) observe that the "translational divide" can-and should-be crossed by having investigators from both the basic and the clinical sides cowork on simpler, valid "endophenotypes" of neurodevelopmental relevance; b) emphasize the importance of unambiguous physiological readouts, more than behavioral equivalents of human symptoms/syndromes, for animal research; c) indicate and discuss how this could be fostered and implemented in a developmental framework of reference for some common anxiety disorders and ultimately lead to better animal models of human mental disorders.

  11. Comorbidities and continuities as ontogenic processes: Toward a developmental spectrum model of externalizing psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; McNulty, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Research on child and adolescent mental health problems has burgeoned since the inaugural issue of Development and Psychopathology was published in 1989. In the quarter century since, static models of psychopathology have been abandoned in favor of transactional models, following the agenda set by editor Dante Cicchetti and other proponents of the discipline. The transactional approach, which has been applied to autism, depression, self-injury, and delinquency, (a) specifies vulnerabilities and risk factors across multiple levels of analysis spanning genes to cultures, (b) identifies multifinal and equifinal pathways to psychopathology, and (c) transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries. However, as noted by Rutter and Sroufe (2000), specific mechanisms of continuity, discontinuity, and comorbidity of psychopathology must be identified if we wish to understand etiology fully. In this article, we present a model of early-onset externalizing behavior in which comorbidities and continuities are viewed as ontogenic processes: products of complex longitudinal transactions between interdependent individual-level vulnerabilities (e.g., genetic, epigenetic, allostatic) and equally interdependent contextual risk factors (e.g., coercive parenting, deviant peer group affiliations, neighborhood criminality). Through interactions across levels of analysis, some individuals traverse along the externalizing spectrum, beginning with heritable trait impulsivity in preschool and ending in antisociality in adulthood. In describing our model, we note that (a) the approach outlined in the DSM to subtyping externalizing disorders continues to obscure developmental pathways to antisociality, (b) molecular genetics studies will likely not identify meaningful subtypes of externalizing disorder, and (c) ontogenic trait approaches to psychopathology are much more likely to advance the discipline in upcoming years. PMID:24342853

  12. Unifying Speech and Language in a Developmentally Sensitive Model of Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Melissa A

    2015-11-01

    Speaking is an intentional activity. It is also a complex motor skill; one that exhibits protracted development and the fully automatic character of an overlearned behavior. Together these observations suggest an analogy with skilled behavior in the non-language domain. This analogy is used here to argue for a model of production that is grounded in the activity of speaking and structured during language acquisition. The focus is on the plan that controls the execution of fluent speech; specifically, on the units that are activated during the production of an intonational phrase. These units are schemas: temporally structured sequences of remembered actions and their sensory outcomes. Schemas are activated and inhibited via associated goals, which are linked to specific meanings. Schemas may fuse together over developmental time with repeated use to form larger units, thereby affecting the relative timing of sequential action in participating schemas. In this way, the hierarchical structure of the speech plan and ensuing rhythm patterns of speech are a product of development. Individual schemas may also become differentiated during development, but only if subsequences are associated with meaning. The necessary association of action and meaning gives rise to assumptions about the primacy of certain linguistic forms in the production process. Overall, schema representations connect usage-based theories of language to the action of speaking.

  13. Foundation observation of teaching project--a developmental model of peer observation of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Andrew Timothy; Sherwood, Morgan; Lumsden, Colin James; Gale, Alison; Markides, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Peer observation of teaching is important in the development of educators. The foundation curriculum specifies teaching competencies that must be attained. We created a developmental model of peer observation of teaching to help our foundation doctors achieve these competencies and develop as educators. A process for peer observation was created based on key features of faculty development. The project consisted of a pre-observation meeting, the observation, a post-observation debrief, writing of reflective reports and group feedback sessions. The project was evaluated by completion of questionnaires and focus groups held with both foundation doctors and the students they taught to achieve triangulation. Twenty-one foundation doctors took part. All completed reflective reports on their teaching. Participants described the process as useful in their development as educators, citing specific examples of changes to their teaching practice. Medical students rated the sessions as better or much better quality as their usual teaching. The study highlights the benefits of the project to individual foundation doctors, undergraduate medical students and faculty. It acknowledges potential anxieties involved in having teaching observed. A structured programme of observation of teaching can deliver specific teaching competencies required by foundation doctors and provides additional benefits.

  14. A system dynamics model of clinical decision thresholds for the detection of developmental-behavioral disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Christopher Sheldrick

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical decision-making has been conceptualized as a sequence of two separate processes: assessment of patients’ functioning and application of a decision threshold to determine whether the evidence is sufficient to justify a given decision. A range of factors, including use of evidence-based screening instruments, has the potential to influence either or both processes. However, implementation studies seldom specify or assess the mechanism by which screening is hypothesized to influence clinical decision-making, thus limiting their ability to address unexpected findings regarding clinicians’ behavior. Building on prior theory and empirical evidence, we created a system dynamics (SD model of how physicians’ clinical decisions are influenced by their assessments of patients and by factors that may influence decision thresholds, such as knowledge of past patient outcomes. Using developmental-behavioral disorders as a case example, we then explore how referral decisions may be influenced by changes in context. Specifically, we compare predictions from the SD model to published implementation trials of evidence-based screening to understand physicians’ management of positive screening results and changes in referral rates. We also conduct virtual experiments regarding the influence of a variety of interventions that may influence physicians’ thresholds, including improved access to co-located mental health care and improved feedback systems regarding patient outcomes. Results Results of the SD model were consistent with recent implementation trials. For example, the SD model suggests that if screening improves physicians’ accuracy of assessment without also influencing decision thresholds, then a significant proportion of children with positive screens will not be referred and the effect of screening implementation on referral rates will be modest—results that are consistent with a large proportion of published

  15. Developmental toxicity assessment of common excipients using a stem cell-based in vitro morphogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chloe J; Marikawa, Yusuke

    2017-11-01

    Various chemical compounds can inflict developmental toxicity when sufficiently high concentrations are exposed to embryos at the critical stages of development. Excipients, such as coloring agents and preservatives, are pharmacologically inactive ingredients that are included in various medications, foods, and cosmetics. However, concentrations that may adversely affect embryo development are largely unknown for most excipients. Here, the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) to inflict developmental toxicity was assessed for three coloring agents (allura red, brilliant blue, and tartrazine) and three preservatives (butylated hydroxyanisole, metabisulfite, and methylparaben). Adverse impact of a compound exposure was determined using the stem cell-based in vitro morphogenesis model, in which three-dimensional cell aggregates, or embryoid bodies (EBs), recapitulate embryonic processes of body axis elongation and patterning. LOAEL to impair EB morphogenesis was 200 μM for methylparaben, 400 μM for butylated hydroxyanisole, 600 μM for allura red and brilliant blue, and 1000 μM for metabisulfite. Gene expression analyses of excipient-treated EBs revealed that butylated hydroxyanisole and methylparaben significantly altered profiles of developmental regulators involved in axial elongation and patterning of the body. The present study may provide a novel in vitro approach to investigate potential developmental toxicity of common excipients with mechanistic insights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of mathematical models in understanding pattern formation in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umulis, David M; Othmer, Hans G

    2015-05-01

    In a Wall Street Journal article published on April 5, 2013, E. O. Wilson attempted to make the case that biologists do not really need to learn any mathematics-whenever they run into difficulty with numerical issues, they can find a technician (aka mathematician) to help them out of their difficulty. He formalizes this in Wilsons Principle No. 1: "It is far easier for scientists to acquire needed collaboration from mathematicians and statisticians than it is for mathematicians and statisticians to find scientists able to make use of their equations." This reflects a complete misunderstanding of the role of mathematics in all sciences throughout history. To Wilson, mathematics is mere number crunching, but as Galileo said long ago, "The laws of Nature are written in the language of mathematics[Formula: see text] the symbols are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without whose help it is impossible to comprehend a single word." Mathematics has moved beyond the geometry-based model of Galileo's time, and in a rebuttal to Wilson, E. Frenkel has pointed out the role of mathematics in synthesizing the general principles in science (Both point and counter-point are available in Wilson and Frenkel in Notices Am Math Soc 60(7):837-838, 2013). We will take this a step further and show how mathematics has been used to make new and experimentally verified discoveries in developmental biology and how mathematics is essential for understanding a problem that has puzzled experimentalists for decades-that of how organisms can scale in size. Mathematical analysis alone cannot "solve" these problems since the validation lies at the molecular level, but conversely, a growing number of questions in biology cannot be solved without mathematical analysis and modeling. Herein, we discuss a few examples of the productive intercourse between mathematics and biology.

  17. Abnormal stress responsivity in a rodent developmental disruption model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Eric C; Bellaire, Mark; Ewing, Samuel G; Grace, Anthony A

    2013-10-01

    Although numerous studies have implicated stress in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, less is known about how the effects of stress interact with genetic, developmental, and/or environmental determinants to promote disease progression. In particular, it has been proposed that in humans, stress exposure in adolescence could combine with a predisposition towards increased stress sensitivity, leading to prodromal symptoms and eventually psychosis. However, the neurobiological substrates for this interaction are not fully characterized. Previous work in our lab has demonstrated that rats born to dams administered with the DNA-methylating agent methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at gestational day 17 exhibit as adults behavioral and anatomical abnormalities consistent with those observed in patients with schizophrenia. Here, we examined behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress in the MAM model of schizophrenia. MAM-treated male rats were exposed to acute and repeated footshock stress at prepubertal, peripubteral, and adult ages. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), freezing, and corticosterone responses were quantified. We found that juvenile MAM-treated rats emitted significantly more calls, spent more time vocalizing, emitted calls at a higher rate, and showed more freezing in response to acute footshock stress when compared with their saline (SAL) treated counterparts, and that this difference is not present in older animals. In addition, adolescent MAM-treated animals displayed a blunted HPA axis corticosterone response to acute footshock that did not adapt after 10 days of stress exposure. These data demonstrate abnormal stress responsivity in the MAM model of schizophrenia and suggest that these animals are more sensitive to the effects of stress in youth.

  18. A 3-dimensional human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived model to detect developmental neurotoxicity of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelting, Lisa; Scheinhardt, Benjamin; Bondarenko, Olesja; Schildknecht, Stefan; Kapitza, Marion; Tanavde, Vivek; Tan, Betty; Lee, Qian Yi; Mecking, Stefan; Leist, Marcel; Kadereit, Suzanne

    2013-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to accumulate in organs, cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and have the potential to elicit developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Here, we developed a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived 3-dimensional (3-D) in vitro model that allows for testing of potential developmental neurotoxicants. Early central nervous system PAX6(+) precursor cells were generated from hESCs and differentiated further within 3-D structures. The 3-D model was characterized for neural marker expression revealing robust differentiation toward neuronal precursor cells, and gene expression profiling suggested a predominantly forebrain-like development. Altered neural gene expression due to exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations of the known developmental neurotoxicant, methylmercury, indicated that the 3-D model could detect DNT. To test for specific toxicity of NPs, chemically inert polyethylene NPs (PE-NPs) were chosen. They penetrated deep into the 3-D structures and impacted gene expression at non-cytotoxic concentrations. NOTCH pathway genes such as HES5 and NOTCH1 were reduced in expression, as well as downstream neuronal precursor genes such as NEUROD1 and ASCL1. FOXG1, a patterning marker, was also reduced. As loss of function of these genes results in severe nervous system impairments in mice, our data suggest that the 3-D hESC-derived model could be used to test for Nano-DNT.

  19. Defining social inclusion of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities: an ecological model of social networks and community participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simplican, Stacy Clifford; Leader, Geraldine; Kosciulek, John; Leahy, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Social inclusion is an important goal for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, families, service providers, and policymakers; however, the concept of social inclusion remains unclear, largely due to multiple and conflicting definitions in research and policy. We define social inclusion as the interaction between two major life domains: interpersonal relationships and community participation. We then propose an ecological model of social inclusion that includes individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and socio-political factors. We identify four areas of research that our ecological model of social inclusion can move forward: (1) organizational implementation of social inclusion; (2) social inclusion of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities living with their families, (3) social inclusion of people along a broader spectrum of disability, and (4) the potential role of self-advocacy organizations in promoting social inclusion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Developmental maturation of dynamic causal control signals in higher-order cognition: a neurocognitive network model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Supekar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive skills undergo protracted developmental changes resulting in proficiencies that are a hallmark of human cognition. One skill that develops over time is the ability to problem solve, which in turn relies on cognitive control and attention abilities. Here we use a novel multimodal neurocognitive network-based approach combining task-related fMRI, resting-state fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to investigate the maturation of control processes underlying problem solving skills in 7-9 year-old children. Our analysis focused on two key neurocognitive networks implicated in a wide range of cognitive tasks including control: the insula-cingulate salience network, anchored in anterior insula (AI, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, and the fronto-parietal central executive network, anchored in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex (PPC. We found that, by age 9, the AI node of the salience network is a major causal hub initiating control signals during problem solving. Critically, despite stronger AI activation, the strength of causal regulatory influences from AI to the PPC node of the central executive network was significantly weaker and contributed to lower levels of behavioral performance in children compared to adults. These results were validated using two different analytic methods for estimating causal interactions in fMRI data. In parallel, DTI-based tractography revealed weaker AI-PPC structural connectivity in children. Our findings point to a crucial role of AI connectivity, and its causal cross-network influences, in the maturation of dynamic top-down control signals underlying cognitive development. Overall, our study demonstrates how a unified neurocognitive network model when combined with multimodal imaging enhances our ability to generalize beyond individual task-activated foci and provides a common framework for elucidating key features of brain and cognitive

  1. Topsy-Turvy Neo-Developmentalism: An Analysis of the Current Brazilian Model of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Milanez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the similarities and differences between neo-developmentalism and neo-extractivism. The evaluation compares Brazil with nine other Latin American countries and is based on a framework that considers both economic policies and their outcomes. On the policy side, it looks at income, monetary, international trade, industrial and mineral resource policies; on the outcome side, it observes the composition of both exports and the Gross Domestic Product. In the end, we argue that neo-developmentalism and neo-extractivism are actually variations of the same development route and may face similar challenges in the long term.

  2. Differentiating human NT2/D1 neurospheres as a versatile in vitro 3D model system for developmental neurotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, E.J.; Woehrling, E.K.; Prince, M.; Coleman, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity is a major issue in human health and may have lasting neurological implications. In this preliminary study we exposed differentiating Ntera2/clone D1 (NT2/D1) cell neurospheres to known human teratogens classed as non-embryotoxic (acrylamide), weakly embryotoxic (lithium, valproic acid) and strongly embryotoxic (hydroxyurea) as listed by European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and examined endpoints of cell viability and neuronal protein marker expression specific to the central nervous system, to identify developmental neurotoxins. Following induction of neuronal differentiation, valproic acid had the most significant effect on neurogenesis, in terms of reduced viability and decreased neuronal markers. Lithium had least effect on viability and did not significantly alter the expression of neuronal markers. Hydroxyurea significantly reduced cell viability but did not affect neuronal protein marker expression. Acrylamide reduced neurosphere viability but did not affect neuronal protein marker expression. Overall, this NT2/D1-based neurosphere model of neurogenesis, may provide the basis for a model of developmental neurotoxicity in vitro

  3. Mouse model of chromosome mosaicism reveals lineage-specific depletion of aneuploid cells and normal developmental potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Helen; Graham, Sarah J L; Van der Aa, Niels; Kumar, Parveen; Theunis, Koen; Fernandez Gallardo, Elia; Voet, Thierry; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2016-03-29

    Most human pre-implantation embryos are mosaics of euploid and aneuploid cells. To determine the fate of aneuploid cells and the developmental potential of mosaic embryos, here we generate a mouse model of chromosome mosaicism. By treating embryos with a spindle assembly checkpoint inhibitor during the four- to eight-cell division, we efficiently generate aneuploid cells, resulting in embryo death during peri-implantation development. Live-embryo imaging and single-cell tracking in chimeric embryos, containing aneuploid and euploid cells, reveal that the fate of aneuploid cells depends on lineage: aneuploid cells in the fetal lineage are eliminated by apoptosis, whereas those in the placental lineage show severe proliferative defects. Overall, the proportion of aneuploid cells is progressively depleted from the blastocyst stage onwards. Finally, we show that mosaic embryos have full developmental potential, provided they contain sufficient euploid cells, a finding of significance for the assessment of embryo vitality in the clinic.

  4. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    account. These results demonstrate that experience of sign language enhances the ability to imitate manual gestures once representations have been established, and suggest that the inherent motor patterns of lexical manual gestures are better suited for representation than those of non-signs. This set of findings prompts a developmental version of the ELU model, D-ELU.

  5. Imitation, sign language skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil eHolmer

    2016-02-01

    were taken into account. These results demonstrate that experience of sign language enhances the ability to imitate manual gestures once representations have been established, and suggest that the inherent motor patterns of lexical manual gestures are better suited for representation than those of non-signs. This set of findings prompts a developmental version of the ELU model, D-ELU.

  6. Dual Processes in Decision Making and Developmental Neuroscience: A Fuzzy-Trace Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    From Piaget to the present, traditional and dual-process theories have predicted improvement in reasoning from childhood to adulthood, and improvement has been observed. However, developmental reversals--that reasoning biases emerge with development--have also been observed in a growing list of paradigms. We explain how fuzzy-trace theory predicts…

  7. The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity: A Tool for Understanding Principals' Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Frank; Kose, Brad W.

    2012-01-01

    Principals' understanding and skills pertaining to diversity are important in leading diverse schools and preparing all students for a democratic and multicultural society. Although educational leadership scholars have theorized about exemplary leadership of and for diversity, a developmental perspective on principals' diversity or cultural…

  8. Handwriting-Based Model for Identification of Developmental Disorders among North Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, Jasmine Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Handwriting execution is based on the cognitive, kinesthetic, motor skills, and manual co-ordination skills of an individual. The deterioration in handwriting quality is a common implication of neurological disorders. Difficulty and degradation in handwriting has been attributed to the sensory motor deficits prevalent in developmental disorders.…

  9. Modeling the Developmental Patterns of Auditory Evoked Magnetic Fields in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kotecha, Rupesh; Pardos, Maria; Wang, Yingying; Wu, Ting; Horn, Paul; Brown, David; Rose, Douglas; deGrauw, Ton; Xiang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As magnetoencephalography (MEG) is of increasing utility in the assessment of deficits and development delays in brain disorders in pediatrics, it becomes imperative to fully understand the functional development of the brain in children. METHODOLOGY: The present study was designed to characterize the developmental patterns of auditory evoked magnetic responses with respect to age and gender. Sixty children and twenty adults were studied with a 275-channel MEG system. CONCLUSIONS:...

  10. Developmental Database for Phenology Models: Related Insect and Mite Species Have Similar Thermal Requirements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarošík, Vojtěch; Honěk, A.; Magarey, R. D.; Skuhrovec, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 6 (2011), s. 1870-1876 ISSN 0022-0493 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GA206/09/0563 Grant - others:European Comission(XE) 212459 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : lower developmental threshold * base temperature * rate of development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.699, year: 2011

  11. Abnormal Stress Responsivity in a Rodent Developmental Disruption Model of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Eric C; Bellaire, Mark; Ewing, Samuel G; Grace, Anthony A

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous studies have implicated stress in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, less is known about how the effects of stress interact with genetic, developmental, and/or environmental determinants to promote disease progression. In particular, it has been proposed that in humans, stress exposure in adolescence could combine with a predisposition towards increased stress sensitivity, leading to prodromal symptoms and eventually psychosis. However, the neurobiological substrates for ...

  12. The Zebrafish Models to Explore Genetic and Epigenetic Impacts on Evolutionary Developmental Origins of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Can we reset, reprogram, rejuvenate or reverse the organismal aging process? Certain genetic manipulations could at least reset and reprogram epigenetic dynamics beyond phenotypic plasticity and elasticity in cells, which can be further manipulated into organisms. However, in a whole complex aging organism, how can we rejuvenate intrinsic resources and infrastructures in an intact/noninvasive manner? The incidence of diseases increases exponentially with age, accompanied by progressive deteriorations of physiological functions in organisms. Aging-associated diseases are sporadic but essentially inevitable complications arising from senescence. Senescence is often considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena to rejuvenate over the dynamic process of aging. The association between early development and late-onset disease with advancing age is thought to come from a consequence of developmental plasticity, the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of physiologically and/or morphologically adaptive states based on diverse epigenotypes, in response to intrinsic or extrinsic environmental cues and genetic perturbations. We hypothesized that the future aging process can be predictive based on adaptivity during the early developmental period. Modulating the thresholds and windows of plasticity and its robustness by molecular genetic and chemical epigenetic approaches, we have successfully conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing apparently altered senescence phenotypes during their embryonic and/or larval stages (“embryonic/larval senescence”). Subsequently, at least some of these mutant animals were found to show shortened lifespan, while some others would be expected to live longer in adulthoods. We anticipate that previously uncharacterized developmental genes may mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. On the other

  13. Is there room for 'development' in developmental models of information processing biases to threat in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Andy P; Lester, Kathryn J

    2010-12-01

    Clinical and experimental theories assume that processing biases in attention and interpretation are a causal mechanism through which anxiety develops. Despite growing evidence that these processing biases are present in children and, therefore, develop long before adulthood, these theories ignore the potential role of child development. This review attempts to place information processing biases within a theoretical developmental framework. We consider whether child development has no impact on information processing biases to threat (integral bias model), or whether child development influences information processing biases and if so whether it does so by moderating the expression of an existing bias (moderation model) or by affecting the acquisition of a bias (acquisition model). We examine the extent to which these models fit with existing theory and research evidence and outline some methodological issues that need to be considered when drawing conclusions about the potential role of child development in the information processing of threat stimuli. Finally, we speculate about the developmental processes that might be important to consider in future research.

  14. Using nursing intervention classification in an advance practice registered nurse-led preventive model for adults aging with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Joan Earle

    2014-09-01

    To describe the most frequently reported and the most central nursing interventions in an advance practice registered nurse (APRN)-led in-home preventive intervention model for adults aging with developmental disabilities using the Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC) system. A descriptive data analysis and a market basket analysis were conducted on de-identified nominal nursing intervention data from two home visits conducted by nurse practitioners (NPs) from October 2010 to June 2012 for 80 community-dwelling adults with developmental disabilities, ages 29 to 68 years. The mean number of NIC interventions was 4.7 in the first visit and 6.0 in the second visit and last visit. NPs reported 45 different intervention types as classified using a standardized language, with 376 in Visit One and 470 in Visit Two. Approximately 85% of the sample received the Health education intervention. The market basket analysis revealed common pairs, triples, and quadruple sets of interventions in this preventive model. The NIC nursing interventions that occurred together repeatedly were: Health education, Weight management, Nutrition management, Health screening, and Behavior management. Five NIC interventions form the basis of an APRN-led preventive intervention model for individuals aging with lifelong disability, with health education as the most common intervention, combined with interventions to manage weight and nutrition, promote healthy behaviors, and encourage routine health screening. Less frequently reported NIC interventions suggest the need to tailor prevention to individual needs, whether acute or chronic. APRNs employing prevention among adults aging with developmental disabilities must anticipate the need to focus on health education strategies for health promotion and prevention as well as tailor and target a patient-centered approach to support self-management of health to promote healthy aging in place. These NIC interventions serve not only as a guide for

  15. Developmental Science: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of developmental science is to describe, explain, and optimize intraindividual changes in adaptive developmental regulations and, as well, interindividual differences in such relations, across life. The history of developmental science is reviewed and its current foci, which are framed by relational developmental systems models that…

  16. Milestones of critical thinking: a developmental model for medicine and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Klara K; Huang, Grace C; Lauzon Clabo, Laurie M; Delva, Dianne; Fischer, Melissa; Konopasek, Lyuba; Schwartzstein, Richard M; Gusic, Maryellen

    2014-05-01

    Critical thinking is essential to a health professional's competence to assess, diagnose, and care for patients. Defined as the ability to apply higher-order cognitive skills (conceptualization, analysis, evaluation) and the disposition to be deliberate about thinking (being open-minded or intellectually honest) that lead to action that is logical and appropriate, critical thinking represents a "meta-competency" that transcends other knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors required in health care professions. Despite its importance, the developmental stages of critical thinking have not been delineated for nurses and physicians. As part of a task force of educators who considered different developmental stage theories, the authors have iteratively refined and proposed milestones in critical thinking. The attributes associated with unreflective, beginning, practicing, advanced, accomplished, and challenged critical thinkers are conceived as independent of an individual's level of training. Depending on circumstances and environmental factors, even the most experienced clinician may demonstrate attributes associated with a challenged thinker. The authors use the illustrative case of a patient with abdominal pain to demonstrate how critical thinking may manifest in learners at different stages of development, analyzing how the learner at each stage applies information obtained in the patient interaction to arrive at a differential diagnosis and plan for evaluation. The authors share important considerations and provide this work as a foundation for the development of effective approaches to teaching and promoting critical thinking and to establishing expectations for learners in this essential meta-competency.

  17. Can rational models be good accounts of developmental change? The case of language development at two time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Colin R; Gerken, LouAnn

    2012-01-01

    Rational models of human perception and cognition have allowed researchers new ways to look at learning and the ability to make inferences from data. But how good are such models at accounting for developmental change? In this chapter, we address this question in the domain of language development, focusing on the speed with which developmental change takes place, and classifying different types of language development as either fast or slow. From the pattern of fast and slow development observed, we hypothesize that rational learning processes are generally well suited for handling fast processes over small amounts of input data. In contrast, we suggest that associative learning processes are generally better suited to slow development, in which learners accumulate information about what is typical of their language over time. Finally, although one system may be dominant for a particular component of language learning, we speculate that both systems frequently interact, with the associative system providing a source of emergent hypotheses to be evaluated by the rational system and the rational system serving to highlight which aspects of the learner's input need to be processed in greater depth by the associative system.

  18. Stages in the development of a model organism as a platform for mechanistic models in developmental biology: Zebrafish, 1970-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Model organisms became an indispensable part of experimental systems in molecular developmental and cell biology, constructed to investigate physiological and pathological processes. They are thought to play a crucial role for the elucidation of gene function, complementing the sequencing of the genomes of humans and other organisms. Accordingly, historians and philosophers paid considerable attention to various issues concerning this aspect of experimental biology. With respect to the representational features of model organisms, that is, their status as models, the main focus was on generalization of phenomena investigated in such experimental systems. Model organisms have been said to be models for other organisms or a higher taxon. This, however, presupposes a representation of the phenomenon in question. I will argue that prior to generalization, model organisms allow researchers to built generative material models of phenomena - structures, processes or the mechanisms that explain them - through their integration in experimental set-ups that carve out the phenomena from the whole organism and thus represent them. I will use the history of zebrafish biology to show how model organism systems, from around 1970 on, were developed to construct material models of molecular mechanisms explaining developmental or physiological processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. From Creatures of Habit to Goal-Directed Learners: Tracking the Developmental Emergence of Model-Based Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Johannes H; Otto, A Ross; Daw, Nathaniel D; Hartley, Catherine A

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical models distinguish two decision-making strategies that have been formalized in reinforcement-learning theory. A model-based strategy leverages a cognitive model of potential actions and their consequences to make goal-directed choices, whereas a model-free strategy evaluates actions based solely on their reward history. Research in adults has begun to elucidate the psychological mechanisms and neural substrates underlying these learning processes and factors that influence their relative recruitment. However, the developmental trajectory of these evaluative strategies has not been well characterized. In this study, children, adolescents, and adults performed a sequential reinforcement-learning task that enabled estimation of model-based and model-free contributions to choice. Whereas a model-free strategy was apparent in choice behavior across all age groups, a model-based strategy was absent in children, became evident in adolescents, and strengthened in adults. These results suggest that recruitment of model-based valuation systems represents a critical cognitive component underlying the gradual maturation of goal-directed behavior. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. A Heme Oxygenase-1 Transducer Model of Degenerative and Developmental Brain Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyman M. Schipper

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a 32 kDa protein which catalyzes the breakdown of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. The Hmox1 promoter contains numerous consensus sequences that render the gene exquisitely sensitive to induction by diverse pro-oxidant and inflammatory stimuli. In “stressed” astroglia, HO-1 hyperactivity promotes mitochondrial iron sequestration and macroautophagy and may thereby contribute to the pathological iron deposition and bioenergetic failure documented in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Glial HO-1 expression may also impact neuroplasticity and cell survival by modulating brain sterol metabolism and the proteasomal degradation of neurotoxic proteins. The glial HO-1 response may represent a pivotal transducer of noxious environmental and endogenous stressors into patterns of neural damage and repair characteristic of many human degenerative and developmental CNS disorders.

  1. A multi-Poisson dynamic mixture model to cluster developmental patterns of gene expression by RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meixia; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yaqun; Wu, Rongling

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic changes of gene expression reflect an intrinsic mechanism of how an organism responds to developmental and environmental signals. With the increasing availability of expression data across a time-space scale by RNA-seq, the classification of genes as per their biological function using RNA-seq data has become one of the most significant challenges in contemporary biology. Here we develop a clustering mixture model to discover distinct groups of genes expressed during a period of organ development. By integrating the density function of multivariate Poisson distribution, the model accommodates the discrete property of read counts characteristic of RNA-seq data. The temporal dependence of gene expression is modeled by the first-order autoregressive process. The model is implemented with the Expectation-Maximization algorithm and model selection to determine the optimal number of gene clusters and obtain the estimates of Poisson parameters that describe the pattern of time-dependent expression of genes from each cluster. The model has been demonstrated by analyzing a real data from an experiment aimed to link the pattern of gene expression to catkin development in white poplar. The usefulness of the model has been validated through computer simulation. The model provides a valuable tool for clustering RNA-seq data, facilitating our global view of expression dynamics and understanding of gene regulation mechanisms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Developmental song learning as a model to understand neural mechanisms that limit and promote the ability to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Sarah E

    2017-11-20

    Songbirds famously learn their vocalizations. Some species can learn continuously, others seasonally, and still others just once. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) learns to sing during a single developmental "Critical Period," a restricted phase during which a specific experience has profound and permanent effects on brain function and behavioral patterns. The zebra finch can therefore provide fundamental insight into features that promote and limit the ability to acquire complex learned behaviors. For example, what properties permit the brain to come "on-line" for learning? How does experience become encoded to prevent future learning? What features define the brain in receptive compared to closed learning states? This piece will focus on epigenomic, genomic, and molecular levels of analysis that operate on the timescales of development and complex behavioral learning. Existing data will be discussed as they relate to Critical Period learning, and strategies for future studies to more directly address these questions will be considered. Birdsong learning is a powerful model for advancing knowledge of the biological intersections of maturation and experience. Lessons from its study not only have implications for understanding developmental song learning, but also broader questions of learning potential and the enduring effects of early life experience on neural systems and behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Modeling Skills, Signs and Lettering for Children with Down Syndrome, Autism and Other Severe Developmental Delays by Video Instruction in Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, G. B.; Freedman, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses optimal strategies in teaching essential life and communication skills to children with Down syndrome, autism and other developmental delays. Evidence from the literature concerning the relative efficacy of hand-over-hand (self-modeling) in contrast to passive observational teaching techniques (e.g., video modeling) shows the…

  4. Early Childhood Developmental Status in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: National, Regional, and Global Prevalence Estimates Using Predictive Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Peet, Evan D; Ezzati, Majid; Danaei, Goodarz; Black, Maureen M; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Fawzi, Wafaie; Fink, Günther

    2016-06-01

    The development of cognitive and socioemotional skills early in life influences later health and well-being. Existing estimates of unmet developmental potential in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are based on either measures of physical growth or proxy measures such as poverty. In this paper we aim to directly estimate the number of children in LMICs who would be reported by their caregivers to show low cognitive and/or socioemotional development. The present paper uses Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) data collected between 2005 and 2015 from 99,222 3- and 4-y-old children living in 35 LMICs as part of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programs. First, we estimate the prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional ECDI scores within our MICS/DHS sample. Next, we test a series of ordinary least squares regression models predicting low ECDI scores across our MICS/DHS sample countries based on country-level data from the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Nutrition Impact Model Study. We use cross-validation to select the model with the best predictive validity. We then apply this model to all LMICs to generate country-level estimates of the prevalence of low ECDI scores globally, as well as confidence intervals around these estimates. In the pooled MICS and DHS sample, 14.6% of children had low ECDI scores in the cognitive domain, 26.2% had low socioemotional scores, and 36.8% performed poorly in either or both domains. Country-level prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional scores on the ECDI was best represented by a model using the HDI as a predictor. Applying this model to all LMICs, we estimate that 80.8 million children ages 3 and 4 y (95% CI 48.1 million, 113.6 million) in LMICs experienced low cognitive and/or socioemotional development in 2010, with the largest number of affected children in sub-Saharan Africa (29.4.1 million; 43.8% of children ages 3 and 4 y), followed by

  5. Early Childhood Developmental Status in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: National, Regional, and Global Prevalence Estimates Using Predictive Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Charles McCoy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of cognitive and socioemotional skills early in life influences later health and well-being. Existing estimates of unmet developmental potential in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs are based on either measures of physical growth or proxy measures such as poverty. In this paper we aim to directly estimate the number of children in LMICs who would be reported by their caregivers to show low cognitive and/or socioemotional development.The present paper uses Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI data collected between 2005 and 2015 from 99,222 3- and 4-y-old children living in 35 LMICs as part of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS programs. First, we estimate the prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional ECDI scores within our MICS/DHS sample. Next, we test a series of ordinary least squares regression models predicting low ECDI scores across our MICS/DHS sample countries based on country-level data from the Human Development Index (HDI and the Nutrition Impact Model Study. We use cross-validation to select the model with the best predictive validity. We then apply this model to all LMICs to generate country-level estimates of the prevalence of low ECDI scores globally, as well as confidence intervals around these estimates. In the pooled MICS and DHS sample, 14.6% of children had low ECDI scores in the cognitive domain, 26.2% had low socioemotional scores, and 36.8% performed poorly in either or both domains. Country-level prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional scores on the ECDI was best represented by a model using the HDI as a predictor. Applying this model to all LMICs, we estimate that 80.8 million children ages 3 and 4 y (95% CI 48.1 million, 113.6 million in LMICs experienced low cognitive and/or socioemotional development in 2010, with the largest number of affected children in sub-Saharan Africa (29.4.1 million; 43.8% of children ages 3 and 4 y

  6. Comportamiento de los factores biosociales en la depresión del adulto mayor Behavior of the biosocial factors in the depression of the older adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor T. Pérez Martínez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en ancianos de 60 años y más que asistieron, durante el primer cuatrimestre del presente año, a las consultas de psiquiatría del Policlínico "Ana Betancourt", dirigido a determinar la influencia de los factores biosociales en el estado depresivo de nuestros senescentes. Utilizamos la Escala de Hamilton para la Depresión, y se diagnosticó un total de 149 ancianos deprimidos, a los cuales se les aplicó una encuesta de valoración biosocial. Se constató que la depresión predominó en ancianos de 60 a 69 años, del sexo femenino, viudos, jubilados y con un bajo nivel de escolaridad. En un 82,6 % la depresión se presenta simultáneamente con otras enfermedades, destacándose las psicosomáticas, así como los trastornos de ansiedad y el abuso de sustancias desde el punto de vista psicopatológico. El 90,6 % señaló como responsables de su depresión acontecimientos vitales que se traducen en pérdidas para los senescentes. La mayoría de los adultos mayores muestra buenas condiciones de vida, sin embargo, su discreta incorporación a la vida social, así como el insuficiente apoyo socio-familiar contribuyeron notoriamente a su actual depresión.A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in individuals aged 60 and over that were attended at the psychiatrist's office in "Ana Betancourt" Policlinic during the first four months of this year in order to detemine the influence of the biosocial factor on the depressive state of our elderly under study. Hamilton's Scale for Depression was used and a total of 149 were diagnosed depression. A biosocial assessment survey was done, and it was confirmed that depression prevailed in the elderly aged 60-69, females, widows, retired and individuals with a low educational level. In 82.6 %, depression appears simultaneously with other diseases, mainly psychomatic, as well as anxiety disorders and the abuse of substances from the

  7. The development of gendered interests and personality qualities from middle childhood through adolescence: a biosocial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Dotterer, Aryn M; Crouter, Ann C; Booth, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This study charted the development of gendered personality qualities and activity interests from age 7 to age 19 in 364 first- and secondborn siblings from 185 White, middle/working-class families, assessed links between time in gendered social contexts (with mother, father, female peers, and male peers) and gender development, and tested whether changes in testosterone moderated links between time use and gender development. Multilevel models documented that patterns of change varied across dimensions of gender and by sex and birth order and that time in gendered social contexts was generally linked to development of more stereotypical qualities. Associations between time with mother and expressivity and time with father and instrumentality were stronger for youth with slower increases in testosterone.

  8. A model of the anterior esophagus in snakes, with functional and developmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundall, David; Tuttman, Cassandra; Close, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    The gross anatomy of the mouth of snakes has always been interpreted as an evolutionary response to feeding demands. In most alethinophidian species, their anatomy allows limited functional independence of right and left sides and the roof and floor of the mouth as well as wide separation of the tips of the mandibles. However, locations of the tongue and glottis in snakes suggest extraordinary rearrangement of pharyngeal structures characteristic of all vertebrates. Serial histological sections through the heads of a number of colubroid species show muscularis mucosal smooth muscle fibers appearing in the paratracheal gutter of the lower jaw at varying levels between the eye and ear regions. Incomplete muscularis externa elements appear beneath the paratracheal gutter more caudally but typically at otic levels. Both muscle layers encompass more of the gut wall at more posterior levels, encircling the gut at the level of the atlas or axis. The pattern in snakes suggests developmental dissociation of dorsal and ventral splanchnic derivatives and extensive topological rearrangements of some ventral pharyngeal arch derivatives typical of most tetrapods. When snakes swallow large prey, the effective oral cavity becomes extremely short ventrally. The palatomaxillary arches function as ratchets packing the prey almost directly into the esophagus. Our findings raise questions about germ layer origins and regulation of differentiation of gut regions and derivatives in snakes and suggest that significant aspects of the evolution of lepidosaurs may be difficult to recover from bones or molecular sequence data alone. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Kostić; Milkica Nešić; Jasminka Marković; Miodrag Stanković

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to c...

  10. Aggression, Sibling Antagonism, and Theory-of-Mind During the First Year of Siblinghood: A Developmental Cascade Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Hyun; Volling, Brenda L.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade model was tested to examine longitudinal associations among firstborn children’s aggression, Theory-of-Mind, and antagonism toward their younger sibling during the first year of siblinghood. Aggression and Theory-of-Mind were assessed before the birth of a sibling, and 4 and 12 months after the birth, and antagonism was examined at 4 and 12 months in a sample of 208 firstborn children (initial M age = 30 months, 56% girls) from primarily European American, middle- class families. Firstborns’ aggression consistently predicted high sibling antagonism both directly and through poorer Theory-of-Mind. Results highlight the importance of examining longitudinal influences across behavioral, social-cognitive, and relational factors that are closely intertwined even from the early years of life. PMID:27096923

  11. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    . Within the developmental hierarchy, each module yields an inter-level relationship that makes it possible for the scaffolding to mediate the production of selectable variations. Awide range of genetic, cellular and morphological mechanisms allows the scaffolding to integrate these modular variations...... to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships selected amongst the ones...

  12. Transgenerational developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of developmental programming suggests that the early life environment influences offspring characteristics in later life, including the propensity to develop diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. There is now growing evidence that the effects of developmental programming may also manifest in further generations without further suboptimal exposure. This review considers the evidence, primarily from rodent models, for effects persisting to subsequent generations, and evaluates the mechanisms by which developmental programming may be transmitted to further generations. In particular, we focus on the potential role of the intrauterine environment in contributing to a developmentally programmed phenotype in subsequent generations. The literature was systematically searched at http://pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding transgenerational (F2 and beyond) developmental programming effects in human populations and animal models. Transmission of programming effects is often viewed as a form of epigenetic inheritance, either via the maternal or paternal line. Evidence exists for both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications which may be responsible for phenotypic changes in further generations. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of both extra-genomic components of the zygote and the interaction of the developing conceptus with the intrauterine environment in propagating programming effects. The contribution of a suboptimal reproductive tract environment or maternal adaptations to pregnancy may be critical to inheritance of programming effects via the maternal line. As the effects of age exacerbate the programmed metabolic phenotype, advancing maternal age may increase the likelihood of developmental programming effects being transmitted to further generations. We suggest that developmental programming effects could be propagated through the maternal line de novo in generations

  13. Making Epidermal Bladder Cells Bigger: Developmental- and Salinity-Induced Endopolyploidy in a Model Halophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Rhodes, Timothy; Tran, Kieu-Nga T; Wijesinghege, Chathura; Larkin, John C; Dassanayake, Maheshi

    2018-06-01

    Endopolyploidy occurs when DNA replication takes place without subsequent mitotic nuclear division, resulting in cell-specific ploidy levels within tissues. In plants, endopolyploidy plays an important role in sustaining growth and development, but only a few studies have demonstrated a role in abiotic stress response. In this study, we investigated the function of ploidy level and nuclear and cell size in leaf expansion throughout development and tracked cell type-specific ploidy in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum In addition to developmental endopolyploidy, we examined the effects of salinity stress on ploidy level. We focused specifically on epidermal bladder cells (EBC), which are modified balloon-like trichomes, due to their large size and role in salt accumulation. Our results demonstrate that ploidy increases as the leaves expand in a similar manner for each leaf type, and ploidy levels up to 512C were recorded for nuclei in EBC of leaves of adult plants. Salt treatment led to a significant increase in ploidy levels in the EBC, and these cells showed spatially related differences in their ploidy and nuclear and cell size depending on the positions on the leaf and stem surface. Transcriptome analysis highlighted salinity-induced changes in genes involved in DNA replication, cell cycle, endoreduplication, and trichome development in EBC. The increase in cell size and ploidy observed in M. crystallinum under salinity stress may contribute to salt tolerance by increasing the storage capacity for sodium sequestration brought about by higher metabolic activity driving rapid cell enlargement in the leaf tissue and EBC. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. Green Growth - an Illusion? Energy and Climate Risk: Rethinking our Developmental Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.

    2011-01-01

    The years go by and international conferences come and go, with their quota of cries of alarm and calls to action to counter climate change. But in reality few large-scale programmes have been launched anywhere in the world involving concrete action to bring down greenhouse gas emissions. As one who has campaigned for many years for policies of energy consumption control, Benjamin Dessus shows here that the energy challenge is as great as it has ever been in a world of expanding populations in which most peoples aspire to reach the developmental level of the northern countries, despite the fact that our climate probably cannot support such a state of affairs. He argues here against a certain number of common suppositions, such as the idea of focussing exclusively on CO 2 in the fight against global warming, the need for a continuous economic growth on the order of 2% per annum or excessive faith in market mechanisms to bring down greenhouse gas emissions. He also stresses the ambiguities of so-called 'green' growth and compares different energy conservation scenarios. In this way, he shows that, against a relatively dominant line of reasoning based largely on (at times near-utopian) technological solutions and the continuation of sustained economic growth, there are more effective paths based on individual/collective energy sobriety and a serious slowdown of economic growth in the most developed countries, if not indeed a total halt to that growth (though these are more ambitious in that they require a revolution in the behaviour of the most affluent peoples). He concludes by proposing some courses of action for implementing such a programme in a country like France, showing the extent to which modern modes of life are going to have to change and how urgent it now is to debate these matters, if such change is to be achieved without - excessive - pain. (author)

  15. Developmental cascade models linking peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junsheng; Bullock, Amanda; Coplan, Robert J; Chen, Xinyin; Li, Dan; Zhou, Ying

    2018-03-01

    This study explored the longitudinal relations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement in Chinese primary school students. Participants were N = 945 fourth-grade students (485 boys, 460 girls; M age  = 10.16 years, SD = 2 months) attending elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Three waves of data on peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement were collected from peer nominations, self-reports, and school records, respectively. The results indicated that peer victimization had both direct and indirect effects on later depression and academic achievement. Depression also had both direct and indirect negative effects on later academic achievement, but demonstrated only an indirect effect on later peer victimization. Finally, academic achievement had both direct and indirect negative effects on later peer victimization and depression. The findings show that there are cross-cultural similarities and differences in the various transactions that exist among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Peer victimization directly and indirectly relates to depression and academic achievement. Depression directly and indirectly relates to academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to depression. What the present study adds? A developmental cascade approach was used to assess the interrelations among peer victimization, depression, and academic achievement. Academic achievement mediates the relation between peer victimization and depression. Depression is related to peer victimization through academic achievement. Academic achievement directly and indirectly relates to peer victimization. Academic achievement is related to depression through peer victimization. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Autism spectrum disorders: toward a gendered embodiment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Jordan-Young, Rebecca M

    2012-06-01

    One of the most consistent observations in the epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is the preponderance of male cases. A few hypotheses have been put forth which attempt to explain this divergence in terms of sex-linked biology, with limited success. Feminist epidemiologists suggest the importance of investigating specific mechanisms for male-female differences in health outcomes, which may include sex-linked biology and/or gender relations, as well as complex biosocial interactions. Neither domain has been systematically investigated for autism, and the possible role of gender has been particularly neglected. In this article, we posit hypotheses about how social processes based on perception of persons as male or female, particularly patterns of social and physical interaction in early development, may affect the observed occurrence and diagnosis of ASD. We gesture toward an embodiment model, incorporating hypotheses about initial biological vulnerabilities to autism--which may or may not be differentially distributed in relation to sex biology--and their interactions with gender relations, which are demonstrably different for male and female infants. Toward building such a model, we first review the epidemiology of ASD with an eye toward male-female differences, then present a theory of gender as a "pervasive developmental environment" with relevance for the excess burden of autism among males. Finally, we suggest research strategies to further investigate this issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Guinea pig models for translation of the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis into the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Janna L; Botting, Kimberley J; Darby, Jack R T; David, Anna L; Dyson, Rebecca M; Gatford, Kathryn L; Gray, Clint; Herrera, Emilio A; Hirst, Jonathan J; Kim, Bona; Kind, Karen L; Krause, Bernardo J; Matthews, Stephen G; Palliser, Hannah K; Regnault, Timothy R H; Richardson, Bryan S; Sasaki, Aya; Thompson, Loren P; Berry, Mary J

    2018-04-06

    Over 30 years ago Professor David Barker first proposed the theory that events in early life could explain an individual's risk of non-communicable disease in later life: the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis. During the 1990s the validity of the DOHaD hypothesis was extensively tested in a number of human populations and the mechanisms underpinning it characterised in a range of experimental animal models. Over the past decade, researchers have sought to use this mechanistic understanding of DOHaD to develop therapeutic interventions during pregnancy and early life to improve adult health. A variety of animal models have been used to develop and evaluate interventions, each with strengths and limitations. It is becoming apparent that effective translational research requires that the animal paradigm selected mirrors the tempo of human fetal growth and development as closely as possible so that the effect of a perinatal insult and/or therapeutic intervention can be fully assessed. The guinea pig is one such animal model that over the past two decades has demonstrated itself to be a very useful platform for these important reproductive studies. This review highlights similarities in the in utero development between humans and guinea pigs, the strengths and limitations of the guinea pig as an experimental model of DOHaD and the guinea pig's potential to enhance clinical therapeutic innovation to improve human health. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  18. Comparison of three models predicting developmental milestones given environmental and individual variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estella Gilbert; James A. Powell; Jesse A. Logan; Barbara J. Bentz

    2004-01-01

    In all organisms, phenotypic variability is an evolutionary stipulation. Because the development of poikilothermic organisms depends directly on the temperature of their habitat, environmental variability is also an integral factor in models of their phenology. In this paper we present two existing phenology models, the distributed delay model and the Sharpe and...

  19. Quantitative model analysis with diverse biological data: applications in developmental pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargett, Michael; Umulis, David M

    2013-07-15

    Mathematical modeling of transcription factor and signaling networks is widely used to understand if and how a mechanism works, and to infer regulatory interactions that produce a model consistent with the observed data. Both of these approaches to modeling are informed by experimental data, however, much of the data available or even acquirable are not quantitative. Data that is not strictly quantitative cannot be used by classical, quantitative, model-based analyses that measure a difference between the measured observation and the model prediction for that observation. To bridge the model-to-data gap, a variety of techniques have been developed to measure model "fitness" and provide numerical values that can subsequently be used in model optimization or model inference studies. Here, we discuss a selection of traditional and novel techniques to transform data of varied quality and enable quantitative comparison with mathematical models. This review is intended to both inform the use of these model analysis methods, focused on parameter estimation, and to help guide the choice of method to use for a given study based on the type of data available. Applying techniques such as normalization or optimal scaling may significantly improve the utility of current biological data in model-based study and allow greater integration between disparate types of data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Conceptual and Developmental Analysis of Mental Models: An Example with Complex Change Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Louise

    Defining better implicit models of children's actions in a series of situations is of paramount importance to understanding how knowledge is constructed. The objective of this study was to analyze the implicit mental models used by children in complex change problems to understand the stability of the models and their evolution with the child's…

  1. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  2. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  3. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  4. Comparing Service Delivery Models for Children with Developmental Delays in Canada: Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviours, Parental Perceptions of Stress and of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Fontil, Laura; Miodrag, Nancy; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; Amar, Daniel; Amos, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study compares two service delivery models (community-based and centre-based), examining them in light of children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours, and parental perceptions of stress and of care. More specifically, parents of 96 children with developmental delays assessed their children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours and rated…

  5. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights from the Family Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-01-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…

  6. Analysis and test of a 16-foot radial rib reflector developmental model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Shawn A.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical and experimental modal tests were performed to determine the vibrational characteristics of a 16-foot diameter radial rib reflector model. Single rib analyses and experimental tests provided preliminary information relating to the reflector. A finite element model predicted mode shapes and frequencies of the reflector. The analyses correlated well with the experimental tests, verifying the modeling method used. The results indicate that five related, characteristic mode shapes form a group. The frequencies of the modes are determined by the relative phase of the radial ribs.

  7. An explanatory evo-devo model for the developmental hourglass [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3s6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saamer Akhshabi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The "developmental hourglass'' describes a pattern of increasing morphological divergence towards earlier and later embryonic development, separated by a period of significant conservation across distant species (the "phylotypic stage''. Recent studies have found evidence in support of the hourglass effect at the genomic level. For instance, the phylotypic stage expresses the oldest and most conserved transcriptomes. However, the regulatory mechanism that causes the hourglass pattern remains an open question. Here, we use an evolutionary model of regulatory gene interactions during development to identify the conditions under which the hourglass effect can emerge in a general setting. The model focuses on the hierarchical gene regulatory network that controls the developmental process, and on the evolution of a population under random perturbations in the structure of that network. The model predicts, under fairly general assumptions, the emergence of an hourglass pattern in the structure of a temporal representation of the underlying gene regulatory network. The evolutionary age of the corresponding genes also follows an hourglass pattern, with the oldest genes concentrated at the hourglass waist. The key behind the hourglass effect is that developmental regulators should have an increasingly specific function as development progresses. Analysis of developmental gene expression profiles from Drosophila melanogaster and Arabidopsis thaliana provide consistent results with our theoretical predictions.

  8. An explanatory evo-devo model for the developmental hourglass [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4x3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saamer Akhshabi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The "developmental hourglass'' describes a pattern of increasing morphological divergence towards earlier and later embryonic development, separated by a period of significant conservation across distant species (the "phylotypic stage''. Recent studies have found evidence in support of the hourglass effect at the genomic level. For instance, the phylotypic stage expresses the oldest and most conserved transcriptomes. However, the regulatory mechanism that causes the hourglass pattern remains an open question. Here, we use an evolutionary model of regulatory gene interactions during development to identify the conditions under which the hourglass effect can emerge in a general setting. The model focuses on the hierarchical gene regulatory network that controls the developmental process, and on the evolution of a population under random perturbations in the structure of that network. The model predicts, under fairly general assumptions, the emergence of an hourglass pattern in the structure of a temporal representation of the underlying gene regulatory network. The evolutionary age of the corresponding genes also follows an hourglass pattern, with the oldest genes concentrated at the hourglass waist. The key behind the hourglass effect is that developmental regulators should have an increasingly specific function as development progresses. Analysis of developmental gene expression profiles from Drosophila melanogaster and Arabidopsis thaliana provide consistent results with our theoretical predictions.

  9. Developmental Programming of Cardiovascular Disease Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Findings Utilising A Rat Model of Maternal Protein Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Lim, Kyungjoon; Pearson, James T.; Black, M. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, studies have demonstrated links between risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and adverse events that occurred very early in life during fetal development. The concept that there are embryonic and fetal adaptive responses to a sub-optimal intrauterine environment often brought about by poor maternal diet that result in permanent adverse consequences to life-long health is consistent with the definition of “programming”. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on long-term cardiac structure and function, with particular emphasis on the effects of maternal protein restriction. Much of our recent knowledge has been derived from animal models. We review the current literature of one of the most commonly used models of IUGR (maternal protein restriction in rats), in relation to birth weight and postnatal growth, blood pressure and cardiac structure and function. In doing so, we highlight the complexity of developmental programming, with regards to timing, degree of severity of the insult, genotype and the subsequent postnatal phenotype. PMID:25551250

  10. Designing Collaborative Developmental Standards by Refactoring of the Earth Science Models, Libraries, Workflows and Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvis, E.; Iredell, M.

    2015-12-01

    The operational (OPS) NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) suite, traditionally, consist of a large set of multi- scale HPC models, workflows, scripts, tools and utilities, which are very much depending on the variety of the additional components. Namely, this suite utilizes a unique collection of the in-house developed 20+ shared libraries (NCEPLIBS), certain versions of the 3-rd party libraries (like netcdf, HDF, ESMF, jasper, xml etc.), HPC workflow tool within dedicated (sometimes even vendors' customized) HPC system homogeneous environment. This domain and site specific, accompanied with NCEP's product- driven large scale real-time data operations complicates NCEP collaborative development tremendously by reducing chances to replicate this OPS environment anywhere else. The NOAA/NCEP's Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) missions to develop and improve numerical weather, climate, hydrological and ocean prediction through the partnership with the research community. Realizing said difficulties, lately, EMC has been taken an innovative approach to improve flexibility of the HPC environment by building the elements and a foundation for NCEP OPS functionally equivalent environment (FEE), which can be used to ease the external interface constructs as well. Aiming to reduce turnaround time of the community code enhancements via Research-to-Operations (R2O) cycle, EMC developed and deployed several project sub-set standards that already paved the road to NCEP OPS implementation standards. In this topic we will discuss the EMC FEE for O2R requirements and approaches in collaborative standardization, including NCEPLIBS FEE and models code version control paired with the models' derived customized HPC modules and FEE footprints. We will share NCEP/EMC experience and potential in the refactoring of EMC development processes, legacy codes and in securing model source code quality standards by using combination of the Eclipse IDE, integrated with the

  11. Enhancing the value of psychiatric mouse models; differential expression of developmental behavioral and cognitive profiles in four inbred strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenhuis, Remco T; de Visser, Leonie; Bruining, Hilgo; Kas, Martien J

    2014-06-01

    The behavioral characterization of animal models of psychiatric disorders is often based upon independent traits measured at adult age. To model the neurodevelopmental aspects of psychiatric pathogenesis, we introduce a novel approach for a developmental behavioral analysis in mice. C57BL/6J (C57) mice were used as a reference strain and compared with 129S1/SvImJ (129Sv), BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) and A/J (AJ) strains as marker strains for aberrant development. Mice were assessed at pre-adolescence (4 weeks), adolescence (6 weeks), early adulthood (8 weeks) and in adulthood (10-12 weeks) on a series of behavioral tasks measuring general health, neurological reflexes, locomotor activity, anxiety, short- and long-term memory and cognitive flexibility. Developmental delays in short-term object memory were associated with either a hypo-reactive profile in 129Sv mice or a hyper-reactive profile in BTBR mice. Furthermore, BTBR mice showed persistent high levels of repetitive grooming behavior during all developmental stages that was associated with the adult expression of cognitive rigidity. In addition, strain differences in development were observed in puberty onset, touch escape, and body position. These data showed that this longitudinal testing battery provides sufficient behavioral and cognitive resolution during different development stages and offers the opportunity to address the behavioral developmental trajectory in genetic mouse models for neurodevelopmental disorders. Furthermore, the data revealed that the assessment of multiple behavioral and cognitive domains at different developmental stages is critical to determine confounding factors (e.g., impaired motor behavior) that may interfere with the behavioral testing performance in mouse models for brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. General developmental health in the VPA-rat model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favre, Mônica R; Rinaldi Barkat, Tania; Lamendola, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental condition diagnosed by impaired social interaction, abnormal communication and, stereotyped behaviors. While post-mortem and imaging studies have provided good insights into the neurobiological symptomology of autism, animal models can be used to study...... with VPA during early pregnancy show an increased risk for giving birth to an autistic child. In rats, early embryonic exposure, around the time of neural tube closure, leads to autism-like anatomical and behavioral abnormalities in the offspring. Considering the increasing use of the VPA rat model, we...

  13. An Integrative Model for the Study of Developmental Competencies in Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Cynthia Garcia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a conceptual model for the study of child development in minority populations in the United States that is anchored within social stratification theory and emphasizes the importance of racism, prejudice, discrimination, oppression, and segregation in the development of minority children and families. (MDM)

  14. Cumulative Risk Disparities in Children's Neurocognitive Functioning: A Developmental Cascade Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mark; Browne, Dillon T.; Plamondon, Andre; Daniel, Ella; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the role of cumulative social risk on children's theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) across early development. Further, we also tested a cascade model of development in which children's social cognition at 18 months was hypothesized to predict ToM and EF at age 4.5 through intermediary…

  15. Facing the situation: Testing a biosocial contingency model of leadership in intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spisak, B.R.; Homan, A.C.; Grabo, A.E.; van Vugt, M.

    2012-01-01

    Using an evolutionary psychology framework we propose that leadership and followership are evolved traits to solve recurrent group coordination problems. We argue that adaptive problems such as those concerning intergroup conflict or cooperation activate different cognitive leadership prototypes,

  16. Transgenic Mouse Models Transferred into the Test Tube: New Perspectives for Developmental Toxicity Testing In Vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Josephine; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Despite our increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling embryogenesis, the identification and characterization of teratogenic substances still heavily relies on animal testing. Embryonic development depends on cell-autonomous and non-autonomous processes including spatiotemporally regulated extracellular signaling activities. These have been elucidated in transgenic mouse models harboring easily detectable reporter genes under the control of evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades. We propose combining these transgenic mouse models and cells derived thereof with existing alternative toxicological testing strategies. This would enable the plausibility of in vitro data to be verified in light of in vivo data and, ultimately, facilitate regulatory acceptance of in vitro test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving the Enterprise Requirements and Acquisition Model’s Developmental Test and Evaluation Process Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    program office. Many of the individuals were identified through snowball sampling . SME Discussion Summary The SME discussions brought to light...adequate sample sizes are collected. With computer modeling and simulation, time is less of a limiting factor as it can be manipulated. Data representing...The DAMS suffers from diverse problems of which only a very small sample were discussed here. However, as diverse as the problems encountered were, a

  18. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Developmental Toxicity: what can we learn from a virtual embryo? (RIVM, Brussels)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity (DART) testing is important for assessing the potential consequences of drug and chemical exposure on human health and well-being. Complexity of pregnancy and the reproductive cycle makes DART testing challenging and costly for traditional ...

  19. Turmeric Extract Rescues Ethanol-Induced Developmental Defect in the Zebrafish Model for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Connors, Craig T; Mohammed, Arooj S; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, Kathleen; Marrs, James A; Chism, Grady W

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the most frequent preventable birth disorder, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The effect of turmeric extracts in rescuing an ethanol-induced developmental defect using zebrafish as a model was determined. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying FASD. We hypothesize that antioxidant inducing properties of turmeric may alleviate ethanol-induced defects. Curcuminoid content of the turmeric powder extract (5 mg/mL turmeric in ethanol) was determined by UPLC and found to contain Curcumin (124.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL), Desmethoxycurcumin (43.4 ± 0.1 μg/mL), and Bisdemethoxycurcumin (36.6 ± 0.1 μg/mL). Zebrafish embryos were treated with 100 mM (0.6% v/v) ethanol during gastrulation through organogenesis (2 to 48 h postfertilization (hpf)) and supplemented with turmeric extract to obtain total curcuminoid concentrations of 0, 1.16, 1.72, or 2.32 μM. Turmeric supplementation showed significant rescue of the body length at 72 hpf compared to ethanol-treated embryos. The mechanism underlying the rescue remains to be determined. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK 801-induced hyperlocomotion in the adult rat: An animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Burne, Thomas H J; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W

    2006-09-15

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for schizophrenia. The behavioral phenotype of adult rats subjected to transient low prenatal vitamin D is characterized by spontaneous hyperlocomotion but normal prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of selected psychotropic agents and one well-known antipsychotic agent on the behavioral phenotype of DVD deplete rats. Control versus DVD deplete adult rats were assessed on holeboard, open field and PPI. In the open field, animals were given MK-801 and/or haloperidol. For PPI, the animals were given apomorphine or MK-801. DVD deplete rats had increased baseline locomotion on the holeboard task and increased locomotion in response to MK-801 compared to control rats. At low doses, haloperidol antagonized the MK-801 hyperactivity of DVD deplete rats preferentially and, at a high dose, resulted in a more pronounced reduction in spontaneous locomotion in DVD deplete rats. DVD depletion did not affect either baseline or drug-mediated PPI response. These results suggest that DVD deficiency is associated with a persistent alteration in neuronal systems associated with motor function but not those associated with sensory motor gating. In light of the putative association between low prenatal vitamin D and schizophrenia, the discrete behavioral differences associated with the DVD model may help elucidate the neurobiological correlates of schizophrenia.

  1. Drosophila embryos as model to assess cellular and developmental toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT in living organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyin Liu

    Full Text Available Different toxicity tests for carbon nanotubes (CNT have been developed to assess their impact on human health and on aquatic and terrestrial animal and plant life. We present a new model, the fruit fly Drosophila embryo offering the opportunity for rapid, inexpensive and detailed analysis of CNTs toxicity during embryonic development. We show that injected DiI labelled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs become incorporated into cells in early Drosophila embryos, allowing the study of the consequences of cellular uptake of CNTs on cell communication, tissue and organ formation in living embryos. Fluorescently labelled subcellular structures showed that MWCNTs remained cytoplasmic and were excluded from the nucleus. Analysis of developing ectodermal and neural stem cells in MWCNTs injected embryos revealed normal division patterns and differentiation capacity. However, an increase in cell death of ectodermal but not of neural stem cells was observed, indicating stem cell-specific vulnerability to MWCNT exposure. The ease of CNT embryo injections, the possibility of detailed morphological and genomic analysis and the low costs make Drosophila embryos a system of choice to assess potential developmental and cellular effects of CNTs and test their use in future CNT based new therapies including drug delivery.

  2. Modeling metabolism and stage-specific growth of Plasmodium falciparum HB3 during the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

    2014-10-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum goes through a complex life cycle, including a roughly 48-hour-long intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) in human red blood cells. A better understanding of the metabolic processes required during the asexual blood-stage reproduction will enhance our basic knowledge of P. falciparum and help identify critical metabolic reactions and pathways associated with blood-stage malaria. We developed a metabolic network model that mechanistically links time-dependent gene expression, metabolism, and stage-specific growth, allowing us to predict the metabolic fluxes, the biomass production rates, and the timing of production of the different biomass components during the IDC. We predicted time- and stage-specific production of precursors and macromolecules for P. falciparum (strain HB3), allowing us to link specific metabolites to specific physiological functions. For example, we hypothesized that coenzyme A might be involved in late-IDC DNA replication and cell division. Moreover, the predicted ATP metabolism indicated that energy was mainly produced from glycolysis and utilized for non-metabolic processes. Finally, we used the model to classify the entire tricarboxylic acid cycle into segments, each with a distinct function, such as superoxide detoxification, glutamate/glutamine processing, and metabolism of fumarate as a byproduct of purine biosynthesis. By capturing the normal metabolic and growth progression in P. falciparum during the IDC, our model provides a starting point for further elucidation of strain-specific metabolic activity, host-parasite interactions, stress-induced metabolic responses, and metabolic responses to antimalarial drugs and drug candidates.

  3. L-leucine partially rescues translational and developmental defects associated with zebrafish models of Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baoshan; Sowa, Nenja; Cardenas, Maria E; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2015-03-15

    Cohesinopathies are human genetic disorders that include Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts syndrome (RBS) and are characterized by defects in limb and craniofacial development as well as mental retardation. The developmental phenotypes of CdLS and other cohesinopathies suggest that mutations in the structure and regulation of the cohesin complex during embryogenesis interfere with gene regulation. In a previous project, we showed that RBS was associated with highly fragmented nucleoli and defects in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation. l-leucine stimulation of the mTOR pathway partially rescued translation in human RBS cells and development in zebrafish models of RBS. In this study, we investigate protein translation in zebrafish models of CdLS. Our results show that phosphorylation of RPS6 as well as 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) was reduced in nipbla/b, rad21 and smc3-morphant embryos, a pattern indicating reduced translation. Moreover, protein biosynthesis and rRNA production were decreased in the cohesin morphant embryo cells. l-leucine partly rescued protein synthesis and rRNA production in the cohesin morphants and partially restored phosphorylation of RPS6 and 4EBP1. Concomitantly, l-leucine treatment partially improved cohesinopathy embryo development including the formation of craniofacial cartilage. Interestingly, we observed that alpha-ketoisocaproate (α-KIC), which is a keto derivative of leucine, also partially rescued the development of rad21 and nipbla/b morphants by boosting mTOR-dependent translation. In summary, our results suggest that cohesinopathies are caused in part by defective protein synthesis, and stimulation of the mTOR pathway through l-leucine or its metabolite α-KIC can partially rescue development in zebrafish models for CdLS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Testing Models for the Contributions of Genes and Environment to Developmental Change in Adolescent Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Nathan A; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine; Silberg, Judy L

    2015-07-01

    We tested two models to identify the genetic and environmental processes underlying longitudinal changes in depression among adolescents. The first assumes that observed changes in covariance structure result from the unfolding of inherent, random individual differences in the overall levels and rates of change in depression over time (random growth curves). The second assumes that observed changes are due to time-specific random effects (innovations) accumulating over time (autoregressive effects). We found little evidence of age-specific genetic effects or persistent genetic innovations. Instead, genetic effects are consistent with a gradual unfolding in the liability to depression and rates of change with increasing age. Likewise, the environment also creates significant individual differences in overall levels of depression and rates of change. However, there are also time-specific environmental experiences that persist with fidelity. The implications of these differing genetic and environmental mechanisms in the etiology of depression are considered.

  5. Dual diathesis-stressor model of emotional and linguistic contributions to developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Tedra A; Frankel, Carl B; Buhr, Anthony P; Johnson, Kia N; Conture, Edward G; Karrass, Jan M

    2012-05-01

    This study assessed emotional and speech-language contributions to childhood stuttering. A dual diathesis-stressor framework guided this study, in which both linguistic requirements and skills, and emotion and its regulation, are hypothesized to contribute to stuttering. The language diathesis consists of expressive and receptive language skills. The emotion diathesis consists of proclivities to emotional reactivity and regulation of emotion, and the emotion stressor consists of experimentally manipulated emotional inductions prior to narrative speaking tasks. Preschool-age children who do and do not stutter were exposed to three emotion-producing overheard conversations-neutral, positive, and angry. Emotion and emotion-regulatory behaviors were coded while participants listened to each conversation and while telling a story after each overheard conversation. Instances of stuttering during each story were counted. Although there was no main effect of conversation type, results indicated that stuttering in preschool-age children is influenced by emotion and language diatheses, as well as coping strategies and situational emotional stressors. Findings support the dual diathesis-stressor model of stuttering.

  6. Collective Cellular Decision-Making Gives Developmental Plasticity: A Model of Signaling in Branching Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, W. Tyler; Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A.; Grieneisen, Veronica A.

    Cells within tissues can be regarded as autonomous entities that respond to their local environment and signaling from neighbors. Cell coordination is particularly important in plants, where root architecture must strategically invest resources for growth to optimize nutrient acquisition. Thus, root cells are constantly adapting to environmental cues and neighbor communication in a non-linear manner. To explain such plasticity, we view the root as a swarm of coupled multi-cellular structures, ''metamers'', rather than as a continuum of identical cells. These metamers are individually programmed to achieve a local objective - developing a lateral root primordia, which aids in local foraging of nutrients. Collectively, such individual attempts may be halted, structuring root architecture as an emergent behavior. Each metamer's decision to branch is coordinated locally and globally through hormone signaling, including processes of controlled diffusion, active polar transport, and dynamic feedback. We present a physical model of the signaling mechanism that coordinates branching decisions in response to the environment. This work was funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Program, Project No. 601062, SWARM-ORGAN.

  7. Developmental programming of metabolic diseases – a review of studies on experimental animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Piotrowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development in utero is a complex and dynamic process that requires interaction between the mother organism and the fetus. The delivery of macro – and micronutrients, oxygen and endocrine signals has crucial importance for providing a high level of proliferation, growth and differentiation of cells, and a disruption in food intake not only has an influence on the growth of the fetus, but also has negative consequences for the offspring’s health in the future. Diseases that traditionally are linked to inappropriate life style of adults, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and arterial hypertension, can be “programmed” in the early stage of life and the disturbed growth of the fetus leads to the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. The structural changes of some organs, such as the brain, pancreas and kidney, modifications of the signaling and metabolic pathways in skeletal muscles and in fatty tissue, epigenetic mechanisms and mitochondrial dysfunction are the basis of the metabolic disruptions. The programming of the metabolic disturbances is connected with the disruption in the intrauterine environment experienced in the early and late gestation period. It causes the changes in deposition of triglycerides, activation of the hormonal “stress axis” and disturbances in the offspring’s glucose tolerance. The present review summarizes experimental results that led to the identification of the above-mentioned links and it underlines the role of animal models in the studies of this important concept.

  8. Bio-social factors and perceptions of life with quality: a challenge to the adherence of h i v patients to the antirretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harold Estrada M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite that antirretroviral therapy has contributed to improve life quality among people living with h i v, adherence to the treatment still persists as a major obstacle for therapeutic success. In order to assess the biosocial factors that contributes to adherence to this therapy by people with h i v. In order to evaluate the bio-social aspects that facilitate or obstruct the adherence to the treatment, a qualitative study combining ethnographic research, a hermeneutic approach to narratives, and a situational analysis of life experiences of people living with h i v in Colombia. Two theoretical categories were applied throughout the study: Victoria Camps’ life with quality and Saussure’s auto- and hetero-perception. All of the ten people who took part in the study were male patients who were attending an integral oral health program. The main factors that obstruct the adherence to the therapy were the following: 1 the discourse of the medical team loaded with biomedical jargon; 2 the dosages and side effects of the medications used in Colombia; 3 negative attitudes linked to a poor selfimage, a low social capital, and a low self-esteem; 4 low expectations in regards to a life with quality accompanied by the therapy. Among the factors that promote adherence the following were identified: 1 intra- and inter-personal negotiation processes based on the h i v serum status and the treatment; 2 knowledge about those negotiations by family members, friends, coworkers, and sentimental partners; 3 a positive perception of improvement in life quality while in treatment; 4 expectations of a life with quality depending on the adherence. Nevertheless, it was also found that those factors that contribute or impede adherence change rapidly and produce swinging in the person’s mood. This mood is here understood as a complex feeling concerning life with quality in constant change, both merging individual and social aspects implied in the experience of

  9. Global developmental gene expression and pathway analysis of normal brain development and mouse models of human neuronal migration defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Pramparo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterozygous LIS1 mutations are the most common cause of human lissencephaly, a human neuronal migration defect, and DCX mutations are the most common cause of X-linked lissencephaly. LIS1 is part of a protein complex including NDEL1 and 14-3-3ε that regulates dynein motor function and microtubule dynamics, while DCX stabilizes microtubules and cooperates with LIS1 during neuronal migration and neurogenesis. Targeted gene mutations of Lis1, Dcx, Ywhae (coding for 14-3-3ε, and Ndel1 lead to neuronal migration defects in mouse and provide models of human lissencephaly, as well as aid the study of related neuro-developmental diseases. Here we investigated the developing brain of these four mutants and wild-type mice using expression microarrays, bioinformatic analyses, and in vivo/in vitro experiments to address whether mutations in different members of the LIS1 neuronal migration complex lead to similar and/or distinct global gene expression alterations. Consistent with the overall successful development of the mutant brains, unsupervised clustering and co-expression analysis suggested that cell cycle and synaptogenesis genes are similarly expressed and co-regulated in WT and mutant brains in a time-dependent fashion. By contrast, focused co-expression analysis in the Lis1 and Ndel1 mutants uncovered substantial differences in the correlation among pathways. Differential expression analysis revealed that cell cycle, cell adhesion, and cytoskeleton organization pathways are commonly altered in all mutants, while synaptogenesis, cell morphology, and inflammation/immune response are specifically altered in one or more mutants. We found several commonly dysregulated genes located within pathogenic deletion/duplication regions, which represent novel candidates of human mental retardation and neurocognitive disabilities. Our analysis suggests that gene expression and pathway analysis in mouse models of a similar disorder or within a common pathway can

  10. Legacy for ChildrenTM: a pair of randomized controlled trials of a public health model to improve developmental outcomes among children in poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perou Ruth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One in five Americans under age 18 lives in a family below the Federal poverty threshold. These more than 15 million children are at increased risk of a wide variety of adverse long-term health and developmental outcomes. The early years of life are critical to short- and long-term health and well-being. The Legacy for ChildrenTM model was developed in response to this need and marries the perspectives of epidemiology and public health to developmental psychology theory in order to better address the needs of children at environmental risk for poor developmental outcomes. Methods/design The Legacy for ChildrenTM group-based parenting intervention model was evaluated as a pair of randomized controlled trials among low-income families in Miami and Los Angeles. The study was designed to allow for site-stratified analysis in order to evaluate each model implementation separately. Evaluation domains include comprehensive assessments of family, maternal, and child characteristics, process outcomes, and prospective programmatic cost. Data collection began prenatally or at birth and continues into school-age. Discussion The societal costs of poor developmental outcomes are substantial. A concerted effort from multiple sectors and disciplines, including public health, is necessary to address these societal concerns. Legacy uses a public health model to engage parents and promote overall child well-being in families in poverty through rigorous evaluation methodologies and evidence-based intervention strategies. This study collects rich and modular information on maternal and child outcomes, process, and cost that will enable a detailed understanding of how Legacy works, how it can be refined and improved, and how it can be translated and disseminated. Taken together, these results will inform public policy and help to address issues of health disparities among at-risk populations. Trial registration NCT00164697

  11. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: does a Bayesian approach outperform regression models to discriminate between juveniles and adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-01-01

    Dental age estimation methods based on the radiologically detected third molar developmental stages are implemented in forensic age assessments to discriminate between juveniles and adults considering the judgment of young unaccompanied asylum seekers. Accurate and unbiased age estimates combined with appropriate quantified uncertainties are the required properties for accurate forensic reporting. In this study, a subset of 910 individuals uniformly distributed in age between 16 and 22 years was selected from an existing dataset collected by Gunst et al. containing 2,513 panoramic radiographs with known third molar developmental stages of Belgian Caucasian men and women. This subset was randomly split in a training set to develop a classical regression analysis and a Bayesian model for the multivariate distribution of the third molar developmental stages conditional on age and in a test set to assess the performance of both models. The aim of this study was to verify if the Bayesian approach differentiates the age of maturity more precisely and removes the bias, which disadvantages the systematically overestimated young individuals. The Bayesian model offers the discrimination of subjects being older than 18 years more appropriate and produces more meaningful prediction intervals but does not strongly outperform the classical approaches.

  12. Social Defense: An Evolutionary-Developmental Model of Children's Strategies for Coping with Threat in the Peer Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith J. Martin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Navigating the ubiquitous conflict, competition, and complex group dynamics of the peer group is a pivotal developmental task of childhood. Difficulty negotiating these challenges represents a substantial source of risk for psychopathology. Evolutionary developmental psychology offers a unique perspective with the potential to reorganize the way we think about the role of peer relationships in shaping how children cope with the everyday challenges of establishing a social niche. To address this gap, we utilize the ethological reformulation of the emotional security theory as a guide to developing an evolutionary framework for advancing an understanding of the defense strategies children use to manage antagonistic peer relationships and protect themselves from interpersonal threat (Davies and Sturge-Apple, 2007. In this way, we hope to illustrate the value of an evolutionary developmental lens in generating unique theoretical insight and novel research directions into the role of peer relationships in the development of psychopathology.

  13. Stigma, explanatory models and unmet needs of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in a low-income African country: a cross-sectional facility-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Dejene; Hanlon, Charlotte; Fekadu, Abebaw; Tekola, Bethlehem; Baheretibeb, Yonas; Hoekstra, Rosa A

    2016-04-27

    Understanding the perspectives of caregivers of children with developmental disorders living in low-income countries is important to inform intervention programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the stigma experiences, explanatory models, unmet needs, preferred interventions and coping mechanisms of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in Ethiopia. Participants comprised caregivers (n = 102) of children with developmental disorders attending two child mental health clinics in Addis Ababa. The majority (66.7%; n = 68) had a diagnosis of intellectual disability (ID); 34 children (33.3%) had autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as their primary diagnosis. All caregivers were administered a structured questionnaire via a face-to-face interview, which included an adaptation of the Family Interview Schedule, closed questions about socio-demographic characteristics, explanatory models of illness, type of interventions used or desired and coping strategies, and an open ended question regarding the family's unmet needs. Most caregivers reported experience of stigma: 43.1% worried about being treated differently, 45.1% felt ashamed about their child's condition and 26.7% made an effort to keep their child's condition secret. Stigma did not depend on the type of developmental disorder, the child's age or gender, or on the age or level of education of the caregiver (all p > 0.05). Reported stigma was significantly higher in caregivers who had sought traditional help (p child's condition (p = .02) and in caregivers of Orthodox Christian faith (p = .03). Caregivers gave a mixture of biomedical explanations (e.g. head injury (30.4%) or birth complications (25.5%)) and supernatural explanations (e.g. spirit possession (40.2%) or sinful act (27.5%)) for their child's condition. The biggest reported unmet need was educational provision for their child (74.5%), followed by treatment by a health professional (47.1%), financial support (30.4%) and expert help to

  14. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Developmental Toxicity. What can we learn from a virtual embryo? (FDA-CFSAN workshop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SYNOPSIS: The question of how tissues and organs are shaped during development is crucial for understanding human birth defects. Data from high-throughput screening assays on human stem cells may be utilized predict developmental toxicity with reasonable accuracy. Other types of ...

  15. Identifying Subtypes among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Mathematical Learning Disabilities, Using Model-Based Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Stefanie; Roeyers, Herbert; Rosseel, Yves; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Desoete, Annemie

    2015-01-01

    A relationship between motor and mathematical skills has been shown by previous research. However, the question of whether subtypes can be differentiated within developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and/or mathematical learning disability (MLD) remains unresolved. In a sample of children with and without DCD and/or MLD, a data-driven…

  16. Development of QSAR models using artificial neural network analysis for risk assessment of repeated-dose, reproductive, and developmental toxicities of cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaki, Tomoka; Aiba Née Kaneko, Maki; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Sasa, Hitoshi; Kouzuki, Hirokazu

    2015-04-01

    Use of laboratory animals for systemic toxicity testing is subject to strong ethical and regulatory constraints, but few alternatives are yet available. One possible approach to predict systemic toxicity of chemicals in the absence of experimental data is quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis. Here, we present QSAR models for prediction of maximum "no observed effect level" (NOEL) for repeated-dose, developmental and reproductive toxicities. NOEL values of 421 chemicals for repeated-dose toxicity, 315 for reproductive toxicity, and 156 for developmental toxicity were collected from Japan Existing Chemical Data Base (JECDB). Descriptors to predict toxicity were selected based on molecular orbital (MO) calculations, and QSAR models employing multiple independent descriptors as the input layer of an artificial neural network (ANN) were constructed to predict NOEL values. Robustness of the models was indicated by the root-mean-square (RMS) errors after 10-fold cross-validation (0.529 for repeated-dose, 0.508 for reproductive, and 0.558 for developmental toxicity). Evaluation of the models in terms of the percentages of predicted NOELs falling within factors of 2, 5 and 10 of the in-vivo-determined NOELs suggested that the model is applicable to both general chemicals and the subset of chemicals listed in International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI). Our results indicate that ANN models using in silico parameters have useful predictive performance, and should contribute to integrated risk assessment of systemic toxicity using a weight-of-evidence approach. Availability of predicted NOELs will allow calculation of the margin of safety, as recommended by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS).

  17. Developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; von Aster, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Numerical skills are essential in our everyday life, and impairments in the development of number processing and calculation have a negative impact on schooling and professional careers. Approximately 3 to 6 % of children are affected from specific disorders of numerical understanding (developmental dyscalculia (DD)). Impaired development of number processing skills in these children is characterized by problems in various aspects of numeracy as well as alterations of brain activation and brain structure. Moreover, DD is assumed to be a very heterogeneous disorder putting special challenges to define homogeneous diagnostic criteria. Finally, interdisciplinary perspectives from psychology, neuroscience and education can contribute to the design for interventions, and although results are still sparse, they are promising and have shown positive effects on behaviour as well as brain function. In the current review, we are going to give an overview about typical and atypical development of numerical abilities at the behavioural and neuronal level. Furthermore, current status and obstacles in the definition and diagnostics of DD are discussed, and finally, relevant points that should be considered to make an intervention as successful as possible are summarized.

  18. A patient-specific model of the biomechanics of hip reduction for neonatal Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: Investigation of strategies for low to severe grades of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huayamave, Victor; Rose, Christopher; Serra, Sheila; Jones, Brendan; Divo, Eduardo; Moslehy, Faissal; Kassab, Alain J; Price, Charles T

    2015-07-16

    A physics-based computational model of neonatal Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) following treatment with the Pavlik Harness (PV) was developed to obtain muscle force contribution in order to elucidate biomechanical factors influencing the reduction of dislocated hips. Clinical observation suggests that reduction occurs in deep sleep involving passive muscle action. Consequently, a set of five (5) adductor muscles were identified as mediators of reduction using the PV. A Fung/Hill-type model was used to characterize muscle response. Four grades (1-4) of dislocation were considered, with one (1) being a low subluxation and four (4) a severe dislocation. A three-dimensional model of the pelvis-femur lower limb of a representative 10 week-old female was generated based on CT-scans with the aid of anthropomorphic scaling of anatomical landmarks. The model was calibrated to achieve equilibrium at 90° flexion and 80° abduction. The hip was computationally dislocated according to the grade under investigation, the femur was restrained to move in an envelope consistent with PV restraints, and the dynamic response under passive muscle action and the effect of gravity was resolved. Model results with an anteversion angle of 50° show successful reduction Grades 1-3, while Grade 4 failed to reduce with the PV. These results are consistent with a previous study based on a simplified anatomically-consistent synthetic model and clinical reports of very low success of the PV for Grade 4. However our model indicated that it is possible to achieve reduction of Grade 4 dislocation by hyperflexion and the resultant external rotation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychotherapy with people with developmental disabilities

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    Barbara Zafošnik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available People with developmental disabilities can experience any psychological abnormalitiy and psychiatric illness as do people without developmental disabilities. Due to different diagnostic criteria, assessment procedures and instruments, we lack definite prevalence rates for people with developmental disabilities, also suffering from mental health problems, eventhough most studies place the rate at 20 to 40%. One of the possible treatment alternatives for augmenting psychological well-being is psychotherapy, but is extremely rarely used for people with severe and profound disabilities, where speech cannot be the main therapeutic medium. So, those that are included in the psychotherapuetic process are predominantly clients with mild developmental disabilities, and they are mostly in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Recently, two models of (psychotherapy for persons with severe and profound developmental disabilities were developed: developmental-dynamic relationship therapy and attachment-based behaviour therapy for children. Conceptually, they both originate form developmental psychoanalytic theories.

  20. Ciona intestinalis as a Marine Model System to Study Some Key Developmental Genes Targeted by the Diatom-Derived Aldehyde Decadienal

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    Anna Lettieri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The anti-proliferative effects of diatoms, described for the first time in copepods, have also been demonstrated in benthic invertebrates such as polychaetes, sea urchins and tunicates. In these organisms PUAs (polyunsaturated aldehydes induce the disruption of gametogenesis, gamete functionality, fertilization, embryonic mitosis, and larval fitness and competence. These inhibitory effects are due to the PUAs, produced by diatoms in response to physical damage as occurs during copepod grazing. The cell targets of these compounds remain largely unknown. Here we identify some of the genes targeted by the diatom PUA 2-trans-4-trans-decadienal (DD using the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. The tools, techniques and genomic resources available for Ciona, as well as the suitability of Ciona embryos for medium-to high-throughput strategies, are key to their employment as model organisms in different fields, including the investigation of toxic agents that could interfere with developmental processes. We demonstrate that DD can induce developmental aberrations in Ciona larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, through a preliminary analysis, DD is shown to affect the expression level of genes involved in stress response and developmental processes.

  1. Developmental Changes in the Profiles of Dyscalculia: An Explanation Based on a Double Exact-and-Approximate Number Representation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Marie-Pascale; Rousselle, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Studies on developmental dyscalculia (DD) have tried to identify a basic numerical deficit that could account for this specific learning disability. The first proposition was that the number magnitude representation of these children was impaired. However, Rousselle and Noël (2007) brought data showing that this was not the case but rather that these children were impaired when processing the magnitude of symbolic numbers only. Since then, incongruent results have been published. In this paper, we will propose a developmental perspective on this issue. We will argue that the first deficit shown in DD regards the building of an exact representation of numerical value, thanks to the learning of symbolic numbers, and that the reduced acuity of the approximate number magnitude system appears only later and is secondary to the first deficit.

  2. Development of a Combined In Vitro Physiologically Based Kinetic (PBK) and Monte Carlo Modelling Approach to Predict Interindividual Human Variation in Phenol-Induced Developmental Toxicity.

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    Strikwold, Marije; Spenkelink, Bert; Woutersen, Ruud A; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Punt, Ans

    2017-06-01

    With our recently developed in vitro physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling approach, we could extrapolate in vitro toxicity data to human toxicity values applying PBK-based reverse dosimetry. Ideally information on kinetic differences among human individuals within a population should be considered. In the present study, we demonstrated a modelling approach that integrated in vitro toxicity data, PBK modelling and Monte Carlo simulations to obtain insight in interindividual human kinetic variation and derive chemical specific adjustment factors (CSAFs) for phenol-induced developmental toxicity. The present study revealed that UGT1A6 is the primary enzyme responsible for the glucuronidation of phenol in humans followed by UGT1A9. Monte Carlo simulations were performed taking into account interindividual variation in glucuronidation by these specific UGTs and in the oral absorption coefficient. Linking Monte Carlo simulations with PBK modelling, population variability in the maximum plasma concentration of phenol for the human population could be predicted. This approach provided a CSAF for interindividual variation of 2.0 which covers the 99th percentile of the population, which is lower than the default safety factor of 3.16 for interindividual human kinetic differences. Dividing the dose-response curve data obtained with in vitro PBK-based reverse dosimetry, with the CSAF provided a dose-response curve that reflects the consequences of the interindividual variability in phenol kinetics for the developmental toxicity of phenol. The strength of the presented approach is that it provides insight in the effect of interindividual variation in kinetics for phenol-induced developmental toxicity, based on only in vitro and in silico testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Parenting and the Development of Effortful Control from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence: A Transactional Developmental Model

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    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Bertrand, Maria; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Poor effortful control is a key temperamental factor underlying behavioral problems. The bidirectional association of child effortful control with both positive parenting and negative discipline was examined from ages approximately 3 to 13–14 years, involving 5 time points, and using data from parents and children in the Oregon Youth Study-Three Generational Study (N = 318 children from 150 families). Based on a dynamic developmental systems approach, it was hypothesized that there would be concurrent associations between parenting and child effortful control and bidirectional effects across time from each aspect of parenting to effortful control and from effortful control to each aspect of parenting. It was also hypothesized that associations would be more robust in early childhood, from ages 3 to 7 years, and would diminish as indicated by significantly weaker effects at the older ages, 11–12 to 13–14 years. Longitudinal feedback or mediated effects were also tested. Findings supported (a) stability in each construct over multiple developmental periods; (b) concurrent associations, which were significantly weaker at the older ages; (c) bidirectional effects, consistent with the interpretation that at younger ages children’s effortful control influenced parenting, whereas at older child ages, parenting influenced effortful control; and (d) a transactional effect, such that maternal parenting in late childhood was a mechanism explaining children’s development of effortful control from midchildhood to early adolescence. PMID:27427809

  4. Developmental cascade models of a parenting-focused program for divorced families on mental health problems and substance use in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Kim, Han-Joe

    2016-08-01

    A developmental cascade model from functioning in adolescence to emerging adulthood was tested using data from a 15-year longitudinal follow-up of 240 emerging adults whose families participated in a randomized, experimental trial of a preventive program for divorced families. Families participated in the program or literature control condition when the offspring were ages 9-12. Short-term follow-ups were conducted 3 months and 6 months following completion of the program when the offspring were in late childhood/early adolescence. Long-term follow-ups were conducted 6 years and 15 years after program completion when the offspring were in middle to late adolescence and emerging adulthood, respectively. It was hypothesized that the impact of the program on mental health and substance use outcomes in emerging adulthood would be explained by developmental cascade effects of program effects in adolescence. The results provided support for a cascade effects model. Specifically, academic competence in adolescence had cross-domain effects on internalizing problems and externalizing problems in emerging adulthood. In addition, adaptive coping in adolescence was significantly, negatively related to binge drinking. It was unexpected that internalizing symptoms in adolescence were significantly negatively related to marijuana use and alcohol use. Gender differences occurred in the links between mental health problems and substance use in adolescence and mental health problems and substance use in emerging adulthood.

  5. Modeling Glaucoma: Retinal Ganglion Cells Generated from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells of Patients with SIX6 Risk Allele Show Developmental Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Pooja; Van Hook, Matthew J; Wichman, Christopher S; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2017-11-01

    Glaucoma represents a group of multifactorial diseases with a unifying pathology of progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration, causing irreversible vision loss. To test the hypothesis that RGCs are intrinsically vulnerable in glaucoma, we have developed an in vitro model using the SIX6 risk allele carrying glaucoma patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for generating functional RGCs. Here, we demonstrate that the efficiency of RGC generation by SIX6 risk allele iPSCs is significantly lower than iPSCs-derived from healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. The decrease in the number of RGC generation is accompanied by repressed developmental expression of RGC regulatory genes. The SIX6 risk allele RGCs display short and simple neurites, reduced expression of guidance molecules, and immature electrophysiological signature. In addition, these cells have higher expression of glaucoma-associated genes, CDKN2A and CDKN2B, suggesting an early onset of the disease phenotype. Consistent with the developmental abnormalities, the SIX6 risk allele RGCs display global dysregulation of genes which map on developmentally relevant biological processes for RGC differentiation and signaling pathways such as mammalian target of rapamycin that integrate diverse functions for differentiation, metabolism, and survival. The results suggest that SIX6 influences different stages of RGC differentiation and their survival; therefore, alteration in SIX6 function due to the risk allele may lead to cellular and molecular abnormalities. These abnormalities, if carried into adulthood, may make RGCs vulnerable in glaucoma. Stem Cells 2017;35:2239-2252. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Effects of developmental bisphenol A exposure on reproductive-related behaviors in California mice (Peromyscus californicus: a monogamous animal model.

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    Scott A Williams

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, a pervasive, endocrine disrupting compound (EDC, acts as a mixed agonist-antagonist with respect to estrogens and other steroid hormones. We hypothesized that sexually selected traits would be particularly sensitive to EDC. Consistent with this concept, developmental exposure of males from the polygynous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, to BPA resulted in compromised spatial navigational ability and exploratory behaviors, while there was little effect on females. Here, we have examined a related, monogamous species, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus, where we predicted that males would be less sensitive to BPA in terms of navigational and exploratory behaviors, while displaying other traits related to interactions with females and territorial marking that might be vulnerable to disruption. As in the deer mouse experiments, females were fed either a phytoestrogen-free CTL diet through pregnancy and lactation or the same diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight or ethinyl estradiol (EE (0.1 part per billion to provide a "pure" estrogen control. After weaning, pups were maintained on CTL diet until they had reached sexual maturity, at which time behaviors were evaluated. In addition, territorial marking was assessed in BPA-exposed males housed alone and when a control male was visible in the testing arena. In contrast to deer mice, BPA and EE exposure had no effect on spatial navigational skills in either male or female California mice. While CTL females exhibited greater exploratory behavior than CTL males, BPA exposure abolished this sex difference. BPA-exposed males, however, engaged in less territorial marking when CTL males were present. These studies demonstrate that developmental BPA exposure can disrupt adult behaviors in a sex- and species-dependent manner and are consistent with the hypothesis that sexually selected traits are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption and should be a

  7. Psychological stress on female mice diminishes the developmental potential of oocytes: a study using the predatory stress model.

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    Yu-Xiang Liu

    Full Text Available Although the predatory stress experimental protocol is considered more psychological than the restraint protocol, it has rarely been used to study the effect of psychological stress on reproduction. Few studies exist on the direct effect of psychological stress to a female on developmental competence of her oocytes, and the direct effect of predatory maternal stress on oocytes has not been reported. In this study, a predatory stress system was first established for mice with cats as predators. Beginning 24 h after injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin, female mice were subjected to predatory stress for 24 h. Evaluation of mouse responses showed that the predatory stress system that we established increased anxiety-like behaviors and plasma cortisol concentrations significantly and continuously while not affecting food and water intake of the mice. In vitro experiments showed that whereas oocyte maturation and Sr(2+ activation or fertilization were unaffected by maternal predatory stress, rate of blastocyst formation and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in stressed mice compared to non-stressed controls. In vivo embryo development indicated that both the number of blastocysts recovered per donor mouse and the average number of young per recipient after embryo transfer of blastocysts with similar cell counts were significantly lower in stressed than in unstressed donor mice. It is concluded that the predatory stress system we established was both effective and durative to induce mouse stress responses. Furthermore, predatory stress applied during the oocyte pre-maturation stage significantly impaired oocyte developmental potential while exerting no measurable impact on nuclear maturation, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes was more vulnerable to maternal stress than nuclear maturation.

  8. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  9. Long-term consequences of developmental vascular defects on retinal vessel homeostasis and function in a mouse model of Norrie disease.

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    Susanne C Beck

    Full Text Available Loss of Norrin signalling due to mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma gene causes severe vascular defects in the retina, leading to visual impairment and ultimately blindness. While the emphasis of experimental work so far was on the developmental period, we focus here on disease mechanisms that induce progression into severe adult disease. The goal of this study was the comprehensive analysis of the long-term effects of the absence of Norrin on vascular homeostasis and retinal function. In a mouse model of Norrie disease retinal vascular morphology and integrity were studied by means of in vivo angiography; the vascular constituents were assessed in detailed histological analyses using quantitative retinal morphometry. Finally, electroretinographic analyses were performed to assess the retinal function in adult Norrin deficient animals. We could show that the primary developmental defects not only persisted but developed into further vascular abnormalities and microangiopathies. In particular, the overall vessel homeostasis, the vascular integrity, and also the cellular constituents of the vascular wall were affected in the adult Norrin deficient retina. Moreover, functional analyses indicated to persistent hypoxia in the neural retina which was suggested as one of the major driving forces of disease progression. In summary, our data provide evidence that the key to adult Norrie disease are ongoing vascular modifications, driven by the persistent hypoxic conditions, which are ineffective to compensate for the primary Norrin-dependent defects.

  10. Long-term consequences of developmental vascular defects on retinal vessel homeostasis and function in a mouse model of Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Susanne C; Feng, Yuxi; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Acar, Niyazi; Shan, Shenliang; Seebauer, Britta; Berger, Wolfgang; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Seeliger, Mathias W

    2017-01-01

    Loss of Norrin signalling due to mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma gene causes severe vascular defects in the retina, leading to visual impairment and ultimately blindness. While the emphasis of experimental work so far was on the developmental period, we focus here on disease mechanisms that induce progression into severe adult disease. The goal of this study was the comprehensive analysis of the long-term effects of the absence of Norrin on vascular homeostasis and retinal function. In a mouse model of Norrie disease retinal vascular morphology and integrity were studied by means of in vivo angiography; the vascular constituents were assessed in detailed histological analyses using quantitative retinal morphometry. Finally, electroretinographic analyses were performed to assess the retinal function in adult Norrin deficient animals. We could show that the primary developmental defects not only persisted but developed into further vascular abnormalities and microangiopathies. In particular, the overall vessel homeostasis, the vascular integrity, and also the cellular constituents of the vascular wall were affected in the adult Norrin deficient retina. Moreover, functional analyses indicated to persistent hypoxia in the neural retina which was suggested as one of the major driving forces of disease progression. In summary, our data provide evidence that the key to adult Norrie disease are ongoing vascular modifications, driven by the persistent hypoxic conditions, which are ineffective to compensate for the primary Norrin-dependent defects.

  11. Developmental changes in reading do not alter the development of visual processing skills: An application of explanatory item response models in grades K-2

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    Kristi L Santi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual processing has been widely studied in regard to its impact on a students’ ability to read. A less researched area is the role of reading in the development of visual processing skills. A cohort-sequential, accelerated-longitudinal design was utilized with 932 kindergarten, first, and second grade students to examine the impact of reading acquisition on the processing of various types of visual discrimination and visual motor test items. Students were assessed four times per year on a variety of reading measures and reading precursors and two popular measures of visual processing over a three-year period. Explanatory item response models were used to examine the roles of person and item characteristics on changes in visual processing abilities and changes in item difficulties over time. Results showed different developmental patterns for five types of visual processing test items, but most importantly failed to show consistent effects of learning to read on changes in item difficulty. Thus, the present study failed to find support for the hypothesis that learning to read alters performance on measures of visual processing. Rather, visual processing and reading ability improved together over time with no evidence to suggest cross-domain influences from reading to visual processing. Results are discussed in the context of developmental theories of visual processing and brain-based research on the role of visual skills in learning to read.

  12. Measuring Developmental Students' Mathematics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted an item-level analysis of mathematics anxiety and examined the dimensionality of mathematics anxiety in a sample of developmental mathematics students (N = 162) by Multi-dimensional Random Coefficients Multinominal Logit Model (MRCMLM). The results indicate a moderately correlated factor structure of mathematics anxiety (r =…

  13. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

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    Jelena Kostić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to conduct disorder which have different causes and serve as the basis for the current typology of conduct disorders in the classification systems. Such a typology of conduct disorders in the diagnostic classification allows better understanding, prognosis and choice of treatment.

  14. Social visual engagement in infants and toddlers with autism: early developmental transitions and a model of pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Ami; Shultz, Sarah; Jones, Warren

    2015-03-01

    Efforts to determine and understand the causes of autism are currently hampered by a large disconnect between recent molecular genetics findings that are associated with the condition and the core behavioral symptoms that define the condition. In this perspective piece, we propose a systems biology framework to bridge that gap between genes and symptoms. The framework focuses on basic mechanisms of socialization that are highly-conserved in evolution and are early-emerging in development. By conceiving of these basic mechanisms of socialization as quantitative endophenotypes, we hope to connect genes and behavior in autism through integrative studies of neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and epigenetic changes. These changes both lead to and are led by the accomplishment of specific social adaptive tasks in a typical infant's life. However, based on recent research that indicates that infants later diagnosed with autism fail to accomplish at least some of these tasks, we suggest that a narrow developmental period, spanning critical transitions from reflexive, subcortically-controlled visual behavior to interactional, cortically-controlled and social visual behavior be prioritized for future study. Mapping epigenetic, neural, and behavioral changes that both drive and are driven by these early transitions may shed a bright light on the pathogenesis of autism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental Change in a Spatial Task of Attentional Capacity: An Essay toward an Integration of Two Working Memory Models.

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    de Ribaupierre, Anik; Bailleux, Christine

    1994-01-01

    Attempts the theoretical rapprochement of two theoretical constructs on working memory, neo-Piagetian models and Baddeley's model. Summarizes both types of models, then discusses their similarities and differences. Presents the results of a longitudinal study that supported the idea that these models might be complementary rather than…

  16. Use of 3D printer model to study vertebral artery anatomy and variations in developmental craniovertebral junction anomalies and as a preoperative tool-an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Sachin; Chopra, Sanjeev; Kataria, Rashim; Sinha, Virendra Deo

    2017-12-01

    Spinal instrumentation using rods and screws have become procedure of choice for posterior fixation. Vertebral artery anatomy is highly variable in this region posing challenges during surgery. Our study used 3D printer model to understand the anatomy and variations in vertebral artery in live patients thereby providing an accurate idea about vertebral artery injury risk in these patients preoperatively and to rehearse the whole procedure. Ten patients of developmental craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomalies who were planned for operative intervention in the Department of Neurosurgery at SMS Hospital from February 2016 to December 2016 were analysed using a 3D printer model. Out of twenty vertebral arteries studied in ten patients, two were hypoplastic and out of these one could not be appreciated on 3D printer model. Out of remaining nineteen, thirteen arteries were found to lie outside the joint, three were in lateral third, one traversed the middle third of joint and one lied in medial third. In one patient, the vertebral artery was stretched and it traversed horizontally over the joint. Out of ten patients studied, nine were having occipitalised atlas and so entry of these vertebral arteries into cranium were classified as given by Wang et al. into four types. By our study, 3D printer model was extremely helpful in analyzing joints and vertebral artery preoperatively and making the surgeon acquainted about the placement and trajectory of the screws accordingly. In our opinion, these models should be included as a basic investigation tool in these patients.

  17. Multilevel risk factors and developmental assets for internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in disadvantaged adolescents: modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Rose, Roderick; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2014-11-01

    The current study filled significant gaps in our knowledge of developmental psychopathology by examining the influence of multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in an exceptionally culturally diverse sample of rural adolescents. Integrating ecological and social capital theories, we explored if positive microsystem transactions are associated with self-esteem while negative microsystem transactions increase the chances of internalizing problems. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle school students from 28 public schools in two rural, disadvantaged counties in North Carolina. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and self-esteem. Relative to other students, risk for internalizing problems and low self-esteem was elevated for aggressive adolescents, students who were hassled or bullied at school, and those who were rejected by peers or in conflict with their parents. Internalizing problems were also more common among adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and neighborhoods, among those in schools with more suspensions, in students who reported being pressured by peers, and in youth who required more teacher support. It is likely that these experiences left adolescents disengaged from developing social capital from ecological microsystems (e.g., family, school, peers). On the positive side, support from parents and friends and optimism about the future were key assets associated with lower internalizing symptoms and higher self-esteem. Self-esteem was also positively related to religious orientation, school satisfaction, and future optimism. These variables show active engagement with ecological microsystems. The implications and limitations were discussed.

  18. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Neighborhood Safety and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in African Americans: Biosocial Associations in the Jackson Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cheryl R.; Ommerborn, Mark J.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Grooms, Kya N.; Sims, Mario; Taylor, Herman A.; Albert, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, perceived neighborhood safety and cardiometabolic risk factors, adjusting for health behaviors and socioeconomic status (SES) among African Americans. Methods Study participants were non-diabetic African Americans (n = 3,909) in the baseline examination (2000–2004) of the Jackson Heart Study. We measured eight risk factors: the metabolic syndrome, its five components, insulin resistance and cardiovascular inflammation. We assessed neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage with US Census 2000 data. We assessed perceived neighborhood safety, health behaviors and SES via survey. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate associations with a random intercept model for neighborhood effects. Results After adjustment for health behaviors and SES, neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with the metabolic syndrome in women (PR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01, 1.27). Lack of perceived safety was associated with elevated glucose (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03, 1.80) and waist circumference (PR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02, 1.11) among women, and with elevated glucose (PR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02, 1.66) and insulin resistance (PR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08, 1.46) among men. Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and perceived safety should be considered as targets for intervention to reduce cardiometabolic risks among African Americans. PMID:23691005

  19. Fitness consequences of maternal and embryonic responses to environmental variation: using reptiles as models for studies of developmental plasticity.

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    Warner, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Environmental factors strongly influence phenotypic variation within populations. The environment contributes to this variation in two ways: (1) by acting as a determinant of phenotypic variation (i.e., plastic responses) and (2) as an agent of selection that "chooses" among existing phenotypes. Understanding how these two environmental forces contribute to phenotypic variation is a major goal in the field of evolutionary biology and a primary objective of my research program. The objective of this article is to provide a framework to guide studies of environmental sources of phenotypic variation (specifically, developmental plasticity and maternal effects, and their adaptive significance). Two case studies from my research on reptiles are used to illustrate the general approaches I have taken to address these conceptual topics. Some key points for advancing our understanding of environmental influences on phenotypic variation include (1) merging laboratory-based research that identifies specific environmental effects with field studies to validate ecological relevance; (2) using controlled experimental approaches that mimic complex environments found in nature; (3) integrating data across biological fields (e.g., genetics, morphology, physiology, behavior, and ecology) under an evolutionary framework to provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms that generate phenotypic variation; (4) assessing fitness consequences using measurements of survival and/or reproductive success across ontogeny (from embryos to adults) and under multiple ecologically-meaningful contexts; and (5) quantifying the strength and form of natural selection in multiple populations over multiple periods of time to understand the spatial and temporal consistency of phenotypic selection. Research programs that focus on organisms that are amenable to these approaches will provide the most promise for advancing our understanding of the environmental factors that generate the remarkable

  20. 20170312 - Computer Simulation of Developmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Recent progress in systems toxicology and synthetic biology have paved the way to new thinking about in vitro/in silico modeling of developmental processes and toxicities, both for embryological and reproductive impacts. Novel in vitro platforms such as 3D organotypic culture models, engineered microscale tissues and complex microphysiological systems (MPS), together with computational models and computer simulation of tissue dynamics, lend themselves to a integrated testing strategies for predictive toxicology. As these emergent methodologies continue to evolve, they must be integrally tied to maternal/fetal physiology and toxicity of the developing individual across early lifestage transitions, from fertilization to birth, through puberty and beyond. Scope: This symposium will focus on how the novel technology platforms can help now and in the future, with in vitro/in silico modeling of complex biological systems for developmental and reproductive toxicity issues, and translating systems models into integrative testing strategies. The symposium is based on three main organizing principles: (1) that novel in vitro platforms with human cells configured in nascent tissue architectures with a native microphysiological environments yield mechanistic understanding of developmental and reproductive impacts of drug/chemical exposures; (2) that novel in silico platforms with high-throughput screening (HTS) data, biologically-inspired computational models of

  1. Friendship in school-age boys with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analytic summary and developmental, process-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Jenna L; Gates, Jacquelyn A; Lerner, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Friendship-making is considered a well-established domain of deficit for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), with this population sometimes described as incapable of making friends. However, the majority of children with ASD indicate a desire for friends, and many report having friends. To what degree, then, do youth with ASD succeed in achieving friendships with peers? If and when they do succeed, by what means do these friendships emerge relative to models of typically developing (TD) youths' friendships? To address these questions, we first meta-analyzed the descriptive friendship literature (peer-reported sociometrics, self-report, parent-report) among school-age boys with ASD. Using random effects models, we found that youth with ASD do make friends according to peers and parents (Hedges's g > 2.84). However, self-reported friendship quality (Hedges's g = -1.09) and parent- and peer-reported quantity (Hedges's g friendship in TD youth (Hartup & Stevens, 1997). We then present a model that synthesizes these domains through the construct of social information processing speed, and thereby present the first developmental, process-based model of friendship development among youth with ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Low-dose ionizing radiation limitations to seed germination: Results from a model linking physiological characteristics and developmental-dynamics simulation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Hu, Dawei; Dong, Chen; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Guanghui; Qin, Youcai; Sun, Yi; Liu, Dianlei; Li, Lei; Liu, Hong

    2017-08-01

    There is much uncertainty about the risks of seed germination after repeated or protracted environmental low-dose ionizing radiation exposure. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence mechanism of low-dose ionizing radiation on wheat seed germination using a model linking physiological characteristics and developmental-dynamics simulation. A low-dose ionizing radiation environment simulator was built to investigate wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds germination process and then a kinetic model expressing the relationship between wheat seed germination dynamics and low-dose ionizing radiation intensity variations was developed by experimental data, plant physiology, relevant hypotheses and system dynamics, and sufficiently validated and accredited by computer simulation. Germination percentages were showing no differences in response to different dose rates. However, root and shoot lengths were reduced significantly. Plasma governing equations were set up and the finite element analysis demonstrated H 2 O, CO 2 , O 2 as well as the seed physiological responses to the low-dose ionizing radiation. The kinetic model was highly valid, and simultaneously the related influence mechanism of low-dose ionizing radiation on wheat seed germination proposed in the modeling process was also adequately verified. Collectively these data demonstrate that low-dose ionizing radiation has an important effect on absorbing water, consuming O 2 and releasing CO 2 , which means the risk for embryo and endosperm development was higher. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of family bio-social variables in depression in a resource-constrained environment: A cross-sectional study of ambulatory adult patients in a primary care clinic in Eastern Nigerian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Uche Pascal Iloh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is a family and public health condition that has negative consequences for the victim, family, friends, and society with significant socio-family dysfunction, especially when it is undiagnosed. Aim: The present study was aimed at determining the role of family bio-social variables in depression among ambulatory adult patients in a primary care clinic in the Eastern Nigerian. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 400 adult patients in a primary care clinic in Nigeria. Data were collected using Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Family Assessment Device, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Brief Family Relationship Scale. Results: The age of the study participants ranged from 18 to 78 years. There were 40.5% of male and 59.5% of female. The prevalence of depression was 48.5% with the most common pattern being mild depression (32.3%. Depression was significantly associated with unhealthy family functioning (P = 0.002, low-acuity family support (P = 0.039, family with least cohesion (P = 0.044, least expressiveness (P = 0.013, and most conflict (P = 0.013. The most significant predictor of depression was unhealthy family functioning (Odds ratio = 3.14 [1.82–3.77]; P = 0.001. Depressed patients who had unhealthy family functioning were three times more likely to experience depressive illness compared to their counterparts who were from healthy functional family. Conclusion: Depression occurred among the study participants and was significantly associated with unhealthy family functioning, low family support, least family cohesion and expressiveness and most family conflict. Assessment of family biosocial factors should be part of the reason for encounter during consultation to unravel family variables that positively or negatively influence depression.

  4. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  5. Dopaminergic-like neurons derived from oral mucosa stem cells by developmental cues improve symptoms in the hemi-parkinsonian rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ganz

    Full Text Available Achieving safe and readily accessible sources for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD is still a challenging unresolved issue. Recently, a primitive neural crest stem cell population (hOMSC was isolated from the adult human oral mucosa and characterized in vitro and in vivo. In this study we assessed hOMSC ability to differentiate into dopamine-secreting cells with a neuronal-dopaminergic phenotype in vitro in response to dopaminergic developmental cues and tested their therapeutic potential in the hemi-Parkinsonian rat model. We found that hOMSC express constitutively a repertoire of neuronal and dopaminergic markers and pivotal transcription factors. Soluble developmental factors induced a reproducible neuronal-like morphology in the majority of hOMSC, downregulated stem cells markers, upregulated the expression of the neuronal and dopaminergic markers that resulted in dopamine release capabilities. Transplantation of these dopaminergic-induced hOMSC into the striatum of hemi-Parkinsonian rats improved their behavioral deficits as determined by amphetamine-induced rotational behavior, motor asymmetry and motor coordination tests. Human TH expressing cells and increased levels of dopamine in the transplanted hemispheres were observed 10 weeks after transplantation. These results demonstrate for the first time that soluble factors involved in the development of DA neurons, induced a DA phenotype in hOMSC in vitro that significantly improved the motor function of hemiparkinsonian rats. Based on their neural-related origin, their niche accessibility by minimal-invasive procedures and their propensity for DA differentiation, hOMSC emerge as an attractive tool for autologous cell replacement therapy in PD.

  6. A Regional Model for Malaria Vector Developmental Habitats Evaluated Using Explicit, Pond-Resolving Surface Hydrology Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ohene Asare

    Full Text Available Dynamical malaria models can relate precipitation to the availability of vector breeding sites using simple models of surface hydrology. Here, a revised scheme is developed for the VECTRI malaria model, which is evaluated alongside the default scheme using a two year simulation by HYDREMATS, a 10 metre resolution, village-scale model that explicitly simulates individual ponds. Despite the simplicity of the two VECTRI surface hydrology parametrization schemes, they can reproduce the sub-seasonal evolution of fractional water coverage. Calibration of the model parameters is required to simulate the mean pond fraction correctly. The default VECTRI model tended to overestimate water fraction in periods subject to light rainfall events and underestimate it during periods of intense rainfall. This systematic error was improved in the revised scheme by including the a parametrization for surface run-off, such that light rainfall below the initial abstraction threshold does not contribute to ponds. After calibration of the pond model, the VECTRI model was able to simulate vector densities that compared well to the detailed agent based model contained in HYDREMATS without further parameter adjustment. Substituting local rain-gauge data with satellite-retrieved precipitation gave a reasonable approximation, raising the prospects for regional malaria simulations even in data sparse regions. However, further improvements could be made if a method can be derived to calibrate the key hydrology parameters of the pond model in each grid cell location, possibly also incorporating slope and soil texture.

  7. A Regional Model for Malaria Vector Developmental Habitats Evaluated Using Explicit, Pond-Resolving Surface Hydrology Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Ernest Ohene; Tompkins, Adrian Mark; Bomblies, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical malaria models can relate precipitation to the availability of vector breeding sites using simple models of surface hydrology. Here, a revised scheme is developed for the VECTRI malaria model, which is evaluated alongside the default scheme using a two year simulation by HYDREMATS, a 10 metre resolution, village-scale model that explicitly simulates individual ponds. Despite the simplicity of the two VECTRI surface hydrology parametrization schemes, they can reproduce the sub-seasonal evolution of fractional water coverage. Calibration of the model parameters is required to simulate the mean pond fraction correctly. The default VECTRI model tended to overestimate water fraction in periods subject to light rainfall events and underestimate it during periods of intense rainfall. This systematic error was improved in the revised scheme by including the a parametrization for surface run-off, such that light rainfall below the initial abstraction threshold does not contribute to ponds. After calibration of the pond model, the VECTRI model was able to simulate vector densities that compared well to the detailed agent based model contained in HYDREMATS without further parameter adjustment. Substituting local rain-gauge data with satellite-retrieved precipitation gave a reasonable approximation, raising the prospects for regional malaria simulations even in data sparse regions. However, further improvements could be made if a method can be derived to calibrate the key hydrology parameters of the pond model in each grid cell location, possibly also incorporating slope and soil texture.

  8. A murine model for developmental dysplasia of the hip: ablation of CX3CR1 affects acetabular morphology and gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Feldman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH is a debilitating condition whose distinguishing signs include incomplete formation of the acetabulum leading to dislocation of the femur, accelerated wear of the articular cartilage and joint laxity resulting in osteoarthritis. It is a complex disorder having environmental and genetic causes. Existing techniques fail to detect milder forms of DDH in newborns leading to hip osteoarthritis in young adults. A sensitive, specific and cost effective test would allow identification of newborns that could be non-invasively corrected by the use of a Pavlik harness. Previously, we identified a 2.5 MB candidate region on human chromosome 3 by using linkage analysis of a 4 generation, 72 member family. Whole exome sequencing of the DNA of 4 severely affected members revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism variant, rs3732378 co-inherited by all 11 affected family members. This variant causes a threonine to methionine amino acid change in the coding sequence of the CX3CR1 chemokine receptor and is predicted to be harmful to the function of the protein To gain further insight into the function of this mutation we examined the effect of CX3CR1 ablation on the architecture of the mouse acetabulum and on the murine gait. Methods The hips of 5 and 8 weeks old wild type and CX3CR1 KO mice were analyzed using micro-CT to measure acetabular diameter and ten additional dimensional parameters. Eight week old mice were gait tested using an inclined treadmill with and without load and then underwent micro-CT analysis. Results (1 KO mice showed larger a 5–17% larger diameter left acetabula than WT mice at both ages. (2 At 8 weeks the normalized area of space (i.e. size discrepancy between the femur head and acetabulum is significantly larger [38% (p = 0.001–21% (p = 0.037] in the KO mice. (3 At 8 weeks gait analysis of these same mice shows several metrics that are consistent with impairment in

  9. Use of 3D printer model to study vertebral artery anatomy and variations in developmental craniovertebral junction anomalies and as a preoperative tool—an institutional experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Sanjeev; Kataria, Rashim; Sinha, Virendra Deo

    2017-01-01

    Background Spinal instrumentation using rods and screws have become procedure of choice for posterior fixation. Vertebral artery anatomy is highly variable in this region posing challenges during surgery. Our study used 3D printer model to understand the anatomy and variations in vertebral artery in live patients thereby providing an accurate idea about vertebral artery injury risk in these patients preoperatively and to rehearse the whole procedure. Methods Ten patients of developmental craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomalies who were planned for operative intervention in the Department of Neurosurgery at SMS Hospital from February 2016 to December 2016 were analysed using a 3D printer model. Results Out of twenty vertebral arteries studied in ten patients, two were hypoplastic and out of these one could not be appreciated on 3D printer model. Out of remaining nineteen, thirteen arteries were found to lie outside the joint, three were in lateral third, one traversed the middle third of joint and one lied in medial third. In one patient, the vertebral artery was stretched and it traversed horizontally over the joint. Out of ten patients studied, nine were having occipitalised atlas and so entry of these vertebral arteries into cranium were classified as given by Wang et al. into four types. Conclusions By our study, 3D printer model was extremely helpful in analyzing joints and vertebral artery preoperatively and making the surgeon acquainted about the placement and trajectory of the screws accordingly. In our opinion, these models should be included as a basic investigation tool in these patients. PMID:29354734

  10. Ethiopia: A Democratic Developmental State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fesseha Mulu Gebremariam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruling Ethiopia People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF in its notable second reform appraisal held in the aftermath of the 2005 national election concluded that the utmost priority of the government should be realizing fastest and sustainable economic growth that fairly benefits its citizens’ unless the very existence of the country wouldn’t be guaranteed. Given the history of poverty reduction in developing countries, particularly in Africa, EPRDF realized that it is unthinkable to eradicate poverty from Ethiopia adopting neo-liberalism. Above all, the miraculous economic transformation of the South East Asian countries like South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong has proved that there is another way to development, not just neo-liberalism. Accordingly, EPRDF, after examining South Korea’s and Taiwan’s history of economic development in particular where both countries have had a large section of rural population unlike Hong Kong and Singapore where both are urban, found ‘developmental state’ relevant to Ethiopia. However, unlike these countries which were originally under non-democratic regimes where their leaders fear the rural peasant and external aggression from their communist rivals, EPRDF has had a great support of rural and urban population with no imminent foreign threat(s, and decided to execute the ideology rather under the umbrella of democracy. Therefore, employing secondary sources, this desk study aims to analyze whether Ethiopia is a ‘democratic developmental state?’ And, concludes that given the practices of the government vis-a-vis the principles of democracy and developmental state, Ethiopia couldn’t be taken as best model for democratic developmental state, rather emerging developmental state.

  11. Developmental origins of metabolic disorders: The need for biomarker candidates and therapeutic targets from adequate preclinical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on obesity and associated disorders have changed from an scenario in which genome drove the phenotype to a dynamic setup in which prenatal and early-postnatal conditions are determinant. However, research in human beings is difficult due to confounding factors (lifestyle and socioeconomic heterogeneity plus ethical issues. Hence, there is currently an intensive effort for developing adequate preclinical models, aiming for an adequate combination of basic studies in rodent models and specific preclinical studies in large animals. The results of these research strategies may increase the identification and development of contrasted biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  12. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of effective dosimetry in developmental toxicity testing : Application of a generic PBK modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragki, Styliani; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of kinetics to quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (QIVIVE) is a key step for the realization of a non-animal testing paradigm, in the sphere of regulatory toxicology. The use of Physiologically-Based Kinetic (PBK) modelling for determining systemic doses of chemicals at

  13. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of effective dosimetry in developmental toxicity testing: Application of a generic PBK modelling approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragki, Styliani; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of kinetics to quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (QIVIVE) is a key step for the realization of a non-animal testing paradigm, in the sphere of regulatory toxicology. The use of Physiologically-Based Kinetic (PBK) modelling for determining systemic doses of chemicals at

  14. "DSM IV," "DSM-5," and the Five-Factor Model: the Diagnosis of Personality Disorder with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, William R.; Steptoe, Lesley; McVicker, Ronnie; Haut, Fabian; Robertson, Colette

    2018-01-01

    In "DSM-5" there has been a move to dimensional personality disorder (PD) diagnosis, incorporating personality theory in the form of the five-factor model (FFM). It proposes an alternative assessment system based on diagnostic indicators and the FFM, while retaining "DSM-IV" categorical criteria. Four individuals with…

  15. Implications of a neural network model of early sensori-motor development for the field of developmental neurology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, JJ; Touwen, BCL; Vos, JE

    This paper reports on a neural network model for early sensori-motor development and on the possible implications of this research for our understanding and, eventually, treatment of motor disorders like cerebral palsy. We recapitulate the results we published in detail in a series of papers [1-4].

  16. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  17. Developmental Implications for Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Toxins: Consumption Habits of Pregnant Women and Prenatal Nicotine Exposure in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sarah Emily

    This dissertation provides a discussion of the effects of maternal consumption of environmental toxins, and will hopefully contribute to the prevention and understanding of developmental disorders and physiological deficits. Developing systems are particularly susceptible to toxic insults, and small changes in utero can result in long-term deficits. Chapter one of this dissertation reviews the potential teratogenicity of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, MeHg, PCBs, BPA, and tap water contaminants, so as to characterize the current body of literature detailing the effects and implications of prenatal exposure to toxins. In chapter two, research on maternal consumption habits is presented, with an emphasis on commonly-consumed, potentially-teratogenic substances. Occurrences and frequencies of maternal intake of healthy and unhealthy foods, beverages, and medications in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California were assessed using the Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ). The described study reveals that a proportion of pregnant women consumed BPA, MeHg, caffeine, and alcohol at varied levels during pregnancy. The following chapters provide an in-depth analysis of the postnatal effects of a particular neuroteratogen, nicotine, which has been shown to impart various detrimental postnatal effects on exposed offspring. A CD-1 mouse model of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) was used to analyze aspects of the brain and neocortex that may underly some of the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes seen with PNE. Analyses included postnatal measurements of brain weight, brain widths and lengths, development of neocortical circuitry, and cortical thickness measures. Exposed mice were found to exhibit reduced brain and body weights at birth, a phenotype that recovered by postnatal day 10. No changes in neocortical circuity or thickness in sensory and motor areas were found. PNE also resulted in persistent behavioral effects, including

  18. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral hippocampus restores deficits in processing of auditory evoked potentials in a rodent developmental disruption model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Samuel G; Grace, Anthony A

    2013-02-01

    Existing antipsychotic drugs are most effective at treating the positive symptoms of schizophrenia but their relative efficacy is low and they are associated with considerable side effects. In this study deep brain stimulation of the ventral hippocampus was performed in a rodent model of schizophrenia (MAM-E17) in an attempt to alleviate one set of neurophysiological alterations observed in this disorder. Bipolar stimulating electrodes were fabricated and implanted, bilaterally, into the ventral hippocampus of rats. High frequency stimulation was delivered bilaterally via a custom-made stimulation device and both spectral analysis (power and coherence) of resting state local field potentials and amplitude of auditory evoked potential components during a standard inhibitory gating paradigm were examined. MAM rats exhibited alterations in specific components of the auditory evoked potential in the infralimbic cortex, the core of the nucleus accumbens, mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, and ventral hippocampus in the left hemisphere only. DBS was effective in reversing these evoked deficits in the infralimbic cortex and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus of MAM-treated rats to levels similar to those observed in control animals. In contrast stimulation did not alter evoked potentials in control rats. No deficits or stimulation-induced alterations were observed in the prelimbic and orbitofrontal cortices, the shell of the nucleus accumbens or ventral tegmental area. These data indicate a normalization of deficits in generating auditory evoked potentials induced by a developmental disruption by acute high frequency, electrical stimulation of the ventral hippocampus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mixture-amount design and response surface modeling to assess the effects of flavonoids and phenolic acids on developmental performance of Anastrepha ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascacio-Villafán, Carlos; Lapointe, Stephen; Williams, Trevor; Sivinski, John; Niedz, Randall; Aluja, Martín

    2014-03-01

    Host plant resistance to insect attack and expansion of insect pests to novel hosts may to be modulated by phenolic compounds in host plants. Many studies have evaluated the role of phenolics in host plant resistance and the effect of phenolics on herbivore performance, but few studies have tested the joint effect of several compounds. Here, we used mixture-amount experimental design and response surface modeling to study the effects of a variety of phenolic compounds on the development and survival of Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens [Loew]), a notorious polyphagous pest of fruit crops that is likely to expand its distribution range under climate change scenarios. (+)- Catechin, phloridzin, rutin, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid were added individually or in mixtures at different concentrations to a laboratory diet used to rear individuals of A. ludens. No effect was observed with any mixture or concentration on percent pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, or survival from neonate larvae to adults. Larval weight, larval and pupal developmental time, and the prevalence of adult deformities were affected by particular mixtures and concentrations of the compounds tested. We suggest that some combinations/concentrations of phenolic compounds could contribute to the management of A. ludens. We also highlight the importance of testing mixtures of plant secondary compounds when exploring their effects upon insect herbivore performance, and we show that mixture-amount design is a useful tool for this type of experiments.

  20. Developmental dysplasia of the hip: A computational biomechanical model of the path of least energy for closed reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwawi, Mohammed A; Moslehy, Faissal A; Rose, Christopher; Huayamave, Victor; Kassab, Alain J; Divo, Eduardo; Jones, Brendan J; Price, Charles T

    2017-08-01

    This study utilized a computational biomechanical model and applied the least energy path principle to investigate two pathways for closed reduction of high grade infantile hip dislocation. The principle of least energy when applied to moving the femoral head from an initial to a final position considers all possible paths that connect them and identifies the path of least resistance. Clinical reports of severe hip dysplasia have concluded that reduction of the femoral head into the acetabulum may occur by a direct pathway over the posterior rim of the acetabulum when using the Pavlik harness, or by an indirect pathway with reduction through the acetabular notch when using the modified Hoffman-Daimler method. This computational study also compared the energy requirements for both pathways. The anatomical and muscular aspects of the model were derived using a combination of MRI and OpenSim data. Results of this study indicate that the path of least energy closely approximates the indirect pathway of the modified Hoffman-Daimler method. The direct pathway over the posterior rim of the acetabulum required more energy for reduction. This biomechanical analysis confirms the clinical observations of the two pathways for closed reduction of severe hip dysplasia. The path of least energy closely approximated the modified Hoffman-Daimler method. Further study of the modified Hoffman-Daimler method for reduction of severe hip dysplasia may be warranted based on this computational biomechanical analysis. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 35:1799-1805, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society.

  1. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, and is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.

  2. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems Low self-esteem resulting from poor ability at sports and teasing by other children Repeated injuries Weight gain as a result of not wanting to participate ...

  3. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling and walking). Children develop at their own pace, ... person’s lifetime. Most developmental disabilities begin before a baby is born, but some can happen after birth ...

  4. Life Span Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

  5. Genome Transfer Prevents Fragmentation and Restores Developmental Potential of Developmentally Compromised Postovulatory Aged Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutoshi Yamada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in oocyte quality can have great impact on the developmental potential of early embryos. Here we test whether nuclear genome transfer from a developmentally incompetent to a developmentally competent oocyte can restore developmental potential. Using in vitro oocyte aging as a model system we performed nuclear transfer in mouse oocytes at metaphase II or at the first interphase, and observed that development to the blastocyst stage and to term was as efficient as in control embryos. The increased developmental potential is explained primarily by correction of abnormal cytokinesis at anaphase of meiosis and mitosis, by a reduction in chromosome segregation errors, and by normalization of the localization of chromosome passenger complex components survivin and cyclin B1. These observations demonstrate that developmental decline is primarily due to abnormal function of cytoplasmic factors involved in cytokinesis, while the genome remains developmentally fully competent.

  6. VIII. THE PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF DEVELOPMENTAL METHODOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Todd D; Wang, Eugene W; Gorrall, Britt K

    2017-06-01

    This chapter selectively reviews the evolution of quantitative practices in the field of developmental methodology. The chapter begins with an overview of the past in developmental methodology, discussing the implementation and dissemination of latent variable modeling and, in particular, longitudinal structural equation modeling. It then turns to the present state of developmental methodology, highlighting current methodological advances in the field. Additionally, this section summarizes ample quantitative resources, ranging from key quantitative methods journal articles to the various quantitative methods training programs and institutes. The chapter concludes with the future of developmental methodology and puts forth seven future innovations in the field. The innovations discussed span the topics of measurement, modeling, temporal design, and planned missing data designs. Lastly, the chapter closes with a brief overview of advanced modeling techniques such as continuous time models, state space models, and the application of Bayesian estimation in the field of developmental methodology. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. [Contemporary cognitive theories about developmental dyscalculia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Cañizares, D; Estévez-Pérez, N; Reigosa-Crespo, V

    To analyze the current theories describing the cognitive mechanisms underlying developmental dyscalculia. The four most researched hypotheses concerning the cognitive deficits related to developmental dyscalculia, as well as experimental evidences supporting or refusing them are presented. The first hypothesis states that developmental dyscalculia is consequence of domain general cognitive deficits. The second hypothesis suggests that it is due to a failure in the development of specialized brain systems dedicated to numerosity processing. The third hypothesis asserts the disorder is caused by a deficit in accessing quantity representation through numerical symbols. The last hypothesis states developmental dyscalculia appears as a consequence of impairments in a generalized magnitude system dedicated to the processing of continuous and discrete magnitudes. None of the hypotheses has been proven more plausible than the rest. Relevant issues rose by them need to be revisited and answered in the light of new experimental designs. In the last years the understanding of cognitive disorders involved in developmental dyscalculia has remarkably increased, but it is nonetheless insufficient. Additional research is required in order to achieve a comprehensive cognitive model of numerical processing development and its disorders. This will improve the diagnostic precision and the effectiveness of developmental dyscalculia intervention strategies.

  8. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. RESULTS: Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

  9. The Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge

    2001-01-01

    AbstractIn the nineties, the concept of the developmental work (DW) has become a significant point of orientation for the actors on Danish labour market. The DW has moved the focus of the labour market from wages and working time towards work and production. For employees, the DW promises...... developmental possibilities, influence and responsibility, but also greater social responsibility for the firm. For firms, the DW promises increased competitiveness and better products. In this paper we present the concept of the DW as one which encourages the development of work, production and organisation...... of the firm and show that the DW is different from mainstream management concepts, as the DW...

  10. A fetal whole ovarian culture model for the evaluation of CrVI-induced developmental toxicity during germ cell nest breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, Jone A.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A, dioxin, pesticides, and cigarette smoke, has been linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure (POF) and early menopause in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI), one of the more toxic heavy metals, is widely used in more than 50 industries. As one of the world's leading producers of Cr compounds, the U.S. is facing growing challenges in protecting human health against adverse effects of CrVI. Our recent findings demonstrated that in vivo CrVI exposure during gestational period caused POF in F1 offspring. Our current research focus is three-fold: (i) to identify the effect of CrVI on critical windows of great vulnerability of fetal ovarian development; (ii) to understand the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced POF; (iii) to identify potential intervention strategies to mitigate or inhibit CrVI effects. In order to accomplish these goals we used a fetal whole ovarian culture system. Fetuses were removed from the normal pregnant rats on gestational day 13.5. Fetal ovaries were cultured in vitro for 12 days, and treated with or without 0.1 ppm potassium dichromate (CrVI) from culture day 2–8, which recapitulated embryonic day 14.5–20.5, in vivo. Results showed that CrVI increased germ cell/oocyte apoptosis by increasing caspase 3, BAX, p53 and PUMA; decreasing BCL2, BMP15, GDF9 and cKIT; and altering cell cycle regulatory genes and proteins. This model system may serve as a potential tool for high throughput testing of various drugs and/or EDCs in particular to assess developmental toxicity of the ovary. - Highlights: • CrVI (0.1 ppm, a regulatory dose) increased germ cell apoptosis of fetal ovaries. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) increased pro-apoptotic proteins. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) decreased cyclins and CDK1 and cell survival proteins. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) increased oxidative stress during fetal ovarian development. • We propose fetal ovarian culture model for high

  11. Identifying developmental trajectories of body mass index in childhood using latent class growth (mixture modelling: associations with dietary, sedentary and physical activity behaviors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Koning

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, many epidemiologic studies examining associations between obesity and dietary and sedentary/physical activity behaviors have focused on assessing Body Mass Index (BMI at one point in time. Recent developments in statistical techniques make it possible to study the potential heterogeneity in the development of BMI during childhood by identifying distinct subpopulations characterized by distinct developmental trajectories. Using Latent Class Growth (Mixture Modelling (LCGMM techniques we aimed to identify BMI trajectories in childhood and to examine associations between these distinct trajectories and dietary, sedentary and physical activity behaviors. Methods This longitudinal study explored BMI standard deviation score (SDS trajectories in a sample of 613 children from 4 to 12 years of age. In 2006, 2009 and 2012 information on children’s health related behaviors was obtained by parental questionnaires, and children’s height and weight were measured. Associations with behaviors were investigated with logistic regression models. Results We identified two BMI SDS trajectories; a decreasing BMI SDS trajectory (n = 416; 68 % and an increasing BMI SDS trajectory (n = 197; 32 %. The increasing BMI SDS trajectory consisted of more participants of lower socio-economic status (SES and of non-western ethnicity. Maternal overweight status was associated with being in the increasing BMI SDS trajectory at both baseline and follow-up six years later (2006: Odds Ratio (OR, 2.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.9 to 4.3; 2012 OR, 1.8; 95 % CI 1.2 to 2.6. The increasing BMI SDS trajectory was associated with the following behaviors; drinking sugared drinks > 3 glasses per day, participation in organized sports  2 h per day, though participation in organized sports at follow-up was the only significant result. Conclusions Our results indicate the importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors at a young age, and

  12. A fetal whole ovarian culture model for the evaluation of CrVI-induced developmental toxicity during germ cell nest breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, Jone A.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Banu, Sakhila K., E-mail: skbanu@cvm.tamu.edu

    2015-11-15

    Prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A, dioxin, pesticides, and cigarette smoke, has been linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure (POF) and early menopause in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI), one of the more toxic heavy metals, is widely used in more than 50 industries. As one of the world's leading producers of Cr compounds, the U.S. is facing growing challenges in protecting human health against adverse effects of CrVI. Our recent findings demonstrated that in vivo CrVI exposure during gestational period caused POF in F1 offspring. Our current research focus is three-fold: (i) to identify the effect of CrVI on critical windows of great vulnerability of fetal ovarian development; (ii) to understand the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced POF; (iii) to identify potential intervention strategies to mitigate or inhibit CrVI effects. In order to accomplish these goals we used a fetal whole ovarian culture system. Fetuses were removed from the normal pregnant rats on gestational day 13.5. Fetal ovaries were cultured in vitro for 12 days, and treated with or without 0.1 ppm potassium dichromate (CrVI) from culture day 2–8, which recapitulated embryonic day 14.5–20.5, in vivo. Results showed that CrVI increased germ cell/oocyte apoptosis by increasing caspase 3, BAX, p53 and PUMA; decreasing BCL2, BMP15, GDF9 and cKIT; and altering cell cycle regulatory genes and proteins. This model system may serve as a potential tool for high throughput testing of various drugs and/or EDCs in particular to assess developmental toxicity of the ovary. - Highlights: • CrVI (0.1 ppm, a regulatory dose) increased germ cell apoptosis of fetal ovaries. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) increased pro-apoptotic proteins. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) decreased cyclins and CDK1 and cell survival proteins. • CrVI (0.1 ppm) increased oxidative stress during fetal ovarian development. • We propose fetal ovarian culture model for high

  13. Impact of a Teacher-as-Coach Model: Improving Paraprofessionals Fidelity of Implementation of Discrete Trial Training for Students with Moderate-to-Severe Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Rose A.; Schnitz, Alana G.; Wills, Howard P.; Rosenbloom, Raia; Kamps, Debra M.; Bast, Darcey

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring educational progress for students with moderate-to-severe developmental disabilities requires exposure to well executed evidence-based practices. This necessitates that the special education workforce, including paraprofessionals, be well-trained. Yet evidence regarding effective training mechanisms for paraprofessionals is limited. A…

  14. The application of mouse and human embryonic stem cells with transcriptomics in alternative developmental toxicity tests : A bridge from model species to man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulpen, S.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    During life humans are exposed to diverse hazardous compounds, which can have toxicological effects. Reproductive and developmental toxicology are research areas dedicated to the study of the potential of a compound to affect male and female fertility, and development of the embryo and fetus during

  15. 2D and 3D assessment of neuropathology in rat brain after prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol, a model for developmental neurotoxicty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, D.M.G. de; Hartgring, S.; Horst, L. van de; Moerkens, M.; Otto, M.; Bos-Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Kaufmann, W.S.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; O'Callaghan, J.P.; Waalkens-Berendsen, I.D.H.; Pakkenberg, B.; Gundersen, H.G.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of a tiered quantitative morphological approach to reveal developmental neurotoxicity, morphometric parameters were measured in the offspring of rats treated with methylazoxymethanol (MAM) during days 13-15 of pregnancy. Treatment was aimed at inhibiting the proliferation

  16. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  17. Arguments from Developmental Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStöckle-Schobel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorising about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories.Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasising the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasising the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development’.

  18. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  19. A developmental metatheory of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, T B

    1994-01-01

    The author proposes an integrative model of psychopathology in light of the contemporary need to bridge diverse ideological frameworks. This model has its major foundations in drive, ego, object relations, and self psychoanalytic perspectives as they impact upon interactional patterns of infancy. The chronology of these theoretical orientations is presented as parallel to a changing focus upon different successive stages in the course of individual development. The longstanding controversy between conflict and deficit theories, which undergirds the various schools of thought, is addressed: a developmental orientation is offered as the overriding conceptual connection between them. Conflict and deficit phenomena are regarded as intertwined and not incompatible: Unconscious drives, desires and wishes, ego defenses, and compromise formations as well as object relationship deficiencies and structural voids and defects in the self are combined to encompass a broad spectrum of psychopathology and its sources: the above intrapsychic and interpersonal factors are interfaced with significant reciprocal dyadic (mother/child) and triadic (father/mother/child) influences upon ongoing maturational processes. For heuristic purposes, a fourfold matrix--dyadic deficit, dyadic conflict, triadic deficit, and triadic conflict--is delineated. Clinical characteristics and developmental precursors of each of the four prototypes, especially with regard to early relational events, are examined.

  20. Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2013-05-01

    The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n = 55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n = 55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n = 55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text readi...

  2. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: does a Bayesian approach outperform regression models to discriminate between juveniles and adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Thevissen, P. W.; FIEUWS, Steffen; Willems, G.

    2010-01-01

    Dental age estimation methods based on the radiologically detected third molar developmental stages are implemented in forensic age assessments to discriminate between juveniles and adults considering the judgment of young unaccompanied asylum seekers. Accurate and unbiased age estimates combined with appropriate quantified uncertainties are the required properties for accurate forensic reporting. In this study, a subset of 910 individuals uniformly distributed in age between 16 and 22 years ...

  3. Developmental programming of somatic growth, behavior and endocannabinoid metabolism by variation of early postnatal nutrition in a cross-fostering mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Felix; Ackermann, Merle; Michalik, Michael; Hucklenbruch-Rother, Eva; Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras; Racz, Ildiko; Bindila, Laura; Lutz, Beat; Dötsch, Jörg; Zimmer, Andreas; Woelfle, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient deprivation during early development has been associated with the predisposition to metabolic disorders in adulthood. Considering its interaction with metabolism, appetite and behavior, the endocannabinoid (eCB) system represents a promising target of developmental programming. By cross-fostering and variation of litter size, early postnatal nutrition of CB6F1-hybrid mice was controlled during the lactation period (3, 6, or 10 pups/mother). After weaning and redistribution at P21, all pups received standard chow ad libitum. Gene expression analyses (liver, visceral fat, hypothalamus) were performed at P50, eCB concentrations were determined in liver and visceral fat. Locomotor activity and social behavior were analyzed by means of computer-assisted videotracking. Body growth was permanently altered, with differences for length, weight, body mass index and fat mass persisting beyond P100 (all 3>6>10,p6>10 (DAGLα p6>10 (FAAH pOpen-field social behavior testing revealed significant group differences, with formerly underfed mice turning out to be the most sociable animals (p<0.01). Locomotor activity did not differ. Our data indicate a developmental plasticity of somatic growth, behavior and parameters of the eCB system, with long-lasting impact of early postnatal nutrition. Developmental programming of the eCB system in metabolically active tissues, as shown here for liver and fat, may play a role in the formation of the adult cardiometabolic risk profile following perinatal malnutrition in humans.

  4. Developmental biology in marine invertebrate symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall-Ngai, M J; Ruby, E G

    2000-12-01

    Associations between marine invertebrates and their cooperative bacterial symbionts offer access to an understanding of the roots of host-microbe interaction; for example, several symbioses like the squid-vibrio light organ association serve as models for investigating how each partner affects the developmental biology of the other. Previous results have identified a program of specific developmental events that unfolds as the association is initiated. In the past year, published studies have focused primarily on describing the mechanisms underlying the signaling processes that occur between the juvenile squid and the luminous bacteria that colonize it.

  5. Working Memory and Developmental Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy A.; Botting, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Children with developmental language impairments (DLI) are often reported to show difficulties with working memory. This review describes the four components of the well-established working memory model, and considers whether there is convincing evidence for difficulties within each component in children with DLI. The emphasis is on the most…

  6. Neurogenetics and auditory processing in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Anne-Lise; Ramus, Franck

    2013-02-01

    Dyslexia is a polygenic developmental reading disorder characterized by an auditory/phonological deficit. Based on the latest genetic and neurophysiological studies, we propose a tentative model in which phonological deficits could arise from genetic anomalies of the cortical micro-architecture in the temporal lobe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. NIDCAP and developmental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Haumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality in very low birth weight infants has dramatically decreased during the last decades. However, 15-25% of these infants will show neurodevelopmental impairment later on. The aim of implementing early developmental care (EDC, emerged as a new field in neonatology, is to create an intervention program designed to provide support for optimal neurobehavioral development during this highly vulnerable period of brain growth. The theoretical framework, which underlies the approach, is supported by research in different scientific fields, including neuroscience, psychology, medicine and nursing. EDC utilizes a range of medical and nursing interventions that aim to decrease the stress of preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care Assessment Program (NIDCAP is an integrated and holistic form of family-centered developmental care. Changing the traditional NICU towards an EDC-NICU includes training nursing and medical staff, investing in their quality and most importantly keeping parents in proximity to the infants. The new challenge of modern neonatology is to restore the mother-infant dyad applying “couplet care” starting at birth until discharge. Most of the European NICUs apply some elements of EDC, but it is more consistent in northern Europe. The development of NIDCAP training centers in Europe demonstrates the evolution of care. It is likely that future research and intervention programs will optimize our practices. Developmental care could prove to be an important recent step in improving outcome in extremely preterm neonates. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  8. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  9. Evolutionary and developmental modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; d'Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates.

  10. The stress-reward-mentalizing model of depression: An integrative developmental cascade approach to child and adolescent depressive disorder based on the research domain criteria (RDoC) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-10-09

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) propose a much-needed change in approach to the study of vulnerability factors implicated in mental disorders, shifting away from a categorical, disease-oriented model to a dimensional approach that focuses on underlying systems implicated in psychopathology. In this paper we illustrate this approach with a focus on the emergence of depression in childhood and adolescence. Based on evolutionary biological and developmental psychopathology considerations, we present an integrative developmental cascade model of depression that essentially suggests that depression emerges out of a three-pronged series of interacting impairments in the domains of stress regulation, reward, and mentalizing. We discuss the relation of these impairments to the five domains proposed by RDoC. We also focus on how this model may explain in large part the marked comorbidity of depression with other psychiatric disorders, as well as with functional somatic and somatic disorders. Limitations of this theoretical approach are discussed, as well as implications for the development, evaluation, and dissemination of interventions aimed at preventing or treating depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasing Success Rates in Developmental Math: The Complementary Role of Individual and Institutional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kristen E.; Melguizo, Tatiana; Prather, George

    2015-01-01

    This study tracks students' progression through developmental math sequences and defines progression as both attempting and passing each level of the sequence. A model of successful progression in developmental education was built utilizing individual-, institutional-, and developmental math-level factors. Employing step-wise logistic regression…

  12. Computer Simulation of Developmental Processes and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Recent progress in systems toxicology and synthetic biology have paved the way to new thinking about in vitro/in silico modeling of developmental processes and toxicities, both for embryological and reproductive impacts. Novel in vitro platforms such as 3D organotypic culture models, engineered microscale tissues and complex microphysiological systems (MPS), together with computational models and computer simulation of tissue dynamics, lend themselves to a integrated testing strategies for predictive toxicology. As these emergent methodologies continue to evolve, they must be integrally tied to maternal/fetal physiology and toxicity of the developing individual across early lifestage transitions, from fertilization to birth, through puberty and beyond. Scope: This symposium will focus on how the novel technology platforms can help now and in the future, with in vitro/in silico modeling of complex biological systems for developmental and reproductive toxicity issues, and translating systems models into integrative testing strategies. The symposium is based on three main organizing principles: (1) that novel in vitro platforms with human cells configured in nascent tissue architectures with a native microphysiological environments yield mechanistic understanding of developmental and reproductive impacts of drug/chemical exposures; (2) that novel in silico platforms with high-throughput screening (HTS) data, biologically-inspired computational models of

  13. The Role of Passion and Purpose in Leader Developmental Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronk, Kendall Cotton; McLean, Derrick C

    2016-01-01

    The founder of TOMS Shoes, Blake Mycoskie, and the late Apple cofounder and CEO, Steve Jobs, model the role of passion and purpose in leader developmental readiness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  14. Mutations of PTPN23 in developmental and epileptic encephalopathy

    KAUST Repository

    Sowada, Nadine; Hashem, Mais Omar; Yilmaz, Rü stem; Hamad, Muddathir; Kakar, Naseebullah; Thiele, Holger; Arold, Stefan T.; Bode, Harald; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Borck, Guntram

    2017-01-01

    -resistant epilepsy, severe and global developmental delay, microcephaly, and sometimes premature death. PTPN23 encodes a tyrosine phosphatase with strong brain expression, and its knockout in mouse is embryonically lethal. Structural modeling supports a deleterious

  15. How Developmental Psychology and Robotics Complement Each Other

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scassellati, Brian

    2000-01-01

    .... First, the use of developmental models will be a critical requirement in the construction of robotic systems that can acquire a large repertoire of motor, perceptual, and cognitive capabilities...

  16. THE MAKING OF FAMILY VALUES: DEVELOPMENTAL IDEALISM IN GANSU, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Qing; Thornton, Arland

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the role of developmental thinking in the making of family values. We analyze survey data collected from Gansu Province in China with regular and multilevel logit models. The results show that individuals’ endorsement of neolocal residence, self-choice marriage, gender egalitarianism, late marriage for women, and low fertility depends on the conjunction of preference for development and beliefs in its association with those family attributes, which we term developmental idealism associational evaluation. Furthermore, such impact of developmental thinking on family values holds robust in the presence of indigenous ideational forces, in this case Islamic religion. Although Islam influences family values in the opposite direction than developmental ideas do, the effect of Developmental Idealism associational evaluation does not differ significantly between Muslims and non-Muslims. PMID:25769860

  17. Topographic processing in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    deficit in visual processing or visual short-term memory. Interestingly, a classical dissociation could be demonstrated between impaired face memory and preserved topographic memory in two developmental prosopagnosics. We conclude that impairments in topographic memory tend to co-occur with developmental......Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia. To address this formally, we tested two aspects of topographic processing – that is, perception and memory of mountain landscapes shown from different viewpoints. Participants...

  18. Developmental plasticity: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B

    2017-01-01

    Developmental plasticity - the concept that adaptation to changing and unfavorable environmental conditions are possible but may come at the price of compromised health potentials - has evolutionary grounding as it facilitates survival but dissents with fundamental evolutionary principles in that it may advance the lesser fit. It is an important cornerstone of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Unlike evolutionary adaptation developmental plasticity may be short-lived and restricted to one or few generations and inheritance is uncertain. Potential mechanisms include epigenetic modifications adopted in utero which may not transmit to the next generation; future insights may allow adjustments of the outcomes of developmental plasticity.

  19. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing rec...... in qualitative research offers a promising avenue to advance the field in this direction.......Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  20. Building a developmental toxicity ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy; Boobis, Alan; Burgoon, Lyle; Carney, Edward; Currie, Richard; Fritsche, Ellen; Knudsen, Thomas; Laffont, Madeleine; Piersma, Aldert H; Poole, Alan; Schneider, Steffen; Daston, George

    2018-04-03

    As more information is generated about modes of action for developmental toxicity and more data are generated using high-throughput and high-content technologies, it is becoming necessary to organize that information. This report discussed the need for a systematic representation of knowledge about developmental toxicity (i.e., an ontology) and proposes a method to build one based on knowledge of developmental biology and mode of action/ adverse outcome pathways in developmental toxicity. This report is the result of a consensus working group developing a plan to create an ontology for developmental toxicity that spans multiple levels of biological organization. This report provide a description of some of the challenges in building a developmental toxicity ontology and outlines a proposed methodology to meet those challenges. As the ontology is built on currently available web-based resources, a review of these resources is provided. Case studies on one of the most well-understood morphogens and developmental toxicants, retinoic acid, are presented as examples of how such an ontology might be developed. This report outlines an approach to construct a developmental toxicity ontology. Such an ontology will facilitate computer-based prediction of substances likely to induce human developmental toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hussain, Irshad; Piepenbrink, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  2. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)-how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children ( N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development.

  3. I. DEVELOPMENTAL METHODOLOGY AS A CENTRAL SUBDISCIPLINE OF DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Noel A

    2017-06-01

    This first chapter introduces the main goals of the monograph and previews the remaining chapters. The goals of this monograph are to provide summaries of our current understanding of advanced developmental methodologies, provide information that can advance our understanding of human development, identify shortcomings in our understanding of developmental methodology, and serve as a flagpost for organizing developmental methodology as a subdiscipline within the broader field of developmental science. The remaining chapters in this monograph address issues in design (sampling and big data), longitudinal data analysis, and issues of replication and research accumulation. The final chapter describes the history of developmental methodology, considers how the previous chapters in this monograph fit within this subdiscipline, and offers recommendations for further advancement. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. Constructivist developmental theory is needed in developmental neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Neuroscience techniques provide an open window previously unavailable to the origin of thoughts and actions in children. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is booming, and knowledge from human brain mapping is finding its way into education and pediatric practice. Promises of application in developmental cognitive neuroscience rests however on better theory-guided data interpretation. Massive amounts of neuroimaging data from children are being processed, yet published studies often do not frame their work within developmental models—in detriment, we believe, to progress in this field. Here we describe some core challenges in interpreting the data from developmental cognitive neuroscience, and advocate the use of constructivist developmental theories of human cognition with a neuroscience interpretation.

  5. Study on determination of planting time for some cauliflower cultivars (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) under Samsun ecological conditions by using plant growth and developmental models based on thermal time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, S.; Peksen, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of different planting times (01 July, 15 July and 01 August) on the growth and developmental components of some cauliflower cultivars (Snow King, White Cliff, White Rock, White Latin, Me & Carillon, SG 4004 F1 and Serrano) by using plant growth and developmental models. From the results of the present study, it was revealed that thermal time elapsing from planting to curd initiation should be high (about 1200 degree centigrade days) to stimulate vegetative growth while thermal time elapsing from curd initiation to the harvest should be low (around 200 degree centigrade days) in terms of curd weight. The highest curd weight and yield were obtained from the plants of the first planting time, namely 01 July, compared to the other planting times (15 July and 01 August). Although there were no significant differences between the cultivars, the highest yield was obtained form Cv. Me & Carillon (13.25 t ha-1), SG 4004 F1 (13.14 t ha-1) and White Rock (11.51 t ha-1) respectively

  6. Developmentally Appropriate Peace Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewsader, Joellen; Myers-Walls, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Peace education has been offered to children for decades, but those curricula have been only minimally guided by children's developmental stages and needs. In this article, the authors apply their research on children's developmental understanding of peace along with peace education principles and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory to present…

  7. Developmental Kindergarten Program Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, George T.; Cushing, Katherine S.

    The evaluation of the Developmental Kindergarten (DK) Program at the Harrison School District #2, Colorado Springs, Colorado, involved pre- and post-testing of student academic gains and interviewing of principals and teachers. The program aimed to provide developmentally appropriate activities for students believed to be "at risk" of…

  8. Developmental programming of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Fortier, Paz; Lahat, Ayelet; Tang, Alva; Mathewson, Karen J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-09-01

    Being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; programming hypotheses. Interfacing prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, we tested whether individuals with ELBW in different childhood rearing environments showed different attention biases to positive and negative facial emotions in adulthood. Using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of ELBW survivors, we found that relative to normal birth weight controls (NBW; >2,500 grams), ELBW survivors displayed the highest and lowest attention bias to happy faces at age 30-35, depending on whether their total family income at age 8 was relatively low (environmental match) or high (environmental mismatch), respectively. This bias to happy faces was associated with a reduced likelihood of emotional problems. Findings suggest that differential susceptibility to positive emotions may be prenatally programmed, with effects lasting into adulthood. We discuss implications for integrating prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, and the developmental origins of postnatal plasticity and resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Developmental colour agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Nijboer, Tanja C W; de Haan, Edward

    2007-08-01

    Colour agnosia concerns the inability to recognise colours despite intact colour perception, semantic memory for colour information, and colour naming. Patients with selective colour agnosia have been described and the deficit is associated with left hemisphere damage. Here we report a case study of a 43-year-old man who was referred to us with a stroke in his right cerebellar hemisphere. During the standard assessment it transpired that he was unable to name coloured patches. Detailed assessment of his colour processing showed that he suffers from a selective colour agnosia. As he claimed to have had this problem all his life, and the fact that the infratentorial infarct that he had incurred was in an area far away from the brain structures that are known to be involved in colour processing, we suggest that he is the first reported case of developmental colour agnosia.

  10. Developmental stages of developmental screening: steps to implementation of a successful program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Dunkle, Margaret; Earls, Marian; Fliedner, Dane; Landes, Cynthia

    2005-11-01

    Through the use of 2-stage screening strategies, research studies have shown that autism spectrum disorders and other developmental disabilities can now be detected reliably and with greater validity and in children as young as 18 months of age. Screening and diagnostic practices in the medical and educational arena lag far behind clinical research, however, with the average patient age at time of diagnosis being 3 to 6 years.We discuss the challenges of instituting universal developmental screening as part of pediatric care and present 2 models of existing or planned programs of early screening for autism spectrum disorder and developmental disability (1 in a community-based setting and 1 in a pediatric setting), and discuss the pros and cons of the different strategies.

  11. [Neurotransmission in developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2008-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is a heterogeneous developmental disorder with an etiology that is not fully understood. AD/HD has been considered to occur due to a disturbance in cathecholaminergic neurotransmission, with particular emphasis on dopamine. The neurotransmission of dopamine in subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and limbic areas is synaptic; on the other hand, dopamine neurotransmission in the frontal cortex is quite different, because there are very few dopamine transporters (DAT) in the frontal cortex that allow dopamine to diffuse away from the dopamine synapse ("volume transmission"). It is now clear that noradrenergic neurons play a key regulatory role in dopaminergic function in the frontal cortex. Furthermore, serotonergic neurons exert an inhibitory effect on midbrain dopamine cell bodies, and they have an influence on dopamine release in terminal regions. There is accumulating neurobiological evidence pointing toward a role of the serotonin system in AD/HD. The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is still unclear, but information from genetics, neuropathology, brain imaging, and basic neuroscience has provided insights into the understanding of this developmental disorder. In addition to abnormal circuitry in specific limbic and neocortical areas of the cerebral cortex, impairments in brainstem, cerebellar, thalamic, and basal ganglia connections have been reported. Numerous studies have pointed to abnormalities in serotonin and glutamate neurotransmission. Three important aspects involved in the pathophysiology of ASD have been proposed. The first is cell migration, the second is unbalanced excitatory-inhibitory networks, and the third is synapse formation and pruning, the key factors being reelin, neurexin, and neuroligin. Serotonin is considered to play an important role in all of these aspects of the pathophysiology of ASD. Finally, I would like to emphasize that it is crucial in the field of child

  12. Comportamiento de algunos factores biosociales en la lactancia materna en los menores de un año Behavior of some biosocial factors related to breastfeeding in babies aged less than 1 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marlen Avalos González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: El abandono progresivo de la lactancia materna se ha considerado "una nueva enfermedad propia de los siglos XX y XXI", en la cual han influido una serie de factores de muy diversa índole. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el comportamiento de los factores biosociales en la lactancia materna en los menores de un año. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en un universo de 158 nacimientos ocurridos en el 2008 del área de salud "Aleida Fernández Chardiet". Se empleó el estudio bibliográfico, documental y la contrastación de criterios de diferentes autores como procedimiento teórico, además de procedimientos empíricos. RESULTADOS: Solo en el 55,7 % de los lactantes estudiados, se logró una lactancia materna exitosa, cifras por debajo de las recomendaciones internacionales. El destete precoz ocurrió en el 44,3 % y el motivo más frecuente fue la hipogalactia materna. CONCLUSIONES: El motivo más frecuente del destete precoz, fue sustentado por el criterio de las madres de que era insuficiente la producción y obtención de leche.INTRODUCTION: The progressive neglect of breastfeeding has been considered a "new disease own of XX and XXI centuries"where a series of very diverse factors have been influenced. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the behavior of biosocial factors related to breastfeeding in babies aged less than 1 year. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in 158 births occurred in 2008 in "Aleida Chardiet"health area. Authors used the bibliographic, documentary study and the criteria contrast from different authors as a theoretical procedure, in addition to the empirical ones. RESULTS: Only in the 55.7 % of study infants it was possible to achieve a successful breastfeeding, figures under the international recommendations. The early wean occurred in the 44.3 % and the more frequent reason was the mother hypogalactia. CONCLUSIONS: The more frequent reason for the early wean was

  13. A Comparison of the Effects of Video Modeling Other and Peer-Implemented Pivotal Response Training to Video Modeling Other on Positive Social Interactions of Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucskar, Maryssa

    2017-01-01

    Young children with developmental disabilities (DD) frequently have delays in social play skills. Students with DD may require social skills instruction in order to be successful in playing cooperatively with others. These opportunities to practice social play skills learned from specialized interventions must be available throughout the school…

  14. Adamts18 deletion results in distinct developmental defects and provides a model for congenital disorders of lens, lung, and female reproductive tract development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataca, Dalya; Caikovski, Marian; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Moulin, Alexandre; Benarafa, Charaf; Earp, Sarah E; Guri, Yakir; Kostic, Corinne; Arsenijevic, Yvan; Soininen, Raija; Apte, Suneel S; Brisken, Cathrin

    2016-11-15

    The ADAMTS family comprises 19 secreted metalloproteinases that cleave extracellular matrix components and have diverse functions in numerous disease and physiological contexts. A number of them remain 'orphan' proteases and among them is ADAMTS18, which has been implicated in developmental eye disorders, platelet function and various malignancies. To assess in vivo function of ADAMTS18, we generated a mouse strain with inactivated Adamts18 alleles. In the C57Bl6/Ola background, Adamts18-deficient mice are born in a normal Mendelian ratio, and are viable but show a transient growth delay. Histological examination revealed a 100% penetrant eye defect resulting from leakage of lens material through the lens capsule occurring at embryonic day (E)13.5, when the lens grows rapidly. Adamts18-deficient lungs showed altered bronchiolar branching. Fifty percent of mutant females are infertile because of vaginal obstruction due to either a dorsoventral vaginal septum or imperforate vagina. The incidence of ovarian rete is increased in the mutant mouse strain. Thus, Adamts18 is essential in the development of distinct tissues and the new mouse strain is likely to be useful for investigating ADAMTS18 function in human disease, particularly in the contexts of infertility and carcinogenesis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Adamts18 deletion results in distinct developmental defects and provides a model for congenital disorders of lens, lung, and female reproductive tract development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalya Ataca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The ADAMTS family comprises 19 secreted metalloproteinases that cleave extracellular matrix components and have diverse functions in numerous disease and physiological contexts. A number of them remain ‘orphan’ proteases and among them is ADAMTS18, which has been implicated in developmental eye disorders, platelet function and various malignancies. To assess in vivo function of ADAMTS18, we generated a mouse strain with inactivated Adamts18 alleles. In the C57Bl6/Ola background, Adamts18-deficient mice are born in a normal Mendelian ratio, and are viable but show a transient growth delay. Histological examination revealed a 100% penetrant eye defect resulting from leakage of lens material through the lens capsule occurring at embryonic day (E13.5, when the lens grows rapidly. Adamts18-deficient lungs showed altered bronchiolar branching. Fifty percent of mutant females are infertile because of vaginal obstruction due to either a dorsoventral vaginal septum or imperforate vagina. The incidence of ovarian rete is increased in the mutant mouse strain. Thus, Adamts18 is essential in the development of distinct tissues and the new mouse strain is likely to be useful for investigating ADAMTS18 function in human disease, particularly in the contexts of infertility and carcinogenesis.

  16. The impact of a family-centered intervention on the ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior: modeling developmental sequelae and trajectories during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Dishion, Thomas J

    2012-08-01

    This study used an experimental, longitudinal field trial involving random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) to explore the social ecology of adolescent antisocial behavior. A sample of 998 youths and their families was followed from early to late adolescence (age 12 to 18-19). In the intervention condition, 115 families (23%) elected to receive the FCU. In general, random assignment to the FCU in middle school was associated with reductions in late adolescence antisocial behavior (age 18-19). Variable-centered analyses revealed that the effects were mediated by reductions in family conflict from early to middle adolescence (age 12-15). The link between family conflict and antisocial behavior in turn was mediated by association with deviant peers at age 17; parental monitoring at age 17 was also influential but did not attain the status of a mediator. Person-oriented analyses suggested that the FCU was associated with declining trajectories of family conflict and rising trajectories of parental monitoring but was not associated with trajectories of deviant peer association. A dual-trajectory analysis indicated that the pathways to adolescent antisocial behavior were myriad and varied, suggesting new directions for developmental and intervention research.

  17. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  18. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenazi, Sarit; Henik, Avishai

    2010-01-07

    Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test-interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  19. Developmental Programming, a Pathway to Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rodolfo C.; Puttabyatappa, Muraly

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that insults occurring during the perinatal period alter the developmental trajectory of the fetus/offspring leading to long-term detrimental outcomes that often culminate in adult pathologies. These perinatal insults include maternal/fetal disease states, nutritional deficits/excess, stress, lifestyle choices, exposure to environmental chemicals, and medical interventions. In addition to reviewing the various insults that contribute to developmental programming and the benefits of animal models in addressing underlying mechanisms, this review focuses on the commonalities in disease outcomes stemming from various insults, the convergence of mechanistic pathways via which various insults can lead to common outcomes, and identifies the knowledge gaps in the field and future directions. PMID:26859334

  20. Planning for School Transition: An Ecological-Developmental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Karen E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes an ecological-developmental model for planning a child's transition from a preschool special education program to a public school classroom. The model stresses interactions between the various environments in which the child functions. A description of a preschool transition program based on the model is also included.…

  1. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas; Vue, Zer; Voolstra, Christian R.; Medina, Mó nica; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2010-01-01

    developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms

  2. PREVALENCE AND EFFECT OF DEVELOPMENTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    among children might even be higher, as medical and educational systems frequently fail to ... formally diagnosed, but rather described by their teachers as lazy or ..... Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire for Brazilian children.

  3. The Management of Developmental Apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbay, S. S.

    1978-01-01

    Of 39 children (5-12 years old) with developmental apraxia and agnosia, who were assessed neurologically, 19 were also given simple standarized tests of motor ability. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author/SBH)

  4. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Jackson, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Study of air pollution indicates that minute particles may adversely interfere with pregnancy and fetal development. As engineering of nanoparticles have emerged, so has concern that these might interfere with reproductive and developmental functions. This is because nanotechnology may potentially...... increase the overall particle burden in air and introduce particles with novel characteristics and surface reactivity. To evaluate safety for pregnant women, we have studied developmental toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), following exposure of pregnant mice by inhalation (ENPs of titanium...

  5. Quantitative developmental transcriptomes of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildor, Tsvia; Malik, Assaf; Sher, Noa; Avraham, Linor; Ben-Tabou de-Leon, Smadar

    2016-02-01

    Embryonic development progresses through the timely activation of thousands of differentially activated genes. Quantitative developmental transcriptomes provide the means to relate global patterns of differentially expressed genes to the emerging body plans they generate. The sea urchin is one of the classic model systems for embryogenesis and the models of its developmental gene regulatory networks are of the most comprehensive of their kind. Thus, the sea urchin embryo is an excellent system for studies of its global developmental transcriptional profiles. Here we produced quantitative developmental transcriptomes of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (P. lividus) at seven developmental stages from the fertilized egg to prism stage. We generated de-novo reference transcriptome and identified 29,817 genes that are expressed at this time period. We annotated and quantified gene expression at the different developmental stages and confirmed the reliability of the expression profiles by QPCR measurement of a subset of genes. The progression of embryo development is reflected in the observed global expression patterns and in our principle component analysis. Our study illuminates the rich patterns of gene expression that participate in sea urchin embryogenesis and provide an essential resource for further studies of the dynamic expression of P. lividus genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Developmental Learning Approach of Mobile Manipulator via Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqi Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by infant development theories, a robotic developmental model combined with game elements is proposed in this paper. This model does not require the definition of specific developmental goals for the robot, but the developmental goals are implied in the goals of a series of game tasks. The games are characterized into a sequence of game modes based on the complexity of the game tasks from simple to complex, and the task complexity is determined by the applications of developmental constraints. Given a current mode, the robot switches to play in a more complicated game mode when it cannot find any new salient stimuli in the current mode. By doing so, the robot gradually achieves it developmental goals by playing different modes of games. In the experiment, the game was instantiated into a mobile robot with the playing task of picking up toys, and the game is designed with a simple game mode and a complex game mode. A developmental algorithm, “Lift-Constraint, Act and Saturate,” is employed to drive the mobile robot move from the simple mode to the complex one. The experimental results show that the mobile manipulator is able to successfully learn the mobile grasping ability after playing simple and complex games, which is promising in developing robotic abilities to solve complex tasks using games.

  7. Nonlinear Growth Curves in Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam; Hamagami, Fumiaki

    2011-01-01

    Developmentalists are often interested in understanding change processes and growth models are the most common analytic tool for examining such processes. Nonlinear growth curves are especially valuable to developmentalists because the defining characteristics of the growth process such as initial levels, rates of change during growth spurts, and asymptotic levels can be estimated. A variety of growth models are described beginning with the linear growth model and moving to nonlinear models of varying complexity. A detailed discussion of nonlinear models is provided, highlighting the added insights into complex developmental processes associated with their use. A collection of growth models are fit to repeated measures of height from participants of the Berkeley Growth and Guidance Studies from early childhood through adulthood. PMID:21824131

  8. An evaluation of parent-produced video self-modeling to improve independence in an adolescent with intellectual developmental disorder and an autism spectrum disorder: a controlled case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keith D; Vatland, Christopher; Bowen, Scott L; Burke, Raymond V

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated a parent-created video self-modeling (VSM) intervention to improve independence in an adolescent diagnosed with Intellectual Developmental Disorder (IDD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In a multiple baseline design across routines, a parent and her 17-year-old daughter created self-modeling videos of three targeted routines needed for independence in the community. The parent used a tablet device with a mobile app called "VideoTote" to produce videos of the daughter performing the targeted routines. The mobile app includes a 30-s tutorial about making modeling videos. The parent and daughter produced and watched a VSM scene prior to performing each of the three routines in an analogue community setting. The adolescent showed marked, immediate, and sustained improvements in performing each routine following the production and implementation of the VSM. Performance was found to generalize to the natural community setting. Results suggest that parents can use available technology to promote community independence for transition age individuals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  10. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  11. The Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model: a multi-level framework on maternal, paternal, and child health disparities derived by community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Schafer, Peter; DeClerque, Julia L; Lanzi, Robin G; Hobel, Calvin; Shalowitz, Madeleine; Chinchilli, Vern; Raju, Tonse N K

    2015-04-01

    Emerging evidence supports the theoretical and clinical importance of the preconception period in influencing pregnancy outcomes and child health. Collectively, this evidence affirms the need for a novel, integrative theoretical framework to design future investigations, integrate new findings, and identify promising, evidence-informed interventions to improve intergenerational health and reduce disparities. This article presents a transdisciplinary framework developed by the NIH Community Child Health Network (CCHN) through community-based participatory research processes. CCHN developed a Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways (PSRP) model by building local and multi-site community-academic participatory partnerships that established guidelines for research planning and decision-making; reviewed relevant findings diverse disciplinary and community perspectives; and identified the major themes of stress and resilience within the context of families and communities. The PSRP model focuses on inter-relating the multiple, complex, and dynamic biosocial influences theoretically linked to family health disparities. The PSRP model borrowed from and then added original constructs relating to developmental origins of lifelong health, epigenetics, and neighborhood and community influences on pregnancy outcome and family functioning (cf. MCHJ 2014). Novel elements include centrality of the preconception/inter-conception period, role of fathers and the parental relationship, maternal allostatic load (a composite biomarker index of cumulative wear-and-tear of stress), resilience resources of parents, and local neighborhood and community level influences (e.g., employment, housing, education, health care, and stability of basic necessities). CCHN's integrative framework embraces new ways of thinking about how to improve outcomes for future generations, by starting before conception, by including all family members, and by engaging the community vigorously at multiple

  12. Developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds in a zebrafish embryotoxicity test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jomaa, B.; Hermsen, S.A.B.; Kessels, M.Y.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Peijenburg, A.C.M.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Piersma, A.H.; Rietjens, I.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos were exposed to concentration ranges of selected thyroid-active model compounds in order to assess the applicability of zebrafish-based developmental scoring systems within an alternative testing strategy to detect the developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds. Model

  13. Sensation Seeking and Online Gaming Addiction in Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Positive Affective Associations and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianping; Zhen, Shuangju; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Based on the Dual Systems Model (Somerville et al., 2010; Steinberg, 2010a) and the biosocial-affect model (Romer and Hennessy, 2007) of adolescent sensation seeking and problem behaviors, the present study examined how (affective associations with online games as a mediator) and when (impulsivity as a moderator) did sensation seeking influence online gaming addiction in adolescence. A total of 375 Chinese male adolescents (mean age = 16.02 years, SD = 0.85) from southern China completed anonymous questionnaires regarding sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games, impulsivity, and online gaming addiction. Our findings revealed that sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games and impulsivity were each significantly and positively associated with online gaming addiction in adolescents. Positive affective associations mediated the relationship between sensation seeking and online gaming addiction. Further, impulsivity moderated the relationship between positive affective associations and online gaming addiction, such that the association between positive affective association and online gaming addiction was stronger for high than for low impulsivity adolescents. These findings underscore the importance of integrating the biosocial-affect model and the Dual Systems Model to understand how and when sensation seeking impacts adolescent online gaming addiction.

  14. Sensation Seeking and Online Gaming Addiction in Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Positive Affective Associations and Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Dual Systems Model (Somerville et al., 2010; Steinberg, 2010a and the biosocial-affect model (Romer and Hennessy, 2007 of adolescent sensation seeking and problem behaviors, the present study examined how (affective associations with online games as a mediator and when (impulsivity as a moderator did sensation seeking influence online gaming addiction in adolescence. A total of 375 Chinese male adolescents (mean age = 16.02 years, SD = 0.85 from southern China completed anonymous questionnaires regarding sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games, impulsivity, and online gaming addiction. Our findings revealed that sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games and impulsivity were each significantly and positively associated with online gaming addiction in adolescents. Positive affective associations mediated the relationship between sensation seeking and online gaming addiction. Further, impulsivity moderated the relationship between positive affective associations and online gaming addiction, such that the association between positive affective association and online gaming addiction was stronger for high than for low impulsivity adolescents. These findings underscore the importance of integrating the biosocial-affect model and the Dual Systems Model to understand how and when sensation seeking impacts adolescent online gaming addiction.

  15. Sensation Seeking and Online Gaming Addiction in Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Positive Affective Associations and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianping; Zhen, Shuangju; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Based on the Dual Systems Model (Somerville et al., 2010; Steinberg, 2010a) and the biosocial-affect model (Romer and Hennessy, 2007) of adolescent sensation seeking and problem behaviors, the present study examined how (affective associations with online games as a mediator) and when (impulsivity as a moderator) did sensation seeking influence online gaming addiction in adolescence. A total of 375 Chinese male adolescents (mean age = 16.02 years, SD = 0.85) from southern China completed anonymous questionnaires regarding sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games, impulsivity, and online gaming addiction. Our findings revealed that sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games and impulsivity were each significantly and positively associated with online gaming addiction in adolescents. Positive affective associations mediated the relationship between sensation seeking and online gaming addiction. Further, impulsivity moderated the relationship between positive affective associations and online gaming addiction, such that the association between positive affective association and online gaming addiction was stronger for high than for low impulsivity adolescents. These findings underscore the importance of integrating the biosocial-affect model and the Dual Systems Model to understand how and when sensation seeking impacts adolescent online gaming addiction. PMID:28529494

  16. Developmental dyslexia and dysgraphia: What can we learn from the one about the other?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eDöhla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to 17 % of German school children suffer from reading and writing disabilities. Unlike developmental dyslexia, only few studies have addressed dysgraphia. Presenting a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art in developmental dyslexia and dysgraphia, this paper aims to determine how far existing knowledge about the causes of developmental dyslexia also apply to developmental dysgraphia. To promote understanding of developmental dysgraphia, the paper discusses relevant aspects such as predictors, causes and comorbidities, models of acquisition as well as existing deficit models. A comparison of definitions in the DSM-V and ICD-10 complemented by an overview of the most recent German guideline ought to give the reader deeper insight into this topic. The current issue of growing up bilingually and the connection between reading and writing deficits are also discussed. In conclusion, this paper presents a critical survey of theoretical and practical implications for the diagnostics and treatment of developmental dysgraphia.

  17. New Conceptions: Biosocial Innovations and the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, John N.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses asexual reproductive technologies (in vitro fertilization, cryopreservation, artificial insemination, sperm banks, genetic engineering, ovum transfer, cloning, ectogenesis, surrogacy) and suggests that theoretical implications of technologies may bring dramatic social changes in the family. Outlines symbolically representational…

  18. Maternal Weight Gain Biosocial Characteristics And Perinatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Maternal weight gain in pregnancy can offer a good means of assessing the well being of the pregnant mother and by inference, her baby. The cross – sectional prospective study was carried out carried out between November 1996 and December 1997, in Jos University Teaching hospital to assess the influence ...

  19. Developmental Regulation across the Life Span: Toward a New Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    How can individuals regulate their own development to live happy, healthy, and productive lives? Major theories of developmental regulation across the life span have been proposed (e.g., dual-process model of assimilation and accommodation; motivational theory of life-span development; model of selection, optimization, and compensation), but they…

  20. Developmental psychopathology in an era of molecular genetics and neuroimaging: A developmental neurogenetics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W

    2015-05-01

    The emerging field of neurogenetics seeks to model the complex pathways from gene to brain to behavior. This field has focused on imaging genetics techniques that examine how variability in common genetic polymorphisms predict differences in brain structure and function. These studies are informed by other complimentary techniques (e.g., animal models and multimodal imaging) and have recently begun to incorporate the environment through examination of Imaging Gene × Environment interactions. Though neurogenetics has the potential to inform our understanding of the development of psychopathology, there has been little integration between principles of neurogenetics and developmental psychopathology. The paper describes a neurogenetics and Imaging Gene × Environment approach and how these approaches have been usefully applied to the study of psychopathology. Six tenets of developmental psychopathology (the structure of phenotypes, the importance of exploring mechanisms, the conditional nature of risk, the complexity of multilevel pathways, the role of development, and the importance of who is studied) are identified, and how these principles can further neurogenetics applications to understanding the development of psychopathology is discussed. A major issue of this piece is how neurogenetics and current imaging and molecular genetics approaches can be incorporated into developmental psychopathology perspectives with a goal of providing models for better understanding pathways from among genes, environments, the brain, and behavior.

  1. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency. Industrial chemicals that injure the developing brain are among...... the known causes for this rise in prevalence. In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental...... chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new...

  2. Developmental analytic view on narcissism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Matjan Štuhec

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Narcissistic pathology is connected to the pathology of the self. This article makes an overview of definitions of developmental analytic theories and stops with Kohut, Kernberg, Masterson, Auerbach and Mollon. The self is understood as a separate personality structure and has its own developmental line. Narcissism is a personality disorder that has its roots in preodipal developmental phases, mostly in the practicing and rapprochement subphase and in the oedipal phase as well. Recent research shows that the oedipal phase and the relation between the mother, the child's father (or her partner in general and the child is crucial for the maintenance of the pathological narcissism. Mothers who do not believe in a satisfying relationship with a man in general, keep the child in the dyadic position and do not support the development of the child's own identity.

  3. "Thinking About Arrows" : Modeling the associations between inadequate parenting, mentalizing, and dissociation. Commentary on "The developmental roots of dissociation: A multiple mediation analysis" (Schimmenti, 2017)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Velotti, Patrizia

    In an article published in Psychoanalytic Psychology, Schimmenti (2017) reported an empirical study whose results were interpreted as supporting the trauma model of dissociation and suggested that alexithymia and deficits in theory of mind might mediate the relation between emotional neglect and

  4. Teaching Real Data Interpretation with Models (TRIM): Analysis of Student Dialogue in a Large-Enrollment Cell and Developmental Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagallo, Patricia; Meddleton, Shanice; Bolger, Molly S.

    2016-01-01

    We present our design for a cell biology course to integrate content with scientific practices, specifically data interpretation and model-based reasoning. A 2-year research project within this course allowed us to understand how students interpret authentic biological data in this setting. Through analysis of written work, we measured the extent…

  5. The Use of Video Modeling with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Increase Independent Communicative Initiations in Preschoolers with Autism and Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihak, David F.; Smith, Catherine C.; Cornett, Ashlee; Coleman, Mari Beth

    2012-01-01

    The use of video modeling (VM) procedures in conjunction with the picture exchange communication system (PECS) to increase independent communicative initiations in preschool-age students was evaluated in this study. The four participants were 3-year-old children with limited communication skills prior to the intervention. Two of the students had…

  6. Structuralist macroeconomics and the new developmentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper first presents some basic ideas and models of a structuralist development macroeconomics that complements and actualizes the ideas of the structuralist development economics that was dominant between the 1940s and the 1960s. A system of three models focusing on the exchange rate (the tendency to the cyclical overvaluation of the exchange rate, a critique of growth with foreign savings, and new a model of the Dutch disease shows that it is not just volatile but chronically overvalued, and for that reason it is not just a macroeconomic problem; as a long term disequilibrium, it is in the core of development economics. Second, it summarizes "new developmentalism" - a sum of growth policies based on these models and on the experience of fast-growing Asian countries.

  7. Developmental orthopaedic diseases in foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şİrİn, Özlem; Alkan, Zeki

    2010-01-01

    Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases (DOD) is seen frequently in horses which completed their maturity. Osteochondrosis, physitis, angular limb deformities, flexural deformities, juvenil arthritis, cervical vertebral anomalies, cuboidal bone abnormalities are problems investigated under Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases title. This diseases can develop single or some together in fast growing, heavy animals (especially Arabian and English Thoroughbreds). Multifactorial causes of this diseases etiopathogenesis can be listed as genetic predisposition, trauma, nutrition, vitamins/minerals and endocrine disorders. But the exact causes of these diseases are not known. In this review detailed information are given about the diseases mentioned above

  8. Developmental studies of avian brain organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Luis

    2018-01-01

    Avian brain organization or brain Bauplan is identical with that of vertebrates in general. This essay visits avian studies that contained advances or discussions about brain organization, trying to explain critically what they contributed. In order to start from a specific background, the new prevailing paradigm as regards brain organization, the prosomeric model, is presented first. Next a brief historic survey is made of how ideas on this topic evolved from the start of modern neuromorphology at the end of the 19th century. Longitudinal zonal organization with or without transverse segmentation (neuromeres) was the first overall concept applied to the brain. The idea of neuromeric structure later decayed in favour of a columnar model. This emphasized functional correlations rather than causal developmental content, assimilating forebrain functions to hindbrain ones. Though it became prevalent in the post-world-war period of neuroscience, in the last decades of the 20th century advances in molecular biology allowed developmental genes to be mapped, and it became evident that gene expression patterns support the old neuromeric model rather than the columnar one. This was also corroborated by modern experimental approaches (fate-mapping and analysis of patterning).

  9. Computer Simulation of Embryonic Systems: What can a virtual embryo teach us about developmental toxicity? Microcephaly: Computational and organotypic modeling of a complex human birth defect (seminar and lecture - Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    (1) Standard practice for assessing developmental toxicity is the observation of apical endpoints (intrauterine death, fetal growth retardation, structural malformations) in pregnant rats/rabbits following exposure during organogenesis. EPA’s computational toxicology research pro...

  10. Where Do Epigenetics and Developmental Origins Take the Field of Developmental Psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T

    2016-04-01

    The time is ripe for upgrading or rethinking the assumed paradigms for how we study developmental psychopathology. The classic transactional models appear robust but need specification in terms of biological and psychosocial processes. That specification is increasingly tractable due to developments in genetics, epigenetics, the measurement of psychosocial processes, and theory and data on developmental origins of health and disease. This essay offers a high-level view of where the field has been and where it may be going in regard to nosology and conceptions of etiology. Remarks seek to consider rapidly evolving contexts not only for children, but also for the science itself due to progress in our field and in neighboring fields. Illustrations are provided as to how syndromal nosology can be enriched and advanced by careful integration with biologically relevant behavioral dimensions and application of quantitative methods. It is concluded that a revised, forward-looking, transactional model of abnormal child psychology will incorporate prenatal and postnatal developmental programming, epigenetic mechanisms and their associated genotype x environment interactions, and inflammatory processes as a potential common mediator influencing numerous health and mental health conditions.

  11. Developmental Changes in Learning: Computational Mechanisms and Social Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bolenz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to learn from the outcomes of our actions and to adapt our decisions accordingly changes over the course of the human lifespan. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using computational models to understand developmental changes in learning and decision-making. Moreover, extensions of these models are currently applied to study socio-emotional influences on learning in different age groups, a topic that is of great relevance for applications in education and health psychology. In this article, we aim to provide an introduction to basic ideas underlying computational models of reinforcement learning and focus on parameters and model variants that might be of interest to developmental scientists. We then highlight recent attempts to use reinforcement learning models to study the influence of social information on learning across development. The aim of this review is to illustrate how computational models can be applied in developmental science, what they can add to our understanding of developmental mechanisms and how they can be used to bridge the gap between psychological and neurobiological theories of development.

  12. Genome-wide ENU mutagenesis in combination with high density SNP analysis and exome sequencing provides rapid identification of novel mouse models of developmental disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Caruana

    Full Text Available Mice harbouring gene mutations that cause phenotypic abnormalities during organogenesis are invaluable tools for linking gene function to normal development and human disorders. To generate mouse models harbouring novel alleles that are involved in organogenesis we conducted a phenotype-driven, genome-wide mutagenesis screen in mice using the mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU.ENU was injected into male C57BL/6 mice and the mutations transmitted through the germ-line. ENU-induced mutations were bred to homozygosity and G3 embryos screened at embryonic day (E 13.5 and E18.5 for abnormalities in limb and craniofacial structures, skin, blood, vasculature, lungs, gut, kidneys, ureters and gonads. From 52 pedigrees screened 15 were detected with anomalies in one or more of the structures/organs screened. Using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based linkage analysis in conjunction with candidate gene or next-generation sequencing (NGS we identified novel recessive alleles for Fras1, Ift140 and Lig1.In this study we have generated mouse models in which the anomalies closely mimic those seen in human disorders. The association between novel mutant alleles and phenotypes will lead to a better understanding of gene function in normal development and establish how their dysfunction causes human anomalies and disease.

  13. The diversification of developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Nathan; Dietrich, Michael R; Alomepe, Beverly S; Antrim, Amelia F; ByrneSim, Bay Lauris; He, Yi

    2015-10-01

    In the 1960s, "developmental biology" became the dominant term to describe some of the research that had previously been included under the rubrics of embryology, growth, morphology, and physiology. As scientific societies formed under this new label, a new discipline took shape. Historians, however, have a number of different perspectives on what changes led to this new field of developmental biology and how the field itself was constituted during this period. Using the General Embryological Information Service, a global index of post-World War II development-related research, we have documented and visualized significant changes in the kinds of research that occurred as this new field formed. In particular, our analysis supports the claim that the transition toward developmental biology was marked by a growth in new topics and forms of research. Although many historians privilege the role of molecular biology and/or the molecularization of biology in general during this formative period, we have found that the influence of molecular biology is not sufficient to account for the wide range of new research that constituted developmental biology at the time. Overall, our work creates a robust characterization of the changes that occurred with regard to research on growth and development in the decades following World War II and provides a context for future work on the specific drivers of those changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transforming Developmental Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Developmental Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with support from the Texas Legislature, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board has funded various developmental education initiatives, including research and evaluation efforts, to help Texas public institutions of higher education provide more effective programs and services to underprepared students. Based on evaluation…

  15. Developmental principles: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, A J

    2012-01-01

    While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, "whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm". We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  16. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Durston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  17. Developmental dyscalculia: a dysconnection syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; Ashkenazi, Simone Schwizer; Hänggi, Jürgen; Rotzer, Stephanie; Jäncke, Lutz; Martin, Ernst; von Aster, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Numerical understanding is important for everyday life. For children with developmental dyscalculia (DD), numbers and magnitudes present profound problems which are thought to be based upon neuronal impairments of key regions for numerical understanding. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in white matter fibre integrity between children with DD and controls using diffusion tensor imaging. White matter integrity and behavioural measures were evaluated in 15 children with developmental dyscalculia aged around 10 years and 15 matched controls. The main finding, obtained by a whole brain group comparison, revealed reduced fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in children with developmental dyscalculia. In addition, a region of interest analysis exhibited prominent deficits in fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus adjacent to the intraparietal sulcus, which is thought to be the core region for number processing. To conclude, our results outline deficient fibre projection between parietal, temporal and frontal regions in children with developmental dyscalculia, and therefore raise the question of whether dyscalculia can be seen as a dysconnection syndrome. Since the superior longitudinal fasciculus is involved in the integration and control of distributed brain processes, the present results highlight the importance of considering broader domain-general mechanisms in the diagnosis and therapy of dyscalculia.

  18. Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, R. S.; Manor, O.; Gross-Tsur, V.

    1997-01-01

    Classification of arithmetic disorders is predicated on neuropsychological features and associated learning disabilities. Assesses the compatibility of these classifications on a nonreferred, population-based cohort of children (N=139) with developmental dyscalculia. Concludes that children with dyscalculia and disabilities in reading and/or…

  19. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends.

  20. Developmental control of cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxem, M. (Mike)

    2002-01-01

    During development of multicellular organisms, cell divisions need to be coordinated with the developmental program of the entire organism. Although the mechanisms that drive cells through the division cycle are well understood, very little is known about the pathways that link extracellular signals

  1. Student Development and Developmental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champaigne, John

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the nine-stage Perry Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development, detailing three major student orientations--dualism, multiplicity, and commitments in relativism. Suggests techniques developmental educators can use to communicate with, support, and challenge students to promote intellectual development. Underscores the importance of…

  2. Applying Evolutionary Genetics to Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Maxwell C. K.; Procter, Andrew C.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Foox, Jonathan; DeSalle, Robert; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Siddall, Mark E.; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R.

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary thinking continues to challenge our views on health and disease. Yet, there is a communication gap between evolutionary biologists and toxicologists in recognizing the connections among developmental pathways, high-throughput screening, and birth defects in humans. To increase our capability in identifying potential developmental toxicants in humans, we propose to apply evolutionary genetics to improve the experimental design and data interpretation with various in vitro and whole-organism models. We review five molecular systems of stress response and update 18 consensual cell-cell signaling pathways that are the hallmark for early development, organogenesis, and differentiation; and revisit the principles of teratology in light of recent advances in high-throughput screening, big data techniques, and systems toxicology. Multiscale systems modeling plays an integral role in the evolutionary approach to cross-species extrapolation. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative bioinformatics are both valuable tools in identifying and validating the molecular initiating events that account for adverse developmental outcomes in humans. The discordance of susceptibility between test species and humans (ontogeny) reflects their differences in evolutionary history (phylogeny). This synthesis not only can lead to novel applications in developmental toxicity and risk assessment, but also can pave the way for applying an evo-devo perspective to the study of developmental origins of health and disease. PMID:28267574

  3. What Is a Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrician?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social worker. Developmental-behavioral pediatricians work closely with parents, families, and schools. Developmental-behavioral pediatricians understand that children’s development and behavior happen first and foremost in the ...

  4. 29 CFR 1902.33 - Developmental period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consideration of developmental changes by OSHA. Generally, whenever a State completes a developmental step, it must submit the resulting plan change as a supplement to its plan to OSHA for approval. OSHA's approval...

  5. A Mouse Model That Reproduces the Developmental Pathways and Site Specificity of the Cancers Associated With the Human BRCA1 Mutation Carrier State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Predisposition to breast and extrauterine Müllerian carcinomas in BRCA1 mutation carriers is due to a combination of cell-autonomous consequences of BRCA1 inactivation on cell cycle homeostasis superimposed on cell-nonautonomous hormonal factors magnified by the effects of BRCA1 mutations on hormonal changes associated with the menstrual cycle. We used the Müllerian inhibiting substance type 2 receptor (Mis2r promoter and a truncated form of the Follicle stimulating hormone receptor (Fshr promoter to introduce conditional knockouts of Brca1 and p53 not only in mouse mammary and Müllerian epithelia, but also in organs that control the estrous cycle. Sixty percent of the double mutant mice developed invasive Müllerian and mammary carcinomas. Mice carrying heterozygous mutations in Brca1 and p53 also developed invasive tumors, albeit at a lesser (30% rate, in which the wild type alleles were no longer present due to loss of heterozygosity. While mice carrying heterozygous mutations in both genes developed mammary tumors, none of the mice carrying only a heterozygous p53 mutation developed such tumors (P < 0.0001, attesting to a role for Brca1 mutations in tumor development. This mouse model is attractive to investigate cell-nonautonomous mechanisms associated with cancer predisposition in BRCA1 mutation carriers and to investigate the merit of chemo-preventive drugs targeting such mechanisms.

  6. Feasibility and potential efficacy of the family-centered Prevent-Teach-Reinforce model with families of children with developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kathleen M; Blair, Kwang-Sun Cho

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility and potential efficacy of the family-centered Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model with three families of young children with an autism spectrum disorder or language delay with sensory processing problems. Particularly, the study assessed the family adherence to the PTR intervention, changes in child behavior, family use of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), procedural integrity, and social validity. A multiple-baseline design across families was used to examine the functional relation between parent-implemented PTR intervention and changes in child behavior. Results indicated that the family-centered PTR process was successful in promoting parents to design and implement the PTR intervention plans with fidelity, and the parents' implemented intervention plans were effective in increasing replacement behavior and decreasing problem behavior across children. The results also indicated that the parents successfully used the IBRST to monitor their child's progress and were highly satisfied with the PTR intervention process and outcomes for their children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A neurocognitive perspective on developmental disregard in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwink, A.; Aarts, P.B.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Steenbergen, B.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) is the asymmetrical development of arm and hand capacity caused by the lack of use of the affected upper limb, or developmental disregard. In this paper, we provide a neuropsychological model that relates developmental disregard to

  8. Family Decision Making: Benefits to Persons with Developmental Disabilities and Their Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely-Barnes, Susan; Graff, J. Carolyn; Marcenko, Maureen; Weber, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Family involvement in planning and choosing services has become a key intervention concept in developmental disability services. This study (N = 547) modeled patterns of family decision making and assessed benefits to persons with developmental disabilities (DDs) and their family members. A latent profile analysis identified 4 classes that were…

  9. A Neurocognitive Perspective on Developmental Disregard in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwink, Annemieke; Aarts, Pauline B. M.; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Steenbergen, Bert

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) is the asymmetrical development of arm and hand capacity caused by the lack of use of the affected upper limb, or developmental disregard. In this paper, we provide a neuropsychological model that relates developmental disregard to attentional processes and motor learning. From this…

  10. Developmental Advising for Marginalized Community College Students: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terrica S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to understand, evaluate, and improve the developmental advising practices used at a Washington State community college. This action research study endeavored to strengthen the developmental advising model originally designed to support the college's marginalized students. Guiding questions for the…

  11. A categorical structure-activity relationship analysis of the developmental toxicity of antithyroid drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Albert R; Carrasquer, C Alex; Mattison, Donald R

    2009-01-01

    The choice of therapeutic strategies for hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is limited. Surgery and radioiodine are typically avoided, leaving propylthiouracil and methimazole in the US. Carbimazole, a metabolic precursor of methimazole, is available in some countries outside of the US. In the US propylthiouracil is recommended because of concern about developmental toxicity from methimazole and carbimazole. Despite this recommendation, the data on developmental toxicity of all three agents are extremely limited and insufficient to support a policy given the broad use of methimazole and carbimazole around the world. In the absence of new human or animal data we describe the development of a new structure-activity relationship (SAR) model for developmental toxicity using the cat-SAR expert system. The SAR model was developed from data for 323 compounds evaluated for human developmental toxicity with 130 categorized as developmental toxicants and 193 as nontoxicants. Model cross-validation yielded a concordance between observed and predicted results between 79% to 81%. Based on this model, propylthiouracil, methimazole, and carbimazole were observed to share some structural features relating to human developmental toxicity. Thus given the need to treat women with Graves's disease during pregnancy, new molecules with minimized risk for developmental toxicity are needed. To help meet this challenge, the cat-SAR method would be a useful in screening new drug candidates for developmental toxicity as well as for investigating their mechanism of action.

  12. A Categorical Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of the Developmental Toxicity of Antithyroid Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham AlbertR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The choice of therapeutic strategies for hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is limited. Surgery and radioiodine are typically avoided, leaving propylthiouracil and methimazole in the US. Carbimazole, a metabolic precursor of methimazole, is available in some countries outside of the US. In the US propylthiouracil is recommended because of concern about developmental toxicity from methimazole and carbimazole. Despite this recommendation, the data on developmental toxicity of all three agents are extremely limited and insufficient to support a policy given the broad use of methimazole and carbimazole around the world. In the absence of new human or animal data we describe the development of a new structure-activity relationship (SAR model for developmental toxicity using the cat-SAR expert system. The SAR model was developed from data for 323 compounds evaluated for human developmental toxicity with 130 categorized as developmental toxicants and 193 as nontoxicants. Model cross-validation yielded a concordance between observed and predicted results between 79% to 81%. Based on this model, propylthiouracil, methimazole, and carbimazole were observed to share some structural features relating to human developmental toxicity. Thus given the need to treat women with Graves's disease during pregnancy, new molecules with minimized risk for developmental toxicity are needed. To help meet this challenge, the cat-SAR method would be a useful in screening new drug candidates for developmental toxicity as well as for investigating their mechanism of action.

  13. Dynamic changes in energy metabolism upon embryonic stem cell differentiation support developmental toxicant identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dartel, van D.A.M.; Schulpen, S.H.; Theunissen, P.T.; Bunschoten, A.; Piersma, A.H.; Keijer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are widely used to study embryonic development and to identify developmental toxicants. Particularly, the embryonic stem cell test (EST) is well known as in vitro model to identify developmental toxicants. Although it is clear that energy metabolism plays a crucial role in

  14. A Categorical Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of the Developmental Toxicity of Antithyroid Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert R. Cunningham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of therapeutic strategies for hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is limited. Surgery and radioiodine are typically avoided, leaving propylthiouracil and methimazole in the US. Carbimazole, a metabolic precursor of methimazole, is available in some countries outside of the US. In the US propylthiouracil is recommended because of concern about developmental toxicity from methimazole and carbimazole. Despite this recommendation, the data on developmental toxicity of all three agents are extremely limited and insufficient to support a policy given the broad use of methimazole and carbimazole around the world. In the absence of new human or animal data we describe the development of a new structure-activity relationship (SAR model for developmental toxicity using the cat-SAR expert system. The SAR model was developed from data for 323 compounds evaluated for human developmental toxicity with 130 categorized as developmental toxicants and 193 as nontoxicants. Model cross-validation yielded a concordance between observed and predicted results between 79% to 81%. Based on this model, propylthiouracil, methimazole, and carbimazole were observed to share some structural features relating to human developmental toxicity. Thus given the need to treat women with Graves's disease during pregnancy, new molecules with minimized risk for developmental toxicity are needed. To help meet this challenge, the cat-SAR method would be a useful in screening new drug candidates for developmental toxicity as well as for investigating their mechanism of action.

  15. Developmental Programming of Adult Disease: Reprogramming by Melatonin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adult-onset chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs can originate from early life through so-called the “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD or “developmental programming”. The DOHaD concept offers the “reprogramming” strategy to shift the treatment from adulthood to early life, before clinical disease is apparent. Melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine produced by the pineal gland, has pleiotropic bioactivities those are beneficial in a variety of human diseases. Emerging evidence support that melatonin is closely inter-related to other proposed mechanisms contributing to the developmental programming of a variety of chronic NCDs. Recent animal studies have begun to unravel the multifunctional roles of melatonin in many experimental models of developmental programming. Even though some progress has been made in research on melatonin as a reprogramming strategy to prevent DOHaD-related NCDs, future human studies should aim at filling the translational gap between animal models and clinical trials. Here, we review several key themes on the reprogramming effects of melatonin in DOHaD research. We have particularly focused on the following areas: mechanisms of developmental programming; the interrelationship between melatonin and mechanisms underlying developmental programming; pathophysiological roles of melatonin in pregnancy and fetal development; and insight provided by animal models to support melatonin as a reprogramming therapy. Rates of NCDs are increasing faster than anticipated all over the world. Hence, there is an urgent need to understand reprogramming mechanisms of melatonin and to translate experimental research into clinical practice for halting a growing list of DOHaD-related NCDs.

  16. Developmental Programming of Adult Disease: Reprogramming by Melatonin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-02-16

    Adult-onset chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) can originate from early life through so-called the "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD) or "developmental programming". The DOHaD concept offers the "reprogramming" strategy to shift the treatment from adulthood to early life, before clinical disease is apparent. Melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine produced by the pineal gland, has pleiotropic bioactivities those are beneficial in a variety of human diseases. Emerging evidence support that melatonin is closely inter-related to other proposed mechanisms contributing to the developmental programming of a variety of chronic NCDs. Recent animal studies have begun to unravel the multifunctional roles of melatonin in many experimental models of developmental programming. Even though some progress has been made in research on melatonin as a reprogramming strategy to prevent DOHaD-related NCDs, future human studies should aim at filling the translational gap between animal models and clinical trials. Here, we review several key themes on the reprogramming effects of melatonin in DOHaD research. We have particularly focused on the following areas: mechanisms of developmental programming; the interrelationship between melatonin and mechanisms underlying developmental programming; pathophysiological roles of melatonin in pregnancy and fetal development; and insight provided by animal models to support melatonin as a reprogramming therapy. Rates of NCDs are increasing faster than anticipated all over the world. Hence, there is an urgent need to understand reprogramming mechanisms of melatonin and to translate experimental research into clinical practice for halting a growing list of DOHaD-related NCDs.

  17. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Diana

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F 1 generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F 1 male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from heritable

  18. Computer-based multisensory learning in children with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Monika; Meyer, Martin; Vögeli, Christian; Gross, Markus; Jäncke, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    Several attempts have been made to remediate developmental dyslexia using various training environments. Based on the well-known retrieval structure model, the memory strength of phonemes and graphemes should be strengthened by visual and auditory associations between graphemes and phonemes. Using specifically designed training software, we examined whether establishing a multitude of visuo-auditory associations might help to mitigate writing errors in children with developmental dyslexia. Forty-three children with developmental dyslexia and 37 carefully matched normal reading children performed a computer-based writing training (15-20 minutes 4 days a week) for three months with the aim to recode a sequential textual input string into a multi-sensory representation comprising visual and auditory codes (including musical tones). The study included four matched groups: a group of children with developmental dyslexia (n=20) and a control group (n=18) practiced with the training software in the first period (3 months, 15-20 minutes 4 days a week), while a second group of children with developmental dyslexia (n=23) (waiting group) and a second control group (n=19) received no training during the first period. In the second period the children with developmental dyslexia and controls who did not receive training during the first period now took part in the training. Children with developmental dyslexia who did not perform computer-based training during the first period hardly improved their writing skills (post-pre improvement of 0-9%), the dyslexic children receiving training strongly improved their writing skills (post-pre improvement of 19-35%). The group who did the training during the second period also revealed improvement of writing skills (post-pre improvement of 27-35%). Interestingly, we noticed a strong transfer from trained to non-trained words in that the children who underwent the training were also better able to write words correctly that were not part

  19. Computer Simulation of Developmental Processes and Toxicities (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Recent progress in systems toxicology and synthetic biology have paved the way to new thinking about in vitro/in silico modeling of developmental processes and toxicities, both for embryological and reproductive impacts. Novel in vitro platforms such as 3D organotypic ...

  20. Technologies for Self-Determination for Youth with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouge, James R.; Kelly, Mary L.; Roberts, Kelly D.; Leake, David W.; Stodden, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on "technologies for voice" that are related to the self-determination of youth with developmental disabilities. The authors describe a self-determination model that values family-focused, community-referenced pedagogies employing "new media" to give voice to youth and their families. In line with the adage that a picture is…

  1. The Path to Competence: A Lifespan Developmental Perspective on Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a developmental model of reading that encompasses changes across the lifespan. The need for such a lifespan orientation toward reading within our educational institutions is great. Until we adopt this lifelong perspective, we continue to run the risk of turning out undeveloped, unmotivated, and uncritical…

  2. Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Communication throughout Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…

  3. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Developmental Biology 16 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The objectives of this Refresher Course are to update the participants about the advances in the field of Developmental Biology; various small animal models used and give hands-on training on some modern biotechnological practices. A variety of teaching methods like lectures, discussion and laboratory work shall ...

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Girls' and Boys' Delinquency and Associated Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepler, Debra J.; Jiang, Depeng; Craig, Wendy M.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories in delinquency through adolescence were studied along with family and peer relationship problems. Drawing from eight waves of data over seven years, we conducted trajectory analyses with a sample of 746 students (402 girls; 344 boys). Analyzing girls and boys together, a five-class model emerged: 60% of the adolescents…

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  6. Developmental Pathways Are Blueprints for Designing Successful Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Trevaskis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes controlling plant development have been studied in multiple plant systems. This has provided deep insights into conserved genetic pathways controlling core developmental processes including meristem identity, phase transitions, determinacy, stem elongation, and branching. These pathways control plant growth patterns and are fundamentally important to crop biology and agriculture. This review describes the conserved pathways that control plant development, using Arabidopsis as a model. Historical examples of how plant development has been altered through selection to improve crop performance are then presented. These examples, drawn from diverse crops, show how the genetic pathways controlling development have been modified to increase yield or tailor growth patterns to suit local growing environments or specialized crop management practices. Strategies to apply current progress in genomics and developmental biology to future crop improvement are then discussed within the broader context of emerging trends in plant breeding. The ways that knowledge of developmental processes and understanding of gene function can contribute to crop improvement, beyond what can be achieved by selection alone, are emphasized. These include using genome re-sequencing, mutagenesis, and gene editing to identify or generate novel variation in developmental genes. The expanding scope for comparative genomics, the possibility to engineer new developmental traits and new approaches to resolve gene–gene or gene–environment interactions are also discussed. Finally, opportunities to integrate fundamental research and crop breeding are highlighted.

  7. Developmental changes and gender effects on motivational constructs based on the expectancy-value model in Czech and United States students regarding learning of science, mathematics, and other subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Mi

    This study employed American and Czech student samples to investigate the motivational constructs used in Eccles and Wigfield's (1983) expectancy-value model. To predict achievement behavior, the model specifies relationships among expectancy for-success and task value, task-specific self-concept, perception of task-difficulty, perceptions of social environment, and interpretations and attributions for past events in relation to the social world. Czech and American students (n = 1,145) in grades 4--12 were the participants in this study. The causal relationships among the constructs were tested to investigate structural similarities and differences in the models for both countries. This study also explored developmental changes, gender, and national differences in the students' motivational beliefs for these motivational constructs: Expectancy for Success, Intrinsic Interest Value, Task-specific Self-concept, Perception of Task-difficulty, and Perceived Vocational Gender Dominance for science, mathematics, and other school subjects. The findings indicated that, for both countries, with respect to changes over grade level, compared to the younger students, the older students showed lower motivational beliefs for most subject areas except reading. However, the Czech students in grades 6--8 showed more positive motivational beliefs in life science and social studies than did the Czech students in other grade levels. In comparing genders, the male students exhibited more positive motivational beliefs in physical science than did the female students, and female students showed more positive motivational beliefs in reading than did the male students. For life science, the Czech female students rated Intrinsic Interest Value and Task-specific Self-concept higher than did their peer male students. The American students' motivational beliefs in reading were more positive than were Czech students', and the Czech students held more positive motivational beliefs in life

  8. Developmental insights into mature cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Frank C

    2015-02-01

    Three cases are described that illustrate new ways in which developmental research is informing the study of cognition in adults: statistical learning, neural substrates of cognition, and extended concepts. Developmental research has made clear the ubiquity of statistical learning while also revealing is limitations as a stand-alone way to acquire knowledge. With respect to neural substrates, development has uncovered links between executive processing and fronto-striatal circuits while also pointing to many aspects of high-level cognition that may not be neatly reducible to coherent neural descriptions. For extended concepts, children have made especially clear the weaknesses of intuitive theories in both children and adults while also illustrating other cognitive capacities that are used at all ages to navigate the socially distributed aspects of knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Developmental language and speech disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiel, G; Brunner, E; Allmayer, B; Pletz, A

    2001-09-01

    Speech disabilities (articulation deficits) and language disorders--expressive (vocabulary) receptive (language comprehension) are not uncommon in children. An overview of these along with a global description of the impairment of communication as well as clinical characteristics of language developmental disorders are presented in this article. The diagnostic tables, which are applied in the European and Anglo-American speech areas, ICD-10 and DSM-IV, have been explained and compared. Because of their strengths and weaknesses an alternative classification of language and speech developmental disorders is proposed, which allows a differentiation between expressive and receptive language capabilities with regard to the semantic and the morphological/syntax domains. Prevalence and comorbidity rates, psychosocial influences, biological factors and the biological social interaction have been discussed. The necessity of the use of standardized examinations is emphasised. General logopaedic treatment paradigms, specific therapy concepts and an overview of prognosis have been described.

  10. Ecdysone Control of Developmental Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone is the central regulator of insect developmental transitions. Recent new advances in our understanding of ecdysone action have relied heavily on the application of Drosophila melanogaster molecular genetic tools to study insect metamorphosis. In this review, we focus...... on three major aspects of Drosophila ecdysone biology: (a) factors that regulate the timing of ecdysone release, (b) molecular basis of stage- and tissue-specific responses to ecdysone, and (c) feedback regulation and coordination of ecdysone signaling....

  11. Gestational Hyperandrogenism in Developmental Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Christopher; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Androgen excess (hyperandrogenism) is a common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The potential causes of androgen excess in women include polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), adrenal tumors, and racial disparity among many others. During pregnancy, luteoma, placental aromatase deficiency, and fetal CAH are additional causes of gestational hyperandrogenism. The present report reviews the various phenotypes of hyperandrogenism during pregnancy and its origin, pathophysiology, and the effect of hyperandrogenism on the fetal developmental trajectory and offspring consequences. PMID:27967205

  12. Role of developmental factors in hypothalamic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob eBiran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a brain region which regulates homeostasis by mediating endocrine, autonomic and behavioral functions. It is comprised of several nuclei containing distinct neuronal populations producing neuropeptides and neurotransmitters that regulate fundamental body functions including temperature and metabolic rate, thirst and hunger, sexual behavior and reproduction, circadian rhythm, and emotional responses. The identity, number and connectivity of these neuronal populations are established during the organism’s development and are of crucial importance for normal hypothalamic function. Studies have suggested that developmental abnormalities in specific hypothalamic circuits can lead to obesity, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression and autism. At the molecular level, the development of the hypothalamus is regulated by transcription factors, secreted growth factors, neuropeptides and their receptors. Recent studies in zebrafish and mouse have demonstrated that some of these molecules maintain their expression in the adult brain and subsequently play a role in the physiological functions that are regulated by hypothalamic neurons. Here, we summarize the involvement of some of the key developmental factors in hypothalamic development and function by focusing on the mouse and zebrafish genetic model organisms.

  13. Is schizophrenia developmental adaptation to environmental menaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yukiori; Lee, Young-A

    2011-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, with its symptoms typically emerging during late adolescence to young adulthood. In contrast, accumulating evidence suggests that schizophrenia is a developmental disorder in which brain abnormalities may occur even before birth. This has brought the major challenge to explain such discrepancy of brain deficits occurring during prenatal period and emergence of symptoms during adulthood. A number of ideas have been proposed to explain delayed emergence of symptoms at adulthood in relation to maturational processes of various brain systems during adolescence. However, these still lack clear relationship to prenatal deficits. Thus, a key to better understand the pathology of schizophrenia is to unveil a theory or model that can explain the relationship between prenatal deficits and post-pubertal onset of symptoms. Here we propose a novel hypothesis, along with discussion of several lines of evidences supporting it, that schizophrenia may not be a disorder in a strict sense, but rather be understood as the biological state occurring as consequence of adaptation to severe environmental conditions during the prenatal periods, which explains the relationship between prenatal developmental deficits and the postnatal maturational process for onset of symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas

    2010-12-06

    Genome-wide transcriptional changes in development provide important insight into mechanisms underlying growth, differentiation, and patterning. However, such large-scale developmental studies have been limited to a few representatives of Ecdysozoans and Chordates. Here, we characterize transcriptomes of embryonic, larval, and metamorphic development in the marine mollusc Aplysia californica and reveal novel molecular components associated with life history transitions. Specifically, we identify more than 20 signal peptides, putative hormones, and transcription factors in association with early development and metamorphic stages-many of which seem to be evolutionarily conserved elements of signal transduction pathways. We also characterize genes related to biomineralization-a critical process of molluscan development. In summary, our experiment provides the first large-scale survey of gene expression in mollusc development, and complements previous studies on the regulatory mechanisms underlying body plan patterning and the formation of larval and juvenile structures. This study serves as a resource for further functional annotation of transcripts and genes in Aplysia, specifically and molluscs in general. A comparison of the Aplysia developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms that are likely a consequence of the different developmental modes of these organisms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  15. Advanced Team Decision Making: A Developmental Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-03

    role - right wing, center, goalie - but as they set up plays and bring the STRONG puck down the ice, those individuals begin to function TEAM... pulled the team member’s attention away from assigned work - Unwise use of a member’s expertise in designating roles or functions In these cases, advanced

  16. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals

  17. Developmental toxicity of prenatal exposure to toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Scott E; Hannigan, John H

    2006-01-01

    Organic solvents have become ubiquitous in our environment and are essential for industry. Many women of reproductive age are increasingly exposed to solvents such as toluene in occupational settings (ie, long-term, low-concentration exposures) or through inhalant abuse (eg, episodic, binge exposures to high concentrations). The risk for teratogenic outcome is much less with low to moderate occupational solvent exposure compared with the greater potential for adverse pregnancy outcomes, developmental delays, and neurobehavioral problems in children born to women exposed to high concentrations of abused organic solvents such as toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, xylenes, and nitrous oxide. Yet the teratogenic effects of abuse patterns of exposure to toluene and other inhalants remain understudied. We briefly review how animal models can aid substantially in clarifying the developmental risk of exposure to solvents for adverse biobehavioral outcomes following abuse patterns of use and in the absence of associated health problems and co-drug abuse (eg, alcohol). Our studies also begin to establish the importance of dose (concentration) and critical perinatal periods of exposure to specific outcomes. The present results with our clinically relevant animal model of repeated, brief, high-concentration binge prenatal toluene exposure demonstrate the dose-dependent effect of toluene on prenatal development, early postnatal maturation, spontaneous exploration, and amphetamine-induced locomotor activity. The results imply that abuse patterns of toluene exposure may be more deleterious than typical occupational exposure on fetal development and suggest that animal models are effective in studying the mechanisms and risk factors of organic solvent teratogenicity.

  18. A Developmental Neuroscience Perspective on Affect-Biased Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Santiago; Fu, Xiaoxue; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly E.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest regarding the impact of affect-biased attention on psychopathology. However, most of the research to date lacks a developmental approach. In the present review, we examine the role affect-biased attention plays in shaping socioemotional trajectories within a developmental neuroscience framework. We propose that affect-biased attention, particularly if stable and entrenched, acts as a developmental tether that helps sustain early socioemotional and behavioral profiles over time, placing some individuals on maladaptive developmental trajectories. Although most of the evidence is found in the anxiety literature, we suggest that these relations may operate across multiple domains of interest, including positive affect, externalizing behaviors, drug use, and eating behaviors. We also review the general mechanisms and neural correlates of affect-biased attention, as well as the current evidence for the co-development of attention and affect. Based on the reviewed literature, we propose a model that may help us better understand the nuances of affect-biased attention across development. The model may serve as a strong foundation for ongoing attempts to identify neurocognitive mechanisms and intervene with individuals at risk. Finally, we discuss open issues for future research that may help bridge existing gaps in the literature. PMID:27606972

  19. Developmental imaging: the avian embryo hatches to the challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesa, Paul M; McKinney, Mary C; McLennan, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    The avian embryo provides a multifaceted model to study developmental mechanisms because of its accessibility to microsurgery, fluorescence cell labeling, in vivo imaging, and molecular manipulation. Early two-dimensional planar growth of the avian embryo mimics human development and provides unique access to complex cell migration patterns using light microscopy. Later developmental events continue to permit access to both light and other imaging modalities, making the avian embryo an excellent model for developmental imaging. For example, significant insights into cell and tissue behaviors within the primitive streak, craniofacial region, and cardiovascular and peripheral nervous systems have come from avian embryo studies. In this review, we provide an update to recent advances in embryo and tissue slice culture and imaging, fluorescence cell labeling, and gene profiling. We focus on how technical advances in the chick and quail provide a clearer understanding of how embryonic cell dynamics are beautifully choreographed in space and time to sculpt cells into functioning structures. We summarize how these technical advances help us to better understand basic developmental mechanisms that may lead to clinical research into human birth defects and tissue repair. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Developmental Idealism: The Cultural Foundations of World Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland; Dorius, Shawn F.; Swindle, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends theory and research concerning cultural models of development beyond family and demographic matters to a broad range of additional factors, including government, education, human rights, daily social conventions, and religion. Developmental idealism is a cultural model—a set of beliefs and values—that identifies the appropriate goals of development and the ends for achieving these goals. It includes beliefs about positive cause and effect relationships among such factors as economic growth, educational achievement, health, and political governance, as well as strong values regarding many attributes, including economic growth, education, small families, gender equality, and democratic governance. This cultural model has spread from its origins among the elites of northwest Europe to elites and ordinary people throughout the world. Developmental idealism has become so entrenched in local, national, and global social institutions that it has now achieved a taken-for-granted status among many national elites, academics, development practitioners, and ordinary people around the world. We argue that developmental idealism culture has been a fundamental force behind many cultural clashes within and between societies, and continues to be an important cause of much global social change. We suggest that developmental idealism should be included as a causal factor in theories of human behavior and social change. PMID:26457325

  1. Music cognition: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalinski, Stephanie M; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2012-10-01

    Although music is universal, there is a great deal of cultural variability in music structures. Nevertheless, some aspects of music processing generalize across cultures, whereas others rely heavily on the listening environment. Here, we discuss the development of musical knowledge, focusing on four themes: (a) capabilities that are present early in development; (b) culture-general and culture-specific aspects of pitch and rhythm processing; (c) age-related changes in pitch perception; and (d) developmental changes in how listeners perceive emotion in music. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Mutual inactivation of Notch receptors and ligands facilitates developmental patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sprinzak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression perturbations. For lateral inhibition, we find that mutual inactivation speeds up patterning dynamics, relieves the need for cooperative regulatory interactions, and expands the range of parameter values that permit pattern formation, compared to canonical models. Furthermore, mutual inactivation enables a simple lateral inhibition circuit architecture which requires only a single downstream regulatory step. Both model systems show how mutual inactivation can facilitate robust fine-grained patterning processes that would be difficult to implement without it, by encoding a difference-promoting feedback within the signaling system itself. Together, these results provide a framework for analysis of more complex Notch-dependent developmental systems.

  3. Crisis on campus: Eating disorder intervention from a developmental-ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julia V; Gibson, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review a crisis intervention using the developmental-ecological protocol (Collins and Collins, 2005) with a college student presenting with symptomatology of an active eating disorder. Participants included University Wellness Center employees responding to the crisis. Methods include an informal review of the crisis intervention response and application of the ABCDE developmental-ecological crisis model. Results reported include insight into crisis intervention when university counseling and health center is not available as resources. ABCDE Developmental-ecological model recommendations for university faculty and staff are included.

  4. Mild Developmental Hypothyroidism and Trace Fear Conditioning: Role of Gender and Shock Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodent models of developmental thyroid hormone (TH) deficiency aptly reflect the deleterious effects of severe TH deficiencies on brain structure and function in humans. However, the impact of moderate TH insufficiencies on neurodevelopmental outcomes has proven more difficult to...

  5. Sexual dysfunction within an adult developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, P J; Meyer, J K; Schmidt, C W

    1986-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the adult who has adequately mastered the oedipal stage of psychosexual development and who presents with a sexual dysfunction. Drawing on the developmental sequence of Erik Erikson, the authors suggest that failure to address adequately an adult psychosocial crisis may result in sexual dysfunction. There may be both adult developmental deficits and regression to adolescent and adult stages previously negotiated. Both may be symptomatically represented by sexual dysfunction. The authors urge that the sexual and marital problems be evaluated within an adult developmental framework and that the therapy address the psychosocial issues which are appropriate to the developmental stage of the patient.

  6. Eco-Evo-Devo: developmental symbiosis and developmental plasticity as evolutionary agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F; Bosch, Thomas C G; Ledón-Rettig, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    The integration of research from developmental biology and ecology into evolutionary theory has given rise to a relatively new field, ecological evolutionary developmental biology (Eco-Evo-Devo). This field integrates and organizes concepts such as developmental symbiosis, developmental plasticity, genetic accommodation, extragenic inheritance and niche construction. This Review highlights the roles that developmental symbiosis and developmental plasticity have in evolution. Developmental symbiosis can generate particular organs, can produce selectable genetic variation for the entire animal, can provide mechanisms for reproductive isolation, and may have facilitated evolutionary transitions. Developmental plasticity is crucial for generating novel phenotypes, facilitating evolutionary transitions and altered ecosystem dynamics, and promoting adaptive variation through genetic accommodation and niche construction. In emphasizing such non-genomic mechanisms of selectable and heritable variation, Eco-Evo-Devo presents a new layer of evolutionary synthesis.

  7. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  8. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anderson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components.

  9. Predicting Developmental Disorder in Infants Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Early recognition of developmental disorders is an important goal, and equally important is avoiding misdiagnosing a disorder in a healthy child without pathology. The aim of the present study was to develop an artificial neural network using perinatal information to predict developmental disorder at infancy. A total of 1,232 mother–child dyads were recruited from 6,150 in the original data of Karaj, Alborz Province, Iran. Thousands of variables are examined in this data including basic characteristics, medical history, and variables related to infants. The validated Infant Neurological International Battery test was employed to assess the infant’s development. The concordance indexes showed that true prediction of developmental disorder in the artificial neural network model, compared to the logistic regression model, was 83.1% vs. 79.5% and the area under ROC curves, calculated from testing data, were 0.79 and 0.68, respectively. In addition, specificity and sensitivity of the ANN model vs. LR model was calculated 93.2% vs. 92.7% and 39.1% vs. 21.7%. An artificial neural network performed significantly better than a logistic regression model.

  10. Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C.; Aihie Sayer, A.; Eendebak, R. J.; Clough, G. F.; Beard, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We examine the mechanistic basis and wider implications of adopting a developmental perspective on human ageing. Previous models of ageing have concentrated on its genetic basis, or the detrimental effects of accumulated damage, but also have raised issues about whether ageing can be viewed as adaptive itself, or is a consequence of other adaptive processes, for example if maintenance and repair processes in the period up to reproduction are traded off against later decline in function. A life course model places ageing in the context of the attainment of peak capacity for a body system, starting in early development when plasticity permits changes in structure and function induced by a range of environmental stimuli, followed by a period of decline, the rate of which depends on the peak attained as well as the later life conditions. Such path dependency in the rate of ageing may offer new insights into its modification. Focusing on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function, we discuss this model and the possible underlying mechanisms, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, stem cells and nutritional factors such as vitamin D status. Epigenetic changes induced during developmental plasticity, and immune function may provide a common mechanistic process underlying a life course model of ageing. The life course trajectory differs in high and low resource settings. New insights into the developmental components of the life course model of ageing may lead to the design of biomarkers of later chronic disease risk and to new interventions to promote healthy ageing, with important implications for public health. PMID:26518329

  11. Developmental neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMicco, Amy; Cooper, Keith R; Richardson, Jason R; White, Lori A

    2010-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are one of the most commonly used residential and agricultural insecticides. Based on the increased use of pyrethroids and recent studies showing that pregnant women and children are exposed to pyrethroids, there are concerns over the potential for developmental neurotoxicity. However, there have been relatively few studies on the developmental neurotoxicity of pyrethroids. In this study, we sought to investigate the developmental toxicity of six common pyrethroids, three type I compounds (permethrin, resmethrin, and bifenthrin) and three type II compounds (deltamethrin, cypermethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin), and to determine whether zebrafish embryos may be an appropriate model for studying the developmental neurotoxicity of pyrethroids. Exposure of zebrafish embryos to pyrethroids caused a dose-dependent increase in mortality and pericardial edema, with type II compounds being the most potent. At doses approaching the LC(50), permethrin and deltamethrin caused craniofacial abnormalities. These findings are consistent with mammalian studies demonstrating that pyrethroids are mildly teratogenic at very high doses. However, at lower doses, body axis curvature and spasms were observed, which were reminiscent of the classic syndromes observed with pyrethroid toxicity. Treatment with diazepam ameliorated the spasms, while treatment with the sodium channel antagonist MS-222 ameliorated both spasms and body curvature, suggesting that pyrethroid-induced neurotoxicity is similar in zebrafish and mammals. Taken in concert, these data suggest that zebrafish may be an appropriate alternative model to study the mechanism(s) responsible for the developmental neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides and aid in identification of compounds that should be further tested in mammalian systems.

  12. An Interpretation of Part of Gilbert Gottlieb's Legacy: Developmental Systems Theory Contra Developmental Behavior Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The main theme of this paper concerns the persistent critique of Gilbert Gottlieb on developmental behavior genetics and my reactions to this critique, the latter changing from rejection to complete acceptation. Concise characterizations of developmental behavior genetics, developmental systems theory (to which Gottlieb made essential…

  13. How Evolution May Work Through Curiosity-Driven Developmental Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Smith, Linda B

    2016-04-01

    Infants' own activities create and actively select their learning experiences. Here we review recent models of embodied information seeking and curiosity-driven learning and show that these mechanisms have deep implications for development and evolution. We discuss how these mechanisms yield self-organized epigenesis with emergent ordered behavioral and cognitive developmental stages. We describe a robotic experiment that explored the hypothesis that progress in learning, in and for itself, generates intrinsic rewards: The robot learners probabilistically selected experiences according to their potential for reducing uncertainty. In these experiments, curiosity-driven learning led the robot learner to successively discover object affordances and vocal interaction with its peers. We explain how a learning curriculum adapted to the current constraints of the learning system automatically formed, constraining learning and shaping the developmental trajectory. The observed trajectories in the robot experiment share many properties with those in infant development, including a mixture of regularities and diversities in the developmental patterns. Finally, we argue that such emergent developmental structures can guide and constrain evolution, in particular with regard to the origins of language. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, Makoto, E-mail: ema-makoto@aist.go.jp; Gamo, Masashi; Honda, Kazumasa

    2016-05-15

    We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in rodents. The developmental toxicity of ENMs included not only structural abnormalities, but also death, growth retardation, and behavioral and functional abnormalities. Most studies were performed on mice using an injection route of exposure. Teratogenic effects were indicated when multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and TiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles were administered to mice during early gestation. Reactive oxygen species levels were increased in placentas and malformed fetuses and their placentas after prenatal exposure to MWCNTs and SWCNTs, respectively. The pre- and postnatal mortalities and growth retardation in offspring increased after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Histopathological and functional abnormalities were also induced in placentas after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Maternal exposure to ENMs induced behavioral alterations, histopathological and biochemical changes in the central nervous system, increased susceptibility to allergy, transplacental genotoxicity, and vascular, immunological, and reproductive effects in offspring. The size- and developmental stage-dependent placental transfer of ENMs was noted after maternal exposure. Silver accumulated in the visceral yolk sac after being injected with Ag-NPs during early gestation. Although currently available data has provided initial information on the potential developmental toxicity of ENMs, that on the developmental toxicity of ENMs is still very limited. Further studies using well-characterized ENMs, state-of the-art study protocols, and appropriate routes of exposure are required in order to clarify these developmental effects and provide information suitable for risk assessments of ENMs. - Highlights: • We review the developmental toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). • Various developmental endpoints have been

  15. Ontogeny and social dominance: a developmental view of human power patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Patricia H

    2014-04-29

    Developmental science has long evolutionary roots and has historically focused on individual differences. Accordingly, developmental models can inform conversations about phylogeny and personality. The present paper evokes life history theory to describe a theoretical model of competitive behavior that applies to both children and adults (resource control theory: RCT). The model suggests that prosocial and coercive behavior, though different in manifest form, serve similar evolutionary functions. Accordingly, RCT presents a view on social dominance that gives primacy to function over form that contrasts sharply from traditional views. This reformulation gives rise to novel questions (both developmental and non-developmental) and challenges long accepted views on prosociality (e.g., that it is altruistic) and aggression (e.g., that it is maladaptive). Similarly, RCT gives rise to a minority perspective that aligns aggression with social competence.

  16. Ontogeny and Social Dominance: A Developmental View of Human Power Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia H. Hawley

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental science has long evolutionary roots and has historically focused on individual differences. Accordingly, developmental models can inform conversations about phylogeny and personality. The present paper evokes life history theory to describe a theoretical model of competitive behavior that applies to both children and adults (resource control theory: RCT. The model suggests that prosocial and coercive behavior, though different in manifest form, serve similar evolutionary functions. Accordingly, RCT presents a view on social dominance that gives primacy to function over form that contrasts sharply from traditional views. This reformulation gives rise to novel questions (both developmental and non-developmental and challenges long accepted views on prosociality (e.g., that it is altruistic and aggression (e.g., that it is maladaptive. Similarly, RCT gives rise to a minority perspective that aligns aggression with social competence.

  17. Rethinking developmental toxicity testing: Evolution or revolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Daston, George; Chen, Connie; Coder, Prägati S; Euling, Susan Y; Foreman, Jennifer; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia; Knudsen, Thomas; Makris, Susan L; Morford, LaRonda; Piersma, Aldert H; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Thompson, Kary E

    2018-01-01

    Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental

  18. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Hansen, P.; Christiansen, S.

    2007-01-01

    early in pregnancy may cause adverse effects on the offspring. This has led to increased concern about thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals (TDCs) in our environment. We have studied how developmental exposure to the known antithyroid agent propylthiouracil (PTU) affects the development of rat pups...... behaviour and hearing function. This supports that exposure to TDC's in general may cause long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity....

  19. Are Students with Developmental Dyslexia Neurologically Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith-Phillips, Josephine

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the controversy over a biological basis for developmental dyslexia and illustrates it with two case studies of junior high school students. Reviews neurological evidence for developmental dyslexia, and proposes seven signs characteristic of reading disability that may qualify as dyslexia. (SR)

  20. Essential Role of Culture in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joan G.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter argues for the essential role of culture in forming the basic constructs and theories of developmental psychology. The case is made for the need to overcome the cultural insularity of core developmental concepts and methods in order to create a psychology that is more truly universal.

  1. Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of…

  2. Unpacking developmental local government using Soft Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unpacking developmental local government using Soft Systems Methodology and MCDA tools. L Scott. Abstract. This paper presents two different analytical approaches that may be useful in developing an understanding of developmental local government (DLG). DLG implies a significant commitment with respect to ...

  3. Desiccation stress induces developmental heterochrony in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stressful environments are known to perturb developmental patterns in insects. In the purview of desiccation as astressor, relatively little is known about the developmental consequences linked with desiccation tolerance. In thisstudy, we have particularly focused on the exploration of the temporal profile of postembryonic ...

  4. Psychological Resources of Adults with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockiewicz, Marta; Bogdanowicz, Katarzyna M.; Bogdanowicz, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe specific psychological resources of adults with developmental dyslexia and compare them with psychological resources of adults without developmental dyslexia. Potential differences were analyzed in visual-spatial, creative, and motivational abilities. No evidence was found for either creative, or visuospatial…

  5. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of developmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth order and household size also had significant association with delay in various domains. There was no significant association between socioeconomic class and developmental delay in any of the domains. Conclusion: The study showed that developmental delay was relatively common among under-five children in ...

  6. Introducing Newspapers in Developmental Reading Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstadt, Roberta; Rey, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    Newspapers are an effective educational and motivational tool in developmental reading classes. However, many students are unfamiliar with newspapers and read them infrequently. In order to foster newspaper reading and familiarize the college freshmen enrolled in their developmental reading classes with newspapers, the writers of this article…

  7. Developmental hip dysplasia in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors define adolescence and developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH. Special attention is paid to pathological findings characteristic of DDH in adolescence (unrecognized and untreated DDH; treated DDH, but non-terminated treatment; DDH diagnosed with delay, inadequately treated, with complications. The authors emphasise that DDH treatment has to be successfully terminated well before the adolescence; possibilities are explained on management modes at the time of adolescence, and possible persons guilty for the persistence of later hip problems are indicated. Based on the authors' experience and having in mind all surgical possibilities for the treatment (pelvic osteotomies, femoral osteotomies, trochanteroplasties, leg length equalization procedures the authors propose treatment protocols. The intention is to provide better treatment results and to prevent secondary hip arthrosis. Furthermore, how to improve the struggle against DDH is suggested.

  8. Analysing growth and development of plants jointly using developmental growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Normand, Frédéric; Guédon, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth, the increase of organ dimensions over time, and development, the change in plant structure, are often studied as two separate processes. However, there is structural and functional evidence that these two processes are strongly related. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-ordination between growth and development using mango trees, which have well-defined developmental stages. Developmental stages, determined in an expert way, and organ sizes, determined from objective measurements, were collected during the vegetative growth and flowering phases of two cultivars of mango, Mangifera indica. For a given cultivar and growth unit type (either vegetative or flowering), a multistage model based on absolute growth rate sequences deduced from the measurements was first built, and then growth stages deduced from the model were compared with developmental stages. Strong matches were obtained between growth stages and developmental stages, leading to a consistent definition of integrative developmental growth stages. The growth stages highlighted growth asynchronisms between two topologically connected organs, namely the vegetative axis and its leaves. Integrative developmental growth stages emphasize that developmental stages are closely related to organ growth rates. The results are discussed in terms of the possible physiological processes underlying these stages, including plant hydraulics, biomechanics and carbohydrate partitioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Toward a Neuroscience of Adult Cognitive Developmental Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady Girgis

    2018-01-01

    with psychological tasks that test these models. In addition, we will review computational modeling approaches to cognitive development, and show how mathematical modeling can provide insights into how sometimes continuous changes in the neural processing substrate can give rise to relatively discrete developmental stages. Because deficiencies in adult cognitive development can result in disorders such as autism and depression, bridging the gaps between developmental psychology, neuroscience, and modeling has potential implications for clinical practice. As neuromodulation techniques such as deep brain and transcranial stimulation continue to advance, interfacing with these systems may lead to the emergence of novel investigational methods and therapeutic strategies in adults suffering from developmental disorders.

  10. Toward a Neuroscience of Adult Cognitive Developmental Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, Fady; Lee, Darrin J; Goodarzi, Amir; Ditterich, Jochen

    2018-01-01

    test these models. In addition, we will review computational modeling approaches to cognitive development, and show how mathematical modeling can provide insights into how sometimes continuous changes in the neural processing substrate can give rise to relatively discrete developmental stages. Because deficiencies in adult cognitive development can result in disorders such as autism and depression, bridging the gaps between developmental psychology, neuroscience, and modeling has potential implications for clinical practice. As neuromodulation techniques such as deep brain and transcranial stimulation continue to advance, interfacing with these systems may lead to the emergence of novel investigational methods and therapeutic strategies in adults suffering from developmental disorders.

  11. Developmental trends in the facilitation of multisensory objects with distractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet eDowning

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory integration and the ability to discriminate target objects from distractors are critical to survival, yet the developmental trajectories of these abilities are unknown. This study investigated developmental changes in 9- (n=18 and 11-year-old (n=20 children, adolescents (n=19 and adults (n=22 using an audiovisual object discrimination task with uni- and multisensory distractors. Reaction times (RTs were slower with visual/audiovisual distractors, and although all groups demonstrated facilitation of multisensory RTs in these conditions, children’s and adolescents’ responses corresponded to fewer race model violations than adults’, suggesting protracted maturation of multisensory processes. Multisensory facilitation could not be explained by changes in RT variability, suggesting that tests of race model violations may still have theoretical value at least for familiar multisensory stimuli.

  12. Understanding retirement: the promise of life-span developmental frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E

    2012-09-01

    The impending retirement of large population cohorts creates a pressing need for practical interventions to optimize outcomes at the individual and societal level. This necessitates comprehensive theoretical models that acknowledge the multi-layered nature of the retirement process and shed light on the dynamic mechanisms that drive longitudinal patterns of adjustment. The present commentary highlights ways in which contemporary life-span developmental frameworks can inform retirement research, drawing on the specific examples of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model, Baltes and Baltes Selective Optimization with Compensation Framework, Schulz and Heckhausen's Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development, and Carstensen's Socioemotional Selectivity Theory. Ultimately, a life-span developmental perspective on retirement offers not only new interpretations of known phenomena but may also help to identify novel directions for future research as well as promising pathways for interventions.

  13. Future Directions in Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    It is critical for psychologists to gain a better understanding about the intersection between sleep and developmental psychopathology. However, while many strive to answer the question of whether sleep causes developmental psychopathology, or vice versa, ultimately the relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology is complex and dynamic. This article considers future directions in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology that go beyond this mechanistic question, highlighting areas important to address for clinicians and researchers who strive to better understand how best to serve children and adolescents with developmental psychopathology. Questions are presented about what is normal in terms of sleep across development, the role of individual variability in terms of sleep needs and vulnerability to sleep loss, and how sleep may serve as a risk or resilience factor for developmental psychopathology, concluding with considerations for interventions.

  14. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth of young children in developing countries are at risk for or have developmental delay or disabilities. Inadequate stimulation has significant negative impact on physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Hence early scientific intervention programs are necessary in the management of children at risk for developmental delay.

  15. Aggressive behavior: an alternative model of resting heart rate and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Low resting heart rate is a well-replicated biological correlate of aggression, and sensation seeking is frequently cited as the underlying causal explanation. However, little empirical evidence supports this mediating relationship. Furthermore, the biosocial model of violence and social push theory suggest sensation seeking may moderate the relationship between heart rate and aggression. In a sample of 128 college students (82.0% White; 73.4% female), the current study tested a moderation model as an alternative relationship between resting heart rate and sensation seeking in regard to aggression. Overall, the findings partially supported an interaction effect, whereby the relationship between heart rate and aggression was moderated by sensation seeking. Specifically, the oft-noted relationship between low resting heart rate and increased aggression was found, but only for individuals with low levels of sensation seeking. If replication supports this finding, the results may better inform prevention and intervention work. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Feedforward motor control in developmental dyslexia and developmental coordination disorder: Does comorbidity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetti, Fabien; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Fontan, Aurelie; Jover, Marianne; Livet, Marie-Odile; Hugonenq, Catherine; Audic, Frédérique; Chabrol, Brigitte; Assaiante, Christine

    2018-05-01

    Feedforward and online controls are two facets of predictive motor control from internal models, which is suspected to be impaired in learning disorders. We examined whether the feedforward component is affected in children (8-12 years) with developmental dyslexia (DD) and/or with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) compared to typically developing (TD) children. Children underwent a bimanual unloading paradigm during which a load supported to one arm, the postural arm, was either unexpectedly unloaded by a computer or voluntary unloaded by the subject with the other arm. All children showed a better stabilization (lower flexion) of the postural arm and an earlier inhibition of the arm flexors during voluntary unloading, indicating anticipation of unloading. Between-group comparisons of kinematics and electromyographic activity of the postural arm revealed that the difference during voluntary unloading was between DD-DCD children and the other groups, with the former showing a delayed inhibition of the flexor muscles. Deficit of the feedforward component of motor control may particularly apply to comorbid subtypes, here the DD-DCD subtype. The development of a comprehensive framework for motor performance deficits in children with learning disorders will be achieved only by dissociating key components of motor prediction and focusing on subtypes and comorbidities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Negative Effects of Positive Reinforcement in Teaching Children with Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Gerald B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study compared the performance of 12 children (ages 4 to 10) with developmental delay, each trained in 2 tasks, one through interactive modeling (with or without verbal reinforcement) and the other through passive modeling. Results showed that passive modeling produced better rated performance than interactive modeling and that verbal…

  18. Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia: Testing the Predictions of the Dual-Route and Connectionist Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the phonological and surface subtypes of developmental dyslexia in light of competing predictions made by two computational models of single word reading, the Dual-Route Cascaded Model (DRC; Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001) and Harm and Seidenberg's connectionist model (HS model; Harm & Seidenberg, 1999). The…

  19. From philosophy to science (to natural philosophy): evolutionary developmental perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C

    2008-03-01

    This paper focuses on abstraction as a mode of reasoning that facilitates a productive relationship between philosophy and science. Using examples from evolutionary developmental biology, I argue that there are two areas where abstraction can be relevant to science: reasoning explication and problem clarification. The value of abstraction is characterized in terms of methodology (modeling or data gathering) and epistemology (explanatory evaluation or data interpretation).

  20. Developmental dyslexia: dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eRichlan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review summarizes and integrates findings from recent meta-analyses and original neuroimaging studies on functional brain abnormalities in dyslexic readers. Surprisingly, there is little empirical support for the standard neuroanatomical model of developmental dyslexia, which localizes the primary phonological decoding deficit in left temporo-parietal regions. Rather, recent evidence points to a dysfunction of a left hemisphere reading network, which includes occipito-temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions.

  1. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural equation model was constructed to estimate the unique relations between reading strategies and reading comprehension, while controlling for reading...

  2. Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Flavonoids Using an Integrative Zebrafish System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugel, Sean M; Bonventre, Josephine A; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-11-01

    Flavonoids are a large, structurally diverse class of bioactive naturally occurring chemicals commonly detected in breast milk, soy based infant formulas, amniotic fluid, and fetal cord blood. The potential for pervasive early life stage exposures raises concerns for perturbation of embryogenesis, though developmental toxicity and bioactivity information is limited for many flavonoids. Therefore, we evaluated a suite of 24 flavonoid and flavonoid-like chemicals using a zebrafish embryo-larval toxicity bioassay-an alternative model for investigating developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant chemicals. Embryos were exposed to 1-50 µM of each chemical from 6 to 120 h postfertilization (hpf), and assessed for 26 adverse developmental endpoints at 24, 72, and 120 hpf. Behavioral changes were evaluated in morphologically normal animals at 24 and 72 hpf, at 120 hpf using a larval photomotor response (LPR) assay. Gene expression was comparatively evaluated for all compounds for effects on biomarker transcripts indicative of AHR (cyp1a) and ER (cyp19a1b, esr1, lhb, vtg) pathway bioactivity. Overall, 15 of 24 flavonoids elicited adverse effects on one or more of the developmental or behavioral endpoints. Hierarchical clustering and principle component analyses compared toxicity profiles and identified 3 distinct groups of bioactive flavonoids. Despite robust induction of multiple estrogen-responsive biomarkers, co-exposure with ER and GPER antagonists did not ameliorate toxicity, suggesting ER-independence and alternative modes of action. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that development is sensitive to perturbation by bioactive flavonoids in zebrafish that are not related to traditional estrogen receptor mode of action pathways. This integrative zebrafish platform provides a useful framework for evaluating flavonoid developmental toxicity and hazard prioritization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of

  3. Perflurooctanoic acid induces developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryos and hatchlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Qixiao; Lust, Robert M.; Strynar, Mark J.; Dagnino, Sonia; DeWitt, Jamie C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PFOA exposure thinned right ventricular wall thickness in D19 chicken embryo hearts. ► PFOA exposure induced left ventricle hypertrophy in hearts of hatchling chickens. ► PFOA exposure induced altered cardiac function in hatchling chickens. -- Abstract: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα). As the cardiovascular system is crucial for embryonic survival, PFOA-induced effects on the heart may partially explain embryonic mortality. To assess impacts of PFOA exposure on the developing heart in an avian model, we used histopathology and immunohistochemical staining for myosin to assess morphological alterations in 19-day-old chicken embryo hearts after PFOA exposure. Additionally, echocardiography and cardiac myofibril ATPase activity assays were used to assess functional alterations in 1-day-old hatchling chickens following developmental PFOA exposure. Overall thinning and thinning of a dense layer of myosin in the right ventricular wall were observed in PFOA-exposed chicken embryo hearts. Alteration of multiple cardiac structural and functional parameters, including left ventricular wall thickness, left ventricular volume, heart rate, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were detected with echocardiography in the exposed hatchling chickens. Assessment of ATPase activity indicated that the ratio of cardiac myofibril calcium-independent ATPase activity to calcium-dependent ATPase activity was not affected, which suggests that developmental PFOA exposure may not affect cardiac energetics. In summary, structural and functional characteristics of the heart appear to be developmental targets of PFOA, possibly at the level of cardiomyocytes. Additional studies will

  4. Effects of television exposure on developmental skills among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yang, Hei-Mei

    2015-02-01

    Literature addressing the effects of television exposure on developmental skills of young children less than 36 months of age is scarce. This study explored how much time young children spend viewing television and investigated its effects on cognitive, language, and motor developmental skills. Data were collected from the Pediatric Clinics at University Medical Center in Southern Taiwan. The participants comprised 75 children who were frequently exposed to television and 75 children who were not or infrequently exposed to television between 15 and 35 months old. The age and sex were matched in the two groups. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-second edition and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-second edition were used to identify developmental skills. Independent t-tests, χ(2) tests, and logistic regression models were conducted. Among 75 children who were frequently exposed to television, young children watched a daily average of 67.4 min of television before age 2, which was excessive according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Viewing television increased the risk of delayed cognitive, language, and motor development in children who were frequently exposed to television. Cognitive, language, and motor delays in young children were significantly associated with how much time they spent viewing television. The type of care providers was critical in determining the television-viewing time of children. We recommend that pediatric practitioners explain the impacts of television exposure to parents and caregivers to ensure cognitive, language, and motor development in young children. Advocacy efforts must address the fact that allowing young children to spend excessive time viewing television can be developmentally detrimental. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early- to Middle-Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth through age 9. Hierarchical linear modeling and structural equation modeling are employed to estimate associations of maltreatment with cognitive and social-emotional well-being. Results suggest that effects of early childhood maltreatment emerge immediately, though developmental outcomes are also affected by newly occurring maltreatment over time. Additionally, findings indicate that children's early developmental scores predict their subsequent probability of experiencing maltreatment, though to a lesser extent than early maltreatment predicts subsequent developmental outcomes. PMID:25521556

  6. Child maltreatment and children's developmental trajectories in early to middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Berger, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth through age 9. Hierarchical linear modeling and structural equation modeling are employed to estimate associations of maltreatment with cognitive and social-emotional well-being. Results suggest that effects of early childhood maltreatment emerge immediately, though developmental outcomes are also affected by newly occurring maltreatment over time. Additionally, findings indicate that children's early developmental scores predict their subsequent probability of experiencing maltreatment, though to a lesser extent than early maltreatment predicts subsequent developmental outcomes. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Core measures for developmentally supportive care in neonatal intensive care units: theory, precedence and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Mary; Gibbins, Sharyn; Hoath, Steven

    2009-10-01

    This paper is a discussion of evidence-based core measures for developmental care in neonatal intensive care units. Inconsistent definition, application and evaluation of developmental care have resulted in criticism of its scientific merit. The key concept guiding data organization in this paper is the United States of America's Joint Commission's concept of 'core measures' for evaluating and accrediting healthcare organizations. This concept is applied to five disease- and procedure-independent measures based on the Universe of Developmental Care model. Electronically accessible, peer reviewed studies on developmental care published in English were culled for data supporting the selected objective core measures between 1978 and 2008. The quality of evidence was based on a structured predetermined format that included three independent reviewers. Systematic reviews and randomized control trials were considered the strongest level of evidence. When unavailable, cohort, case control, consensus statements and qualitative methods were considered the strongest level of evidence for a particular clinical issue. Five core measure sets for evidence-based developmental care were evaluated: (1) protected sleep, (2) pain and stress assessment and management, (3) developmental activities of daily living, (4) family-centred care, and (5) the healing environment. These five categories reflect recurring themes that emerged from the literature review regarding developmentally supportive care and quality caring practices in neonatal populations. This practice model provides clear metrics for nursing actions having an impact on the hospital experience of infant-family dyads. Standardized disease-independent core measures for developmental care establish minimum evidence-based practice expectations and offer an objective basis for cross-institutional comparison of developmental care programmes.

  8. Role of the pre- and post-natal environment in developmental programming of health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Caton, Joel S

    2012-05-06

    The concept that developmental insults (for example, poor pre- or postnatal nutrition) can have long-term consequences on health and well-being of the offspring has been termed developmental programming. In livestock, developmental programming affects production traits, including growth, body composition, and reproduction. Although low birth weight was used as a proxy for compromised fetal development in the initial epidemiological studies, based on controlled studies using livestock and other animal models in the last two decades we now know that developmental programming can occur independently of any effects on birth weight. Studies in humans, rodents, and livestock also have confirmed the critical role of the placenta in developmental programming. In addition, the central role of epigenetic regulation in developmental programming has been confirmed. Lastly, relatively simple therapeutic/management strategies designed to 'rescue' placental development and function are being developed to minimize the effects of developmental programming on health and productivity of humans, livestock, and other mammals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Applying a Lifespan Developmental Perspective to Chronic Pain: Pediatrics to Geriatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walco, Gary A; Krane, Elliot J; Schmader, Kenneth E; Weiner, Debra K

    2016-09-01

    An ideal taxonomy of chronic pain would be applicable to people of all ages. Developmental sciences focus on lifespan developmental approaches, and view the trajectory of processes in the life course from birth to death. In this article we provide a review of lifespan developmental models, describe normal developmental processes that affect pain processing, and identify deviations from those processes that lead to stable individual differences of clinical interest, specifically the development of chronic pain syndromes. The goals of this review were 1) to unify what are currently separate purviews of "pediatric pain," "adult pain," and "geriatric pain," and 2) to generate models so that specific elements of the chronic pain taxonomy might include important developmental considerations. A lifespan developmental model is applied to the forthcoming Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy to ascertain the degree to which general "adult" descriptions apply to pediatric and geriatric populations, or if age- or development-related considerations need to be invoked. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Developmental programming of auditory learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Puddu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic structures involved in the development of auditory function and consequently in language acquisition are directed by genetic code, but the expression of individual genes may be altered by exposure to environmental factors, which if favorable, orient it in the proper direction, leading its development towards normality, if unfavorable, they deviate it from its physiological course. Early sensorial experience during the foetal period (i.e. intrauterine noise floor, sounds coming from the outside and attenuated by the uterine filter, particularly mother’s voice and modifications induced by it at the cochlear level represent the first example of programming in one of the earliest critical periods in development of the auditory system. This review will examine the factors that influence the developmental programming of auditory learning from the womb to the infancy. In particular it focuses on the following points: the prenatal auditory experience and the plastic phenomena presumably induced by it in the auditory system from the basilar membrane to the cortex;the involvement of these phenomena on language acquisition and on the perception of language communicative intention after birth;the consequences of auditory deprivation in critical periods of auditory development (i.e. premature interruption of foetal life.

  11. Executive Functions in Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVarvara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating different aspects of Executive Functions (EF in children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD.A neuropsychological battery tapping verbal fluency, spoonerism, attention, verbal shifting, short-term and working memory was used to assess 60 children with DD and 65 with typical reading abilities.Compared to their controls, children with DD showed deficits in several EF domains such as verbal categorical and phonological fluency, visual-spatial and auditory attention, spoonerism, verbal and visual short-term memory, and verbal working memory. Moreover, exploring predictive relationships between EF measures and reading, we found that spoonerism abilities better explained word and non-word reading deficits. Although to a lesser extent, auditory and visual-spatial attention also explained the increased percentage of variance related to reading deficit.EF deficits found in DD are interpreted as an expression of a deficient functioning of the Central Executive System and are discussed in the context of the recent temporal sampling theory.

  12. Pervasive Developmental Disorder with Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Balfe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder (HFPDD in a community sample of teenagers and adults aged 13 and above in the city of Sheffield, UK. 112 possible and definite cases were found, of whom 65 (57% had a previous diagnosis. The detected prevalence of possible or definite HFPDD was found to be 0.24 per 1000 of the population of Sheffield city aged 13 or over, but the prevalence by year of age fell from a maximum of 1.1 per 1000 in the group aged 13 to 14 years old (1 young adult in every 900 in this age group to 0.03 per 1000 in the over 60s (1 person in every 38500 in this age group. The results of this study are preliminary and need follow-up investigation in larger studies. We suggest several explanations for the findings, including reduced willingness to participate in a study as people get older, increased ascertainment in younger people, and increased mortality. Another contributory factor might be that the prevalence of high-functioning pervasive development disorder may decline with age. This raises the possibility that AS symptoms might become subclinical in adulthood in a proportion of people with HFPDD.

  13. Developmental Programming: State-of-the-Science and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth F.; Gilmore, L. Anne; Dunger, David B.; Heijmans, Bas T.; Hivert, Marie-France; Ling, Charlotte; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Ozanne, Susan E.; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Szyf, Moshe; Waterland, Robert A.; Redman, Leanne M.; Ravussin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Objective On December 8–9, 2014, the Pennington Biomedical Research Center convened a scientific symposium to review the state-of-the-science and future directions for the study of developmental programming of obesity and chronic disease. The objectives of the symposium were to discuss: (i) past and current scientific advances in animal models, population-based cohort studies and human clinical trials, (ii) the state-of-the-science of epigenetic-based research, and (iii) considerations for future studies. Results The overarching goal was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of the scientific field, to identify research gaps and opportunities for future research in order to identify and understand the mechanisms contributing to the developmental programming of health and disease. Conclusions Identifying the mechanisms which cause or contribute to developmental programming of future generations will be invaluable to the scientific and medical community. The ability to intervene during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal life to promote lifelong health is the ultimate goal. Considerations for future research including the use of animal models, the study design in human cohorts with considerations about the timing of the intrauterine exposure and the resulting tissue specific epigenetic signature were extensively discussed and are presented in this meeting summary. PMID:27037645

  14. Social Influence on Positive Youth Development: A Developmental Neuroscience Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; van Hoorn, Jorien; Rogers, Christina R; Do, Kathy T

    2018-01-01

    Susceptibility to social influence is associated with a host of negative outcomes during adolescence. However, emerging evidence implicates the role of peers and parents in adolescents' positive and adaptive adjustment. Hence, in this chapter we highlight social influence as an opportunity for promoting social adjustment, which can redirect negative trajectories and help adolescents thrive. We discuss influential models about the processes underlying social influence, with a particular emphasis on internalizing social norms, embedded in social learning and social identity theory. We link this behavioral work to developmental social neuroscience research, rooted in neurobiological models of decision making and social cognition. Work from this perspective suggests that the adolescent brain is highly malleable and particularly oriented toward the social world, which may account for heightened susceptibility to social influences during this developmental period. This chapter underscores the need to leverage social influences during adolescence, even beyond the family and peer context, to promote positive developmental outcomes. By further probing the underlying neural mechanisms as an additional layer to examining social influence on positive youth development, we will be able to gain traction on our understanding of this complex phenomenon. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mapping the developmental constraints on working memory span performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Gunn, Deborah M; Leigh, Eleanor

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related variance in complex span. Results showed that developmental improvements in complex span were driven by 2 age-related but separable factors: 1 associated with general speed of processing and 1 associated with storage ability. In addition, there was an age-related contribution shared between working memory, processing speed, and storage ability that was important for higher level cognition. These results pose a challenge for models of complex span performance that emphasize the importance of processing speed alone.

  16. Reduce, reuse, recycle - Developmental signals in spinal cord regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Marcos Julian; Mysiak, Karolina S; Becker, Thomas; Becker, Catherina G

    2017-12-01

    Anamniotes, fishes and amphibians, have the capacity to regenerate spinal cord tissue after injury, generating new neurons that mature and integrate into the spinal circuitry. Elucidating the molecular signals that promote this regeneration is a fundamental question in regeneration research. Model systems, such as salamanders and larval and adult zebrafish are used to analyse successful regeneration. This shows that many developmental signals, such as Notch, Hedgehog (Hh), Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP), Wnt, Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), Retinoic Acid (RA) and neurotransmitters are redeployed during regeneration and activate resident spinal progenitor cells. Here we compare the roles of these signals in spinal cord development and regeneration of the much larger and fully patterned adult spinal cord. Understanding how developmental signalling systems are reactivated in successfully regenerating species may ultimately lead to ways to reactivate similar systems in mammalian progenitor cells, which do not show neurogenesis after spinal injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Mutations of PTPN23 in developmental and epileptic encephalopathy

    KAUST Repository

    Sowada, Nadine

    2017-10-31

    Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with poor prognosis. Recent discoveries have greatly expanded the repertoire of genes that are mutated in epileptic encephalopathies and DEE, often in a de novo fashion, but in many patients, the disease remains molecularly uncharacterized. Here, we describe a new form of DEE in patients with likely deleterious biallelic variants in PTPN23. The phenotype is characterized by early onset drug-resistant epilepsy, severe and global developmental delay, microcephaly, and sometimes premature death. PTPN23 encodes a tyrosine phosphatase with strong brain expression, and its knockout in mouse is embryonically lethal. Structural modeling supports a deleterious effect of the identified alleles. Our data suggest that PTPN23 mutations cause a rare severe form of autosomal-recessive DEE in humans, a finding that requires confirmation.

  18. Etiology and Treatment of Developmental Stammering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and treatment of developmental stammering in childhood (DS, also called idiopathic stammering or stuttering are reviewed by a speech pathologist and psychologist at the University of Reading, UK.

  19. Unpacking developmental local government using Soft Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developmental local government, soft systems methodology, multiple criteria ..... land and property), 26 (adequate housing), 27 (access to health care, food, water .... It is important to articulate that any decision making or resource allocation.

  20. Wanted: A Developmentally Oriented Alcohol Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Rosenthal, David

    1980-01-01

    Describes an alcohol prevention program with a comprehensive developmental skills orientation. The program includes values clarification, decision making, career planning and communication skills, assertiveness and relaxation training, and relationship with parents and peers. (Author/JAC)

  1. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A bibliographic database on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) with references to developmental and reproductive toxicology...

  2. Characteristics of children with pervasive developmental disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of children presenting with features of ASD to a developmental clinic in Johannesburg over ... social interaction deficits without meeting the full criteria for PDD were excluded, as were those ..... Recurrent otitis media. 7 (12.1). Myringotomies.

  3. Current status of developmental neurotoxicity: regulatory view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    in the testing strategy for new and existing substances, and biocides. Hopefully, this will lead to an improved database for risk assessment of potential developmental neurotoxicants. However, the regulatory authorities and toxicologists will also be faced with the challenge that decisions have to be made......The need for developmental neurotoxicity testing has been recognized for decades and guidelines are available, as the USEPA guideline and the OECD draft TG 426. Regulatory testing of industrial chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity is required to some extent, especially for pesticides in the US....... Until recently, however, developmental neurotoxicity testing of industrial chemicals has not been a clear regulatory requirement in EU, probably due to the lack of an accepted OECD TG. The revised EU Technical Guidance Document for Risk Assessment (EU-TGD) has now included the OECD draft TG 426...

  4. Developmental sculpting of social phenotype and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Jon T; Crews, David

    2004-04-01

    Early developmental variables engender behavioral and neural variation, especially in species in which embryonic environment determines gonadal sex. In the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, the incubation temperature of the egg (IncT) determines gonadal sex. Moreover, IncT affects the sexual differentiation of the individual and, consequently, within-sex variation. Individuals hatched from eggs incubated at an IncT that produces predominantly males are more masculinized than same-sex counterparts from IncTs that produce predominantly females. Here we review how gonadal sex and IncT interact to affect behavioral, endocrinological, and neural phenotype in the leopard gecko and influence phenotypic plasticity following hormone administration or social experience. We discuss the hormonal dependence of sex- and IncT-dependent behavioral and neural morphological and metabolic differences and highlight the parallels between IncT effects in geckos and intrauterine position effects in rodents. We argue that the leopard gecko is an important model of how the process of sex determination can affect sexual differentiation and of selection forces underlying the evolution of sex ratios. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Distinguishing epigenetic marks of developmental and imprinting regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Kirsten R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The field of epigenetics is developing rapidly, however we are only beginning to comprehend the complexity of its influence on gene regulation. Using genomic imprinting as a model we examine epigenetic profiles associated with different forms of gene regulation. Imprinting refers to the expression of a gene from only one of the chromosome homologues in a parental-origin-specific manner. This is dependent on heritable germline epigenetic control at a cis-acting imprinting control region that influences local epigenetic states. Epigenetic modifications associated with imprinting regulation can be compared to those associated with the more canonical developmental regulation, important for processes such as differentiation and tissue specificity. Here we test the hypothesis that these two mechanisms are associated with different histone modification enrichment patterns. Results Using high-throughput data extraction with subsequent analysis, we have found that particular histone modifications are more likely to be associated with either imprinting repression or developmental repression of imprinted genes. H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 are together enriched at imprinted genes with differentially methylated promoters and do not show a correlation with developmental regulation. H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, however, are more often associated with developmental regulation. We find that imprinted genes are subject to developmental regulation through bivalency with H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 enrichment on the same allele. Furthermore, a specific tri-mark signature comprising H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 has been identified at all imprinting control regions. Conclusion A large amount of data is produced from whole-genome expression and epigenetic profiling studies of cellular material. We have shown that such publicly available data can be mined and analysed in order to generate novel findings for categories of genes or regulatory elements. Comparing two

  6. Phonemic restoration in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie N. Del Tufo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of fluent speech in one’s native language requires that listeners integrate the detailed acoustic-phonetic information available in the sound signal with linguistic knowledge. This interplay is especially apparent in the phoneme restoration effect, a phenomenon in which a missing phoneme is ‘restored’ via the influence of top-down information from the lexicon and through bottom-up acoustic processing. Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by an inability to read at the level of one’s peers without any clear failure due to environmental influences. In the current study we utilized the phonemic restoration illusion paradigm, to examine individual differences in phonemic restoration across a range of reading ability, from very good to dyslexic readers. Results demonstrate that restoration occurs less in those who have high scores on measures of phonological processing. Based on these results, we suggest that the processing or representation of acoustic detail may not be as reliable in poor and dyslexic readers, with the result that lexical information is more likely to override acoustic properties of the stimuli. This pattern of increased restoration could result from a failure of perceptual tuning, in which unstable representations of speech sounds result in the acceptance of non-speech sounds as speech. An additional or alternative theory is that degraded or impaired phonological processing at the speech sound level may reflect architecture that is overly plastic and consequently fails to stabilize appropriately for speech sound representations. Therefore the inability to separate speech and noise may result as a deficit in separating noise from the acoustic signal.

  7. Developmental plasticity: re-conceiving the genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sonia E

    2017-10-06

    In recent decades, the phenotype of an organism (i.e. its traits and behaviour) has been studied as the outcome of a developmental 'programme' coded in its genotype. This deterministic view is implicit in the Modern Synthesis approach to adaptive evolution as a sorting process among genetic variants. Studies of developmental pathways have revealed that genotypes are in fact differently expressed depending on environmental conditions. Accordingly, the genotype can be understood as a repertoire of potential developmental outcomes or norm of reaction. Reconceiving the genotype as an environmental response repertoire rather than a fixed developmental programme leads to three critical evolutionary insights. First, plastic responses to specific conditions often comprise functionally appropriate trait adjustments, resulting in an individual-level, developmental mode of adaptive variation. Second, because genotypes are differently expressed depending on the environment, the genetic diversity available to natural selection is itself environmentally contingent. Finally, environmental influences on development can extend across multiple generations via cytoplasmic and epigenetic factors transmitted to progeny individuals, altering their responses to their own, immediate environmental conditions and, in some cases, leading to inherited but non-genetic adaptations. Together, these insights suggest a more nuanced understanding of the genotype and its evolutionary role, as well as a shift in research focus to investigating the complex developmental interactions among genotypes, environments and previous environments.

  8. Developmental immunotoxicity testing of 4-methyl anisole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Elisa C M; Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R; van Loveren, Henk; Piersma, Aldert H

    2015-07-01

    The developmental immunotoxicity of 4-methyl anisole (4MA) was investigated in the rat. Four study designs were used, with either premating or post-weaning onset of exposure, continued to postnatal day 50, and with or without additional oral gavage of pups from postnatal day 10 onward. Reduced litter size (benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) 80mg/kg bw/day) was the most sensitive developmental parameter, with pup relative organ weight effects observed at similar BMDLs, in the absence of maternal toxicity. Eosinophil numbers were reduced at lower doses (BMDL 16mg/kg bw/day). KLH challenge resulted in increased IL-13 and TNF-α responses, and variably reduced IgG production (BMDL 27mg/kg bw/day). T4 levels were reduced by 11% at maximum with a BMDL of 73mg/kg bw/day. Differences between exposure cohorts were limited and were considered to be without biological significance. This study shows that 4MA induces developmental immunotoxicity at doses below those inducing developmental and general toxicity. These observations being independent of the study designs applied suggest that the post-weaning period, included in all designs, is the most relevant sensitive period for inducing 4MA mediated developmental immunotoxicity. Moreover, this study stresses the importance of including developmental immunotoxicity testing by default in regulatory toxicology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Promoting positive human development and social justice: Integrating theory, research and application in contemporary developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M

    2015-06-01

    The bold claim that developmental science can contribute to both enhancing positive development among diverse individuals across the life span and promoting social justice in their communities, nations and regions is supported by decades of theoretical, methodological and research contributions. To explain the basis of this claim, I describe the relational developmental systems (RDS) metamodel that frames contemporary developmental science, and I present an example of a programme of research within the adolescent portion of the life span that is associated with this metamodel and is pertinent to promoting positive human development. I then discuss methodological issues associated with using RDS-based models as frames for research and application. Finally, I explain how the theoretical and methodological ideas associated with RDS thinking may provide the scholarly tools needed by developmental scientists seeking to contribute to human thriving and to advance social justice in the Global South. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M A; Cooper, C; Aihie Sayer, A; Eendebak, R J; Clough, G F; Beard, J R

    2016-04-15

    We examine the mechanistic basis and wider implications of adopting a developmental perspective on human ageing. Previous models of ageing have concentrated on its genetic basis, or the detrimental effects of accumulated damage, but also have raised issues about whether ageing can be viewed as adaptive itself, or is a consequence of other adaptive processes, for example if maintenance and repair processes in the period up to reproduction are traded off against later decline in function. A life course model places ageing in the context of the attainment of peak capacity for a body system, starting in early development when plasticity permits changes in structure and function induced by a range of environmental stimuli, followed by a period of decline, the rate of which depends on the peak attained as well as the later life conditions. Such path dependency in the rate of ageing may offer new insights into its modification. Focusing on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function, we discuss this model and the possible underlying mechanisms, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, stem cells and nutritional factors such as vitamin D status. Epigenetic changes induced during developmental plasticity, and immune function may provide a common mechanistic process underlying a life course model of ageing. The life course trajectory differs in high and low resource settings. New insights into the developmental components of the life course model of ageing may lead to the design of biomarkers of later chronic disease risk and to new interventions to promote healthy ageing, with important implications for public health. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  11. Predicting human developmental toxicity of pharmaceuticals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Paul R.; Weir, April M.; Smith, Alan M.; Donley, Elizabeth L.R.; Cezar, Gabriela G.

    2010-01-01

    Teratogens, substances that may cause fetal abnormalities during development, are responsible for a significant number of birth defects. Animal models used to predict teratogenicity often do not faithfully correlate to human response. Here, we seek to develop a more predictive developmental toxicity model based on an in vitro method that utilizes both human embryonic stem (hES) cells and metabolomics to discover biomarkers of developmental toxicity. We developed a method where hES cells were dosed with several drugs of known teratogenicity then LC-MS analysis was performed to measure changes in abundance levels of small molecules in response to drug dosing. Statistical analysis was employed to select for specific mass features that can provide a prediction of the developmental toxicity of a substance. These molecules can serve as biomarkers of developmental toxicity, leading to better prediction of teratogenicity. In particular, our work shows a correlation between teratogenicity and changes of greater than 10% in the ratio of arginine to asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. In addition, this study resulted in the establishment of a predictive model based on the most informative mass features. This model was subsequently tested for its predictive accuracy in two blinded studies using eight drugs of known teratogenicity, where it correctly predicted the teratogenicity for seven of the eight drugs. Thus, our initial data shows that this platform is a robust alternative to animal and other in vitro models for the prediction of the developmental toxicity of chemicals that may also provide invaluable information about the underlying biochemical pathways.

  12. Adaptive developmental delay in Chagas disease vectors: an evolutionary ecology approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Menu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The developmental time of vector insects is important in population dynamics, evolutionary biology, epidemiology and in their responses to global climatic change. In the triatomines (Triatominae, Reduviidae, vectors of Chagas disease, evolutionary ecology concepts, which may allow for a better understanding of their biology, have not been applied. Despite delay in the molting in some individuals observed in triatomines, no effort was made to explain this variability.We applied four methods: (1 an e-mail survey sent to 30 researchers with experience in triatomines, (2 a statistical description of the developmental time of eleven triatomine species, (3 a relationship between development time pattern and climatic inter-annual variability, (4 a mathematical optimization model of evolution of developmental delay (diapause.85.6% of responses informed on prolonged developmental times in 5(th instar nymphs, with 20 species identified with remarkable developmental delays. The developmental time analysis showed some degree of bi-modal pattern of the development time of the 5(th instars in nine out of eleven species but no trend between development time pattern and climatic inter-annual variability was observed. Our optimization model predicts that the developmental delays could be due to an adaptive risk-spreading diapause strategy, only if survival throughout the diapause period and the probability of random occurrence of "bad" environmental conditions are sufficiently high.Developmental delay may not be a simple non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity in development time, and could be a form of adaptive diapause associated to a physiological mechanism related to the postponement of the initiation of reproduction, as an adaptation to environmental stochasticity through a spreading of risk (bet-hedging strategy. We identify a series of parameters that can be measured in the field and laboratory to test this hypothesis. The importance of these findings is

  13. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  14. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  15. PTK7 marks the first human developmental EMT in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N Chan

    Full Text Available Epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMTs are thought to be essential to generate diversity of tissues during early fetal development, but these events are essentially impossible to study at the molecular level in vivo in humans. The first EMT event that has been described morphologically in human development occurs just prior to generation of the primitive streak. Because human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs are thought to most closely resemble cells found in epiblast-stage embryos prior to formation of the primitive streak, we sought to determine whether this first human EMT could be modeled in vitro with pluripotent stem cells. The data presented here suggest that generating embryoid bodies from hESCs or hiPSCs drives a procession of EMT events that can be observed within 24-48 hours after EB generation. These structures possess the typical hallmarks of developmental EMTs, and portions also display evidence of primitive streak and mesendoderm. We identify PTK7 as a novel marker of this EMT population, which can also be used to purify these cells for subsequent analyses and identification of novel markers of human development. Gene expression analysis indicated an upregulation of EMT markers and ECM proteins in the PTK7+ population. We also find that cells that undergo this developmental EMT retain developmental plasticity as sorting, dissociation and re-plating reestablishes an epithelial phenotype.

  16. A developmental basis for stochasticity in floral organ numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Miho S.; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Stochasticity ubiquitously inevitably appears at all levels from molecular traits to multicellular, morphological traits. Intrinsic stochasticity in biochemical reactions underlies the typical intercellular distributions of chemical concentrations, e.g., morphogen gradients, which can give rise to stochastic morphogenesis. While the universal statistics and mechanisms underlying the stochasticity at the biochemical level have been widely analyzed, those at the morphological level have not. Such morphological stochasticity is found in foral organ numbers. Although the floral organ number is a hallmark of floral species, it can distribute stochastically even within an individual plant. The probability distribution of the floral organ number within a population is usually asymmetric, i.e., it is more likely to increase rather than decrease from the modal value, or vice versa. We combined field observations, statistical analysis, and mathematical modeling to study the developmental basis of the variation in floral organ numbers among 50 species mainly from Ranunculaceae and several other families from core eudicots. We compared six hypothetical mechanisms and found that a modified error function reproduced much of the asymmetric variation found in eudicot floral organ numbers. The error function is derived from mathematical modeling of floral organ positioning, and its parameters represent measurable distances in the floral bud morphologies. The model predicts two developmental sources of the organ-number distributions: stochastic shifts in the expression boundaries of homeotic genes and a semi-concentric (whorled-type) organ arrangement. Other models species- or organ-specifically reproduced different types of distributions that reflect different developmental processes. The organ-number variation could be an indicator of stochasticity in organ fate determination and organ positioning. PMID:25404932

  17. Communication-Based Assessment of Developmental Age for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVeney, Shari L.; Hoffman, Lesa; Cress, Cynthia J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared a multiple-domain strategy for assessing developmental age of young children with developmental disabilities who were at risk for long-term reliance on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) with a communication-based strategy composed of receptive language and communication indices that may…

  18. Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive developm...

  19. Developmental toxicology: adequacy of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P W

    1998-01-01

    Toxicology embraces several disciplines such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. Reproductive toxicology is concerned with possible effects of substances on the reproductive process, i.e. on sexual organs and their functions, endocrine regulation, fertilization, transport of the fertilized ovum, implantation, and embryonic, fetal and postnatal development, until the end-differentiation of the organs is achieved. Reproductive toxicology is divided into areas related to male and female fertility, and developmental toxicology. Developmental toxicology can be further broken down into prenatal and postnatal toxicology. Today, much new information is available about the origins of developmental disorders resulting from chemical exposure. While these findings seem to promise important new developments in methodology and research, there is a danger of losing sight of the precepts and principles established in the light of existing knowledge. There is also a danger that we may fail to correct shortcomings in our existing procedures and practice. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the importance of testing substances for their impact in advance of their use and to underline that we must use the best existing tools for carrying out risk assessments. Moreover, it needs to be stressed that there are many substances that are never assessed with respect to reproductive and developmental toxicity. Similarly, our programmes for post-marketing surveillance with respect to developmental toxicology are grossly inadequate. Our ability to identify risks to normal development and reproduction would be much improved, first if a number of straightforward precepts were always followed and second, if we had a clearer understanding of what we mean by risk and acceptable levels of risk in the context of development. Other aims of this paper are: to stress the complexity of the different stages of normal prenatal development; to note the principles that are

  20. Developmentalism: An Obscure but Pervasive Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuing criticism of public education, experimentally demonstrated and field tested teaching methods have been ignored, rejected, and abandoned. Instead of a stable consensus regarding best teaching practices, there seems only an unending succession of innovations. A longstanding educational doctrine appears to underlie this anomalous state of affairs. Termed developmentalism, it presumes "natural" ontogenesis to be optimal and it requires experimentally demonstrated teaching practices to overcome a presumption that they interfere with an optimal developmental trajectory. It also discourages teachers and parents from asserting themselves with children. Instead of effective interventions, it seeks the preservation of a postulated natural perfection. Developmentalism's rich history is expressed in a literature extending over 400 years. Its notable exponents include Jean Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey, and Jean Piaget; and its most recent expressions include "developmentally appropriate practice" and "constructivism." In the years during which it gained ascendance, developmentalism served as a basis for rejecting harsh and inhumane teaching methods. Today it impedes efforts to hold schools accountable for student academic achievement.

  1. Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the Developmental Neurotoxicity of 27 Organophosphorus Pesticides Using a Zebrafish Behavioral Assay, Waalkes, M., Hunter, D.L., Jarema, K., Mundy, W., and S. Padilla. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize organophosphorus pesticides for developmental neurotoxicity. As such, we are exploring a behavioral testing paradigm that can assess the effects of sublethal and subteratogenic concentrations of developmental neurotoxicants on zebrafish (Danio rerio). This in vivo assay quantifies the locomotor response to light stimuli under tandem light and dark conditions in a 96-well plate using a video tracking system on 6 day post fertilization zebrafish larvae. Each of twenty-seven organophosphorus pesticides was tested for their developmental neurotoxic potential by exposing zebrafish embryos/larvae to the pesticide at several concentrations (≤ 100 μM nominal concentration) during the first five days of development, followed by 24 hours of depuration and then behavioral testing. Approximately 22% of the chemicals (Acephate, Dichlorvos, Diazoxon, Bensulide,Tribufos, Tebupirimfos) did not produce any behavioral changes after developmental exposure, while many (Malaoxon Fosthiazate, Dimethoate, Dicrotophos, Ethoprop, Malathion, Naled, Diazinon, Methamidophos, Terbufos, Trichlorfon, Phorate, Pirimiphos-methyl, Profenofos, Z-Tetrachlorvinphos, Chlorpyrifos, Coumaphos, Phosmet, Omethoate) produced changes in swi

  2. Replication and robustness in developmental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle J

    2014-11-01

    Replications and robustness checks are key elements of the scientific method and a staple in many disciplines. However, leading journals in developmental psychology rarely include explicit replications of prior research conducted by different investigators, and few require authors to establish in their articles or online appendices that their key results are robust across estimation methods, data sets, and demographic subgroups. This article makes the case for prioritizing both explicit replications and, especially, within-study robustness checks in developmental psychology. It provides evidence on variation in effect sizes in developmental studies and documents strikingly different replication and robustness-checking practices in a sample of journals in developmental psychology and a sister behavioral science-applied economics. Our goal is not to show that any one behavioral science has a monopoly on best practices, but rather to show how journals from a related discipline address vital concerns of replication and generalizability shared by all social and behavioral sciences. We provide recommendations for promoting graduate training in replication and robustness-checking methods and for editorial policies that encourage these practices. Although some of our recommendations may shift the form and substance of developmental research articles, we argue that they would generate considerable scientific benefits for the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Comet Cometh: Evolving Developmental Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Johannes; Laubichler, Manfred; Callebaut, Werner

    In a recent opinion piece, Denis Duboule has claimed that the increasing shift towards systems biology is driving evolutionary and developmental biology apart, and that a true reunification of these two disciplines within the framework of evolutionary developmental biology (EvoDevo) may easily take another 100 years. He identifies methodological, epistemological, and social differences as causes for this supposed separation. Our article provides a contrasting view. We argue that Duboule's prediction is based on a one-sided understanding of systems biology as a science that is only interested in functional, not evolutionary, aspects of biological processes. Instead, we propose a research program for an evolutionary systems biology, which is based on local exploration of the configuration space in evolving developmental systems. We call this approach-which is based on reverse engineering, simulation, and mathematical analysis-the natural history of configuration space. We discuss a number of illustrative examples that demonstrate the past success of local exploration, as opposed to global mapping, in different biological contexts. We argue that this pragmatic mode of inquiry can be extended and applied to the mathematical analysis of the developmental repertoire and evolutionary potential of evolving developmental mechanisms and that evolutionary systems biology so conceived provides a pragmatic epistemological framework for the EvoDevo synthesis.

  4. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia: Evidence for a dissociation between word and face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders; Gerlach, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Recent models suggest that face and word recognition may rely on overlapping cognitive processes and neural regions. In support of this notion, face recognition deficits have been demonstrated in developmental dyslexia. Here we test whether the opposite association can also be found, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition, as the difference in performance with faces and words was significantly greater for participants with developmental prosopagnosia than for controls. Adult developmental prosopagnosics read as quickly and fluently as controls, while they are seemingly unable to learn efficient strategies for recognizing faces. We suggest that this is due to the differing demands that face and word recognition put on the perceptual system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Dual Systems Competence [Image Omitted] Procedural Processing: A Relational Developmental Systems Approach to Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, Robert B.; Overton, Willis F.

    2011-01-01

    Many current psychological models of reasoning minimize the role of deductive processes in human thought. In the present paper, we argue that deduction is an important part of ordinary cognition and we propose that a dual systems Competence [image omitted] Procedural processing model conceptualized within relational developmental systems theory…

  6. Blueprint for Incorporating Service Learning: A Basic, Developmental, K-12 Service Learning Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Alice W.; Bohnenberger, Jann E.

    2004-01-01

    Citing the need for a basic, K-12 developmental framework for service learning, this article describes such a model. This model, an inclusive typology of service learning, distinguishes three levels of service learning: Community Service, Community Exploration, and Community Action. The authors correlate this typology to Piaget's cognitive…

  7. Gender Differences in the Developmental Cascade from Harsh Parenting to Educational Attainment: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentges, Rochelle F.; Wang, Ming-Te

    2018-01-01

    This study utilized life history theory to test a developmental cascade model linking harsh parenting to low educational attainment. Multigroup models were examined to test for potential gender differences. The sample consisted of 1,482 adolescents followed up for 9 years starting in seventh grade (M[subscript age] = 12.74). Results supported…

  8. Motor imagery training for children with developmental coordination disorder - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.; Steenbergen, B.; Lust, J.M.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the predictive control of movements is impaired in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), most likely due to a deficit in the internal modeling of movements. Motor imagery paradigms have been used to test this internal modeling deficit.

  9. Motor imagery training for children with developmental coordination disorder: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, I.L.J.; Steenbergen, B.; Lust, J.M.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that the predictive control of movements is impaired in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), most likely due to a deficit in the internal modeling of movements. Motor imagery paradigms have been used to test this internal modeling deficit.

  10. Intracranial developmental venous anomaly: is it asymptomatic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, A Bolívar; de Asís Bravo Rodríguez, F; Bravo Rey, I; Romero, E Roldán

    2018-03-16

    Intracranial developmental venous anomalies are the most common vascular malformation. In the immense majority of cases, these anomalies are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally, and they are considered benign. Very exceptionally, however, they can cause neurological symptoms. In this article, we present three cases of patients with developmental venous anomalies that presented with different symptoms owing to complications derived from altered venous drainage. These anomalies were located in the left insula, right temporal lobe, and cerebellum. The exceptionality of the cases presented as well as of the images associated, which show the mechanism through which the symptoms developed, lies in the low incidence of symptomatic developmental venous anomalies reported in the literature. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Infant developmental milestones and adult intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Associations between motor developmental milestones and IQwere analysed bymultiple linear regression adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: Later acquisition of infant developmental milestones was associated with lower subsequent IQ, and the majority of significant......Background: A number of studies suggest a positive association between faster infant motor development and intellectual function in childhood and adolescence. However, studies investigating the relationship between infant motor development and intelligence in adulthood are lacking. Aims......: To investigate whether age at achievement of 12 motor developmental milestones was associated with adult intelligence and to evaluate the influence of sex, parental social status, parity,mother's cigarette consumption in the last trimester, gestational age, birthweight, and birth length on this association...

  12. When modularization fails to occur: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Dean; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2011-05-01

    We argue that models of adult cognition defined in terms of independently functioning modules cannot be applied to development, whether typical or atypical. The infant brain starts out highly interconnected, and it is only over developmental time that neural networks become increasingly specialized-that is, relatively modularized. In the case of atypical development, even when behavioural scores fall within the normal range, they are frequently underpinned by different cognitive and neural processes. In other words, in neurodevelopmental disorders the gradual process of relative modularization may fail to occur.

  13. Mediator and moderator effects in developmental and behavioral pediatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brigid M; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Coakley, Rachael Millstein; Franks, Elizabeth A

    2004-02-01

    The terms mediation and moderation are defined and clarified with particular emphasis on the role of mediational and moderational analyses in developmental and behavioral pediatric research. The article highlights the applicability of mediational and moderational analyses to longitudinal, intervention, and risk and protective factor research, and it provides basic information about how these analyses might be conducted. Also included is a discussion of various ways that both mediator and moderator variables can be incorporated into a single model. The article concludes with extended examples of both types of analyses using a longitudinal pediatric study for illustration. The article provides recommendations for applying mediational and moderational research in clinical practice.

  14. Developmental programming and transgenerational transmission of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, M H

    2014-01-01

    The global obesity pandemic is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle, namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high-energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, far less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from environmental perturbations during the early-life period. Human and animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early-life environment and increased susceptibility to obesity and related metabolic disorders in later life. In particular, altered maternal nutrition, including both undernutrition and maternal obesity, has been shown to lead to transgenerational transmission of metabolic disorders. This association has been conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby the impact of environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the physiology of the offspring. Further, evidence to date suggests that this developmental programming is a transgenerational phenomenon, with a number of studies showing transmission of programming effects to subsequent generations, even in the absence of continued environmental stressors, thus perpetuating a cycle of obesity and metabolic disorders. The mechanisms responsible for these transgenerational effects remain poorly understood; evidence to date suggests a number of potential mechanisms underpinning the transgenerational transmission of the developmentally programmed phenotype through both the maternal and paternal lineage. Transgenerational phenotype transmission is often seen as a form of epigenetic inheritance with evidence showing both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications leading to phenotype changes across generations. However, there is also evidence for non-genomic components as well as an interaction between the developing fetus with the in utero

  15. Normal composite face effects in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotti, Federica; Wu, Esther; Yang, Hua; Jiahui, Guo; Duchaine, Bradley; Cook, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Upright face perception is thought to involve holistic processing, whereby local features are integrated into a unified whole. Consistent with this view, the top half of one face appears to fuse perceptually with the bottom half of another, when aligned spatially and presented upright. This 'composite face effect' reveals a tendency to integrate information from disparate regions when faces are presented canonically. In recent years, the relationship between susceptibility to the composite effect and face recognition ability has received extensive attention both in participants with normal face recognition and participants with developmental prosopagnosia. Previous results suggest that individuals with developmental prosopagnosia may show reduced susceptibility to the effect suggestive of diminished holistic face processing. Here we describe two studies that examine whether developmental prosopagnosia is associated with reduced composite face effects. Despite using independent samples of developmental prosopagnosics and different composite procedures, we find no evidence for reduced composite face effects. The experiments yielded similar results; highly significant composite effects in both prosopagnosic groups that were similar in magnitude to the effects found in participants with normal face processing. The composite face effects exhibited by both samples and the controls were greatly diminished when stimulus arrangements were inverted. Our finding that the whole-face binding process indexed by the composite effect is intact in developmental prosopagnosia indicates that other factors are responsible for developmental prosopagnosia. These results are also inconsistent with suggestions that susceptibility to the composite face effect and face recognition ability are tightly linked. While the holistic process revealed by the composite face effect may be necessary for typical face perception, it is not sufficient; individual differences in face recognition ability

  16. Mural granulosa cell gene expression associated with oocyte developmental competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Jin-Yi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian follicle development is a complex process. Paracrine interactions between somatic and germ cells are critical for normal follicular development and oocyte maturation. Studies have suggested that the health and function of the granulosa and cumulus cells may be reflective of the health status of the enclosed oocyte. The objective of the present study is to assess, using an in vivo immature rat model, gene expression profile in granulosa cells, which may be linked to the developmental competence of the oocyte. We hypothesized that expression of specific genes in granulosa cells may be correlated with the developmental competence of the oocyte. Methods Immature rats were injected with eCG and 24 h thereafter with anti-eCG antibody to induce follicular atresia or with pre-immune serum to stimulate follicle development. A high percentage (30-50%, normal developmental competence, NDC of oocytes from eCG/pre-immune serum group developed to term after embryo transfer compared to those from eCG/anti-eCG (0%, poor developmental competence, PDC. Gene expression profiles of mural granulosa cells from the above oocyte-collected follicles were assessed by Affymetrix rat whole genome array. Results The result showed that twelve genes were up-regulated, while one gene was down-regulated more than 1.5 folds in the NDC group compared with those in the PDC group. Gene ontology classification showed that the up-regulated genes included lysyl oxidase (Lox and nerve growth factor receptor associated protein 1 (Ngfrap1, which are important in the regulation of protein-lysine 6-oxidase activity, and in apoptosis induction, respectively. The down-regulated genes included glycoprotein-4-beta galactosyltransferase 2 (Ggbt2, which is involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis. Conclusions The data in the present study demonstrate a close association between specific gene expression in mural granulosa cells and

  17. Tibial and fibular developmental fields defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, N.J.; Haddad, M.C.; Hourani, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Malformations of the lower limbs are rare and heterogeneous anomalies. To explain the diversity and complexity of these abnormalities, authors introduced the concept of tibial and fibular developmental fields. Defects in these fields are responsible for different malformations, which have been described, to our knowledge, in only one report in the radiology literature. We present a case of a newborn with femoral bifurcation, absent fibulae and talar bones, ankle and foot malformations, and associated atrial septal defect. Our case is an example of defects in both fibular and tibial developmental fields. (orig.)

  18. Developmental programming: the role of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbauer, Anita M

    2015-01-01

    Developmental programming of the fetus has consequences for physiologic responses in the offspring as an adult and, more recently, is implicated in the expression of altered phenotypes of future generations. Some phenotypes, such as fertility, bone strength, and adiposity are highly relevant to food animal production and in utero factors that impinge on those traits are vital to understand. A key systemic regulatory hormone is growth hormone (GH), which has a developmental role in virtually all tissues and organs. This review catalogs the impact of GH on tissue programming and how perturbations early in development influence GH function.

  19. Predicting the risk of developmental toxicity from in vitro assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielmann, Horst

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive toxicity refers to the adverse effects of a substance on any aspect of the reproductive cycle, including the impairment of reproductive function, the induction of adverse effects in the embryo, such as growth retardation, malformations, and death. Due to the complexity of the mammalian reproductive cycle, it is impossible to model the whole cycle in a single in vitro system in order to detect chemical effects on mammalian reproduction. However, the cycle can be broken down in its biological components which may be studied individually or in combination. This approach has the advantage that the target tissue/organ of a developmental toxicant can be identified. In specific areas of developmental toxicity, a number of useful and promising in vitro models are already available. The individual tests may be used as building blocks of a tiered testing strategy. So far, research has focused on developing and validating tests covering only a few components of the reproductive cycle, in particular organogenesis of the embryo, reflecting important concerns for teratogenic chemicals. During the last three decades, a number of established models and promising new developments have emerged that will be discussed, e.g. culture of mammalian embryos and embryonic cells and tissues and the use of embryonic stem cells

  20. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: is physical activity more 'programmable' than food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaoyu; Eclarinal, Jesse; Baker, Maria S; Li, Ge; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mechanisms underlying such developmental programming of energy balance are poorly understood, limiting our ability to intervene. Most studies of developmental programming of energy balance have focused on persistent alterations in the regulation of energy intake; energy expenditure has been relatively underemphasised. In particular, very few studies have evaluated developmental programming of physical activity. The aim of this review is to summarise recent evidence that early environment may have a profound impact on establishment of individual propensity for physical activity. Recently, we characterised two different mouse models of developmental programming of obesity; one models fetal growth restriction followed by catch-up growth, and the other models early postnatal overnutrition. In both studies, we observed alterations in body-weight regulation that persisted to adulthood, but no group differences in food intake. Rather, in both cases, programming of energy balance appeared to be due to persistent alterations in energy expenditure and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). These effects were stronger in female offspring. We are currently exploring the hypothesis that developmental programming of SPA occurs via induced sex-specific alterations in epigenetic regulation in the hypothalamus and other regions of the central nervous system. We will summarise the current progress towards testing this hypothesis. Early environmental influences on establishment of physical activity are likely an important factor in developmental programming of energy balance. Understanding the fundamental underlying mechanisms in appropriate animal models will help determine whether early life