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Sample records for biosensors

  1. Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes theory and principles behind biosensors that incorporate biological components as part of a sensor or probe. Projects major applications in medicine and veterinary medicine, biotechnology, food and agriculture, environmental studies, and the military. Surveys current use of biosensors. (ML)

  2. BIOSENSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has recently been proposed under the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Commission that biosensors be regarded as a subgroup of chemical sensors in which a biologically based mechanism is used for detection of the analyte. hemical sensors are defined und...

  3. Biosensors. Biosensoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, R.D. (TU Braunschweig (Germany) Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung (GBF), Braunschweig (Germany). Bereich Enzymtechnologie/Naturstoffchemie); Bilitewski, U. (Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung (GBF), Braunschweig (Germany). Abt. Enzymtechnologie)

    1992-08-01

    A biosensor is an analysis device in which a biological component (e.g. enzyme or antibody) is connected with a signal transducer. The signal transducer converts a biochemical primary reaction - or its chemical secondary reaction - into an optical or electrical signal. The most important measuring methods are described: Amperometric, potentiometric and optical biosensors; monomolecular films, flow injection systems and so on. Different applications for biosensors are introduced; e.g. in medicine, bioprocess control, food analysis and environmental protection. (orig.).

  4. Biosensor nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Songjun; Li, He; Banerjee, Ipsita A

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on the materials suitable for biosensor applications, such as nanoparticles, quantum dots, meso- and nanoporous materials and nanotubes, this text enables the reader to prepare the respective nanomaterials for use in actual devices by appropriate functionalization, surface processing or directed self-assembly. The main detection methods used are electrochemical, optical, and mechanical, providing solutions to challenging tasks.The result is a reference for researchers and developers, disseminating first-hand information on which nanomaterial is best suited to a particular applicat

  5. Fundamental Aspects of Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sowjanya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor is an analytical device which converts a biological response into an electrical signal. The term 'biosensor' is often used to cover sensor devices used in order to determine the concentration of substances and other parameters of biological interest even where they do not utilize a biological system directly. This very broad definition is used by some scientific journals (e.g. Biosensors, Elsevier Applied Science but will not be applied to the coverage here. The emphasis of this Chapter concerns enzymes as the biologically responsive material, but it should be recognized that other biological systems may be utilized by biosensors, for example, whole cell metabolism, ligand binding and the antibody-antigen reaction. Biosensors represent a rapidly expanding field, at the present time, with an estimated 60% annual growth rate; the major impetus coming from the health-care industry (e.g. 6% of the western world are diabetic and would benefit from the availability of a rapid, accurate and simple biosensor for glucose but with some pressure from other areas, such as food quality appraisal and environmental monitoring. The estimated world analytical market is about 12,000,000,000 year- 1 of which 30% is in the health care area. There is clearly a vast market expansion potential as less than 0.1% of this market is currently using biosensors. Research and development in this field is wide and multidisciplinary, spanning biochemistry, bioreactor science, physical chemistry, electrochemistry, electronics and software engineering. Most of this current endeavour concerns potentiometric and amperometric biosensors and colorimetric paper enzyme strips. However, all the main transducer types are likely to be thoroughly examined, for use in biosensors, over the next few years.

  6. Biosensors Incorporating Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of electrochemical bio-sensing for target analytes based on the use of electrocatalytic bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs, which can improve both the sensitivity and selectivity of biosensors. The review moves quickly from an introduction to the field of bio-sensing, to the importance of biosensors in today’s society, the nature of the electrochemical methods employed and the attendant problems encountered. The role of electrocatalysts is introduced with reference to the three generations of biosensors. The contributions made by previous workers using bimetallic constructs, grouped by target analyte, are then examined in detail; following which, the synthesis and characterization of the catalytic particles is examined prior to a summary of the current state of endeavor. Finally, some perspectives for the future of bimetallic NPs in biosensors are given.

  7. Biosensors : Fundamentals and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    This truly interdisciplinary work is the first substantial and comprehensive book to describe the biosensor, an important new technology combining the specificity and sensitivity of biological systems with the computing capabilities of the micro-processor. Biosensors hold enormous potential: they can monitor personal health and fitness, the food we eat, and our environment. They can replace the large analytical facilities of industrial and health services with cheap and simple devices anyone ...

  8. Biosensors in forensic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickx, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to detect and monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by law enforcement agencies and rescue teams typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. This concept of using dogs to detect specific substances is quite old. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. Thus, the possibility of using other organisms as biosensors including rats, dolphins, honeybees, and parasitic wasps for detecting explosives, narcotics and cadavers has been developed. Insects have several advantages unshared by mammals. Insects are sensitive, cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. Moreover, insects might be a preferred sensing method in scenarios that are deemed too dangerous to use mammals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the biosensors used in forensic sciences.

  9. The future of biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, P.

    1996-01-01

    Since the development of the glucose sensor by Clark and Lyons in 1962, generally recognized as the first biosensor, many types of sensors have been developed in which a physical or chemical transducer is provided with a layer containing a biological sensing element. The resulting device is called a

  10. Recent Trends in Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karube, Isao

    The determination of organic compounds in foods is very important in food industries. A various compounds are contained in foods, selective determination methods are required for food processing and analysis. Electrochemical monitoring devices (biosensors) employing immobilized biocatalysts such as immobilized enzymes, organelles, microorganisms, and tissue have definite advantages. The enzyme Sensors consisted of immobilized enzymes and electrochemical devices. Enzyme sensors could be used for the determination of sugars, amino acids, organic acids, alcohols, lipids, nucleic acid derivatives, etc.. Furthermore, a multifunctional biosensor for the determination of several compounds has been developed for food processing. On the other hand, microbial sensors consisted of immobilized microorganisms and electrodes have been used for industrial and environmental analysis. Microbial sensors were applied for the determination of sugars, organic acids, alcohols, amino acids, mutagens, me thane, ammonia, and BOD. Furthermore, micro-biosensors using immobilized biocatalysts and ion sensitive field effect transistor or microelectrodes prepared by silicon fabrication technologies have been developed for medical ap. plication and food processing. This review summarizes the design and application of biosensors.

  11. HISTAMINE BIOSENSOR: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj*, M. M. Gupta and Shweta Pandey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Some biogenic amine like Histamine, cadaverine and putrescine have been confirmed as useful chemical indicators to estimate bacterial spoilage of foods, particularly fish and fish products, cheese, meat and fermented foods. Histamine is toxic at high intakes, while cadaverine and putrescine potentiate the effects of Histamine. Histamine has regulated level of 200 mg/kg (200 ppm. Basic principle involved in Biogenic amines biosensor is the action of diamine oxidase (DAO that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of primary amines to the corresponding aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. Two different approaches for the histamine biosensor design were studied, i.e. the enzyme DAO was directly immobilized on the surface of the oxygen electrode membrane using glutaraldehyde or entrapped in a hydrogel film. In histamine biosensor consisting of diamine oxidase (DAO and a conventional oxygen electrode transducer was developed and applied for the determination of standard histamine solutions. For immobilisation with glutaraldehyde, the enzyme was cross-linked with glutaraldehyde as a bifunctional reagent on the electrode surface. For entrapment, DAO was entrapped in a polymeric hydrogel film, i.e. poly(hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate (pHEMA polymer and deposited onto the teflon membrane of the oxygen electrode. Good linear correlation response obtained of the histamine biosensors with immobilized DAO showed between the changes of oxygen level with changes in concentration of histamine at both high concentration ranges (200-1000 mg/L and low concentrations (20-100 mg/L. However, the sensitivity of the biosensor response decreased at high concentration range of histamine, for the direct DAO immobilisation with glutaraldehyde. Biogenic amines concentration can be measured by monitoring either the decrease in oxygen or the increase of hydrogen peroxide concentration.

  12. Lipase Based Biosensors for Triglyceride Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli Nurul Huwaida; Mohd Zain Zainiharyati; Ahmad Nor Monica

    2016-01-01

    A review of methods development in lipase based biosensor for triglyceride determination was briefly discussed. This review focuses on the basic principle of triglyceride biosensor that includes performances of triglyceride biosensor such as limit of detection, response time, and optimization.

  13. Electrochemical biosensors in pharmaceutical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eric de Souza Gil; Giselle Rodrigues de Melo

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing demand for practical and low-cost analytical techniques, biosensors have attracted attention for use in the quality analysis of drugs, medicines, and other analytes of interest in the pharmaceutical area. Biosensors allow quantification not only of the active component in pharmaceutical formulations, but also the analysis of degradation products and metabolites in biological fluids. Thus, this article presents a brief review of biosensor use in pharmaceutical analysis, fo...

  14. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Mihaela eTilmaciu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we will describe their structural and physical properties, discuss functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers.

  15. Fiber based optofluidic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lismont, M.; Vandewalle, N.; Joris, B.; Dreesen, L.

    2014-09-01

    Medicinal diagnosis requires the development of innovative devices allowing the detection of small amounts of biological species. Among the large variety of available biosensors, the ones based on fluorescence phenomenon are really promising. Here, we show a prototype of the basic unit of a multi-sensing biosensor combining optics and microfluidics benefits. This unit makes use of two crossed optical fibers: the first fiber is used to carry small probe molecules droplets and excite fluorescence, while the second one is devoted to target molecules droplets transport and fluorescence detection. Within this scheme, the interaction takes place in each fiber node. The main benefits of this detection setup are the absence of fibers functionalization, the use of microliter volumes of target and probe species, their separation before interaction, and a better detection limit compared to cuvettes setups.

  16. Graphene-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, A. A.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Novikov, S. N.; Litvin, D. P.; Makarov, Yu. N.; Klimovich, V. B.; Samoilovich, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    Results of developing and testing graphene-based sensors capable of detecting protein molecules are presented. The biosensor operation was checked using an immunochemical system comprising fluorescein dye and monoclonal antifluorescein antibodies. The sensor detects fluorescein concentration on a level of 1-10 ng/mL and bovine serum albumin-fluorescein conjugate on a level of 1-5 ng/mL. The proposed device has good prospects for use for early diagnostics of various diseases.

  17. Thermoresponsive amperometric glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Ruff, Adrian; Pöller, Sascha; Barwe, Stefan; Nebel, Michaela; Alburquerque, Natalia Guerrero; Wischerhoff, Erik; Laschewsky, André; Schmaderer, Sebastian; Szeponik, Jan; Plumeré, Nicolas; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of a thermoresponsive biosensor for the amperometric detection of glucose. Screen printed electrodes with heatable gold working electrodes were modified by a thermoresponsive statistical copolymer [polymer I: poly(ω-ethoxytriethylenglycol methacrylate-co-3-(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-methacryloyloxyethyl ammonio) propanesulfonate-co-ω-butoxydiethylenglycol methacrylate-co-2-(4-benzoyl-phenoxy)ethyl methacrylate)] with a lower critical solution temperature of around 28 °C in aqueous solution via electrochemically induced codeposition with a pH-responsive redox-polymer [polymer II: poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-allyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-[Os(bpy)2(4-(((2-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)amino)methyl)-N,N-dimethylpicolinamide)](2+)] and pyrroloquinoline quinone-soluble glucose dehydrogenase acting as biological recognition element. Polymer II bears covalently bound Os-complexes that act as redox mediators for shuttling electrons between the enzyme and the electrode surface. Polymer I acts as a temperature triggered immobilization matrix. Probing the catalytic current as a function of the working electrode temperature shows that the activity of the biosensor is dramatically reduced above the phase transition temperature of polymer I. Thus, the local modulation of the temperature at the interphase between the electrode and the bioactive layer allows switching the biosensor from an on- to an off-state without heating of the surrounding analyte solution. PMID:26702635

  18. Protein Detection with Aptamer Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Stoltenburg

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers have been developed for different applications. Their use as new biological recognition elements in biosensors promises progress for fast and easy detection of proteins. This new generation of biosensor (aptasensors will be more stable and well adapted to the conditions of real samples because of the specific properties of aptamers.

  19. Biosensors in Endocrinology- Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoush FARIDBOD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors are classes of sensors in which at least a biological process is used in sensing procedure. They are generally composed of three parts: a sensing element, a transducer, and a signal processor (or detector. They can be categorized by type of sensing materials or by detection techniques. From their invention time up to now, various biological species have been analyzed using variety of biosensors. They have been widely used for environmental, industrial, pharmaceutical and clinical applications in many research papers. Perhaps the number of biosensors which had a chance to commercialize and enter to the market is limited, but by recent developments in science and technology, day-by-day, the number of commercial biosensors are growing. Their importance in clinical medicine can be found in determination of biomarkers for early diagnosis of disease or for control and manage of them in point-of-care devices. Diagnosis and control of many endocrine diseases and metabolic disorders depend strongly on determination of chemicals, hormones and antibodies. A large number of biosensors research studies have focused on determination of these biomolecules. One of the famous commercial biosensor is widely used in management of diabetes is glucometer. They are portable commercial biosensors which measure the amount of glucose in a blood drop. The main challenges in designing biosensors are decrease the limit of detection, increasing the sensitivity and accuracy in an analysis, increasing lifetime and miniaturization. Even scientists are now trying to develop biosensors for non-invasive measurements of biomarkers in saliva or tears. Keywords: Biosensor, Endocrinology, Point-of-care device, Diabetes, Glucometer 

  20. Biosensors for hepatitis B virus detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Chun-Yan; Fu, Wei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A biosensor is an analytical device used for the detection of analytes, which combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector. Recently, an increasing number of biosensors have been used in clinical research, for example, the blood glucose biosensor. This review focuses on the current state of biosensor research with respect to efficient, specific and rapid detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The biosensors developed based on different techniques, including optical methods (...

  1. A high content assay for biosensor validation and for examining stimuli that affect biosensor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Slattery, Scott D.; Hahn, Klaus M.

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors are valuable tools used to monitor many different protein behaviors in vivo. Demand for new biosensors is high, but their development and characterization can be difficult. During biosensor design, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of different biosensor structures on specificity, brightness, and fluorescence responses. By co-expressing the biosensor with upstream proteins that either stimulate or inhibit the activity reported by the biosensor, one can determine the differenc...

  2. Microbial biosensors for environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David VOGRINC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biosensors are analytical devices capable of sensing substances in the environment due to the specific biological reaction of the microorganism or its parts. Construction of a microbial biosensor requires knowledge of microbial response to the specific analyte. Linking this response with the quantitative data, using a transducer, is the crucial step in the construction of a biosensor. Regarding the transducer type, biosensors are divided into electrochemical, optical biosensors and microbial fuel cells. The use of the proper configuration depends on the selection of the biosensing element. With the use of transgenic E. coli strains, bioluminescence or fluorescence based biosensors were developed. Microbial fuel cells enable the use of the heterogeneous microbial populations, isolated from wastewater. Different microorganisms are used for different pollutants – pesticides, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, organic waste, etc. Biosensing enables measurement of their concentration and their toxic or genotoxic effects on the microbes. Increasing environmental awareness has contributed to the increase of interest for biomonitoring. Although technologies, such as bioinformatics and genetic engineering, allow us to design complex and efficient microbial biosensors for environmental pollutants, the transfer of the laboratory work to the field still remains a problem to solve.

  3. Improved Biosensors for Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, J. J.; Masiello, C. A.; Cheng, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Microbes drive processes in the Earth system far exceeding their physical scale, affecting crop yields, water quality, the mobilization of toxic materials, and fundamental aspects of soil biogeochemistry. The tools of synthetic biology have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbial Earth system processes: for example, synthetic microbes can be be programmed to report on environmental conditions that stimulate greenhouse gas production, metal oxidation, biofilm formation, pollutant degradation, and microbe-plant symbioses. However, these tools are only rarely deployed in the lab. This research gap arises because synthetically programmed microbes typically report on their environment by producing molecules that are detected optically (e.g., fluorescent proteins). Fluorescent reporters are ideal for petri-dish applications and have fundamentally changed how we study human health, but their usefulness is quite limited in soils where detecting fluorescence is challenging. Here we describe the construction of gas-reporting biosensors, which release nonpolar gases that can be detected in the headspace of incubation experiments. These constructs can be used to probe microbial processes within soils in real-time noninvasive lab experiments. These biosensors can be combined with traditional omics-based approaches to reveal processes controlling soil microbial behavior and lead to improved environmental management decisions.

  4. Electrochemical biosensors and nanobiosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jules L; Formisano, Nello; Estrela, Pedro; Carrara, Sandro; Tkac, Jan

    2016-06-30

    Electrochemical techniques have great promise for low-cost miniaturised easy-to-use portable devices for a wide range of applications-in particular, medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Different techniques can be used for biosensing, with amperometric devices taking the central role due to their widespread application in glucose monitoring. In fact, glucose biosensing takes an approximately 70% share of the biosensor market due to the need for diabetic patients to monitor their sugar levels several times a day, making it an appealing commercial market.In this review, we present the basic principles of electrochemical biosensor devices. A description of the different generations of glucose sensors is used to describe in some detail the operation of amperometric sensors and how the introduction of mediators can enhance the performance of the sensors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a technique being increasingly used in devices due to its ability to detect variations in resistance and capacitance upon binding events. Novel advances in electrochemical sensors, due to the use of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, are presented as well as future directions that the field is taking. PMID:27365037

  5. Electrochemical biosensors and nanobiosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jules L; Formisano, Nello; Estrela, Pedro; Carrara, Sandro; Tkac, Jan

    2016-06-30

    Electrochemical techniques have great promise for low-cost miniaturised easy-to-use portable devices for a wide range of applications-in particular, medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Different techniques can be used for biosensing, with amperometric devices taking the central role due to their widespread application in glucose monitoring. In fact, glucose biosensing takes an approximately 70% share of the biosensor market due to the need for diabetic patients to monitor their sugar levels several times a day, making it an appealing commercial market.In this review, we present the basic principles of electrochemical biosensor devices. A description of the different generations of glucose sensors is used to describe in some detail the operation of amperometric sensors and how the introduction of mediators can enhance the performance of the sensors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a technique being increasingly used in devices due to its ability to detect variations in resistance and capacitance upon binding events. Novel advances in electrochemical sensors, due to the use of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, are presented as well as future directions that the field is taking.

  6. Multiplexed Biosensors for Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragos, Chris M

    2016-07-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of biosensors that can be used to detect low-MW toxins produced by fungi (mycotoxins). The number of formats that have been investigated is impressive and is an indication of the importance attached to finding easy-to-use, accurate, and rapid methods for detecting these toxins in commodities and foods. This review explores the details of multiplexed biosensors based on many formats, including multiplexed immunoassays, suspension arrays, membrane-based devices (flow-through and immunochromatographic), and planar microarrays. Each assay format has its own strengths and areas that need improvement. Certain formats, such as multiplexed immunochromatographic devices, are well developed and relatively easy to use, and in some cases, commercial products are being sold. Others, such as the suspension arrays and microarrays, are laboratory-based assays that, although more complicated, are also more amenable to a larger scale of multiplexing. The diversity of such efforts and the multitude of formats under investigation suggest that multiple solutions will be found to satisfy the need for multiplexed toxin detection. PMID:27455928

  7. Electrochemical biosensors and nanobiosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jules L.; Formisano, Nello; Carrara, Sandro; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical techniques have great promise for low-cost miniaturised easy-to-use portable devices for a wide range of applications–in particular, medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Different techniques can be used for biosensing, with amperometric devices taking the central role due to their widespread application in glucose monitoring. In fact, glucose biosensing takes an approximately 70% share of the biosensor market due to the need for diabetic patients to monitor their sugar levels several times a day, making it an appealing commercial market. In this review, we present the basic principles of electrochemical biosensor devices. A description of the different generations of glucose sensors is used to describe in some detail the operation of amperometric sensors and how the introduction of mediators can enhance the performance of the sensors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is a technique being increasingly used in devices due to its ability to detect variations in resistance and capacitance upon binding events. Novel advances in electrochemical sensors, due to the use of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, are presented as well as future directions that the field is taking. PMID:27365037

  8. Biosensors in Endocrinology- Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Larijani, Bagher; Norouzi, Parviz; Hosseini, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors are classes of sensors in which at least a biological process is used in sensing procedure. They are generally composed of three parts: a sensing element, a transducer, and a signal processor (or detector). They can be categorized by type of sensing materials or by detection techniques. From their invention time up to now, various biological species have been analyzed using variety of biosensors. They have been widely used for environmental, industrial, pharmaceutical and clinical ...

  9. The electrophotonic silicon biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Colás, José; Parkin, Alison; Dunn, Katherine E.; Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of personalized and stratified medicine requires label-free, low-cost diagnostic technology capable of monitoring multiple disease biomarkers in parallel. Silicon photonic biosensors combine high-sensitivity analysis with scalable, low-cost manufacturing, but they tend to measure only a single biomarker and provide no information about their (bio)chemical activity. Here we introduce an electrochemical silicon photonic sensor capable of highly sensitive and multiparameter profiling of biomarkers. Our electrophotonic technology consists of microring resonators optimally n-doped to support high Q resonances alongside electrochemical processes in situ. The inclusion of electrochemical control enables site-selective immobilization of different biomolecules on individual microrings within a sensor array. The combination of photonic and electrochemical characterization also provides additional quantitative information and unique insight into chemical reactivity that is unavailable with photonic detection alone. By exploiting both the photonic and the electrical properties of silicon, the sensor opens new modalities for sensing on the microscale. PMID:27624590

  10. Noninvasive biosensor for hypoglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, Karunakaran

    2003-01-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar- is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This is especially a concern in early childhood years when the nervous system is still developing. Hypoglycemic unawareness (in which the body"s normal ability to signal low blood sugar doesn"t work and an oncoming low blood sugar episode proceeds undetected) is a particularly frightening problem for many people with diabetes. Researchers have now uncovered evidence that repeated bouts of insulin-induced hypoglycemia can harm the brain over time, causing confusion, abnormal behavior, loss of consciousness, and seizures. Extreme cases have resulted in coma and death. In this paper, a non-invasive biosensor in a wrist watch along with a wireless data downloading system is proposed.

  11. DNA nanotechnology-enabled biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Yinan; Wang, Lianhui; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-02-15

    Biosensors employ biological molecules to recognize the target and utilize output elements which can translate the biorecognition event into electrical, optical or mass-sensitive signals to determine the quantities of the target. DNA-based biosensors, as a sub-field to biosensor, utilize DNA strands with short oligonucleotides as probes for target recognition. Although DNA-based biosensors have offered a promising alternative for fast, simple and cheap detection of target molecules, there still exist key challenges including poor stability and reproducibility that hinder their competition with the current gold standard for DNA assays. By exploiting the self-recognition properties of DNA molecules, researchers have dedicated to make versatile DNA nanostructures in a highly rigid, controllable and functionalized manner, which offers unprecedented opportunities for developing DNA-based biosensors. In this review, we will briefly introduce the recent advances on design and fabrication of static and dynamic DNA nanostructures, and summarize their applications for fabrication and functionalization of DNA-based biosensors. PMID:26212206

  12. DNA nanotechnology-enabled biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Yinan; Wang, Lianhui; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-02-15

    Biosensors employ biological molecules to recognize the target and utilize output elements which can translate the biorecognition event into electrical, optical or mass-sensitive signals to determine the quantities of the target. DNA-based biosensors, as a sub-field to biosensor, utilize DNA strands with short oligonucleotides as probes for target recognition. Although DNA-based biosensors have offered a promising alternative for fast, simple and cheap detection of target molecules, there still exist key challenges including poor stability and reproducibility that hinder their competition with the current gold standard for DNA assays. By exploiting the self-recognition properties of DNA molecules, researchers have dedicated to make versatile DNA nanostructures in a highly rigid, controllable and functionalized manner, which offers unprecedented opportunities for developing DNA-based biosensors. In this review, we will briefly introduce the recent advances on design and fabrication of static and dynamic DNA nanostructures, and summarize their applications for fabrication and functionalization of DNA-based biosensors.

  13. Modelling a Peroxidase-based Optical Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Juozas Kulys; Evelina Gaidamauskait˙e; Romas Baronas

    2007-01-01

    The response of a peroxidase-based optical biosensor was modelled digitally. A mathematical model of the optical biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments, an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer. The digital simulation was carried out using finite difference technique. The influence of the substrate concentration as well as of the thickness of both the enzyme and diffusion layers on the biosensor respons...

  14. Biosensor for metal analysis and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail M.; Peyton, Brent M.; Apel, William A.; Petersen, James N.

    2007-01-30

    A biosensor for metal analysis and speciation is disclosed. The biosensor comprises an electron carrier immobilized to a surface of an electrode and a layer of an immobilized enzyme adjacent to the electrode. The immobilized enzyme comprises an enzyme having biological activity inhibited by a metal to be detected by the biosensor.

  15. Biosensors for termite control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkhanda, M.

    2013-12-01

    Termites are major urban pests in Pakistan and cause damage to wooden structures and buildings. Termite management has two parts: prevention and control. The most difficult part of termite control is termite detection as most of them are subterranean in Pakistan and have tunneling habit.Throughout the world, chemical termiticides are going to be replaced by baits, microwave and sensor technology. Termite species are distinct biologically and have specific foraging behaviors. Termite Detection Radar, Moisture meter and Remote Thermal Sensor with Laser are available throughout the world. These can detect termites underground and use fewer chemicals than traditional methods. For wooden buildings, a termite sensor and an intrusion detection system for detecting termites are designed. A pair of electrodes is disposed inside the container. A pair of terminals is connected to these electrodes, these extend outside the container. Termites are detected by a change of conductivity between the electrodes, when termites are detected a warning device generates a warning signal. In Pakistan, there is dire need to develop such biosensoring devices locally, then apply control methods that would save money and protect the environment.

  16. Biosensors for termite control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Termites are major urban pests in Pakistan and cause damage to wooden structures and buildings. Termite management has two parts: prevention and control. The most difficult part of termite control is termite detection as most of them are subterranean in Pakistan and have tunneling habit.Throughout the world, chemical termiticides are going to be replaced by baits, microwave and sensor technology. Termite species are distinct biologically and have specific foraging behaviors. Termite Detection Radar, Moisture meter and Remote Thermal Sensor with Laser are available throughout the world. These can detect termites underground and use fewer chemicals than traditional methods. For wooden buildings, a termite sensor and an intrusion detection system for detecting termites are designed. A pair of electrodes is disposed inside the container. A pair of terminals is connected to these electrodes, these extend outside the container. Termites are detected by a change of conductivity between the electrodes, when termites are detected a warning device generates a warning signal. In Pakistan, there is dire need to develop such biosensoring devices locally, then apply control methods that would save money and protect the environment

  17. Application and Development of Biosensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yuelin; LI Jichang; HUO Guicheng; LIU Libo

    2008-01-01

    As a new kind of analytical instrument, the principles, types and characters of biosensors were discussed in this paper. A biosensor is usually composed of a recognition element of biological origin and a physicochemical transducer. The biological element is capable of sensing the presence, activity or concentration of a chemical analyse in solution. The sensing takes place either as a binding event or a biocatalyticai event. These into'actions produce a measurable change in a solution property, in which the transducer is converted into a quantifiable electrical signal. The principles, types and applications of biosensors in environmental inspection, food production, clinical medicine and military defense were reviewed, and the trends in research were predicated. Furthermore, an attempt had been made to describe the future development directions and prospects.

  18. Biosensors for hepatitis B virus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chun-Yan; Fu, Wei-Ling

    2014-09-21

    A biosensor is an analytical device used for the detection of analytes, which combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector. Recently, an increasing number of biosensors have been used in clinical research, for example, the blood glucose biosensor. This review focuses on the current state of biosensor research with respect to efficient, specific and rapid detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The biosensors developed based on different techniques, including optical methods (e.g., surface plasmon resonance), acoustic wave technologies (e.g., quartz crystal microbalance), electrochemistry (amperometry, voltammetry and impedance) and novel nanotechnology, are also discussed. PMID:25253948

  19. Modelling a Peroxidase-based Optical Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Gaidamauskaite, Evelina; Kulys, Juozas

    2007-01-01

    The response of a peroxidase-based optical biosensor was modelled digitally. A mathematical model of the optical biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments, an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer. The digital simulation was carried out using finite difference technique. The influence of the substrate concentration as well as of the thickness of both the enzyme and diffusion layers on the biosensor response was investigated. Calculations showed complex kinetics of the biosensor response, especially at low concentrations of the peroxidase and of the hydrogen peroxide.

  20. Cell-Based Biosensors Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ping

    2009-01-01

    Written by recognized experts the field, this leading-edge resource is the first book to systematically introduce the concept, technology, and development of cell-based biosensors. You find details on the latest cell-based biosensor models and novel micro-structure biosensor techniques. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, this unique volume presents the latest innovative applications of cell-based biosensors in a variety of biomedical fields. The book also explores future trends of cell-based biosensors, including integrated chips, nanotechnology and microfluidics. Over 140 illustrations hel

  1. Micro-and nanoelectromechanical biosensors

    CERN Document Server

    Nicu, Liviu

    2014-01-01

    Most books dedicated to the issues of bio-sensing are organized by the well-known scheme of a biosensor. In this book, the authors have deliberately decided to break away from the conventional way of treating biosensing research by uniquely addressing biomolecule immobilization methods on a solid surface, fluidics issues and biosensing-related transduction techniques, rather than focusing simply on the biosensor. The aim is to provide a contemporary snapshot of the biosensing landscape without neglecting the seminal references or products where needed, following the downscaling (from the micr

  2. Biosensors in Clinical Practice: Focus on Oncohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Cortelezzi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors are devices that are capable of detecting specific biological analytes and converting their presence or concentration into some electrical, thermal, optical or other signal that can be easily analysed. The first biosensor was designed by Clark and Lyons in 1962 as a means of measuring glucose. Since then, much progress has been made and the applications of biosensors are today potentially boundless. This review is limited to their clinical applications, particularly in the field of oncohematology. Biosensors have recently been developed in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by hematological malignancies, such as the biosensor for assessing the in vitro pre-treatment efficacy of cytarabine in acute myeloid leukemia, and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor for assessing the efficacy of imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia. The review also considers the challenges and future perspectives of biosensors in clinical practice.

  3. Enzyme conductometric biosensor for maltose determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyadevych S. V.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To develop enzyme conductometric biosensor for maltose determination. Methods. A conductometric transducer consisting of two gold pairs of electrodes was applied. Three-enzyme membrane (glucose oxidase, mutarotase, -glucosidase immobilized on the surface of the conductometric transducer was used as a bioselective element. Results. A linear range of maltose conductometric biosensor was from 0,002 mM to 1 mM for glucose and maltose detection. The time of maltose analysis in solution was 1–2 minutes. The dependence of biosensor responses to substrate on pH, ionic strength, and buffer capacity of work solution was studied. The data of biosensor selectivity are presented. The developed conductometric biosensor is characterized by high operational stability and signal reproducibility. Conclusion. The enzyme conductometric biosensor for maltose determination has been developed. The analytical characteristics of the maltose biosensor were investigated. The proposed method could be used in food industry to control and optimize production.

  4. Biosensors and their applications - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Parikha

    2016-01-01

    The various types of biosensors such as enzyme-based, tissue-based, immunosensors, DNA biosensors, thermal and piezoelectric biosensors have been deliberated here to highlight their indispensable applications in multitudinous fields. Some of the popular fields implementing the use of biosensors are food industry to keep a check on its quality and safety, to help distinguish between the natural and artificial; in the fermentation industry and in the saccharification process to detect precise glucose concentrations; in metabolic engineering to enable in vivo monitoring of cellular metabolism. Biosensors and their role in medical science including early stage detection of human interleukin-10 causing heart diseases, rapid detection of human papilloma virus, etc. are important aspects. Fluorescent biosensors play a vital role in drug discovery and in cancer. Biosensor applications are prevalent in the plant biology sector to find out the missing links required in metabolic processes. Other applications are involved in defence, clinical sector, and for marine applications. PMID:27195214

  5. A luminescent nisin biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Nina; Karp, Matti

    2006-02-01

    Nisin is a lantibiotic, an antibacterial peptide produced by certain Lactococcus lactis strains that kills or inhibits the growth of other bacteria. Nisin is widely used as a food preservative, and its long-time use suggests that it can be generally regarded as safe. We have developed a method for determining the amount of nisin in food samples that is based on luminescent biosensor bacteria. Bacterial luciferase operon luxABCDE was inserted into plasmid pNZ8048, and the construct was transformed by electroporation into Lc. lactis strain NZ9800, whose ability to produce nisin has been erased by deletion of the gene nisA. The operon luxABCDE has been modified to be functional in gram-positive bacteria to confer a bioluminescent phenotype without the requirement of adding an exogenous substrate. In the plasmid pNZ8048, the operon was placed under control of the nisin-inducible nisA promoter. The chromosomal nisRK genes of Lc. lactis NZ9800 allow it to sense nisin in the environment and relay this signal via signal transduction proteins NisK and NisR to initiate transcription from nisA promoter. In the case of our sensor bacteria, this leads to production of luciferase and, thus, luminescence that can be directly measured from living bacteria. Luminescence can be detected as early as within minutes of induction. The nisin assay described here provides a detection limit in the sub-picogram level per ml, and a linear area between 1 - 1000 pg/ml. The sensitivity of this assay exceeds the performance of all previously published methods.

  6. DESIGN OF INTEGRATING WAVEGUIDE BIOSENSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Integrating Waveguide Biosensor allows for rapid and sensitive detection of pathogenic agents, cells and proteins via immunoassay or PCR products. The analytes are captured on the surface of the waveguide and then tagged with fluorescent labels. The waveguides are illuminated by excitation light...

  7. Biosensors and multiple mycotoxin analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, B. van der; Spath, S.; Dietrich, H.; Stigter, E.; Boonzaaijer, G.; Osenbruggen, T. van; Koopal, K.

    2003-01-01

    An immunochemical biosensor assay for the detection of multiple mycotoxins in a sample is described.The inhibition assay is designed to measure four different mycotoxins in a single measurement, following extraction, sample clean-up and incubation with an appropriate cocktail of anti-mycotoxin antib

  8. Polystyrene Based SPR Biosensor Chip for Use in Immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Biosensors are widely used in immunoassay.The biosensor chip carries a receptor which is used in immunoassay and the chip properties have an important influence on the detecting sensitivity of the biosensor.This paper describes a polystyrene-based biosensor chip developed and used as part of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor.The SPR biosensor has a much higher detecting sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunoserbent assay (ELISA).

  9. Tiny Medicine: Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Watts

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tiny medicine refers to the development of small easy to use devices that can help in the early diagnosis and treatment of disease. Early diagnosis is the key to successfully treating many diseases. Nanomaterial-based biosensors utilize the unique properties of biological and physical nanomaterials to recognize a target molecule and effect transduction of an electronic signal. In general, the advantages of nanomaterial-based biosensors are fast response, small size, high sensitivity, and portability compared to existing large electrodes and sensors. Systems integration is the core technology that enables tiny medicine. Integration of nanomaterials, microfluidics, automatic samplers, and transduction devices on a single chip provides many advantages for point of care devices such as biosensors. Biosensors are also being used as new analytical tools to study medicine. Thus this paper reviews how nanomaterials can be used to build biosensors and how these biosensors can help now and in the future to detect disease and monitor therapies.

  10. Zinc Oxide Nanostructured Biosensor for Glucose Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. W.Sun; J.X. Wang; A. Wei

    2008-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocombs were fabricated by vapor phase transport, and nanorods and hierarchical nanodisk structures by aqueous thermal decomposition. Glucose biosensors were constructed using these ZnO nanostructures as supporting materials for glucose oxidase (GOx) loading. These ZnO glucose biosensors showed a high sensitivity for glucose detection and high affinity of GOx to glucose as well as the low detection limit. The results demonstrate that ZnO nanostructures have potential applications in biosensors.

  11. Label-Free Biosensors for Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ye Fang

    2011-01-01

    Label-free biosensors for studying cell biology have finally come of age. Recent developments have advanced the biosensors from low throughput and high maintenance research tools to high throughput and low maintenance screening platforms. In parallel, the biosensors have evolved from an analytical tool solely for molecular interaction analysis to powerful platforms for studying cell biology at the whole cell level. This paper presents historical development, detection principles, and applicat...

  12. Biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials and Nanodevices links interdisciplinary research from leading experts to provide graduate students, academics, researchers, and industry professionals alike with a comprehensive source for key advancements and future trends in nanostructured biosensor development. It describes the concepts, principles, materials, device fabrications, functions, system integrations, and applications of various types of biosensors based on signal transduction mechanisms, including fluorescence, photonic crystal, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, electrochemistry, electro-lumine

  13. Label-Free Biosensors for Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Fang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Label-free biosensors for studying cell biology have finally come of age. Recent developments have advanced the biosensors from low throughput and high maintenance research tools to high throughput and low maintenance screening platforms. In parallel, the biosensors have evolved from an analytical tool solely for molecular interaction analysis to powerful platforms for studying cell biology at the whole cell level. This paper presents historical development, detection principles, and applications in cell biology of label-free biosensors. Future perspectives are also discussed.

  14. Zinc oxide interdigitated electrode for biosensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin L., L.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Fathil, M. F. M.; Adzhri, R.; M. Nuzaihan M., N.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Hashim, U.

    2016-07-01

    In biosensors, zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film plays a crucial role in term of stability, sensitivity, biocompatibility and low cost. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) design is one of the device architecture in biosensor for label free, stability and sensitivity. In this paper, we discuss the fabrication of zinc oxide deposited on the IDE as a transducer for sensing of biomolecule. The formation of APTES had increase the performance of the surface functionalization..Furthermore we extend the discuss on the surface functionalization process which is utilized for probe attachment onto the surface of biosensor through surface immobilization process, thus enables the sensing of biomolecules for biosensor application.

  15. Novel Polythiophenes for Biosensor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The development of an enzyme biosensor employing a novel functionalised polythiophene matrix is presented. The research upon conducting polymer platforms for biological immobilisation is extensive but by no means exhaustive and therefore this investigation contributes to the field of glucose detection with covalently immobilised glucose oxidase upon novel copolymers of N-succinimido thiophene-3- acetate/3-methylthiophene (STA-MT), trans-3-(3-thienyl) acetic acid/3- methylthiophene (TTA-MT)...

  16. Improvements in electrochemical glucose biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Fragkou, Vasiliki

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. Even though insulin was discovered in 1920, an intense research on diabetes has been conducted during the last five decades and this is because of the market size. The huge demand is creating the need for the development of new approaches. This project involved the research aimed at better understanding and improvements in performance of glucose biosensors. In general, high surface area electrodes ar...

  17. Alginate cryogel based glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoni, Amin; Windy Dwiasi, Dian; Hermawan, Dadan

    2016-02-01

    Cryogel is macroporous structure provides a large surface area for biomolecule immobilization. In this work, an alginate cryogel based biosensor was developed to detect glucose. The cryogel was prepared using alginate cross-linked by calcium chloride under sub-zero temperature. This porous structure was growth in a 100 μL micropipette tip with a glucose oxidase enzyme entrapped inside the cryogel. The glucose detection was based on the colour change of redox indicator, potassium permanganate, by the hydrogen peroxide resulted from the conversion of glucose. The result showed a porous structure of alginate cryogel with pores diameter of 20-50 μm. The developed glucose biosensor was showed a linear response in the glucose detection from 1.0 to 5.0 mM with a regression of y = 0.01x+0.02 and R2 of 0.994. Furthermore, the glucose biosensor was showed a high operational stability up to 10 times of uninterrupted glucose detections.

  18. Biosensor of endotoxin and sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yang; Wang, Xiang; Wu, Xi; Gao, Wei; He, Qing-hua; Cai, Shaoxi

    2001-09-01

    To investigate the relation between biosensor of endotoxin and endotoxin of plasma in sepsis. Method: biosensor of endotoxin was designed with technology of quartz crystal microbalance bioaffinity sensor ligand of endotoxin were immobilized by protein A conjugate. When a sample soliton of plasma containing endotoxin 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0Eu, treated with perchloric acid and injected into slot of quartz crystal surface respectively, the ligand was released from the surface of quartz crystal to form a more stable complex with endotoxin in solution. The endotoxin concentration corresponded to the weight change on the crystal surface, and caused change of frequency that occurred when desorbed. The result was biosensor of endotoxin might detect endotoxin of plasma in sepsis, measurements range between 0.05Eu and 0.5Eu in the stop flow mode, measurement range between 0.1Eu and 1Eu in the flow mode. The sensor of endotoxin could detect the endotoxin of plasm rapidly, and use for detection sepsis in clinically.

  19. Polymer Based Biosensors for Medical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherré, Solène; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to give an overview about the newest developments in biosensors made of polymers for medical applications. Biosensors are devices that can recognize and detect a target with high selectivity. They are widely used in many fields such as medical diagnostic...

  20. Functionalized Palladium Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Baccar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison between two biosensors for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection. The first biosensor was developed by the immobilization of Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP enzyme on thiol-modified gold electrode. The second biosensor was developed by the immobilization of cysteamine functionalizing palladium nanoparticles on modified gold surface. The amino groups can be activated with glutaraldehyde for horseradish peroxidase immobilization. The detection of hydrogen peroxide was successfully observed in PBS for both biosensors using the cyclic voltammetry and the chronoamperometry techniques. The results show that the limit detection depends on the large surface-to-volume ratio attained with palladium nanoparticles. The second biosensor presents a better detection limit of 7.5 μM in comparison with the first one which is equal to 75 μM.

  1. ZnO-Based Amperometric Enzyme Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helong Jiang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZnO with its unique properties could provide a suitable microenvironment for immobilization of enzymes while retaining their biological activity, and thus lead to an expanded use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance. ZnO-based enzyme electrochemical biosensors are summarized in several tables for an easy overview according to the target biosensing analyte (glucose, hydrogen peroxide, phenol and cholesterol, respectively. Moreover, recent developments in enzyme electrochemical biosensors based on ZnO nanomaterials are reviewed with an emphasis on the fabrications and features of ZnO, approaches for biosensor construction (e.g., modified electrodes and enzyme immobilization and biosensor performances.

  2. Nanomaterials based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bansi D.; Kumar, Saurabh; Mouli Pandey, Chandra

    2016-04-01

    Biosensors have enormous potential to contribute to the evolution of new molecular diagnostic techniques for patients suffering with cancerous diseases. A major obstacle preventing faster development of biosensors pertains to the fact that cancer is a highly complex set of diseases. The oncologists currently rely on a few biomarkers and histological characterization of tumors. Some of the signatures include epigenetic and genetic markers, protein profiles, changes in gene expression, and post-translational modifications of proteins. These molecular signatures offer new opportunities for development of biosensors for cancer detection. In this context, conducting paper has recently been found to play an important role towards the fabrication of a biosensor for cancer biomarker detection. In this paper we will focus on results of some of the recent studies obtained in our laboratories relating to fabrication and application of nanomaterial modified paper based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection.

  3. Biosensoric potential of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, György; Kovács, Tamás; Rákhely, Gábor; Czeller, Miklós

    2016-08-01

    Recent progress in microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has highlighted the potential of these devices to be used as biosensors. The advantages of MFC-based biosensors are that they are phenotypic and can function in either assay- or flow-through formats. These features make them appropriate for contiguous on-line monitoring in laboratories and for in-field applications. The selectivity of an MFC biosensor depends on the applied microorganisms in the anodic compartment where electron transfer (ET) between the artificial surface (anode) and bacterium occurs. This process strongly determines the internal resistance of the sensoric system and thus influences signal outcome and response time. Despite their beneficial characteristics, the number of MFC-based biosensoric applications has been limited until now. The aim of this mini-review is to turn attention to the biosensoric potential of MFCs by summarizing ET mechanisms on which recently established and future sensoric devices are based. PMID:27401925

  4. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳琼; 孟宪伟; 陈东; 冉均国; 郑昌琼

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydro-philic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  5. Glucose biosensor enhanced by nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Glucose biosensors have been formed with glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized in composite immobilization membrane matrix, which is composed of hydrophobic gold, or hydrophilic gold, or hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, or the combination of gold and silica nanoparticles, and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) by a sol-gel method. The experiments show that nanoparticles can significantly enhance the catalytic activity of the immobilization enzyme. The current response can be increased from tens of nanoamperometer (nA) to thousands of nanoamperometer to the same glucose concentration, and the electrodes respond very quickly, to about 1 min. The function of nanoparticles effect on immobilization enzyme has been discussed.

  6. Biosensors: tool for food borne pathogen detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A paramount and alluring sphere of research, now-a-days, is food analysis, because of the breakneck augmentation of food enterprise and highly hightened maneuverability of today's populations. The management of food quality is very indispensable both for consumer safeguard as well as the food corporations. The biosensors' application in the field of food analysis is quite propitious for the revealing of food borne pathogens. Biosensor, an analytical device, transforms a biological response into an electrical signal. Bioreceptors and transducers are the two main components of a biosensor. Bioreceptor or biorecognition element is the one which leads to the recognition of target analyte and a transducer, for the conversion of recognized event into a measurable electrical signal. The development of biosensors improved the sensitivity and selectivity of detection techniques for food borne pathogens and is rapid, reliable, effective and highly suitable when used in in situ analysis. Since the security in the food supply becomes crucial because of increased perception among consumers and vying nature of food industries, the necessity for expeditious, low volume and sensitive biosensor devices has productively increased. Nevertheless, till date, a very few biosensor systems are available commercially such as Biacore, SpreetaTM, Reichert SR 7000, Analyte 2000, RAPTOR etc. Since, there is ever growing concern regarding safe food and water supply, it is very obvious that the demand for rapid detecting biosensors will also be increasing at par.

  7. Improved biosensor-based detection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Described is a new biosensor-based detection system for effector compounds, useful for in vivo applications in e.g. screening and selecting of cells which produce a small molecule effector compound or which take up a small molecule effector compound from its environment. The detection system...... comprises a protein or RNA-based biosensor for the effector compound which indirectly regulates the expression of a reporter gene via two hybrid proteins, providing for fewer false signals or less 'noise', tuning of sensitivity or other advantages over conventional systems where the biosensor directly...

  8. Design Strategies for Aptamer-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Han

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers have been widely used as recognition elements for biosensor construction, especially in the detection of proteins or small molecule targets, and regarded as promising alternatives for antibodies in bioassay areas. In this review, we present an overview of reported design strategies for the fabrication of biosensors and classify them into four basic modes: target-induced structure switching mode, sandwich or sandwich-like mode, target-induced dissociation/displacement mode and competitive replacement mode. In view of the unprecedented advantages brought about by aptamers and smart design strategies, aptamer-based biosensors are expected to be one of the most promising devices in bioassay related applications.

  9. Modeling amperometric biosensors based on allosteric enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liutauras Ričkus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Computational modeling of a biosensor with allosteric enzyme layer was investigated in this study. The operation of the biosensor is modeled using non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves three regions: the allosteric enzyme layer where the allosteric enzyme reactions as well as then mass transport by diffusion take place, the diffusion region where the mass transport by diffusion and non-enzymatic reactions take place and the convective region in which the analyte concentration is maintained constant. The biosensor response on dependency substrate concentration, cooperativity coefficient and the diffusion layer thickness on the same parameters have been studied.

  10. Photonic crystal biosensor in spatial fourier domain

    OpenAIRE

    Hallynck, Elewout; Bienstman, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We propose a photonic crystal biosensor, operating at a single wavelength, based on analysis of resonant guided modes in the spatial Fourier domain. Sensitivities of 65 degrees per RIU and more have been simulated.

  11. Biosensors a promising future in measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biosensor is an analytical device which can be used to convert the existence of a molecule or compound into a measurable and useful signal. Biosensors use stimulus to translate changes to recognisable signals and have great importance to society. Applications include diagnosis tools for diseases, security appliances, and other biomedical equipments. Biosensors can also be used in the detection of pathogens and other microbes in foodstuffs, drugs and processing industries. Enormous progress and advancement has been witnessed in this area. Research and development in micro level systems serves to interface biology with novel materials such as nanomaterial. Development of high speed and accurate electronic devices tfor use in medicine and energy storage (such as biofuel cells) is one of the target areas. This paper discusses the importance, use and current and future trend in the application of biosensors

  12. Recent Advances in Nanotechnology Applied to Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxiang Cui

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been great progress the application of nanomaterials in biosensors. The importance of these to the fundamental development of biosensors has been recognized. In particular, nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots have been being actively investigated for their applications in biosensors, which have become a new interdisciplinary frontier between biological detection and material science. Here we review some of the main advances in this field over the past few years, explore the application prospects, and discuss the issues, approaches, and challenges, with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing nanomaterial-based biosensors and improving their applications in disease diagnosis and food safety examination.

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE: Environmental applications of analytical biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, María-Pilar; Barceló, Damià

    1996-11-01

    A review of the fundamental aspects and environmental applications of biosensors is presented. The bases of different transducer principles such as electrochemical, optical and piezoelectric are discussed. Various examples are given of the applications of such principles to develop immunosensor devices to determine common environmental contaminants. Attention is also paid to catalytic biosensors, using enzymes as sensing elements. Biosensor devices based on the use of cholinesterase and various oxidase enzymes such as tyrosinase, laccase, peroxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase are reported. Some examples are given of the applications of other biomolecules such as whole cells, DNA or proteins, to determine pollution. Validation studies are presented comparing biosensors with chromatographic techniques to determine organophosphorus pesticides and phenolic compounds in environmental samples.

  14. Enzyme conductometric biosensor for maltose determination

    OpenAIRE

    Dzyadevych S. V.; Soldatkin O. O.; Saiapina O. Y.; Pyeshkova V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim. To develop enzyme conductometric biosensor for maltose determination. Methods. A conductometric transducer consisting of two gold pairs of electrodes was applied. Three-enzyme membrane (glucose oxidase, mutarotase, -glucosidase) immobilized on the surface of the conductometric transducer was used as a bioselective element. Results. A linear range of maltose conductometric biosensor was from 0,002 mM to 1 mM for glucose and maltose detection. The time of maltose analysis in solution was 1...

  15. Amperometric biosensors based on conducting nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Kros, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a multidisciplinary study towards the development of a glucose biosensor that in the future can be used for in vivo implantations. The research focuses on three major topics, viz. the construction of the glucose sensor, the development of a biocompatible coating and a study of the factors influencing the in vivo behaviour of implanted biosensors. The first part of this thesis describes the construction of an amperometric glucose sensor based on the enzyme glucose oxidase...

  16. ZnO-Based Amperometric Enzyme Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Helong Jiang; Baoping Wang; Xiaobing Zhang; Zhiwei Zhao; Wei Lei

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructured ZnO with its unique properties could provide a suitable microenvironment for immobilization of enzymes while retaining their biological activity, and thus lead to an expanded use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance. ZnO-based enzyme electrochemical biosensors are summarized in several tables for an easy overview according to the target biosensing analyte (glucose, hydrogen peroxide, phenol and cholesterol)...

  17. Intelligent Communication Module for Wireless Biosensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, R.; Singh, J.; Le, H. P.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presented a new paradigm of biosensors which have processing capability with an intelligent and adaptive wireless communication module. The adaptive communication module efficiently reconfigures its hardware components according to the changes in operating environment in order to reduce system power consumption and optimally utilise resources. The chapter presented several significant applications of wireless biosensor networks which hold enormous potential to benefit the communi...

  18. Biosensors in clinical chemistry: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sathish Babu Murugaiyan; Ramesh Ramasamy; Niranjan Gopal; Kuzhandaivelu, V.

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a) the nature of the recognition event or (b) the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic device...

  19. Gold coated ZnO nanorod biosensor for glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Anuradha; Jain, Chhavi; Rao, V. Padmanapan; Banerjee, S.

    2012-06-01

    Gold coated ZnO nanorod based biosensor has been fabricated for its glucose detecting abilities and compared with that of ZnO nanorod based biosensor. SEM images of electrochemically grown ZnO nanorods show hexagonally grown ZnO nanorods on an ITO substrate. Electrochemical analysis show that gold coated ZnO based biosensors have higher sensitivity, lower limit of detection and a wider linear range for glucose detection. The results demonstrate that gold coated ZnO nanorod based biosensors are a promising material for biosensor applications over single component ZnO nanorod based biosensor.

  20. Integrated optical biosensor system (IOBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Karen M.; Sweet, Martin R.; Goeller, Roy M.; Morrison, Leland Jean; Grace, Wynne Kevin; Kolar, Jerome D.

    2007-10-30

    An optical biosensor has a first enclosure with a pathogen recognition surface, including a planar optical waveguide and grating located in the first enclosure. An aperture is in the first enclosure for insertion of sample to be investigated to a position in close proximity to the pathogen recognition surface. A laser in the first enclosure includes means for aligning and means for modulating the laser, the laser having its light output directed toward said grating. Detection means are located in the first enclosure and in optical communication with the pathogen recognition surface for detecting pathogens after interrogation by the laser light and outputting the detection. Electronic means is located in the first enclosure and receives the detection for processing the detection and outputting information on the detection, and an electrical power supply is located in the first enclosure for supplying power to the laser, the detection means and the electronic means.

  1. Biosensors in clinical chemistry: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Babu Murugaiyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a the nature of the recognition event or (b the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic devices are examples for the former and the first, whereas second and third generation instruments are examples for the latter. Cell-based biosensors utilizing immobilized cells, tissues as also enzyme immunosensors and DNA biosensors find variegated uses in diagnostics. Enzyme nanoparticle-based biosensors make use of small particles in the nanometer scale and are currently making a mark in laboratory medicine. Nanotechnology can help in optimizing the diagnostic biochips, which would facilitate sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise bedside monitoring. Biosensors render themselves as capable diagnostic tools as they meet most of the above-mentioned criteria.

  2. Applications of Nanomaterials in Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglan Qi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (also called electrochemiluminescence and abbreviated ECL involves the generation of species at electrode surfaces that then undergo electron-transfer reactions to form excited states that emit light. ECL biosensor, combining advantages offered by the selectivity of the biological recognition elements and the sensitivity of ECL technique, is a powerful device for ultrasensitive biomolecule detection and quantification. Nanomaterials are of considerable interest in the biosensor field owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, which have led to novel biosensors that have exhibited high sensitivity and stability. Nanomaterials including nanoparticles and nanotubes, prepared from metals, semiconductor, carbon or polymeric species, have been widely investigated for their ability to enhance the efficiencies of ECL biosensors, such as taking as modification electrode materials, or as carrier of ECL labels and ECL-emitting species. Particularly useful application of nanomaterials in ECL biosensors with emphasis on the years 2004-2008 is reviewed. Remarks on application of nanomaterials in ECL biosensors are also surveyed.

  3. Overview of affinity biosensors in food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pradip D

    2006-01-01

    The 4 major driving forces that are expected to lead to increased use of affinity biosensors that meet crucial industrial test specifications, e.g., fast, reliable, cost-effective, and use of low-skilled personnel, are (1) strict legislative framework, e.g., recent changes proposed to the European food safety and hygiene legislation, EC No. 178/2002; (2) industrial shift from quality control to quality assurance procedures, e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, ensuring effective positioning in the global competitive trade; (3) just-in-time production resulting in 'right' product every time; and (4) consumer demand for safe and wholesome products. The affinity biosensors field has expanded significantly over the past decade, with a projected global biosensors market growth from $6.1 billion in 2004 to $8.2 billion in 2009, representing major industrial sectors (e.g., Pharma, Medicare, and Food). This brief review is targeted to affinity biosensors developed for the food industry and includes research and development leading to biosensors for microbiological and chemical analytes of industrial concern, commercial biosensors products on the market, and examples of future prospects in this diagnostic field. PMID:16792079

  4. Overview of affinity biosensors in food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pradip D

    2006-01-01

    The 4 major driving forces that are expected to lead to increased use of affinity biosensors that meet crucial industrial test specifications, e.g., fast, reliable, cost-effective, and use of low-skilled personnel, are (1) strict legislative framework, e.g., recent changes proposed to the European food safety and hygiene legislation, EC No. 178/2002; (2) industrial shift from quality control to quality assurance procedures, e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, ensuring effective positioning in the global competitive trade; (3) just-in-time production resulting in 'right' product every time; and (4) consumer demand for safe and wholesome products. The affinity biosensors field has expanded significantly over the past decade, with a projected global biosensors market growth from $6.1 billion in 2004 to $8.2 billion in 2009, representing major industrial sectors (e.g., Pharma, Medicare, and Food). This brief review is targeted to affinity biosensors developed for the food industry and includes research and development leading to biosensors for microbiological and chemical analytes of industrial concern, commercial biosensors products on the market, and examples of future prospects in this diagnostic field.

  5. Biosensor technology: technology push versus market pull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, John H T; Male, Keith B; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2008-01-01

    Biosensor technology is based on a specific biological recognition element in combination with a transducer for signal processing. Since its inception, biosensors have been expected to play a significant analytical role in medicine, agriculture, food safety, homeland security, environmental and industrial monitoring. However, the commercialization of biosensor technology has significantly lagged behind the research output as reflected by a plethora of publications and patenting activities. The rationale behind the slow and limited technology transfer could be attributed to cost considerations and some key technical barriers. Analytical chemistry has changed considerably, driven by automation, miniaturization, and system integration with high throughput for multiple tasks. Such requirements pose a great challenge in biosensor technology which is often designed to detect one single or a few target analytes. Successful biosensors must be versatile to support interchangeable biorecognition elements, and in addition miniaturization must be feasible to allow automation for parallel sensing with ease of operation at a competitive cost. A significant upfront investment in research and development is a prerequisite in the commercialization of biosensors. The progress in such endeavors is incremental with limited success, thus, the market entry for a new venture is very difficult unless a niche product can be developed with a considerable market volume. PMID:18577442

  6. Biosensors in clinical chemistry: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu; Ramasamy, Ramesh; Gopal, Niranjan; Kuzhandaivelu, V

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors are small devices that employ biological/biochemical reactions for detecting target analytes. Basically, the device consists of a biocatalyst and a transducer. The biocatalyst may be a cell, tissue, enzyme or even an oligonucleotide. The transducers are mainly amperometric, potentiometric or optical. The classification of biosensors is based on (a) the nature of the recognition event or (b) the intimacy between the biocatalyst and the transducer. Bioaffinity and biocatalytic devices are examples for the former and the first, whereas second and third generation instruments are examples for the latter. Cell-based biosensors utilizing immobilized cells, tissues as also enzyme immunosensors and DNA biosensors find variegated uses in diagnostics. Enzyme nanoparticle-based biosensors make use of small particles in the nanometer scale and are currently making a mark in laboratory medicine. Nanotechnology can help in optimizing the diagnostic biochips, which would facilitate sensitive, rapid, accurate and precise bedside monitoring. Biosensors render themselves as capable diagnostic tools as they meet most of the above-mentioned criteria. PMID:24627875

  7. Integration of biosensors into digital microfluidics: Impact of hydrophilic surface of biosensors on droplet manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Ehsan; Luka, George S; Najjaran, Homayoun; Hoorfar, Mina

    2016-07-15

    Several studies have been performed on the integration of biosensors into digital microfluidics (DMF). Despite the general success in their detection capabilities, there are still two challenges associated with the integration of biosensors into DMF: (1) complete removal of the droplet containing the analytes from the sensing surface; and (2) biochemical regeneration of the biosensor involving detaching the target analyte from the receptor after each round of sensing. The latter is case dependent and the solution can vary from one application to another. Our research aims at addressing the former, the solution to which is applicable to all biosensors integrated to DMF. This paper presents a thorough characterization of the hydrophilic surface of the biosensor in terms of wettability and geometry, taking into account the overall configuration of the DMF platform. Consequently, we identify the optimal geometry of the sensing surface and the DMF platform providing successful removal of the target droplet from the sensing surface after detection. Based on the results, the gap height is suggested to be chosen at the upper limit of the applicable range. Also, the biosensor, patterned on the device top plate, is recommended to be designed with a high aspect ratio and aligned with the center of the actuating electrode. As a proof of concept, the optimum configuration is implemented on a DMF platform with an interdigitated capacitive biosensor to detect different concentrations of Cryptosporidium, for which it is shown that the sample droplet is removed successfully from the superhydrophilic surface of the biosensor. PMID:27016626

  8. Biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    , food and feed preparations, tissue extracts, acyl-CoA synthetase reaction media and various laboratory conditions using a modified Coenzyme A- and acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is provided. Furthermore the invention relates to a construct comprising a peptide and a signal moiety for performing...

  9. Nanopore biosensors for detection of proteins and nucleic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maglia, Giovanni; Soskine, Mikhael

    2014-01-01

    Described herein are nanopore biosensors based on a modified cytolysin protein. The nanopore biosensors accommodate macromoiecules including proteins and nucleic acids, and may additionally comprise ligands with selective binding properties.

  10. SIRE-technology-based biosensors: will they do the job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Dario

    1997-06-01

    A new biosensor technology (SIRE--sensors based on injectable recognition elements) is described. Its application in laboratory equipment, medical survey equipment and process monitoring is reviewed. Furthermore, the promising practical and commercial relevance of SIRE- Biosensors is discussed.

  11. Carbon Nanotubes Based Glucose Needle-type Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Li; Yongquan Li; Minghao Sim; Wenjun Guan; Jinyan Jia

    2008-01-01

    A novel needle-type biosensor based on carbon nanotubes is reported. The biosensor was prepared by packing a mixture of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite powder and glucose oxidase (Gox) freeze-dried powder into a glass capillary of 0.5 mm inner diameter. The resulting amperometric biosensor was characterized electrochemically using amperometry in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and in the presence of glucose. The glucose biosensor sensitivity was influenced by the glucose oxid...

  12. Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Barchiesi; Sameh Kessentini

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric...

  13. FRET Biosensors for Cancer Detection and Evaluation of Drug Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shaoying; Wang, Yingxiao

    2010-01-01

    A sensitive and specific FRET biosensor was developed by Mizutani et al. and applied to detect the activity of BCR-ABL kinase in live cells. This biosensor allowed the detection of cancerous and drug-resistant cells, and the evaluation of kinase inhibitor efficacy. Future biosensor development and imaging can increasingly contribute to cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.

  14. A New Application of Carbon Nanotubes Constructing Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes used for constructing biosensor was described for the first time. Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) functionalized with carboxylic acid groups were used to immobilize glucose oxidase forming a glucose biosensor. The biosensor response can be determined by amperometric method at a low applied potential (0.40 V).

  15. Recent Progress in Lectin-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress in the development of lectin-based biosensors used for the determination of glucose, pathogenic bacteria and toxins, cancer cells, and lectins. Lectin proteins have been widely used for the construction of optical and electrochemical biosensors by exploiting the specific binding affinity to carbohydrates. Among lectin proteins, concanavalin A (Con A is most frequently used for this purpose as glucose- and mannose-selective lectin. Con A is useful for immobilizing enzymes including glucose oxidase (GOx and horseradish peroxidase (HRP on the surface of a solid support to construct glucose and hydrogen peroxide sensors, because these enzymes are covered with intrinsic hydrocarbon chains. Con A-modified electrodes can be used as biosensors sensitive to glucose, cancer cells, and pathogenic bacteria covered with hydrocarbon chains. The target substrates are selectively adsorbed to the surface of Con A-modified electrodes through strong affinity of Con A to hydrocarbon chains. A recent topic in the development of lectin-based biosensors is a successful use of nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, for amplifying output signals of the sensors. In addition, lectin-based biosensors are useful for studying glycan expression on living cells.

  16. Microfabricated glucose biosensor for culture well operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, R M; Cox, T; Tuffin, R; Sage, I; Drago, G A; Biddle, N; Griffiths, J; Pittson, R; Johnson, G; Xu, J; Jackson, S K; Kenna, G; Luxton, R; Hart, J P

    2013-04-15

    A water-based carbon screen-printing ink formulation, containing the redox mediator cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) and the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx), was investigated for its suitability to fabricate glucose microbiosensors in a 96-well microplate format: (1) the biosensor ink was dip-coated onto a platinum (Pt) wire electrode, leading to satisfactory amperometric performance; (2) the ink was deposited onto the surface of a series of Pt microelectrodes (10-500 μm diameter) fabricated on a silicon substrate using MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) microfabrication techniques: capillary deposition proved to be successful; a Pt microdisc electrode of ≥100 μm was required for optimum biosensor performance; (3) MEMS processing was used to fabricate suitably sized metal (Pt) tracks and pads onto a silicon 96 well format base chip, and the glucose biosensor ink was screen-printed onto these pads to create glucose microbiosensors. When formed into microwells, using a 340 μl volume of buffer, the microbiosensors produced steady-state amperometric responses which showed linearity up to 5 mM glucose (CV=6% for n=5 biosensors). When coated, using an optimised protocol, with collagen in order to aid cell adhesion, the biosensors continued to show satisfactory performance in culture medium (linear range to 2 mM, dynamic range to 7 mM, CV=5.7% for n=4 biosensors). Finally, the operation of these collagen-coated microbiosensors, in 5-well 96-well format microwells, was tested using a 5-channel multipotentiostat. A relationship between amperometric response due to glucose, and cell number in the microwells, was observed. These results indicate that microphotolithography and screen-printing techniques can be combined successfully to produce microbiosensors capable of monitoring glucose metabolism in 96 well format cell cultures. The potential application areas for these microbiosensors are discussed. PMID:23265827

  17. Development of oxidoreductase based electrochemical biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Patrícia Raquel dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Biotecnologia This thesis is divided in 2 sections, each describing the development of an oxidoreductase based biosensor. In the first part human Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) electrochemistry was studied, while the second is focused on the optimization of immobilization platforms and operation methods for amperometric biosensors, using cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR), (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774) as a model enzyme. The...

  18. Biosensors for Inorganic and Organic Arsenicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a natural environmental contaminant to which humans are routinely exposed and is strongly associated with human health problems, including cancer, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To date, a number of biosensors for the detection of arsenic involving the coupling of biological engineering and electrochemical techniques has been developed. The properties of whole-cell bacterial or cell-free biosensors are summarized in the present review with emphasis on their sensitivity and selectivity. Their limitations and future challenges are highlighted.

  19. Mathematical Model of the Biosensors Acting in a Trigger Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Ivanauskas, Feliksas

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model of biosensors acting in a trigger mode has been developed. One type of the biosensors utilized a trigger enzymatic reaction followed by the cyclic enzymatic and electrochemical conversion of the product (CCE scheme). Other biosensors used the enzymatic trigger reaction followed by the electrochemical and enzymatic product cyclic conversion (CEC scheme). The models were based on diffusion equations containing a non-linear term related to Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reactions. The digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. The influence of the substrate concentration, the maximal enzymatic rate as well as the membrane thickness on the biosensor response was investigated. The numerical experiments demonstrated a significant gain (up to dozens of times) in biosensor sensitivity when the biosensor response was under diffusion control. In the case of significant signal amplification, the response time with triggering was up to several times longer than that of the biosensor without triggering.

  20. Mathematical Model of the Biosensors Acting in a Trigger Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliksas Ivanauskas

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A mathematical model of biosensors acting in a trigger mode has been developed. One type of the biosensors utilized a trigger enzymatic reaction followed by the cyclic enzymatic and electrochemical conversion of the product (CCE scheme. Other biosensors used the enzymatic trigger reaction followed by the electrochemical and enzymatic product cyclic conversion (CEC scheme. The models were based on diffusion equations containing a non-linear term related to Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reactions. The digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. The influence of the substrate concentration, the maximal enzymatic rate as well as the membrane thickness on the biosensor response was investigated. The numerical experiments demonstrated a significant gain (up to dozens of times in biosensor sensitivity when the biosensor response was under diffusion control. In the case of significant signal amplification, the response time with triggering was up to several times longer than that of the biosensor without triggering.

  1. Biosensor Systems for Homeland Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2004-05-30

    The detection of biological agents is important to minimize the effects of pathogens that can harm people, livestock, or plants. In addition to pathogens distributed by man, there is a need to detect natural outbreaks. Recent outbreaks of SARS, mad cow disease, pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella, as well as the discovery of letters filled with anthrax spores have highlighted the need for biosensor systems to aid in prevention, early warning, response, and recovery. Rapid detection can be used to prevent exposure; and detection on a longer timescale can be used to minimize exposure, define treatment, and determine whether contaminated areas are clean enough for reuse. The common types of biological agents of concern include bacteria, spores, and viruses (Figure 1). From a chemist’s point of view, pathogens are essentially complex packages of chemicals that are assembled into organized packages with somewhat predictable physical characteristics such as size and shape. Pathogen detection methods can be divided into three general approaches: selective detection methods for specific identification such as nucleic acid analysis and structural recognition, semi-selective methods for broad-spectrum detection (e.g. physical properties, metabolites, lipids), and function-based methods (e.g. effect of the pathogen on organisms, tissues, or cells). The requirements for biodetection systems depend upon the application. While detect to warn sensors may require rapid detection on the order one minute, detection times of many minutes or hours may be suitable for determining appropriate treatments or for forensic analysis. Of course ideal sensor systems will meet the needs of many applications, and will be sensitive, selective, rapid, and simultaneously detect all agents of concern. They will also be reliable with essentially no false negatives or false positives, small, easy to use, and low cost with minimal consumables.

  2. Amperometric biosensors based on conducting nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a multidisciplinary study towards the development of a glucose biosensor that in the future can be used for in vivo implantations. The research focuses on three major topics, viz. the construction of the glucose sensor, the development of a biocompatible coating and a study of

  3. Nanoscale bacteriophage biosensors beyond phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Wook; Song, Jangwon; Hwang, Mintai P; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophages are traditionally used for the development of phage display technology. Recently, their nanosized dimensions and ease with which genetic modifications can be made to their structure and function have put them in the spotlight towards their use in a variety of biosensors. In particular, the expression of any protein or peptide on the extraluminal surface of bacteriophages is possible by genetically engineering the genome. In addition, the relatively short replication time of bacteriophages offers researchers the ability to generate mass quantities of any given bacteriophage-based biosensor. Coupled with the emergence of various biomarkers in the clinic as a means to determine pathophysiological states, the development of current and novel technologies for their detection and quantification is imperative. In this review, we categorize bacteriophages by their morphology into M13-based filamentous bacteriophages and T4- or T7-based icosahedral bacteriophages, and examine how such advantages are utilized across a variety of biosensors. In essence, we take a comprehensive approach towards recent trends in bacteriophage-based biosensor applications and discuss their outlook with regards to the field of biotechnology.

  4. Nanoscale bacteriophage biosensors beyond phage display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JW

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jong-Wook Lee,1 Jangwon Song,1,2 Mintai P Hwang,1 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1Center for Biomaterials, Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Bacteriophages are traditionally used for the development of phage display technology. Recently, their nanosized dimensions and ease with which genetic modifications can be made to their structure and function have put them in the spotlight towards their use in a variety of biosensors. In particular, the expression of any protein or peptide on the extraluminal surface of bacteriophages is possible by genetically engineering the genome. In addition, the relatively short replication time of bacteriophages offers researchers the ability to generate mass quantities of any given bacteriophage-based biosensor. Coupled with the emergence of various biomarkers in the clinic as a means to determine pathophysiological states, the development of current and novel technologies for their detection and quantification is imperative. In this review, we categorize bacteriophages by their morphology into M13-based filamentous bacteriophages and T4- or T7-based icosahedral bacteriophages, and examine how such advantages are utilized across a variety of biosensors. In essence, we take a comprehensive approach towards recent trends in bacteriophage-based biosensor applications and discuss their outlook with regards to the field of biotechnology. Keywords: biosensing, M13 bacteriophage, T4 bacteriophage, bacterial detection, Escherichia coli, SPR sensor

  5. Biosensor con nanoparticulas metálicas

    OpenAIRE

    Pino González de la Higuera, Pablo del; Pelaz, Beatriz; Polo, Ester; Grazú Bonavia, Valeria; MARTÍNEZ DE LA FUENTE, Jesús; Parro-García, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a un biosensor donde la detección del analito se realiza de forma visual por el cambio de color en las zonas del soporte en que el analito esté presente producido por las nanopartículas al ser irradiadas con una fuente de luz externa

  6. Applications of Nanomaterials in Electrochemical Enzyme Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor is defined as a kind of analytical device incorporating a biological material, a biologically derived material or a biomimic intimately associated with or integrated within a physicochemical transducer or transducing microsystem. Electrochemical biosensors incorporating enzymes with nanomaterials, which combine the recognition and catalytic properties of enzymes with the electronic properties of various nanomaterials, are new materials with synergistic properties originating from the components of the hybrid composites. Therefore, these systems have excellent prospects for interfacing biological recognition events through electronic signal transduction so as to design a new generation of bioelectronic devices with high sensitivity and stability. In this review, we describe approaches that involve nanomaterials in direct electrochemistry of redox proteins, especially our work on biosensor design immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD, horseradish peroxidase (HRP, cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6, hemoglobin (Hb, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. The topics of the present review are the different functions of nanomaterials based on modification of electrode materials, as well as applications of electrochemical enzyme biosensors.

  7. FIBER OPTIC BIOSENSOR FOR DNA DAMAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a fiber optic biosensor for the rapid and sensitive detection of radiation-induced or chemically-induced oxidative DNA damage. The assay is based on the hybridization and temperature-induced dissociation (melting curves) of synthetic oligonucleotides. The...

  8. Design & fabrication of cantilever array biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja; Thundat, T

    2009-01-01

    Surface immobilization of functional receptors on microfabricated cantilever arrays offers a new paradigm for the development of biosensors based on nanomechanics. Microcantilever-based systems are capable of real-time, multiplexed detection of unlabeled disease markers in extremely small volumes...

  9. Bioluminescent bacteria: lux genes as environmental biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes-Halldorson Vânia da Silva; Duran Norma Letícia

    2003-01-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria are widespread in natural environments. Over the years, many researchers have been studying the physiology, biochemistry and genetic control of bacterial bioluminescence. These discoveries have revolutionized the area of Environmental Microbiology through the use of luminescent genes as biosensors for environmental studies. This paper will review the chronology of scientific discoveries on bacterial bioluminescence and the current applications of bioluminescence in env...

  10. Recent Advances in Biosensor Technology for Potential Applications - An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshvar, S; Sudhakumari, C C; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian; Prakash, Hridayesh

    2016-01-01

    Imperative utilization of biosensors has acquired paramount importance in the field of drug discovery, biomedicine, food safety standards, defense, security, and environmental monitoring. This has led to the invention of precise and powerful analytical tools using biological sensing element as biosensor. Glucometers utilizing the strategy of electrochemical detection of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide using immobilized glucose oxidase electrode seeded the discovery of biosensors. Recent advances in biological techniques and instrumentation involving fluorescence tag to nanomaterials have increased the sensitive limit of biosensors. Use of aptamers or nucleotides, affibodies, peptide arrays, and molecule imprinted polymers provide tools to develop innovative biosensors over classical methods. Integrated approaches provided a better perspective for developing specific and sensitive biosensors with high regenerative potentials. Various biosensors ranging from nanomaterials, polymers to microbes have wider potential applications. It is quite important to integrate multifaceted approaches to design biosensors that have the potential for diverse usage. In light of this, this review provides an overview of different types of biosensors being used ranging from electrochemical, fluorescence tagged, nanomaterials, silica or quartz, and microbes for various biomedical and environmental applications with future outlook of biosensor technology. PMID:26909346

  11. Recent Advances in Biosensor Technology for Potential Applications - An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneshvar, S; Sudhakumari, C C; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian; Prakash, Hridayesh

    2016-01-01

    Imperative utilization of biosensors has acquired paramount importance in the field of drug discovery, biomedicine, food safety standards, defense, security, and environmental monitoring. This has led to the invention of precise and powerful analytical tools using biological sensing element as biosensor. Glucometers utilizing the strategy of electrochemical detection of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide using immobilized glucose oxidase electrode seeded the discovery of biosensors. Recent advances in biological techniques and instrumentation involving fluorescence tag to nanomaterials have increased the sensitive limit of biosensors. Use of aptamers or nucleotides, affibodies, peptide arrays, and molecule imprinted polymers provide tools to develop innovative biosensors over classical methods. Integrated approaches provided a better perspective for developing specific and sensitive biosensors with high regenerative potentials. Various biosensors ranging from nanomaterials, polymers to microbes have wider potential applications. It is quite important to integrate multifaceted approaches to design biosensors that have the potential for diverse usage. In light of this, this review provides an overview of different types of biosensors being used ranging from electrochemical, fluorescence tagged, nanomaterials, silica or quartz, and microbes for various biomedical and environmental applications with future outlook of biosensor technology.

  12. Recent advances in biosensor technology for potential applications - An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vigneshvar es

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Imperative utilization of biosensors has acquired paramount importance in the field of drug discovery, biomedicine, food safety standards, defence, security and environmental monitoring. This has led to the invention of precise and powerful analytical tools using biological sensing element as biosensor. Glucometers utilizing the strategy of electrochemical detection of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide using immobilized glucose oxidase electrode seeded the discovery of biosensors. Recent advances in biological techniques and instrumentation involving fluorescence tag to nanomaterials have increased the sensitive limit of biosensors. Use of aptamers or nucleotides, affibodies, peptide arrays and molecule imprinted polymers provide tools to develop innovative biosensors over classical methods. Integrated approaches provided a better perspective for developing specific and sensitive biosensors with high regenerative potentials. Variety of biosensors ranging from nanomaterials, polymers to microbes have wider potential applications. It is quite important to integrate multifaceted approaches to design biosensors that have the potential for diverse usage. In light of this, this review provides an overview of different types of biosensors being used ranging from electrochemical, fluorescence tagged, nanomaterials, silica or quartz and microbes for various biomedical and environmental applications with future outlook of biosensor technology.

  13. Conformational design optimization of transcription factor beacon DNA biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Schaffner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Widespread application of promising DNA-based transcription factor protein (TF biosensors is limited by our ability to control their binding properties. Because the binding properties of this class of biosensors are affected by how well the biosensor switches between binding and non-binding conformations, we investigated the effects of varying conformational stability on the ability of biosensors to detect the oncologically-relevant Myc/Max TF dimer complex. To do this, we employed a custom algorithm that designed and evaluated possible biosensors based on the Myc/Max TF recognition sequence, choosing algorithmic parameters that selected for biosensors with varied conformational stability due to changes in stem length. Biosensors with recognition stem lengths of 8 base pairs (bp, 12 bp, or 21 bp were selected and synthesized. Biosensor binding affinity changes and kinetic association rates were found to be significantly affected by changes in conformational stability (with binding affinity increasing with stem length, from 80 ± 20 nM to 440 ± 80 nM, and kinetic switching rate being tenfold impacted in the longer biosensors. These results show that increased stability can have significant inverse effects on overall biosensor performance, providing important implications for effective biosensor designs. We applied these design insights to generate a biosensor that tested and confirmed a predicted in vivo interaction between two TFs (ATF3 and Max, illustrating the potential for rationally-designed, TF-detecting biosensors as a routine analytical tool.

  14. Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirste, Ronny; Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    We review recent advances of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT)-based electronic biosensors. We discuss properties and fabrication of III-nitride-based biosensors. Because of their superior biocompatibility and aqueous stability, GaN-based devices are ready to be implemented as next-generation biosensors. We review surface properties, cleaning, and passivation as well as different pathways toward functionalization, and critically analyze III-nitride-based biosensors demonstrated in the literature, including those detecting DNA, bacteria, cancer antibodies, and toxins. We also discuss the high potential of these biosensors for monitoring living cardiac, fibroblast, and nerve cells. Finally, we report on current developments of covalent chemical functionalization of III-nitride devices. Our review concludes with a short outlook on future challenges and projected implementation directions of GaN-based HEMT biosensors.

  15. Analytical Problems in Exposing Amperometric Enzyme Biosensors to Biological Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Rocchitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme-based chemical biosensors are based on biological recognition. In order to operate, the enzymes must be available to catalyze a specific biochemical reaction and be stable under the normal operating conditions of the biosensor. Design of biosensors is based on knowledge about the target analyte, as well as the complexity of the matrix in which the analyte has to be quantified. This article reviews the problems resulting from the interaction of enzyme-based amperometric biosensors with complex biological matrices containing the target analyte(s. One of the most challenging disadvantages of amperometric enzyme-based biosensor detection is signal reduction from fouling agents and interference from chemicals present in the sample matrix. This article, therefore, investigates the principles of functioning of enzymatic biosensors, their analytical performance over time and the strategies used to optimize their performance. Moreover, the composition of biological fluids as a function of their interaction with biosensing will be presented.

  16. Modelling Amperometric Biosensors Based on Chemically Modified Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas

    2008-01-01

    The response of an amperometric biosensor based on a chemically modified electrode was modelled numerically. A mathematical model of the biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments: an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer. In order to define the main governing parameters the corresponding dimensionless mathematical model was derived. The digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. The adequacy of the model was evaluated using analytical solutions known for very specific cases of the model parameters. By changing model parameters the output results were numerically analyzed at transition and steady state conditions. The influence of the substrate and mediator concentrations as well as of the thicknesses of the enzyme and diffusion layers on the biosensor response was investigated. Calculations showed complex kinetics of the biosensor response, especially when the biosensor acts under a mixed limitation of the diffusion and the enzyme interaction with the substrate.

  17. Biosensor development for the analysis of food quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Giakoumaki, Elsa

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and evaluation of a number of biosensors for food applications. The first part of this thesis deals with the development of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor systems, coupled with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the detection of GMO related amplified nucleic acids in foodstuffs. The first SPR Biosensor described, used streptavidin-biotin linkage chemistry to attach a P35S nucleic acid probe on dextran-coa...

  18. Recent advances in biosensor technology for potential applications - An overview

    OpenAIRE

    vigneshvar es; sudhakumari ecc; Balasubramanian eSENTHILKUMARAN; Hridayesh ePrakash

    2016-01-01

    Imperative utilization of biosensors has acquired paramount importance in the field of drug discovery, biomedicine, food safety standards, defence, security and environmental monitoring. This has led to the invention of precise and powerful analytical tools using biological sensing element as biosensor. Glucometers utilizing the strategy of electrochemical detection of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide using immobilized glucose oxidase electrode seeded the discovery of biosensors. Recent advances i...

  19. Recent Advances in Application of Biosensors in Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Anwarul Hasan; Md Nurunnabi; Mahboob Morshed; Arghya Paul; Alessandro Polini; Tapas Kuila; Moustafa Al Hariri; Yong-kyu Lee; Jaffa, Ayad A.

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecule...

  20. Optimization of Xenon Biosensors for Detection of Protein Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Thomas J.; Garcia, Sandra; Chavez, Lana; Ruiz, E. Janette; Wu, Tom; Brotin, Thierry; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; King, David S.; Schultz, Peter G.; Pines, Alex; Wemmer, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR can detect the presence of specific low-concentration biomolecular analytes by means of the xenon biosensor, which consists of a water-soluble, targeted cryptophane-A cage that encapsulates xenon. In this work we use the prototypical biotinylated xenon biosensor to determine the relationship between the molecular composition of the xenon biosensor and the characteristics of protein-bound resonances. The effects of diastereomer overlap, dipole-dipole coupling, che...

  1. High-resolution biosensor based on localized surface plasmons

    OpenAIRE

    Piliarik, M.; Šípová, H. (Hana); Kvasnička, P.; Galler, N.; Krenn, J. R.; Homola, J. (Jiří)

    2012-01-01

    We report on a new biosensor with localized surface plasmons (LSP) based on an array of gold nanorods and TIR imaging in polarization contrast. The sensitivity of the new biosensor is characterized and a model detection of DNA hybridization is carried out and results compared with a conventional SPR biosensor, showing the same performance while involving significantly lower surface densities of interacting molecules. Limit of detection was 100 pM and a surface density resolution only 35 fg×mm2.

  2. In Vitro Evaluation of Fluorescence Glucose Biosensor Response

    OpenAIRE

    Mamdouh Aloraefy; T. Joshua Pfefer; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Sapsford, Kim E.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensor...

  3. Emerging Synergy between Nanotechnology and Implantable Biosensors: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vaddiraju, SanthiSagar; Tomazos, Ioannis; Burgess, Diane J.; Jain, Faquir C.; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

    2009-01-01

    The development of implantable biosensors for continuous monitoring of metabolites is an area of sustained scientific and technological interest. On the other hand, nanotechnology, a discipline which deals with the properties of materials at the nanoscale, is developing as a potent tool to enhance the performance of these biosensors. This article reviews the current state of implantable biosensors, highlighting the synergy between nanotechnology and sensor performance. Emphasis is placed on t...

  4. Amperometric Biosensors for Real Time Assays of Organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kuca

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE immobilized in gelatin was used to develop an assay for the organophosphate paraoxon. The more traditional manner employing preincubation was used for comparison between measurement procedures, although the aim of the study was to examine the performance of the biosensor for real time monitoring of organophosphates. The biosensor was immersed in a reaction chamber and paraoxon was injected inside. We were able to detect 200 pg of paraoxon within one minute or 2.5 ppb when the biosensor was preincubed in the sample solution for 15 minutes. The practical impact and expectations are discussed.

  5. A Highly Responsive Silicon Nanowire/Amplifier MOSFET Hybrid Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Jieun Lee; Jaeman Jang; Bongsik Choi; Jinsu Yoon; Jee-Yeon Kim; Yang-Kyu Choi; Dong Myong Kim; Dae Hwan Kim; Sung-Jin Choi

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a hybrid biosensor comprised of a silicon nanowire (SiNW) integrated with an amplifier MOSFET to improve the current response of field-effect-transistor (FET)-based biosensors. The hybrid biosensor is fabricated using conventional CMOS technology, which has the potential advantage of high density and low noise performance. The biosensor shows a current response of 5.74 decades per pH for pH detection, which is 2.5 × 105 times larger than that of a single SiNW sensor. I...

  6. Engineering an NADPH/NADP+ Redox Biosensor in Yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jie; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Pihl, Thomas Peter Boye;

    2016-01-01

    Genetically encoded biosensors have emerged as powerful tools for timely and precise in vivo evaluation of cellular metabolism. In particular, biosensors that can couple intercellular cues with downstream signaling responses are currently attracting major attention within health science and biote......Genetically encoded biosensors have emerged as powerful tools for timely and precise in vivo evaluation of cellular metabolism. In particular, biosensors that can couple intercellular cues with downstream signaling responses are currently attracting major attention within health science...... and biotechnology. Still, there is a need for bioprospecting and engineering of more biosensors to enable real-time monitoring of specific cellular states and controlling downstream actuation. In this study, we report the engineering and application of a transcription factor-based NADPH/NADP+ redox biosensor...... in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the biosensor, we are able to monitor the cause of oxidative stress by chemical induction, and changes in NADPH/NADP+ ratios caused by genetic manipulations. Because of the regulatory potential of the biosensor, we also show that the biosensor can actuate upon...

  7. Design & fabrication of cantilever array biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Boisen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface immobilization of functional receptors on microfabricated cantilever arrays offers a new paradigm for the development of biosensors based on nanomechanics. Microcantilever-based systems are capable of real-time, multiplexed detection of unlabeled disease markers in extremely small volumes of samples. Currently available fabrication technology will allow the integration of electronic readout and sample introduction into a single unit, decreasing the device size, detection time, and cost. Biosensing technologies based on microfabricated cantilever arrays involving multiple cantilevers, electronic processing, and even local telemetry on a single chip have the potential of satisfying the need for highly sensitive and selective multiple-target detection in very small samples. Here we will review the design and fabrication process of cantilever-based biosensors.

  8. Amperometric biosensors based on carbon composite transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang

    1998-12-01

    Much current work in analytical chemistry is devoted to design of biosensors. One particular area in this field is the development of enzyme-based amperometric biosensors for the quantitative determination of a series of substrates in clinical, environmental, industrial and agricultural significance. This dissertation focuses on the design of improved amperometric biosensors based on carbon composite transducers. The use of metallized carbons as transducer materials results in remarkably selective amperometric biosensors. Such enzyme-based transducers eliminate major electroactive interferences, and hence circumvent the need for mediators or membrane barriers. The remarkable selectivity of metal-dispersed carbons is attributed to their strong, preferential, electrocatalytic capacity towards the reductive detection of biologically-generated hydrogen peroxide. Such electrocatalytic activity allows metal-dispersed biosensors to be operated at the optimal potential region between +0.1 and -0.2 V, where the unwanted reactions are neglected resulting in the lowest noise level. Several new materials (e.g., ruthenium on carbon, rhodium on carbon, etc.) and constructions (e.g., carbon fiber, electrochemical co-deposition transducer, etc.) were applied in the development of novel enzyme-based transducers in order to improve the selectivity and applicability of amperometric biosensors. The susceptibility of first-generation oxidase amperometric biosensing to oxygen fluctuations can be improved by using oxygen-rich fluorocarbons as the pasting binders in carbon paste enzyme transducers. Such binders provide an internal supply of oxygen resulting in efficient detection in oxygen-deficit conditions. In particular, the use of poly-chlorotrifluorethylene (Kel-F) oil as carbon paste binder results in a well-defined response and an identical signal up to 40 mM glucose in both the presence and absence of oxygen. Comparing with mediated or wired enzyme-based transducers, such internal

  9. Recent advances in graphene-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuila, Tapas; Bose, Saswata; Khanra, Partha; Mishra, Ananta Kumar; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2011-08-15

    A detailed overview towards the advancement of graphene based biosensors has been reviewed. The large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of graphene allow it to act as an "electron wire" between the redox centers of an enzyme or protein and an electrode's surface. Rapid electron transfer facilitates accurate and selective detection of biomolecules. This review discusses the application of graphene for the detection of glucose, Cyt-c, NADH, Hb, cholesterol, AA, UA, DA, and H(2)O(2). GO and RGO have been used for the fabrication of heavy metal ion sensors, gas sensors, and DNA sensors. Graphene based FETs have also been discussed in details. In all these cases, the biosensors performed well with low working potentials, high sensitivities, low detection limits, and long-term stabilities. PMID:21683572

  10. Modelling Carbon Nanotubes-Based Mediatorless Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Razumiene

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments: a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate.

  11. Biosensors for security and bioterrorism applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi

    2016-01-01

    This book offers comprehensive coverage of biomarker/biosensor interactions for the rapid detection of weapons of bioterrorism, as well as current research trends and future developments and applications. It will be useful to researchers in this field who are interested in new developments in the early detection of such. The authors have collected very valuable and, in some aspects indispensable experience in the area i.e. in the development and application of portable biosensors for the detection of potential hazards. Most efforts are centered on the development of immunochemical assays including flow-lateral systems and engineered antibodies and their fragments. In addition, new approaches to the detection of enzyme inhibitors, direct enzymatic and microbial detection of metabolites and nutrients are elaborated. Some realized prototypes and concept devices applicable for the further use as a basis for the cooperation programs are also discussed. There is a particular focus on electrochemical and optical det...

  12. Bioconjugation and stabilisation of biomolecules in biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liébana, Susana; Drago, Guido A

    2016-06-30

    Suitable bioconjugation strategies and stabilisation of biomolecules on electrodes is essential for the development of novel and commercially viable biosensors. In the present review, the functional groups that comprise the selectable targets for practical bioconjugation methods are discussed. We focus on describing the most common immobilisation techniques used in biosensor construction, which are classified into irreversible and reversible methods. Concerning the stability of proteins, the two main types of stability may be defined as (i) storage or shelf stability, and (ii) operational stability. Both types of stability are explained, as well as the introduction of an electrophoretic technique for predicting protein-polymer interactions. In addition, solution and dry stabilisation as well as stabilisation using the covalent immobilisation of proteins are discussed including possible factors that influence stability. Finally, the integration of nanomaterials, such as magnetic particles, with protein immobilisation is discussed in relation to protein stability studies. PMID:27365036

  13. Modelling carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Petrauskas, Karolis; Razumiene, Julija

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments): a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate. PMID:23012537

  14. Microbial fuel cells for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijia; Zhou, Minghua; Liu, Mengmeng; Yang, Weilu; Gu, Tingyue

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) face major hurdles for real-world applications as power generators with the exception of powering small sensor devices. Despite tremendous improvements made in the last two decades, MFCs are still too expensive to build and operate and their power output is still too small. In view of this, in recently years, intensive researches have been carried out to expand the applications into other areas such as acid and alkali production, bioremediation of aquatic sediments, desalination and biosensors. Unlike power applications, MFC sensors have the immediate prospect to be practical. This review covers the latest developments in various proposed biosensor applications using MFCs including monitoring microbial activity, testing biochemical oxygen demand, detection of toxicants and detection of microbial biofilms that cause biocorrosion.

  15. Biosensor for Pesticides Based on Valerolacton Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotova L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A construction of amperometric biosensor based on immobilized acetycholinesterase and cholin oxidase is described and its application in the detection of organophosphate pesticides through enzyme inhibition measurements is discussed. The bioactive component of the sensor consists of acetycholinesterase or cholin oxidase covalently immobilized on two types new polymeric synthetic membranes. Two types of the copolymers were used for the synthesis of membranes - the copolymer of polyacrylamide and acrylonitrile and the new copolymer of poly- (hexanlactam-co-block-poly-(delta-valerolactone with aliphatic polyester. It is investigated the technical characteristics of biosensor like, response time, linear range and operating stability. The factors affecting the inhibition and reactivation processes were investigated too.

  16. Recent advances in biosensor based endotoxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A P; Kumar, P S; Swain, S

    2014-01-15

    Endotoxins also referred to as pyrogens are chemically lipopolysaccharides habitually found in food, environment and clinical products of bacterial origin and are unavoidable ubiquitous microbiological contaminants. Pernicious issues of its contamination result in high mortality and severe morbidities. Standard traditional techniques are slow and cumbersome, highlighting the pressing need for evoking agile endotoxin detection system. The early and prompt detection of endotoxin assumes prime importance in health care, pharmacological and biomedical sectors. The unparalleled recognition abilities of LAL biosensors perched with remarkable sensitivity, high stability and reproducibility have bestowed it with persistent reliability and their possible fabrication for commercial applicability. This review paper entails an overview of various trends in current techniques available and other possible alternatives in biosensor based endotoxin detection together with its classification, epidemiological aspects, thrust areas demanding endotoxin control, commercially available detection sensors and a revolutionary unprecedented approach narrating the influence of omics for endotoxin detection. PMID:23934306

  17. Nanomaterial-mediated Biosensors for Monitoring Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Taguchi, Masashige; Ptitsyn, Andre; McLamore, Eric S.; Claussen, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of physiological glucose transport is crucial for gaining new understanding of diabetes. Many techniques and equipment currently exist for measuring glucose, but these techniques are limited by complexity of the measurement, requirement of bulky equipment, and low temporal/spatial resolution. The development of various types of biosensors (eg, electrochemical, optical sensors) for laboratory and/or clinical applications will provide new insights into the cause(s) and poss...

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Multienzyme Biosensor System

    OpenAIRE

    SP. Ganesan; K Saravanakumar; Rajendran, L.

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model of hybrid inhibitor biosensor system is discussed. This model consists of five nonlinear partial differential equations for bisubstrate sensitive amperometric system. Simple and closed form of analytical expressions for concentration of glucose-6-phosphate (substrate), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (inhibitor), oxygen (co-substrate), glucose (product 1), and hydrogen peroxide (product 3) is obtained in terms of rate constant using modified Adomian decomposition method (M...

  19. Integrated biosensors for cell culture monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    De Micheli, Giovanni; Boero, Cristina; Olivo, Jacopo; Carrara, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors for endogenous compounds, such as glucose and lactate, are applied to monitor cell cultures. Cells can be cultivated for several purposes, such as understanding and modeling some biological mechanisms, the development of new drugs and therapies, and in the field of regenerative medicine. We have realized a self-contained monitoring system with remote readout. Metabolite detection is based on oxidases immobilized onto carbon nanotubes. We calibrate the system for glucose and lactate...

  20. Single bead-based electrochemical biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, CHANGCHUN; Schrlau, Michael G.; Bau, Haim H.

    2009-01-01

    A simple, robust, single bead-based electrochemical biosensor was fabricated and characterized. The sensor’s working electrode consists of an electrochemically-etched platinum wire, with a nominal diameter of 25 μm, hermetically heat-fusion sealed in a pulled glass capillary (micropipette). The sealing process does not require any epoxy or glue. A commercially available, densely functionalized agarose bead was mounted on the tip of the etched platinum wire. The use of a pre-functionalized bea...

  1. Cantilever-Based Biosensors in CMOS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kirstein, K -U; Zimmermann, M; Vancura, C; Volden, T; Song, W H; Lichtenberg, J; Hierlemannn, A

    2011-01-01

    Single-chip CMOS-based biosensors that feature microcantilevers as transducer elements are presented. The cantilevers are functionalized for the capturing of specific analytes, e.g., proteins or DNA. The binding of the analyte changes the mechanical properties of the cantilevers such as surface stress and resonant frequency, which can be detected by an integrated Wheatstone bridge. The monolithic integrated readout allows for a high signal-to-noise ratio, lowers the sensitivity to external interference and enables autonomous device operation.

  2. Feasibility Studies on Si-Based Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Renis; Fulvia Sinatra; Antonino Scandurra; Venera Aiello; Sebania Libertino; Salvatore Lombardo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paperis to summarize the efforts carried out so far in the fabrication of Si-based biosensors by a team of researchers in Catania, Italy. This work was born as a collaboration between the Catania section of the Microelectronic and Microsystem Institute (IMM) of the CNR, the Surfaces and Interfaces laboratory (SUPERLAB) of the Consorzio Catania Ricerche and two departments at the University of Catania: the Biomedical Science and the Biological Chemistry and Molecular Biology De...

  3. Nanobiocatalysts for biofuel cells and biosensor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoje M. Prodanović

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This overview summarizes the application of enzymes in the manufacture and design of biofuel cells and biosensors. The emphasis will be put on the protein engineering techniques used for improving the properties of enzymes such as nanobiocatalysts, e.g. immobilization orientation, stability, activity and efficiency of electron transfer between immobilized enzymes and electrodes. Some possible applications in the military and some future designs of these electric devices will be discussed as well.

  4. Biosensors for the Detection of Food Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Palmiro Poltronieri; Valeria Mezzolla; Elisabetta Primiceri; Giuseppe Maruccio

    2014-01-01

    Food pathogens frequently cause foodborne diseases. There is a need to rapidly identify the source of the bacteria in order to contain their spread and epidemics. A pre-enrichment culture or a direct culture on agar plate are standard microbiological methods. In this review, we present an update on alternative molecular methods to nucleic acid-based detection for species identification. Biosensor-based methods rely on the recognition of antigen targets or receptors by antibodies, aptamers o...

  5. Aptamer Based Microsphere Biosensor for Thrombin Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Xudong Fan; White, Ian M.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Hongying Zhu

    2006-01-01

    We have developed an optical microsphere resonator biosensor using aptamer as receptor for the measurement of the important biomolecule thrombin. The sphere surface is modified with anti-thrombin aptamer, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivity for thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the sphere surface is monitored by the spectral position of the microsphere's whispering gallery mode resonances. A detection limit on the order of 1 NIH Unit/mL is demonstrated. Control experiments...

  6. Hybrid nano plasmonics for integrated biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chii-Wann; Lee, Jun-Haw; Chiu, Nan-Fu; Lee, Szu-Yuan; Liu, Kou-Chen; Tsai, Feng-Yu; Yen, Chia-Yu; Lee, Chun-Nan

    2009-11-01

    SPR biosensor with OLED and nano-grating for HBV LAMP product detection is reported. Directional emissions by grating-coupler match the resonant condition of SP modes. Concentration changes result in color shift at specific angle. Real time detection of virus load down to 5 copies/25 ul can be achieved in 30 minutes. Surface plasmon Resonant (SPR) biosensor has been used for quantitative measurement of molecular interactions for its advantages of high sensitivity, label-free and real-time detection. In this paper, we report recent efforts on further enhancement of SPR biosensors by the heterogeneous integration of organic electroluminescence light source and nano-grating structure for the feasibility study on the fast and high sensitivity detection of HBV isothermal amplification products, Mg2P2O7. We demonstrated the surface plasmon coupled through hybrid nano-grating structure has highly directional emissions corresponding to the resonant condition of surface plasmon modes on the Au/air interface and controllable plasmonics band-gap by pitch modulation. SPGCE resulted in color change from yellowish green to orange at a certain viewing angle, when contacting glucose with concentration increasing from 10 to 40%.

  7. Design of nanostructured-based glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komirisetty, Archana; Williams, Frances; Pradhan, Aswini; Konda, Rajini B.; Dondapati, Hareesh; Samantaray, Diptirani

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the design of glucose sensors that will be integrated with advanced nano-materials, bio-coatings and electronics to create novel devices that are highly sensitive, inexpensive, accurate, and reliable. In the work presented, a glucose biosensor and its fabrication process flow have been designed. The device is based on electrochemical sensing using a working electrode with bio-functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods. Among all metal oxide nanostructures, ZnO nano-materials play a significant role as a sensing element in biosensors due to their properties such as high isoelectric point (IEP), fast electron transfer, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and chemical stability which are very crucial parameters to achieve high sensitivity. Amperometric enzyme electrodes based on glucose oxidase (GOx) are used due to their stability and high selectivity to glucose. The device also consists of silicon dioxide and titanium layers as well as platinum working and counter electrodes and a silver/silver chloride reference electrode. Currently, the biosensors are being fabricated using the process flow developed. Once completed, the sensors will be bio-functionalized and tested to characterize their performance, including their sensitivity and stability.

  8. Scalable Production of Molybdenum Disulfide Based Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Carl H; Kybert, Nicholas J; Schneier, Camilla; Xi, Jin; Romero, Gabriela; Saven, Jeffery G; Liu, Renyu; Johnson, A T Charlie

    2016-06-28

    We demonstrate arrays of opioid biosensors based on chemical vapor deposition grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field effect transistors (FETs) coupled to a computationally redesigned, water-soluble variant of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). By transferring dense films of monolayer MoS2 crystals onto prefabricated electrode arrays, we obtain high-quality FETs with clean surfaces that allow for reproducible protein attachment. The fabrication yield of MoS2 FETs and biosensors exceeds 95%, with an average mobility of 2.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (36 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) at room temperature under ambient (in vacuo). An atomic length nickel-mediated linker chemistry enables target binding events that occur very close to the MoS2 surface to maximize sensitivity. The biosensor response calibration curve for a synthetic opioid peptide known to bind to the wild-type MOR indicates binding affinity that matches values determined using traditional techniques and a limit of detection ∼3 nM (1.5 ng/mL). The combination of scalable array fabrication and rapid, precise binding readout enabled by the MoS2 transistor offers the prospect of a solid-state drug testing platform for rapid readout of the interactions between novel drugs and their intended protein targets. PMID:27227361

  9. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinglan; Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-08-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO2 dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions with much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.

  10. Sensitive-cell-based fish chromatophore biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Thomas K.; Chaplen, Frank W.; Jovanovic, Goran; Kolodziej, Wojtek; Trempy, Janine E.; Willard, Corwin; Liburdy, James A.; Pence, Deborah V.; Paul, Brian K.

    2004-07-01

    A sensitive biosensor (cytosensor) has been developed based on color changes in the toxin-sensitive colored living cells of fish. These chromatophores are highly sensitive to the presence of many known and unknown toxins produced by microbial pathogens and undergo visible color changes in a dose-dependent manner. The chromatophores are immobilized and maintained in a viable state while potential pathogens multiply and fish cell-microbe interactions are monitored. Low power LED lighting is used to illuminate the chromatophores which are magnified using standard optical lenses and imaged onto a CCD array. Reaction to toxins is detected by observing changes is the total area of color in the cells. These fish chromatophores are quite sensitive to cholera toxin, Staphococcus alpha toxin, and Bordatella pertussis toxin. Numerous other toxic chemical and biological agents besides bacterial toxins also cause readily detectable color effects in chromatophores. The ability of the chromatophore cell-based biosensor to distinguish between different bacterial pathogens was examined. Toxin producing strains of Salmonella enteritis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus cereus induced movement of pigmented organelles in the chromatophore cells and this movement was measured by changes in the optical density over time. Each bacterial pathogen elicited this measurable response in a distinctive and signature fashion. These results suggest a chromatophore cell-based biosensor assay may be applicable for the detection and identification of virulence activities associated with certain air-, food-, and water-borne bacterial pathogens.

  11. A New Laccase Biosensor For Polyphenols Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J.F. Rebelo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of polyphenols in human health is a well known fact. Prompted by that, a very intensive research has been directed to get a method to detect them, wich will improve the current ones. Laccase (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.10.3.2 is a multi-copper oxidase, wich couples catalytic oxidation of phenolic substrates with four electron reduction of dioxygen to water [1]. A maximum catalytic response in oxigenated electrolyte was observed between 4.5 and 5.5 [2], while for pH > 6.9 the laccase was found to be inactive [3]. We prepared a biosensor with laccase immobilised on a polyether sulphone membrane, at pH 4.5, wich was applied at Universal Sensors base electrode. Reduction of the product of oxidation of several polyphenols, catalysed by laccase, was done at a potential for wich the polyphenol of interest was found to respond. Reduction of catechol was found to occur at a potential of -200mV, wich is often referred to in the literature for polyphenolic biosensors. However other polyphenols did not respond at that potential. It was observed that (+- catechin produced a very large cathodic current when +100mV were applied to the laccase biosensor, both in aqueous acetate and 12% ethanol acetate buffer, whereas caffeic acid responded at -50mV. Other polyphenols tested were gallic acid, malvidin, quercetin, rutin, trans-resveratrol

  12. Biosensor UUV payload for underwater detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusterbeck, Anne W.; Charles, Paul T.; Melde, Brian J.; Trammell, Scott A.; Adams, André A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.

    2010-04-01

    Increased emphasis on maritime domain awareness and port security has led to the development of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) capable of extended missions. These systems rely most frequently on well-developed side scan sonar and acoustic methods to locate potential targets. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing biosensors for underwater explosives detection that complement acoustic sensors and can be used as UUV payloads to monitor areas for port and harbor security or in detection of underwater unexploded ordnance (UXO) and biochemical threats. The prototype sensor has recently been demonstrated to detect explosives in seawater at trace levels when run in a continuous sampling mode. To overcome ongoing issues with sample preparation and facilitate rapid detection at trace levels in a marine environment, we have been developing new mesoporous materials for in-line preconcentration of explosives and other small molecules, engineering microfluidic components to improve the signal, and testing alternative signal transduction methods. Additional work is being done to optimize the optical components and sensor response time. Highlights of these current studies and our ongoing efforts to integrate the biosensor with existing detection technologies to reduce false positives are described. In addition, we present the results of field tests that demonstrate the prototype biosensor performance as a UUV payload.

  13. Cultured neuronal networks as environmental biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J; Gray, Samuel A; Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2004-01-01

    Contamination of water by toxins, either intentionally or unintentionally, is a growing concern for both military and civilian agencies and thus there is a need for systems capable of monitoring a wide range of natural and industrial toxicants. The EILATox-Oregon Workshop held in September 2002 provided an opportunity to test the capabilities of a prototype neuronal network-based biosensor with unknown contaminants in water samples. The biosensor is a portable device capable of recording the action potential activity from a network of mammalian neurons grown on glass microelectrode arrays. Changes in the action potential fi ring rate across the network are monitored to determine exposure to toxicants. A series of three neuronal networks derived from mice was used to test seven unknown samples. Two of these unknowns later were revealed to be blanks, to which the neuronal networks did not respond. Of the five remaining unknowns, a significant change in network activity was detected for four of the compounds at concentrations below a lethal level for humans: mercuric chloride, sodium arsenite, phosdrin and chlordimeform. These compounds--two heavy metals, an organophosphate and an insecticide--demonstrate the breadth of detection possible with neuronal networks. The results generated at the workshop show the promise of the neuronal network biosensor as an environmental detector but there is still considerable effort needed to produce a device suitable for routine environmental threat monitoring. PMID:15478174

  14. Homemade Bienzymatic-Amperometric Biosensor for Beverages Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Lopez, M. C.; Lobo-Castanon, M. J.; Miranda-Ordieres, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    The construction of an amperometric biosensor for glucose analysis is described demonstrating that the analysis is easy to perform and the biosensor gives good analytical performance. This experiment helped the students to acquire problem-solving and teamwork skills, allowing them to reach a high level of independent and critical thought.

  15. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based glucose biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kros, A.; Nolte, R.J.M. [Nijmegen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Organic Chemistry; Hoevell, S.W.F.M. van [TNO Nutrition and Food Research Inst., Zeist (Netherlands); Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M. [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Lab. of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry

    2001-10-16

    Amperometric biosensors for the recognition of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have for the first time been fabricated and are presented in this communication. This biosensor has potential applications for long-term glucose measurements, e.g., in the treatment of diabetes. (orig.)

  16. In vitro evaluation of fluorescence glucose biosensor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloraefy, Mamdouh; Pfefer, T Joshua; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Sapsford, Kim E

    2014-01-01

    Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensors, and characterized biosensor performance using these test methods. The biosensors were based on competitive binding between dextran and glucose to concanavalin A and incorporated long-wavelength fluorescence dye pairs. Testing characteristics included spectral response, linearity, sensitivity, limit of detection, kinetic response, reversibility, stability, precision, and accuracy. The biosensor demonstrated a fluorescence change of 45% in the presence of 400 mg/dL glucose, a mean absolute relative difference of less than 11%, a limit of detection of 25 mg/dL, a response time of 15 min, and a decay in fluorescence intensity of 72% over 30 days. The battery of tests presented here for objective, quantitative in vitro evaluation of FRET glucose biosensors performance have the potential to form the basis of future consensus standards. By implementing these test methods for a long-visible-wavelength biosensor, we were able to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses with a new level of thoroughness and rigor. PMID:25006996

  17. Design Strategies of Fluorescent Biosensors Based on Biological Macromolecular Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Morii

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent biosensors to detect the bona fide events of biologically important molecules in living cells are increasingly demanded in the field of molecular cell biology. Recent advances in the development of fluorescent biosensors have made an outstanding contribution to elucidating not only the roles of individual biomolecules, but also the dynamic intracellular relationships between these molecules. However, rational design strategies of fluorescent biosensors are not as mature as they look. An insatiable request for the establishment of a more universal and versatile strategy continues to provide an attractive alternative, so-called modular strategy, which permits facile preparation of biosensors with tailored characteristics by a simple combination of a receptor and a signal transducer. This review describes an overview of the progress in design strategies of fluorescent biosensors, such as auto-fluorescent protein-based biosensors, protein-based biosensors covalently modified with synthetic fluorophores, and signaling aptamers, and highlights the insight into how a given receptor is converted to a fluorescent biosensor. Furthermore, we will demonstrate a significance of the modular strategy for the sensor design.

  18. A global benchmark study using affinity-based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rich, Rebecca L.; Papalia, Giusseppe A.; Krishnamoorthy, Ganeshram; Beusink, Bianca; Pak, Brian J.; Myszka, David G.; more, more

    2009-01-01

    To explore the variability in biosensor studies, 150 participants from 20 countries were given the same protein samples and asked to determine kinetic rate constants for the interaction. We chose a protein system that was amenable to analysis using different biosensor platforms as well as by users o

  19. Multiple Pathogen Detection Using Biosensors: Advancements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advancements in biosensor research have considerably impacted clinical diagnostics for human health. Efforts in capitalizing on the sensitivity of biosensors for food pathogen detection are evident in the food safety/security research community. For practical application with foods that normally h...

  20. A global benchmark study using affinity-based biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Rebecca L; Papalia, Giuseppe A; Flynn, Peter J;

    2009-01-01

    To explore the variability in biosensor studies, 150 participants from 20 countries were given the same protein samples and asked to determine kinetic rate constants for the interaction. We chose a protein system that was amenable to analysis using different biosensor platforms as well as by user...

  1. In Vitro Evaluation of Fluorescence Glucose Biosensor Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Aloraefy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensors, and characterized biosensor performance using these test methods. The biosensors were based on competitive binding between dextran and glucose to concanavalin A and incorporated long-wavelength fluorescence dye pairs. Testing characteristics included spectral response, linearity, sensitivity, limit of detection, kinetic response, reversibility, stability, precision, and accuracy. The biosensor demonstrated a fluorescence change of 45% in the presence of 400 mg/dL glucose, a mean absolute relative difference of less than 11%, a limit of detection of 25 mg/dL, a response time of 15 min, and a decay in fluorescence intensity of 72% over 30 days. The battery of tests presented here for objective, quantitative in vitro evaluation of FRET glucose biosensors performance have the potential to form the basis of future consensus standards. By implementing these test methods for a long-visible-wavelength biosensor, we were able to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses with a new level of thoroughness and rigor.

  2. Measurement and Simulation Techniques For Piezoresistive Microcantilever Biosensor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Djoko Hartanto; Aan Febriansyah; Ratno Nuryadi

    2012-01-01

    Applications of microcantilevers as biosensors have been explored by many researchers for the applications in medicine, biological, chemistry, and environmental monitoring. This research discusses a design of measurement method and simuations for piezoresistive microcantilever as a biosensor, which consist of designing Wheatstone bridge circuit as object detector, simulation of resonance frequency shift based on Euler Bernoulli Beam equation, and microcantilever vibration simulation using COM...

  3. Android integrated urea biosensor for public health awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranali P. Naik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Integration of a biosensor with a wireless network on the Android 4.2.1 (Jelly Bean platform has been demonstrated. The present study reports an android integrated user friendly Flow injection analysis-Enzyme thermistor (FIA-ET urea biosensor system. This android-integrated biosensor system will facilitate enhanced consumer health and awareness alongside abridging the gap between the food testing laboratory and the concerned higher authorities. Data received from a flow injection mode urea biosensor has been exploited as an integration point among the analyst, the food consumer and the responsible higher authorities. Using the urea biosensor as an example, an alarm system has also been demonstrated both graphically and through text message on a mobile handset. The presented sensor integrated android system will also facilitate decision making support system in various fields of food quality monitoring and clinical analysis.

  4. Biosensor method and system based on feature vector extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Qi, Hairong; Wang, Xiaoling

    2012-04-17

    A method of biosensor-based detection of toxins comprises the steps of providing at least one time-dependent control signal generated by a biosensor in a gas or liquid medium, and obtaining a time-dependent biosensor signal from the biosensor in the gas or liquid medium to be monitored or analyzed for the presence of one or more toxins selected from chemical, biological or radiological agents. The time-dependent biosensor signal is processed to obtain a plurality of feature vectors using at least one of amplitude statistics and a time-frequency analysis. At least one parameter relating to toxicity of the gas or liquid medium is then determined from the feature vectors based on reference to the control signal.

  5. Current Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Amperometric Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hayat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed an intensive research effort in the field of electrochemical sensors, with a particular focus on the design of amperometric biosensors for diverse analytical applications. In this context, nanomaterial integration in the construction of amperometric biosensors may constitute one of the most exciting approaches. The attractive properties of nanomaterials have paved the way for the design of a wide variety of biosensors based on various electrochemical detection methods to enhance the analytical characteristics. However, most of these nanostructured materials are not explored in the design of amperometric biosensors. This review aims to provide insight into the diverse properties of nanomaterials that can be possibly explored in the construction of amperometric biosensors.

  6. Resonance phenomenon of the ATP motor as an ultrasensitive biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peirong; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Xia; Li, Xueren; Yue, Jiachang

    2012-09-28

    We designed a rotary biosensor as a damping effector, with the rotation of the F(0)F(1)-ATPase driven by Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) synthesis being indicated by the fluorescence intensity and a damping effect force being induced by the binding of an RNA molecule to its probe on the rotary biosensor. We found that the damping effect could contribute to the resonance phenomenon and energy transfer process of our rotary biosensor in the liquid phase. This result indicates that the ability of the rotary motor to operate in the vibration harmonic mode depends on the environmental conditions and mechanism in that a few molecules of the rotary biosensor could induce all of the sensor molecules to fluoresce together. These findings contribute to the theory study of the ATPase motor and future development of biosensors for ultrasensitive detection. PMID:22960174

  7. Introduction to Biosensors From Electric Circuits to Immunosensors

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Biosensors: From Electric Circuits to Immunosensors discusses underlying circuitry of sensors for biomedical and biological engineers as well as biomedical sensing modalities for electrical engineers while providing an applications-based approach to the study of biosensors with over 13 extensive, hands-on labs. The material is presented using a building-block approach, beginning with the fundamentals of sensor design and temperature sensors and ending with more complicated biosensors. This book also: Provides electrical engineers with the specific knowledge they need to understand biological sensing modalities Provides biomedical engineers with a solid background in circuits and systems Includes complete coverage of temperature sensors, electrochemical sensors, DNA and immunosensors, piezoelectric sensors and immunosensing in a micofluidic device Introduction to Biosensors: From Electric Circuits to Immunosensors aims to provide an interdisciplinary approach to biosensors that will be apprecia...

  8. Silicon Photonic Biosensors for Lab-on-a-Chip Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Lechuga

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, we have witnessed a remarkable progress in the development of biosensor devices and their application in areas such as environmental monitoring, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security, among others. The technology of optical biosensors has reached a high degree of maturity and several commercial products are on the market. But problems of stability, sensitivity, and size have prevented the general use of optical biosensors for real field applications. Integrated photonic biosensors based on silicon technology could solve such drawbacks, offering early diagnostic tools with better sensitivity, specificity, and reliability, which could improve the effectiveness of in-vivo and in-vitro diagnostics. Our last developments in silicon photonic biosensors will be showed, mainly related to the development of portable and highly sensitive integrated photonic sensing platforms.

  9. Introduction to biosensors from electric circuits to immunosensors

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    This book equips students with a thorough understanding of various types of sensors and biosensors that can be used for chemical, biological, and biomedical applications, including but not limited to temperature sensors, strain sensor, light sensors, spectrophotometric sensors, pulse oximeter, optical fiber probes, fluorescence sensors, pH sensor, ion-selective electrodes, piezoelectric sensors, glucose sensors, DNA and immunosensors, lab-on-a-chip biosensors, paper-based lab-on-a-chip biosensors, and microcontroller-based sensors. The author treats the study of biosensors with an applications-based approach, including over 15 extensive, hands-on labs given at the end of each chapter. The material is presented using a building-block approach, beginning with the fundamentals of sensor design and temperature sensors, and ending with more complicated biosensors. New to this second edition are sections on op-amp filters, pulse oximetry, meat quality monitoring, advanced fluorescent dyes, autofluorescence, various...

  10. Biosensors for environmental monitoring of endocrine disruptors: a review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Lopez de Alda, Maria J.; Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Maria-Pilar [Department of Biological Organic Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the applications of biosensors in analysis and monitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the environment. Special attention is devoted to the various types of physical-chemical signal transduction elements, biological mechanisms employed as sensing elements and techniques used for immobilisation of the bioreceptor molecules on the transducer surface. Two different classes of biosensors for EDCs are considered: biosensors that measure endocrine-disrupting effects, and biosensors that respond to the presence of a specific substance (or group of substances) based on the specific recognition of a biomolecule. Several examples of them are presented to illustrate the power of the biosensor technology for environmental applications. Future trends in the development of new, more advanced devices are also outlined. (orig.)

  11. Whole-cell arsenite biosensor using photosynthetic bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum. Rhodovulum sulfidophilum as an arsenite biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Masato; Yamashiro, Hidenori; Isoda, Katsuhiro; Kondoh, Masuo; Kawase, Masaya; Yagi, Kiyohito [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Maeda, Isamu [Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Miyasaka, Hitoshi [Kansai Electric Power Co., Sourakugun, Kyoto (Japan). Environmental Research Center

    2006-11-15

    An arsenite biosensor plasmid was constructed in Escherichia coli by inserting the operator/promoter region of the ars operon and the arsR gene from E. coli and the crtA gene, which is responsible for carotenoid synthesis in the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodovulum sulfidophilum, into the broad-host-range plasmid vector, pRK415. The biosensor plasmid, pSENSE-As, was introduced into a crtA-deleted mutant strain of R. sulfidophilum (CDM2), which is yellow in culture due to its content of spheroiden (SE) and demethylspheroidene (DMSE). CDM2 containing pSENSE-As changed from yellow to red by the addition of arsenite, which caused enzymatic transformation of SE and DMSE to spheroidenone (SO) and demethylspheroidenone (DMSO). Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that the color change depended on transcription of the crtA gene in pSENSE-As. The color change could be clearly recognized with the naked eye at 5 {mu}g/l arsenite. The biosensor strain did not respond to other metals except for bismuth and antimony, which caused significant accumulation of SO and DMSO in the cells at 60 and 600 {mu}g/l, respectively. This biosensor indicates the presence of arsenite with a bacterial color change without the need to add a special reagent or substrate for color development, enabling this pollutant to be monitored in samples by the naked eye in sunlight, even where electricity is not available. (orig.)

  12. Biosensors for functional food safety and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The importance of safety and functionality analysis of foodstuffs and raw materials is supported by national legislations and European Union (EU) directives concerning not only the amount of residues of pollutants and pathogens but also the activity and content of food additives and the health claims stated on their labels. In addition, consumers' awareness of the impact of functional foods' on their well-being and their desire for daily healthcare without the intake pharmaceuticals has immensely in recent years. Within this picture, the availability of fast, reliable, low cost control systems to measure the content and the quality of food additives and nutrients with health claims becomes mandatory, to be used by producers, consumers and the governmental bodies in charge of the legal supervision of such matters. This review aims at describing the most important methods and tools used for food analysis, starting with the classical methods (e.g., gas-chromatography GC, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC) and moving to the use of biosensors-novel biological material-based equipments. Four types of bio-sensors, among others, the novel photosynthetic proteins-based devices which are more promising and common in food analysis applications, are reviewed. A particular highlight on biosensors for the emerging market of functional foods is given and the most widely applied functional components are reviewed with a comprehensive analysis of papers published in the last three years; this report discusses recent trends for sensitive, fast, repeatable and cheap measurements, focused on the detection of vitamins, folate (folic acid), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), fatty acids (in particular Omega 3), phytosterols and phytochemicals. A final market overview emphasizes some practical aspects ofbiosensor applications.

  13. High-density fiber optic biosensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jason R.; Walt, David R.

    2002-02-01

    Novel approaches are required to coordinate the immense amounts of information derived from diverse genomes. This concept has influenced the expanded role of high-throughput DNA detection and analysis in the biological sciences. A high-density fiber optic DNA biosensor was developed consisting of oligonucleotide-functionalized, 3.1 mm diameter microspheres deposited into the etched wells on the distal face of a 500 micrometers imaging fiber bundle. Imaging fiber bundles containing thousands of optical fibers, each associated with a unique oligonucleotide probe sequence, were the foundation for an optically connected, individually addressable DNA detection platform. Different oligonucleotide-functionalized microspheres were combined in a stock solution, and randomly dispersed into the etched wells. Microsphere positions were registered from optical dyes incorporated onto the microspheres. The distribution process provided an inherent redundancy that increases the signal-to-noise ratio as the square root of the number of sensors examined. The representative amount of each probe-type in the array was dependent on their initial stock solution concentration, and as other sequences of interest arise, new microsphere elements can be added to arrays without altering the existing detection capabilities. The oligonucleotide probe sequences hybridize to fluorescently-labeled, complementary DNA target solutions. Fiber optic DNA microarray research has included DNA-protein interaction profiles, microbial strain differentiation, non-labeled target interrogation with molecular beacons, and single cell-based assays. This biosensor array is proficient in DNA detection linked to specific disease states, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP's) discrimination, and gene expression analysis. This array platform permits multiple detection formats, provides smaller feature sizes, and enables sensor design flexibility. High-density fiber optic microarray biosensors provide a fast

  14. The Quantitative Overhead Analysis for Effective Task Migration in Biosensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sung-Min Jung; Tae-Kyung Kim; Jung-Ho Eom; Tai-Myoung Chung

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative overhead analysis for effective task migration in biosensor networks. A biosensor network is the key technology which can automatically provide accurate and specific parameters of a human in real time. Biosensor nodes are typically very small devices, so the use of computing resources is restricted. Due to the limitation of nodes, the biosensor network is vulnerable to an external attack against a system for exhausting system availability. Since biosensor nodes gener...

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Multienzyme Biosensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP. Ganesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of hybrid inhibitor biosensor system is discussed. This model consists of five nonlinear partial differential equations for bisubstrate sensitive amperometric system. Simple and closed form of analytical expressions for concentration of glucose-6-phosphate (substrate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (inhibitor, oxygen (co-substrate, glucose (product 1, and hydrogen peroxide (product 3 is obtained in terms of rate constant using modified Adomian decomposition method (MADM. In this study, behavior of biokinetic parameters is analyzed using this theoretical result. The obtained analytical results (concentrations are compared with the numerical results and are found to be in satisfactory agreement.

  16. Bacteriophage biosensors for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokulova, Irina; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2014-03-01

    An increasing number of disease-causing bacteria are resistant to one or more anti-bacterial drugs utilized for therapy. Early and speedy detection of these pathogens is therefore very important. Traditional pathogen detection techniques, that include microbiological and biochemical assays are long and labor-intensive, while antibody or DNA-based methods require substantial sample preparation and purification. Biosensors based on bacteriophages have demonstrated remarkable potential to surmount these restrictions and to offer rapid, efficient and sensitive detection technique for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  17. Biosensors and invasive monitoring in clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Córcoles, Emma P

    2013-01-01

    This volume examines the advances of invasive monitoring by means of biosensors and microdialysis. Physical and physiological parameters are commonly monitored in clinical settings using invasive techniques due to their positive outcome in patients’ diagnosis and treatment. Biochemical parameters, however, still rely on off-line measurements and require large pieces of equipment. Biosensing and sampling devices present excellent capabilities for their use in continuous monitoring of patients’ biochemical parameters. However, certain issues remain to be solved in order to ensure a more widespread use of these techniques in today’s medical practices.

  18. Assembling Amperometric Biosensors for Clinical Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marina Lagier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnosis and disease prevention routinely require the assessment ofspecies determined by chemical analysis. Biosensor technology offers several benefits overconventional diagnostic analysis. They include simplicity of use, specificity for the targetanalyte, speed to arise to a result, capability for continuous monitoring and multiplexing,together with the potentiality of coupling to low-cost, portable instrumentation. This workfocuses on the basic lines of decisions when designing electron-transfer-based biosensorsfor clinical analysis, with emphasis on the strategies currently used to improve the deviceperformance, the present status of amperometric electrodes for biomedicine, and the trendsand challenges envisaged for the near future.

  19. A Highly Responsive Silicon Nanowire/Amplifier MOSFET Hybrid Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Jang, Jaeman; Choi, Bongsik; Yoon, Jinsu; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Kim, Dong Myong; Kim, Dae Hwan; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a hybrid biosensor comprised of a silicon nanowire (SiNW) integrated with an amplifier MOSFET to improve the current response of field-effect-transistor (FET)-based biosensors. The hybrid biosensor is fabricated using conventional CMOS technology, which has the potential advantage of high density and low noise performance. The biosensor shows a current response of 5.74 decades per pH for pH detection, which is 2.5 × 10(5) times larger than that of a single SiNW sensor. In addition, we demonstrate charged polymer detection using the biosensor, with a high current change of 4.5 × 10(5) with a 500 nM concentration of poly(allylamine hydrochloride). In addition, we demonstrate a wide dynamic range can be obtained by adjusting the liquid gate voltage. We expect that this biosensor will be advantageous and practical for biosensor applications which requires lower noise, high speed, and high density. PMID:26197105

  20. Construction and characterization of novel stress-responsive Deinococcal biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Min Ho; Lim, Sang Youg

    2012-01-15

    In this research, we constructed a recombinant whole-cell biosensor to detect mutagens (H2O2, mitomycin C, MNNG, bleomycin) using Deinococcus radiodurans and evaluated its possibility for actual application. We performed DNA microarray analysis and selected 10 candidate genes for biosensor recombinant plasmid construction. The expression of ddrA, ddrB, DR{sub 0}161, DR{sub 0}589, and pprA was highly increased after treatment of the target mutagens. Putative promoter region of the genes were used for LacZ-based biosensor plasmid construction by replacing groESL promoter of pRADZ3. Pormoter activity and specificity of the five recombinant LacZ-based biosensor strains harboring the recombinant plasmids was measured. The result indicated that the promoter region of ddrA is the most suitable promoter for the biosensor development. Red pigment-based biosensor plasmid was constructed by displacing lacZ with crtI. The sensor strain was constructed by transforming the sensor plasmid into crtI deleted mutant D. radiodurans strain. Finally, macroscopic detection of the target mutagens by the biosensor strain was evaluated. The strength of red pigment biosynthesis by this recombinant strain in response to the target mutagens was weaker than our expectation. Continuous damage to the sensor strain by the mutagens in the medium might be the main reason for this low red-pigment biosynthesis. Therefore, we propose that the LacZ-based biosensor is more effective than the biosensor using red pigment as indicator for the mutagen detection.

  1. A biosensor system using nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Rathore, Deepshikha

    2016-05-01

    NiFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and the structural characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction technique, where single cubic phase formation of nanoparticles was confirmed. The average particle size of NiFe2O4 was found to be 4.9 nm. Nanoscale magnetic materials are an important source of labels for biosensing due to their strong magnetic properties which are not found in biological systems. This property of the material was exploited and the fabrication of the NiFe2O4 nanoparticle based biosensor was done in the form of a capacitor system, with NiFe2O4 as the dielectric material. The biosensor system was tested towards different biological materials with the help of electrochemical workstation and the same was analysed through Cole-Cole plot of NiFe2O4. The performance of the sensor was determined based on its sensitivity, response time and recovery time.

  2. Development of a functionalized Xenon biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, Megan M.; Ruiz, E. Janette; Rubin, Seth M.; Lowery, Thomas J.; Winssinger, Nicolas; Schultz, Peter G.; Wemmer, David E.; Pines, Alexander

    2004-03-25

    NMR-based biosensors that utilize laser-polarized xenon offer potential advantages beyond current sensing technologies. These advantages include the capacity to simultaneously detect multiple analytes, the applicability to in vivo spectroscopy and imaging, and the possibility of remote amplified detection. Here we present a detailed NMR characterization of the binding of a biotin-derivatized caged-xenon sensor to avidin. Binding of functionalized xenon to avidin leads to a change in the chemical shift of the encapsulated xenon in addition to a broadening of the resonance, both of which serve as NMR markers of ligand-target interaction. A control experiment in which the biotin-binding site of avidin was blocked with native biotin showed no such spectral changes, confirming that only specific binding, rather than nonspecific contact, between avidin and functionalized xenon leads to the effects on the xenon NMR spectrum. The exchange rate of xenon (between solution and cage) and the xenon spin-lattice relaxation rate were not changed significantly upon binding. We describe two methods for enhancing the signal from functionalized xenon by exploiting the laser-polarized xenon magnetization reservoir. We also show that the xenon chemical shifts are distinct for xenon encapsulated in different diastereomeric cage molecules. This demonstrates the potential for tuning the encapsulated xenon chemical shift, which is a key requirement for being able to multiplex the biosensor.

  3. Development of allosteric biosensors for the diagnosis of infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz Colomina, Rosa Maria

    2008-01-01

    Los biosensores representan actualmente herramientas importantes para la detección de moléculas de interés. Los biosensores proteicos destacan por su fácil producción y uso, permitiendo un desarrollo económico de biosensores que pueden ser utilizados en todo el mundo y sobretodo, útiles en países con falta de recursos y tecnología. Un diagnóstico rápido y eficaz de enfermedades infecciosas permitiría un tratamiento más rápido y un mejor aprovechamiento de los recursos disponibles. En este est...

  4. F F1-ATPase as biosensor to detect single virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F F1-ATPase within chromatophore was constructed as a biosensor (immuno-rotary biosensor) for the purpose of capturing single virus. Capture of virus was based on antibody-antigen reaction. The detection of virus based on proton flux change driven by ATP-synthesis of F F1-ATPase, which was indicated by F1300, was directly observed by a fluorescence microscope. The results demonstrate that the biosensor loading of virus particles has remarkable signal-to-noise ratio (3.8:1) compared to its control at single molecular level, and will be convenient, quick, and even super-sensitive for detecting virus particles

  5. Development of biosensors and their application in metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jie; Jensen, Michael Krogh; Keasling, Jay

    2015-01-01

    for the desired phenotypes. However, methods available for microbial genome diversification far exceed our ability to screen and select for those variants with optimal performance. Genetically encoded biosensors have shown the potential to address this gap, given their ability to respond to small molecule binding...... and ease of implementation with high-throughput analysis. Here we describe recent progress in biosensor development and their applications in a metabolic engineering context. We also highlight examples of how biosensors can be integrated with synthetic circuits to exert feedback regulation...

  6. Deep-probe metal-clad waveguide biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skivesen, Nina; Horvath, Robert; Thinggaard, S.;

    2007-01-01

    Two types of metal-clad waveguide biosensors, so-called dip-type and peak-type, are analyzed and tested. Their performances are benchmarked against the well-known surface-plasmon resonance biosensor, showing improved probe characteristics for adlayer thicknesses above 150-200 nm. The dip-type metal......-clad waveguide sensor is shown to be the best all-round alternative to the surface-plasmon resonance biosensor. Both metal-clad waveguides are tested experimentally for cell detection, showing a detection linut of 8-9 cells/mm(2). (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Cell-based biosensors: Towards the development of cellular monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Cell-based biosensors (CBBs), a research hotspot of biosensors, which treat living cells as sensing elements, can detect the functional information of biologically active analytes. They characterize with high sensitivity, excellent selectivity and rapid response, and have been applied in many fields, such as biomedicine, environmental monitoring and pharmaceutical screening. Recently cell-cultured technology, silicon microfabrication technology and genetic technology have promoted exploration of CBBs dramatically. To elucidate the novel research findings and applications of cell- based biosensors, this paper summarizes various research approaches, presents some challenges and proposes the research trends.

  8. Static sensitivity calculation of a novel fiber optic biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongchen Bai; Shuijie Qin; Jing Li; Dashun Huang; Xin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A novel structure of fiber optic biosensor and its principle are introduced. The sample is detected in microchannels of several microns diameter in fiber optic biosensors. The relation between the optic fiber tapered angle and the fluorescence incident angle is calculated in signal receiving part. As the sensor is a zero-order system, calculating formula of the static sensitivity is derived. When ZnSe nano-crystalline cluster is used for marking the molecules, the static sensitivity for fiber optic biosensors is calculated. At the same time, the relation between the static sensitivity and the ratio of exciting wavelength to fluorescence wavelength is presented.

  9. Carbon Nanotubes Based Glucose Needle-type Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel needle-type biosensor based on carbon nanotubes is reported. Thebiosensor was prepared by packing a mixture of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs,graphite powder and glucose oxidase (Gox freeze-dried powder into a glass capillary of 0.5mm inner diameter. The resulting amperometric biosensor was characterizedelectrochemically using amperometry in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and in thepresence of glucose. The glucose biosensor sensitivity was influenced by the glucoseoxidase concentration within the MWCNTs mixture. The optimized glucose needle-typebiosensor displayed better sensitivity and stability, and a detected range of up to 20 mM.Based on its favorable stability, the needle biosensor was first time used in real-timemonitoring system as a kind of online glucose detector. The decay of current response isless than 10% after 24-hour continuous observation.

  10. Preparation of Amperometric Glucose Biosensor Based on 4-Mercaptobenzoic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Endo, Hideaki; Izumi, Mitsuru

    A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated by a combination of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid and the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Because of the catalysis of Prussian Blue contained in the LB film layers, the prepared amperometric biosensor worked at a very low potential range around 0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The optimum operating conditions for glucose biosensor were investigated by varying the glucose oxidase immobilization time, the applied potential and the pH of buffer solution. The steady-state current responses of the glucose biosensor showed a good linear relationship to glucose concentrations from 0.1 mM to 154 mM.

  11. An Electropolymerized Membrane Biosensor for Specific DNA Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Tu-Zhi(彭图治); CHENG,Qiong(程琼); YANG,F.Catherine

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemical biosensor for detecting the sequence of short DNA oligomers is represented. The biosensor is based on a platinum electrode covered a polymerized membrane of conductive monomer N-[6-(thien-3-yl) acetoxy]-pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (TAPD). The membrane of TAPD immobilizes a probe DNA on the electrode. The hybridization of the probe with a sequence-specific DNA in sample solutions is monitored by a self-synthesized electroactive indicator, which specifically intercalates in the hybrids on the electrode surface. The current signal of the biosensor is proportional to the concentration of the target DNA in samples, and a very low detection limit of 5 ×10-10 mol/L is found. The biosensor has been used to detect the short oligomers containing of HIV-1 and mycobacterrium nucleotide sequences.

  12. An Electropolymerized Membrane Biosensor for Speciffic DNA Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG,Tu-Zhi; CHENG,Qiong; 等

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemical biosensor for detecting the sequence of short DNA oligomers is represented.The biosensor is based on a platinum electrode covered a polymerized membrane of conductive monomer N-[6-(thien-3-yl)acetoxy]-pyrrolidine-2,5-dione(TAPD).The membrane of TAPD immobilizes a probe DNA on the electrode.The hybridization of the probe with a sequence-specific DNA in sample solutions is monitored by a self-synthesized electroactive indicator,which specifically intercalates in the hybrids on the electrode surface.The current signal of the biosensor is proportional to the concentration of the target DNA in samples,and a very low detection limit of 5×10-10mol/L is found.The biosensor has been used to detect the short oligomers containing of HIV-1 and mycobacterrium mucleotide sequences.

  13. Enzymatic biosensors based on the use of metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decades, various techniques have been developed to obtain materials at a nanoscale level to design biosensors with high sensitivity, selectivity and efficiency. Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are of particular interests and have received much attention because of their unique physical, chemical and catalytic properties. This review summarizes the progress made in enzymatic biosensors based on the use of MONPs. Synthetic methods, strategies for immobilization, and the functions of MONPs in enzymatic biosensing systems are reviewed and discussed. The article is subdivided into sections on enzymatic biosensors based on (a) zinc oxide nanoparticles, (b) titanium oxide nanoparticles, (c) iron oxide nanoparticles, and (d) other metal oxide nanoparticles. While substantial advances have been made in MONPs-based enzymatic biosensors, their applications to real samples still lie ahead because issues such as reproducibility and sensor stability have to be solved. (author)

  14. Research on optical biosensor with up-converting phosphor marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongkai Zhao; Xiangzhao Wang; Lei Zhou; Jing Wang; Lihua Huang; Zhongqiang Yan; Huijie Huang; Ruifu Yang; Lei Liu; Bingqiang Ren

    2006-01-01

    @@ An optical biosensor with up-converting phosphor (UCP) marker is developed for the sensitive rapid immunoassay to the specific biomolecule. UCP can emit visible light when excited by infrared light.

  15. Highly sensitive biosensors based on water-soluble conjugated polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; WU Haiping; FAN Chunhai; LI Wenxin; ZHANG Zhizhou; HE Lin

    2004-01-01

    Conjugated, conductive polymers are a kind of important organic macromolecules, which has found applications in a variety of areas. The application of conjugated polymers in developing fluorescent biosensors represents the merge of polymer sciences and biological sciences. Conjugated polymers are very good light harvesters as well as fluorescent polymers, and they are also "molecular wires". Through elaborate designs, these important features, i.e. efficient light harvesting and electron/energy transfer, can be used as signal amplification in fluorescent biosensors. This might significantly improve the sensitivity of conjugated polymer-based biosensors. In this article, we reviewed the application of conjugated polymers, via either electron transfer or energy transfer, to detections of gene targets, antibodies or enzymes. We also reviewed recent efforts in conjugated polymer-based solid-state sensor designs as well as chip-based multiple target detection. Possible directions in this conjugated polymer-based biosensor area are also discussed.

  16. Modelling of Amperometric Biosensors in the Case of Substrate Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulys, Juozas; Baronas, Romas

    2006-01-01

    The response of an amperometric biosensor at mixed enzyme kinetics and diffusion limitations was modelled digitally in the case of substrate inhibition. Digital simulations were carried out using a finite difference technique. Calculations showed complex kinetics of biosensor response. At low enzyme activity and substrate concentration (S0), the response of the sensor looks like it is limited by a simple substrate diffusion. At substrate concentration comparable to the Michaelis-Menten constant (KM), the response change shows a maximal value. A sharp response change was indicated at high enzyme activity and high (4.9 > S0/KM > 4.5) substrate concentration. This was explained by multi-concentration of substrate generation inside the enzyme layer. This conclusion was confirmed by the analytical solution of the simplified biosensor model with external diffusion limitation at steady-state conditions. The complex kinetics of response change produces different calibration graphs for biosensor response at transition and steady state.

  17. Modelling of Amperometric Biosensor Used for Synergistic Substrates Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Simelevicius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the operation of an amperometric biosensor producing a chemically amplified signal is modelled numerically. The chemical amplification is achieved by using synergistic substrates. The model is based on non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves three layers (compartments: a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on the electrode surface, a dialysis membrane covering the enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer which is modelled by the Nernst approach. The equation system is solved numerically by using the finite difference technique. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by altering the model parameters influencing the enzyme kinetics as well as the mass transport by diffusion. The biosensor action was analyzed with a special emphasis to the effect of the chemical amplification. The simulation results qualitatively explain and confirm the experimentally observed effect of the synergistic substrates conversion on the biosensor response.

  18. Modelling of amperometric biosensor used for synergistic substrates determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simelevicius, Dainius; Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the operation of an amperometric biosensor producing a chemically amplified signal is modelled numerically. The chemical amplification is achieved by using synergistic substrates. The model is based on non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves three layers (compartments): a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on the electrode surface, a dialysis membrane covering the enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer which is modelled by the Nernst approach. The equation system is solved numerically by using the finite difference technique. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by altering the model parameters influencing the enzyme kinetics as well as the mass transport by diffusion. The biosensor action was analyzed with a special emphasis to the effect of the chemical amplification. The simulation results qualitatively explain and confirm the experimentally observed effect of the synergistic substrates conversion on the biosensor response. PMID:22666066

  19. BIOSENSORS: A SENSITIVE STRATEGY TO DETECT GLUCOSE IN BODY FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddhi Patel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades diabetes is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world, thus inventing glucose biosensors with accurate continuous monitoring is of growing concern amongst the scientists worldwide. This manuscript reviews the development of glucose biosensors over the last 50 years since the invention of the first glucose sensing electrode and various approaches considered to develop accurate and modern techniques of glucose sensing. This review provides brief introduction to principles of various glucose biosensors with systemization and classification of glucose monitoring principles. Thus the main aim of this manuscript is to check history of glucose biosensors, comment on their current status and commercial aspects, and examine future challenges.

  20. Glucose Biosensors: An Overview of Use in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hyung Yoo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose monitoring has been established as a valuable tool in the management of diabetes. Since maintaining normal blood glucose levels is recommended, a series of suitable glucose biosensors have been developed. During the last 50 years, glucose biosensor technology including point-of-care devices, continuous glucose monitoring systems and noninvasive glucose monitoring systems has been significantly improved. However, there continues to be several challenges related to the achievement of accurate and reliable glucose monitoring. Further technical improvements in glucose biosensors, standardization of the analytical goals for their performance, and continuously assessing and training lay users are required. This article reviews the brief history, basic principles, analytical performance, and the present status of glucose biosensors in the clinical practice.

  1. Modelling of Amperometric Biosensors in the Case of Substrate Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romas Baronas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The response of an amperometric biosensor at mixed enzyme kinetics anddiffusion limitations was modelled digitally in the case of substrate inhibition. Digitalsimulations were carried out using a finite difference technique. Calculations showedcomplex kinetics of biosensor response. At low enzyme activity and substrate concentration(S0, the response of the sensor looks like it is limited by a simple substrate diffusion. Atsubstrate concentration comparable to the Michaelis-Menten constant (KM, the responsechange shows a maximal value. A sharp response change was indicated at high enzymeactivity and high (4.9 > S0/KM > 4.5 substrate concentration. This was explained by multiconcentrationof substrate generation inside the enzyme layer. This conclusion wasconfirmed by the analytical solution of the simplified biosensor model with externaldiffusion limitation at steady-state conditions. The complex kinetics of response changeproduces different calibration graphs for biosensor response at transition and steady state.

  2. Biosensor Urea Berbasis Biopolimer Khitin Sebagai Matriks Immobilisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazruddin Nazaruddin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian tentang biosensor urea menggunakan biopolimer khitin sebagai matriks immobilisasi telah dilakukan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui kinerja biosensor yang dihasilkan yang meliputi sensitivitas, trayek pengukuran, limit deteksi, waktu respon, koefisien selektifitas, dan waktu hidup. Penelitian meliputi beberapa tahap yaitu pembuatan membran polimer khitin dan immobilisasi enzim urease, pelekatan membran khitin pada elektroda pH, dan pengukuran parameter kinerja elektroda. Hasil pengukuran menunjukkan sensitivitas biosensor urea berbasis membran khitin adalah 19,11 mV/dekade, trayek pengukuran 10-4 – 10-8 M, limit deteksi 10-8 M, waktu respon 3,10–6,02 menit, dengan urutan kekuatan ion penggangu: NH4Cl > NaCl > CH3COONa > campuran garam > KCl > CaCl2 > asam askorbat. Kata kunci: biosensor, immobilisasi, khitin, urea

  3. Engineered PQQ-Glucose Dehydrogenase as a Universal Biosensor Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhong; Murphy, Lindy; Stein, Viktor; Johnston, Wayne A; Alcala-Perez, Siro; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2016-08-17

    Biosensors with direct electron output hold promise for nearly seamless integration with portable electronic devices. However, so far, they have been based on naturally occurring enzymes that significantly limit the spectrum of detectable analytes. Here, we present a novel biosensor architecture based on analyte-driven intermolecular recombination and activity reconstitution of a re-engineered component of glucometers: PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase. We demonstrate that this sensor architecture can be rapidly adopted for the detection of immunosuppressant drugs, α-amylase protein, or protease activity of thrombin and Factor Xa. The biosensors could be stored in dried form without appreciable loss of activity. We further show that ligand-induced activity of the developed biosensors could be directly monitored by chronoamperometry, enabling construction of disposable sensory electrodes. We expect that this architecture could be expanded to the detection of other biochemical activities, post-translational modifications, nucleic acids, and inorganic molecules. PMID:27463000

  4. Indium Tin Oxide-Polyaniline Biosensor: Fabrication and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Grooms

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel indium tin oxide (ITO-polyaniline (Pani biosensor wasdesigned, fabricated, and characterized. Initial testing was conducted for the detection ofbovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV. The biosensor design was based upon the specific natureof antibodies to capture the target virus, and the conductive properties of self-doped Pani totranslate the antibody-antigen binding into a quantifying signal. The first part of the study wasto assess the feasibility of the self-doped Pani to be incorporated into the biosensor design byevaluating its several parameters, such as conductivity, physical structure, thermogravimetricproperties, and antibody-binding properties. The second part of the paper highlights thefabrication of the ITO-Pani biosensor to detect the presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus(BVDV in pure culture. Although only BVDV culture was tested in this study, the biosensoris versatile for the detection of other pathogen of interest by changing the specificity of theantibodies.

  5. A Conductometric Indium Oxide Semiconducting Nanoparticle Enzymatic Biosensor Array

    OpenAIRE

    Tianhong Cui; Janet Ondrake; Dongjin Lee

    2011-01-01

    We report a conductometric nanoparticle biosensor array to address the significant variation of electrical property in nanomaterial biosensors due to the random network nature of nanoparticle thin-film. Indium oxide and silica nanoparticles (SNP) are assembled selectively on the multi-site channel area of the resistors using layer-by-layer self-assembly. To demonstrate enzymatic biosensing capability, glucose oxidase is immobilized on the SNP layer for glucose detection. The packaged sensor c...

  6. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Z.; Song, W.; Burugapalli, K; Moussy, F; Li, Y-L; Zhong, X-H

    2010-01-01

    This is the author's accepted manuscript. The final published article is available from the link below. Copyright @ 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd. A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon...

  7. Electropolymerized phenol derivatives as permselective polymers for biosensor applications

    OpenAIRE

    Giammario, Calia; MONTI, Patrizia; Marceddu, Salvatore; Dettori, Maria A.; Fabbri, Davidé; Jaoua, Samir; O'Neill, Robert D.; Serra, Pier A.; Delogu, Giovanna; Migheli, Quirico

    2015-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors are often coated with a polymeric permselective film to avoid electroactive interference by reducing agents present in the target medium. Phenylenediamine and phenol monomers are commonly used to form these permselective films in the design of microsensors and biosensors. This paper aims to evaluate the permselectivity, stability and lifetime of polymers electrosynthesized using either constant potential amperometry (CPA) or cyclic voltammetry (CV) from naturally...

  8. Characterization of different DLC and DLN electrodes for biosensor design

    OpenAIRE

    Maalouf, R.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.; Vittori, O.; Sigaud, M; Saikali, Y.; Chebib, H.; Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, Florence; Donnet, C.; Takeno, T.; Takagi, T

    2006-01-01

    International audience Diamond-Like Carbon and Carbon-Like Nanocomposite electrodes, novel materials in the field of biosensors, made with different ratio of sp3/sp2 carbon hybridization or doped with elements such as Ni, Si and W, were characterized electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry and by amperometric measurements towards hydrogen peroxide. SiCAr1 and SiCNi5% were chosen as sensitive transducers for elaboration of amperometric glucose biosensors. Immobilization of glucose oxidase w...

  9. Development and implementation of miniature impedimetric systems for biosensor readout

    OpenAIRE

    BROEDERS, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of biosensors, i.e. sensors that are based on a biological recognition layer, has steadily increased in popularity over the last few decades. Sensors suited for a wide variety of bio-medically relevant target molecules are constantly being developed. The number of biosensor devices that actually reach the commercial market is however highly limited. Very few examples of such devices can be found, aside from the well-known glucose sensor and pregnancy test strips. Recent ...

  10. Engineering prokaryotic transcriptional activators as metabolite biosensors in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise; Snoek, Tim; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin;

    2016-01-01

    real-time monitoring of production has attracted attention. Here we applied systematic engineering of multiple parameters to search for a general biosensor design in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on small-molecule binding transcriptional activators from the prokaryote superfamily......,cis-muconic acid at different levels, and found that reporter gene output correlated with production. The transplantation of prokaryotic transcriptional activators into the eukaryotic chassis illustrates the potential of a hitherto untapped biosensor resource useful for biotechnological applications....

  11. Indium Tin Oxide-Polyaniline Biosensor: Fabrication and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Grooms, Daniel L.; Alocilja, Evangelyn C.; Zarini Muhammad Tahir

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a novel indium tin oxide (ITO)-polyaniline (Pani) biosensor was designed, fabricated, and characterized. Initial testing was conducted for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The biosensor design was based upon the specific nature of antibodies to capture the target virus, and the conductive properties of self-doped Pani to translate the antibody-antigen binding into a quantifying signal. The first part of the study was to assess the feasibility of the self-dop...

  12. Biosensor Scheme for the Determination of Intracellular Pressure of Erythrocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.S. Nagornov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a scheme of the biosensor for determining the intracellular pressure of erythrocytes. The possibility of measuring of the volume and area of the erythrocyte is provided in a biosensor to determine the value intracellular pressure. In MEMS this creates flow that enters into Coulter capacitive sensor through the rate control system and then in the system of signal transmitting. The definition of erythrocyte volume and calculation of intracellular pressure occur in the computer system.

  13. On-chip photonic label-free biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Gandolfi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    The development of a highly integrated optical biosensor is expected to significantly impact on the performances and on the throughput of biochemical assays, with applications in the field of pharmaceutical research, point-of-care diagnostic, food-borne pathogens screening and safety. This dissertation studies the development of a label-free on-chip biosensor for the selective detection of Aflatoxin-M1 from milk content. We detail the design and the realization of two types of multip...

  14. Enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors for food safety: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Harish Kumar, Rani Neelam Electrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa, Haryana, India Abstract: In recent years, food storage environment safety has been a major concern for food and health scientists. There is growing interest in electrochemical biosensors due to their high sensitivity and rapid response. The aim of this review article is to provide details regarding the development of enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors, and their use in t...

  15. Surface plasmon enhanced effects in photonic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wu

    We have developed a novel design of multi-pass surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with differential phase interrogation based on multi-pass interferometry. This new configuration provides an intrinsic phase amplification effect of over two-fold by placing the SPR sensor head in a signal arm of the interferometer so that the interrogating optical beam will traverse the sensor surface infinite number of times. Experimental interferometers based on the Michelson and Fabry-Perot configurations have been employed to experimentally verify this amplification effect through the comparison with the Mach-Zehnder configuration. Results obtained from the salt-water mixtures, antibody-antigen, and protein-DNA binding reaction have confirmed the expected phase measurement enhancement. We have demonstrated that the sensitivity limit of intensity-based SPR biosensors can be enhanced when we combine the contributions from phase with that of amplitude instead of just detecting the amplitude or phase variation only. Experimental results indicate that an enhancement factor of as much as 20 times is achievable, yet with no compromise in measurement dynamic range. While existing SPR biosensor systems are predominantly based on the angular scheme, which relies on detecting intensity variations associated with amplitude changes only, the proposed scheme may serve as a direct system upgrade approach for these systems. In addition, a surface plasmon enhanced ellipsometry (SPEE) biosensor scheme based on the use of a photoelastic modulator (PEM) has been explored. We showed that the polarization parameters of a laser beam, tan psi, cos Delta and ellipse orientation angle φ, can be directly measured by detecting the modulation signals at the 1st and 2nd harmonics of the modulation frequency under a certain birefringence geometry. This leads to an accurate measurement of refractive index variations within the evanescent field region close to the gold sensor surface, thereby enabling

  16. The Scanning TMR Microscope for Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal N. Vyas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR scanning microscopeset-up capable of quantitatively imaging the magnetic stray field patterns of micron-sizedelements in 3D. By incorporating an Anderson loop measurement circuit for impedancematching, we are able to detect magnetoresistance changes of as little as 0.006%/Oe. By 3Drastering a mounted TMR sensor over our magnetic barcodes, we are able to characterisethe complex domain structures by displaying the real component, the amplitude and thephase of the sensor’s impedance. The modular design, incorporating a TMR sensor withan optical microscope, renders this set-up a versatile platform for studying and imagingimmobilised magnetic carriers and barcodes currently employed in biosensor platforms,magnetotactic bacteria and other complex magnetic domain structures of micron-sizedentities. The quantitative nature of the instrument and its ability to produce vector maps ofmagnetic stray fields has the potential to provide significant advantages over other commonlyused scanning magnetometry techniques.

  17. Fiber optic biosensor of immobilized firefly luciferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡谨; 孟文芳; 吉鑫松

    2002-01-01

    Luciferase from firefly lantern extract was immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. The kinetic properties of immobilized luciferase were extensively studied. The Km′ for D-luciferin is 11.9 μmol/L, the optimum pH and temperature for Sepharose-bound enzyme were 7.8 and 25℃ respectively. A luminescence fiber optic biosensor, making use of immobilized crude luciferase, was developed for assay of ATP. The peak light intensity was linear with respect to ATP concentration in range of 10-9-10-5 mol/L. A biological application was also demonstrated with the determination of serum ATP from rats bred in low versus normal oxygen environments.

  18. Fiber optic biosensor of immobilized firefly luciferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡谨; 吉鑫松; 等

    2002-01-01

    Luciferase from firefly lantern extract was immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B,The kinetic properties of immobilized luciferase were extensively studied.The Km' for D-luciferin is 11.9umol/L,the optimum pH and temperature for Sepharose-bound enzyme were 7.8 and 25℃ respectively.A luminescence fiber optic biosensor,making use of immobilized crude luciferase was developed for assay of ATP.The peak light intensity was linear with respect to ATP concentration in range of 10-9-10-5mol/L.A biological application was also demonstrated with the determination of serum ATP from rats bred in low versus normal oxygen environments.

  19. Zinc oxide inverse opal enzymatic biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xueqiu; Pikul, James H.; King, William P.; Pak, James J.

    2013-06-01

    We report ZnO inverse opal- and nanowire (NW)-based enzymatic glucose biosensors with extended linear detection ranges. The ZnO inverse opal sensors have 0.01-18 mM linear detection range, which is 2.5 times greater than that of ZnO NW sensors and 1.5 times greater than that of other reported ZnO sensors. This larger range is because of reduced glucose diffusivity through the inverse opal geometry. The ZnO inverse opal sensors have an average sensitivity of 22.5 μA/(mM cm2), which diminished by 10% after 35 days, are more stable than ZnO NW sensors whose sensitivity decreased by 10% after 7 days.

  20. Microwave-Based Biosensor for Glucose Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, N. S. M.; Khalid, K.; Yusof, N. A.

    2010-07-01

    In this project, microwave-based biosensor for glucose detection has been studied. The study is based on the dielectric properties changes at microwave frequency for glucose-enzyme reaction. Glucose interaction with glucose oxidase (GOD) produced gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The reaction of the glucose solutions with an enzyme was carried out in 1:3 of glucose and enzyme respectively. The measurements were done using the Open Ended Coaxial Probe (OECP) coupled with computer controlled software automated network analyzer (ANA) with frequency range from 200MHz to 20GHz at room temperature (25 °C). The differences of enzyme and glucose-enzyme reaction were calculated and plotted. In the microwave interaction with the glucose-enzyme reaction, ionic conduction and dipole molecules was detected at 0.99GHz and 16.44GHz respectively based on changes of dielectric loss factor.

  1. Development of microbial biosensors for food analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasiak, Justyna

    , optimize and characterize various reporter strains utilizing different signal transducers and targeting carbohydrate constituents of pectin and arabinoxylan. Addit onally, the objective was to assess the potential suitability of microbial biosensors for food ingredients analysis. Pectin is a plant...... in order to fulfill the needs of different fields, from environmental sciences to food industry. Moreover, they can be an answer for the need of novel, less expensive and environmentally neutral methods of analysis particularly in food ingredients assessment. The aim of this PhD thesis was to develop...... heteropolysaccharide commonly used in food industry as a gelling agent and food stabilizer. The chemical analysis of the pectin carbohydrate composition is a significant issue during the study of its function and properties. Arabinoxylan is one of the main non-starch polysaccharide derived from the cell wall of cereal...

  2. Biosensor Applications of MAPLE Deposited Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Califano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE is a thin film deposition technique derived from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD for deposition of delicate (polymers, complex biological molecules, etc. materials in undamaged form. The main difference of MAPLE technique with respect to PLD is the target: it is a frozen solution or suspension of the (guest molecules to be deposited in a volatile substance (matrix. Since laser beam energy is mainly absorbed by the matrix, damages to the delicate guest molecules are avoided, or at least reduced. Lipase, an enzyme catalyzing reactions borne by triglycerides, has been used in biosensors for detection of β-hydroxyacid esters and triglycerides in blood serum. Enzymes immobilization on a substrate is therefore required. In this paper we show that it is possible, using MAPLE technique, to deposit lipase on a substrate, as shown by AFM observation, preserving its conformational structure, as shown by FTIR analysis.

  3. Odors Discrimination by Olfactory Epithelium Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingjun; Hu, Ning; Ye, Weiwei; Zhang, Fenni; Wang, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    Humans are exploring the bionic biological olfaction to sense the various trace components of gas or liquid in many fields. For achieving the goal, we endeavor to establish a bioelectronic nose system for odor detection by combining intact bioactive function units with sensors. The bioelectronic nose is based on the olfactory epithelium of rat and microelectrode array (MEA). The olfactory epithelium biosensor generates extracellular potentials in presence of odor, and presents obvious specificity under different odors condition. The odor response signals can be distinguished with each other effectively by signal sorting. On basis of bioactive MEA hybrid system and the improved signal processing analysis, the bioelectronic nose will realize odor discrimination by the specific feature of signals response to various odors.

  4. Ferrocene Derivative Mediator Bonded Sol-gel Membrane Glucose Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUAN, Guang-Shan; KIM, Moon-Chang; HER, Dae-Sung; LEE, Heung-Lark

    2006-01-01

    The sol-gel derived glucose biosensor was developed, and the sol-gel membrane was organically modified by N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-ferrocenylmethylamine (FcSi) as sol-gel precursor to make electrochemical biosensor.The structure of biosensor was sol-gel/FcSi+Gox/GC type (glucose oxidase, Gox). The ferrocene mediator was chemically immobilized to the silane network, and Gox was entrapped to the sol-gel glass network. Therefore,these structures prevented mediator leakage and retained the enzyme activity. Additionally, pH of electrolyte, temperature effects, and interference of positive substances with biosensor were investigated. And the electrochemical performance of biosensor was studied by amperometry. The results indicated that the linear range, detection limit,and response slope of biosensor was 2.00× 10-4-1.57× 10-3 mol·L-1, 2.0× 10-4 mol·L-1 and 5.06× 105 nA·mol-1 · L, respectively.

  5. Modelling Amperometric Biosensors Based on Chemically Modified Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Kulys

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of an amperometric biosensor based on a chemically modified electrode was modelled numerically. A mathematical model of the biosensor is based on a system of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations. The modelling biosensor comprises two compartments: an enzyme layer and an outer diffusion layer. In order to define the main governing parameters the corresponding dimensionless mathematical model was derived. The digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. The adequacy of the model was evaluated using analytical solutions known for very specific cases of the model parameters. By changing model parameters the output results were numerically analyzed at transition and steady state conditions. The influence of the substrate and mediator concentrations as well as of the thicknesses of the enzyme and diffusion layers on the biosensor response was investigated. Calculations showed complex kinetics of the biosensor response, especially when the biosensor acts under a mixed limitation of the diffusion and the enzyme interaction with the substrate.

  6. Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Barchiesi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric roughness on the efficiency of a dimer nano-biosensor (two levels of roughness are considered. Therefore, we propose a general numerical method, that can be applied to any other nanometric shape, to take into account the roughness in a three dimensional model. The study focuses on both the far-field, which corresponds to the experimental detected data, and the near-field, responsible for exciting and then detecting biological molecules. The results suggest that the biosensor efficiency is highly sensitive to the surface roughness. The roughness can produce important shifts of the extinction efficiency peak and a decrease of its amplitude resulting from changes in the distribution of near-field and absorbed electric field intensities.

  7. Nanoelectronic biosensors based on CVD grown graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yinxi; Dong, Xiaochen; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Chang Ming; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Peng

    2010-08-01

    Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors.Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM images of graphene film before and after functionalization, transfer curves of graphene after every step, SEM image of CNT-net, and detection results using CNT-net devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00142b

  8. CHARACTERISTICS AND OPTIMAL WORKING CONDITIONS OF AMPEROMETRIC BIOSENSOR FOR ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucherenko I. S.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characteristics of a biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase and intended for ATP determination were studied. Platinum disc electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Range of working potentials for biosensor functioning was shown. An optimal time of enzymes immobilization was determined. Optimal conditions for biosensor functioning during work with biological fluids were selected. Biosensor work in three buffer solutions (PBS, tris and HEPES was investigated and it was shown that it was possible to obtain various operational characteristics of the biosensor depending on tasks that are assigned to it by varying the composition of sample. Reproducibility of biosensor responses to ATP and glucose during a day and of biosensor preparation was shown. The proposed biosensor can be further used for analysis of glucose and ATP content in water solutions.

  9. FIBER-OPTIC BIOSENSOR FOR DIRECT DETERMINATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS. (R823663)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fiber-optic enzyme biosensor for the direct measurement of organophosphate nerveagents was developed. The basic element of this biosensor is organophosphorus hydrolaseimmobilized on a nylon membrane and attached to the common end of a bifurcated optical fiberbundle....

  10. Magnetically-refreshable receptor platform structures for reusable nano-biosensor chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Haneul; Lee, Dong Jun; Cho, Dong-guk; Park, Juhun; Nam, Ki Wan; Tak Cho, Young; Park, Jae Yeol; Chen, Xing; Hong, Seunghun

    2016-01-01

    We developed a magnetically-refreshable receptor platform structure which can be integrated with quite versatile nano-biosensor structures to build reusable nano-biosensor chips. This structure allows one to easily remove used receptor molecules from a biosensor surface and reuse the biosensor for repeated sensing operations. Using this structure, we demonstrated reusable immunofluorescence biosensors. Significantly, since our method allows one to place receptor molecules very close to a nano-biosensor surface, it can be utilized to build reusable carbon nanotube transistor-based biosensors which require receptor molecules within a Debye length from the sensor surface. Furthermore, we also show that a single sensor chip can be utilized to detect two different target molecules simply by replacing receptor molecules using our method. Since this method does not rely on any chemical reaction to refresh sensor chips, it can be utilized for versatile biosensor structures and virtually-general receptor molecular species.

  11. Development of Galactose Biosensor Based on Functionalized ZnO Nanorods with Galactose Oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    K. Khun; Z. H. Ibupoto; Nur, O; Willander, M

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication of galactose biosensor based on functionalised ZnO nanorods is described. The galactose biosensor was developed by immobilizing galactose oxidase on ZnO nanorods in conjunction with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker molecule. The IRAS study provided evidence for the interaction of galactose oxidase with the surface of ZnO nanorods. The electromotive force (EMF) response of the galactose biosensor was measured by potentiometric method. We observed that the proposed biosensor has...

  12. Enhancement of a conducting polymer-based biosensor using carbon nanotube-doped polyaniline.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrin, Aoife; Luo, Xiliang; Killard, Antony J.; Smyth, Malcolm R.

    2006-01-01

    A biosensor with improved performance was developed through the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto electropolymerized polyaniline (PANI) films doped with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The effects of electropolymerization cycle and CNT concentration on the response of the biosensor toward H2O2 were investigated. It was found that the integration of CNTs into the biosensor system could increase the amount and stability of immobilized enzyme, and greatly enhance the biosensor respons...

  13. Biosentinel: Developing a Space Radiation Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Sergio R.; Marina, Diana B.; Parra, Macarena P.; Boone, Travis D.; Tan, Ming; Ricco, Antonio J.; Straume, Tore N.; Lusby, Terry C.; Harkness, T.; Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra; Brent, R.; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation presents a major challenge to human exploration and long-term residence in space. The deep-space radiation spectrum includes highly energetic particles that generate double strand breaks (DSBs), deleterious DNA lesions that are usually repaired without errors via homologous recombination (HR), a conserved pathway in all eukaryotes. While progress identifying and characterizing biological radiation effects using Earth-based facilities has been significant, no terrestrial source duplicates the unique space radiation environment.We are developing a biosensor-based nanosatellite to fly aboard NASAs Space Launch System Exploration Mission 1, expected to launch in 2017 and reach a 1AU (astronomic unit) heliocentric orbit. Our biosensor (called BioSentinel) uses the yeast S. cerevisiae to measure DSBs in response to ambient space radiation. The BioSentinel strain contains engineered genetic defects that prevent growth until and unless a radiation-induced DSB near a reporter gene activates the yeasts HR repair mechanisms. Thus, culture growth and metabolic activity directly indicate a successful DSB-and-repair event. In parallel, HR-defective and wild type strains will provide survival data. Desiccated cells will be carried within independent culture microwells, built into 96-well microfluidic cards. Each microwell set will be activated by media addition at different time points over 18 months, and cell growth will be tracked continuously via optical density. One reserve set will be activated only in the occurrence of a solar particle event. Biological measurements will be compared to data provided by onboard physical dosimeters and to Earth-based experiments.BioSentinel will conduct the first study of biological response to space radiation outside Low Earth Orbit in over 40 years. BioSentinel will thus address strategic knowledge gaps related to the biological effects of space radiation and will provide an adaptable platform to perform human

  14. A glucose biosensor based on partially unzipped carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huifang; Feng, Miao; Zhan, Hongbing

    2015-08-15

    An amperometric glucose biosensor based on direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOD) self-assembled on the surface of partially unzipped carbon nanotubes (PUCNTs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) has been successfully fabricated. PUCNTs were synthesized via a facile chemical oxidative etching CNTs and used as a novel immobilization matrix for GOD. The cyclic voltammetric result of the PUCNT/GOD/GCE showed a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential of -0.470V and a peak to peak separation of 37mV, revealing that the fast direct electron transfer between GOD and the electrode has been achieved. It is notable that the glucose determination has been achieved in mediator-free condition. The developed biosensor displayed satisfactory analytical performance toward glucose including high sensitivity (19.50μA mM(-1)cm(-2)), low apparent Michaelis-Menten (5.09mM), a wide linear range of 0-17mM, and also preventing the interference from ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine usually coexisting with glucose in human blood. In addition, the biosensor acquired excellent storage stabilities. This facile, fast, environment-friendly and economical preparation strategy of PUCNT-GOD may provide a new platform for the fabrication of biocompatible glucose biosensors and other types of biosensors. PMID:25966382

  15. Recent advances in application of biosensors in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Anwarul; Nurunnabi, Md; Morshed, Mahboob; Paul, Arghya; Polini, Alessandro; Kuila, Tapas; Al Hariri, Moustafa; Lee, Yong-kyu; Jaffa, Ayad A

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, for example, real-time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose, and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size, such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25165697

  16. Design and characterization of auxotrophy-based amino acid biosensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bertels

    Full Text Available Efficient and inexpensive methods are required for the high-throughput quantification of amino acids in physiological fluids or microbial cell cultures. Here we develop an array of Escherichia coli biosensors to sensitively quantify eleven different amino acids. By using online databases, genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis were identified that - upon deletion - should render the corresponding mutant auxotrophic for one particular amino acid. This rational design strategy suggested genes involved in the biosynthesis of arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine as potential genetic targets. A detailed phenotypic characterization of the corresponding single-gene deletion mutants indeed confirmed that these strains could neither grow on a minimal medium lacking amino acids nor transform any other proteinogenic amino acid into the focal one. Site-specific integration of the egfp gene into the chromosome of each biosensor decreased the detection limit of the GFP-labeled cells by 30% relative to turbidometric measurements. Finally, using the biosensors to determine the amino acid concentration in the supernatants of two amino acid overproducing E. coli strains (i.e. ΔhisL and ΔtdcC both turbidometrically and via GFP fluorescence emission and comparing the results to conventional HPLC measurements confirmed the utility of the developed biosensor system. Taken together, our study provides not only a genotypically and phenotypically well-characterized set of publicly available amino acid biosensors, but also demonstrates the feasibility of the rational design strategy used.

  17. Conductive Composite Biosensor System for Electrochemical Indinavir Drug Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Ross

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indinavir is a protease inhibitor antiretroviral (ARV drug, which forms part of the highly active antiretroviral therapy during the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Indinavir undergoes first-pass metabolism through the cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes in the human liver, of which CYP3A4 is the most influential isoenzyme. Multidrug combination therapy and, as such, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM during HIV/AIDS treatment are therefore critical, to prevent adverse interactions. The conventional sensitive and specific assays available for quantifying ARV drugs, however, suffer from distinct disadvantages. In this regard, biosensors can be used to provide real time information on the metabolic profile of the drug. In this study, a biosensor with cobalt(III sepulchrate trichloride {CoSep3+} as diffusional mediator was constructed. The biosensor platform consisted of CYP3A4 immobilized onto a gold nanoparticle (GNP overoxidized polypyrrole (OvOxPpy carrier matrix. The biosensor exhibited reversible electrochemistry, with formal potential determined as −624 ± 5 mV, from voltammetric analysis, with overall electron transfer being diffusion controlled. The biosensor showed typical electrocatalytic response to dioxygen (O2, exemplified by the distinct increase in the cathodic peak current (Ip,c. A concentration-dependent increase in Ip,c was observed in response to consecutive additions of Indinavir.

  18. Development of an electrochemical biosensor for alkylphenol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhamssa, Najet; da Costa, João P; Justino, Celine I L; Santos, Patrícia S M; Cardoso, Susana; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    In this work, electrochemical biosensors based on field effect transistors (FET) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were constructed as disposable analytical devices to detect alkylphenols through immunoreaction using 4-nonylphenol (NP) as model analyte, and validated by comparison with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The calibration curve displays a working range with five concentrations between 5 and 500µgL(-1), and for each concentration, five biosensors were analysed for reproducibility estimation and two analytical measurements were performed for each biosensor for repeatability estimation. The accuracy of the biosensors was validated by analyzing NP contents in ten spiked artificial seawater samples and comparing these results to those obtained with the traditional ELISA methodology. Excellent analytical performance was obtained with reproducibility of 0.56±0.08%, repeatability of 0.5±0.2%, limit of detection for NP as low as 5µgL(-1), and average recovery between 97.8% and 104.6%. This work demonstrates that simple biosensors can be used to detect hazardous priority substances in seawater samples, even at low concentrations. PMID:27343574

  19. Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process. PMID:27438863

  20. Visual optical biosensors based on DNA-functionalized polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimji, Imran; Kelly, Erin Y; Helwa, Youssef; Hoang, Michael; Liu, Juewen

    2013-12-15

    Biosensors are devices that can provide quantitative or semi-quantitative analytical information about target molecules, where molecular recognition is based on biomolecular interactions. In recent years, DNA has emerged as a useful molecule for biosensor development since DNA can not only recognize its complementary strand, but also metal ions, small molecules, proteins and cells utilizing DNA aptamer technology. Converting DNA binding events into useful biosensors often require sensor immobilization. Among the various materials for sensor immobilization, hydrogels are particularly attractive. Hydrogels are crosslinked hydrophilic polymer networks that undergo swelling in water. In a gel, DNA immobilization can take place in 3D, allowing for high DNA loading capacity. Hydrogels are transparent, offering low optical background. The gel volume is affected by many environmental parameters such as temperature, pH, ionic strength, and solvent composition. In this paper, we present a concise summary of recent developments in DNA-functionalized hydrogel biosensors for visual detection. Detailed methods for immobilizing DNA biosensors in monolithic polyacrylamide gels and gel microparticles are supplied. PMID:23978515

  1. Over-the-Counter Biosensors: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ming-Hung Lee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for specific, low cost, rapid, sensitive and easy detection of biomolecules is huge. A well-known example is the glucose meters used by diabetics to monitor their blood glucose levels. Nowadays, a vast majority of the glucose meters are based on electrochemical biosensor technology. The inherent small size and simple construction of the electrochemical transducer and instrument are ideally suited for pointof-care biosensing. Besides glucose, a wide variety of electrochemical biosensors have been developed for the measurements of some other key metabolites, proteins, and nucleic acids. Nevertheless, unlike the glucose meters, limited success has been achieved for the commercialization of the protein and nucleic acid biosensors. In this review article, key technologies on the electrochemical detection of key metabolites, proteins, and DNAs are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on those that are compatible to home-use setting. Moreover, emerging technologies of lab-on-a-chip microdevices and nanosensors (i.e., silicon and carbon nanotube field-effect sensors offer opportunities for the construction of new generation biosensors with much better performances. Together with the continuous innovations in the basic components of biosensors (i.e., transducers, biorecognition molecules, immobilization and signal transduction schemes, consumers could soon buy different kinds of biosensing devices in the pharmacy stores.

  2. Electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of mycotoxins: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Juan C; Bonel, Laura; Ezquerra, Alba; Hernández, Susana; Bertolín, Juan R; Cubel, Carlota; Castillo, Juan R

    2013-11-15

    This review discusses the current state of electrochemical biosensors in the determination of mycotoxins in foods. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by molds. The acute toxicity of these results in serious human and animal health problems, although it has been only since early 1960s when the first studied aflatoxins were found to be carcinogenic. Mycotoxins affect a broad range of agricultural products, most important cereals and cereal-based foods. A majority of countries, mentioning especially the European Union, have established preventive programs to control contamination and strict laws of the permitted levels in foods. Official methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally requires sophisticated instrumentation, e.g. liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. For about sixteen years, the use of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has emerged in scientific literature as a very promising alternative, particularly electrochemical (i.e., amperometric, impedance, potentiometric or conductimetric) affinity biosensors due to their simplicity and sensitivity. Typically, electrochemical biosensors for mycotoxins use specific antibodies or aptamers as affinity ligands, although recombinant antibodies, artificial receptors and molecular imprinted polymers show potential utility. This article deals with recent advances in electrochemical affinity biosensors for mycotoxins and covers complete literature from the first reports about sixteen years ago.

  3. Recent Advances in Application of Biosensors in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwarul Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, for example, real-time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose, and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size, such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications.

  4. Bioelectrochemical response of a choline biosensor fabricated by using polyaniline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the isoelectric point of an enzyme and the doping principle of conducting polymers,choline oxidase was doped in a polyaniline film to form a biosensor. The amperometric detection of choline is based on the oxidation of the H2O2 enzymatically produced on the choline biosensor. The response current of the biosensor as a function of temperature was determined from 3 to 40℃. An apparent activation energy of 22.8 kJ·mol-1 was obtained. The biosensor had a wide linear response range from 5 × 10-7 to 1 × 10-4 M choline with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 and a detection limit of 0.2 μM,and had a high sensitivity of 61.9 mA·M-1·cm-2 at 0.50 V and at pH 8.0. The apparent Michaelis constant and the optimum pH for the immobilized enzyme are 1.4 mM choline and 8.4,respectively,which are very close to those of choline oxidase in solution. The effect of selected organic compounds on the response of the choline biosensor was studied.

  5. MEMS-based biosensors for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tatsuro; Morita, Yasutaka; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2004-03-01

    Biosensors in connection with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can be applied in many fields of research. In this paper, the reduction in the size of ELISA utilizing micro-chemical reaction is described in a microchamber array chip, and also a micro-flow antibody chip. The chips were fabricated by micro electromechanical system (MEMS) technology. The quantitative determination of dioxins was performed by using the chips. Glass or polystyrene beads were used for immobilization of an antibody at these chips. The antibody-immobilized beads were introduced into micro-flow channel or microchamber. As a competitive ELISA, sample solution mixed with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated antigen, and non-HRP conjugated antigen was allowed to react in the microchamber or flow channel. As a sandwich assay, sample solution and HRP-conjugated antibody were sequentially added to the chamber. After the antigen-antibody reaction, addition of PBS buffer, hydrogen peroxide, and fluorogenic substrate produced the fluorescent dye. The resulting change in the fluorescence intensity was monitored by a fluorescence microscope.

  6. Carbon nanotubes field effect transistors biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Marco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube transistor arrays (CNTFETs wereused as biosensors to detect DNA hybridization andto recognize two anabolic steroids, stanozolol (Stzand methylboldenone (MB. Single strand DNA andantibodies specific for STz and MB were immobilizedon the carbon nanotubes (CNTs in situ in the deviceusing two different approaches: direct noncovalentbonding of antibodies to the devices and covalentlytrough a polymer previously attached to theCNTFETs. A new approach to ensure specificadsorption of the biomolecules to the nanotubeswas developed. The polymer poly(methylmethacrylate0.8-co-poly (ethyleneglycolmethacrylate0.8-co-N-succinimidyl methacrylate0.1was synthesized and bonded noncovalently to thenanotube. Aminated single-strand DNA or antibodiesspecific for Stz and MB were then attached covalentlyto the polymer. Statistically significant changes wereobserved in key transistor parameters for both DNAhybridization and steroids recognition. Regardingthe detection mechanism, in addition to chargetransfer, Schottky barrier, SB, modification, andscattering potential reported by other authors, anelectron/hole trapping mechanism leading tohysteresis modification has been determined. Thepresence of polymer seems to hinder the modulationof the electrode-CNT contact.

  7. A MEMS Dielectric Affinity Glucose Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian; Li, Siqi; Davis, Erin; Li, Dachao; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao

    2013-06-20

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors based on affinity detection are desirable for long-term and stable glucose management. However, most affinity sensors contain mechanical moving structures and complex design in sensor actuation and signal readout, limiting their reliability in subcutaneously implantable glucose detection. We have previously demonstrated a proof-of-concept dielectric glucose sensor that measured pre-mixed glucose-sensitive polymer solutions at various glucose concentrations. This sensor features simplicity in sensor design, and possesses high specificity and accuracy in glucose detection. However, lack of glucose diffusion passage, this device is unable to fulfill real-time in-vivo monitoring. As a major improvement to this device, we present in this paper a fully implantable MEMS dielectric affinity glucose biosensor that contains a perforated electrode embedded in a suspended diaphragm. This capacitive-based sensor contains no moving parts, and enables glucose diffusion and real-time monitoring. The experimental results indicate that this sensor can detect glucose solutions at physiological concentrations and possesses good reversibility and reliability. This sensor has a time constant to glucose concentration change at approximately 3 min, which is comparable to commercial systems. The sensor has potential applications in fully implantable CGM that require excellent long-term stability and reliability. PMID:24511215

  8. Turning tryptophanase into odor-generating biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaqin; Zhang, Zhuyuan; Ali, M Monsur; Sauder, Joanna; Deng, Xudong; Giang, Karen; Aguirre, Sergio D; Pelton, Robert; Li, Yingfu; Filipe, Carlos D M

    2014-03-01

    An odor-based sensor system that exploits the metabolic enzyme tryptophanase (TPase) as the key component is reported. This enzyme is able to convert an odorless substrate like S-methyl-L-cysteine or L-tryptophan into the odorous products methyl mercaptan or indole. To make a biosensor, TPase was biotinylated so that it could be coupled with a molecular recognition element, such as an antibody, to develop an ELISA-like assay. This method was used for the detection of an antibody present in nM concentrations by the human nose. TPase can also be combined with the enzyme pyridoxal kinase (PKase) for use in a coupled assay to detect adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). When ATP is present in the low μM concentration range, the coupled enzymatic system generates an odor that is easily detectable by the human nose. Biotinylated TPase can be combined with various biotin-labeled molecular recognition elements, thereby enabling a broad range of applications for this odor-based reporting system.

  9. The Scanning TMR Microscope for Biosensor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Kunal N; Love, David M; Ionescu, Adrian; Llandro, Justin; Kollu, Pratap; Mitrelias, Thanos; Holmes, Stuart; Barnes, Crispin H W

    2015-06-01

    We present a novel tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) scanning microscope set-up capable of quantitatively imaging the magnetic stray field patterns of micron-sized elements in 3D. By incorporating an Anderson loop measurement circuit for impedance matching, we are able to detect magnetoresistance changes of as little as 0.006%/Oe. By 3D rastering a mounted TMR sensor over our magnetic barcodes, we are able to characterize the complex domain structures by displaying the real component, the amplitude and the phase of the sensor's impedance. The modular design, incorporating a TMR sensor with an optical microscope, renders this set-up a versatile platform for studying and imaging immobilised magnetic carriers and barcodes currently employed in biosensor platforms, magnetotactic bacteria and other complex magnetic domain structures of micron-sized entities. The quantitative nature of the instrument and its ability to produce vector maps of magnetic stray fields has the potential to provide significant advantages over other commonly used scanning magnetometry techniques. PMID:25849347

  10. Biosensors for the Detection of Food Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmiro Poltronieri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food pathogens frequently cause foodborne diseases. There is a need to rapidly identify the source of the bacteria in order to contain their spread and epidemics. A pre-enrichment culture or a direct culture on agar plate are standard microbiological methods. In this review, we present an update on alternative molecular methods to nucleic acid-based detection for species identification. Biosensor-based methods rely on the recognition of antigen targets or receptors by antibodies, aptamers or high-affinity ligands. The captured antigens may be then directly or indirectly detected through an antibody or high-affinity and high-specificity recognition molecule. Various different detection methods are discussed, from label-free sensors and immunosensors to fluorescence-based ones. Each method shows advantages and disadvantages in terms of equipment, sensitivity, simplicity and cost-effectiveness. Finally, lab-on-a-chip (LOC devices are introduced briefly, with the potential to be fast, sensitive and useful for on-site bacteria detection in food processing laboratories to check potential contamination by sample monitoring combined with a rapid pre-enrichment step.

  11. Self-assembling holographic biosensors and biocomputers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Yooli Kim; Bachand, George David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Trent, Amanda M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-05-01

    We present concepts for self-assembly of diffractive optics with potential uses in biosensors and biocomputers. The simplest such optics, diffraction gratings, can potentially be made from chemically-stabilized microtubules migrating on nanopatterned tracks of the motor protein kinesin. We discuss the fabrication challenges involved in patterning sub-micron-scale structures with proteins that must be maintained in aqueous buffers to preserve their activity. A novel strategy is presented that employs dry contact printing onto glass-supported amino-silane monolayers of heterobifunctional crosslinkers, followed by solid-state reactions of these cross-linkers, to graft patterns of reactive groups onto the surface. Successive solution-phase addition of cysteine-mutant proteins and amine-reactive polyethylene glycol allows assembly of features onto the printed patterns. We present data from initial experiments showing successful micro- and nanopatterning of lines of single-cysteine mutants of kinesin interleaved with lines of polyethylene, indicating that this strategy can be employed to arrays of features with resolutions suitable for gratings.

  12. Feasibility Studies on Si-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Renis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paperis to summarize the efforts carried out so far in the fabrication of Si-based biosensors by a team of researchers in Catania, Italy. This work was born as a collaboration between the Catania section of the Microelectronic and Microsystem Institute (IMM of the CNR, the Surfaces and Interfaces laboratory (SUPERLAB of the Consorzio Catania Ricerche and two departments at the University of Catania: the Biomedical Science and the Biological Chemistry and Molecular Biology Departments. The first goal of our study was the definition and optimization of an immobilization protocol capable of bonding the biological sensing element on a Si-based surface via covalent chemical bonds. We chose SiO2 as the anchoring surface due to its biocompatibility and extensive presence in microelectronic devices. The immobilization protocol was tested and optimized, introducing a new step, oxide activation, using techniques compatible with microelectronic processing. The importance of the added step is described by the experimental results. We also tested different biological molecule concentrations in the immobilization solutions and the effects on the immobilized layer. Finally a MOS-like structure was designed and fabricated to test an electrical transduction mechanism. The results obtained so far and the possible evolution of the research field are described in this review paper.

  13. Tin Oxide Nanorod Array-Based Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract SnO2 nanorod array grown directly on alloy substrate has been employed as the working electrode of H2O2 biosensor. Single-crystalline SnO2 nanorods provide not only low isoelectric point and enough void spaces for facile horseradish peroxidase (HRP immobilization but also numerous conductive channels for electron transport to and from current collector; thus, leading to direct electrochemistry of HRP. The nanorod array-based biosensor demonstrates high H2O2 sensing performance in terms of excellent sensitivity (379 μA mM−1 cm−2, low detection limit (0.2 μM and high selectivity with the apparent Michaelis–Menten constant estimated to be as small as 33.9 μM. Our work further demonstrates the advantages of ordered array architecture in electrochemical device application and sheds light on the construction of other high-performance enzymatic biosensors.

  14. Optical Biosensors for the Detection of Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Min; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms are causative agents of various infectious diseases that are becoming increasingly serious worldwide. For the successful treatment of pathogenic infection, the rapid and accurate detection of multiple pathogenic microorganisms is of great importance in all areas related to health and safety. Among various sensor systems, optical biosensors allow easy-to-use, rapid, portable, multiplexed, and cost-effective diagnosis. Here, we review current trends and advances in pathogen-diagnostic optical biosensors. The technological and methodological approaches underlying diverse optical-sensing platforms and methods for detecting pathogenic microorganisms are reviewed, together with the strengths and drawbacks of each technique. Finally, challenges in developing efficient optical biosensor systems and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:26506111

  15. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A.; Tulip, Fahmida S.; MacArthur, Kimberly; McFarlane, Nicole; Islam, Syed K.; Hensley, Dale

    2014-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  16. Biosensor for determination of glucose in real samples of beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Marques Lopes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor was developed for spectrophotometric determination of glucose concentrations in real samples of orange juice energetic drinks, and sport drinks. The biosensor consisted of glucose oxidase (GOD and horseradish peroxidase (HRP immobilized onto polyaniline activated with glutaraldehyde (PANIG. Immobilization parameters were optimized for GOD, and maximum immobilization yield was 16% when 5.0 mg of PANIG and 8.9 U prepared in 0.1 mol.L-1 sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0 reacted for 60 minutes at 4 °C with gentle stirring. The linear operational range for glucose determination using optimized operational parameters was between 0.05 and 6.0 mg.mL-1 with a very good reproducibility of response. The results obtained in the biosensor were compared with those obtained using free enzymes (commercial kits and then validated through statistical analysis using the Tukey test (95% confidence interval.

  17. A fractal analysis of pathogen detection by biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Atul M.; Sadana, Ajit

    2006-05-01

    A fractal analysis is presented for the detection of pathogens such as Franscisela tularensis, and Yersinia pestis (the bacterium that causes plague) using a CANARY (cellular analysis and notification of antigens risks and yields) biosensor (Rider et al., 2003). In general, the binding and dissociation rate coefficients may be adequately described by either a single- or a dual-fractal analysis. An attempt is made to relate the binding rate coefficient to the degree of heterogeneity (fractal dimension value) present on the biosensor surface. Binding and dissociation rate coefficient values obtained are presented. The kinetics aspects along with the affinity values presented are of interest, and should along with the rate coefficients presented for the binding and the dissociation phase be of significant interest in help designing better biosensors for an application area that is bound to gain increasing importance in the future.

  18. DNA-Metallodrugs Interactions Signaled by Electrochemical Biosensors: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ravera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of drugs with DNA is an important aspect in pharmacology. In recent years, many important technological advances have been made to develop new techniques to monitor biorecognition and biointeraction on solid devices. The interaction between DNA and drugs can cause chemical and conformational modifications and, thus, variation of the electrochemical properties of nucleobases. The propensity of a given compound to interact with DNA is measured as a function of the decrease of guanine oxidation signal on a DNA electrochemical biosensor. Covalent binding at N7 of guanine, electrostatic interactions, and intercalation are the events that this kind of biosensor can detect. In this context, the interaction between a panel of antitumoral Pt-, Ru-, and Ti-based metallodrugs with DNA immobilized on screen-printed electrodes has been studied. The DNA biosensors are used for semiquantitative evaluation of the analogous interaction occurring in the biological environment.

  19. Advances in arsenic biosensor development--a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Hardeep; Kumar, Rabindra; Babu, J Nagendra; Mittal, Sunil

    2015-01-15

    Biosensors are analytical devices having high sensitivity, portability, small sample requirement and ease of use for qualitative and quantitative monitoring of various analytes of human importance. Arsenic (As), owing to its widespread presence in nature and high toxicity to living creatures, requires frequent determination in water, soil, agricultural and food samples. The present review is an effort to highlight the various advancements made so far in the development of arsenic biosensors based either on recombinant whole cells or on certain arsenic-binding oligonucleotides or proteins. The role of futuristic approaches like surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and aptamer technology has also been discussed. The biomethods employed and their general mechanisms, advantages and limitations in relevance to arsenic biosensors developed so far are intended to be discussed in this review.

  20. Biosensors for the determination of environmental inhibitors of enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristic features of functioning and practical application of enzyme-based biosensors for the determination of environmental pollutants as enzyme inhibitors are considered with special emphasis on the influence of the methods used for the measurement of the rates of enzymic reactions, of enzyme immobilisation procedure and of the composition of the reaction medium on the analytical characteristics of inhibitor assays. The published data on the development of biosensors for detecting pesticides and heavy metals are surveyed. Special attention is given to the use of cholinesterase-based biosensors in environmental and analytical monitoring. The approaches to the estimation of kinetic parameters of inhibition are reviewed and the factors determining the selectivity and sensitivity of inhibitor assays in environmental objects are analysed. The bibliography includes 195 references.

  1. Printable Ultrathin Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Conformal Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, You Seung; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Chen, Huajun; Yang, Jonathan L; Kim, Jaemyung; Andrews, Anne M; Weiss, Paul S; Yang, Yang; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2015-12-22

    Conformal bioelectronics enable wearable, noninvasive, and health-monitoring platforms. We demonstrate a simple and straightforward method for producing thin, sensitive In2O3-based conformal biosensors based on field-effect transistors using facile solution-based processing. One-step coating via aqueous In2O3 solution resulted in ultrathin (3.5 nm), high-density, uniform films over large areas. Conformal In2O3-based biosensors on ultrathin polyimide films displayed good device performance, low mechanical stress, and highly conformal contact determined using polydimethylsiloxane artificial skin having complex curvilinear surfaces or an artificial eye. Immobilized In2O3 field-effect transistors with self-assembled monolayers of NH2-terminated silanes functioned as pH sensors. Functionalization with glucose oxidase enabled d-glucose detection at physiologically relevant levels. The conformal ultrathin field-effect transistor biosensors developed here offer new opportunities for future wearable human technologies. PMID:26498319

  2. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the development of electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Wang, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a very attractive material for the development of biosensors because of its capability to provide strong electrocatalytic activity and minimize surface fouling of the sensors. This article reviews our recent developments of oxidase- and dehydrogenase-amperometric biosensors based on the immobilization of CNTs, the co-immobilization of enzymes on the CNTs/Nafion or the CNT/Teflon composite materials, or the attachment of enzymes on the controlled-density aligned CNT-nanoelectrode arrays. The excellent electrocatalytic activities of the CNTs on the redox reactions of hydrogen peroxide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and homocysteine have been demonstrated. Successful applications of the CNT-based biosensors reviewed herein include the low-potential detections of glucose, organophosphorus compounds, and alcohol. PMID:15574386

  3. Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) for the Development of Electrochemical Biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Wang, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a very attractive material for the development of biosensors because of its capability to provide strong electrocatalytic activity and minimize surface fouling of the sensors. This article reviews our recent developments of oxidase- and dehydrogenase-amperometric biosensors based on the immobilization of CNTs, the co-immobilization of enzymes on the CNTs/Nafion or the CNT/Teflon composite materials, or the attachment of enzymes on the controlled-density aligned CNT-nanoelectrode arrays. The excellent electrocatalytic activities of the CNTs on the redox reactions of hydrogen peroxide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and homocysteine have been demonstrated. Successful applications of the CNT-based biosensors reviewed herein include the low-potential detections of glucose, organophosphorus compounds, and alcohol.

  4. Amperometric ATP biosensor based on polymer entrapped enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueng, Angelika; Kranz, Christine; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2004-05-15

    A dual enzyme electrode for the detection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) at physiologically relevant pH levels was developed by co-immobilization of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOD) and hexokinase (HEX) using pH-shift induced deposition of enzyme containing polymer films. Application of a simple electrochemical procedure for the co-immobilization of the enzymes at electrode surfaces exhibits a major improvement of sensitivity, response time, reproducibility, and ease of fabrication of ATP biosensors. Competition between glucose oxidase and hexokinase for the substrate glucose involving ATP as a co-substrate allows the determination of ATP concentrations. Notable control on the immobilization process enables fabrication of micro biosensors with a diameter of 25 microm. The presented concept provides the technological basis for a new generation of fast responding, sensitive, and robust biosensors for the detection of ATP at physiological pH values with a detection limit of 10 nmol l(-1). PMID:15046763

  5. Xanthine Biosensor Based on Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide Modified Pyrolytic Graphite Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG,Ji-Lin(唐纪琳); HAN,Xiao-Jun(韩晓军); HUANG,Wei-Min(黄卫民); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)

    2002-01-01

    The vesicle of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)which contained tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was mixed with xanthine oxidase, and the mixture was cast on the pyrolytic graphite electrode. The lipid films were used to supply a biological environment resembling biomembrane on the surface of the electrode. TTF was used as a mediator because of its high electron-transfer efficiency. A novel xanthine biosensor based on cast DDAB film was developed. The effects of pH and operating potential were explored for optimum analytical performance by using the amperometric method. The response time of the biosensor was less than 10 s. The detection limit of the biosensor was 3.2 × 10-7 mol/L and the liner range was from 4 × 10-7 mol/L to 2.4 × 10-6 mol/L.

  6. Optical biosensor for simultaneous detection of captan and organophosphorus compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Young-Kee; Oh, Byung-Keun; Song, Sun-Young; Lee, Won Hong

    2003-05-01

    The optical biosensor consisting of GST and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-immobilized gel film was developed to detect captan and organophosphorus compounds simultaneously in contaminated water. The sensing scheme was based on the measurement of decrease of products formation (s-(2,4-dinitrobenzene) glutathione and alpha-naphthol by GST and AChE, respectively) due to the inhibition by captan and organophosphorus compounds. The absorbance of s-(2,4-dinitrobenzene) glutathione and alpha-naphthol was detected at 400 and 500 nm, respectively, by a proposed optical biosensor system. It was observed that AChE was inhibited by both captan and organophosphorus compounds, and GST was inhibited only by captan. The simultaneous detection and quantification of captan and organophosphorus compounds could be successfully achieved by the proposed sensor system. The proposed biosensor could successfully detect the captan and organophosphorus compounds concentration from 0 to 2 ppm.

  7. Paper electrodes for bioelectrochemistry: Biosensors and biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Cloé; Marquette, Christophe A; Blum, Loïc J; Doumèche, Bastien

    2016-02-15

    Paper-based analytical devices (PAD) emerge in the scientific community since 2007 as low-cost, wearable and disposable devices for point-of-care diagnostic due to the widespread availability, long-time knowledge and easy manufacturing of cellulose. Rapidly, electrodes were introduced in PAD for electrochemical measurements. Together with biological components, a new generation of electrochemical biosensors was born. This review aims to take an inventory of existing electrochemical paper-based biosensors and biofuel cells and to identify, at the light of newly acquired data, suitable methodologies and crucial parameters in this field. Paper selection, electrode material, hydrophobization of cellulose, dedicated electrochemical devices and electrode configuration in biosensors and biofuel cells will be discussed.

  8. Printable Ultrathin Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Based Conformal Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, You Seung; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Chen, Huajun; Yang, Jonathan L; Kim, Jaemyung; Andrews, Anne M; Weiss, Paul S; Yang, Yang; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2015-12-22

    Conformal bioelectronics enable wearable, noninvasive, and health-monitoring platforms. We demonstrate a simple and straightforward method for producing thin, sensitive In2O3-based conformal biosensors based on field-effect transistors using facile solution-based processing. One-step coating via aqueous In2O3 solution resulted in ultrathin (3.5 nm), high-density, uniform films over large areas. Conformal In2O3-based biosensors on ultrathin polyimide films displayed good device performance, low mechanical stress, and highly conformal contact determined using polydimethylsiloxane artificial skin having complex curvilinear surfaces or an artificial eye. Immobilized In2O3 field-effect transistors with self-assembled monolayers of NH2-terminated silanes functioned as pH sensors. Functionalization with glucose oxidase enabled d-glucose detection at physiologically relevant levels. The conformal ultrathin field-effect transistor biosensors developed here offer new opportunities for future wearable human technologies.

  9. Whole-Cell Fluorescent Biosensors for Bioavailability and Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ryan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell microbial biosensors are one of the newest molecular tools used in environmental monitoring. Such biosensors are constructed through fusing a reporter gene such as lux, gfp or lacZ,to a responsive promoter. There have been many reports of the applications of biosensors, particularly their use in assaying pollutant toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the basic concepts behind the construction of whole-cell microbial biosensors for pollutant monitoring, and describes the applications of two such biosensors for detecting the bioavailability and biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs.

  10. Encapsulation of FRET-based glucose and maltose biosensors to develop functionalized silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccio, G; Bannwarth, M B; Schulenburg, C; Steffen, V; Jankowska, D; Pohl, M; Rossi, R M; Maniura-Weber, K; Boesel, L F; Richter, M

    2016-06-20

    Silicate nanoparticles with immobilized FRET-based biosensors were developed for the detection of glucose and maltose. Immobilization of the protein biosensor in the nanoparticle was achieved through specific interaction between the hexa-histidine tag of the protein and a calcium-silicate complex of the silica matrix. Encapsulation of the biosensors preserved the affinity for the respective sugar. Compared to the free biosensors, encapsulation had a stabilizing effect on the biosensor towards chemical and thermal denaturation. The demonstrated immobilization strategy for specific sensing proteins paves the way towards the development of protein-inorganic nanostructures for application in metabolite analyses. PMID:26811852

  11. Surface plasmon resonance biosensors for detection of foodborne pathogens and toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, Jiří; Hegnerová, Kateřina; Vala, Milan

    2009-02-01

    In the last decade surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have made great strides both in terms of technology and its applications. SPR biosensors have become a central tool for study of molecular interactions and have been widely used for detection of chemical and biological analytes. Food analysis belongs to major areas of potential applications of SPR biosensors. Therefore, numerous SPR biosensors for detection of analytes implicated in food safety (e.g. pathogens, toxins, drug residues, vitamins, hormones, chemical contaminants, and allergens) have been developed. This paper reviews recent developments in the field of SPR biosensors for food safety, in particular, for detection of foodborne pathogens and toxins.

  12. Electrochemical Biosensor of Nanocube-Augmented Carbon Nanotube Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Claussen, Jonathan C.; Franklin, Aaron D; Haque, Aeraj U; Porterfield, D.M.; Fisher, Timothy,

    2009-01-01

    Networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) decorated with Au-coated Pd (Au/Pd) nanocubes are employed as electrochemical biosensors that exhibit excellent sensitivity (2.6 mA mM−1 cm−2) and a low estimated detection limit (2.3 nM) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3) in the amperometric sensing of hydrogen peroxide. Biofunctionalization of the Au/Pd nanocube-SWCNT biosensor is demonstrated with the selective immobilization of fluorescently labeled streptavidin on the nanocube su...

  13. Development of a new biosensor for determination of catalase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teke, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is one of the major antioxidant enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of H2O2. The aim of this study was to suggest a new method for the assay of catalase activity. For this purpose, an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase for determination of catalase activity was developed. Immobilization of glucose oxidase was made by a cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde on a Clark-type electrode (dissolved oxygen probe). Optimization and characterization properties of the biosensor were studied and determination of catalase activity in defined conditions was investigated in artificial serum solution. The results were compared with a reference method. PMID:24499365

  14. Fluorescence-based biosensors from concepts to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, May C

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges of modern biology and medicine consists in finding means to visualize biomolecules in their natural environment with the greatest level of accuracy, so as to gain insight into their properties and behaviour in a physiological and pathological setting. This has been achieved thanks to the design of novel imaging agents, in particular to fluorescent biosensors. Fluorescence Biosensors comprise a large set of tools which are useful for fundamental purposes as well as for applications in biomedicine, drug discovery and biotechnology. These tools have been designed a

  15. Low Noise Readout Circuit for Biosensor SoC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yin-song; KONG Mou-fu; LI Xiang-quan; WANG Li

    2008-01-01

    Presented is a low noise interface circuit that is tuned to the needs of self-assembly monolayers biosensor SoC. The correlated double sampling(CDS) unit of the readout circuit can reduce 1/f noise, KTC noise and fixed noise of micro arrays effectively. The circuit is simulated in a 0.6 μm/level 7 standard CMOS process, and the simulated results show the output voltage has a good linearity with the transducing current of the micro arrays. This is a novel circuit including four amplifiers sharing a common half-circuit and the noise reducing CDS unit. It could be widely used for micro array biosensors.

  16. Piezoelectric Biosensors for Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Marrazza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great amount of pesticides currently being used, there is an increased interest for developing biosensors for their detection. Among all the physical transducers, piezoelectric systems have emerged as the most attractive due to their simplicity, low instrumentation costs, possibility for real-time and label-free detection and generally high sensitivity. This paper presents an overview of biosensors based on the quartz crystal microbalance, which have been reported in the literature for organophosphate and carbamate pesticide analysis.

  17. Graphene Based Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-01

    Graphene, emerging as a true 2-dimensional material, has received increasing attention due to its unique physicochemical properties (high surface area, excellent conductivity, high mechanical strength, and ease of functionalization and mass production). This article selectively reviews recent advances in graphene-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. In particular, graphene for direct electrochemistry of enzyme, its electrocatalytic activity toward small biomolecules (hydrogen peroxide, NADH, dopamine, etc.), and graphene-based enzyme biosensors have been summarized in more detail; Graphene-based DNA sensing and environmental analysis have been discussed. Future perspectives in this rapidly developing field are also discussed.

  18. Development of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry and biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, G., E-mail: gajin@imech.ac.c [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Meng, Y.H.; Liu, L.; Niu, Y.; Chen, S. [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Cai, Q.; Jiang, T.J. [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-02-28

    So far, combined with a microfluidic reactor array system, an engineering system of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry is installed for biomedical applications, such as antibody screen, hepatitis B markers detection, cancer markers spectrum and virus recognition, etc. Furthermore, the biosensor in total internal reflection (TIR) mode has be improved by a spectroscopic light, optimization settings of polarization and low noise CCD which brings an obvious improvement of 10 time increase in the sensitivity and SNR, and 50 times lower concentration in the detection limit with a throughput of 48 independent channels and the time resolution of 0.04 S.

  19. ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors with different coupling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors using different coupling agents. ► Highest sensitivity for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. ► Larger amount of glucose oxidase and lower electron transfer resistance for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. - Abstract: ZnO-nanowire-based glucose biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a linker attached to ZnO nanowires. Different coupling agents were used, namely (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane (APS), to increase the affinity of GOx binding to ZnO nanowires. The amount of GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, the performance, sensitivity, and Michaelis–Menten constant of each biosensor, and the electron transfer resistance through the biosensor were all measured in order to investigate the effect of the coupling agent on the ZnO nanowire-based biosensor. Among the different biosensors, the APS-treated biosensor had the highest sensitivity (17.72 μA cm−2 mM−1) and the lowest Michaelis–Menten constant (1.37 mM). Since APS-treated ZnO nanowires showed the largest number of C-N groups and the lowest electron transfer resistance through the biosensor, we concluded that these properties were the key factors in the performance of APS-treated glucose biosensors.

  20. ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors with different coupling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Juneui [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sangwoo, E-mail: swlim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors using different coupling agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest sensitivity for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Larger amount of glucose oxidase and lower electron transfer resistance for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. - Abstract: ZnO-nanowire-based glucose biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a linker attached to ZnO nanowires. Different coupling agents were used, namely (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane (APS), to increase the affinity of GOx binding to ZnO nanowires. The amount of GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, the performance, sensitivity, and Michaelis-Menten constant of each biosensor, and the electron transfer resistance through the biosensor were all measured in order to investigate the effect of the coupling agent on the ZnO nanowire-based biosensor. Among the different biosensors, the APS-treated biosensor had the highest sensitivity (17.72 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and the lowest Michaelis-Menten constant (1.37 mM). Since APS-treated ZnO nanowires showed the largest number of C-N groups and the lowest electron transfer resistance through the biosensor, we concluded that these properties were the key factors in the performance of APS-treated glucose biosensors.

  1. Effects of food surface topography on phage-based magnetoelastic biosensor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Shin; Chai, Yating; Zhao, Ruiting; Wikle, Howard C.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2014-05-01

    Phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors have proven useful in rapidly and inexpensively detecting food surface con- tamination. These biosensors are wireless, mass-sensitive biosensors and can be placed directly on food surfaces to detect the presence of target pathogens. Previously, millimeter-scale strip-shaped ME biosensors have been used to demonstrate direct detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on various fresh produce surfaces, including tomatoes, shell eggs, watermel- ons, and spinach leaves. Since the topography of these produce surfaces are different, and the biosensor must come into direct contact with Salmonella bacteria, food surfaces with large roughness and curvatures (e.g., spinach leaf surfaces) may allow the bacteria to avoid direct contact, thereby avoiding detection. The primary objective of this paper is, hence, to investigate the effects of food surface topography on the detection capabilities of the biosensors. Spinach leaf surfaces were selected as model surfaces, and detection experiments were conducted with differently sized biosensors (2 mm, 0.5 mm, and 150 μm in length). Spinach leaf roughness and curvatures of both adaxial (top) and abaxial (underside) surfaces were measured using a confocal laser scanning microscope. The experimental results showed that in spinach as the sen- sor was made smaller, the physical contact between the biosensors and bacteria were improved. Smaller sensors thereby enhance detection capabilities. When proper numbers of biosensors are used, micron-scale biosensors are anticipated to yield improved limits of detection over previously investigated millimeter-scale biosensors.

  2. The procedure of ethanol determination in wine by enzyme amperometric biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzyadevych S. V.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of the procedure of ethanol determination in wine by an enzyme amperometric biosensor. Methods. The amperometric biosensor method of ethanol analysis has been used in this work. Results. The paper presents comparative analysis of two methods of alcohol oxidase (AO immobilization for development of amperometric biosensor for ethanol determination in wine. The method of AO immobilization in glutaraldehyde vapour was chosen as optimal for this purpose. The selectivity, operational and storage stability, and pH-optimum for operation of the created biosensor were determined. The procedure of ethanol determination in wine by amperometric biosensor on the basis of platinum printed electrode SensLab and AO was optimized. The analysis of ethanol concentration in wine and must samples was carried out using the developed high-stable biosensor. A good correlation between the data obtained by the biosensor and densitometry methods was shown. Conclusion. The proposed method of ethanol analysis could be used in wine production

  3. Electropolymerized phenol derivatives as permselective polymers for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calia, Giammario; Monti, Patrizia; Marceddu, Salvatore; Dettori, Maria A; Fabbri, Davide; Jaoua, Samir; O'Neill, Robert D; Serra, Pier A; Delogu, Giovanna; Migheli, Quirico

    2015-05-21

    Amperometric biosensors are often coated with a polymeric permselective film to avoid electroactive interference by reducing agents present in the target medium. Phenylenediamine and phenol monomers are commonly used to form these permselective films in the design of microsensors and biosensors. This paper aims to evaluate the permselectivity, stability and lifetime of polymers electrosynthesized using either constant potential amperometry (CPA) or cyclic voltammetry (CV) from naturally occurring phenylpropanoids in monomeric and dimeric forms (eugenol, isoeugenol, dehydrodieugenol and magnolol). Sensors were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and permselectivity analysis. Magnolol formed an electro-deposited polymer with a more defined three-dimensional texture in comparison with the other films. The phenol-derived films showed different permselectivity towards H2O2 over ascorbic acid and dopamine, likely to be related to the thickness and compactness of the polymer. The CV-derived films had a better permselectivity compared to the CPA-corresponding polymers. Based on these results, the permselectivity, stability and lifetime of a biosensor for glucose were studied when a magnolol coating was electro-deposited. The structural principles governing the permselectivity of the magnolol-derived film are suggested to be mainly related to the conformational flexibility of this monomer. Newly designed biosensors, coated with electropolymerized natural phenol derivatives, may represent promising analytical devices for different application fields. PMID:25857616

  4. Biosensor immunoassays for the detection of bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2005-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen found in the environment, in consequence, for the biosensor detection of BPA we raised antibodies (polyclonal (PAbs) and monoclonal (MAbs)) against a structural analogue of BPA, 4,4 bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl) valeric acid (BVA). The kinetics of the MAb¿BPA interaction

  5. Wireless Distribution and Use of Bio-sensor Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten; Kristensen, Margit; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht

    2007-01-01

      During emergency response use of wired bio-sensors create problems for the response workers. It is difficult to transport patients and checking of data requires you to be next to the patient. We will report on work in progress regarding development of a wireless bio-monitor system that supports...

  6. Nuclear track-based biosensors with the enzyme laccase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We construct a biosensor using polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. • We use the biosensor for quantitation of phenolic compounds. • The biosensor can detect picomolar concentrations for some phenolic compounds. - Abstract: A new type of biosensors for detecting phenolic compounds is presented here. These sensors consist of thin polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. The presence of suitable phenolic compounds in the sensors leads to the formation of enzymatic reaction products in the tracks, which differ in their electrical conductivities from their precursor materials. These differences correlate with the concentrations of the phenolic compounds. Corresponding calibration curves have been established for a number of compounds. The sensors thus produced are capable to cover between 5 and 9 orders of magnitude in concentration – in the best case down to some picomoles. The sensor's detection sensitivity strongly depends on the specific compound. It is highest for caffeic acid and acid blue 74, followed by ABTS and ferulic acid

  7. Aquatarium - Biosensor & Aquatarium set i et akustisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Loren Mark

    2014-01-01

    om behovet for returskyl. Det andet projekt omhandler biosensorer. Her undersøger vi om en on-line monitering af drikkevandets bakteriologiske vandkvalitet løses bedst ved et system bestående af flere enkeltkomponenter: sensor, automatisk prøvetager, karakteriseringsanalyser. Der udvikles en mindre...

  8. Screening Substrate Properties of Microorganisms for Biosensor Detection of Oligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oligosaccharides feature high biological activity ensuring their wide application in the biotechnology, food, and cosmetic industries. On the other hand they are considered environmental pollutants. The study outlines a biosensor approach to detect these substances which is important from above st...

  9. Size-selective detection in integrated optical interferometric biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.K.P.; Ymeti, A.; Subramaniam, V.; Kanger, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new size-selective detection method for integrated optical interferometric biosensors that can strongly enhance their performance. We demonstrate that by launching multiple wavelengths into a Young interferometer waveguide sensor it is feasible to derive refractive index changes from di

  10. A versatile biosensor device for continuous biomedical monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhemrev-Boom, MM; Korf, J; Venema, K; Urban, G; Vadgama, P

    2001-01-01

    Although biosensors are by means suitable for continuous biomedical monitoring, due to fouling and blood clotting, in vivo performance is far from optimal. For this reason, ultrafiltration, microdialysis or open tubular flow is frequently used as interface. To secure quantitative recoveries of the a

  11. DETECTION OF DNA DAMAGE USING A FIBEROPTIC BIOSENSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid and sensitive fiber optic biosensor assay for radiation-induced DNA damage is reported. For this assay, a biotin-labeled capture oligonucleotide (38 mer) was immobilized to an avidin-coated quartz fiber. Hybridization of a dye-labeled complementary sequence was observed...

  12. Nuclear track-based biosensors with the enzyme laccase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Arellano, H. [Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Lerma, Av. de las Garzas No. 10, Col. El Panteón, Lerma de Villada, Municipio de Lerma, Estado de México, C.P. 52005 (Mexico); Fink, D., E-mail: fink@xanum.uam.mx [Division de Ciencias Naturales e Ingeneria, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Hidalgo, Del. Álvaro Obregón C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico); Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Muñoz Hernández, G. [Division de Ciencias Naturales e Ingeneria, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Hidalgo, Del. Álvaro Obregón C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, D.F. (Mexico); Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Alfonta, L. [Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We construct a biosensor using polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. • We use the biosensor for quantitation of phenolic compounds. • The biosensor can detect picomolar concentrations for some phenolic compounds. - Abstract: A new type of biosensors for detecting phenolic compounds is presented here. These sensors consist of thin polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. The presence of suitable phenolic compounds in the sensors leads to the formation of enzymatic reaction products in the tracks, which differ in their electrical conductivities from their precursor materials. These differences correlate with the concentrations of the phenolic compounds. Corresponding calibration curves have been established for a number of compounds. The sensors thus produced are capable to cover between 5 and 9 orders of magnitude in concentration – in the best case down to some picomoles. The sensor's detection sensitivity strongly depends on the specific compound. It is highest for caffeic acid and acid blue 74, followed by ABTS and ferulic acid.

  13. The development and application of FET-based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, P.

    1986-01-01

    After having considered the general definition of biosensors, the specifications of one type are discussed here in more detail, namely the pH-sensitive ISFET, which is at present being clinically investigated for intravascular blood pH recording. Results, advantages and possible improvements will be

  14. Biosensor immunoassay for flumequine in broiler serum and muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Gercek, H.; Cazemier, G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Flumequine (Flu) is one of the fluoroquinolones most frequently applied for the treatment of broilers in The Netherlands. For the detection of residues of Flu in blood serum of broilers, a biosensor immunoassay (BIA) was developed which was fast (7.5 min per sample) and specific (no cross-reactivity

  15. Features and application of wearable biosensors in medical care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Teimouri, Fotooheh

    2015-01-01

    One of the new technologies in the field of health is wearable biosensor, which provides vital signs monitoring of patients, athletes, premature infants, children, psychiatric patients, people who need long-term care, elderly, and people in impassable regions far from health and medical services. The aim of this study was to explain features and applications of wearable biosensors in medical services. This was a narrative review study that done in 2015. Search conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, through databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations; vital sign monitoring, medical smart shirt, smart clothing, wearable biosensors, physiological monitoring system, remote detection systems, remote control health, and bio-monitoring system. The preliminary search resulted in 54 articles, which published between 2002 and 2015. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, 41 sources selected based on their relevancy. Although the use of wearable in healthcare is still in an infant stage, it could have a magic effect on healthcare. Smart wearable in the technology industry for 2015 is one that is looking to be a big and profitable market. Wearable biosensors capable of continuous vital signs monitoring and feedback to the user will be significantly effective in timely prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control of diseases. PMID:26958058

  16. Role of biomolecular logic systems in biosensors and bioactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Shay; Katz, Evgeny

    2014-09-01

    An overview of recent advances in biosensors and bioactuators based on biocomputing systems is presented. Biosensors digitally process multiple biochemical signals through Boolean logic networks of coupled biomolecular reactions and produce an output in the form of a YES/NO response. Compared to traditional single-analyte sensing devices, the biocomputing approach enables high-fidelity multianalyte biosensing, which is particularly beneficial for biomedical applications. Multisignal digital biosensors thus promise advances in rapid diagnosis and treatment of diseases by processing complex patterns of physiological biomarkers. Specifically, they can provide timely detection and alert medical personnel of medical emergencies together with immediate therapeutic intervention. Application of the biocomputing concept has been successfully demonstrated for systems performing logic analysis of biomarkers corresponding to different injuries, particularly as exemplified for liver injury. Wide-ranging applications of multianalyte digital biosensors in medicine, environmental monitoring, and homeland security are anticipated. "Smart" bioactuators, for signal-triggered drug release, for example, were designed by interfacing switchable electrodes with biocomputing systems. Integration of biosensing and bioactuating systems with biomolecular information processing systems advances the potential for further scientific innovations and various practical applications.

  17. Biomolecular logic systems: applications to biosensors and bioactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents an overview of recent advances in biosensors and bioactuators based on the biocomputing concept. Novel biosensors digitally process multiple biochemical signals through Boolean logic networks of coupled biomolecular reactions and produce output in the form of YES/NO response. Compared to traditional single-analyte sensing devices, biocomputing approach enables a high-fidelity multi-analyte biosensing, particularly beneficial for biomedical applications. Multi-signal digital biosensors thus promise advances in rapid diagnosis and treatment of diseases by processing complex patterns of physiological biomarkers. Specifically, they can provide timely detection and alert to medical emergencies, along with an immediate therapeutic intervention. Application of the biocomputing concept has been successfully demonstrated for systems performing logic analysis of biomarkers corresponding to different injuries, particularly exemplified for liver injury. Wide-ranging applications of multi-analyte digital biosensors in medicine, environmental monitoring and homeland security are anticipated. "Smart" bioactuators, for example for signal-triggered drug release, were designed by interfacing switchable electrodes and biocomputing systems. Integration of novel biosensing and bioactuating systems with the biomolecular information processing systems keeps promise for further scientific advances and numerous practical applications.

  18. Features and application of wearable biosensors in medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Teimouri, Fotooheh

    2015-12-01

    One of the new technologies in the field of health is wearable biosensor, which provides vital signs monitoring of patients, athletes, premature infants, children, psychiatric patients, people who need long-term care, elderly, and people in impassable regions far from health and medical services. The aim of this study was to explain features and applications of wearable biosensors in medical services. This was a narrative review study that done in 2015. Search conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, through databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations; vital sign monitoring, medical smart shirt, smart clothing, wearable biosensors, physiological monitoring system, remote detection systems, remote control health, and bio-monitoring system. The preliminary search resulted in 54 articles, which published between 2002 and 2015. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, 41 sources selected based on their relevancy. Although the use of wearable in healthcare is still in an infant stage, it could have a magic effect on healthcare. Smart wearable in the technology industry for 2015 is one that is looking to be a big and profitable market. Wearable biosensors capable of continuous vital signs monitoring and feedback to the user will be significantly effective in timely prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and control of diseases. PMID:26958058

  19. Synthesis and assessment of peptide-nanocellulosic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanocellulose is an ideal transducer surface for biosensors: it provides a high surface area, easily derivatized with bioactive molecules, and abrogates binding of proteins present in biological fluids where analytes and clinical biomarkers are of interest. Here an example of approaches to biosenso...

  20. Cantilever-Based Microwave Biosensors: Analysis, Designs and Optimizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Jónasson, Sævar Þór;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel microwave readout scheme for measuring deflection of cantilevers in nanometer range. The cantilever deflection can be sensed by the variation of transmission levels or resonant frequencies of microwave signals. The sensitivity of the cantilever biosensor based on LC...

  1. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 µA·cm-2·mM-1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. Keywords: electrochemical deposition, sulfonated graphene oxide, urease

  2. Electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized enzymes and redox polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Terje A.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Hale, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electrochemical enzyme biosensor for use in liquid mixtures of components for detecting the presence of, or measuring the amount of, one or more select components. The enzyme electrode of the present invention is comprised of an enzyme, an artificial redox compound covalently bound to a flexible polymer backbone and an electron collector.

  3. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 (μA · cm−2·mM−1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM) with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity) after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. PMID:26346240

  4. Surface plasmon optics for biosensors with advanced sensitivity and throughput

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasmonic biosensors represent a rapidly advancing technology which enables rapid and sensitive analysis of target analytes. This thesis focuses on novel metallic and polymer structures for plasmonic biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (SPF). It comprises four projects addressing key challenges concerning the enhancement of sensitivity and throughput. In the project 1, an advanced optical platform is developed which relies on reference-compensated angular spectroscopy of hydrogel-guided waves. The developed optical setup provides superior refractive index resolution of 1.2×10-7 RIU and offers an attractive platform for direct detection of small analytes which cannot be analyzed by regular SPR biosensors. The project 2 carries out theoretical study of SPR imaging with advanced lateral resolution by utilizing Bragg scattered surface plasmons (BSSPs) on sub-wavelength metallic gratings. The results reveal that the proposed concept provides better lateral resolution and fidelity of the images. This feature opens ways for high-throughput SPR biosensors with denser arrays of sensing spots. The project 3 investigates surface plasmon coupled-emission from fluorophores in the vicinity of plasmonic Bragg-gratings. The experimental results provide leads on advancing the collection efficiency of fluorescence light by controlling the directions of fluorescence emission. This functionality can directly improve the sensitivity of fluorescence-based assays. In the last project 4, a novel sensing scheme with actively tuneable plasmonic structures is developed by employing thermo-responsive hydrogel binding matrix. The hydrogel film simultaneously serves as a large capacity binding matrix and provides means for actuating of surface plasmons through reversible swelling and collapsing of the hydrogel. This characteristic is suitable for multiplexing of sensing channels in fluorescence-based biosensor scheme (author)

  5. Novel trends in affinity biosensors: current challenges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular biorecognition processes facilitate physical and biochemical interactions between molecules in all crucial metabolic pathways. Perhaps the target analyte and the biorecognition element interactions have the most impactful use in biosensing applications. Traditional analytical sensing systems offer excellent biorecognition elements with the ability to detect and determine the presence of analytes. High affinity antibodies and DNA play an important role in the development of affinity biosensors based on electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive approaches. Advancements in this area routinely employ labels, label free, nanoparticles, multifunctional matrices, carbon nanotubes and other methods to meet the requirements of its own application. However, despite increasing affinity ceilings for conventional biosensors, the field draws back in meeting specifically important demands, such as long-term stability, ultrasensitivity, rapid detection, extreme selectivity, strong biological base, calibration, in vivo measurements, regeneration, satisfactory performance and ease of production. Nevertheless, recent efforts through this line have produced novel high-tech nanosensing systems such as ‘aptamers’ and ‘phages’ which exhibit high-throughput sensing. Aptamers and phages are powerful tools that excel over antibodies in sensibility, stability, multi-detection, in vivo measurements and regeneration. Phages are superior in stability, screening for affinity-based target molecules ranging from small to proteins and even cells, and easy production. In this review, we focus mainly on recent developments in affinity-based biosensors such as immunosensors, DNA sensors, emphasizing aptasensors and phage-based biosensors basing on novel electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive detection techniques. We also address enzyme inhibition-based biosensors and the current problems associated with the above sensors and their future perspectives. (topical review)

  6. Bioluminescent bacteria: lux genes as environmental biosensors Bactérias bioluminescentes: os genes lux como biosensores ambientais

    OpenAIRE

    Vânia da Silva Nunes-Halldorson; Norma Letícia Duran

    2003-01-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria are widespread in natural environments. Over the years, many researchers have been studying the physiology, biochemistry and genetic control of bacterial bioluminescence. These discoveries have revolutionized the area of Environmental Microbiology through the use of luminescent genes as biosensors for environmental studies. This paper will review the chronology of scientific discoveries on bacterial bioluminescence and the current applications of bioluminescence in env...

  7. Bioelectrochemical interface engineering: toward the fabrication of electrochemical biosensors, biofuel cells, and self-powered logic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Dong, Shaojun

    2011-11-15

    Over the past decade, researchers have devoted considerable attention to the integration of living organisms with electronic elements to yield bioelectronic devices. Not only is the integration of DNA, enzymes, or whole cells with electronics of scientific interest, but it has many versatile potential applications. Researchers are using these ideas to fabricate biosensors for analytical applications and to assemble biofuel cells (BFCs) and biomolecule-based devices. Other research efforts include the development of biocomputing systems for information processing. In this Account, we focus on our recent progress in engineering at the bioelectrochemical interface (BECI) for the rational design and construction of important bioelectronic devices, ranging from electrochemical (EC-) biosensors to BFCs, and self-powered logic biosensors. Hydrogels and sol-gels provide attractive materials for the immobilization of enzymes because they make EC-enzyme biosensors stable and even functional in extreme environments. We use a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique to fabricate multicomponent thin films on the BECI at the nanometer scale. Additionally, we demonstrate how carbon nanomaterials have paved the way for new and improved EC-enzyme biosensors. In addition to the widely reported BECI-based electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-type aptasensors, we integrate the LBL technique with our previously developed "solid-state probe" technique for redox probes immobilization on electrode surfaces to design and fabricate BECI-based differential pulse voltammetry (DPV)-type aptasensors. BFCs can directly harvest energy from ambient biofuels as green energy sources, which could lead to their application as simple, flexible, and portable power sources. Porous materials provide favorable microenvironments for enzyme immobilization, which can enhance BFC power output. Furthermore, by introducing aptamer-based logic systems to BFCs, such systems could be applied as self

  8. Biosensor for dengue virus detection: sensitive, rapid, and serotype specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumner, Antje J; Schlesinger, Nicole A; Slutzki, Naomi S; Romano, Joseph; Lee, Eun Mi; Montagna, Richard A

    2002-03-15

    A serotype-specific RNA biosensor was developed for the rapid detection of Dengue virus (serotypes 1-4) in blood samples. After RNA amplification, the biosensor allows the rapid detection of Dengue virus RNA in only 15 min. In addition, the biosensor is portable, inexpensive, and very easy to use, making it an ideal detection system for point-of-care and field applications. The biosensor is coupled to the isothermal nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) technique with which small amounts of virus RNA are amplified using a simple water bath. During the NASBA reaction, a generic sequence is attached to all RNA molecules as described earlier (Wu, S. J.; Lee, E. M.; Putvatana, R.; Shurtliff, R. N.; Porter, K R.; Suharyono, W.; Watt, D. M.; King, C. C.; Murphy, G. S.; Hayes, C. G.; Romano, J. W. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2001, 39, 2794-2798.). It has been shown earlier that Dengue virus can be detected specifically using two DNA probes: a first probe hybridized with the attached generic sequence and, therefore, bound to every amplified RNA molecule; and a second probe either bound to all four Dengue virus serotypes or chosen to be specific for only one serotype. These probes were utilized in the biosensor described in this publication. For a generic Dengue virus biosensor, the second probe is complementary to a conserved region found in all Dengue serotypes. For identification of the individual Dengue virus serotypes, four serotype-specific probes were developed (Wu, S. J.; Lee, E. M.; Putvatana, R.; Shurtiff, R. N.; Porter, K. R.; Suharyono, W.; Watt, D. M.; King, C. C.; Murphy, G. S.; Hayes, C. G.; Romano, J. W. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2001, 39, 2794-2798.). The biosensor is a membrane-based DNA/RNA hybridization system using liposome amplification. The generic DNA probe (reporter probe) is coupled to the outside of dye-encapsulating liposomes. The conserved or Dengue serotype specific probes (capture probes) are immobilized on a polyethersulfone membrane strip

  9. Development of mercury (II) ion biosensors based on mercury-specific oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanying; Wen, Yanli; Xu, Li; Xu, Qin; Song, Shiping; Zuo, Xiaolei; Yan, Juan; Zhang, Weijia; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-15

    Mercury (II) ion (Hg(2+)) contamination can be accumulated along the food chain and cause serious threat to the public health. Plenty of research effort thus has been devoted to the development of fast, sensitive and selective biosensors for monitoring Hg(2+). Thymine was demonstrated to specifically combine with Hg(2+) and form a thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) structure, with binding constant even higher than T-A Watson-Crick pair in DNA duplex. Recently, various novel Hg(2+) biosensors have been developed based on T-rich Mercury-Specific Oligonucleotide (MSO) probes, and exhibited advanced selectivity and excellent sensitivity for Hg(2+) detection. In this review, we explained recent development of MSO-based Hg(2+) biosensors mainly in 3 groups: fluorescent biosensors, colorimetric biosensors and electrochemical biosensors.

  10. A novel biosensor method for surfactant determination based on acetylcholinesterase inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel enzyme biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase inhibition for the determination of surfactants in aqueous solutions is described. Acetylcholinesterase-based bioselective element was deposited via glutaraldehyde on the surface of conductometric transducers. Different variants of inhibitory analysis of surfactants were tested, and finally surfactant's concentration was evaluated by measuring initial rate of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Besides, we studied the effect of solution characteristics on working parameters of the biosensor for direct measurement of acetylcholine and for inhibitory determination of surfactants. The biosensor's sensitivity to anionic and cationic surfactants (0.35 mg l−1) was tested. The high operational stability of the biosensor during determination of acetylcholine (RSD 2%) and surfactants (RSD 11%) was shown. Finally, we discussed the selectivity of the biosensor toward surfactants and other AChE inhibitors. The proposed biosensor can be used as a component of the multibiosensor for ecological monitoring of toxicants. (paper)

  11. Novel biosensors based on flavonoid-responsive transcriptional regulators introduced into Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siedler, Solvej; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Malla, Sailesh;

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the construction of two flavonoid biosensors, which can be applied for metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli strains. The biosensors are based on transcriptional regulators combined with autofluorescent proteins. The transcriptional activator FdeR from Herbaspirillum sero....... coli cells containing a flavonol synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (fls1). We expect the designed biosensors to be applied for isolation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. © 2013 The Authors.......This study describes the construction of two flavonoid biosensors, which can be applied for metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli strains. The biosensors are based on transcriptional regulators combined with autofluorescent proteins. The transcriptional activator FdeR from Herbaspirillum...... seropedicae SmR1 responds to naringenin, while the repressor QdoR from Bacillus subtilis is inactivated by quercetin and kaempferol. Both biosensors showed over a 7-fold increase of the fluorescent signal after addition of their specific effectors, and a linear correlation between the fluorescence intensity...

  12. Enzyme Biosensors for Biomedical Applications: Strategies for Safeguarding Analytical Performances in Biological Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchitta, Gaia; Spanu, Angela; Babudieri, Sergio; Latte, Gavinella; Madeddu, Giordano; Galleri, Grazia; Nuvoli, Susanna; Bagella, Paola; Demartis, Maria Ilaria; Fiore, Vito; Manetti, Roberto; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme-based chemical biosensors are based on biological recognition. In order to operate, the enzymes must be available to catalyze a specific biochemical reaction and be stable under the normal operating conditions of the biosensor. Design of biosensors is based on knowledge about the target analyte, as well as the complexity of the matrix in which the analyte has to be quantified. This article reviews the problems resulting from the interaction of enzyme-based amperometric biosensors with complex biological matrices containing the target analyte(s). One of the most challenging disadvantages of amperometric enzyme-based biosensor detection is signal reduction from fouling agents and interference from chemicals present in the sample matrix. This article, therefore, investigates the principles of functioning of enzymatic biosensors, their analytical performance over time and the strategies used to optimize their performance. Moreover, the composition of biological fluids as a function of their interaction with biosensing will be presented. PMID:27249001

  13. Biosensor assay for determination of haptoglobin in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstedt, Maria; Björck, Lennart; Persson Waller, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase

    2006-08-01

    Despite more than 30 years of research into mastitis diagnostics, there are few alternatives to the somatic cell count (SCC) in practical use for identification of cows with subclinical mastitis. Mastitis is not only an animal welfare problem, but also affects the yield, composition and technological properties of milk. Hence, dairy cooperatives give farmers a premium quality payment to encourage low SCC although there is no clear scientific data defining the level of SCC in bulk tank milk that is associated with additional benefits in terms of milk quality. Recent research on alternative markers for inflammatory reactions in the lactating cow, e.g. in mastitis, includes investigations of the acute phase protein, haptoglobin (Hp). So far, the content of Hp in milk has mainly been studied in relation to mastitis diagnostics, with little attention given to its importance for milk composition and technological properties. At present, Hp in milk is measured using ELISA, but this technique is not suitable for routine large-scale analysis. In recent years, optical biosensor technology has been used for automated and rapid quantitative analysis of different components in milk, but so far not for analysis of acute phase proteins. The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid and sensitive biosensor method to determine Hp in milk. An affinity sensor assay based on the interaction between Hp and haemoglobin was developed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor technology. The assay was used to analyse Hp in composite milk samples from cows without any clinical signs of mastitis and quarter milk samples with a weak to strong reaction in the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A commercial ELISA for determination of Hp in milk was used for comparison. The limit of detection (LOD) of the biosensor assay was determined as 1.1 mg/l. Within-assay and between-day variations were determined both with bulk tank milk spiked with human Hp and with composite milk samples

  14. Development of optical fiber biosensors with long period gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng

    2000-07-01

    This dissertation successfully developed a new sensitive optical fiber biosensor with Long Period Gratings (LPG), using the self-fabricated LPG and self-built demodulation system. The LPG biosensor is a in-fiber sensor which is especially suitable for sensing in remote and hostile environments. The biosensor is also unique in that it is a label-free sensor with the ability of real-time detection and the potential for multiplexing. We began the research with detailed computer simulations, using a new simplified three-layer model for a cylindrical waveguide with doubly-cladded step-index profile. The simulation results showed the nonlinear relationship between the LPG spectral sensitivity and the ambient refractive index. It was also shown that, at the same ambient refractive index, higher LPG modes resulted in higher sensitivity. Simulations of biolayer formation on the LPG surface showed a linear relationship between the LPG spectral shift and the biolayer thickness and a linear relationship between the LPG spectral shift and the biolayer refractive index. In the case of antibody detection, the simulation results for the LPG biosensor suggested an estimated minimum detectable human Immuno- Globin G (hIgG) concentration of ~1.0 picomole/mL. By immobilizing Goat anti-human IgG (antibody) on the LPG surface, a LPG biosensor (immunosensor) was successfully developed for the sensitive detection of a specific antigen (human IgG). The binding of non-labeled hIgGs on the LPG surface was investigated by experiments in real time. It was observed that both the maximum output signal and the calculated initial signal slope were concentration dependent over a range of 2-100 μg/mL of homogeneous hIgG solutions in PBS. If applying initial signal slope determination, the target antigen hIgG concentration or the final signal level could be determined in approximately 10 minutes after the target solution was introduced into the flow chamber of the LPG immunosensor. Also, the

  15. Recent Advances in Biosensor Technology for Potential Applications – An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Vigneshvar, S.; Sudhakumari, C. C.; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian; Prakash, Hridayesh

    2016-01-01

    Imperative utilization of biosensors has acquired paramount importance in the field of drug discovery, biomedicine, food safety standards, defense, security, and environmental monitoring. This has led to the invention of precise and powerful analytical tools using biological sensing element as biosensor. Glucometers utilizing the strategy of electrochemical detection of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide using immobilized glucose oxidase electrode seeded the discovery of biosensors. Recent advances ...

  16. Glucose oxidase inhibition in poly(neutral red) mediated enzyme biosensors for heavy metal determination

    OpenAIRE

    Ghica, Mariana; Brett, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A biosensor for the determination of heavy metal cations based on glucose oxidase enzymatic inhibition has been developed. The biosensor was assembled on carbon film electrode supports with glucose oxidase immobilised by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde on top of a film of poly(neutral red) as redox mediator, prepared by electropolymerisation. The biosensor was used to determine the metallic cations, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in the presence of chosen amounts of glucose. The d...

  17. Development of Biological Oxygen Demand Biosensor for Monitoring the Fermentation Industry Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Verma; Ashish Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    A biosensor was developed for the determination of BOD value of fermentation industry effluent. The developed biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing the microbial consortium on cellulose acetate (CA) membrane in close proximity to a DO probe electrode. The microbial consortium was harvested from the fermentation industry effluent. The BOD biosensor was calibrated by using a solution containing the equivalent amount of glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) as a standard sample solution. The response t...

  18. Size-selective analyte detection in an integrated optical Young interferometer biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, Harmen Klaas Peter

    2016-01-01

    Integrated optical interferometric (IOI) biosensors are extremely sensitive label-free biosensors. The applicability of these sensors is however strongly hampered by the large background that originates from both bulk refractive index changes and non-specific binding of molecules to the sensor surface. In this thesis we demonstrate new methods to discriminate between substances based on their size, using a Young interferometer biosensor with simultaneous detection of multiple wavelengths. Thi...

  19. Effect of Diffusion Limitations on Multianalyte Determination from Biased Biosensor Response

    OpenAIRE

    Romas Baronas; Juozas Kulys; Algirdas Lančinskas; Antanas Žilinskas

    2014-01-01

    The optimization-based quantitative determination of multianalyte concentrations from biased biosensor responses is investigated under internal and external diffusion-limited conditions. A computational model of a biocatalytic amperometric biosensor utilizing a mono-enzyme-catalyzed (nonspecific) competitive conversion of two substrates was used to generate pseudo-experimental responses to mixtures of compounds. The influence of possible perturbations of the biosensor signal, due to a white n...

  20. Ultrasensitive detection of influenza viruses with a glycan-based impedimetric biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Hushegyi, András; Pihíková, Dominika; Bertók, Tomáš; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, René; Tkac, Jan

    2015-01-01

    An ultrasensitive impedimetric glycan-based biosensor for reliable and selective detection of inactivated, but intact influenza viruses H3N2 was developed. Such glycan-based approach has a distinct advantage over antibody-based detection of influenza viruses since glycans are natural viral receptors with a possibility to selectively distinguish between potentially pathogenic influenza subtypes by the glycan-based biosensors. Build-up of the biosensor was carefully optimized with atomic force ...

  1. Non-invasive mouthguard biosensor for continuous salivary monitoring of metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J.; Valdés-Ramírez, G; Bandodkar, AJ; W. Jia; Martinez, AG; Ramírez, J.; Mercier, P.; Wang, J

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes the first example of a wearable salivary metabolite biosensor based on the integration of a printable enzymatic electrode on a mouthguard. The new mouthguard enzymatic biosensor, based on an immobilized lactate oxidase and a low potential detection of the peroxide product, exhibits high sensitivity, selectivity and stability using whole human saliva samples. Such non-invasive mouthguard metabolite biosensors could tender useful real-time information regarding a wear...

  2. Investigation of Defect Free SiGe Nanowire Biosensor Modified by Dual Plasma Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Chang, Tai-Yuan; Lai, Chiung-Hui; Chang, Kow-Ming; Chen, Chu-Feng; Lai, Yi-Lung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Lai, Hui-Lung; Hsu, Terng-Ren

    2016-02-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been extensively investigated and discussed in various fields due to their unique physical properties. In this paper, we successfully produce SiGe NWs biosensor by VLSI technology. We propose the dual plasma technology with CF4 plasma pre-treatment and N2 plasma post-treatment for repairs of defects as well as optimization of SiGe NWs biosensor. The results indicate that sensitivity (S) of the biosensor with dual plasma technology has significantly improved at least 32.8%, suitable for producing industrial SiGe NWs biosensor in the future.

  3. Interfacial Structures and Properties of Organic Materials for Biosensors: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of biosensors for bio-environmental monitoring have profound influences on medical, pharmaceutical, and environmental applications. This paper provides an overview on the background and applications of the state-of-the-art biosensors. Different types of biosensors are summarized and sensing mechanisms are discussed. A review of organic materials used in biosensors is given. Specifically, this review focuses on self-assembled monolayers (SAM due to their high sensitivity and high versatility. The kinetics, chemistry, and the immobilization strategies of biomolecules are discussed. Other representative organic materials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and conductive polymers are also introduced in this review.

  4. Investigation of Defect Free SiGe Nanowire Biosensor Modified by Dual Plasma Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Chang, Tai-Yuan; Lai, Chiung-Hui; Chang, Kow-Ming; Chen, Chu-Feng; Lai, Yi-Lung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Lai, Hui-Lung; Hsu, Terng-Ren

    2016-02-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have been extensively investigated and discussed in various fields due to their unique physical properties. In this paper, we successfully produce SiGe NWs biosensor by VLSI technology. We propose the dual plasma technology with CF4 plasma pre-treatment and N2 plasma post-treatment for repairs of defects as well as optimization of SiGe NWs biosensor. The results indicate that sensitivity (S) of the biosensor with dual plasma technology has significantly improved at least 32.8%, suitable for producing industrial SiGe NWs biosensor in the future. PMID:27433604

  5. Design architecture of double spiral interdigitated electrode with back gate electrode for biosensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathil, M. F. M.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Hashim, U.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; M. Nuzaihan M., N.; Ayub, R. M.; Adzhri, R.; Zaki, M.; Azman, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the preparation method of photolithography chrome mask design used in fabrication process of double spiral interdigitated electrode with back gate biasing based biosensor. By learning the fabrication process flow of the biosensor, the chrome masks are designed through drawing using the AutoCAD software. The overall width and length of the device is optimized at 7.0 mm and 10.0 mm, respectively. Fabrication processes of the biosensor required three chrome masks, which included back gate opening, spiral IDE formation, and passivation area formation. The complete chrome masks design will be sent for chrome mask fabrication and for future use in biosensor fabrication.

  6. A novel PDMS micro membrane biosensor based on the analysis of surface stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Witte, Hartmut

    2010-07-15

    The biological and medical application of biosensors is more and more important with the development of technology and society. Detection of cells and biological molecules utilizing biosensors based on the analysis of surface stress would facilitate inexpensive and high-throughput test and diagnosis. This paper presents a biocompatible surface stress-based polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro membrane biosensor. Each biosensor chip consists of two available PDMS micro membranes, one acts as active membrane and the other as reference. Biosensors were functionalized using different functional materials respectively: MUA (11 Mercapto 1 undecanoicacid), MUO (11 Mercapto 1 undecanol) and DOT (Dodecane thiol). Two biosensor test systems were built based on a white light interferometer and a fiber optic interferometer respectively. Finally, testing experiments using Escherichia coli (E. coli) were performed based on the biosensor test systems we built. The results of the experiments showed that the MUA is a better functional material to functionalize the biosensor membranes than MUO and DOT for E. coli detection, some properties of E. coli, such as healthily living and dead status, can be analyzed based on the PDMS micro membrane biosensors.

  7. Engineering the bioelectrochemical interface using functional nanomaterials and microchip technique toward sensitive and portable electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaofang; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2016-02-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have played active roles at the forefront of bioanalysis because they have the potential to achieve sensitive, specific and low-cost detection of biomolecules and many others. Engineering the electrochemical sensing interface with functional nanomaterials leads to novel electrochemical biosensors with improved performances in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, stability and simplicity. Functional nanomaterials possess good conductivity, catalytic activity, biocompatibility and high surface area. Coupled with bio-recognition elements, these features can amplify signal transduction and biorecognition events, resulting in highly sensitive biosensing. Additionally, microfluidic electrochemical biosensors have attracted considerable attention on account of their miniature, portable and low-cost systems as well as high fabrication throughput and ease of scaleup. For example, electrochemical enzymetic biosensors and aptamer biosensors (aptasensors) based on the integrated microchip can be used for portable point-of-care diagnostics and environmental monitoring. This review is a summary of our recent progress in the field of electrochemical biosensors, including aptasensors, cytosensors, enzymatic biosensors and self-powered biosensors based on biofuel cells. We presented the advantages that functional nanomaterials and microfluidic chip technology bring to the electrochemical biosensors, together with future prospects and possible challenges.

  8. Rapid Bacterial Detection via an All-Electronic CMOS Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhoo, Nasim; Cumby, Nichole; Gulak, P. Glenn; Maxwell, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    The timely and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases is one of the greatest challenges currently facing modern medicine. The development of innovative techniques for the rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens in point-of-care facilities using low-cost, portable instruments is essential. We have developed a novel all-electronic biosensor that is able to identify bacteria in less than ten minutes. This technology exploits bacteriocins, protein toxins naturally produced by bacteria, as the selective biological detection element. The bacteriocins are integrated with an array of potassium-selective sensors in Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor technology to provide an inexpensive bacterial biosensor. An electronic platform connects the CMOS sensor to a computer for processing and real-time visualization. We have used this technology to successfully identify both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria commonly found in human infections. PMID:27618185

  9. All-nanophotonic NEMS biosensor on a chip

    CERN Document Server

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu

    2014-01-01

    Integrated chemical and biological sensors give advantages in cost, size and weight reduction and open new prospects for parallel monitoring and analysis. Biosensors based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) are the most attractive candidates for the integrated platform. However, actuation and transduction techniques (e.g. electrostatic, magnetomotive, thermal or piezoelectric) limit their operation to laboratory conditions. All-optical approach gives the possibility to overcome this problem, nevertheless, the existing schemes are either fundamentally macroscopic or excessively complicated and expensive in mass production. Here we propose a novel scheme of extremely compact NEMS biosensor monolithically integrated on a chip with all-nanophotonic transduction and actuation. It consists of the photonic waveguide and the nanobeam cantilever placed above the waveguide, both fabricated in the same CMOS-compatible process. Being in the near field of the strongly confined photonic mode, cantilever is efficiently...

  10. Biosensor. Recent research progress; Baiosensa. Saikin no kenkyu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsue, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamada, H. [National Defence Academy, Yokosuka (Japan)

    1995-11-20

    Chemical sensor is made of up transducer that transfers the part and signal recognizing the measurement objects. Biosensor that normally transfers the amount of chemicals into electrical signal is a sensor in which living materials like enzyme, microorganism or antigen, antibody and so forth are used in the recognition part. Recently, the structure or the function of the living materials is clarified gradually with the significant progress in biofeedback, however, the synthesis of artificial material having same function as that of living materials is extremely difficult. Accordingly, it is very practical to develop high degree sensor function by using living materials with developed function in material recognition part, an important element of the sensor. In this report, solid state biosensor using electrode as a transducer is focused, and specially, recent research progress regarding the amperometric measurement which measures oxidation/reduction current is discussed. 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Toxicity assessment using different bioassays and microbial biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sedky H A; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Hussein, Mohamed A M; Abskharon, Romany; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity assessment of water streams, wastewater, and contaminated sediments, is a very important part of environmental pollution monitoring. Evaluation of biological effects using a rapid, sensitive and cost effective method can indicate specific information on ecotoxicity assessment. Recently, different biological assays for toxicity assessment based on higher and lower organisms such as fish, invertebrates, plants and algal cells, and microbial bioassays have been used. This review focuses on microbial biosensors as an analytical device for environmental, food, and biomedical applications. Different techniques which are commonly used in microbial biosensing include amperometry, potentiometry, conductometry, voltammetry, microbial fuel cells, fluorescence, bioluminescence, and colorimetry. Examples of the use of different microbial biosensors in assessing a variety of environments are summarized. PMID:27071051

  12. Photoelectrochemical glucose biosensor incorporating CdS nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinjie Sun; Yihua Zhu; Xiaoling Yang; Chunzhong Li

    2009-01-01

    A novel photoelectrochemical biosensor incorporating nanosized CdS semiconductor crystals with enzyme to enhance photochemical reaction has been investigated. CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by using dendrimer PAMAM as inner templates. The CdS nanoparticles and glucose oxidase (GOD) were immobilized on Pt electrode via layer-by-layer (LbL) technique to fabricate a biological-inorganic hybrid system. Under ultraviolet light, the photo-effect of the CdS nanoparticles showed enhancement of the biosensor to detect glucose. Pt nanoparticles were mixed into the Nation film to immobilize the CdS/enzyme composites and to improve the charge transfer of the hybrid, Experimental results demonstrate the desirable characteristics of this biosensing system, e.g. a sensitivity of 1.83 μA/(mM cm~2), lower detection limit (1 μM), and acceptable reproducibility and stability.

  13. Versatile matrix for constructing enzyme-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohao; Luo, Xi; Wan, Qijin; Wu, Kangbing; Yang, Nianjun

    2014-10-01

    A versatile matrix was fabricated and utilized as a universal interface for the construction of enzyme-based biosensors. This matrix was formed on the gold electrode via combining self-assembled monolayer of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid with gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles were electrochemically deposited. Electrochemistry of three redox enzymes (catalase, glucose oxidase, and horseradish peroxidase) was investigated on such a matrix. The electrocatalytic monitoring of hydrogen peroxide and glucose was conducted on this matrix after being coated with those enzymes. On them the monitoring of hydrogen peroxide and glucose shows rapid response times, wide linear working ranges, low detection limits, and high enzymatic affinities. This matrix is thus a versatile and suitable platform to develop highly sensitive enzyme-based biosensors. PMID:25208242

  14. Polyester Sulphonic Acid Interstitial Nanocomposite Platform for Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel I. Iwuoha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel enzyme immobilization platform was prepared on a platinum disk working electrode by polymerizing aniline inside the interstitial pores of polyester sulphonic acid sodium salt (PESA. Scanning electron microscopy study showed the formation of homogeneous sulphonated polyaniline (PANI nanotubes (~90 nm and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA confirmed that the nanotubes were stable up to 230 °C. The PANI:PESA nanocomposite showed a quasi-reversible redox behaviour in phosphate buffer saline. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was immobilized on to this modified electrode for hydrogen peroxide detection. The biosensor gave a sensitivity of 1.33 μA (μM-1 and a detection limit of 0.185 μM for H2O2. Stability experiments showed that the biosensor retained more than 64% of its initial sensitivity over four days of storage at 4 °C.

  15. Rapid Bacterial Detection via an All-Electronic CMOS Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhoo, Nasim; Cumby, Nichole; Gulak, P Glenn; Maxwell, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The timely and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases is one of the greatest challenges currently facing modern medicine. The development of innovative techniques for the rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens in point-of-care facilities using low-cost, portable instruments is essential. We have developed a novel all-electronic biosensor that is able to identify bacteria in less than ten minutes. This technology exploits bacteriocins, protein toxins naturally produced by bacteria, as the selective biological detection element. The bacteriocins are integrated with an array of potassium-selective sensors in Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor technology to provide an inexpensive bacterial biosensor. An electronic platform connects the CMOS sensor to a computer for processing and real-time visualization. We have used this technology to successfully identify both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria commonly found in human infections. PMID:27618185

  16. Surface grafted polymer brushes: potential applications in dengue biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polymer brush membrane-based ultrasensitive biosensor for dengue diagnosis was constructed using poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes immobilized onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. LDPE surface films were initially modified by Ar+ ion irradiation to activate the polymer surface. Subsequently, graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto the activated LDPE surface was carried out under aqueous conditions to create patterned polymer brushes of PHEMA. The grafted PHEMA brushes were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analysis. The SEM observations showed that selective surface activation with Ar+ implantation and graft polymerization on the selectively activated surface had occurred. The PHEMA brushes were electrically characterized in the presence of concentrations of human immunoglobulin (IgG). The proposed amperometric biosensor was successfully used for determination of IgG in physiologic samples with excellent responses. (author)

  17. Detection of Penicillin via Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; MU Ying; JIN Wei; YANG Meng-chao; ZHANG Ti-qiang; ZHOU Chao; XIE Fei; SONG Qi; REN Hao; JIN Qin-han

    2012-01-01

    A method of using Au colloid to capture the decomposed product of penicillin,penicillamine,on a surface plasmon resonance(SPR) biosensor for the quantitative determination of penicillin was developed.Based on the decomposition of penicillin to generate penicillamine and penilloaldehyde,a high seositive biosensor for detecting penicillin was also developed.In our experiment,it was penicillamine rather than penicillin that has been measured.This is because penicillamine contains a functional group that makes it self-assembling on Au colloid to increase the molecular weight so as to improve the surface plasmon resonance signal.On a UV-Vis spectrophotometer,a high concentration of penicilliamine-Au complex was determined,indicating that penicillamine was already well combined with Au colloid.The method,using the combination of Au colloid with penicillamine,proved to detect penicillin.

  18. Biosensors based on GaN nanoring optical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Takeshima, Hoshi; Kishino, Katsumi; Sakai, Masaru; Hara, Kazuhiko

    2016-05-01

    Biosensors based on GaN nanoring optical cavities were demonstrated using room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. The outer diameter, height, and thickness of the GaN nanorings were approximately 750–800, 900, and 130–180 nm, respectively. The nanorings functioned as whispering-gallery-mode (WGM)-type optical cavities and exhibited sharp resonant peaks like lasing actions. The evanescent component of the WGM was strongly affected by the refractive index of the ambient environment, the type of liquid, and the sucrose concentration of the analyzed solution, resulting in shifts of the resonant wavelengths. The results indicate that the GaN nanorings can potentially be used in sugar sensors of the biosensors.

  19. Nanobioengineering and Characterization of a Novel Estrogen Receptor Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfrid Boireau

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We constructed an original supramolecular assembly on a surface of sensor composed of an innovative combination of an engineered cytochrome b5 and a modified nucleic acid bound to a synthetic lipid hemimembrane. The protein/DNA block, called (PDNA 2, was synthesized and purified before its immobilization onto a hybrid bilayer reconstituted on a gold surface. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR and atomic force microscopy (AFM were engaged in parallel on the same substrates in order to better understand dynamic events that occur at the surface of the biosensor. Good correlations were obtained in terms of specificity and reversibility. These findings allow us to present a first application of such biosensor in the study of the interaction processes between nuclear receptor and DNA.

  20. Surface grafted polymer brushes: potential applications in dengue biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratela, Fernando Jose Costa; Higa, Olga Zazuco, E-mail: ozahiga@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faria, Henrique Antonio Mendonca de; Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar de, E-mail: alencar@unifei.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Quimica

    2013-07-01

    A polymer brush membrane-based ultrasensitive biosensor for dengue diagnosis was constructed using poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes immobilized onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. LDPE surface films were initially modified by Ar{sup +} ion irradiation to activate the polymer surface. Subsequently, graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto the activated LDPE surface was carried out under aqueous conditions to create patterned polymer brushes of PHEMA. The grafted PHEMA brushes were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analysis. The SEM observations showed that selective surface activation with Ar+ implantation and graft polymerization on the selectively activated surface had occurred. The PHEMA brushes were electrically characterized in the presence of concentrations of human immunoglobulin (IgG). The proposed amperometric biosensor was successfully used for determination of IgG in physiologic samples with excellent responses. (author)

  1. Biosensor: an emerging safety tool for meat industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Jairath, Gauri; Ahlawat, Satyavir Singh; Pathera, Ashok; Singh, Prashant

    2016-04-01

    The meat industry associated with the health hazards like deadly pathogens, veterinary drugs, pesticide residues, toxins and heavy metals is in need of a tool to tackle the awful situation and ensure safer product to consumer. The growth in the industry, global trade scenario, stringent laws and consumer awareness has placed an extra onus on the meat industry to meet out the expectations and demands. Biosensors are the latest tool of detection in the fast growing industries including the food industry. Hence an attempt is envisaged here to review the possibility of harnessing biosensors as tool of safety to safe guard the consumer health and address safety issues in reference to the common threats of concern in the meat industry. PMID:27413204

  2. Characterization of an hrp-aox-polyaniline-graphite composite biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina O. Santana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is an increasing demand to develop new and robust biosensors in order to detect low concentrations of different chemicals, in practical and small devices, giving fast and confident responses. The electrode material was a polyaniline-graphite-epoxy composite (PANI/GEC. Alcohol oxidase (AOX and horseradish peroxidase (HRP enzymes were immobilized and the responses were tested by cyclic voltammetry. The conductivities for the composites of graphite/polyaniline were determined. The cyclic voltammograms allowed detecting ethanol in pure diluted samples in a range from 0.036 to 2.62 M. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA were used to verify the thermal characteristics of the composites (0, 10, 20, 30 and 100 % of graphite. The Imax value was determined for the dual enzyme biosensor (0.0724 mA, and the Kapp m  as 1.41 M (with R2 =0.9912.

  3. Personalized USB Biosensor Module for Effective ECG Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladojević, Srdjan; Arsenović, Marko; Lončar-Turukalo, Tatjana; Sladojević, Miroslava; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    2016-01-01

    The burden of chronic disease and associated disability present a major threat to financial sustainability of healthcare delivery systems. The need for cost-effective early diagnosis and disease prevention is evident driving the development of personalized home health solutions. The proposed solution presents an easy to use ECG monitoring system. The core hardware component is a biosensor dongle with sensing probes at one end, and micro USB interface at the other end, offering reliable and unobtrusive sensing, preprocessing and storage. An additional component is a smart phone, providing both the biosensor's power supply and an intuitive user application for the real-time data reading. The system usage is simplified, with innovative solutions offering plug and play functionality avoiding additional driver installation. Personalized needs could be met with different sensor combinations enabling adequate monitoring in chronic disease, during physical activity and in the rehabilitation process. PMID:27225580

  4. A magnetic biosensor system for detection of E. coli

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuquan

    2013-07-01

    This work describes a device for detecting E. coli bacteria by manipulating superparamagnetic beads to a sensing area and immobilizing them in a trapping well. The trapping well replaces the biochemical immobilization layer, which is commonly used in magnetic biosensor systems. A concept exploiting the volume difference between bare magnetic beads and magnetic bead-bioanalyte compounds is utilized to detect E. coli bacteria. Trapped beads are detected by the help of a tunnel magneto-resistive sensor. Frequency modulation is employed, in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, enabling the detection of individual superparamagnetic beads of 2.8 μm in diameter. Replacing the biochemical immobilization layer by the trapping well greatly simplifies the detection process. After applying the mixture of E. coli and magnetic beads to the biosensor system, bacteria detection is achieved in a single step, within a few minutes. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. New ways to develop biosensors towards addressing practical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodub, N. F.

    2013-11-01

    The main modern approaches which were realized at the development of new generation of biosensors intended for application in field of diagnostics, food quality control and environmental monitoring are presented. The main attention was paid to creation of the multi-parametrical and multi-functional enzymatic and immune biosensors which were realized for the complex diagnostics of diabetes, autoimmune state and for the control of process of sugar production. The label-free bioaffine devices based on the nano-porouse silicon (NPS) with the registration of specific formed signal by chemiluminescence (ChL) and photoresistivity and intended for the determination mycotoxins and diagnostics of retroviral bovine leukemia (RBL) are analyzed too. Improving of ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) through changing silicon nitride on the cerium oxide is discussed as perspective approach in case of micotoxins and Salmonella control. In the conclusion the possibility to replace biological sensitive elements by artificial ones is considered.

  6. New optical biosensors for uric acid and glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Schrenkhammer, Petra

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a microtiter plate assay for determination of uric acid. It also depicts the development, characterization and application of luminescence based optical biosensors for determination of uric acid and glucose. Chapter 1 gives an introduction on the importance of the determination of uric acid and glucose. Furthermore, an overview on the state of the art of optical sensing of oxygen and pH is given, along with a comparison of optical sensor versus ele...

  7. Electrospun Fibro-porous Polyurethane Coatings for Implantable Glucose Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ning; Burugapalli, Krishna; Song, Wenhui; Halls, Justin; Moussy, Francis; Ray, Asim; Zheng, Yudong

    2012-01-01

    This study reports methods for coating miniature implantable glucose biosensors with electrospun polyurethane (PU) membranes, their effects on sensor function and efficacy as mass-transport limiting membranes. For electrospinning fibres directly on sensor surface, both static and dynamic collector systems, were designed and tested. Optimum collector configurations were first ascertained by FEA modelling. Both static and dynamic collectors allowed complete covering of sensors, but it was the d...

  8. Graphene Electronic Device Based Biosensors and Chemical Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, are emerging as an exciting material system for a new generation of atomically thin electronic devices. With their ultrahigh surface to volume ratio and excellent electrical properties, 2D-layered materials hold the promise for the construction of a generation of chemical and biological sensors with unprecedented sensitivity. In my PhD thesis, I mainly focus on graphene based electronic biosensors and chemical sensors. In the first...

  9. A catechol biosensor based on electrospun carbon nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Dawei Li; Zengyuan Pang; Xiaodong Chen; Lei Luo; Yibing Cai; Qufu Wei

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by combining electrospinning with a high-temperature carbonization technique. And a polyphenol biosensor was fabricated by blending the obtained CNFs with laccase and Nafion. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were, respectively, employed to investigate the structures and morphologies of the CNFs and of the mixtures. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were empl...

  10. Methods of reducing non-specific adsorption in microfluidic biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-specific adsorption (NSA) of biomolecules is a persistent challenge in microfluidic biosensors. Microfluidic biosensors often have immobilized bioreceptors such as antibodies, enzymes, DNAs, etc, via linker molecules such as SAMs (self-assembled monolayers) to enhance immobilization. However, the linker molecules are very susceptible to NSA, causing false responses and decreasing sensitivity. In this paper, we present design methods to reduce the NSA of alkanethiol SAMs, which are popular linker molecules on microfluidic biosensors. Three design parameters were studied for two different chain-length SAMs (n = 2 and 10): (i) SAM incubation time, (ii) surface roughness [0.8 nm and 4.4 nm RMS (root mean square)] and (iii) gold crystal re-growth along (1 1 1) the target orientation. NSA was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The results suggest that increased SAM incubation time reduces NSA, and that short-chain SAMs respond more favorably than the long-chain SAMs. Both SAMs were shown to be sensitive to surface roughness, and long-chain SAMs reduced NSA by 75%. Gold crystal re-growth along (1 1 1) the target orientation profoundly reduced NSA on the short-chain SAM. On a gold surface where surface roughness was 0.8 nm and there was strong directional alignment along the (1 1 1) gold crystal, final concentrations of nonspecifically bound proteins were 0.05 ng mm−2 (fibrinogen) and 0.075 ng mm−2 (lysozyme)—significantly lower than other known methods. The results show that optimizing three parameters (SAM incubation time, gold surface roughness and gold crystal orientation) improved SAM sensitivity for fibrinogen–anti-fibrinogen conjugates by a factor of 5 in 2.94 pM, suggesting that the methods are effective for reducing NSA in microfluidic biosensors.

  11. Biosensores: Un Acercamiento a La Resonancia del Plasmon Superficial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardo Ramírez Frómeta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los biosensores, o los sensores basados sobre materiales biológicos, son utilizados en la actualidad en una amplia variedad de disciplinas, incluyendo la industria alimenticia, la medicina, y la ciencia ambiental. Está llegando a ser cada vez más importante para los investigadores y los científicos en éstos y otros campos tener una comprensión de los diversos tipos de biosensores que puedan ser utilizados, los principios detrás de ellos, así como sus ventajas y limitaciones. El énfasis especial se ha dedicado a los biosensores de resonancia del plasmon superficial (SPR. El biosensor óptico basado en la técnica SPR ha ganado atención debido a su velocidad de detección, alta especificidad, alta sensibilidad y posibilidad de análisis en tiempo real. El dispositivo SPR detecta cambios mínimos en el índice de refracción de la superficie de detección y de su vecindad inmediata. Esta detección altamente sensible se basa en una excitación colectiva de los electrones (los plasmons superficiales en una película metálica sobre un substrato (Ej. cristal, conduciendo a la absorción total de la luz en un ángulo particular de incidencia el cual es dependiente de los índices de refracción de cualquiera de los lados de la película metálica.

  12. PROBING CANCER SIGNALING WITH RESONANT WAVEGUIDE GRATING BIOSENSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Cancer is a collection of diseases that arise from the progressive accumulation of genetic alterations in somatic cells. Genomic approaches have identified a great variety of genetic abnormalities associated with tumorigenesis, and molecular imaging and quantification assays have further elucidated the complex interactions within or between pathways. It is acknowledged that it is proteins, rather than genes, to fulfill most cellular functions; and signaling proteins largely operate through a large and complex network. To this end, cancer is mostly a pathway dysregulated disease – a small number of core pathways are dominate in aberrant cell growth leading to cancer. Thus, understanding the functional consequences of dysregulated and/or mutant signaling proteins in the context of native signaling networks is the frontier in cancer research. Areas covered in this review This article reviews why resonant waveguide grating (RWG) biosensor cellular assays are considered to be integrative in nature, and how RWG biosensor can be used for mining the surface markers of cancer cells, and discovering core pathway(s) of cancer receptor signaling. What the reader will gain The reader will gain an overview of cancer biology from pathway perspective, and have a glimpse of potential implications of integrative cellular assays, as promised by RWG biosensor, in cancer research and diagnosis. Take home message Successful approaches for developing next-generation anti-cancer therapies and diagnostic protocols should take into account that the dysregulation of oncogenic pathways is central to tumorigenesis. The biosensor cellular assays offer unprecedented advantage in characterizing cancer biology. However, significant challenges are also presented in deconvoluting and validating cellular mechanisms identified in cancer receptor signaling using these assays. PMID:21113317

  13. Optical Biosensors: A Revolution Towards Quantum Nanoscale Electronics Device Fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, D.; Goswami, T.

    2011-01-01

    The dimension of biomolecules is of few nanometers, so the biomolecular devices ought to be of that range so a better understanding about the performance of the electronic biomolecular devices can be obtained at nanoscale. Development of optical biomolecular device is a new move towards revolution of nano-bioelectronics. Optical biosensor is one of such nano-biomolecular devices that has a potential to pave a new dimension of research and device fabrication in the field of optical and biomedi...

  14. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zheng; Remko van den Hurk; Yong Cao; Rongbing Du; Xuejun Sun; Yiyu Wang; McDermott, Mark T.; Stephane Evoy

    2016-01-01

    Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, ...

  15. Noninvasive glucose monitoring using saliva nano-biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjun Zhang; Yunqing Du; Wang, Ming L.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide live with diabetes and several millions die from it each year. A noninvasive, painless method of glucose testing would highly improve compliance and glucose control while reducing complications and overall disease management costs. To provide accurate, low cost, and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a unique, disposable saliva nano-biosensor. More than eight clinical trials on real-time noninvasive salivary glucose monitoring were carried out on two...

  16. Porous silicon biosensor for the detection of autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, Andrew O.; Szili, Endre J.; Reed, Joanne H.; Gordon, Tom P.; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2007-12-01

    Advances in porous silicon (pSi) technology have led to the development of new sensitive biosensors. The unique optical properties of pSi renders the material a perfect candidate for optical transducers exploiting photoluminescence or white light interference effects. The ability of biosensors exploiting these transduction mechanisms to quickly and accurately detect biological target molecules affords an alternative to current bioassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Here, we present a pSi biosensor that was developed to detect antibodies against the autoimmune protein La. This protein is associated with autoimmune diseases including rheumatic disorders, systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjogren's syndrome (SS). A fast and sensitive detection platform such as the one described here can be applied to the rapid diagnosis of these debilitating autoimmune diseases. The immobilisation of the La protein onto pSi films gave a protein receptor-decorated sensor matrix. A cascade of immunological reactions was then initiated to detect anti-La antibody on the functionalised pSi surface. In the presence of o-phenylenediamine (OPD), horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/H IIO II catalysed the formation of an oxidised radical species that accelerated pSi corrosion. pSi corrosion was detected as a blue-shift in the generated interference pattern, corresponding to a decrease in the effective optical thickness (EOT) of the pSi film. Compared to an ELISA, the pSi biosensor could detect the anti-La antibody at a similar concentration (500 - 125 ng/ml). Furthermore, we found that the experimental process can be significantly shortened resulting in detection of the anti-La antibody in 80 minutes compared to a minimum of 5 hours required for ELISA.

  17. Applications of polymers for biomolecule immobilization in electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymers are becoming inseparable from biomolecule immobilization strategies and biosensor platforms. Their original role as electrical insulators has been progressively substituted by their electrical conductive abilities, which opens a new and broad scope of applications. In addition, recent advances in diagnostic chips and microfluidic systems, together with the requirements of mass-production technologies, have raised the need to replace glass by polymeric materials, which are more suitable for production through simple manufacturing processes. Conducting polymers (CPs), in particular, are especially amenable for electrochemical biosensor development for providing biomolecule immobilization and for rapid electron transfer. It is expected that the combination of known polymer substrates, but also new transducing and biocompatible interfaces, with nanobiotechnological structures, like nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanoengineered 'smart' polymers, may generate composites with new and interesting properties, providing higher sensitivity and stability of the immobilized molecules, thus constituting the basis for new and improved analytical devices for biomedical and other applications. This review covers the state-of-the-art and main novelties about the use of polymers for immobilization of biomolecules in electrochemical biosensor platforms

  18. Chiral analysis of amino acids using electrochemical composite bienzyme biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, R; Serra, B; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2001-11-15

    The construction and performance of bienzyme amperometric composite biosensors for the selective determination of l- or d-amino acids is reported. D- or L-Amino acid oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and the mediator ferrocene were coimmobilized by simple physical inclusion into the bulk of a graphite-70% Teflon electrode matrix. Working conditions including amino acid oxidase loading and pH were optimized. Studies on the repeatability of the amperometric response obtained at +0.00 V, with and without regeneration of the electrode surface by polishing, on the useful lifetime of one single biosensor and on the reproducibility in the fabrication of different biosensors illustrate the robustness of the bioelectrodes design. Calibration plots by both amperometry in stirred solutions and flow injection with amperometric detection were obtained for L-arginine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, L-methionine, L-tryptophan, D-leucine, D-methionine, D-serine, and D-valine. Differences in sensitivity were discussed in terms of the hydrophobicity of the substrate and of the electrode surface. The bienzyme composite electrode was applied to the determination of L- and D-amino acids in racemic samples, as well as to the estimation of the L-amino acids content in muscatel grapes. PMID:11700983

  19. Rapid and simple preparation of a reagentless glucose electrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dan; Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Luong, John H T; Sheu, Fwu-Shan

    2012-08-21

    A rapid and simple procedure was developed for the preparation of a highly stable and leach-proof glucose oxidase (GOx)-bound glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Crosslinked GOx via glutaraldehyde was drop-cast on a KOH-pretreated GCE followed by drop-casting of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to form a stable bioactive layer. At -0.45 V, the biosensor exhibited a wide dynamic detection range of 0.5-48 mM for commercial glucose and 1.3-28.2 mM for Sugar-Chex blood glucose linearity standards. Several endogenous electroactive substances and drug metabolites commonly found in blood were tested and provoked no signal response. To our knowledge, the developed procedure is the most rapid method for preparing a glucose biosensor. The biosensor suffered no biofouling after 7 days of immersion in Sugar-Chex blood glucose. With excellent production reproducibility, GOx-bound electrodes stored dry at room temperature retained their initial activity after several weeks. PMID:22763782

  20. An AC electrokinetics facilitated biosensor cassette for rapid pathogen identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Mengxing; Mohan, Ruchika; Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Mach, Kathleen E; Sin, Mandy L Y; McComb, Mason; Joshi, Janhvi; Gau, Vincent; Wong, Pak Kin; Liao, Joseph C

    2013-07-01

    To develop a portable point-of-care system based on biosensors for common infectious diseases such as urinary tract infection, the sensing process needs to be implemented within an enclosed fluidic system. On chip sample preparation of clinical samples remains a significant obstacle to achieving robust sensor performance. Herein AC electrokinetics is applied in an electrochemical biosensor cassette to enhance molecular convection and hybridization efficiency through electrokinetics induced fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation. Using E. coli as an exemplary pathogen, we determined the optimal electrokinetic parameters for detecting bacterial 16S rRNA in the biosensor cassette based on the current output, signal-to-noise ratio, and limit of detection. In addition, a panel of six probe sets targeting common uropathogenic bacteria was demonstrated. The optimized parameters were also validated using patient-derived clinical urine samples. The effectiveness of electrokinetics for on chip sample preparation will facilitate the implementation of point-of-care diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the future.

  1. A novel wireless Love wave biosensor platform for multifunctional detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taehyeon; Nam, Minwoo; Song, SeungYeon; Yoon, Hyun C.; Lee, Keekeun

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a novel wireless Love wave biosensor platform for multi-functional detection. A 440MHz wireless and surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based biosensor was developed on a 41° YX LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate for the simultaneous detection of Anti- Dinitrophenyl-KLH (anti-DNP) immunoglobulin G (IgG). The developed biosensor was composed of a SAW reflective delay lines structured by an interdigital transducer (IDT), shorted grating reflectors, poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) layer and two sensitive films (Cr/Au). The PMMA was used for the waveguide layer. Coupling of mode (COM) modeling was conducted to determine the optimal device parameters prior to fabrication. The fabricated devices were wirelessly characterized by using the network analyzer as the reader unit. The binding of anti-DNP to DNP receptor molecules induced a change in phase shifts of the original reflection peaks due to a mass loading effect. The phase shifts increased linearly with increasing anti-DNP concentration. The measured reflective coefficient S11 in the time domain showed high signal/noise (S/N) ratio, small signal attenuation, and few spurious peaks. The time positions of the reflection peaks were well matched with the predicted values from the simulation. The obtained sensitivity was 167.9°/μg/ml and 44.8°/ μg/ml for the 1st and the 2nd sensing area, respectively.

  2. A Nanofluidic Biosensor Based on Nanoreplica Molding Photonic Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wang; Chen, Youping; Ai, Wu; Zhang, Dailin

    2016-09-01

    A nanofluidic biosensor based on nanoreplica molding photonic crystal (PC) was proposed. UV epoxy PC was fabricated by nanoreplica molding on a master PC wafer. The nanochannels were sealed between the gratings on the PC surface and a taped layer. The resonance wavelength of PC-based nanofluidic biosensor was used for testing the sealing effect. According to the peak wavelength value of the sensor, an initial label-free experiment was realized with R6g as the analyte. When the PC-based biosensor was illuminated by a monochromatic light source with a specific angle, the resonance wavelength of the sensor will match with the light source and amplified the electromagnetic field. The amplified electromagnetic field was used to enhance the fluorescence excitation result. The enhancement effect was used for enhancing fluorescence excitation and emission when matched with the resonance condition. Alexa Fluor 635 was used as the target dye excited by 637-nm laser source on a configured photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) setup, and an initial PCEF enhancement factor was obtained.

  3. Analysis of experimental biosensor/FIA lactose measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Ferreira

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Whey is an abundant effluent in the production of cheese and casein. The biotechnological utilization of this economically important and nutritive source is limited mainly because of the presence of high percentages of lactose. This disaccharide has poor solubility, which can cause crystallization and insufficient sweetness in dairy food; additionally, part of the adult population suffers from associated lactose intolerance diseases. There are several methods to determine lactose such as spectrophotometry, polarimetry, infrared spectroscopy, titrimetry and chromatography. However these methods are tedious and time-consuming due to long sample preparation. These disadvantages stimulated the development of an enzymatic lactose biosensor. It employs two immobilized enzymes, beta-galactosidase and glucose oxidase and the quantitative analysis of lactose is based on determination of oxygen consumption in the enzymatic reaction. The influence of temperature on the biosensor signal was experimentally studied. It was observed that a nonlinear relationship exists between the electric response of the biosensor - provided by CAFCA (Computer Assisted Flow Control & Analysis - ANASYSCON, Hannover - and lactose concentration. In this work, attempts were made to correlate these variables using a simple nonlinear model and multilayered neural networks, with the latter providing the best modeling of the experimental data.

  4. Computational Design of a Carbon Nanotube Fluorofullerene Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ho Chung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes offer exciting opportunities for devising highly-sensitive detectors of specific molecules in biology and the environment. Detection limits as low as 10−11 M have already been achieved using nanotube-based sensors. We propose the design of a biosensor comprised of functionalized carbon nanotube pores embedded in a silicon-nitride or other membrane, fluorofullerene-Fragment antigen-binding (Fab fragment conjugates, and polymer beads with complementary Fab fragments. We show by using molecular and stochastic dynamics that conduction through the (9, 9 exohydrogenated carbon nanotubes is 20 times larger than through the Ion Channel Switch ICSTM biosensor, and fluorofullerenes block the nanotube entrance with a dissociation constant as low as 37 pM. Under normal operating conditions and in the absence of analyte, fluorofullerenes block the nanotube pores and the polymer beads float around in the reservoir. When analyte is injected into the reservoir the Fab fragments attached to the fluorofullerene and polymer bead crosslink to the analyte. The drag of the much larger polymer bead then acts to pull the fluorofullerene from the nanotube entrance, thereby allowing the flow of monovalent cations across the membrane. Assuming a tight seal is formed between the two reservoirs, such a biosensor would be able to detect one channel opening and thus one molecule of analyte making it a highly sensitive detection design.

  5. Use of biosensors for the detection of marine toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartlin, Daniel A; Lochhead, Michael J; Connell, Laurie B; Doucette, Gregory J; O'Kennedy, Richard J

    2016-06-30

    Increasing occurrences of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the ocean are a major concern for countries around the globe, and with strong links between HABs and climate change and eutrophication, the occurrences are only set to increase. Of particular concern with regard to HABs is the presence of toxin-producing algae. Six major marine biotoxin groups are associated with HABs. Ingestion of such toxins via contaminated shellfish, fish, or other potential vectors, can lead to intoxication syndromes with moderate to severe symptoms, including death in extreme cases. There are also major economic implications associated with the diverse effects of marine biotoxins and HABs. Thus, effective monitoring programmes are required to manage and mitigate their detrimental global effect. However, currently legislated detection methods are labour-intensive, expensive and relatively slow. The growing field of biosensor diagnostic devices is an exciting area that has the potential to produce robust, easy-to-use, cost-effective, rapid and accurate detection methods for marine biotoxins and HABs. This review discusses recently developed biosensor assays that target marine biotoxins and their microbial producers, both in harvested fish/shellfish samples and in the open ocean. The effective deployment of such biosensor platforms could address the pressing need for improved monitoring of HABs and marine biotoxins, and could help to reduce their global economic impact.

  6. Biosensors Used for Quantification of Nitrates in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Galindo Raul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is essential for the plant because it is used for the production of chlorophyll, proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids, and other cellular compounds; nitrogen is available in two forms: ammonium and nitrate. Several tools have been used to quantify nitrates in plants such as the Kjeldahl method and Dumas combustion digestion; however, they are destructive and long time-consuming methods. To solve these disadvantages, methods such as selective electrodes, optical sensors, reflectometers, and images based sensors have been developed; nonetheless, all these techniques show interference when carrying out measurements. Currently, biosensors based on genetic constructions, based on the response of promoter gene fused to Gene Fluorescent Protein (GFP, are gaining popularity, because they improve the accuracy of measurements of nitrate by avoiding the interference of carriers ion, high salt conditions, and other factors. The present review shows the different methods to quantify the nitrogen in plants; later, a biosensors perspective is presented, mainly focused on biosensors based on organism genetically modified. The review presents a list of promoter and reporter genes that could be used to develop different kind of sensors, and a perspective of sensors to measure quantitatively the nitrogen is presented.

  7. A Novel Biosensor to Detect MicroRNAs Rapidly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Ying Liao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available δ-free F0F1-ATPase within chromatophore was constructed as a novel biosensor to detect miRNA targets. Specific miRNA probes were linked to each rotary β subunits of F0F1-ATPase. Detection of miRNAs was based on the proton flux change induced by light-driven rotation of δ-free F0F1-ATPase. The hybridization reaction was indicated by changes in the fluorescent intensity of pH-sensitive CdTe quantum dots. Our results showed that the assay was attomole sensitivities (1.2×10−18 mol to target miRNAs and capable of distinguishing among miRNA family members. Moreover, the method could be used to monitor real-time hybridization without any complicated fabrication before hybridization. Thus, the rotary biosensor is not only sensitive and specific to detect miRNA target but also easy to perform. The δ-free F0F1-ATPase-based rotary biosensor may be a promising tool for the basic research and clinical application of miRNAs.

  8. Surface Modification on Acoustic Wave Biosensors for Enhanced Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. Gallant

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in mass loading on the surface of acoustic biosensors result in output frequency shifts which provide precise measurements of analytes. Therefore, to detect a particular biomarker, the sensor delay path must be judiciously designed to maximize sensitivity and specificity. B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (Bcl-2 found in urine is under investigation as a biomarker for non-invasive early detection of ovarian cancer. In this study, surface chemistry and biofunctionalization approaches were evaluated for their effectiveness in presenting antibodies for Bcl-2 capture while minimizing non-specific protein adsorption. The optimal combination of sequentially adsorbing protein A/G, anti-Bcl-2 IgG and Pluronic F127 onto a hydrophobic surface provided the greatest signal-to-noise ratio and enabled the reliable detection of Bcl-2 concentrations below that previously identified for early stage ovarian cancer as characterized by a modified ELISA method. Finally, the optimal surface modification was applied to a prototype acoustic device and the frequency shift for a range of Bcl-2 concentration was quantified to demonstrate the effectiveness in surface acoustic wave (SAW-based detection applications. The surface functionalization approaches demonstrated here to specifically and sensitively detect Bcl-2 in a working ultrasonic MEMS biosensor prototype can easily be modified to detect additional biomarkers and enhance other acoustic biosensors.

  9. DNA nanostructures based biosensor for the determination of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, S Baby; Kamaraj, P; Arthanareeswari, M; Devikala, S

    2015-10-15

    Graphite electrode was modified using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), chitosan (CS), glutaraldehyde (GTA) and DNA nanostructures (nsDNA). DNA nanostructures of 50 nm in size were produced from single DNA template sequence using a simple two step procedure and were confirmed using TEM and AFM analysis. The modified electrode was applied to the electrochemical detection of aromatic compounds using EIS. The modified electrode was characterized using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). For comparison, electrochemical results derived from single stranded (50 bp length) and double stranded (50 bp length) DNA based biosensors were used. The results indicate that the modified electrode prior to nsDNA immobilization provides a viable platform that effectively promotes electron transfer between nsDNA and the electrode. The mode of binding between the nsDNA and aromatic compounds was investigated using EIS, indicating that the dominant interaction is non-covalent. nsDNA based biosensor was observed to act as an efficient biosensor in selective and sensitive identification of aromatic compounds.

  10. Giant Magnetoresistance Based Biosensor for Detection of Influenza A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatramana D Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a simple and sensitive method for the detection of influenza A virus (IAV based on giant magnetoresistance (GMR biosensor. This assay employs monoclonal antibodies to viral nucleoprotein (NP in combination with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs. Presence of influenza virus allows the binding of MNPs to the GMR sensor and the binding is proportional to the concentration of virus. Binding of MNPs onto the GMR sensor causes change in the resistance of sensor, which is measured in a real time electrical readout. GMR biosensor detected as low as 1.5 × 102 TCID50/mL virus and the signal intensity increased with increasing concentration of virus up to 1.0 × 105 TCID50/mL. This study showed that the GMR biosensor assay is relevant for diagnostic application since the virus concentration in nasal samples of influenza virus infected swine was reported to be in the range of 103 to 105 TCID50/mL.

  11. Designing new strategy for controlling DNA orientation in biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chao; Ding, Hong-ming; Ren, Chun-lai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Orientation controllable DNA biosensors hold great application potentials in recognizing small molecules and detecting DNA hybridization. Though electric field is usually used to control the orientation of DNA molecules, it is also of great importance and significance to seek for other triggered methods to control the DNA orientation. Here, we design a new strategy for controlling DNA orientation in biosensors. The main idea is to copolymerize DNA molecules with responsive polymers that can show swelling/deswelling transitions due to the change of external stimuli, and then graft the copolymers onto an uncharged substrate. In order to highlight the responsive characteristic, we take thermo-responsive polymers as an example, and reveal multi-responsive behavior and the underlying molecular mechanism of the DNA orientation by combining dissipative particle dynamics simulation and molecular theory. Since swelling/deswelling transitions can be also realized by using other stimuli-responsive (like pH and light) polymers, the present strategy is universal, which can enrich the methods of controlling DNA orientation and may assist with the design of the next generation of biosensors. PMID:26400770

  12. Electrochemical biosensors and logic devices based on aptamers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Xiaolei; Lin Meihua; Fan Chunhai

    2013-01-01

    Aptamers are molecular recognition elements with high specificity that are selected from deoxyribonucleic acid/ribonucleic acid (DNA/RNA) library.Compared with the traditional protein recognition elements,aptamers have excellent properties such as cost-effective,stable,easy for synthesis and modification.In recent years,electrochemistry plays an important role in biosensor field because of its high sensitivity,high stability,fast response and easy miniaturization.Through the combination of these two technologies and our rational design,we constructed a series of biosensors and biochips that are simple,fast,cheap and miniaturized.Firstly,we designed an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) electrochemical biosensor based on the strand displacement strategy.We can detect as low as 10 nmol/L of ATP both in pure solution and complicated cell lysates.Secondly,we creatively split the aptamers into two fragments and constructed the sandwich assay platform only based on single aptamer sequence.We successfully transferred this design on biochips with multiple micro electrodes (6×6) and accomplished multiplex detection.In the fields of biochips and biocomputers,we designed several DNA logic gates with electric (electrochemical) signal as output which paves a new way for the development of DNA computer.

  13. An innovative reactor-type biosensor for BOD rapid measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlong; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Yeyao; Xu, Runhua; Sun, Zhonghua; Jie, Zhou

    2010-03-15

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is one of the most important and widely used parameters for characterizing the organic pollution of water and wastewater. In this paper, a novel reactor-type biosensor for rapid measurement of BOD was developed, based on using immobilized microbial cell (IMC) beads as recognition bio-element in a completely mixed reactor which was used as determining chamber, replacing the traditionally used membrane as recognition bio-element. The IMC beads were freely suspended in the aqueous solution, so the mass transfer resistance for dissolved oxygen and organic compounds significantly reduced, and the quantity of the microbial cells used as recognition element can be easily adjusted, in comparison with the traditional membrane-type BOD biosensor, in which exists a unadjustable contradiction between the quantity of biomass and the thickness of the bio-membrane, thus limiting the stability and the detection limit. This novel kind of BOD biosensor significantly increased the sensitivity of the response, the detecting precision and prolonged the life time of the recognition element. The experimental data showed that the most appropriate temperature for biochemical reaction in the reactor was 30 degrees C, and the IMC beads could keep the bioactivity for about 70d at the detecting frequency of 8 times every day. The standard deviation of repeatability and the reproducibility of responses were within +/-6.4% and +/-5.0%, respectively, which are within acceptable bias limits, and meet the requirement of BOD rapid measurement.

  14. Use of biosensors for the detection of marine toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartlin, Daniel A; Lochhead, Michael J; Connell, Laurie B; Doucette, Gregory J; O'Kennedy, Richard J

    2016-06-30

    Increasing occurrences of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the ocean are a major concern for countries around the globe, and with strong links between HABs and climate change and eutrophication, the occurrences are only set to increase. Of particular concern with regard to HABs is the presence of toxin-producing algae. Six major marine biotoxin groups are associated with HABs. Ingestion of such toxins via contaminated shellfish, fish, or other potential vectors, can lead to intoxication syndromes with moderate to severe symptoms, including death in extreme cases. There are also major economic implications associated with the diverse effects of marine biotoxins and HABs. Thus, effective monitoring programmes are required to manage and mitigate their detrimental global effect. However, currently legislated detection methods are labour-intensive, expensive and relatively slow. The growing field of biosensor diagnostic devices is an exciting area that has the potential to produce robust, easy-to-use, cost-effective, rapid and accurate detection methods for marine biotoxins and HABs. This review discusses recently developed biosensor assays that target marine biotoxins and their microbial producers, both in harvested fish/shellfish samples and in the open ocean. The effective deployment of such biosensor platforms could address the pressing need for improved monitoring of HABs and marine biotoxins, and could help to reduce their global economic impact. PMID:27365035

  15. A liquid-crystal-based DNA biosensor for pathogen detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mashooq; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Shin, Jae-Ho; Park, Soo-Young

    2016-03-01

    A liquid-crystal (LC)-filled transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid cell coated with the cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), to which a single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid probe (ssDNAprobe) was adsorbed at the LC/aqueous interface (TEMDTAB/DNA), was applied for the highly specific detection of target DNA molecules. The DTAB-coated E7 (used LC mixture) in the TEM grid (TEMDTAB) exhibited a homeotropic orientation, and changed to a planar orientation upon adsorption of the ssDNAprobe. The TEMDTAB/DNA was then exposed to complementary (target) ssDNA, which resulted in a planar-to-homeotropic configurational change of E7 that could be observed through a polarized optical microscope under crossed polarizers. The optimum adsorption density (2 μM) of ssDNAprobe enabled the detection of ≥0.05 nM complementary ssDNA. This TEMDTAB/DNA biosensor could differentiate complementary ssDNA from mismatched ssDNA as well as double-stranded DNA. It also successfully detected the genomic DNAs of the bacterium Erwinia carotovora and the fungi Rhazictonia solani. Owe to the high specificity, sensitivity, and label-free detection, this biosensor may broaden the applications of LC-based biosensors to pathogen detection.

  16. Investigation of thin polymer layers for biosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saftics, András; Agócs, Emil [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences–H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Fodor, Bálint [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences–H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Doctoral School of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság útja 6 (Hungary); Patkó, Dániel; Petrik, Péter [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences–H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Doctoral School of Molecular- and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, H-8200 Egyetem u.10, Veszprém (Hungary); Kolari, Kai; Aalto, Timo [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PL 1000, Tietotie 3, 02044 Espoo (Finland); Fürjes, Péter [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences–H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Horvath, Robert [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences–H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Doctoral School of Molecular- and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, H-8200 Egyetem u.10, Veszprém (Hungary); Kurunczi, Sándor, E-mail: kurunczi.sandor@ttk.mta.hu [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences–H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Doctoral School of Molecular- and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, H-8200 Egyetem u.10, Veszprém (Hungary)

    2013-09-15

    Novel biosensors made of polymers may offer advantages over conventional technology such as possibility of mass production and tunability of the material properties. With the ongoing work on the polymer photonic chip fabrication in our project, simple model samples were tested parallel for future immobilization and accessing conditions for applications in typical aqueous buffers. The model samples consist of a thin, high refractive index polyimide film on top of TEOS on Si wafer. These model samples were measured by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry using different aqueous buffers. The experiments revealed a high drift in aqueous solutions; the drift in the ellipsometric parameters (delta, psi) can be evaluated and presented as changes in thickness and refractive index of the polyimide layer. The first molecular layer of immobilization is based on polyethyleneimine (PEI). The signal for the PEI adsorption was detected on a stable baseline, only after a long conditioning. The stability of polyimide films in aqueous buffer solutions should be improved toward the real biosensor application. Preliminary results are shown on the possibilities to protect the polyimide. Optical Waveguide Lightmode Spectroscopy (OWLS) has been used to demonstrate the shielding effect of the thin TiO{sub 2} adlayer in biosensor applications.

  17. Novel nanoplasmonic biosensor integrated in a microfluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Tinoco, V.; Sepulveda, B.; Lechuga, L. M.

    2015-06-01

    An important motivation of the actual biosensor research is to develop a multiplexed sensing platform of high sensitivity fabricated with large-scale and low-cost technologies for applications such as diagnosis and monitoring of diseases, drug discovery and environmental control. Biosensors based on localized plasmon resonance (LSPR) have demonstrated to be a novel and effective platform for quantitative detection of biological and chemical analytes. Here, we describe a novel label-free nanobiosensor consisting of an array of closely spaced, vertical, elastomeric nanopillars capped with plasmonic gold nanodisks in a SU-8 channel. The principle is based on the refractive index sensing using the LSPR of gold nanodisks. The fabrication of the nanobiosensor is based on replica molding technique and gold nanodisks are incorporated on the polymer structures by e-beam evaporation. In this work, we provide the strategies for controlling the silicon nanostructure replication using thermal polymers and photopolymers with different Young's modulus, in order to minimize the common distortions in the process and to obtain a reliable replica of the Si master. The master mold of the biosensor consists of a hexagonal array of silicon nanopillars, whose diameter is ~200 nm, and whose height can range from 250 nm to 1.300 μm, separated 400 nm from the center to center, integrated in a SU-8 microfluidic channel.

  18. Recent advances in ZnO nanostructures and thin films for biosensor applications: Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanostructures have shown binding of biomolecules in desired orientation with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, their compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes them suitable candidate for future small integrated biosensor devices. This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films, and their applications in biosensor technology. Highlights: ► This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films. ► Article highlights the importance of ZnO nanostructures as biosensor matrix. ► Article highlights the advances in various biosensors based on ZnO nanostructures. ► Article describes the potential of ZnO based biosensor for new generation healthcare devices. - Abstract: Biosensors have shown great potential for health care and environmental monitoring. The performance of biosensors depends on their components, among which the matrix material, i.e., the layer between the recognition layer of biomolecule and transducer, plays a crucial role in defining the stability, sensitivity and shelf-life of a biosensor. Recently, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and thin films have attracted much interest as materials for biosensors due to their biocompatibility, chemical stability, high isoelectric point, electrochemical activity, high electron mobility, ease of synthesis by diverse methods and high surface-to-volume ratio. ZnO nanostructures have shown the binding of biomolecules in desired orientations with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes ZnO nanostructures suitable candidate for future small integrated biosensor devices. This review

  19. Development of an amperometric-based glucose biosensor to measure the glucose content of fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Lee Fung; Por, Lip Yee; Yam, Mun Fei

    2015-01-01

    An amperometric enzyme-electrode was introduced where glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on chitosan membrane via crosslinking, and then fastened on a platinum working electrode. The immobilized enzyme showed relatively high retention activity. The activity of the immobilized enzyme was influenced by its loading, being suppressed when more than 0.6 mg enzyme was used in the immobilization. The biosensor showing the highest response to glucose utilized 0.21 ml/cm2 thick chitosan membrane. The optimum experimental conditions for the biosensors in analysing glucose dissolved in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) were found to be 35°C and 0.6 V applied potential. The introduced biosensor reached a steady-state current at 60 s. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ([Formula: see text]) of the biosensor was 14.2350 mM, and its detection limit was 0.05 mM at s/n > 3, determined experimentally. The RSD of repeatability and reproducibility of the biosensor were 2.30% and 3.70%, respectively. The biosensor was showed good stability; it retained ~36% of initial activity after two months of investigation. The performance of the biosensors was evaluated by determining the glucose content in fruit homogenates. Their accuracy was compared to that of a commercial glucose assay kit. There was no significance different between two methods, indicating the introduced biosensor is reliable. PMID:25789757

  20. Ultrasensitive Impedimetric Biosensor Fabricated by a New Immobilisation Technique for Parathyroid Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Yildiz, Kübra; Çakar, Cansu; Aydin, Tuba; Asav, Engin; Sağiroğlu, Ayten; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a novel ultrasensitive and rapid impedimetric biosensor with new immobilisation materials for parathyroid hormone (PTH) with the aim to determine the PTH level in serum for the diagnosis and monitoring of parathyroid diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, adenoma, and thyroid cancer. The interaction between PTH and the biosensor was investigated with an electrochemical method. The biosensor was based on the gold electrode modified by mercaptohexanol (6-MHL). Anti-parathyroid hormone (anti-PTH) was covalently immobilised onto a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) by using epiclorhidrina (EPI) with ethanolamine (EA). The EPI-EA interaction represents the first use of these for the construction of biosensors in published reports. The immobilisation of the anti-PTH was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. After the optimisation studies of immobilisation materials such as 6-MHL, EPI, EA and glutaraldehyde, linearity, repeatability and sensitivity of biosensor were evaluated as the performance of biosensor. PTH was detected within a linear range of 0.1-0.6 pg/ml, and the detection limit was 0.1 fg/ml. The specificity of the biosensor was also investigated. Finally, the described biosensor was used to detect the PTH levels in artificial serum samples. PMID:25935225

  1. Aptamer optical biosensor without bio-breakage using upconversion nanoparticles as donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Song; X. Kong; X. Liu; Y. Zhang; Q. Zeng; L. Tu; Z. Shi; H. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    LRET-based optical biosensor of an aptamer-upconversion conjugate was constructed. It is demonstrated that photosensitized breakage and damage of aptamers are eliminated by employing UCNPs as donors, and the as-designed biosensor is specific and sensitive in the detection of ATP.

  2. Assessment of goat milk adulteration with a label-free monolithically integrated optoelectronic biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelopoulou, Μichailia; Botsialas, Athanasios; Salapatas, Alexandros; Petrou, Panagiota S.; Haasnoot, Willem; Makarona, Eleni; Jobst, Gerhard; Goustouridis, Dimitrios; Siafaka-Kapadai, Athanasia; Raptis, Ioannis; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Kakabakos, Sotirios E.

    2015-01-01

    The label-free detection of bovine milk in goat milk through a miniaturized optical biosensor is presented. The biosensor consists of ten planar silicon nitride waveguide Broad-Band Mach–Zehnder interferometers (BB-MZIs) monolithically integrated and self-aligned with their respective silicon LED

  3. Biosensor for point-of-care diagnostic and on-site measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a biosensor for detection of a target substance in a sample with impedance spectroscopy, the biosensor comprising 1) a first non-conducting substrate comprising a primary substrate surface; 2) a conducting polymer electrode layer comprising one or more conducting polymers layers...

  4. Design and Development of Biosensors for the Detection of Heavy Metal Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella L. Turdean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds (including heavy metals, HMs used in different fields of industry and/or agriculture act as inhibitors of enzymes, which, as consequence, are unable to bind the substrate. Even if it is not so sensitive, the method for detecting heavy metal traces using biosensors has a dynamic trend and is largely applied for improving the “life quality”, because of biosensor's sensitivity, selectivity, and simplicity. In the last years, they also become more and more a synergetic combination between biotechnology and microelectronics. Dedicated biosensors were developed for offline and online analysis, and also, their extent and diversity could be called a real “biosensor revolution”. A panel of examples of biosensors: enzyme-, DNA-, imuno-, whole-cell-based biosensors were systematised depending on the reaction type, transduction signal, or analytical performances. The mechanism of enzyme-based biosensor and the kinetic of detection process are described and compared. In this context, is explainable why bioelectronics, nanotechnology, miniaturization, and bioengineering will compete for developing sensitive and selective biosensors able to determine multiple analytes simultaneously and/or integrated in wireless communications systems.

  5. GMR-based PhC biosensor: FOM analysis and experimental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamprasad, Jagadeesh; Narayanan, Roshni; Joseph, Joby [Photonics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, 110016 (India); Takahashi, Hiroki; Sandhu, Adarsh [EIIRIS, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi, 441-8580 (Japan); Jindal, Rajeev [Corporate R and D, Moser Baer India Ltd, Greater Noida, 201306 (India)

    2014-02-20

    Guided Mode Resonance based Photonic crystal biosensor has a lot of potential applications. In our work, we are trying to improve their figure of merit values in order to achieve an optimum level through design and fabrication techniques. A robust and low-cost alternative for current biosensors is also explored through this research.

  6. Variation of Cholinesterase-Based Biosensor Sensitivity to Inhibition by Organophosphate Due To Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Pohanka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A cholinesterase based biosensor was constructed in order to assess the effects of ionizing radiation on exposed AChE. Although the primary objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of the biosensor, no changes in cholinesterase activity were observed. Current provided by oxidation of thiocholine previously created from acetylthiocholine by enzyme catalyzed reaction was in a range 395–455 nA. No significant influence of radiation on AChE activity was found, despite the current variation. However, a surprising phenomenon was observed when a model organophosphate paraoxon was assayed. Irradiated biosensors seem to be more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of paraoxon. Control biosensors provided a 94 ± 5 nA current after exposure to 1 ppm paraoxon. The biosensors irradiated by a 5 kGy radiation dose and exposed to paraoxon provided a current of 49 ± 6 nA. Irradiation by doses ranging from 5 mGy to 100 kGy were investigated and the mentioned effect was confirmed at doses above 50 Gy. After the first promising experiments, biosensors irradiated by 5 kGy were used for calibration on paraoxon and compared with the control biosensors. Limits of detection 2.5 and 3.8 ppb were achieved for irradiated and non-irradiated biosensors respectively. The overall impact of this effect is discussed.

  7. Detection of ochratoxin A in beer samples with a label-free monolithically integrated optoelectronic biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagkali, Varvara; Petrou, Panagiota S.; Salapatas, Alexandros; Makarona, Eleni; Peters, Jeroen; Haasnoot, Willem; Jobst, Gerhard; Economou, Anastasios; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Kakabakos, Sotirios E.

    2016-01-01

    An optical biosensor for label-free detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer samples is presented. The biosensor consists of an array of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) monolithically integrated along with their respective broad-band silicon light sources on the same Si chip (37mm2

  8. Direct biosensor immunoassays for the detection of nonmilk proteins in milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Olieman, K.; Cazemier, G.; Verheijen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The low prices of some nonmilk proteins make them attractive as potential adulterants in dairy products. An optical biosensor (BIACORE 3000) was used to develop a direct and combined biosensor immunoassay (BIA) for the simultaneous detection of soy, pea, and soluble wheat proteins in milk powders. A

  9. Effect of Diffusion Limitations on Multianalyte Determination from Biased Biosensor Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romas Baronas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The optimization-based quantitative determination of multianalyte concentrations from biased biosensor responses is investigated under internal and external diffusion-limited conditions. A computational model of a biocatalytic amperometric biosensor utilizing a mono-enzyme-catalyzed (nonspecific competitive conversion of two substrates was used to generate pseudo-experimental responses to mixtures of compounds. The influence of possible perturbations of the biosensor signal, due to a white noise- and temperature-induced trend, on the precision of the concentration determination has been investigated for different configurations of the biosensor operation. The optimization method was found to be suitable and accurate enough for the quantitative determination of the concentrations of the compounds from a given biosensor transient response. The computational experiments showed a complex dependence of the precision of the concentration estimation on the relative thickness of the outer diffusion layer, as well as on whether the biosensor operates under diffusion- or kinetics-limited conditions. When the biosensor response is affected by the induced exponential trend, the duration of the biosensor action can be optimized for increasing the accuracy of the quantitative analysis.

  10. Size-selective analyte detection in an integrated optical Young interferometer biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Harmen Klaas Peter

    2016-01-01

    Integrated optical interferometric (IOI) biosensors are extremely sensitive label-free biosensors. The applicability of these sensors is however strongly hampered by the large background that originates from both bulk refractive index changes and non-specific binding of molecules to the sensor surfa

  11. Development of an amperometric-based glucose biosensor to measure the glucose content of fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Fung Ang

    Full Text Available An amperometric enzyme-electrode was introduced where glucose oxidase (GOD was immobilized on chitosan membrane via crosslinking, and then fastened on a platinum working electrode. The immobilized enzyme showed relatively high retention activity. The activity of the immobilized enzyme was influenced by its loading, being suppressed when more than 0.6 mg enzyme was used in the immobilization. The biosensor showing the highest response to glucose utilized 0.21 ml/cm2 thick chitosan membrane. The optimum experimental conditions for the biosensors in analysing glucose dissolved in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.0 were found to be 35°C and 0.6 V applied potential. The introduced biosensor reached a steady-state current at 60 s. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ([Formula: see text] of the biosensor was 14.2350 mM, and its detection limit was 0.05 mM at s/n > 3, determined experimentally. The RSD of repeatability and reproducibility of the biosensor were 2.30% and 3.70%, respectively. The biosensor was showed good stability; it retained ~36% of initial activity after two months of investigation. The performance of the biosensors was evaluated by determining the glucose content in fruit homogenates. Their accuracy was compared to that of a commercial glucose assay kit. There was no significance different between two methods, indicating the introduced biosensor is reliable.

  12. Single biosensor immunoassay for the detection of five aminoglycosides in reconstituted skimmed milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, W.; Cazemier, G.; Koets, M.; Amerongen, van A.

    2003-01-01

    The application of an optical biosensor (Biacore 3000), with four flow channels (Fcs), in combination with a mixture of four specific antibodies resulted in a competitive inhibition biosensor immunoassay (BIA) for the simultaneous detection of the five relevant aminoglycosides in reconstituted skimm

  13. Non-steady response of BOD biosensor for the determination of biochemical oxygen demand in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velling, Siiri; Mashirin, Alexey; Hellat, Karin; Tenno, Toomas

    2011-01-01

    A biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biosensor for effective and expeditious BOD(7) estimations was constructed and the non-steady phase of the output signal was extensively studied. The modelling approach introduced allows response curve reconstruction and a curve fitting procedure of good quality, resulting in parameters indicating the relationship between response and organic substrate concentration and stability properties of the BOD biosensor. Also, the immobilization matrixes of different thicknesses were characterized to determine their suitability for bio-sensing measurements in non-stationary conditions, as well as for the determination of the mechanical durability of the BOD biosensor in time. The non-steady response of the experimental output of the BOD biosensor was fitted according to the developed model that enables to determine the stability of the biosensor output and dependency on biodegradable organic substrate concentration. The calibration range of the studied BOD biosensor in OECD synthetic wastewater was 15-110 mg O(2) L(-1). Repeatability tests showed relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 2.8% and 5.8% for the parameter τ(d), characterizing the transient output of the amperometric oxygen sensor in time, and τ(s), describing the dependency of the transient response of the BOD biosensor on organic substrate concentration, respectively. BOD biosensor experiments for the evaluation of the biochemical oxygen demand of easily degradable and refractory municipal wastewater showed good concurrence with traditional BOD(7) analysis.

  14. The Quantitative Overhead Analysis for Effective Task Migration in Biosensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a quantitative overhead analysis for effective task migration in biosensor networks. A biosensor network is the key technology which can automatically provide accurate and specific parameters of a human in real time. Biosensor nodes are typically very small devices, so the use of computing resources is restricted. Due to the limitation of nodes, the biosensor network is vulnerable to an external attack against a system for exhausting system availability. Since biosensor nodes generally deal with sensitive and privacy data, their malfunction can bring unexpected damage to system. Therefore, we have to use a task migration process to avoid the malfunction of particular biosensor nodes. Also, it is essential to accurately analyze overhead to apply a proper migration process. In this paper, we calculated task processing time of nodes to analyze system overhead and compared the task processing time applied to a migration process and a general method. We focused on a cluster ratio and different processing time between biosensor nodes in our simulation environment. The results of performance evaluation show that task execution time is greatly influenced by a cluster ratio and different processing time of biosensor nodes. In the results, the proposed algorithm reduces total task execution time in a migration process.

  15. Computational Modeling of Mediator Oxidation by Oxygen in an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Šimelevičius

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an amperometric glucose biosensor is modeled numerically. The model is based on non-stationary reaction-diffusion type equations. The model consists of four layers. An enzyme layer lies directly on a working electrode surface. The enzyme layer is attached to an electrode by a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA coated terylene membrane. This membrane is modeled as a PVA layer and a terylene layer, which have different diffusivities. The fourth layer of the model is the diffusion layer, which is modeled using the Nernst approach. The system of partial differential equations is solved numerically using the finite difference technique. The operation of the biosensor was analyzed computationally with special emphasis on the biosensor response sensitivity to oxygen when the experiment was carried out in aerobic conditions. Particularly, numerical experiments show that the overall biosensor response sensitivity to oxygen is insignificant. The simulation results qualitatively explain and confirm the experimentally observed biosensor behavior.

  16. Computational modeling of mediator oxidation by oxygen in an amperometric glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simelevičius, Dainius; Petrauskas, Karolis; Baronas, Romas; Razumienė, Julija

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an amperometric glucose biosensor is modeled numerically. The model is based on non-stationary reaction-diffusion type equations. The model consists of four layers. An enzyme layer lies directly on a working electrode surface. The enzyme layer is attached to an electrode by a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated terylene membrane. This membrane is modeled as a PVA layer and a terylene layer, which have different diffusivities. The fourth layer of the model is the diffusion layer, which is modeled using the Nernst approach. The system of partial differential equations is solved numerically using the finite difference technique. The operation of the biosensor was analyzed computationally with special emphasis on the biosensor response sensitivity to oxygen when the experiment was carried out in aerobic conditions. Particularly, numerical experiments show that the overall biosensor response sensitivity to oxygen is insignificant. The simulation results qualitatively explain and confirm the experimentally observed biosensor behavior. PMID:24514882

  17. Nanomolar detection of methylparaben by a cost-effective hemoglobin-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, A; Ghodsi, J; Afraz, A; Yurchenko, O; Urban, G

    2016-12-01

    This work describes the development of a new biosensor for methylparaben determination using electrocatalytic properties of hemoglobin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The voltammetric oxidation of methylparaben by the proposed biosensor in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0), a physiological pH, was studied and it was confirmed that methylparaben undergoes a one electron-one proton reaction in a diffusion-controlled process. The biosensor was fabricated by carbon paste electrode modified with hemoglobin and multiwalled carbon nanotube. Based on the excellent electrochemical properties of the modified electrode, a sensitive voltammetric method was used for determination of methylparaben within a linear range from 0.1 to 13μmolL(-1) and detection limit of 25nmolL(-1). The developed biosensor possessed accurate and rapid response to methylparaben and showed good sensitivity, stability, and repeatability. Finally, the applicability of the proposed biosensor was verified by methylparaben evaluation in various real samples. PMID:27612696

  18. A study of the electron transfer and photothermal effect of gold nanorods on a glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new glucose biosensor based on the electron transfer and photothermal effect of gold nanorods (GNRs) is reported here. The biosensor was prepared by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) on a platinum (Pt) electrode by a composite film consisting of GNRs, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and glutaraldehyde. GNRs were synthesized by a gold seed-mediated cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant-assisted approach. The fabrication, characterization and analytical performance of the glucose biosensor based on GNRs are described in this paper. Moreover, the modulation of the biosensor by the photothermal effect based on the unique surface plasma resonance (SPR) property of GNRs was investigated for the first time. The results show that the current response of a glucose biosensor can significantly increase, induced by the electrical conductivity and photothermal effect of GNRs.

  19. A study of the electron transfer and photothermal effect of gold nanorods on a glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Huiyu; Yang Liuqing; Ren Xiangling; Tang Fangqiong; Ren Jun [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen Dong, E-mail: tangfq@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Beijing Creative Nanophase Hi-Tech Company, Limited, Beijing 100086 (China)

    2010-05-07

    A new glucose biosensor based on the electron transfer and photothermal effect of gold nanorods (GNRs) is reported here. The biosensor was prepared by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) on a platinum (Pt) electrode by a composite film consisting of GNRs, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and glutaraldehyde. GNRs were synthesized by a gold seed-mediated cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant-assisted approach. The fabrication, characterization and analytical performance of the glucose biosensor based on GNRs are described in this paper. Moreover, the modulation of the biosensor by the photothermal effect based on the unique surface plasma resonance (SPR) property of GNRs was investigated for the first time. The results show that the current response of a glucose biosensor can significantly increase, induced by the electrical conductivity and photothermal effect of GNRs.

  20. Sensitive impedimetric biosensor for direct detection of diazinon based on lipases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Zehani, Nedjla; Dzyadevych, Sergei; Kherrat, Rochdi

    2014-07-01

    Two novel impedimetric biosensors for highly sensitive and rapid quantitative detection of diazinon in an aqueous medium were developed using two types of lipase, from Candida Rugosa (microbial source) (CRL) and from porcine pancreas (animal source) (PPL) immobilized onto a functionalized gold electrode. The lipase is characterized to specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of ester functions leading to the transformation of diazinon into diethyl phosphorothioic acid (DETP) and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMHP). The developed biosensors both presented a large wide range of linearity up to 50µM with a detection limit of 10 nM for the CRL biosensor and 0.1 µM for the PPL biosensor. A comparative study was carried out between the two biosensors and results showed higher sensitivity for the CRL sensor. Moreover, it presented good accuracy and reproducibility, and had very good storage and multiple use stability for 25 days when stored at 4°C.

  1. The Influence of the Enzyme Membrane Thickness on the Response of Amperometric Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Kulys

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of amperometric biosensors has been developed. The model is based on non-stationary diffusion equations containing a non-linear term related to Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reaction. Using digital simulation, the influence of the thickness of enzyme membrane on the biosensor response was investigated. The digital simulation of the biosensor operation showed the non-monotonous change of the maximal biosensor current versus the membrane thickness at the various maximal enzymatic rates. Digital simulation was carried out using the finite difference technique. Results of the numerical simulation was compared with known analytical solutions. This paper presents a framework for selection of the membrane thickness, ensuring the sufficiently stable sensitivity of a biosensor in a required range of the maximal enzymatic rate.

  2. Recent Progress of Commercially Available Biosensors in China and Their Applications in Fermentation Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yan; Feng Dong; Bi Chun-yuan; Zhu Si-rong; Shi Jian-guo

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors, which are the products of the biotechnology industry, are among the key projects of the 7th, 8th, and 9th Five-year Plans of China Science & Technology Developing Programs, respectively, and they play an important role in developing and reforming traditional biotechnology. SBA series biosensor analyzer, as the only one commercial biosensor in China, has attracted lots of attention in the process of information gathering and measurement for biological industry with the development of technology and society. In this paper, we presented an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the monitoring of the biochemical analytes in fermentation processes using SBA series biosensor analyzers in China. Future trends of the biosensor analyzer in China were also mentioned in the last section.

  3. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-01

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed. PMID:27119268

  4. Linking biosensor responses to Cd, Cu and Zn partitioning in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soils bind heavy metals according to fundamental physico-chemical parameters. Bioassays, using bacterial biosensors, were performed in pore waters extracted from 19 contrasting soils individually amended with Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations related to the EU Sewage Sludge Directive. The biosensors were responsive to pore waters extracted from Zn amended soils but less so to those of Cu and showed no toxicity to pore water Cd at these environmentally relevant amended concentrations. Across the range of soils, the solid-solution heavy metal partitioning coefficient (K d) decreased (p d values. Gompertz functions of Cu and Zn, K d values against luminescence explained the relationship between heavy metals and biosensors. Consequently, biosensors provide a link between biologically defined hazard assessments of metals and standard soil-metal physico-chemical parameters for determining critical metal loadings in soils. - Biosensors link biological hazard assessments of metals in soils with physico-chemical partitioning

  5. Amperometric biosensor system for simultaneous determination of adenosine-5'-triphosphate and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, Ivan S; Didukh, Daria Yu; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O; Soldatkin, Alexei P

    2014-06-01

    The majority of biosensors for adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) determination are based on cascades of enzymatic reactions; therefore, they are sensitive to glucose or glycerol (depending on the enzymatic system) as well as to ATP. The presence of unknown concentrations of these substances in the sample greatly complicates the determination of ATP. To overcome this disadvantage of known biosensors, we developed a biosensor system consisting of two biosensors: the first one is based on glucose oxidase and is intended for measuring glucose concentration, and the second one is based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase and is sensitive toward both glucose and ATP. Using glucose concentration measured by the first biosensor, we can analyze the total response to glucose and ATP obtained by the second biosensor. Platinum disc electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. The polyphenilenediamine membrane was deposited onto the surface of platinum electrodes to avoid the response to electroactive substances. The effect of glucose concentration on biosensor determination of ATP was studied. The reproducibility of biosensor responses to glucose and ATP during a day was tested (relative standard deviation, RSD, of responses to glucose was 3-6% and to ATP was 8-12%) as well as storage stability of the biosensors (no decrease of glucose responses and 43% drop of ATP responses during 50 days). The measurements of ATP and glucose in pharmaceutical vials (including mixtures of ATP and glucose) were carried out. It was shown that the developed biosensor system can be used for simultaneous analysis of glucose and ATP concentrations in water solutions. PMID:24810180

  6. Flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors based on graphene/Nafion hybrid electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Amperometric biosensors based on graphene hybrids showed the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses in the flow injection system for automatically monitoring glucose. Display Omitted Highlights: → Flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors were fabricated using reduced graphene oxide/Nafion hybrids. → The electrochemical kinetics of biosensors were comprehensively investigated by analysing electron transfer rate, charge transfer resistance, and ion diffusion coefficient, respectively. → The biosensors exhibited the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses in the flow injection system for detecting glucose. - Abstract: In this research, we demonstrated the fabrication of flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors based on RGO/Nafion hybrids. The nanohybridization of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by Nafion provided the fast electron transfer (ET) for the sensitive amperometric biosensor platforms. The ET rate (ks) and the charge transfer resistance (RCT) of GOx-RGO/Nafion hybrids were evaluated to verify the accelerated ET. Moreover, hybrid biosensors revealed a quasi-reversible and surface controlled process, as confirmed by the low peak-to-peak (ΔEp) and linear relations between Ip and scan rate (ν). Hybrid biosensors showed the fast response time of ∼3 s, the sensitivity of 3.8 μA mM-1 cm-2, the limit of detection of 170 μM, and the linear detection range of 2-20 mM for the flow-injection amperometric detection of glucose. Furthermore, interference effect of oxidizable species such as ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) on the performance of hybrid biosensors was prevented at the operating potential of -0.20 V even under the flow injection mode. Therefore, the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses of hybrid biosensors in the flow injection system make it highly suitable for automatically monitoring glucose.

  7. Comparative study of thermal stability of magnetostrictive biosensor between two kinds of biorecognition elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetostrictive biosensors specific to Salmonella typhimurium were prepared by immobilizing antibody or phage as biorecognition elements onto the magnetostrictive sensor platform. The sensors were stored at temperatures of 25 °C (room temperature), 45 °C and 65 °C, respectively, and the ability to bind S. typhimurium was detected by testing the resonant frequency shift using a HP network analyzer after exposure to 1 mL of 1 × 109 cfu/mL of S. typhimurium at a predetermined schedule. The binding of S. typhimurium to biosensors was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results showed that there existed an initial sudden drop in the average density of S. typhimurium bound to the biosensor surface versus duration at different temperatures for the two kinds of recognition elements, and the binding ability to S. typhimurium of phage-immobilized biosensors was much better than that of antibody-immobilized biosensors, with longevity longer than 30 days at all tested temperatures, though decreasing gradually over the testing period. While the longevity of antibody-immobilized biosensors was only about 30, 8 and 5 days at room temperature (25 °C), 45 °C and 65 °C, respectively. Meanwhile, the activation energy of the two kinds of biosensors was investigated, and it was found that phage immobilized sensors showed much higher activation energy than antibody immobilized sensors, which resulted in less dependency on temperature and thus having much better thermal stability than antibody immobilized sensors. - Highlights: • Phage immobilized biosensors has much better thermal stability. • The longevity of phage immobilized biosensors was longer than 30 days even at 65 °C. • The activation energy of phage immobilized biosensors is much higher

  8. Comparative study of thermal stability of magnetostrictive biosensor between two kinds of biorecognition elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Xue-mei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Guntupalli, R.; Lakshmanan, R.S.; Chin, Bryan A. [Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Hu, Jing, E-mail: jinghoo@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Magnetostrictive biosensors specific to Salmonella typhimurium were prepared by immobilizing antibody or phage as biorecognition elements onto the magnetostrictive sensor platform. The sensors were stored at temperatures of 25 °C (room temperature), 45 °C and 65 °C, respectively, and the ability to bind S. typhimurium was detected by testing the resonant frequency shift using a HP network analyzer after exposure to 1 mL of 1 × 10{sup 9} cfu/mL of S. typhimurium at a predetermined schedule. The binding of S. typhimurium to biosensors was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results showed that there existed an initial sudden drop in the average density of S. typhimurium bound to the biosensor surface versus duration at different temperatures for the two kinds of recognition elements, and the binding ability to S. typhimurium of phage-immobilized biosensors was much better than that of antibody-immobilized biosensors, with longevity longer than 30 days at all tested temperatures, though decreasing gradually over the testing period. While the longevity of antibody-immobilized biosensors was only about 30, 8 and 5 days at room temperature (25 °C), 45 °C and 65 °C, respectively. Meanwhile, the activation energy of the two kinds of biosensors was investigated, and it was found that phage immobilized sensors showed much higher activation energy than antibody immobilized sensors, which resulted in less dependency on temperature and thus having much better thermal stability than antibody immobilized sensors. - Highlights: • Phage immobilized biosensors has much better thermal stability. • The longevity of phage immobilized biosensors was longer than 30 days even at 65 °C. • The activation energy of phage immobilized biosensors is much higher.

  9. Flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors based on graphene/Nafion hybrid electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bong Gill, E-mail: k1811@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 Program), KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jinkyu, E-mail: JINQ@paran.com [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegidong, Dongdamoongu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoon Sik, E-mail: khs2004@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoegidong, Dongdamoongu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, HoSeok, E-mail: phs0727@khu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seochon-dong, Giheung-gu, Youngin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: Amperometric biosensors based on graphene hybrids showed the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses in the flow injection system for automatically monitoring glucose. Display Omitted Highlights: > Flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors were fabricated using reduced graphene oxide/Nafion hybrids. > The electrochemical kinetics of biosensors were comprehensively investigated by analysing electron transfer rate, charge transfer resistance, and ion diffusion coefficient, respectively. > The biosensors exhibited the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses in the flow injection system for detecting glucose. - Abstract: In this research, we demonstrated the fabrication of flow-injection amperometric glucose biosensors based on RGO/Nafion hybrids. The nanohybridization of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by Nafion provided the fast electron transfer (ET) for the sensitive amperometric biosensor platforms. The ET rate (k{sub s}) and the charge transfer resistance (R{sub CT}) of GOx-RGO/Nafion hybrids were evaluated to verify the accelerated ET. Moreover, hybrid biosensors revealed a quasi-reversible and surface controlled process, as confirmed by the low peak-to-peak ({Delta}E{sub p}) and linear relations between I{sub p} and scan rate ({nu}). Hybrid biosensors showed the fast response time of {approx}3 s, the sensitivity of 3.8 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, the limit of detection of 170 {mu}M, and the linear detection range of 2-20 mM for the flow-injection amperometric detection of glucose. Furthermore, interference effect of oxidizable species such as ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) on the performance of hybrid biosensors was prevented at the operating potential of -0.20 V even under the flow injection mode. Therefore, the fast, sensitive, and stable amperometric responses of hybrid biosensors in the flow injection system make it highly suitable for automatically monitoring glucose.

  10. Performance of a Cyanobacteria Whole Cell-Based Fluorescence Biosensor for Heavy Metal and Pesticide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmijah Surif

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Whole cell biosensors always face the challenge of low stability of biological components and short storage life. This paper reports the effects of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA immobilization on a whole cell fluorescence biosensor for the detection of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, and pesticides (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, and chlorpyrifos. The biosensor was produced by entrapping the cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa on a cellulose membrane, followed by applying a layer of pHEMA, and attaching it to a well. The well was then fixed to an optical probe which was connected to a fluorescence spectrophotometer and an electronic reader. The optimization of the biosensor using several factors such as amount of HEMA and drying temperature were undertaken. The detection limits of biosensor without pHEMA for Cu, Cd, Pb, 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos were 1.195, 0.027, 0.0100, 0.025 and 0.025 µg/L respectively. The presence of pHEMA increased the limits of detection to 1.410, 0.250, 0.500, 0.235 and 0.117 µg/L respectively. pHEMA is known to enhance the reproducibility of the biosensor with average relative standard deviation (RSD of ±1.76% for all the pollutants tested, 48% better than the biosensor without pHEMA (RSD = ±3.73%. In storability test with Cu 5 µg/L, the biosensor with pHEMA performed 11.5% better than the test without pHEMA on day-10 and 5.2% better on day-25. pHEMA is therefore a good candidate to be used in whole cell biosensors as it increases reproducibility and enhances biosensor storability.

  11. Preparation and electrochemical application of a new biosensor based on plant tissue/polypyrrole for determination of acetaminophen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gholamhossein Rounaghi; Roya Mohammadzadeh Kakhki

    2012-10-01

    Banana tissue containing polyphenol oxidase was incorporated into polypyrrole matrix to make a biosensor for the analysis of acetaminophen (ACT). The electrocatalytic behaviour of oxidized acetaminophen was studied at the surface of the biosensor, using various electrochemical methods. The advantages of this biosensor for the determination of acetaminophen are excellent catalytic activity, good detection limit and high exchange current density. The electrochemical and structural properties of the electrode were assessed using cyclic voltammetry, differential voltammetry, chronoamperometric techniques. The analytical properties (sensitivity, p) of this biosensor increased with plant tissue loading. Also this new biosensor was successfully applied for determination of acetaminophen in biologic samples.

  12. Integration of Fractal Biosensor in a Digital Microfluidic Platform

    KAUST Repository

    Mashraei, Yousof

    2016-06-08

    The digital microfluidic (DMF) platform introduces many applications in biomedical assays. If it is to be commercially available to the public, it needs to have the essential features of smart sensing and a compact size. In this work, we report on a fractal electrode biosensor that is used for both droplet actuation and sensing C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration levels to assess cardiac disease risk. Our proposed electrode is the first two-terminal electrode design to be integrated into DMF platforms. A simulation of the electrical field distribution shows reduced peak intensities and uniform distribution of the field. When compared to a V-notch square electrode, the fractal electrode shows a superior performance in both aspects, i.e. field uniformity and intensity. These improvements are translated into a successful and responsive actuation of a water droplet with 100V. Likewise, the effective dielectric strength is improved by a 33% increase in the fractal electrode breakdown voltage. Additionally, the capability of the fractal electrode to work as a capacitive biosensor is evaluated with CRP quantification test. Selected fractal electrodes undergo a surface treatment to immobilize anti-CRP antibodies on their surface. The measurement shows a response to the added CRP in capacitance within three minutes. When the untreated electrodes were used for quantification, there was no significant change in capacitance, and this suggested that immobilization was necessary. The electrodes configuration in the fabricated DMF platform allows the fractal electrodes to be selectively used as biosensors, which means the device could be integrated into point-of-care applications.

  13. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhigang; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis [Brunel Institute for Bioengineering, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Song, Wenhui [Wolfson Centre for Materials Processing, Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Li Yali; Zhong Xiaohua, E-mail: wenhui.song@brunel.ac.uk [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Nankai District, Tianjin 300073 (China)

    2010-04-23

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 {mu}m in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 deg. C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 {mu}M. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor.

  14. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Song, Wenhui; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis; Li, Ya-Li; Zhong, Xiao-Hua

    2010-04-23

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 microm in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 degrees C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 microM. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor. PMID:20348597

  15. Comparative study of semi-specific Aeromonas hydrophila and universal Pseudomonas fluorescens biosensors for BOD measurements in meat industry wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raud, Merlin; Tenno, Toomas; Jõgi, Eerik; Kikas, Timo

    2012-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila P69.1 (A. hydrophila) was used to construct a semi-specific biosensor to estimate biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in high fat and grease content wastewaters. A. hydrophila cells were grown in fat containing medium to induce necessary enzymes for transport and degradation of fatty substances. Universal biosensor based on non-specific Pseudomonas fluorescens P75 (P. fluorescens) was used to conduct comparison experiments. Biosensors were calibrated using OECD synthetic wastewater and steady-state method, subsequently several experiments with synthetic and industrial wastewaters were conducted. A linear range up to 45 mg l(-1) BOD(7) was gained using A. hydrophila biosensor, in comparison to 40 mg l(-1) BOD(7) obtained using P. fluorescens biosensors. The lower limit of detection was 5 mg l(-1) BOD(7). Service life of A. hydrophila and P. fluorescens biosensors were 110 and 115 days, respectively. The response time of the biosensors depended on the BOD(7) of measuring solution and was up to 20 min when analyzing different wastewaters. Both biosensors underestimated BOD in meat industry wastewater from 43% up to 71%, but more accurate results could be obtained with A. hydrophila biosensor. Semi-specific A. hydrophila biosensor was able to measure proportion of fat found in wastewater sample, while other refractory compounds remained undetectable to both biosensors.

  16. Sensing of Salivary Glucose Using Nano-Structured Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqing Du; Wenjun Zhang; Wang, Ming L.

    2016-01-01

    The anxiety and pain associated with frequent finger pricking has always been troublesome for diabetics measuring blood glucose (BG) in their daily lives. For this reason, a reliable glucose monitoring system that allows noninvasive measurements is highly desirable. Our main objective is to develop a biosensor that can detect low-level glucose in saliva (physiological range 0.5–20 mg/dL). Salivary glucose (SG) sensors were built using a layer-by-layer self-assembly of single-walled carbon nan...

  17. Amperometric biosensors for determination of glucose, maltose, and sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawicki, Ignacy; Filipiak, Marian; Jarzyna, Marta; Laskowska, Janina

    1995-06-01

    In the presented paper there are reported some results of the author's research on membranes containing glucose oxidase (GOx), enzymes hydrolyzing maltose and sucrose and on biosensors equipped with these membranes. The results relate to ways of extending the linear range of glucose sensors, influence of composition of the membranes on levels of the output signals of maltose and sucrose (saccharose) sensors, temperature dependence of the sensor's response and on disturbing effects of glucose in the sample on accuracy of determination of the disaccharides.

  18. An Effective Amperometric Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoelectrode Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Yingchun; Zeng Yi; Xu Fangfang; Liu Yanyan

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A sensitive amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoelectrode array (NEA) was investigated. The gold nanoelectrode array was fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition on general electrodes, which shows an ordered well-defined 3D structure of nanowires. The sensitivity of the gold NEA to hydrogen peroxide is 37 times higher than that of the conventional electrode. The linear range of the platinum NEA toward H2O2is from 1 × 10−6to 1 × 10−2 M, covering fou...

  19. Integration of fractal biosensor in a digital microfluidic platform

    KAUST Repository

    Mashraei, Yousof

    2015-11-01

    Fractal capacitive electrodes have been successfully integrated into a digital microfluidic open-platform. These electrodes perform actuation and withstand voltages up to 300V without insulation-layer breakdown. They were used to quantify the concentration levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) to determine the risk of cardiovascular disease. The capacitance increased sevenfold and stabilized in less than 5 minutes. The sensor shows a decreasing trend of capacitance readouts with the increase of concentrations. The same immunoassay was tested with untreated electrodes and showed no significant response, which suggests that immobilization was necessary. This configuration allows the electrodes to be used as biosensors.

  20. Superlens Biosensor with Photonic Crystals in Negative Refraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Dorrani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We have presented the study on one structure fabricated with photonic crystals for use as biosensors with superlensing property in dimensions of nano and micro with negative refractive index. In a special frequency, this type of photonic crystal acts as Left-Handed Metamaterial (LHM. It is shown that by a suitable choice of design parameters, such as, dimensions of bars, it is possible to reach sensing property by this structure in two-dimensional triangular photonic crystals. The structure investigated in three size and results shows the slab of photonic crystals prosperous process that, with sensing applications can has imaging applications.

  1. Responsive Hydrogels for Label-Free Signal Transduction within Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Gawel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have found wide application in biosensors due to their versatile nature. This family of materials is applied in biosensing either to increase the loading capacity compared to two-dimensional surfaces, or to support biospecific hydrogel swelling occurring subsequent to specific recognition of an analyte. This review focuses on various principles underpinning the design of biospecific hydrogels acting through various molecular mechanisms in transducing the recognition event of label-free analytes. Towards this end, we describe several promising hydrogel systems that when combined with the appropriate readout platform and quantitative approach could lead to future real-life applications.

  2. An Optical Biosensor for Bacillus Cereus Spore Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengquan; Tom, Harry W. K.

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate a new transduction scheme for optical biosensing. Bacillus cereus is a pathogen that may be found in food and dairy products and is able to produce toxins and cause food poisoning. It is related to Bacillus anthracis (anthrax). A CCD array covered with micro-structured glass coverslip is used to detect the optical resonant shift due to the binding of the antigen (bacillus cereus spore) to the antibody (polyclonal antibody). This novel optical biosensor scheme has the potential for detecting 10˜100 bioagents in a single device as well as the potential to test for antigens with multiple antibody tests to avoid ``false positives.''

  3. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dietler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.

  4. Characterizing Metabolic Inhibition Using Electrochemical Enzyme-DNA Biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Dominic O.; Bajrami, Besnik; Jansson, Ingela; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of metabolic enzyme inhibition are necessary in drug development and toxicity investigations as potential tools to limit or prevent appearance of deleterious metabolites formed, for example by cytochrome (cyt) P450 enzymes. In this paper, we evaluate the use of enzyme/DNA toxicity biosensors as tools to investigate enzyme inhibition. We have examined DNA damage due to cyt P450cam metabolism of styrene using DNA/enzyme films on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electro*des monitored via Ru(bpy)3...

  5. Gold nanoparticles embedded silicon channel biosensor for improved sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H. Y.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; M. Nuzaihan M., N.; Fathil, M. F. M.; Hashim, U.

    2016-07-01

    This project discusses the fabrication steps of a biosensor device on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. Conventional photolithography technique is used to fabricate the device. The gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are then used to enhance the sensitivity of the device. By incorporating the GNPs, it is expected to get higher current compared with the device without GNPs due to better conductivity of gold and higher volume-to-ratio. Hence, with the addition of GNPs, it may boost up the signal and enhance the sensitivity of the device.

  6. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Liu; Qiang Liu; Shimeng Chen; Fang Cheng; Hanqi Wang; Wei Peng

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone’s LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the ph...

  7. Principles and Applications of Flow Injection Analysis in Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    the flow injection (FI) approach. The capacity of FI, as offering itself as a complementary facility to augment the performance of biosensors, and in many cases as an attractive alternative, is demonstrated by reference to selected examples, comprising assays based on enzymatic procedures with optical...... and thermal detection procedures, and via description of a recently introduced technique for immunoassays, termed flow injection renewable surface immunoassays (FIRSI), which promises to entail powerful potentials and to yield compatible or better economy of operation than existing approaches....

  8. A gas-phase biosensor for environmental monitoring of formic acid: laboratory and field validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, K J Mattias; Sunesson, Anna-Lena; Levin, Ja-Olof; Turner, Anthony P F

    2003-06-01

    In order to encourage more exposure measurements to be performed, a formic acid gas-phase biosensor has been developed for this purpose. In the present paper, an enzyme based biosensor has been validated with respect to analyte selectivity and on-site use. To ensure that the sampler developed measures the compound of interest the biosensor was exposed to three near structural homologues to formic acid, i.e. acetic acid, methanol and formaldehyde. These vapours were generated with and without formic acid and the only compound that was found to have an effect on the performance of the biosensor, albeit a small one, was acetic acid. The field test was performed in a factory using formic acid-containing glue for glulam products. In parallel to the measurements with the biosensor a well defined reference method was used for sampling and analysing formic acid. It was found that the biosensor worked satisfactorily in this environment when used in a stationary position. It was also shown that the biosensor could determine formic acid vapour concentrations down to 0.03 mg m(-3). PMID:12833992

  9. Optical biosensors for food quality and safety assurance-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Sharma, Rajiv; Kumar, Ramesh

    2012-08-01

    Food quality and safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. Food serves as a growth medium for microorganisms that can be pathogenic or cause food spoilage. Therefore, it is imperative to have stringent laws and standards for the preparation, packaging and transportation of food. The conventional methods for detection of food contamination based on culturing, colony counting, chromatography and immunoassay are tedious and time consuming while biosensors have overcome some of these disadvantages. There is growing interest in biosensors due to high specificity, convenience and quick response. Optical biosensors show greater potential for the detection of pathogens, pesticide and drug residues, hygiene monitoring, heavy metals and other toxic substances in the food to check whether it is safe for consumption or not. This review focuses on optical biosensors, the recent developments in the associated instrumentation with emphasis on fiber optic and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensors for detecting a range of analytes in food samples, the major advantages and challenges associated with optical biosensors. It also briefly covers the different methods employed for the immobilization of bio-molecules used in developing biosensors. PMID:23904648

  10. A comparative study of enzyme immobilization strategies for multi-walled carbon nanotube glucose biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work addresses the comparison of different strategies for improving biosensor performance using nanomaterials. Glucose biosensors based on commonly applied enzyme immobilization approaches, including sol-gel encapsulation approaches and glutaraldehyde cross-linking strategies, were studied in the presence and absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Although direct comparison of design parameters such as linear range and sensitivity is intuitive, this comparison alone is not an accurate indicator of biosensor efficacy, due to the wide range of electrodes and nanomaterials available for use in current biosensor designs. We proposed a comparative protocol which considers both the active area available for transduction following nanomaterial deposition and the sensitivity. Based on the protocol, when no nanomaterials were involved, TEOS/GOx biosensors exhibited the highest efficacy, followed by BSA/GA/GOx and TMOS/GOx biosensors. A novel biosensor containing carboxylated MWNTs modified with glucose oxidase and an overlying TMOS layer demonstrated optimum efficacy in terms of enhanced current density (18.3 ± 0.5 μA mM-1 cm-2), linear range (0.0037-12 mM), detection limit (3.7 μM), coefficient of variation (2%), response time (less than 8 s), and stability/selectivity/reproducibility. H2O2 response tests demonstrated that the most possible reason for the performance enhancement was an increased enzyme loading. This design is an excellent platform for versatile biosensing applications.

  11. Live imaging of protein kinase activities in transgenic mice expressing FRET biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamioka, Yuji; Sumiyama, Kenta; Mizuno, Rei; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Hirata, Eishu; Kiyokawa, Etsuko; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Genetically-encoded biosensors based on the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) have been widely used in biology to visualize the spatiotemporal dynamics of signaling molecules. Despite the increasing multitude of these biosensors, their application has been mostly limited to cultured cells with transient biosensor expression, due to particular difficulties in the development of transgenic mice that express FRET biosensors. In this study, we report the efficient generation of transgenic mouse lines expressing heritable and functional biosensors for ERK and PKA. These transgenic mice were created by the cytoplasmic co-injection of Tol2 transposase mRNA and a circular plasmid harbouring Tol2 recombination sites. High expression of the biosensors in a wide range of cell types allowed us to screen newborn mice simply by inspection. Observation of these transgenic mice by two-photon excitation microscopy yielded real-time activity maps of ERK and PKA in various tissues, with greatly improved signal-to-background ratios. Our transgenic mice may be bred into diverse genetic backgrounds; moreover, the protocol we have developed paves the way for the generation of transgenic mice that express other FRET biosensors, with important applications in the characterization of physiological and pathological signal transduction events in addition to drug development and screening.

  12. Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium in Chicken Carcass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-bin Lan; Shi-zhou Wang; Yong-guang Yin; W.Clint Hoffmann; Xiao-zhe Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Chicken is one of the most popular meat products in the world. Salmonella Typhimurium is a common foodborne pathogens associated with the processing of poultry. An optical Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor was sensitive to the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in chicken carcass. The Spreeta biosensor kits were used to detect Salmonella Typhimurium on chicken carcass successfully. A taste sensor like electronic tongue or biosensors was used to basically "taste" the object and differentiated one object from the other with different taste sensor signatures. The surface plasmon resonance biosensor has potential for use in rapid, real-time detection and identification of bacteria, and to study the interaction of organisms with different antisera or other molecular species. The selectivity of the SPR biosensor was assayed using a series of antibody concentrations and dilution series of the organism. The SPR biosensor showed promising to detect the existence of Salmonella Typhimurium at 1×106 CFU/ml. Initial results show that the SPR biosensor has the potential for its application in pathogenic bacteria monitoring. However, more tests need to be done to confirm the detection limitation.

  13. Study of nano biosensors%纳米生物传感器的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡新霞

    2005-01-01

    Point of care testing (POCT) based on biosensors has been recently received increasingly interesting in the world. Using biosensor technology for biomedical analysis has demonstrated many advantages. However, low cost and high accurate biosensors for clinical analysis, particularly for POCT is still a common problem for commercialization of the most biosensors[1, 2].In this work, it has the goals to develop materials (including nano materials) and methods for producing disposable biosensors capable with low cost, high reliability & sensitivity, robustness, low volume sample, and creating portable sensor systems (Figure 1) for testing human metabolites, biochemical markers without reagents. On top of the use of electrochemical method and Nano, MEMS technology, hemoglobin, creative kinase, alanine aminotransferas (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), glucose, lactate, ketone (β-Hydroxybutyrate), cholesterol have been tested using thin film electrode biosensors, modified with nanoporous and nanostructured materials (Figure 2). The electrxode has high surface-to-volume ratio and excellent hydrophilicity, thus the electrode possesses high catalytic activities for electrolytic processes and are ideal candidates for biosensors.It is significant for the applications in clinical diagnosis of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, home health care,sports, physical performance of athletes, blood screen. Glycated hemoglobin, creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), myoglobin, cardiac tropenin I (cTnI), cardiac troponin T (cTnT) are interesting to be tested for the next study.

  14. Biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors for determination of some substrates and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Soldatkin, Alexey P; Korpan, Yaroslav I; Arkhypova, Valentyna N; El'skaya, Anna V; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Martelet, Claude; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2003-10-01

    This paper is a review of the authors' publications concerning the development of biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors (ENFETs) for direct substrates or inhibitors analysis. Such biosensors were designed by using immobilised enzymes and ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs). Highly specific, sensitive, simple, fast and cheap determination of different substances renders them as promising tools in medicine, biotechnology, environmental control, agriculture and the food industry. The biosensors based on ENFETs and direct enzyme analysis for determination of concentrations of different substrates (glucose, urea, penicillin, formaldehyde, creatinine, etc.) have been developed and their laboratory prototypes were fabricated. Improvement of the analytical characteristics of such biosensors may be achieved by using a differential mode of measurement, working solutions with different buffer concentrations and specific agents, negatively or positively charged additional membranes, or genetically modified enzymes. These approaches allow one to decrease the effect of the buffer capacity influence on the sensor response in an aim to increase the sensitivity of the biosensors and to extend their dynamic ranges. Biosensors for the determination of concentrations of different toxic substances (organophosphorous pesticides, heavy metal ions, hypochlorite, glycoalkaloids, etc.) were designed on the basis of reversible and/or irreversible enzyme inhibition effect(s). The conception of an enzymatic multibiosensor for the determination of different toxic substances based on the enzyme inhibition effect is also described. We will discuss the respective advantages and disadvantages of biosensors based on the ENFETs developed and also demonstrate their practical application.

  15. A comparative study of enzyme immobilization strategies for multi-walled carbon nanotube glucose biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jin; Jaroch, David; Rickus, Jenna L; Marshall Porterfield, D [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University (United States); Claussen, Jonathan C; Ul Haque, Aeraj; Diggs, Alfred R [Physiological Sensing Facility, Bindley Bioscience Center and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University (United States); McLamore, Eric S [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida (United States); Calvo-Marzal, Percy, E-mail: porterf@purdue.edu [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University (United States)

    2011-09-02

    This work addresses the comparison of different strategies for improving biosensor performance using nanomaterials. Glucose biosensors based on commonly applied enzyme immobilization approaches, including sol-gel encapsulation approaches and glutaraldehyde cross-linking strategies, were studied in the presence and absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Although direct comparison of design parameters such as linear range and sensitivity is intuitive, this comparison alone is not an accurate indicator of biosensor efficacy, due to the wide range of electrodes and nanomaterials available for use in current biosensor designs. We proposed a comparative protocol which considers both the active area available for transduction following nanomaterial deposition and the sensitivity. Based on the protocol, when no nanomaterials were involved, TEOS/GOx biosensors exhibited the highest efficacy, followed by BSA/GA/GOx and TMOS/GOx biosensors. A novel biosensor containing carboxylated MWNTs modified with glucose oxidase and an overlying TMOS layer demonstrated optimum efficacy in terms of enhanced current density (18.3 {+-} 0.5 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), linear range (0.0037-12 mM), detection limit (3.7 {mu}M), coefficient of variation (2%), response time (less than 8 s), and stability/selectivity/reproducibility. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} response tests demonstrated that the most possible reason for the performance enhancement was an increased enzyme loading. This design is an excellent platform for versatile biosensing applications.

  16. A comparative study of enzyme immobilization strategies for multi-walled carbon nanotube glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin; Claussen, Jonathan C.; McLamore, Eric S.; Haque, Aeraj ul; Jaroch, David; Diggs, Alfred R.; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Rickus, Jenna L.; Porterfield, D. Marshall

    2011-09-01

    This work addresses the comparison of different strategies for improving biosensor performance using nanomaterials. Glucose biosensors based on commonly applied enzyme immobilization approaches, including sol-gel encapsulation approaches and glutaraldehyde cross-linking strategies, were studied in the presence and absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Although direct comparison of design parameters such as linear range and sensitivity is intuitive, this comparison alone is not an accurate indicator of biosensor efficacy, due to the wide range of electrodes and nanomaterials available for use in current biosensor designs. We proposed a comparative protocol which considers both the active area available for transduction following nanomaterial deposition and the sensitivity. Based on the protocol, when no nanomaterials were involved, TEOS/GOx biosensors exhibited the highest efficacy, followed by BSA/GA/GOx and TMOS/GOx biosensors. A novel biosensor containing carboxylated MWNTs modified with glucose oxidase and an overlying TMOS layer demonstrated optimum efficacy in terms of enhanced current density (18.3 ± 0.5 µA mM - 1 cm - 2), linear range (0.0037-12 mM), detection limit (3.7 µM), coefficient of variation (2%), response time (less than 8 s), and stability/selectivity/reproducibility. H2O2 response tests demonstrated that the most possible reason for the performance enhancement was an increased enzyme loading. This design is an excellent platform for versatile biosensing applications.

  17. A sensitive acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on gold nanorods modified electrode for detection of organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Qiaolin; Han, Lei; Hou, Chuantao; Wang, Fei; Liu, Aihua

    2016-08-15

    A sensitive amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor, based on gold nanorods (AuNRs), was developed for the detection of organophosphate pesticide. Compared with Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs, AuNRs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic properties, which can electrocatalytically oxidize thiocholine, the hydrolysate of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) by AChE at +0.55V (vs. SCE). The AChE/AuNRs/GCE biosensor was fabricated on basis of the inhibition of AChE activity by organophosphate pesticide. The biosensor could detect paraoxon in the linear range from 1nM to 5μM and dimethoate in the linear range from 5nM to 1μM, respectively. The detection limits of paraoxon and dimethoate were 0.7nM and 3.9nM, which were lower than the reported AChE biosensor. The proposed biosensor could restore to over 95% of its original current, which demonstrated the good reactivation. Moreover, the biosensor can be applicable to real water sample measurement. Thus, the biosensor exhibited low applied potential, high sensitivity and good stability, providing a promising tool for analysis of pesticides. PMID:27260432

  18. Biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors for determination of some substrates and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Soldatkin, Alexey P; Korpan, Yaroslav I; Arkhypova, Valentyna N; El'skaya, Anna V; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Martelet, Claude; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2003-10-01

    This paper is a review of the authors' publications concerning the development of biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors (ENFETs) for direct substrates or inhibitors analysis. Such biosensors were designed by using immobilised enzymes and ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs). Highly specific, sensitive, simple, fast and cheap determination of different substances renders them as promising tools in medicine, biotechnology, environmental control, agriculture and the food industry. The biosensors based on ENFETs and direct enzyme analysis for determination of concentrations of different substrates (glucose, urea, penicillin, formaldehyde, creatinine, etc.) have been developed and their laboratory prototypes were fabricated. Improvement of the analytical characteristics of such biosensors may be achieved by using a differential mode of measurement, working solutions with different buffer concentrations and specific agents, negatively or positively charged additional membranes, or genetically modified enzymes. These approaches allow one to decrease the effect of the buffer capacity influence on the sensor response in an aim to increase the sensitivity of the biosensors and to extend their dynamic ranges. Biosensors for the determination of concentrations of different toxic substances (organophosphorous pesticides, heavy metal ions, hypochlorite, glycoalkaloids, etc.) were designed on the basis of reversible and/or irreversible enzyme inhibition effect(s). The conception of an enzymatic multibiosensor for the determination of different toxic substances based on the enzyme inhibition effect is also described. We will discuss the respective advantages and disadvantages of biosensors based on the ENFETs developed and also demonstrate their practical application. PMID:12904953

  19. Comparison of the efficiency control of mycotoxins by some optical immune biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyshyk, N. F.; Starodub, N. F.

    2013-11-01

    It was compared the efficiency of patulin control at the application of such optical biosensors which were based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and nano-porous silicon (sNPS). In last case the intensity of the immune reaction was registered by measuring level of chemiluminescence (ChL) or photocurrent of nPS. The sensitivity of this mycotoxin determination by first type of immune biosensor was 0.05-10 mg/L Approximately the same sensitivity as well as the overall time analysis were demonstrated by the immune biosensor based on the nPS too. Nevertheless, the last type of biosensor was simpler in technical aspect and the cost of analysis was cheapest. That is why, it was recommend the nPS based immune biosensor for wide screening application and SPR one for some additional control or verification of preliminary obtained results. In this article a special attention was given to condition of sample preparation for analysis, in particular, micotoxin extraction from potao and some juices. Moreover, it was compared the efficiency of the above mentioned immune biosensors with such traditional approach of mycotoxin determination as the ELISA-method. In the result of investigation and discussion of obtained data it was concluded that both type of the immune biosensors are able to fulfill modern practice demand in respect sensitivity, rapidity, simplicity and cheapness of analysis.

  20. Optical biosensors for food quality and safety assurance-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Sharma, Rajiv; Kumar, Ramesh

    2012-08-01

    Food quality and safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. Food serves as a growth medium for microorganisms that can be pathogenic or cause food spoilage. Therefore, it is imperative to have stringent laws and standards for the preparation, packaging and transportation of food. The conventional methods for detection of food contamination based on culturing, colony counting, chromatography and immunoassay are tedious and time consuming while biosensors have overcome some of these disadvantages. There is growing interest in biosensors due to high specificity, convenience and quick response. Optical biosensors show greater potential for the detection of pathogens, pesticide and drug residues, hygiene monitoring, heavy metals and other toxic substances in the food to check whether it is safe for consumption or not. This review focuses on optical biosensors, the recent developments in the associated instrumentation with emphasis on fiber optic and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensors for detecting a range of analytes in food samples, the major advantages and challenges associated with optical biosensors. It also briefly covers the different methods employed for the immobilization of bio-molecules used in developing biosensors.

  1. An Effective Amperometric Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoelectrode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Zhu, Yingchun; Zeng, Yi; Xu, Fangfang

    2009-03-01

    A sensitive amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoelectrode array (NEA) was investigated. The gold nanoelectrode array was fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition on general electrodes, which shows an ordered well-defined 3D structure of nanowires. The sensitivity of the gold NEA to hydrogen peroxide is 37 times higher than that of the conventional electrode. The linear range of the platinum NEA toward H2O2 is from 1 × 10-6 to 1 × 10-2 M, covering four orders of magnitudes with detection limit of 1 × 10-7 M and a single noise ratio (S/N) of four. The enzyme electrode exhibits an excellent response performance to glucose with linear range from 1 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-2 M and a fast response time within 8 s. The Michaelis-Menten constant km and the maximum current density i max of the enzyme electrode were 4.97 mM and 84.60 μA cm-2, respectively. This special nanoelectrode may find potential application in other biosensors based on amperometric signals.

  2. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium using polyclonal antibody immobilized magnetostrictive biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupalli, R.; Hu, Jing; Lakshmanan, Ramji S.; Wan, Jiehui; Huang, Shichu; Yang, Hong; Barbaree, James M.; Huang, T. S.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2006-05-01

    Novel mass-sensitive, magnetostrictive sensors have a characteristic resonant frequency that can be determined by monitoring the magnetic flux emitted by the sensor in response to an applied, time varying, magnetic field. This magnetostrictive platform has a unique advantage over conventional sensor platforms in that measurement is wireless or remote. These biosensors can thus be used in-situ for detecting pathogens and biological threat agents. In this work, we have used a magnetostrictive platform immobilized with a polyclonal antibody (the bio-molecular recognition element) to form a biosensor for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium. Upon exposure to solutions containing Salmonella typhimurium bacteria, the bacteria were bound to the sensor and the additional mass of the bound bacteria caused a shift in the sensor's resonant frequency. Responses of the sensors to different concentrations of S. typhimurium were recorded and the results correlated with those obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of samples. Good agreement between the measured number of bound bacterial cells (attached mass) and frequency shifts were obtained. The longevity and specificity of the selected polyclonal antibody were also investigated and are reported.

  3. An implantable multifunctional needle type biosensor with integrated RF capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Nan-Fu; Wang, Jmin-Min; Yang, Lung-Jieh; Liao, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Chun-Hao; Chen, Hsiao-Chin; Lu, Shey-Shi; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2005-01-01

    We report the development of an implantable multifunctional (glucose and cholesterol) needle type biosensor with integrated RF wireless circuitry for continuous in vivo monitoring of metabolites during short term stays in emergency room or intensive care unit. Silicon-based MEMS technologies are used for the fabrication of micro needle sensors. The whole device is covered by a biocompatible Parylene layer with opening structure at the active areas of electrodes. Electropolymerization of active biomolecules and conducting polymer provides in situ nanoscale physical entrapments of various oxidoreductases (Glucose oxidase and cholesterol oxidase) and functions as a viable matrix for the construction of micro amperometric biosensors. Hybrid CMOS fabrication processes are used to accomplish the 433 MHz ASK RF transmitter and receiver (0.18μm CMOS 1P6M process) and the data converter (0.35μm CMOS 2P4M process). We will present and discuss the detail design and the integrated system performance in this paper. PMID:17282599

  4. A conductometric indium oxide semiconducting nanoparticle enzymatic biosensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongjin; Ondrake, Janet; Cui, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    We report a conductometric nanoparticle biosensor array to address the significant variation of electrical property in nanomaterial biosensors due to the random network nature of nanoparticle thin-film. Indium oxide and silica nanoparticles (SNP) are assembled selectively on the multi-site channel area of the resistors using layer-by-layer self-assembly. To demonstrate enzymatic biosensing capability, glucose oxidase is immobilized on the SNP layer for glucose detection. The packaged sensor chip onto a ceramic pin grid array is tested using syringe pump driven feed and multi-channel I-V measurement system. It is successfully demonstrated that glucose is detected in many different sensing sites within a chip, leading to concentration dependent currents. The sensitivity has been found to be dependent on the channel length of the resistor, 4-12 nA/mM for channel lengths of 5-20 μm, while the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is 20 mM. By using sensor array, analytical data could be obtained with a single step of sample solution feeding. This work sheds light on the applicability of the developed nanoparticle microsensor array to multi-analyte sensors, novel bioassay platforms, and sensing components in a lab-on-a-chip. PMID:22163696

  5. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R L C; Mercier, Patrick P; Wang, Joseph

    2015-12-15

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications.

  6. Disposable amperometric biosensor based on nanostructured bacteriophages for glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu Ri; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Ju Hwan; Nam, Chang Hoon; Kim, Soo Won

    2010-10-01

    The selection of electrode material profoundly influences biosensor science and engineering, as it heavily influences biosensor sensitivity. Here we propose a novel electrochemical detection method using a working electrode consisting of bio-nanowires from genetically modified filamentous phages and nanoparticles. fd-tet p8MMM filamentous phages displaying a three-methionine (MMM) peptide on the major coat protein pVIII (designated p8MMM phages) were immobilized on the active area of an electrochemical sensor through physical adsorption and chemical bonding. Bio-nanowires composed of p8MMM phages and silver nanoparticles facilitated sensitive, rapid and selective detection of particular molecules. We explored whether the composite electrode with bio-nanowires was an effective platform to detect the glucose oxidase. The current response of the bio-nanowire sensor was high at various glucose concentrations (0.1 µm-0.1 mM). This method provides a considerable advantage to demonstrate analyte detection over low concentration ranges. Especially, phage-enabled bio-nanowires can serve as receptors with high affinity and specificity for the detection of particular biomolecules and provide a convenient platform for designing site-directed multifunctional scaffolds based on bacteriophages and may serve as a simple method for label-free detection.

  7. Measurement and Simulation Techniques For Piezoresistive Microcantilever Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Hartanto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Applications of microcantilevers as biosensors have been explored by many researchers for the applications in medicine, biological, chemistry, and environmental monitoring. This research discusses a design of measurement method and simuations for piezoresistive microcantilever as a biosensor, which consist of designing Wheatstone bridge circuit as object detector, simulation of resonance frequency shift based on Euler Bernoulli Beam equation, and microcantilever vibration simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5. The piezoresistive microcantilever used here is Seiko Instrument Technology (Japan product with length of 110 μm, width of 50 μm, and thickness of 1 μm. Microcantilever mass is 12.815 ng, including the mass receptor. The sample object in this research is bacteria EColi. One bacteria mass is assumed to 0.3 pg. Simulation results show that the mass of one bacterium will cause the deflection of 0,03053 nm and resonance frequency value of 118,90 kHz. Moreover, four bacterium will cause the deflection of 0,03054 nm and resonance frequency value of 118,68 kHz. These datas indicate that the increasing of the bacteria mass increases the deflection value and reduces the value of resonance frequency

  8. Preparation of Electrochemical Biosensor for Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Gothwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride (PVC can be used to develop reaction beaker which acts as electrochemical cell for the measurement of OP pesticides. Being chemically inert, corrosion resistant, and easy in molding to various shapes and size, PVC can be used for the immobilization of enzyme. Organophosphorus hydrolase was immobilized covalently onto the chemically activated inner surface of PVC beaker by using glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent. The carbon nanotubes paste working electrode was constructed for amperometric measurement at a potential of +0.8 V. The biosensor showed optimum response at pH 8.0 with incubation temperature of 40°C. Km and Imax for substrate (methyl parathion were 322.58 µM and 1.1 µA, respectively. Evaluation study showed a correlation of 0.985, which was in agreement with the standard method. The OPH biosensor lost 50% of its initial activity after its regular use for 25 times over a period of 50 days when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.0 at 4°C. No interference was observed by interfering species.

  9. GOX-functionalized nanodiamond films for electrochemical biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, Pedro [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida (United States); Departamento de Medicina, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); Ram, Manoj K., E-mail: mkram@usf.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL, 33620-5350 (United States); Nanotechnology Research and Education Center, University of South Florida (United States); Gomez, Humberto [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL, 33620-5350 (United States); Departamento de Medicina, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); Kumar, Amrita [Department of Physiology, Emory University. Atlanta GA (United States); Bhethanabotla, Venkat [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL, 33620-5350 (United States); Nanotechnology Research and Education Center, University of South Florida (United States)

    2011-07-20

    The importance of nanodiamond in biological and technological applications has been recognized recently, and applied in drug delivery, biochip, sensors and biosensors. Under this investigation, nanodiamond (ND) and nitrogen doped nanodiamond (NND) were deposited on n-type silicon films, and later functionalized with enzyme Glucose oxidase (GOX). The GOX functionalized doped and undoped ND films were characterized using combination of several techniques; i.e. FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical techniques. ND/GOX and NND/GOX thin films on n-type silicon have been found to provide sensitive glucose sensor. GOX has been chosen as a model enzyme system to functionalize with ND at molecular level to understand the glucose biosensor. - Research highlights: {yields} Nanodiamond (ND) films were used as an enzyme electrode for glucose quantification. {yields} Electrochemical behavior of doped and intrinsic films was analyzed. {yields} Electrode demonstrates sensitivity to glucose concentration in dynamic condition. {yields} Linear behavior was observed upto 8mM before saturation condition.

  10. A Conductometric Indium Oxide Semiconducting Nanoparticle Enzymatic Biosensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongjin; Ondrake, Janet; Cui, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    We report a conductometric nanoparticle biosensor array to address the significant variation of electrical property in nanomaterial biosensors due to the random network nature of nanoparticle thin-film. Indium oxide and silica nanoparticles (SNP) are assembled selectively on the multi-site channel area of the resistors using layer-by-layer self-assembly. To demonstrate enzymatic biosensing capability, glucose oxidase is immobilized on the SNP layer for glucose detection. The packaged sensor chip onto a ceramic pin grid array is tested using syringe pump driven feed and multi-channel I–V measurement system. It is successfully demonstrated that glucose is detected in many different sensing sites within a chip, leading to concentration dependent currents. The sensitivity has been found to be dependent on the channel length of the resistor, 4–12 nA/mM for channel lengths of 5–20 μm, while the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is 20 mM. By using sensor array, analytical data could be obtained with a single step of sample solution feeding. This work sheds light on the applicability of the developed nanoparticle microsensor array to multi-analyte sensors, novel bioassay platforms, and sensing components in a lab-on-a-chip. PMID:22163696

  11. Noninvasive glucose monitoring using saliva nano-biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide live with diabetes and several millions die from it each year. A noninvasive, painless method of glucose testing would highly improve compliance and glucose control while reducing complications and overall disease management costs. To provide accurate, low cost, and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a unique, disposable saliva nano-biosensor. More than eight clinical trials on real-time noninvasive salivary glucose monitoring were carried out on two healthy individuals (a 2–3 h-period for each trial, including both regular food and standard glucose beverage intake with more than 35 saliva samples obtained. Excellent clinical accuracy was revealed as compared to the UV Spectrophotometer. By measuring subjects’ salivary glucose and blood glucose in parallel, we found the two generated profiles share the same fluctuation trend but the correlation between them is individual dependent. There is a time lag between the peak glucose values from blood and from saliva. However, the correlation between the two glucose values at fasting is constant for each person enabling noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes through saliva instead of blood. Furthermore, a good correlation of glucose levels in saliva and in blood before and 2 h after glucose intake was observed. Glucose monitoring before and 2 h after meals is usually prescribed by doctors for diabetic patients. Thus, this disposable biosensor will be an alternative for real-time salivary glucose tracking at any time.

  12. Graphene–protein field effect biosensors: glucose sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Viswanathan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are becoming more prevalent, and the complexities of managing patients continue to escalate, since their care must be balanced between the home and clinical settings. Diabetes is the most advanced example, where self-monitoring has been shown to be necessary. Glucometers are point-of-care (POC devices that have become standard platforms at home and clinical settings. Similarly, many other POC biosensors have also been developed. Enzymes are often used in these sensors because of their specificity and the reaction products can be electrochemically transduced for the measurement. When enzymes are immobilized to an electronically active substrate, enzymatic reactions can be transduced by direct electron transport. This paper describes an approach for the development of graphene-based POC devices. This includes modifying enzymes for improved performance, developing methods to bind them to the graphene surface, incorporation of the functionalized graphene on a field-effect transistor (FET, and integration into a microfluidic device suitable for home use. This paper describes an approach for the development of a graphene-based POC biosensor platform using glucose as an example of target molecule.

  13. Disposable biosensor for detection of iron (III) in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara-Martos, Fernando; da Costa, João; Justino, Celine I L; Cardoso, Susana; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the tuning of a fast, disposable, and label-free biosensor for quantification of iron (III) in food liquid samples such as wine. The biosensor is based on a field effect transistor(FET) where a net work of single-walled carbonnanotubes (SWCNTs) acts as the conductor channel, constituting carbonnanotubes field effect transistors (CNTFETs). An antibody such as transferrin with two specific high-affinity iron (III) binding sites, directly adsorbed to SWCNTs, was used as immunoreaction. Several individual CNTFETs were tested showing a linear range between 0.05 and 2ngmL(-1) and a limit of quantification below 0.05ngmL(-1), much lower than previously reported analytical techniques. The mean coefficient of variation was 0.13% showing a low variability of the analytical response. On the other hand, it was not observed interference effect of zinc (II) ion at least until 1:4 iron-zinc ratio. Finally, recovery percentages of spiked wine samples were around 100%, showing the high accuracy of method. The main advantages of the devices developed are their speed, convenience (it is an economical method), and the avoidance excessive handling samples since they do not require further pre-treatment of samples. PMID:27154651

  14. Numerical simulation on development of a SAW based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, S. T.; Hashim, U.; Sudin, A.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Liu, W. W.; Foo, K. L.; Voon, C. H.; Wee, F. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Salleh, N. H. M.; Nazwa, T.

    2016-07-01

    Surface acoustic waves can be generated at the free surface of an elastic solid. For this property, surface acoustic based devices were initially developed for the telecommunication purpose such as signal filters and resonators. The acoustic energy is strongly confined on the surface of the surface acoustic waves (SAW) based devices and consequent their ultra-sensitivity to the surface perturbation. This has made SAW permits the highly sensitive detection of utterly diminutive charges on the surface. Hence, SAW based devices have been modified to be sensors for the mass loading effect on its surface and this is perfectly for biosensor development. There have been a lot of complicated theoretical models for the SAW devices development since 1960 as signal filters and resonators such as from delta function model, equivalent circuit model, to the current SAW models such as coupling-of-modes (COM) model, P-matrix model and Computer Simulation Technology Studio Suite (CST). However, these models are more tailored for the telecommunication application purposes and very complex. Thus, this paper presents the finite element analysis (FEA) modeling, COMSOL Multiphysics which is used to study the mass loading effect on SAW which will be used as biosensor. This study managed to simulate the mass loading sensitivity of 8.71×107 kHz/g mm-2.

  15. Novel voltammetric biosensor for determining acrylamide in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobiecka, Agata; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2007-04-15

    Recent findings showing that acrylamide is formed in heat-treated foods rich in asparagine and reducing sugars such as glucose, have accelerated the needs for the development of new analytical methods to determine this potential human carcinogen. Acrylamide forms adduct with hemoglobin (Hb) as a result of the reaction with the alpha-NH2 group of N-terminal valine of Hb. This interaction is the basis of a new voltammetric biosensor to detect acrylamide. The biosensor was constructed using a carbon-paste electrode modified with hemoglobin (Hb), which contains four prosthetic groups of heme--Fe(III). Such an electrode displays a reversible reduction/oxidation process of Hb-Fe(III)/Hb-Fe(II). Interaction between Hb and acrylamide was observed through decreasing of the peak current of Hb-Fe(III) reduction. The electrodes presented a very low detection limit (1.2 x 10(-10)M). The validation made in the matrix obtained by water extraction of potato chips showed that the electrodes presented are suitable for the direct determination of acrylamide in food samples.

  16. Escherichia coli bacteria detection by using graphene-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Elnaz; Buntat, Zolkafle; Afroozeh, Abdolkarim; Zeinalinezhad, Alireza; Nikoukar, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Graphene is an allotrope of carbon with two-dimensional (2D) monolayer honeycombs. A larger detection area and higher sensitivity can be provided by graphene-based nanosenor because of its 2D structure. In addition, owing to its special characteristics, including electrical, optical and physical properties, graphene is known as a more suitable candidate compared to other materials used in the sensor application. A novel model employing a field-effect transistor structure using graphene is proposed and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of graphene are employed to model the sensing mechanism. This biosensor can detect Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, providing high levels of sensitivity. It is observed that the graphene device experiences a drastic increase in conductance when exposed to E. coli bacteria at 0-10(5) cfu/ml concentration. The simple, fast response and high sensitivity of this nanoelectronic biosensor make it a suitable device in screening and functional studies of antibacterial drugs and an ideal high-throughput platform which can detect any pathogenic bacteria. Artificial neural network and support vector regression algorithms have also been used to provide other models for the I-V characteristic. A satisfactory agreement has been presented by comparison between the proposed models with the experimental data. PMID:26435280

  17. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; van den Hurk, Remko; Cao, Yong; Du, Rongbing; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Yiyu; McDermott, Mark T.; Evoy, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors. PMID:26985910

  18. An Effective Amperometric Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yingchun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sensitive amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoelectrode array (NEA was investigated. The gold nanoelectrode array was fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition on general electrodes, which shows an ordered well-defined 3D structure of nanowires. The sensitivity of the gold NEA to hydrogen peroxide is 37 times higher than that of the conventional electrode. The linear range of the platinum NEA toward H2O2is from 1 × 10−6to 1 × 10−2 M, covering four orders of magnitudes with detection limit of 1 × 10−7 M and a single noise ratio (S/N of four. The enzyme electrode exhibits an excellent response performance to glucose with linear range from 1 × 10−5to 1 × 10−2 M and a fast response time within 8 s. The Michaelis–Menten constantkm and the maximum current densityi maxof the enzyme electrode were 4.97 mM and 84.60 μA cm−2, respectively. This special nanoelectrode may find potential application in other biosensors based on amperometric signals.

  19. Characterizing Metabolic Inhibition Using Electrochemical Enzyme-DNA Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Dominic O.; Bajrami, Besnik; Jansson, Ingela; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of metabolic enzyme inhibition are necessary in drug development and toxicity investigations as potential tools to limit or prevent appearance of deleterious metabolites formed, for example by cytochrome (cyt) P450 enzymes. In this paper, we evaluate the use of enzyme/DNA toxicity biosensors as tools to investigate enzyme inhibition. We have examined DNA damage due to cyt P450cam metabolism of styrene using DNA/enzyme films on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electro*des monitored via Ru(bpy)32+–mediated DNA oxidation. Styrene metabolism initiated by hydrogen peroxide was evaluated with and without the inhibitors, imidazole, imidazole-4-acetic acid and sulconazole (in micromolar range) to monitor DNA damage inhibition. The initial rates of DNA damage decreased with increased inhibitor concentrations. Linear and nonlinear fits of Michaelis-Menten inhibition models were used to determine apparent inhibition constants (KI*) for the inhibitors. Elucidation of the best fitting inhibition model was achieved by comparing correlation coefficients and the sum of the square of the errors (SSE) from each inhibition model. Results confirmed the utility of the enzyme/DNA biosensor for metabolic inhibition studies. A simple competitive inhibition model best approximated the data for imidazole, imidazole-4-acetic acid and sulconazole with KI* of 268.2, 142.3 and 204.2 µM, respectively. PMID:19099359

  20. A new miniaturized multiarray biosensor system for fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A miniaturized biosensor-based optical instrument has been designed and fabricated for multiarray fluorescence measurements of several biomediators in series, with applications in environmental monitoring and agrofood analysis. It is a multicell system featuring two arrays of five static cells (1 x 1 x 2 cm3) which are sealed to avoid contamination. Every cell is made up by two modular sections: the bottom compartment with optical LED light excitations and a photodiode detector for fluorescence emission capture, and the top biocompatible compartment where the biosample is deposited. The system (0.250 kg without batteries and case, 100 x 100 x 150 mm3 internal case dimensions) is equipped with electronic control boards, a flash memory card for automatic data storage, and internal batteries, thus being portable and versatile. The instrument allows one to perform simultaneous and multiparametric analyses and offers a large applicability in biosensor technology. The first prototype has been implemented with genetically modified oxygenic photosynthetic algae that were employed in the instrument experimental testing by monitoring pesticide pollution in water. Pesticides modify the photosystem II (PSII) activity in terms of fluorescence quenching. The PSII complex features a natural nanostructure and can be considered a sophisticated molecular device. Results from measurements employing several PSII mutants and six different pesticides at increasing concentrations and incubation times are presented and discussed

  1. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  2. Optical biosensor based on silicon nanowire ridge waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Rania; Ismail, Yehia; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2015-02-01

    Optical biosensors present themselves as an attractive solution for integration with the ever-trending lab-on-a-chip devices. This is due to their small size, CMOS compatibility, and invariance to electromagnetic interference. Despite their many benefits, typical optical biosensors rely on evanescent field detection, where only a small portion of the light interacts with the analyte. We propose to use a silicon nanowire ridge waveguide (SNRW) for optical biosensing. This structure is comprised of an array of silicon nanowires, with the envelope of a ridge, on an insulator substrate. The SNRW maximizes the overlap between the analyte and the incident light wave by introducing voids to the otherwise bulk structure, and strengthens the contribution of the material under test to the overall modal effective index will greatly augment the sensitivity. Additionally, the SNRW provides a fabrication convenience as it covers the entire substrate, ensuring that the etching process would not damage the substrate. FDTD simulations were conducted and showed that the percentage change in the effective index due to a 1% change in the surrounding environment was more than 170 times the amount of change perceived in an evanescent detection based bulk silicon ridge waveguide.

  3. A Novel Photoelectrochemical Biosensor for Tyrosinase and Thrombin Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexia Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel photoelectrochemical biosensor for step-by-step assay of tyrosinase and thrombin was fabricated based on the specific interactions between the designed peptide and the target enzymes. A peptide chain with a special sequence which contains a positively charged lysine-labeled terminal, tyrosine at the other end and a cleavage site recognized by thrombin between them was designed. The designed peptide can be fixed on surface of the CdTe quantum dots (QDs-modified indium-tin oxide (ITO electrode through electrostatic attraction to construct the photoelectrochemical biosensor. The tyrosinase target can catalyze the oxidization of tyrosine by oxygen into ortho-benzoquinone residues, which results in a decrease in the sensor photocurrent. Subsequently, the cleavage site could be recognized and cut off by another thrombin target, restoring the sensor photocurrent. The decrease or increase of photocurrent in the sensor enables us to assay tyrosinase and thrombin. Thus, the detection of tyrosinase and thrombin can be achieved in the linear range from 2.6 to 32 μg/mL and from 4.5 to 100 μg/mL with detection limits of 1.5 μg/mL and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. Most importantly, this strategy shall allow us to detect different classes of enzymes simultaneously by designing various enzyme-specific peptide substrates.

  4. Graphene patterned polyaniline-based biosensor for glucose detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a glucose electrochemical biosensor, layer-by-layer fabricated from graphene and polyaniline films. Graphene sheets (0.5×0.5 cm2) with the thickness of 5 nm (15 layers) were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure on copper tapes. Then they were transferred into integrated Fe3O4-doped polyaniline (PANi) based microelectrodes. The properties of the nanocomposite films were thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical methods, such as square wave voltametry (SWV) and chronoamperometry. The above graphene patterned sensor (denoted as Graphene/Fe3O4/PANi/GOx) shows much improved glucose sensitivity (as high as 47 μA mM−1 cm−2) compared to a non-graphene one (10–30 μA mM−1 cm−2, as previously reported in the literature). It can be expected that this proof-of-concept biosensor could be extended for other highly sensitive biodetection

  5. Wearable salivary uric acid mouthguard biosensor with integrated wireless electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayoung; Imani, Somayeh; de Araujo, William R; Warchall, Julian; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Paixão, Thiago R L C; Mercier, Patrick P; Wang, Joseph

    2015-12-15

    This article demonstrates an instrumented mouthguard capable of non-invasively monitoring salivary uric acid (SUA) levels. The enzyme (uricase)-modified screen printed electrode system has been integrated onto a mouthguard platform along with anatomically-miniaturized instrumentation electronics featuring a potentiostat, microcontroller, and a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver. Unlike RFID-based biosensing systems, which require large proximal power sources, the developed platform enables real-time wireless transmission of the sensed information to standard smartphones, laptops, and other consumer electronics for on-demand processing, diagnostics, or storage. The mouthguard biosensor system offers high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability towards uric acid detection in human saliva, covering the concentration ranges for both healthy people and hyperuricemia patients. The new wireless mouthguard biosensor system is able to monitor SUA level in real-time and continuous fashion, and can be readily expanded to an array of sensors for different analytes to enable an attractive wearable monitoring system for diverse health and fitness applications. PMID:26276541

  6. Bacterial Biosensors for Measuring Availability of Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Roelof van der Meer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, pollution risk assessment is based on the measurement of a pollutant’s total concentration in a sample. The toxicity of a given pollutant in the environment, however, is tightly linked to its bioavailability, which may differ significantly from the total amount. Physico-chemical and biological parameters strongly influence pollutant fate in terms of leaching, sequestration and biodegradation. Bacterial sensorreporters, which consist of living micro-organisms genetically engineered to produce specific output in response to target chemicals, offer an interesting alternative to monitoring approaches. Bacterial sensor-reporters detect bioavailable and/or bioaccessible compound fractions in samples. Currently, a variety of environmental pollutants can be targeted by specific biosensor-reporters. Although most of such strains are still confined to the lab, several recent reports have demonstrated utility of bacterial sensing-reporting in the field, with method detection limits in the nanomolar range. This review illustrates the general design principles for bacterial sensor-reporters, presents an overview of the existing biosensor-reporter strains with emphasis on organic compound detection. A specific focus throughout is on the concepts of bioavailability and bioaccessibility, and how bacteria-based sensing-reporting systems can help to improve our basic understanding of the different processes at work.

  7. New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Lu

    2008-03-01

    We aim to develop new DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides, such as uranium, technetium, and plutonium, and metal contaminants, such as lead, chromium, and mercury. The sensors will be highly sensitive and selective. They will be applied to on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation, and stability of the individual contaminants before and during bioremediation, and for long-term monitoring of DOE contaminated sites. To achieve this goal, we have employed a combinatorial method called “in vitro selection” to search from a large DNA library (~ 1015 different molecules) for catalytic DNA molecules that are highly specific for radionuclides or other metal ions through intricate 3-dimensional interactions as in metalloproteins. Comprehensive biochemical and biophysical studies have been performed on the selected DNA molecules. The findings from these studies have helped to elucidate fundamental principles for designing effective sensors for radionuclides and metal ions. Based on the study, the DNA have been converted to fluorescent or colorimetric sensors by attaching to it fluorescent donor/acceptor pairs or gold nanoparticles, with 11 part-per-trillion detection limit (for uranium) and over million fold selectivity (over other radionuclides and metal ions tested). Practical application of the biosensors for samples from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Field Research Center (FRC) at Oak Ridge has also been demonstrated.

  8. Graphene patterned polyaniline-based biosensor for glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh Nguyen, Hai; Chuc Nguyen, Van; Nguyen, Van Tu; Thanh Tam Ngo, Thi; Thinh Nguyen, Ngoc; Thu Huyen Dang, Thi; Tran, Dai Lam; Do, Phuc Quan; Nghia Nguyen, Xuan; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan; Khoi Phan, Hong; Phan, Ngoc Minh

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a glucose electrochemical biosensor, layer-by-layer fabricated from graphene and polyaniline films. Graphene sheets (0.5×0.5 cm2) with the thickness of 5 nm (15 layers) were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under ambient pressure on copper tapes. Then they were transferred into integrated Fe3O4-doped polyaniline (PANi) based microelectrodes. The properties of the nanocomposite films were thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical methods, such as square wave voltametry (SWV) and chronoamperometry. The above graphene patterned sensor (denoted as Graphene/Fe3O4/PANi/GOx) shows much improved glucose sensitivity (as high as 47 μA mM‑1 cm‑2) compared to a non-graphene one (10–30 μA mM‑1 cm‑2, as previously reported in the literature). It can be expected that this proof-of-concept biosensor could be extended for other highly sensitive biodetection.

  9. A simple enzyme based biosensor on flexible plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakamedala, Senaka K.; Alshakhouri, Haidar T.; Agarwal, Mangilal; Fang, Ji; DeCoster, Mark A.

    2010-08-01

    An enzyme based biosensor was fabricated by employing a simple, inexpensive and rapid xurography fabrication process. The electrodes and channel were made from the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiphene) poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). PEDOT:PSS was selectively deposited using a polyimide tape mask. The tape mask was peeled off from the substrate after annealing the polymer in vacuum. Polymer wells of defined dimensions were made and were attached to the device to accommodate the solutions. This sensor utilizes the change in current as a parameter to measure different analyte concentrations. Initial experiments were done by using the sensor for glucose detection. The sensor is able to detect the glucose concentrations approximately from 1 μM to 10 mM range covering glucose in human saliva (8-210 μM). The glucose oxidase activity was independently measured using colorimetric method and the results indicate that the sensor retains the enzyme activity and can be used as a biosensor to detect various analytes. The analyte of interest can be measured by preloading the corresponding enzyme into the wells.

  10. A Conductometric Indium Oxide Semiconducting Nanoparticle Enzymatic Biosensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Cui

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a conductometric nanoparticle biosensor array to address the significant variation of electrical property in nanomaterial biosensors due to the random network nature of nanoparticle thin-film. Indium oxide and silica nanoparticles (SNP are assembled selectively on the multi-site channel area of the resistors using layer-by-layer self-assembly. To demonstrate enzymatic biosensing capability, glucose oxidase is immobilized on the SNP layer for glucose detection. The packaged sensor chip onto a ceramic pin grid array is tested using syringe pump driven feed and multi-channel I–V measurement system. It is successfully demonstrated that glucose is detected in many different sensing sites within a chip, leading to concentration dependent currents. The sensitivity has been found to be dependent on the channel length of the resistor, 4–12 nA/mM for channel lengths of 5–20 µm, while the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is 20 mM. By using sensor array, analytical data could be obtained with a single step of sample solution feeding. This work sheds light on the applicability of the developed nanoparticle microsensor array to multi-analyte sensors, novel bioassay platforms, and sensing components in a lab-on-a-chip.

  11. Development of solution-gated graphene transistor model for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hediyeh; Yusof, Rubiyah; Rahmani, Rasoul; Hosseinpour, Hoda; Ahmadi, Mohammad T

    2014-01-01

    : The distinctive properties of graphene, characterized by its high carrier mobility and biocompatibility, have stimulated extreme scientific interest as a promising nanomaterial for future nanoelectronic applications. In particular, graphene-based transistors have been developed rapidly and are considered as an option for DNA sensing applications. Recent findings in the field of DNA biosensors have led to a renewed interest in the identification of genetic risk factors associated with complex human diseases for diagnosis of cancers or hereditary diseases. In this paper, an analytical model of graphene-based solution gated field effect transistors (SGFET) is proposed to constitute an important step towards development of DNA biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. Inspired by this fact, a novel strategy for a DNA sensor model with capability of single-nucleotide polymorphism detection is proposed and extensively explained. First of all, graphene-based DNA sensor model is optimized using particle swarm optimization algorithm. Based on the sensing mechanism of DNA sensors, detective parameters (Ids and Vgmin) are suggested to facilitate the decision making process. Finally, the behaviour of graphene-based SGFET is predicted in the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphism with an accuracy of more than 98% which guarantees the reliability of the optimized model for any application of the graphene-based DNA sensor. It is expected to achieve the rapid, quick and economical detection of DNA hybridization which could speed up the realization of the next generation of the homecare sensor system. PMID:24517158

  12. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone’s LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone’s camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring.

  13. Optimization of Hydrogen Peroxide Detection for a Methyl Mercaptan Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Gang Sun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several kinds of modified carbon screen printed electrodes (CSPEs for amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 are presented in order to propose a methyl mercaptan (MM biosensor. Unmodified, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC, Prussian blue (PB, and Os-wired HRP modified CSPE sensors were fabricated and tested to detect H2O2, applying a potential of +0.6 V, +0.6 V, +0.4 V, −0.2 V and −0.1 V (versus Ag/AgCl, respectively. The limits of detection of these electrodes for H2O2 were 3.1 μM, 1.3 μM, 71 nM, 1.3 μM, 13.7 nM, respectively. The results demonstrated that the Os-wired HRP modified CSPEs gives the lowest limit of detection (LOD for H2O2 at a working potential as low as −0.1 V. Os-wired HRP is the optimum choice for establishment of a MM biosensor and gives a detection limit of 0.5 μM.

  14. Energy harvesting for human wearable and implantable bio-sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcheson, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    There are clear trade-offs between functionality, battery lifetime and battery volume for wearable and implantable wireless-biosensors which energy harvesting devices may be able to overcome. Reliable energy harvesting has now become a reality for machine condition monitoring and is finding applications in chemical process plants, refineries and water treatment works. However, practical miniature devices that can harvest sufficient energy from the human body to power a wireless bio-sensor are still in their infancy. This paper reviews the options for human energy harvesting in order to determine power availability for harvester-powered body sensor networks. The main competing technologies for energy harvesting from the human body are inertial kinetic energy harvesting devices and thermoelectric devices. These devices are advantageous to some other types as they can be hermetically sealed. In this paper the fundamental limit to the power output of these devices is compared as a function of generator volume when attached to a human whilst walking and running. It is shown that the kinetic energy devices have the highest fundamental power limits in both cases. However, when a comparison is made between the devices using device effectivenesses figures from previously demonstrated prototypes presented in the literature, the thermal device is competitive with the kinetic energy harvesting device when the subject is running and achieves the highest power density when the subject is walking.

  15. Integrated optical biosensor for rapid detection of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathesz, Anna; Valkai, Sándor; Újvárosy, Attila; Aekbote, Badri; Sipos, Orsolya; Stercz, Balázs; Kocsis, Béla; Szabó, Dóra; Dér, András

    2016-02-01

    In medical diagnostics, rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria from body fluids is one of the basic issues. Most state-of-the-art methods require optical labeling, increasing the complexity, duration and cost of the analysis. Therefore, there is a strong need for developing selective sensory devices based on label-free techniques, in order to increase the speed, and reduce the cost of detection. In a recent paper, we have shown that an integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a highly sensitive all-optical device made of a cheap photopolymer, can be used as a powerful lab-on-a-chip tool for specific, labelfree detection of proteins. By proper modifications of this technique, our interferometric biosensor was combined with a microfluidic system allowing the rapid and specific detection of bacteria from solutions, having the surface of the sensor functionalized by bacterium-specific antibodies. The experiments proved that the biosensor was able to detect Escherichia coli bacteria at concentrations of 106 cfu/ml within a few minutes, that makes our device an appropriate tool for fast, label-free detection of bacteria from body fluids such as urine or sputum. On the other hand, possible applications of the device may not be restricted to medical microbiology, since bacterial identification is an important task in microbial forensics, criminal investigations, bio-terrorism threats and in environmental studies, as well.

  16. Evanescent field absorption based photonic polymer waveguide biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiragi, Indrajit; Makkar, Roshan; Choudhury, Bikash Dev; Mukherji, Soumyo; Chalapathi, K.

    2011-08-01

    This paper details the design and fabrication of an integrated optical waveguide biosensor for antibody/antigen detection. SU-8 polymer is used as the core material to have a bi-conical tapered waveguide fabricated on a silicon substrate. PDMS is used as a buffer layer. The waist diameter of the biconical tapered waveguide has been optimized using Opti-BPM CAD software before fabrication. In addition, the fabrication technique employs simultaneous and single-step formation of the polymer waveguide structures for the guidance of light with V-grooves for low-cost passive alignment of glass optical fiber. The designed biosensor chip demonstrates sensing of FITC tagged goat anti human IgG (GaHIgG) and HIgG immobilized over the sensor surface was the bio receptor. The sensor uses the evanescent field that is present at the surface of the core for rapid and accurate sensing of antibody/antigen in the range of few micrograms per ml.

  17. Biosensor-based analyser. Measurement of glucose, sucrose, lactose, L-lactate and alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, F.T. Jr. (YSI, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes an instrument, the YSI 2700, for the measurement of glucose, sucrose, lactose, L-lactate, and alcohol by means of biosensors. Each biosensor consists of an amperometric, hydrogen peroxide sensitive electrode combined with an immobilized oxidase enzyme trapped between two membranes. Each biosensor differs from the others only in its enzyme layer. The instrument can be used to measure these analytes in complex sample matrices; often directly, e.g. in whole blood and fermentations, after dilution with water, e.g. in molasses and corn syrup, or after extraction into water, e.g. in cheese and cereal products. (orig.).

  18. A pyranose dehydrogenase-based biosensor for kinetic analysis of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Badino, Silke Flindt; Tokin, Radina Naytchova;

    2014-01-01

    A novel electrochemical enzyme biosensor was developed for real-time detection of cellulase activity when acting on their natural insoluble substrate, cellulose. The enzyme biosensor was constructed with pyranose dehydrongease (PDH) from Agaricus meleagris that was immobilized on the surface...... jecorina (HjCel6A) on cellulosic substrates with different morphology (bacterial microcrystalline cellulose (BMCC) and Avicel). The steady-state rate of hydrolysis increased towards a saturation plateau with increasing loads of substrate. The experimental results were rationalized using a steady-state rate....... Biosensors covered with a polycarbonate membrane showed high operational stability of several weeks with daily use....

  19. Dielectric modulated overlapping gate-on-drain tunnel-FET as a label-free biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Dawit Burusie; Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, based on the concept of dielectric-modulation, we have proposed a tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) biosensor with a nanogap created by overlapping the gate on the drain side. Sensing in the proposed device is due to a change in the ambipolar current of the transistor when biomolecules with different dielectric constant are immobilized in the nanogap. The maximum ratio of the drain current with absence and presence of biomolecules, which indicates the sensitivity, is as high as 1010. In comparison to other field effect transistor (FET) based biosensors, using TFET as a biosensor not only gives higher sensitivity but also the advantage of low leakage.

  20. Papers Based Electrochemical Biosensors: From Test Strips to Paper-Based Microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bingwen; Du, Dan; Hua, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-05-08

    Papers based biosensors such as lateral flow test strips and paper-based microfluidic devices (or paperfluidics) are inexpensive, rapid, flexible, and easy-to-use analytical tools. An apparent trend in their detection is to interpret sensing results from qualitative assessment to quantitative determination. Electrochemical detection plays an important role in quantification. This review focuses on electrochemical (EC) detection enabled biosensors. The first part provides detailed examples in paper test strips. The second part gives an overview of paperfluidics engaging EC detections. The outlook and recommendation of future directions of EC enabled biosensors are discussed in the end.

  1. Salt-bridge-supported bilayer lipid membrane biosensor for determination of anticancer drug cyclophosphamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Chunxu; Shen, Hanxi; Chao, Fuhuan

    2001-09-01

    A novel biosensor for assaying anticancer drug cyclophosphamide was constructed with salt-bridge supported bilayer lipid membrane modified with tetraphenylborate- cyclophosphamide complex. The modification was achieved by the introduction of the complex into the membrane forming solution. The biosensor show a linear response to the drug over the concentration range 8.96 X 10-6 mol L-1. The effects of coexistent substances and pH on assay were evaluated. The results show that the distinguish merits of this kind of biosensor is the excellently biological compatibility and no need of mediator for ions exchange. It also shows good selectivity and sensitivity for cyclophosphamide assay.

  2. Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor for the detection of salivary cortisol using the Thomson effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Hyun Lee, Jung; Kim, MinGin; Kim, Jeongmin; Song, Min-Jung; Jung, Hyo-Il; Lee, Wooyoung

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of a thermal biosensor based on bismuth nanowire that is fabricated for the detection of the human stress hormone cortisol using the Thomson effect. The Bi nanowire was grown using the On-Film Formation of Nanowires (OFF-ON) method. The thermal device was fabricated using photolithography, and the sensing area was modified with immobilized anti-cortisol antibodies conjugated with protein G for the detection of cortisol. The voltages were measured with two probe tips during surface modification to investigate the biochemical reactions in the fabricated thermal biosensor. The Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor exhibited low detection limit and good selectivity for the detection of cortisol.

  3. Development of an Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor Based Urea Biosensor with Solid State Reference Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kow-Ming Chang; Chih-Tien Chang; Kun-Mou Chan

    2010-01-01

    Ion sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) based urease biosensors with solid state reference systems for single-ended and two-ended differential readout electronics were investigated. The sensing membranes of the biosensors were fabricated with urease immobilized in a conducting polymer-based matrix. The responses of 12.9~198.1 mV for the urea concentrations of 8~240 mg/dL reveal that the activity of the enzyme was not significantly decreased. Biosensors combined with solid state referenc...

  4. Nanomaterial-based biosensors for food toxin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bansi D; Srivastava, Saurabh; Ali, Md Azahar; Singh, Chandan

    2014-10-01

    There is an increased interest toward the development of bioelectronic devices for food toxin (mycotoxins) detection. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi like Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium that are frequently found in crops or during storage of food including cereals, nuts, fruits, etc. The contamination of food by mycotoxins has become a matter of increasing concern. High levels of mycotoxins in the diet can cause adverse, acute, and chronic effects on human health and a variety of animal species. Side effects may particularly affect the liver, kidney, nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system. Among 300 mycotoxins known till date, there are a few that are considered to play an important part in food safety, and for these, a range of analytical methods have been developed. Some of the important mycotoxins include aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, citreoviridin, patulin, citrinin, and zearalenon. The conventional methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally require sophisticated instrumentation, e.g., liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. Hence, new analysis tools are necessary to attain more sensitive, specific, rapid, and reliable information about the desired toxin. For the last about two decades, the research and development of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has aroused much interest due to their simplicity and sensitivity. The nanomaterials have recently had a great impact on the development of biosensors. The functionalized nanomaterials are used as catalytic tools, immobilization platforms, or as optical or electroactive labels to improve the biosensing performance to obtain higher sensitivity, stability, and selectivity. Nanomaterials, such as carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes and graphene), metal nanoparticles, nanowires, nanocomposites, and nanostructured metal oxide nanoparticles

  5. Nanoelectrode and nanoparticle based biosensors for environmental and health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Lateef Uddin

    Reduction in electrode size down to nanometers dramatically enhances the detection sensitivity and temporal resolution. Here we explore nanoelectrode arrays (NEAs) and nanoparticles in building high performance biosensors. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) of diameter ˜100 nm were grown on a Si substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. SiO2 embedded CNF NEAs were then fabricated using techniques like chemical vapor deposition, mechanical polishing, and reactive ion etching, with CNF tips exposed at the final step. The effect of the interior structure of CNFs on electron transfer rate (ETR) was investigated by covalently attaching ferrocene molecules to the exposed end of CNFs. Anomalous differences in the ETR were observed between DC voltammetry (DCV) and AC voltammetry (ACV). The findings from this study are currently being extended to develop an electrochemical biosensor for the detection of cancerous protease (legumain). Preliminary results with standard macro glassy carbon electrodes show a significant decrease in ACV signal, which is encouraging. In another study, NEA was employed to capture and detect pathogenic bacteria using AC dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A nano-DEP device was fabricated using photolithography processes to define a micro patterned exposed active region on NEA and a microfluidic channel on macro-indium tin oxide electrode. Enhanced electric field gradient at the exposed CNF tips was achieved due to the nanometer size of the electrodes, because of which each individual exposed tip can act as a potential DEP trap to capture the pathogen. Significant decrease in the absolute impedance at the NEA was also observed by EIS experiments. In a final study, we modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with luminol to develop chemiluminescence (CL) based blood biosensor. Modified GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy and TEM. We have applied this CL method for the

  6. Highly Sensitive Nanoparticle-based Multifunctional Biosensor for Antigen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siavoshi, Salome

    Precise and selective positioning of nanoparticles gives rise to many applications where assembly of nano building blocks with different biological or chemical functionalization is necessary. One remarkable application is the simultaneous early detection of multiple biomarkers in the field of miniaturized multiplex biosensors. To enable multiplex detection of antigens, nanoparticles with various antibody coatings can be selectively assembled in trenches on different regions on a biochip so that they bind selectively to the specific antigen of interest. The presented work utilizes electric field assisted assembly techniques to assemble nanoparticles with various surface functionalization and coatings. Nanoparticles are assembled into pre-fabricated via and trench patterns generated on a PMMA coated gold surface, using electron-beam lithography. Two techniques have been developed for selective assembly of nanoparticles: sequential size-selective directed assembly and sequential site-selective assembly. Both selective assembly techniques provide fast and reproducible assembly over large areas while achieving high yield. The sequential size-selective assembly is a template-assisted technique where the selectivity is achieved by controlling the size of the nanopatterns and the size of the nanoparticles. The possibility of particle detachment and the factors affecting the sorting efficiency for this technique is studied. We show that a complete sorting can be achieved when the size of the vias is close to the diameter of the nanoparticles and the size distribution of the chosen nanoparticles do not overlap. In the site-selective assembly, the selectivity is achieved by having electrically isolated sites (regions) on the same chip. Electrophoresis is performed for each region in a step by step process. Selective assembly results, for up to four nanoparticles with various coating/functionalization are presented using the site-selective assembly technique. We use the

  7. Preparation of Micro-biosensor and Its Application in Monitoring in vivo Change of Dopamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Xian; DING Hong; WANG Zhifang

    2005-01-01

    The self-made high sensitivity and selectivity micro-biosensor was applied to monitor the change of dopamine in cerebral nucleus in rats in vivo. The micro-biosensor was prepared and used to detect dopamine level in vitro and monitor the dynamic change of dopamine in different cerebral nucleus in vivo. The results showed the lowest concentration of dopamine that could be detected by the biosensor was 32.5 nmol/L. Its positive peak was significantly different from that of AA, 5-HTP and E. The biosensor could keep working for monitoring the dopamine concentration in the cerebral tissue for more than 10 h. It was concluded that the microsensor has high sensitivity and selectivity to dopamine and can be used to dynamically monitor the change of dopamine in vivo.

  8. REMOTE BIOSENSOR FOR IN SITU MONITORING OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS. (R823663)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A remote electrochemical biosensor for field monitoring of organophosphate nerve agents is described. The new sensor relies on the coupling of the effective biocatalytic action of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) with a submersible amperometric probe design. This combination resu...

  9. Design optimization of highly sensitive LSPR enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensors with nanoholes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wu; Qingkang Wang

    2008-01-01

    For breaking through the sensitivity limitation of conventional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors, novel highly sensitive SPR biosensors with Au nanoparticles and nanogratings enhancement have been proposed recently.But in practice, these structures have obvious disadvantages.In this study, a nanohole based sensitivity enhancement SPR biosensor is proposed and the influence of different structural parameters on the performance is investigated by using rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA).Electromagnetic field distributions around the nanohole are also given out to directly explain the performance difference for various structural parameters.The results indicate that significant sensitivity increase is associated with localized surface plasmons (LSPs) excitation mediated by nanoholes.Except to outcome the weakness of other LSP based biosensors, larger resonance angle shift, reflectance amplitude, and sharper SPR curves' width are obtained simultaneously under optimized structural parameters.

  10. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Fullerene-C60 Nano-Structured Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Pilehvar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important in the field of (biosensors. The performance and sensitivity of biosensors is greatly improved with the integration of nanomaterials into their construction. Since its first discovery, fullerene-C60 has been the object of extensive research. Its unique and favorable characteristics of easy chemical modification, conductivity, and electrochemical properties has led to its tremendous use in (biosensor applications. This paper provides a concise review of advances in fullerene-C60 research and its use as a nanomaterial for the development of biosensors. We examine the research work reported in the literature on the synthesis, functionalization, approaches to nanostructuring electrodes with fullerene, and outline some of the exciting applications in the field of (biosensing.

  11. Multianalyte Biosensor for Simultaneous Determination of Glucose and Galactose Based on Micromachined Chamber-type Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JlA Neng-Qin贾能勤; ZHANG Zong-Rang章宗穰; ZHU Jiang-Zhong朱建中; ZHANG Guo-Xiong张国雄

    2004-01-01

    An amperometric multianalyte biosensor for the simultaneous determination of glucose and galactose was developed based on chamber-type electrodes, which were fabricated by micromachining technology. The dual chamber-type enzyme electrode with glucose and galactose sensor elements was integrated onto one microchip. The experimental parameters of this biosensor were optimized. The biosensor exhibited a linearity of up to 4.0 mol/L for glucose and 4.5 mol/L for galactose, and the response time was about 30 s for glucose and 40 s for galactose. No cross-talking behavior was investigated in the course of simultaneous measurement of the two analytes. Interference from electroactive species, such as ascorbic acid and uric acid, was minimized due to the permselectivity of Nation film. In addition, the biosensor displayed a storage stability of longer than one month.

  12. Biosensors in Health Care: The Milestones Achieved in Their Development towards Lab-on-Chip-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprava Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immense potentiality of biosensors in medical diagnostics has driven scientists in evolution of biosensor technologies and innovating newer tools in time. The cornerstone of the popularity of biosensors in sensing wide range of biomolecules in medical diagnostics is due to their simplicity in operation, higher sensitivity, ability to perform multiplex analysis, and capability to be integrated with different function by the same chip. There remains a huge challenge to meet the demands of performance and yield to its simplicity and affordability. Ultimate goal stands for providing point-of-care testing facility to the remote areas worldwide, particularly the developing countries. It entails continuous development in technology towards multiplexing ability, fabrication, and miniaturization of biosensor devices so that they can provide lab-on-chip-analysis systems to the community.

  13. A novel amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoparticles-mesoporous silica composite for biosensing glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We report a novel bienzyme biosensor based on the assembly of the glucose oxidase (GOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto the gold nanoparticles encapsulated mesoporous silica SBA-15 composite (AuNPs-SBA-15). Electrochemical behavior of the bienzyme bioconjugates biosensor is studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate that the presence of mesoporous AuNPs-SBA-15 greatly enhanced the protein loadings, accelerated interfacial electron transfer of HRP and the electroconducting surface, resulting in the realization of direct electrochemistry of HRP. Owing to the electrocatalytic effect of AuNPs-SBA-15 composite, the biosensor exhibits a sensitive response to H2O2 generated from enzymatic reactions. Thus the bienzyme biosensor could be used for the detection of glucose without the addition of any mediator. The detection limit of glucose was 0.5 μM with a linear range from 1 to 48 μM.

  14. A pyranose dehydrogenase-based biosensor for kinetic analysis of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Badino, Silke Flindt; Tokin, Radina Naytchova;

    2014-01-01

    A novel electrochemical enzyme biosensor was developed for real-time detection of cellulase activity when acting on their natural insoluble substrate, cellulose. The enzyme biosensor was constructed with pyranose dehydrongease (PDH) from Agaricus meleagris that was immobilized on the surface......-biosensor was shown to be anomer unspecific and it can therefore be used in kinetic studies over broad time-scales of both retaining- and inverting cellulases (in addition to enzyme cocktails). The biosensor was used for real-time measurements of the activity of the inverting cellobiohydrolase Cel6A from Hypocrea...... equation for processive cellulases, and it was found that the turnover for HjCel6A at saturating substrate concentration (i.e. maximal apparent specific activity) was similar (0.39–0.40 s−1) for the two substrates. Conversely, the substrate load at half-saturation was much lower for BMCC compared to Avicel...

  15. Nanomaterial-Assisted Signal Enhancement of Hybridization for DNA Biosensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqiang Li

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Detection of DNA sequences has received broad attention due to its potential applications in a variety of fields. As sensitivity of DNA biosensors is determined by signal variation of hybridization events, the signal enhancement is of great significance for improving the sensitivity in DNA detection, which still remains a great challenge. Nanomaterials, which possess some unique chemical and physical properties caused by nanoscale effects, provide a new opportunity for developing novel nanomaterial-based signal-enhancers for DNA biosensors. In this review, recent progress concerning this field, including some newly-developed signal enhancement approaches using quantum-dots, carbon nanotubes and their composites reported by our group and other researchers are comprehensively summarized. Reports on signal enhancement of DNA biosensors by non-nanomaterials, such as enzymes and polymer reagents, are also reviewed for comparison. Furthermore, the prospects for developing DNA biosensors using nanomaterials as signal-enhancers in future are also indicated.

  16. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  17. Microbial corrosion monitoring by an amperometric microbial biosensor developed using whole cell of Pseudomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, R S; Upadhyay, S N

    2001-12-01

    A microbial biosensor was developed for monitoring microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of metallic materials in industrial systems. The Pseudomonas sp. isolated from corroded metal surface was immobilized on acetylcellulose membrane and its respiratory activity was estimated by measuring oxygen consumption. The microbial biosensor was used for the measurement of sulfuric acid in a batch culture medium contaminated by microorganisms. A linear relationship between the microbial sensor response and the concentration of sulfuric acid was observed. The response time of biosensor was 5 min and was dependent on the immobilized cell loading of Pseudomonas sp., pH, temperature and corrosive environments. The microbial biosensor response was stable, reproducible and specific for sensing of sulfur oxidizing bacterial activity. PMID:11679280

  18. Self-Assembled Biosensors on a Solid Interface for Rapid Detection and Growth Monitoring of Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Kinnunen, Paivo; Craig, Elizabeth; Brahmasandra, Sundu; McNaughton, Brandon H

    2012-01-01

    Developing rapid methods for pathogen detection and growth monitoring at low cell and analyte concentrations is an important goal, which numerous technologies are working towards solving. Rapid biosensors have already made a dramatic impact on improving patient outcomes and with continued development, these technologies may also help limit the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and reduce the ever expanding risk of foodborne illnesses. One technology that is being developed with these goals in mind is asynchronous magnetic bead rotation (AMBR) biosensors. Self-assembled AMBR biosensors have been demonstrated at water/air and water/oil interfaces, and here, for the first time, we report on self-assembled AMBR biosensors used at a solid interface. The solid interface configuration was used to measure the growth of Escherichia coli with two distinct phenomena at low cell concentrations: firstly, the AMBR rotational period decreased and secondly, the rotational period increased after several division times. Ta...

  19. A Bioanalytical Chemistry Experiment for Undergraduate Students: Biosensors Based on Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niagi, John; Warner, John; Andreesco, Silvana

    2007-01-01

    The study describes the development of new biosensors based on metal nanoparticles because of its high surface area and large binding ability. The adopted procedure is extremely simple and versatile and can be used in various applications of electrochemistry.

  20. The progress of olfactory transduction and biomimetic olfactory-based biosensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ChunSheng; WANG LiJiang; ZHOU Jun; ZHAO LuHang; WANG Ping

    2007-01-01

    Olfaction is a very important sensation for all animals. Recently great progress has been made in the research of olfactory transduction. Especially the novel finding of the gene superfamily encoding olfactory receptors has led to rapid advances in olfactory transduction. These advances also promoted the research of biomimetic olfactory-based biosensors and some obvious achievements have been obtained due to their potential commercial prospects and promising industrial applications. This paper briefly introduces the biological basis of olfaction, summarizes the progress of olfactory signal transduction in the olfactory neuron, the olfactory bulb and the olfactory cortex, outlines the latest developments and applications of biomimetic olfactory-based biosensors. Finally, the olfactory biosensor based on light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) is addressed in detail based on our recent work and the research trends of olfactory biosensors in future are discussed.