WorldWideScience

Sample records for biosensing electronic resource

  1. Electronic Biosensing with Functionalized rGO FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciril Reiner-Rozman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the following we give a short summary of examples for biosensor concepts in areas in which reduced graphene oxide-based electronic devices can be developed into new classes of biosensors, which are highly sensitive, label-free, disposable and cheap, with electronic signals that are easy to analyze and interpret, suitable for multiplexed operation and for remote control, compatible with NFC technology, etc., and in many cases a clear and promising alternative to optical sensors. The presented areas concern sensing challenges in medical diagnostics with an example for detecting general antibody-antigen interactions, for the monitoring of toxins and pathogens in food and feed stuff, exemplified by the detection of aflatoxins, and the area of smell sensors, which are certainly the most exciting development as there are very few existing examples in which the typically small and hydrophobic odorant molecules can be detected by other means. The example given here concerns the recording of a honey flavor (and a cancer marker for neuroblastoma, homovanillic acid, by the odorant binding protein OBP 14 from the honey bee, immobilized on the reduced graphene oxide gate of an FET sensor.

  2. Label-free all-electronic biosensing in microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael A.

    Label-free, all-electronic detection techniques offer great promise for advancements in medical and biological analysis. Electrical sensing can be used to measure both interfacial and bulk impedance changes in conducting solutions. Electronic sensors produced using standard microfabrication processes are easily integrated into microfluidic systems. Combined with the sensitivity of radiofrequency electrical measurements, this approach offers significant advantages over competing biological sensing methods. Scalable fabrication methods also provide a means of bypassing the prohibitive costs and infrastructure associated with current technologies. We describe the design, development and use of a radiofrequency reflectometer integrated into a microfluidic system towards the specific detection of biologically relevant materials. We developed a detection protocol based on impedimetric changes caused by the binding of antibody/antigen pairs to the sensing region. Here we report the surface chemistry that forms the necessary capture mechanism. Gold-thiol binding was utilized to create an ordered alkane monolayer on the sensor surface. Exposed functional groups target the N-terminus, affixing a protein to the monolayer. The general applicability of this method lends itself to a wide variety of proteins. To demonstrate specificity, commercially available mouse anti- Streptococcus Pneumoniae monoclonal antibody was used to target the full-length recombinant pneumococcal surface protein A, type 2 strain D39 expressed by Streptococcus Pneumoniae. We demonstrate the RF response of the sensor to both the presence of the surface decoration and bound SPn cells in a 1x phosphate buffered saline solution. The combined microfluidic sensor represents a powerful platform for the analysis and detection of cells and biomolecules.

  3. Electron-beam-lithography (EBL)-engineered nanostructures for biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Troy A.; Wickenden, Alma E.

    2004-12-01

    Surface-Enhanced-Raman-Scattering (SERS) is potentially a very sensitive spectroscopic technique for the detection of biological agents (i.e., proteins, viruses or bacteria). However, since initial reports, its utility has not been realized. Its limited acceptance as a routine analysis technique for biological agents is largely due to the lack of reproducible SERS-active substrates. Most established SERS substrate fabrication schemes are based on self-assembly of the metallic (typically, Au, Ag, Pt, Pd or Cu) particles responsible for enhancement. Further, these protocols do not lend themselves to the stringent control over the enhancing feature shape, size, and placement on a nanometer scale. SERS can be made a more robust and attractive spectroscopic technique for biological agents by developing quantifiable, highly sensitive, and highly selective SERS-active substrates. Electron Beam Lithography (EBL), a semiconductor fabrication technique, can be utilized to address many of the obstacles which have limited the broad acceptance of SERS. Specifically, EBL can be employed to precisely control the shape, size and position (on a nanometer scale) of the SERS substrate enhancing features. Since Ashkin's seminal work in the early 1970s, the optical trapping phenomenon has been broadly accepted as a powerful tool to study micrometer-scale biological particles. Recently, research in our laboratory has demonstrated that it is possible to combine the Optical Trapping phenomenon and SERS to develop a high sensitivity spectroscopic technique for the detection of individual bacterial spores. Highly reproducible SERS-active substrates fabricated using EBL have been utilized with this novel spectroscopic technique to investigate the utility of SERS technique for the spectral discrimination of bacterial spores. The SERS substrate fabrication methodology, substrate reproducibility and SERS spectral reproducibility will be discussed.

  4. ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. M. Panneerselvam

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Human Resource Management is an essence the revolution of human resource functions to management and employees. These functions are typically used via intranet and web technology. This helps the organization to improve their standards where they can able to review and forward. All those documents can be viewed within a fraction of second with help of client and server links. The phenomenon of E- HRM deserves closer and more fundamental roots to HR activity. The E-HRM develops and b...

  5. Electronic desalting for controlling the ionic environment in droplet-based biosensing platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, Vikhram Vilasur [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Dak, Piyush; Alam, Muhammad A., E-mail: rbashir@illinois.edu, E-mail: alam@purdue.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Reddy, Bobby; Duarte-Guevara, Carlos; Zhong, Yu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Salm, Eric [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Fischer, Andrew [Abbott Laboratories, 1921 Hurd Drive, Dept. 8482 LC2 M/S 2-33, Irving, Texas 75038 (United States); Liu, Yi-Shao [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu 300-78, Taiwan (China); Bashir, Rashid, E-mail: rbashir@illinois.edu, E-mail: alam@purdue.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The ability to control the ionic environment in saline waters and aqueous electrolytes is useful for desalination as well as electronic biosensing. We demonstrate a method of electronic desalting at micro-scale through on-chip micro electrodes. We show that, while desalting is limited in bulk solutions with unlimited availability of salts, significant desalting of ≥1 mM solutions can be achieved in sub-nanoliter volume droplets with diameters of ∼250 μm. Within these droplets, by using platinum-black microelectrodes and electrochemical surface treatments, we can enhance the electrode surface area to achieve >99% and 41% salt removal in 1 mM and 10 mM salt concentrations, respectively. Through self-consistent simulations and experimental measurements, we demonstrate that conventional double-layer theory over-predicts the desalting capacity and, hence, cannot be used to model systems that are mass limited or undergoing significant salt removal from the bulk. Our results will provide a better understanding of capacitive desalination, as well as a method for salt manipulation in high-throughput droplet-based microfluidic sensing platforms.

  6. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  7. Diamond nanoparticles as a way to improve electron transfer in sol-gel L-lactate biosensing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, M; Casero, E; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E; Petit-Domínguez, M D

    2016-02-18

    In the present work, we have included for the first time diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) in a sol-gel matrix derived from (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) in order to improve electron transfer in a lactate oxidase (LOx) based electrochemical biosensing platform. Firstly, an exhaustive AFM study, including topographical, surface potential (KFM) and capacitance gradient (CG) measurements, of each step involved in the biosensing platform development was performed. The platform is based on gold electrodes (Au) modified with the sol-gel matrix (Au/MPTS) in which diamond nanoparticles (Au/MPTS/DNPs) and lactate oxidase (Au/MPTS/DNPs/LOx) have been included. For the sake of comparison, we have also characterized a gold electrode directly modified with DNPs (Au/DNPs). Secondly, the electrochemical behavior of a redox mediator (hydroxymethyl-ferrocene, HMF) was evaluated at the platforms mentioned above. The response of Au/MPTS/DNPs/LOx towards lactate was obtained. A linear concentration range from 0.053 mM to 1.6 mM, a sensitivity of 2.6 μA mM(-1) and a detection limit of 16 μM were obtained. These analytical properties are comparable to other biosensors, presenting also as advantages that DNPs are inexpensive, environment-friendly and easy-handled nanomaterials. Finally, the developed biosensor was applied for lactate determination in wine samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biosensing International Research and Development

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Jerome; Mrksich, Milan

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this book is to disseminate information on the worldwide status and trends in biosensing R&D to government decisionmakers and the research community. The contributors critically analyze and compare biosensing research in the United States with that being pursued in Japan, Europe and other major industrialized countries. Biosensing includes systems that incorporate a variety of means, including electrical, electronic, and photonic devices; biological materials (e.g., tissue, enzymes, nucleic acids, etc.); and chemical analysis to produce detectable signals for the monitoring or identification of biological phenomena. In a broader sense, the study of biosensing includes any approach to detection of biological elements and the associated software or computer identification technologies (e.g., imaging) that identify biological characteristics. Biosensing is finding a growing number of applications in a wide variety of areas, including biomedicine, food production and processing, and detection of b...

  9. Diamond nanoparticles as a way to improve electron transfer in sol–gel L-lactate biosensing platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briones, M.; Casero, E. [Departamento de Química Analítica y Análisis Instrumental, Facultad de Ciencias, c/Francisco Tomás y Valiente, No7, Campus de Excelencia de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), c/Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz No3, Campus de Excelencia de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pariente, F.; Lorenzo, E. [Departamento de Química Analítica y Análisis Instrumental, Facultad de Ciencias, c/Francisco Tomás y Valiente, No7, Campus de Excelencia de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Petit-Domínguez, M.D., E-mail: mdolores.petit@uam.es [Departamento de Química Analítica y Análisis Instrumental, Facultad de Ciencias, c/Francisco Tomás y Valiente, No7, Campus de Excelencia de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-02-18

    In the present work, we have included for the first time diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) in a sol–gel matrix derived from (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) in order to improve electron transfer in a lactate oxidase (LOx) based electrochemical biosensing platform. Firstly, an exhaustive AFM study, including topographical, surface potential (KFM) and capacitance gradient (CG) measurements, of each step involved in the biosensing platform development was performed. The platform is based on gold electrodes (Au) modified with the sol–gel matrix (Au/MPTS) in which diamond nanoparticles (Au/MPTS/DNPs) and lactate oxidase (Au/MPTS/DNPs/LOx) have been included. For the sake of comparison, we have also characterized a gold electrode directly modified with DNPs (Au/DNPs). Secondly, the electrochemical behavior of a redox mediator (hydroxymethyl-ferrocene, HMF) was evaluated at the platforms mentioned above. The response of Au/MPTS/DNPs/LOx towards lactate was obtained. A linear concentration range from 0.053 mM to 1.6 mM, a sensitivity of 2.6 μA mM{sup −1} and a detection limit of 16 μM were obtained. These analytical properties are comparable to other biosensors, presenting also as advantages that DNPs are inexpensive, environment-friendly and easy-handled nanomaterials. Finally, the developed biosensor was applied for lactate determination in wine samples. - Highlights: • We have included for the first time diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) in a sol–gel matrix for developing lactate biosensors. • DNPs facilitate electron-transfer within the sol–gel network in electrochemical biosensors. • Lactate biosensors show good sensitivity, detection limit, reproducibility and stability.

  10. Stimulatory Effect of Xenobiotics on Oxidative Electron Transport of Chemolithotrophic Nitrifying Bacteria Used as Biosensing Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznica, Andrzej; Nowak, Agnieszka; Ziemski, Przemyslaw; Kwasniewski, Mirosław; Bernas, Tytus

    2013-01-01

    Electron transport chain (ETCh) of ammonium (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) participates in oxidation of ammonium to nitrate (nitrification). Operation of ETCh may be perturbed by a range of water-soluble xenobiotics. Therefore, consortia of nitrifying bacteria may be used as a biosensor to detect water contamination. A surprising feature of this system is an increase of oxygen consumption, detected in the presence of certain inhibitors of ETCh. Thus, to shed light on the mechanism of this effect (and other differences between inhibitors) we monitored separately respiration of the bacteria of the first (AOB - Nitrosomonas) and second (NOB -Nitrobacter) stages of nitrification. Furthermore, we measured plasma membrane potential and the level of reduction of NAD(P)H. We propose a novel model of ETCh in NOB to explain the role of reverse electron transport in the stimulation of oxygen consumption (previously attributed to hormesis). PMID:23326438

  11. Graphene for amino acid biosensing: Theoretical study of the electronic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S. J.; Makinistian, L.; Albanesi, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study of biosensors based on graphene has increased in the last years, the combination of excellent electrical properties and low noise makes graphene a material for next generation electronic devices. This work discusses the application of a graphene-based biosensor for the detection of amino acids histidine (His), alanine (Ala), aspartic acid (Asp), and tyrosine (Tyr). First, we present the results of modeling from first principles the adsorption of the four amino acids on a graphene sheet, we calculate adsorption energy, substrate-adsorbate distance, equilibrium geometrical configurations (upon relaxation) and densities of states (DOS) for each biomolecule adsorbed. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the effects of amino acid adsorption on the electronic transport of graphene, we modeled a device using first-principles calculations with a combination of Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Nonequilibrium Greens Functions (NEGF). We provide with a detailed discussion in terms of transmission, current-voltage curves, and charge transfer. We found evidence of differences in the electronic transport through the graphene sheet due to amino acid adsorption, reinforcing the possibility of graphene-based sensors for amino acid sequencing of proteins.

  12. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  13. Rapid biosensing tools for cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Esimbekova, Elena N; Kratasyuk, Valentina A

    2017-01-15

    The present review critically discusses the latest developments in the field of smart diagnostic systems for cancer biomarkers. A wide coverage of recent biosensing approaches involving aptamers, enzymes, DNA probes, fluorescent probes, interacting proteins and antibodies in vicinity to transducers such as electrochemical, optical and piezoelectric is presented. Recent advanced developments in biosensing approaches for cancer biomarker owes much credit to functionalized nanomaterials due to their unique opto-electronic properties and enhanced surface to volume ratio. Biosensing methods for a plenty of cancer biomarkers has been summarized emphasizing the key principles involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  15. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  16. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  17. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out ... New approaches in acquisition, accessing, selection, preservation and choices on whether to operate digital, or combine traditional print and digital resources in the library have to be worked out and adopted.

  18. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    electronic resources, electronic books, electronic learning, electronic journals, as well as electronic archive among others is intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and sectors of the society. Electronic information resources (EIRS) as reported by Meitz (2004), are "Library materials produced in electronic format.

  19. The calculating rating of electronic resources

    OpenAIRE

    MUMINOV BAHODIR.BOLTAYEICH

    2016-01-01

    The rating of electron resources is devoted to count by theories, directions in this work. The calculating model of rating of ER by entering and exiting directions on bases of used widely PageRank is produced for calculating the rating of web pages in Google searching system. The rating of ER is taken into account for calculating the ratings of entering direction and the calculating exiting direction is accomplished by equitable distribution of ER. And also the calculating rating ER among kin...

  20. Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blansit, B D; Connor, E

    1999-07-01

    Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize the resources effectively and seamlessly. The electronic resource marketplace requires much vigilance, considerable patience, and continuous evaluation. There are several strategies that librarians can employ to stay ahead of the electronic resource curve, including taking advantage of free trials from publishers; marketing free trials and involving users in evaluating new products; watching and testing products marketed to the clientele; agreeing to beta test new products and services; working with aggregators or republishers; joining vendor advisory boards; benchmarking institutional resources against five to eight competitors; and forming or joining a consortium for group negotiating and purchasing. This article provides a brief snapshot of leading biomedical resources; showcases several libraries that have excelled in identifying, acquiring, and organizing electronic resources; and discusses strategies and trends of potential interest to biomedical librarians, especially those working in hospital settings.

  1. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  2. Direct electron transfer and biosensing of glucose oxidase immobilized at multiwalled carbon nanotube-alumina-coated silica modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei-Che; Huang, Jian-Lung; Tsai, Yu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Investigations are reported regarding the direct electrochemical performance of glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized on a film of multiwalled carbon nanotube-alumina-coated silica (MWCNT-ACS). The surface morphology of the GOD/MWCNT-ACS nanobiocomposite is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. In cyclic voltammetric response, the immobilized GOD displays a pair of well-defined redox peaks, with a formal potential (E°′) of − 0.466 V versus Ag/AgCl in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.5) at a scan rate of 0.05 V s −1 ; also the electrochemical response indicates a surface-controlled electrode process. The dependence of formal potential on solution pH indicates that the direct electron transfer reaction of GOD is a reversible two-electron coupled with a two-proton electrochemical reaction process. The glucose biosensor based on the GOD/MWCNT-ACS nanobiocomposite shows a sensitivity of 0.127 A M −1 cm −2 and an apparent Michaelis–Menten constant of 0.5 mM. Furthermore, the prepared biosensor exhibits excellent anti-interference ability to the commonly co-existed uric acid and ascorbic acid. - Highlights: ► A film composed of MWCNT-ACS was used for biosensor application. ► High sensitivity and good selectivity were obtained for the detection of glucose. ► This approach is potential for fabrication of mediator-free biosensor.

  3. Utilization of electronic information resources in Ramat Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... printer, and audio-visuals are equally available. Student have unlimited accessibility in the utilization of electronic resources, students frequently utilized electronic information resources in Ramat Library. It is recommended, among others, that registered students should utilize and access electronic information resources ...

  4. Impact of electronic resources use on academic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that use of electronic resources had a positive impact on students' academic performance. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that more emphasis should be laid on the acquisition of electronic resources so as to give room for wider and multiple access to information resources in order to ...

  5. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  6. The Evolution of Selection Activities for Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Trisha L.

    1997-01-01

    Selection of electronic resources--CD-ROMs, dial access databases, electronic journals, and World Wide Web products--requires a more extensive set of criteria than do print resources. Discusses two factors influencing collection development of electronic products: technology options and licensing issues, and outlines how traditional selection…

  7. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  8. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, e-resources are not always accessible, lack of supporting structures (connection, downloading, printing limits) and too many resources.

  9. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  10. The impact of electronic information resource use on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  11. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  12. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    Abstract. This paper examines the impact of the use of electronic information resources on research output in the universities in Tanzania. Research for this paper was conducted in five public universities in Tanzania with varied levels of access to electronic information resources. The selection of the sample universities was ...

  13. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  14. Use of electronic resources by undergraduates in two selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to know the extent of use of electronic resources and identify the type of electronic resources used by undergraduates in universities in Nigeria. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The study population includes all undergraduate students in the faculty of engineering in Niger Delta ...

  15. Biosensing with Nanofluidic Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassiouk, Ivan; Kozel, Thomas R.; Siwy, Zuzanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently reported nanofluidic diodes with highly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics offer a unique possibility to construct different biosensors. These sensors are based on local changes of the surface charge on walls of single conical nanopores induced by binding of an analyte. The analyte binding can be detected as a change of the ion current rectification of single nanopores defined as a ratio of currents for voltages of one polarity, and currents for voltages of the opposite polarity. In this Article we provided both modeling and experimental studies of various biosensing routes based on monitoring changes of the rectification degree in nanofluidic diodes used as a biosensing platform. A prototype of a sensor for the capsular poly γ-D-glutamic acid (γDPGA) from Bacillus anthracis is presented. The nanopore used for the sensing was locally modified with the monoclonal antibody for γDPGA. The proof of principle of the rectification degree based sensing was further shown by preparation of sensors for avidin and streptavidin. Our devices also allowed for determination of isoelectric point of the minute amounts of proteins immobilized on the surface. PMID:19507907

  16. Electronic resources preferred by pediatric hospitalists for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jimmy B; Tieder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    There is little research on pediatric hospitalists' use of evidence-based resources. The aim of this study was to determine the electronic resources that pediatric hospitalists prefer. Using a web-based survey, the authors determined hospitalists' preferred electronic resources, as well as their attitudes toward lifelong learning, practice, and experience characteristics. One hundred sixteen hospitalists completed the survey. The most preferred resource for general information, patient handouts, and treatment was UpToDate. Online search engines were ranked second for general information and patient handouts. Pediatric hospitalists tend to utilize less rigorous electronic resources such as UpToDate and Google. These results can set a platform for discussing the quality of resources that pediatric hospitalists use.

  17. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    of implementing training programmes to encourage the use of the e-library. Findings: Training sessions increase the usage of library e-resources significantly; however, the effect seems to be short-lived and training sessions alone may not increase the overall long-term usage. Originality/value: The present paper...

  18. Electrochemical biosensing based on polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yibing; Zhao, Ye

    2013-01-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) modified polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is fabricated for electrochemical biosensing application. The titania nanotube array is grown directly on a titanium substrate through an anodic oxidation process. A thin film of polypyrrole is coated onto titania nanotube array to form polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid through a normal pulse voltammetry process. GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is prepared by the covalent immobilization of GOD onto polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid via the cross-linker of glutaraldehyde. The morphology and microstructure of nanotube electrodes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The biosensing properties of this nanotube enzyme electrode have been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid provides highly accessible nanochannels for GOD encapsulation, presenting good enzymatic affinity. As-formed GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode well conducts bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, exhibiting a good biosensing performance with a high sensitivity, low detection limit and wide linear detection range. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram presents the fabrication of glucose oxidase modified polypyrrole/titania (GOD-PPy/TiO 2 ) nanotube enzyme electrode for biosensing application. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid is well used as biosensing substrate. • Polypyrrole promotes GOD immobilization on titania nanotubes via glutaraldehyde. • GOD-polypyrrole/titania enzyme electrode shows good bioelectrocatalytic reactivity

  19. Integrating Electronic Resources into the Library Catalog: A Collaborative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gail; Aldana, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Describes a project at the University of Mississippi Libraries to catalog purchased electronic resources so that access to these resources is available only via the Web-based library catalog. Discusses collaboration between cataloging and systems personnel; and describes the MARC catalog record field that contains the information needed to locate…

  20. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  1. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  2. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  3. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  4. CDC BioSense: Tarrant County, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Tarrant County Public Health (TCPH) and Biosense collaboration is an effort to visualize TCPH health data collected by Biosense using Google Fusion Table...

  5. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  6. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  7. USE OF VIDEO IN MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Denisenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread introduction of electronic educational resources in the educational process requires the development of a scientific basis for all aspects related to their creation and use. These modern means are designed not just to convey to learners the required course material, but also to create conditions for its most effective study. This is possible in conditions of reasonable approach to the presentation of educational material on the screen. The article is devoted to consideration of the problem of presenting educational material in electronic educational resources. Visuals are powerful didactic tool that enhances the perception and understanding of educational information. Particular attention is paid to the use of such a powerful medium like video. Investigated the role and importance of video in the learning process, their educational opportunities and benefits. Shows types of video and their use in electronic educational resources. Grounded requirements for training videos. The recommendations are given on the use of video in combination with other media in electronic educational resources. Adduced the example a real electronic multimedia educational resource and shows the possibility of using video.

  8. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  9. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  10. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  11. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  12. Interrogating Biosensing in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrill, Nick; Wong, Richmond; Howell, Noura

    2017-01-01

    This workshop seeks to expand our understanding and imaginations regarding the possible roles biosensors (sensors measuring humans) can-and should-play in everyday life. By applying a critical lens to issues of interpretation, representation, and experience around biosensing and biosensors, we ai...... to shape research agendas within DIS, and generate new recommendations for designers working with biosensors or their data....

  13. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  14. Printed And Electronic Resources Utilization By Agricultural Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the use of printed and electronic resources by agricultural science students in three Nigerian universities. A two-part questionnaire was designed to elicit necessary information from the respondents selected for the study. One thousand three hundred (1300) respondents from faculties of Agriculture in ...

  15. Electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the state of electronic information resource sharing among university libraries in Southern part of Nigeria, highlighting the prospects and the challenges. The study was an empirical research which adopted the descriptive survey as the design. The questionnaire was used to collect data from the ...

  16. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, E- journals, CD-ROMs, AGORA, and ... to finance and geographical location. Furthermore, in developed countries like United Kingdom, students get access to .... databases, web sources and audio-video tapes. Furthermore, studies also ...

  17. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  18. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services in A.B.U & UNIBEN MTN Net Libraries. ... Lastly, management of the MTN Net Libraries should conduct user studies annually in order to have feedback from users on how well the library is meeting their information needs. The results of the survey should ...

  19. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  20. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is based on an empirical study that examined the association between gender and the use of electronic information resources among postgraduate students at the University of Dar es salaam, Tanzania. The study was conducted in December 2005 and integrated both qualitative and quantitative research ...

  1. Use of electronic information resources among the undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at finding out the use of electronic information resources among undergraduate students in the Federal University of Technology, Akure. The study is based on descriptive survey design method and the population consists of 16,962 undergraduate students across different schools at the Federal University ...

  2. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  3. Student Satisfaction with Electronic Library Resources at Wayne State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Robert P.; Powell, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of student satisfaction with electronic library resources other than the online catalog at Wayne State University. Undertaken in Fall Term 2000 as a class project for a marketing course, a student team designed, administered, and analyzed a survey of a random sample of students. Almost 40% of the…

  4. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  5. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  6. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  7. Planar chiral metamaterials for biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugkar, Sangeeta; De Leon, Israel; Horton, Matthew; Qassim, Hammam; Leach, Jonathan; Boyd, Robert W.

    2013-02-01

    There has been a considerable effort recently in the development of planar chiral metamaterials. Owing to the lack of inversion symmetry, these materials have been shown to display interesting physical properties such as negative index of refraction and giant optical activity. However, the biosensing capabilities of these chiral metamaterials have not been fully explored. Ultrasensitive detection and structural characterization of proteins adsorbed on chiral plasmonic substrates was demonstrated recently using UV-visible circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Second harmonic generation microscopy is an extremely sensitive nonlinear optical probe to investigate the chirality of biomaterials. In this study, we characterize the chiral response of chiral plasmonic metamaterials using second harmonic generation microscopy and CD spectroscopy. These planar chiral metamaterials, fabricated by electron-beam lithography, consist of right-handed and left-handed gold gammadions of length 400 nm and thickness 100nm, deposited on a glass substrate and arranged in a square lattice with a periodicity of 800nm.

  8. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (biosensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (biosensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation—which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports—the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs.

  9. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos Angulo; Canalejas-Tejero, Víctor; Herranz, Sonia; Urraca, Javier; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz; Avella-Oliver, Miquel; Maquieira, Ángel; Puchades, Rosa

    2015-07-09

    Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (bio)sensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (bio)sensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation--which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA) immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports--the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs.

  10. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos Angulo; Canalejas-Tejero, Víctor; Herranz, Sonia; Urraca, Javier; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz; Avella-Oliver, Miquel; Maquieira, Ángel; Puchades, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (bio)sensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (bio)sensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation—which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA) immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports—the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs. PMID:26184330

  11. TO QUESTION OF QUALITY EXAMINATION OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER) for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process), described the requirements to the participants...

  12. Analysis of empty responses from electronic resources in infobutton managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jie; Hulse, Nathan C; Tao, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Infobuttons provide context-aware educational materials to both providers and patients and are becoming an important element in modern electronic health records (EHR) and patient health records (PHR). However, the content from different electronic resources (e-resource) as responses from infobutton manager has not been fully analyzed and evaluated. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically analyzing responses from infobutton manager. A tool is implemented to retrieve and analyze responses from infobutton manager. To test the tool, we extracted and sampled common and uncommon concepts from EHR usage data in Intermountain Healthcare's enterprise data warehouse. From the output of the tool, we evaluate infobutton performance by multiple categories, including against the most and less common used concepts, grouped by different modules in patient portal, by different e-resources, and by type of access (standardized Health Level Seven (HL7) vs not). Based on the results of our evaluation, we provide suggestions for further enhancements of infobuttons to the current implementation, including suggesting accessing priorities of e-resources and encouraging the use of the HL7 standard.

  13. Evaluating increased resource use in fibromyalgia using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margolis JM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay M Margolis,1 Elizabeth T Masters,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 David M Smith,1 Steven Faulkner4 1Truven Health Analytics, Life Sciences, Outcomes Research, Bethesda, MD, 2Pfizer Inc, Outcomes & Evidence, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Statistics, Groton, CT, 4Pfizer Inc, North American Medical Affairs, Medical Outcomes Specialists, St Louis, MO, USA Objective: The management of fibromyalgia (FM, a chronic musculoskeletal disease, remains challenging, and patients with FM are often characterized by high health care resource utilization. This study sought to explore potential drivers of all-cause health care resource utilization and other factors associated with high resource use, using a large electronic health records (EHR database to explore data from patients diagnosed with FM. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of de-identified EHR data from the Humedica database. Adults (≥18 years with FM were identified based on ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 and were required to have evidence of ≥12 months continuous care pre- and post-index; first FM diagnosis was the index event; 12-month pre- and post-index reporting periods. Multivariable analysis evaluated relationships between variables and resource utilization. Results: Patients were predominantly female (81.4%, Caucasian (87.7%, with a mean (standard deviation age of 54.4 (14.8 years. The highest health care resource utilization was observed for the categories of “medication orders” and “physician office visits,” with 12-month post-index means of 21.2 (21.5 drug orders/patient and 15.1 (18.1 office visits/patient; the latter accounted for 73.3% of all health care visits. Opioids were the most common prescription medication, 44.3% of all patients. The chance of high resource use was significantly increased (P<0.001 26% among African-Americans vs Caucasians and for patients

  14. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case......-case scenario, only 47% of the total materials in RVCs are ultimately recycled. While this low material recovery is mainly due to the lower plastic recycling rate, other market realities and the complex material flows in the recycling chain also contribute to it. The study provides a robust methodological...... approach for assessing the EoL performance based on the knowledge of a product and its complex recycling chain. The lessons learned can be used to support both the design and EoL processing of products with similar features, which carry a high potential for resource recovery, especially at the initial...

  15. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  16. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  17. Electrochemical biosensing based on polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yibing; Zhao, Ye

    2013-12-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) modified polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is fabricated for electrochemical biosensing application. The titania nanotube array is grown directly on a titanium substrate through an anodic oxidation process. A thin film of polypyrrole is coated onto titania nanotube array to form polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid through a normal pulse voltammetry process. GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is prepared by the covalent immobilization of GOD onto polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid via the cross-linker of glutaraldehyde. The morphology and microstructure of nanotube electrodes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The biosensing properties of this nanotube enzyme electrode have been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid provides highly accessible nanochannels for GOD encapsulation, presenting good enzymatic affinity. As-formed GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode well conducts bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, exhibiting a good biosensing performance with a high sensitivity, low detection limit and wide linear detection range. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  19. TO QUESTION OF QUALITY EXAMINATION OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana G. Lytvynova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the scientific and methodological approaches to the examination of quality of electronic educational resources (EER for secondary schools. It was defined conceptual apparatus, described the object of examination, clarified certain aspects of the functions of examination, determined the basic tasks of expertise, summarized the principles of expertise (scientific, personalization, active involvement in the learning process, described the requirements to the participants of EER expertise, grounded EER accordance to didactic and methodological requirements, described an algorithm of preparation for  the examination object to determine compliance with the requirements of didactic. It is established that the assessment is aimed to the receipt from the experts of corresponding data and acceptance on their basis of competent decisions about expedience of the use in general educational establishments.

  20. Noble Metal Nanoparticles for Biosensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Gonçalo; Conde, João; Veigas, Bruno; Giestas, Leticia; Almeida, Carina; Assunção, Maria; Rosa, João; Baptista, Pedro V.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade the use of nanomaterials has been having a great impact in biosensing. In particular, the unique properties of noble metal nanoparticles have allowed for the development of new biosensing platforms with enhanced capabilities in the specific detection of bioanalytes. Noble metal nanoparticles show unique physicochemical properties (such as ease of functionalization via simple chemistry and high surface-to-volume ratios) that allied with their unique spectral and optical properties have prompted the development of a plethora of biosensing platforms. Additionally, they also provide an additional or enhanced layer of application for commonly used techniques, such as fluorescence, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Herein we review the use of noble metal nanoparticles for biosensing strategies—from synthesis and functionalization to integration in molecular diagnostics platforms, with special focus on those that have made their way into the diagnostics laboratory. PMID:22438731

  1. Cerium phosphate nanotubes: synthesis, characterization and biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ling; Yang, Lige; Zhou, Bo; Cai, Chenxin

    2009-01-01

    Cerium phosphate (CeP) nanotubes have been synthesized and confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The 1D nanomaterial has a monoclinic crystal structure with a mean width of 15-20 nm and a length up to several micrometers. The nanotubes have been employed as electrode substrates for immobilization and direct electrochemistry of heme proteins/enzymes with myoglobin (Mb) as a model. The electrochemical characteristics of the Mb-CeP/GC electrode were studied by voltammetry. After being immobilized on the nanotubes, Mb can keep its natural structure and undergo effective direct electron transfer reaction with a pair of well-defined redox peaks at -(367 ± 3) mV (pH 7.5). The apparent electron transfer rate constant is (9.1 ± 1.4) s-1. The electrode displays good features in the electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2, and thus can be used as a biosensor for detecting the substrate with a low detection limit (0.5 ± 0.05 µM), a wide linear range (0.01-2 mM), high sensitivity (14.4 ± 1.2 µA mM-1), as well as good stability and reproducibility. CeP nanotubes can become a simple and effective biosensing platform for the integration of heme proteins/enzymes and electrodes, which can provide analytical access to a large group of enzymes for a wide range of bioelectrochemical applications.

  2. Cerium phosphate nanotubes: synthesis, characterization and biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Ling; Yang Lige; Zhou Bo; Cai Chenxin

    2009-01-01

    Cerium phosphate (CeP) nanotubes have been synthesized and confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The 1D nanomaterial has a monoclinic crystal structure with a mean width of 15-20 nm and a length up to several micrometers. The nanotubes have been employed as electrode substrates for immobilization and direct electrochemistry of heme proteins/enzymes with myoglobin (Mb) as a model. The electrochemical characteristics of the Mb-CeP/GC electrode were studied by voltammetry. After being immobilized on the nanotubes, Mb can keep its natural structure and undergo effective direct electron transfer reaction with a pair of well-defined redox peaks at -(367 ± 3) mV (pH 7.5). The apparent electron transfer rate constant is (9.1 ± 1.4) s -1 . The electrode displays good features in the electrocatalytic reduction of H 2 O 2 , and thus can be used as a biosensor for detecting the substrate with a low detection limit (0.5 ± 0.05 μM), a wide linear range (0.01-2 mM), high sensitivity (14.4 ± 1.2 μA mM -1 ), as well as good stability and reproducibility. CeP nanotubes can become a simple and effective biosensing platform for the integration of heme proteins/enzymes and electrodes, which can provide analytical access to a large group of enzymes for a wide range of bioelectrochemical applications.

  3. Sensitized mass change detection using Au nanoporous electrode for biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Naoto; Terasawa, Hideaki; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Shingubara, Shoso; Ito, Takeshi

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured Au was obtained on an electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) chip by anodization in an oxalic acid solution. The effective surface area was expanded by these nanostructures and evaluated by electrochemical measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Several morphologies, such as a nanosphere and a spongy structure, were observed under various anodic conditions. We demonstrated that a QCM chip with an anodized Au electrode was effective in biosensing because of its large surface area. The frequency shift corresponding to an antigen-antibody reaction improved on a Au nanosphere electrode compared with a flat surface electrode and spongy structure.

  4. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  5. Biosensing by WGM Microspherical Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo C. Righini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whispering gallery mode (WGM microresonators, thanks to their unique properties, have allowed researchers to achieve important results in both fundamental research and engineering applications. Among the various geometries, microspheres are the simplest 3D WGM resonators; the total optical loss in such resonators can be extremely low, and the resulting extraordinarily high Q values of 108–109 lead to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. They can also be coated in order to better control their properties or to increase their functionality. Their very high sensitivity to changes in the surrounding medium has been exploited for several sensing applications: protein adsorption, trace gas detection, impurity detection in liquids, structural health monitoring of composite materials, detection of electric fields, pressure sensing, and so on. In the present paper, after a general introduction to WGM resonators, attention is focused on spherical microresonators, either in bulk or in bubble format, to their fabrication, characterization and functionalization. The state of the art in the area of biosensing is presented, and the perspectives of further developments are discussed.

  6. Prospects of Nanobiomaterials for Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra P. Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress and development in biosensor development will inevitably focus upon the technology of the nanomaterials that offer promise to solve the biocompatibility and biofouling problems. The biosensors using smart nanomaterials have applications for rapid, specific, sensitive, inexpensive, in-field, on-line and/or real-time detection of pesticides, antibiotics, pathogens, toxins, proteins, microbes, plants, animals, foods, soil, air, and water. Thus, biosensors are excellent analytical tools for pollution monitoring, by which implementation of legislative provisions to safeguard our biosphere could be made effectively plausible. The current trends and challenges with nanomaterials for various applications will have focus biosensor development and miniaturization. All these growing areas will have a remarkable influence on the development of new ultrasensitive biosensing devices to resolve the severe pollution problems in the future that not only challenges the human health but also affects adversely other various comforts to living entities. This review paper summarizes recent progress in the development of biosensors by integrating functional biomolecules with different types of nanomaterials, including metallic nanoparticles, semiconductor nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, inorganic/organic hybrid, dendrimers, and carbon nanotubes/graphene.

  7. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  8. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

  9. NanoBiosensing Principles, Development and Application

    CERN Document Server

    Ju, Huangxian; Wang, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This book will cover the full scope of nanobiosensing, which combines the newest research results in the cross-disciplines of chemistry, biology, and materials science with biosensing and bioanalysis to develop novel detection principles, sensing mechanisms, and device engineering methods. It not only covers the important types of nanomaterials for biosensing applications, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofiber, quantum dots, fullerenes, fluorescent and biological molecules, etc., but also illustrates a wide range of sensing principles, including electrochemical detection, fluorescence, chemiluminesence, antibody-antigen interactions, and magnetic detection. The book details novel developments in the methodology and devices of biosensing and bioanalysis combined with nanoscience and nanotechnology, as well as their applications in biomedicine and environmental monitoring. Furthermore, the reported works on the application and biofunction of nanoparticles have attracted extensive attention and interest, ...

  10. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  11. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  12. Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

  13. Information visualization techniques for sensing and biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulovich, Fernando V; Moraes, Marli L; Maki, Rafael Mitsuo; Ferreira, Marystela; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina F

    2011-04-07

    The development of new methods and concepts to visualize massive amounts of data holds the promise to revolutionize the way scientific results are analyzed, especially when tasks such as classification and clustering are involved, as in the case of sensing and biosensing. In this paper we employ a suite of software tools, referred to as PEx-Sensors, through which projection techniques are used to analyze electrical impedance spectroscopy data in electronic tongues and related sensors. The possibility of treating high dimension datasets with PEx-Sensors is advantageous because the whole impedance vs. frequency curves obtained with various sensing units and for a variety of samples can be analyzed at once. It will be shown that non-linear projection techniques such as Sammon's Mapping or IDMAP provide higher distinction ability than linear methods for sensor arrays containing units capable of molecular recognition, apparently because these techniques are able to capture the cooperative response owing to specific interactions between the sensing unit material and the analyte. In addition to allowing for a higher sensitivity and selectivity, the use of PEx-Sensors permits the identification of the major contributors for the distinguishing ability of sensing units and of the optimized frequency range. The latter will be illustrated with sensing units made with layer-by-layer (LbL) films to detect phytic acid, whose capacitance data were visualized with Parallel Coordinates. Significantly, the implementation of PEx-Sensors was conceived so as to handle any type of sensor based on any type of principle of detection, representing therefore a generic platform for treating large amounts of data for sensors and biosensors. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  14. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  15. Use of Internet and Electronic Resources amongst Postgraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings indicate that the study group has regular access to the internet , and preferred using free online resources from Google and Wikipedia to institutionally subscribed academic online resources in databases such as HINARI, EBSCO Host, Questia , JSTOR and High Beam.This shows that technology alone cannot help ...

  16. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  17. Towards autonomous lab-on-a-chip devices for cell phone biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, Germán; Suska, Anke; Filippini, Daniel

    2016-03-15

    Modern cell phones are a ubiquitous resource with a residual capacity to accommodate chemical sensing and biosensing capabilities. From the different approaches explored to capitalize on such resource, the use of autonomous disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices-conceived as only accessories to complement cell phones-underscores the possibility to entirely retain cell phones' ubiquity for distributed biosensing. The technology and principles exploited for autonomous LOC devices are here selected and reviewed focusing on their potential to serve cell phone readout configurations. Together with this requirement, the central aspects of cell phones' resources that determine their potential for analytical detection are examined. The conversion of these LOC concepts into universal architectures that are readable on unaccessorized phones is discussed within this context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  19. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  20. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    reported using free Internet resources including the search engines, while only a small proportion uses scholarly databases. For example, 22% of researchers reported using the. African Journals Online (AJOL) while 7% use Gale databases (see Table 2 for details). Additionally, the frequency of use also varied significantly ...

  1. Challenges associated with cataloguing of electronic resources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the paper is to identify challenges associated with the cataloguing of e resources in some selected university libraries in south –south Nigeria. The descriptive survey design involving the use of questionnaire as the research instrument was adopted. The population comprised of cataloguers in five selected ...

  2. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  3. Growing an Electronic Library: Resources, Utility, Marketing and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, David; Dugdale, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of the ResIDe Electronic Library at the University of the West of England, Bristol. Analyzes potential of the system to increase economy, efficiency and effectiveness in library services and relates it to how the needs of sponsors and students can be met. (Author/LRW)

  4. MODELING OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC LEARNING RESOURCES: THE INTEGRATED AND DIFFERENTIATED APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Results on modeling of quality management system of electronic information resources on the basis of the analysis of its elements functioning with use of the integrated and differentiated approaches are presented. Application of such model is illustrated on an example of calculation and optimization of parameters of a quality management system at the organization of the co-ordinated work of services of monitoring, an estimation of quality and support of electronic learning resources.

  5. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  6. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  7. Video Killed the Radio Star: Language Students' Use of Electronic Resources-Reading or Viewing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate language students' use of print and electronic resources for their research papers required in research techniques class, focusing on which reading strategies they used while reading these resources. The participants of the study were 90 sophomore students enrolled in the research techniques class offered at…

  8. Biosensing Using Magnetic Particle Detection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic particles are widely used as signal labels in a variety of biological sensing applications, such as molecular detection and related strategies that rely on ligand-receptor binding. In this review, we explore the fundamental concepts involved in designing magnetic particles for biosensing applications and the techniques used to detect them. First, we briefly describe the magnetic properties that are important for bio-sensing applications and highlight the associated key parameters (such as the starting materials, size, functionalization methods, and bio-conjugation strategies. Subsequently, we focus on magnetic sensing applications that utilize several types of magnetic detection techniques: spintronic sensors, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR sensors, superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs, sensors based on the atomic magnetometer (AM, and others. From the studies reported, we note that the size of the MPs is one of the most important factors in choosing a sensing technique.

  9. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  10. Nanoroughened plasmonic films for enhanced biosensing detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Moal, Eric [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS UMR 7587, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Leveque-Fort, Sandrine [Laboratoire de Photophysique Moleculaire, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS UPR 3361, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Potier, Marie-Claude; Fort, Emmanuel [Laboratoire de Neurobiologie et Diversite Cellulaire, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS UMR 7637, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: emmanuel.fort@espci.fr

    2009-06-03

    Although fluorescence is the prevailing labeling technique in biosensing applications, sensitivity improvement is still a striving challenge. We show that coating standard microscope slides with nanoroughened silver films provides a high fluorescence signal enhancement due to plasmonic interactions. As a proof of concept, we applied these films with tailored plasmonic properties to DNA microarrays. Using common optical scanning devices, we achieved signal amplifications of more than 40-fold.

  11. Biosensing with Luminescent Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Sapsford, Kim E.; Pons, Thomas; Medintz, Igor L.; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2006-01-01

    Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs) are a recently developed class of nanomaterial whose unique photophysical properties are helping to create a new generation of robust fluorescent biosensors. QD properties of interest for biosensing include high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow size-tunable photoluminescent emissions and exceptional resistance to both photobleaching and chemical degradation. In this review, we examine the progress in adapti...

  12. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  13. Silicon-based photonic integrated circuit for label-free biosensing

    OpenAIRE

    Samusenko, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-based Photonic Integrated Circuit (PIC) is a device that integrates several optical components using the mature semiconductor technology platform, developed through years for the needs of electronic integrated circuits. In recent years, silicon PICs have been demonstrated as a powerful platform for biosensing systems - devices which play an omnipresent role in such essential life aspects as health care, environmental monitoring, food safety, etc. The growing importance of silicon phot...

  14. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J; Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Guenther, Annegret; Tschöpe, Andreas; Schotter, Joerg

    2016-06-06

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  15. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    KAUST Repository

    Schrittwieser, Stefan

    2016-06-06

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation.

  16. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  17. Use of poisons information resources and satisfaction with electronic products by Victorian emergency department staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Stephen; Fountain, John S; Reith, David M; Braitberg, George; Cruickshank, Jaycen

    2014-10-01

    ED staff use a range of poisons information resources of varying type and quality. The present study aims to identify those resources utilised in the state of Victoria, Australia, and assess opinion of the most used electronic products. A previously validated self-administered survey was conducted in 15 EDs, with 10 questionnaires sent to each. The survey was then repeated following the provision of a 4-month period of access to Toxinz™, an Internet poisons information product novel to the region. The study was conducted from December 2010 to August 2011. There were 117 (78%) and 48 (32%) responses received from the first and second surveys, respectively, a 55% overall response rate. No statistically significant differences in professional group, numbers of poisoned patients seen or resource type accessed were identified between studies. The electronic resource most used in the first survey was Poisindex® (48.68%) and Toxinz™ (64.1%) in the second. There were statistically significant (P poisons information but would do so if a reputable product was available. The order of poisons information sources most utilised was: consultation with a colleague, in-house protocols and electronic resources. There was a significant difference in satisfaction with electronic poisons information resources and a movement away from existing sources when choice was provided. Interest in increased use of mobile solutions was identified. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  18. Biosensing with Quantum Dots: A Microfluidic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoy, Charles H.; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Krull, Ulrich J.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have served as the basis for signal development in a variety of biosensing technologies and in applications using bioprobes. The use of QDs as physical platforms to develop biosensors and bioprobes has attracted considerable interest. This is largely due to the unique optical properties of QDs that make them excellent choices as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and well suited for optical multiplexing. The large majority of QD-based bioprobe and biosensing technologies that have been described operate in bulk solution environments, where selective binding events at the surface of QDs are often associated with relatively long periods to reach a steady-state signal. An alternative approach to the design of biosensor architectures may be provided by a microfluidic system (MFS). A MFS is able to integrate chemical and biological processes into a single platform and allows for manipulation of flow conditions to achieve, by sample transport and mixing, reaction rates that are not entirely diffusion controlled. Integrating assays in a MFS provides numerous additional advantages, which include the use of very small amounts of reagents and samples, possible sample processing before detection, ultra-high sensitivity, high throughput, short analysis time, and in situ monitoring. Herein, a comprehensive review is provided that addresses the key concepts and applications of QD-based microfluidic biosensors with an added emphasis on how this combination of technologies provides for innovations in bioassay designs. Examples from the literature are used to highlight the many advantages of biosensing in a MFS and illustrate the versatility that such a platform offers in the design strategy. PMID:22163723

  19. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  20. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  1. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an electronic guidebook, Sotto Voce, that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each other's guidebook activity. We have conducted three studies of visitors using electronic guidebooks in a historic house: one study with open air audio played through speakers and two studies with eavesdropped audio. An analysis of visitor interaction in these studies suggests that eavesdropped audio provides more social and interactive learning resources than open air aud...

  2. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  3. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  4. Awareness and use of electronic resources at a university campus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looks into the use of electronic resources by the faculty members of College of Technology Education, Kumasi of the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Sixty-two copies of a questionnaire were sent to the entire faculty and 31 were returned which gave a response rate of 50%. The responses showed very ...

  5. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  6. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  7. Printed organo-functionalized graphene for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisitsoraat, A; Mensing, J Ph; Karuwan, C; Sriprachuabwong, C; Jaruwongrungsee, K; Phokharatkul, D; Daniels, T M; Liewhiran, C; Tuantranont, A

    2017-01-15

    Graphene is a highly promising material for biosensors due to its excellent physical and chemical properties which facilitate electron transfer between the active locales of enzymes or other biomaterials and a transducer surface. Printing technology has recently emerged as a low-cost and practical method for fabrication of flexible and disposable electronics devices. The combination of these technologies is promising for the production and commercialization of low cost sensors. In this review, recent developments in organo-functionalized graphene and printed biosensor technologies are comprehensively covered. Firstly, various methods for printing graphene-based fluids on different substrates are discussed. Secondly, different graphene-based ink materials and preparation methods are described. Lastly, biosensing performances of printed or printable graphene-based electrochemical and field effect transistor sensors for some important analytes are elaborated. The reported printed graphene based sensors exhibit promising properties with good reliability suitable for commercial applications. Among most reports, only a few printed graphene-based biosensors including screen-printed oxidase-functionalized graphene biosensor have been demonstrated. The technology is still at early stage but rapidly growing and will earn great attention in the near future due to increasing demand of low-cost and disposable biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Information visualization to enhance sensitivity and selectivity in biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Constantino, Carlos J L; Paulovich, Fernando V; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina F

    2012-12-01

    An overview is provided of the various methods for analyzing biosensing data, with emphasis on information visualization approaches such as multidimensional projection techniques. Emphasis is placed on the importance of data analysis methods, with a description of traditional techniques, including the advantages and limitations of linear and non-linear methods to generate layouts that emphasize similarity/dissimilarity relationships among data instances. Particularly important are recent methods that allow processing high-dimensional data, thus taking full advantage of the capabilities of modern equipment. In this area, now referred to as e-science, the choice of appropriate data analysis methods is crucial to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of sensors and biosensors. Two types of systems deserving attention in this context are electronic noses and electronic tongues, which are made of sensor arrays whose electrical or electrochemical responses are combined to provide "finger print" information for aromas and tastes. Examples will also be given of unprecedented detection of tropical diseases, made possible with the use of multidimensional projection techniques. Furthermore, ways of using these techniques along with other information visualization methods to optimize biosensors will be discussed.

  9. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  10. Microneedle arrays for biosensing and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Narayan, Roger; Miller, Philip; Polsky, Ronen; Edwards, Thayne L.

    2017-08-22

    Methods, structures, and systems are disclosed for biosensing and drug delivery techniques. In one aspect, a^ device for detecting an analyte and/or releasing a biochemical into a biological fluid can include an array of hollowed needles, in which each needle includes a protruded needle structure including an exterior wall forming a hollow interior and an opening at a terminal end of the protruded needle structure that exposes the hollow interior, and a probe inside the exterior wall to interact with one or more chemical or biological substances that come in contact with the probe via the opening to produce a probe sensing signal, and an array of wires that are coupled to probes of the array of hollowed needles, respectively, each wire being electrically conductive to transmit the probe sensing signal produced by a respective probe.

  11. Microneedle arrays for biosensing and drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Joseph; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Narayan, Roger; Miller, Philip

    2017-08-29

    Methods, structures, and systems are disclosed for biosensing and drug delivery techniques. In one aspect, a device for detecting an analyte and/or releasing a biochemical into a biological fluid can include an array of hollowed needles, in which each needle includes a protruded needle structure including an exterior wall forming a hollow interior and an opening at a terminal end of the protruded needle structure that exposes the hollow interior, and a probe inside the exterior wall to interact with one or more chemical or biological substances that come in contact with the probe via the opening to produce a probe sensing signal, and an array of wires that are coupled to probes of the array of hollowed needles, respectively, each wire being electrically conductive to transmit the probe sensing signal produced by a respective probe.

  12. Biosensing with Luminescent Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Mattoussi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs are a recentlydeveloped class of nanomaterial whose unique photophysical properties are helping tocreate a new generation of robust fluorescent biosensors. QD properties of interest forbiosensing include high quantum yields, broad absorption spectra coupled to narrow sizetunablephotoluminescent emissions and exceptional resistance to both photobleaching andchemical degradation. In this review, we examine the progress in adapting QDs for severalpredominantly in vitro biosensing applications including use in immunoassays, asgeneralized probes, in nucleic acid detection and fluorescence resonance energy transfer(FRET - based sensing. We also describe several important considerations when workingwith QDs mainly centered on the choice of material(s and appropriate strategies forattaching biomolecules to the QDs.

  13. Directions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science of students of a teacher training college

    OpenAIRE

    Светлана Анатольева Баженова

    2009-01-01

    Article is devoted questions of use of electronic resources at training to computer science in a teacher training college, principles of pedagogical expediency of use of electronic resources at training are specified computer science and positive aspects of such use for different forms of work of the student and the teacher are allocated.

  14. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  15. Two-dimensional graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Mengyi; Rong, Qiming; Meng, Hong-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Bing

    2017-03-15

    Two-dimensional graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (CNNSs) with planar graphene-like structure have stimulated increasingly research interest in recent years due to their unique physicochemical properties. CNNSs possess superior stability, high fluorescence quantum yield, low-toxicity, excellent biocompatibility, unique electroluminescent and photoelectrochemical properties, which make them appropriate candidates for biosensing. In this review, we first introduce the preparation and unique properties of CNNSs, with emphasis on their superior properties for biosensing. Then, recent advances of CNNSs in photoelectrochemical biosensing, electrochemiluminescence biosensing and fluorescence biosensing are highlighted. An additional attention is paid to the marriage of CNNSs and nucleic acids, which exhibits great potentials in both biosensing and intracellular imaging. Finally, current challenges and opportunities of this 2D material are outlined. Inspired by the unique properties of CNNSs and their advantages in biological applications, we expect that more attention will be drawn to this promising 2D material and extensive applications can be found in bioanalysis and diseases diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  17. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  18. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  19. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  20. Plasmonic interferometers: From physics to biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xie

    Optical interferometry has a long history and wide range of applications. In recent years, plasmonic interferometer arouses great interest due to its compact size and enhanced light-matter interaction. They have demonstrated attractive applications in biomolecule sensing, optical modulation/switching, and material characterization, etc. In this work, we first propose a practical far-field method to extract the intrinsic phase dispersion, revealing important phase information during interactions among free-space light, nanostructure, and SPs. The proposed approach is confirmed by both simulation and experiment. Then we design novel plasmonic interferometer structure for sensitive optical sensing applications. To overcome two major limitations suffered by previously reported double-slit plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (PMZI), two new schemes are proposed and investigated. (1) A PMZI based on end-fire coupling improves the SP coupling efficiency and enhance the interference contrast more than 50 times. (2) In another design, a multi-layered metal-insulator-metal PMZI releases the requirement for single-slit illumination, which enables sensitive, high-throughput sensing applications based on intensity modulation. We develop a sensitive, low-cost and high-throughput biosensing platform based on intensity modulation using ring-hole plasmonic interferometers. This biosensor is then integrated with cell-phone-based microscope, which is promising to develop a portable sensor for point-of-care diagnostics, epidemic disease control and food safety monitoring.

  1. Corrosion resistant metallic glasses for biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagasti, Ariane; Lopes, Ana Catarina; Lasheras, Andoni; Palomares, Verónica; Carrizo, Javier; Gutierrez, Jon; Barandiaran, J. Manuel

    2018-04-01

    We report the fabrication by melt spinning, the magnetic and magnetoelastic characterization and corrosion behaviour study (by potentiodynamic methods) of an Fe-based, Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B metallic glass to be used as resonant platform for biological and chemical detection purposes. The same study has been performed in Fe-Co-Si-B (with excellent magnetoelastic properties) and Fe-Ni-B (with good corrosion properties due to the substitution of Co by Ni) composition amorphous alloys. The well-known, commercial metallic glass with high corrosion resistance Metglas 2826MB®(Fe40Ni38Mo4B18), widely used for such biological and chemical detection purposes, has been also fully characterized and used as reference. For our Fe-Ni-Cr-Si-B alloy, we have measured values of magnetization (1.22 T), magnetostriction (11.5 ppm) and ΔE effect (6.8 %) values, as well as corrosion potential (-0.25 V), current density (2.54 A/m2), and polarization resistance (56.22 Ω.cm2) that make this composition very promising for the desired biosensing applications. The obtained parameters from our exhaustive characterization are compared with the values obtained for the other different composition metallic glasses and discussed in terms of Ni and Cr content.

  2. Optical biosensing strategies for DNA methylation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazmul Islam, Md; Yadav, Sharda; Hakimul Haque, Md; Munaz, Ahmed; Islam, Farhadul; Al Hossain, Md Shahriar; Gopalan, Vinod; Lam, Alfred K; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A

    2017-06-15

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification of DNA, where a methyl group is added at the fifth carbon of the cytosine base to form 5 methyl cytosine (5mC) without altering the DNA sequences. It plays important roles in regulating many cellular processes by modulating key genes expression. Alteration in DNA methylation patterns becomes particularly important in the aetiology of different diseases including cancers. Abnormal methylation pattern could contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer either by silencing key tumor suppressor genes or by activating oncogenes. Thus, DNA methylation biosensing can help in the better understanding of cancer prognosis and diagnosis and aid the development of therapies. Over the last few decades, a plethora of optical detection techniques have been developed for analyzing DNA methylation using fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), electrochemiluminescence and colorimetric readouts. This paper aims to comprehensively review the optical strategies for DNA methylation detection. We also present an overview of the remaining challenges of optical strategies that still need to be focused along with the lesson learnt while working with these techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbon Nanodots as Peroxidase Nanozymes for Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Garg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Nanozymes’, a term coined by Scrimin, Pasquato, and co-workers to describe nanomaterials with enzyme-like characteristics, represent an exciting and emerging research area in the field of artificial enzymes. Indubitably, the last decade has witnessed substantial advancements in the design of a variety of functional nanoscale materials, including metal oxides and carbon-based nanomaterials, which mimic the structures and functions of naturally occurring enzymes. Among these, carbon nanodots (C-dots or carbon quantum dots (CQDs offer huge potential due to their unique properties as compared to natural enzymes and/or classical artificial enzymes. In this mini review, we discuss the peroxidase-like catalytic activities of C-dots and their applications in biosensing. The scope intends to cover not only the C-dots but also graphene quantum dots (GQDs, doped C-dots/GQDs, carbon nitride dots, and C-dots/GQDs nanocomposites. Nevertheless, this mini review is designed to be illustrative, not comprehensive.

  4. Synthesis, Assembly, and Applications of Hybrid Nanostructures for Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuaidi; Geryak, Ren; Geldmeier, Jeffrey; Kim, Sunghan; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2017-10-25

    The robust, sensitive, and selective detection of targeted biomolecules in their native environment by prospective nanostructures holds much promise for real-time, accurate, and high throughput biosensing. However, in order to be competitive, current biosensor nanotechnologies need significant improvements, especially in specificity, integration, throughput rate, and long-term stability in complex bioenvironments. Advancing biosensing nanotechnologies in chemically "noisy" bioenvironments require careful engineering of nanoscale components that are highly sensitive, biorecognition ligands that are capable of exquisite selective binding, and seamless integration at a level current devices have yet to achieve. This review summarizes recent advances in the synthesis, assembly, and applications of nanoengineered reporting and transducing components critical for efficient biosensing. First, major classes of nanostructured components, both inorganic reporters and organic transducers, are discussed in the context of the synthetic control of their individual compositions, shapes, and properties. Second, the design of surface functionalities and transducing path, the characterization of interfacial architectures, and the integration of multiple nanoscale components into multifunctional ordered nanostructures are extensively examined. Third, examples of current biosensing structures created from hybrid nanomaterials are reviewed, with a distinct emphasis on the need to tailor nanosensor designs to specific operating environments. Finally, we offer a perspective on the future developments of nanohybrid materials and future nanosensors, outline possible directions to be pursued that may yield breakthrough results, and envision the exciting potential of high-performance nanomaterials that will cause disruptive improvements in the field of biosensing.

  5. Comparing Electronic Human Resource Management Systems Efficiency In Production Organization amp Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hadian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today the organizations used information technology in performing human resource department affairs and this is called as electronic human resource management EHRM. In fact as the competitive complexity increases the need for implementing EHRM in production and service businesses increases too. This paper is written in order to specify the importance of implementing EHRM in production and service organizations and also to evaluate efficiency rate and the importance degree in these two ones. In this paper first the topics literature and the most important aspects of implementing these systems will be reviewed and after categorizing these views the hierarchal model will be proposed by applying AHP method. The result of analyzing this model by EXPERT CHOICE software shows that implementing EHRM in both kinds of organizations has the same importance however there is a large difference between them in implementing aspects.

  6. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  7. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  8. Recent advance in fabricating monolithic 3D porous graphene and their applications in biosensing and biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hua-Jun; Guan, Yongxin; Luo, Pan; Wang, Yu

    2017-03-15

    Graphene shows great potential in biosensing and bioelectronics. To facilitate graphene's applications and enhance its performance, recently, three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based materials especially free-standing porous graphene with tunable pore size and void space, have attracted increasing attention for bio-related applications owing to their special features. 3D graphene usually shows the following merits such as an interconnected porous network, a high electronic conductivity, a large active surface area, good chemical/thermal stability and can be more easily handled compared with dispersed graphene sheets. With modified surface properties, graphene can also be bio-friendly. These properties make 3D graphene a perfect candidate as high-performance electrode materials in bioelectronics devices. In this review, we discuss recent advance in fabricating monolithic 3D graphene and their applications in biosensing and biofuel cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  10. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  11. Graphene Nanosheets/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanotubes Composite Materials for Electrochemical Biosensing Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tzu-Yen; Kung, Chung-Wei; Wang, Jen-Yuan; Lee, Min-Han; Chen, Lin-Chi; Chu, Chih-Wei; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel composite materials contain 2D rGO nanosheets and 1D PEDOT nanotubes. • 3D nanocomposite film effectively improved the sensitivity for analyte detection. • The rGO/PEDOT NTs film shows good catalytic activities toward hydrazine and H 2 O 2 . • The rGO/PEDOT NTs film also exhibits high selectivity from the interference test. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: In this study, we developed the novel composite materials containing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanotubes (PEDOT NTs) for electrochemical biosensing applications. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy suggested that the rGO nanosheets cover the substrate uniformly, and the PEDOT NTs act as a conducting bridge to connect the rGO sheets. By combining the two materials, it's expected to enhance the conductivity of the film and improve the surface coverage. We applied the rGO/PEDOT NTs composite for electrochemical detection of hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide; noticeable improvements in electrochemical activity and reactivity were observed compared to those of the pristine rGO and PEDOT NTs electrodes. This may be attributed to the better surface coverage of the rGO/PEDOT NTs modified electrode with superior conductivity. Furthermore, interference tests indicate that the rGO/PEDOT NTs composite film exhibits high selectivity toward the analyte. The rGO/PEDOT NTs composite thus provides a potential platform for biosensing applications

  12. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  13. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Use of Electronic Resources by M.Sc. Chemistry Students at Arts Science and Commerce College Chopda Dist-Jalgaon

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Paithankar Rajeev; R., Mr.Kamble V.R.

    2017-01-01

    The libraries and information services has been changed due to the development of information and communication technology. Electronics resources role is very important as information repositories are use of information for various purposes like academic, research, teaching and learning process. E-resources gives solutions of the traditional libraries as like all data storage in digital format, users can access library without boundaries through internet so e-resources popularity is very cont...

  15. Graphene-based Materials for Biosensing and Bioimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Yang, Yuqi; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-12-01

    Graphene, a free-standing two-dimensional crystal with one-atom thickness, exhibits distinct properties that are highly attractive for biosensing and bioimaging, such as a high electrical conductivity, a large planar area, and an excellent ability to quench fluorescence. This article selectively reviews recent advances in the field of graphene-based materials for biosensing and bioimaging. In particular, graphene-based enzyme biosensors, DNA biosensors, and immunosensors are summarized in detail. Graphene-based biotechnology for cell imaging is also described. Future perspectives and possible challenges in this rapidly developing area are also discussed.

  16. Recent advances in cytochrome c biosensing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Pandiaraj; Kaushik, Ajeet; Karunakaran, Chandran; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2017-01-15

    This review is an attempt, for the first time, to describe advancements in sensing technology for cytochrome c (cyt c) detection, at point-of-care (POC) application. Cyt c, a heme containing metalloprotein is located in the intermembrane space of mitochondria and released into bloodstream during pathological conditions. The release of cyt c from mitochondria is a key initiative step in the activation of cell death pathways. Circulating cyt c levels represents a novel in-vivo marker of mitochondrial injury after resuscitation from heart failure and chemotherapy. Thus, cyt c detection is not only serving as an apoptosis biomarker, but also is of great importance to understand certain diseases at cellular level. Various existing techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), Western blot, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), spectrophotometry and flow cytometry have been used to estimate cyt c. However, the implementation of these techniques at POC application is limited due to longer analysis time, expensive instruments and expertise needed for operation. To overcome these challenges, significant efforts are being made to develop electrochemical biosensing technologies for fast, accurate, selective, and sensitive detection of cyt c. Presented review describes the cutting edge technologies available in the laboratories to detect cyt c. The recent advancements in designing and development of electrochemical cyt c biosensors for the quantification of cyt c are also discussed. This review also highlights the POC cyt c biosensors developed recently, that would prove of interest to biologist and therapist to get real time informatics needed to evaluate death process, diseases progression, therapeutics and processes related with mitochondrial injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. GaN heterostructures for biosensing and radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howgate, John D.

    2012-12-11

    In this thesis I show the results from our investigation of the interface between gallium nitride wide bandgap semiconductor heterostructures and (bio)molecular systems on their surfaces for biosensing, bioelectronics, and photoelectric applications, with a large emphasis on the processes arising from high energy ionizing irradiation, including heterostructure photoelectric gain mechanisms. Wide bandgap semiconductors, such as gallium nitride, have received increasing attention as potential components in advanced organic/inorganic hybrid systems. Working to further this topic, we determine a new semiconductor alignment required for low energy photo-induced charge transfer ionization of alkyl chains well below the energy normally required for molecular cleavage, show original results of the influence of binding methods on enzyme functionality in conjunction with a novel electrochemical and environmental control system and demonstrate new possibilities to significantly improve upon pH measurements through the use of high sensitivity devices. Furthermore, based on the extension of this work to support future studies of radiation effects on cell systems, we present a detailed characterization of new simultaneous chemical sensing and ionizing radiation dosimetry using single devices. We found that their pH sensitivity was retained during X-ray irradiation and that the fundamental characteristics can be used to separate the irradiation signal from the pH response without compromising operational stability. These data provide clear indications of the separate response mechanism tied to the presence of a two-dimensional electron gas channel. Here, we found new results exhibiting exceptionally high gains and independence of the well-known persistent photoconductivity for soft X-rays and high energy particles in the ultralow dose-rate regime. This material system provides the capability for high sensitivity and resolution real time monitoring, which is competitive with and

  18. GaN heterostructures for biosensing and radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howgate, John D.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis I show the results from our investigation of the interface between gallium nitride wide bandgap semiconductor heterostructures and (bio)molecular systems on their surfaces for biosensing, bioelectronics, and photoelectric applications, with a large emphasis on the processes arising from high energy ionizing irradiation, including heterostructure photoelectric gain mechanisms. Wide bandgap semiconductors, such as gallium nitride, have received increasing attention as potential components in advanced organic/inorganic hybrid systems. Working to further this topic, we determine a new semiconductor alignment required for low energy photo-induced charge transfer ionization of alkyl chains well below the energy normally required for molecular cleavage, show original results of the influence of binding methods on enzyme functionality in conjunction with a novel electrochemical and environmental control system and demonstrate new possibilities to significantly improve upon pH measurements through the use of high sensitivity devices. Furthermore, based on the extension of this work to support future studies of radiation effects on cell systems, we present a detailed characterization of new simultaneous chemical sensing and ionizing radiation dosimetry using single devices. We found that their pH sensitivity was retained during X-ray irradiation and that the fundamental characteristics can be used to separate the irradiation signal from the pH response without compromising operational stability. These data provide clear indications of the separate response mechanism tied to the presence of a two-dimensional electron gas channel. Here, we found new results exhibiting exceptionally high gains and independence of the well-known persistent photoconductivity for soft X-rays and high energy particles in the ultralow dose-rate regime. This material system provides the capability for high sensitivity and resolution real time monitoring, which is competitive with and

  19. Making the Right Connections: Perceptions of Human Resource/Personnel Directors Concerning Electronic Job-Search Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Joan C.; North, Alexa B.; Arjomand, H. Lari

    1997-01-01

    Examines methods used to search for entry-level managerial positions and assesses how human resource and personnel directors in Georgia perceive these methods. Findings indicate that few of the directors use electronic technology to fill such positions, but they view positively those applicants who use electronic job searching methods. (RJM)

  20. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  1. Enhanced Charge Collection in MOF‐525–PEDOT Nanotube Composites Enable Highly Sensitive Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu‐Yen; Kung, Chung‐Wei; Liao, Yu‐Te; Kao, Sheng‐Yuan; Cheng, Mingshan; Chang, Ting‐Hsiang; Henzie, Joel; Alamri, Hatem R.; Alothman, Zeid A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract With the aim of a reliable biosensing exhibiting enhanced sensitivity and selectivity, this study demonstrates a dopamine (DA) sensor composed of conductive poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene) nanotubes (PEDOT NTs) conformally coated with porphyrin‐based metal–organic framework nanocrystals (MOF‐525). The MOF‐525 serves as an electrocatalytic surface, while the PEDOT NTs act as a charge collector to rapidly transport the electron from MOF nanocrystals. Bundles of these particles form a conductive interpenetrating network film that together: (i) improves charge transport pathways between the MOF‐525 regions and (ii) increases the electrochemical active sites of the film. The electrocatalytic response is measured by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques, where the linear concentration range of DA detection is estimated to be 2 × 10−6–270 × 10−6 m and the detection limit is estimated to be 0.04 × 10−6 m with high selectivity toward DA. Additionally, a real‐time determination of DA released from living rat pheochromocytoma cells is realized. The combination of MOF5‐25 and PEDOT NTs creates a new generation of porous electrodes for highly efficient electrochemical biosensing. PMID:29201623

  2. Impedance nanopore biosensor: influence of pore dimensions on biosensing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Krishna; Yu, Jingxian; Priest, Craig; Shapter, Joe G; Losic, Dusan

    2014-03-07

    Knowledge about electrochemical and electrical properties of nanopore structures and the influence of pore dimensions on these properties is important for the development of nanopore biosensing devices. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of nanopore dimensions (diameter and length) on biosensing performance using non-faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Nanoporous alumina membranes (NPAMs) prepared by self-ordered electrochemical anodization of aluminium were used as model nanopore sensing platforms. NPAMs with different pore diameters (25-65 nm) and lengths (4-18 μm) were prepared and the internal pore surface chemistry was modified by covalently attaching streptavidin and biotin. The performance of this antibody nanopore biosensing platform was evaluated using various concentrations of biotin as a model analyte. EIS measurements of pore resistivity and conductivity were carried out for pores with different diameters and lengths. The results showed that smaller pore dimensions of 25 nm and pore lengths up to 10 μm provide better biosensing performance.

  3. Enhanced Light-Matter Interactions for Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Brandon Christian

    Metallic nanostructures can confine light to nanoscale dimensions through surface plasmon resonance, leading to extraordinary effects such as enhancements in light emission and scattering. This thesis explores the use of these enhanced light-matter interactions for applications in optical biosensing. First, we demonstrate plasmon-enhanced multiphoton absorption in covellite-phase copper sulfide (CuS) nanocrystals. The near-infrared plasmon resonance wavelength of these semiconductor nanocrystals is tuned towards the two-photon absorption edge using selenium doping. This tuning results in a 300% enhancement in the two-photon action cross section, resulting in a "brightness" that is an order of magnitude greater than conventional fluorophores. The resulting luminescence demonstrates the efficacy of CuS nanocrystals as a solid-state dye for biological imaging. CuS nanocrystals also offer the first "all-in-one" platform for studying plasmon-exciton coupling without the need for a physicochemical interface between the plasmonic and excitonic materials. Second, the use of lithographically-patterned gold nanobulbs for detection of complex bioanalytes using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is reported. Highly uniform SERS enhancement factors in these gold nanobulbs permit the use of 2D-correlation spectroscopy for the identification of molecular rearrangement and complementary binding in single-stranded DNA. Third, we demonstrate the use of metal nanoislands on graphene for strain sensing using SERS. These metal nanoisland-graphene composite films contain gaps between the nanoislands which behave as hot spots for SERS when functionalized with benzenethiolate. Mechanical strain increases the sizes of the gaps; this increase attenuates the electric field and the resultant SERS signal. This compounded, SERS-enhanced "piezoplasmonic" effect can be quantified using a plasmonic gauge factor, and is among the most sensitive mechanical sensors of any type. These sensors

  4. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND USAGE OF THE ELECTRONIC VIDEO RESOURCES FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav M. Hlynsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the theoretical foundation, the creation and implementation of the electronic educational video resources (EEVR in the example of the development and the usage of the collection of video tutorials in event-driven programming theme, which is studied in the framework of the subject "Informatics" by students of many specialties. It offers some development of the existing conceptual and categorical apparatus concerning EEVR development. It is alleged that the video tutorials allow you to automate the process of learning, redistribute instructional time for the benefit of students' independent work, to provide classroom release time for the teaching of the theoretical issues of the course that is aimed at improving the fundamental nature of training. Practical recommendations for the development of the effective EEVR, which may be useful for the authors of e-learning courses for students of different forms of training are proposed.

  6. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  7. Genetic-algorithm-based optimization of a fuzzy logic resource manager for electronic attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F., III; Rhyne, Robert D., II

    2000-04-01

    A fuzzy logic based expert system has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time over many dissimilar platforms. The platforms can be very general, e.g., ships, planes, robots, land based facilities, etc. Potential foes the platforms deal with can also be general. This paper describes data mining activities related to development of the resource manager with a focus on genetic algorithm based optimization. A genetic algorithm requires the construction of a fitness function, a function that must be maximized to give optimal or near optimal results. The fitness functions are in general non- differentiable at many points and highly non-linear, neither property providing difficulty for a genetic algorithm. The fitness functions are constructed using insights from geometry, physics, engineering, and military doctrine. Examples are given as to how fitness functions are constructed including how the fitness function is averaged over a database of military scenarios. The use of a database of scenarios prevents the algorithm from having too narrow a range of behaviors, i.e., it creates a more robust solution.

  8. Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

  9. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  10. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    English in Australia, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Contains seven short resources''--units, lessons, and activities on the power of observation, man and his earth, snakes, group discussion, colloquial and slang, the continuous story, and retelling a story. (DD)

  11. THE FACTOR-CRITERIA MODEL OF ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL GAME RESOURCES IN MATHEMATICS FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana M. Melnyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proves the need for a comprehensive assessment of electronic educational game resources in mathematics for the primary school students; gives the definition of “the factor-criteria model of the electronic educational game resources (EEGR”. It also describes the created model, which consists of requirements for the content, methodological and program parts of the electronic resources for primary school; identifies the factors and the criteria to each of them. It was proposed to assess the ratios within the group of factors and each group of criteria according to the arithmetic progression. The presented model can be a convenient tool both for primary school teachers and EEGR developers. It can also be a basis for a unified state comprehensive system of assessment of the EEGR.

  12. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  13. Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanostructures for Bio-Imaging and Bio-Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, Vira V.

    Kravets, Vira V. (Ph.D., Physics). Optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures for bio-imaging and bio-sensing applications. Dissertation directed by Associate Professor Anatoliy Pinchuk. ABSTRACT. This dissertation explores the physics of free electron excitations in gold nanoparticle chains, silver nanoparticle colloids, and thin gold films. Electron excitations in nanostructures (surface plasmons, SP) are responsible for unique optical properties, which are applied in bio-sensing and bio-imaging applications. For gold nanoparticle chains, the effect of SP on resonance light absorption was studied experimentally and theoretically. Mainly, how the spectral position of the absorption peak depends on inter-particle distances. This dependence is used in “molecular rulers”, providing spatial resolution below the Rayleigh limit. The underlying theory is based on particle interaction via scattered dipole fields. Often in literature only the near-field component of the scattered field is considered. Here, I show that middle and far fields should not be neglected for calculation of extinction by particle chains. In silver nanoparticles, SP excitations produce two independent effects: (a) the intrinsic fluorescence of the particles, and (b) the enhancement of a molecule’s fluorescence by a particle’s surface. The mechanism of (a) is deduced by studying how fluorescence depends on particle size. For (b), I show that fluorescence of a dye molecule on the surface of a nanoparticle is enhanced, when compared to that of the free-standing dye. I demonstrate that the dye’s fluorescent quantum yield is dependent on the particle’s size, making labeled silver nanoparticles attractive candidates as bio-imaging agents. Labeled nanoparticles are applied to cell imaging, and their bio-compatibility with two cell lines is evaluated here. Finally, in gold films under attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) conditions, the SP create a propagating wave (SP-polariton, SPP

  14. Review Paper on “In vitro Biosensing based on Semiconductor Devices”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Toshiya; Sugimoto, Haruyo; Miyazawa, Yuya; Matsuse, Yusuke; Maekawa, Yuki

    We are studying and developing biosensing techniques in order to analyze and monitor simply and easily biological phenomena such as DNA recognition events antigen-antibody interaction, and cell functions in vitro. Particularly, we focus on the direct detection of ions or ionized molecules with charges, because most of biological phenomena are closely related to ionic or ionized molecular behaviors such as sodium or potassium ions through ion channel at cell membrane which are based on cell-cell communication for example, and DNA molecules also have intrinsic molecular charges based on phosphate groups. Our research activities contain interesting information not only for researchers in biology and molecular biology, but also researchers in electronics and physics. We believe that novel tool and method based on material and device sciences should be studied and developed for discovery of unknown biological phenomenon in the interdisciplinary field.

  15. Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus using chitosan quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2018-01-01

    Selective biosensing of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using chitosan modified quantum dots (CTS@CdS QDs) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide is reported. The method is based on the intrinsic positive catalase activity of S. aureus. CTS@CdS quantum dots provide high dispersion in aqueous media with high fluorescence emission. Staphylococcus aureus causes a selective quenching of the fluorescence emission of CTS@CdS QDs in the presence of H2O2 compared to other pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intrinsic enzymatic character of S. aureus (catalase positive) offers selective and fast biosensing. The present method is highly selective for positive catalase species and requires no expensive reagents such as antibodies, aptamers or microbeads. It could be extended for other species that are positive catalase.

  16. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  17. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  18. Nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheets for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Liuting; Li, Juan; Liu, Qiaoling; Qiu, Liping; Tan, Weihong

    2017-03-15

    In clinical diagnostics, as well as food and environmental safety practices, biosensors are powerful tools for monitoring biological or biochemical processes. Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal nanomaterials, including transition metal chalcogenides (TMCs) and transition metal oxides (TMOs), are receiving growing interest for their use in biosensing applications based on such unique properties as high surface area and fluorescence quenching abilities. Meanwhile, nucleic acid probes based on Watson-Crick base-pairing rules are also being widely applied in biosensing based on their excellent recognition capability. In particular, the emergence of functional nucleic acids in the 1980s, especially aptamers, has substantially extended the recognition capability of nucleic acids to various targets, ranging from small organic molecules and metal ions to proteins and cells. Based on π-π stacking interaction between transition metal nanosheets and nucleic acids, biosensing systems can be easily assembled. Therefore, the combination of 2D transition metal nanomaterials and nucleic acids brings intriguing opportunities in bioanalysis and biomedicine. In this review, we summarize recent advances of nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheets in biosensing applications. The structure and properties of 2D transition metal nanomaterials are first discussed, emphasizing the interaction between transition metal nanosheets and nucleic acids. Then, the applications of nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheet-based biosensors are discussed in the context of different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical and electrochemical approaches. Finally, we provide our perspectives on the current challenges and opportunities in this promising field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  1. Indium tin oxide with zwitterionic interfacial design for biosensing applications in complex matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Nadia T.; Alias, Yatimah; Khor, Sook Mei, E-mail: naomikhor@um.edu.my

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. • The resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of BSA–FITC and RBITC–Cyt c were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. • The antifouling interface allows detection of target analytes in highly complicated biological matrices. - Abstract: Biosensing interfaces consisting of linker molecules (COOH or NH{sub 2}) and charged, antifouling moieties ((-SO{sup 3−} and N{sup +}(Me){sub 3}) for biosensing applications were prepared for the first time by the in situ deposition of mixtures of aryl diazonium cations on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. A linker molecule is required for the attachment of biorecognition molecules (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, DNA chains, and aptamers) close to the transducer surface. The attached molecules improve the biosensing sensitivity and also provide a short response time for analyte detection. Thus, the incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. The reductive adsorption behavior and electrochemical measurement were studied for (1) an individual compound and (2) a mixture of antifouling zwitterionic molecules together with linker molecules [combination 1: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 1,4-phenylenediamine (PPD); combination 2: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)] of aryl diazonium cations grafted onto an ITO electrode. The mixture ratios of SP:TMAP:PPD and SP:TMAP:PABA that provided the greatest resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of bovine serum albumin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA–FITC) and cytochrome c labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC–Cyt c) were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). For the surface antifouling study

  2. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  3. Interconnecting wearable devices with nano-biosensing implants through optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Pedram; Pandey, Honey; Jornet, Josep M.

    2018-02-01

    Major advancements in the fields of electronics, photonics and wireless communication have enabled the development of compact wearable devices, with applications in diverse domains such as fitness, wellness and medicine. In parallel, nanotechnology is enabling the development of miniature sensors that can detect events at the nanoscale with unprecedented accuracy. On this matter, in vivo implantable Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) nanosensors have been proposed to analyze circulating biomarkers in body fluids for the early diagnosis of a myriad of diseases, ranging from cardiovascular disorders to different types of cancer. In light of these results, in this paper, an architecture is proposed to bridge the gap between these two apparently disjoint paradigms, namely, the commercial wearable devices and the advanced nano-biosensing technologies. More specifically, this paper thoroughly assesses the feasibility of the wireless optical intercommunications of an SPR-based nanoplasmonic biochip -implanted subcutaneously in the wrist-, with a nanophotonic wearable smart band which is integrated by an array of nano-lasers and photon-detectors for distributed excitation and measurement of the nanoplasmonic biochip. This is done through a link budget analysis which captures the peculiarities of the intra-body optical channel at (sub) cellular level, the strength of the SPR nanosensor reflection, as well as the capabilities of the nanolasers (emission power, spectrum) and the nano photon-detectors (sensitivity and noise equivalent power). The proposed analysis guides the development of practical communication designs between the wearable devices and nano-biosensing implants, which paves the way through early-stage diagnosis of severe diseases.

  4. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  5. Nanomaterials-based enzyme electrochemical biosensors operating through inhibition for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanoglu, Sevinc; Ozkan, Sibel A; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-03-15

    In recent years great progress has been made in applying nanomaterials to design novel biosensors. Use of nanomaterials offers to biosensing platforms exceptional optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Nanomaterials can increase the surface of the transducing area of the sensors that in turn bring an increase in catalytic behaviors. They have large surface-to-volume ratio, controlled morphology and structure that also favor miniaturization, an interesting advantage when the sample volume is a critical issue. Biosensors have great potential for achieving detect-to-protect devices: devices that can be used in detections of pollutants and other treating compounds/analytes (drugs) protecting citizens' life. After a long term focused scientific and financial efforts/supports biosensors are expected now to fulfill their promise such as being able to perform sampling and analysis of complex samples with interest for clinical or environment fields. Among all types of biosensors, enzymatic biosensors, the most explored biosensing devices, have an interesting property, the inherent inhibition phenomena given the enzyme-substrate complex formation. The exploration of such phenomena is making remarkably important their application as research and applied tools in diagnostics. Different inhibition biosensor systems based on nanomaterials modification has been proposed and applied. The role of nanomaterials in inhibition-based biosensors for the analyses of different groups of drugs as well as contaminants such as pesticides, phenolic compounds and others, are discussed in this review. This deep analysis of inhibition-based biosensors that employ nanomaterials will serve researchers as a guideline for further improvements and approaching of these devices to real sample applications so as to reach society needs and such biosensor market demands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  7. Electroactive and biocompatible functionalization of graphene for the development of biosensing platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halder, Arnab; Zhang, Minwei; Chi, Qijin

    2017-01-01

    and from 2.5 to 25 µM for cholesterol. Furthermore, this biosensing platform shows good anti-interference ability and reasonable stability. The nanohybrid biosensing materials can be combined with screen-printed electrodes, which are successfully used for measuring the glucose and cholesterol level of real...

  8. Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre : a case study of Oslo University College

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md. Anisur

    2011-01-01

    Joint Master Degree in Digital Library Learning (DILL) The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis metho...

  9. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  10. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  11. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  12. Facile Coating Strategy to Functionalize Inorganic Nanoparticles for Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Il; Kim, Eunha; Huang, Chen-Han; Park, Ki Soo; Castro, Cesar M; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph

    2017-01-18

    The use of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) for biosensing requires that they exhibit high colloidal stability under various physiological conditions. Here, we report on a general approach to render hydrophobic NPs into hydrophilic ones that are ready for bioconjugation. The method uses peglyated polymers conjugated with multiple dopamines, which results in multidentate coordination. As proof-of-concept, we applied the coating to stabilize ferrite and lanthanide NPs synthesized by thermal decomposition. Both polymer-coated NPs showed excellent water solubility and were stable at high salt concentrations under physiological conditions. We used these NPs as molecular-sensing agents to detect exosomes and bacterial nucleic acids.

  13. ZnO materials and surface tailoring for biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakimova, Rositza; Selegard, Linnea; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Pearce, Ruth; Spetz, Anita Lloyd; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanostructured materials, such as films and nanoparticles, could provide a suitable platform for development of high performance biosensors due to their unique fundamental material properties. This paper reviews different preparation techniques of ZnO nanocrystals and material issues like wettability, biocompatibility and toxicity, which have an important relevance to biosensor functionality. Efforts are made to summarize and analyze existing results regarding surface modification and molecular attachments for successful biofunctionalization and understanding of the mechanisms involved. A section is devoted to implementations of tailored surfaces in biosensors. We end with conclusions on the feasibility of using ZnO nanocrystals for biosensing.

  14. Optimizing biosensing properties on undecylenic Acid-functionalized diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu Lin; Chong, Kwok Feng; May, Paul W; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Loh, Kian Ping

    2007-05-08

    The optimization of biosensing efficiency on a diamond platform depends on the successful coupling of biomolecules on the surface, and also on effective signal transduction in the biorecognition events. In terms of biofunctionalization of diamond surfaces, surface electrochemical studies of diamond modified with undecylenic acid (UA), with and without headgroup protection, were performed. The direct photochemical coupling method employing UA was found to impart a higher density of carboxylic acid groups on the diamond surface compared to that using trifluoroethyl undecenoate (TFEU) as the protecting group during the coupling process. Non-faradic impedimetric DNA sensing revealed that lightly doped diamond gives better signal transduction sensitivity compared to highly doped diamond.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of MgO nanocrystals for biosensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongji [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Organic Solar Cells and Photochemical Conversion, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Mingji, E-mail: limingji@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communication Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Qiu, Guojun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Organic Solar Cells and Photochemical Conversion, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Cuiping; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communication Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • MgO nanocrystals were prepared using DC arc plasma jet CVD method. • The growth time does not exceed 10 min in process of the synthesis. • The samples were found to consist of cubic MgO nanobelts and nanosheets. • Nanocrystals contain contacts, rough edges, vacancies, and doping defects. • The samples exhibited excellent electrochemical biosensing properties. - Abstract: MgO nanocrystals were prepared using a simple direct current arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition method. Magnesium nitrate was used as source material and Mo film was used as a substrate and catalyst. The high-temperature plasma produced ensured rapid synthesis of the MgO nanocrystals. The as-prepared nanocrystals were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence measurements. The as-synthesized samples were found to consist of cubic MgO nanobelts and nanosheets with large surface areas and low coordination oxide ions, and contained numerous contacts, rough edges, vacancies, and doping defects. The nanostructures exhibited excellent electrochemical sensing properties with high-sensing sensitivity toward ascorbic acid. Their high electrocatalytic activity was attributed to the effect of defects and the surface electron transfer ability of the one-dimensional MgO nanobelts.

  16. Effect of Access to an Electronic Medical Resource on Performance Characteristics of a Certification Examination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S; Brossman, Bradley G; Samonte, Kelli M; Durning, Steven J

    2017-09-05

    Electronic resources are increasingly used in medical practice. Their use during high-stakes certification examinations has been advocated by many experts, but whether doing so would affect the capacity to differentiate between high and low abilities is unknown. To determine the effect of electronic resources on examination performance characteristics. Randomized controlled trial. Medical certification program. 825 physicians initially certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) who passed the Internal Medicine Certification examination or sat for the Internal Medicine Maintenance of Certification (IM-MOC) examination in 2012 to 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: closed book using typical or additional time, or open book (that is, UpToDate [Wolters Kluwer]) using typical or additional time. All participants took the same modified version of the IM-MOC examination. Primary outcomes included item difficulty (how easy or difficult the question was), item discrimination (how well the question differentiated between high and low abilities), and average question response time. Secondary outcomes included examination dimensionality (that is, the number of factors measured) and test-taking strategy. Item response theory was used to calculate question characteristics. Analysis of variance compared differences among conditions. Closed-book conditions took significantly less time than open-book conditions (mean, 79.2 seconds [95% CI, 78.5 to 79.9 seconds] vs. 110.3 seconds [CI, 109.2 to 111.4 seconds] per question). Mean discrimination was statistically significantly higher for open-book conditions (0.34 [CI, 0.32 to 0.35] vs. 0.39 [CI, 0.37 to 0.41] per question). A strong single dimension showed that the examination measured the same factor with or without the resource. Only 1 electronic resource was evaluated. Inclusion of an electronic resource with time constraints did not adversely affect test performance and did not change

  17. Conducting polymer based biomolecular electronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conducting polymers such as polypyrroles, polythiophenes and polyanilines have been projected for applications for a wide range of biomolecular electronic devices such as optical, electronic, drug-delivery, memory and biosensing devices. Our group has been actively working towards the application of conducting ...

  18. Development of metallic nanostructures for biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Troy A.; Wickenden, Alma E.

    2005-05-01

    Surface-Enhanced-Raman-Scattering (SERS) is potentially a very sensitive spectroscopic technique for the detection of biological agents (i.e., proteins, viruses or bacteria). However, since initial reports, its utility has not been realized. Its limited acceptance as a routine analysis technique for biological agents is largely due to the lack of reproducible SERS-active substrates. Most established SERS substrate fabrication schemes are based on self-assembly of the metallic (typically, Au, Ag, Pt, Pd or Cu) particles responsible for enhancement. Further, these protocols do not lend themselves to the stringent control over the enhancing feature shape, size, and placement on a nanometer scale. SERS can be made a more robust and attractive spectroscopic technique for biological agents by developing quantifiable, highly sensitive, and highly selective SERS-active substrates. Electron Beam Lithography (EBL), a semiconductor fabrication technique, can be utilized to address many of the obstacles which have limited the broad acceptance of SERS. Specifically, EBL can be employed to precisely control the shape, size and position (on a nanometer scale) of the SERS substrate enhancing features. Since Ashkin's seminal work in the early 1970s, the optical trapping phenomenon has been broadly accepted as a powerful tool to study micrometer-scale biological particles. Recently, research in our laboratory has demonstrated that it is possible to combine the Optical Trapping phenomenon and SERS to develop a high sensitivity spectroscopic technique for the detection of individual bacterial spores. Highly reproducible SERS-active substrates fabricated using EBL have been utilized with this novel spectroscopic technique to investigate the utility of SERS technique for the spectral discrimination of bacterial spores. The SERS substrate fabrication methodology, substrate reproducibility and SERS spectral reproducibility will be discussed.

  19. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  20. Aptamer-Modified Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted extensive interest in the biosensing area because of their properties, such as narrow and symmetric emission with tunable colors, high quantum yield, high stability and controllable morphology. The introduction of various reactive functional groups on the surface of semiconductor quantum dots allows one to conjugate a spectrum of ligands, antibodies, peptides, or nucleic acids for broader and smarter applications. Among these ligands, aptamers exhibit many advantages including small size, high chemical stability, simple synthesis with high batch-to-batch consistency and convenient modification. More importantly, it is easy to introduce nucleic acid amplification strategies and/or nanomaterials to improve the sensitivity of aptamer-based sensing systems. Therefore, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers brings more opportunities in bioanalysis. Here we summarize recent advances on aptamer-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots in biosensing applications. Firstly, we discuss the properties and structure of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers. Then, the applications of biosensors based on aptamer-modified semiconductor quantum dots by different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical, electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescence approaches, is discussed. Finally, our perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this promising field are provided.

  1. Plasmonic Nanomaterial-Based Optical Biosensing Platforms for Virus Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanomaterials (P-NM are receiving attention due to their excellent properties, which include surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR effects, plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET, and magneto optical (MO effects. To obtain such plasmonic properties, many nanomaterials have been developed, including metal nanoparticles (MNP, bimetallic nanoparticles (bMNP, MNP-decorated carbon nanotubes, (MNP-CNT, and MNP-modified graphene (MNP-GRP. These P-NMs may eventually be applied to optical biosensing systems due to their unique properties. Here, probe biomolecules, such as antibodies (Ab, probe DNA, and probe aptamers, were modified on the surface of plasmonic materials by chemical conjugation and thiol chemistry. The optical property change in the plasmonic nanomaterials was monitored based on the interaction between the probe biomolecules and target virus. After bioconjugation, several optical properties, including fluorescence, plasmonic absorbance, and diffraction angle, were changed to detect the target biomolecules. This review describes several P-NMs as potential candidates of optical sensing platforms and introduces various applications in the optical biosensing field.

  2. Aptamer-Modified Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Biosensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lin; Qiu, Liping; Wu, Yongxiang; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2017-07-28

    Semiconductor quantum dots have attracted extensive interest in the biosensing area because of their properties, such as narrow and symmetric emission with tunable colors, high quantum yield, high stability and controllable morphology. The introduction of various reactive functional groups on the surface of semiconductor quantum dots allows one to conjugate a spectrum of ligands, antibodies, peptides, or nucleic acids for broader and smarter applications. Among these ligands, aptamers exhibit many advantages including small size, high chemical stability, simple synthesis with high batch-to-batch consistency and convenient modification. More importantly, it is easy to introduce nucleic acid amplification strategies and/or nanomaterials to improve the sensitivity of aptamer-based sensing systems. Therefore, the combination of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers brings more opportunities in bioanalysis. Here we summarize recent advances on aptamer-functionalized semiconductor quantum dots in biosensing applications. Firstly, we discuss the properties and structure of semiconductor quantum dots and aptamers. Then, the applications of biosensors based on aptamer-modified semiconductor quantum dots by different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical, electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescence approaches, is discussed. Finally, our perspectives on the challenges and opportunities in this promising field are provided.

  3. A universal and label-free impedimetric biosensing platform for discrimination of single nucleotide substitutions in long nucleic acid strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dawn M; Martin, Christopher P; Armas, Stephanie M; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M; Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y

    2018-06-30

    We report a label-free universal biosensing platform for highly selective detection of long nucleic acid strands. The sensor consists of an electrode-immobilized universal stem-loop (USL) probe and two adaptor strands that form a 4J structure in the presence of a specific DNA/RNA analyte. The sensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]/K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] redox couple in solution. An increase in charge transfer resistance (R CT ) was observed upon 4J structure formation, the value of which depends on the analyte length. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to further characterize the sensor and monitor the electrochemical reaction in conjunction with thickness measurements of the mixed DNA monolayer obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry. In addition, the electron transfer was calculated at the electrode/electrolyte interface using a rotating disk electrode. Limits of detection in the femtomolar range were achieved for nucleic acid targets of different lengths (22 nt, 60 nt, 200 nt). The sensor produced only a background signal in the presence of single base mismatched analytes, even in hundred times excess in concentration. This label-free and highly selective biosensing platform is versatile and can be used for universal detection of nucleic acids of varied lengths which could revolutionize point of care diagnostics for applications such as bacterial or cancer screening. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  5. Supporting Learning and Information Sharing in Natural Resource Management with Technologies for Electronic Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Leila; McLean, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    Community participation is central to achieving sustainable natural resource management. A prerequisite to informed participation is that community and stakeholder groups have access to different knowledge sources, are more closely attuned to the different issues and viewpoints, and are sufficiently equipped to understand and maybe resolve complex…

  6. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  7. Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

  8. Survey of the use of electronic information resources by students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For libraries to continue to lead in this industry generally and academic libraries in particular, deliberate effort must be made to bring the IT education to every potential user of the libraries. This however must be done based on available data. This is what this study sought to provide- a survey of the use of electronic ...

  9. Bringing Up Gopher: Access to Local & Remote Electronic Resources for University Library Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melvin Marlo; And Others

    Some of the administrative and organizational issues in creating a gopher, specifically a library gopher for university libraries, are discussed. In 1993 the Electronic Collections Task Force of the New Mexico State University library administration began to develop a library-based gopher system that would enable users to have unlimited access to…

  10. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  11. Data Resource Profile: Cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ∼105 patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail s.denaxas@ucl.ac.uk PMID:23220717

  12. Resource-efficient conception of waste electrical and electronic equipment collection groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gries, Nadja von; Wilts, Claas Henning

    2014-01-01

    Critical metals are in great demand by the electrical and electronics industry, so waste electrical and eletronic equipment represents a significant source of secondary raw materials. Owing to low recycling rates and the concomitant supply risks associated with critical metals, the closure of the material cycles is highly relevant to the German economy. Losses of these metals occur from collection until their material recovery, along the entire disposal chain of waste electrical and electroni...

  13. Current trends in electrochemical sensing and biosensing of DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejcova, Ludmila; Richtera, Lukas; Hynek, David; Labuda, Jan; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-11-15

    DNA methylation plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes. Several genetic diseases and most malignancies tend to be associated with aberrant DNA methylation. Among other analytical methods, electrochemical approaches have been successfully employed for characterisation of DNA methylation patterns that are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of particular diseases. This article discusses current trends in the electrochemical sensing and biosensing of DNA methylation. Particularly, it provides an overview of applied electrode materials, electrode modifications and biorecognition elements applications with an emphasis on strategies that form the core DNA methylation detection approaches. The three main strategies as (i) bisulfite treatment, (ii) cleavage by restriction endonucleases, and (iii) immuno/affinity reaction were described in greater detail. Additionally, the availability of the reviewed platforms for early cancer diagnosis and the approval of methylation inhibitors for anticancer therapy were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polymer-Graphene Nanocomposite Materials for Electrochemical Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Peter; Piwowarczyk, Magdalena; Fray, Mirosława El

    2016-07-01

    Biosensing is an important and rapidly developing field, with numerous potential applications in health care, food processing, and environmental control. Polymer-graphene nanocomposites aim to leverage the unique, attractive properties of graphene by combining them with those of a polymer matrix. Molecular imprinted polymers, in particular, offer the promise of artificial biorecognition elements. A variety of polymers, including intrinsically conducting polymers (polyaniline, polypyrrole), bio-based polymers (chitosan, polycatechols), and polycationic polymers (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), polyethyleneimine), have been utilized as matrices for graphene-based nanofillers, yielding sensitive biosensors for various biomolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Plasmonic bio-sensing based on highly doped semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliercio, Thierry; Gonzalez-Posada Flores, Fernando; Barho, Franziska B.; Milla-Rodrigo, María. José; Bomers, Mario; Cerutti, Laurent; Tournié, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Highly doped semiconductors, such as Si-doped InAsSb, are promising alternative materials for plasmonic application in the mid-infrared spectral range because they benefit from compatibility with silicon technology, from low losses and from tunable permittivity. We propose to detail what are the main advantages of InAsSb:Si compared to noble metals and how they can be used for bio-sensing applications. We demonstrate that 1-D InAsSb:Si ribbon arrays outperform 1- D gold ribbon arrays because of the latter uses little the lightning rod effect. In the case of 2-D nano-antenna arrays, it is possible to exploit a strong polarization dependent resonance to cover a large spectral range for sensing. Finally, we demonstrate that the highly doped semiconductor 1-D ribbon arrays and 2-D nano-antenna arrays allow surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing and surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA).

  16. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  17. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  18. Nanostructuring of biosensing electrodes with nanodiamonds for antibody immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Patel, Kush; Schexnider, Andrew; Banu, Shirin; Radadia, Adarsh D

    2014-02-25

    While chemical vapor deposition of diamond films is currently cost prohibitive for biosensor construction, in this paper, we show that sonication-assisted nanostructuring of biosensing electrodes with nanodiamonds (NDs) allows harnessing the hydrolytic stability of the diamond biofunctionalization chemistry for real-time continuous sensing, while improving the detector sensitivity and stability. We find that the higher surface coverages were important for improved bacterial capture and can be achieved through proper choice of solvent, ND concentration, and seeding time. A mixture of methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide provides the highest surface coverage (33.6 ± 3.4%) for the NDs with positive zeta-potential, compared to dilutions of dimethyl sulfoxide with acetone, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, or water. Through impedance spectroscopy of ND-seeded interdigitated electrodes (IDEs), we found that the ND seeds serve as electrically conductive islands only a few nanometers apart. Also we show that the seeded NDs are amply hydrogenated to be decorated with antibodies using the UV-alkene chemistry, and higher bacterial captures can be obtained compared to our previously reported work with diamond films. When sensing bacteria from 10(6) cfu/mL E. coli O157:H7, the resistance to charge transfer at the IDEs decreased by ∼ 38.8%, which is nearly 1.5 times better than that reported previously using redox probes. Further in the case of 10(8) cfu/mL E. coli O157:H7, the charge transfer resistance changed by ∼ 46%, which is similar to the magnitude of improvement reported using magnetic nanoparticle-based sample enrichment prior to impedance detection. Thus ND seeding allows impedance biosensing in low conductivity solutions with competitive sensitivity.

  19. Long period fiber gratings for bio-sensing: an improved design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Del Villar, Ignacio; Bandyopadhyay, Sankhyabrata; Biswas, Palas; Basumallick, Nandini; Dey, Tanoy Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Long period fiber grating (LPFG) has been actively researched in bio-sensing applications owing to its ability to sense refractive index (RI) of the surrounding medium. We investigate on the adequacy of the present state of the art to quantify adsorption of bio-molecules on the surface of the fiber confined within few tens of nanometers and possible improvements in the design of sensors suitable for bio-sensing applications.

  20. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  1. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski Stanislaw; Kaminski Piotr; Kaminska Dorota; Trzcinski Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size ...

  2. Optical nano-biosensing interface via nucleic acid amplification strategy: construction and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Jing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Zhang, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-03-21

    Modern optical detection technology plays a critical role in current clinical detection due to its high sensitivity and accuracy. However, higher requirements such as extremely high detection sensitivity have been put forward due to the clinical needs for the early finding and diagnosing of malignant tumors which are significant for tumor therapy. The technology of isothermal amplification with nucleic acids opens up avenues for meeting this requirement. Recent reports have shown that a nucleic acid amplification-assisted modern optical sensing interface has achieved satisfactory sensitivity and accuracy, high speed and specificity. Compared with isothermal amplification technology designed to work completely in a solution system, solid biosensing interfaces demonstrated better performances in stability and sensitivity due to their ease of separation from the reaction mixture and the better signal transduction on these optical nano-biosensing interfaces. Also the flexibility and designability during the construction of these nano-biosensing interfaces provided a promising research topic for the ultrasensitive detection of cancer diseases. In this review, we describe the construction of the burgeoning number of optical nano-biosensing interfaces assisted by a nucleic acid amplification strategy, and provide insightful views on: (1) approaches to the smart fabrication of an optical nano-biosensing interface, (2) biosensing mechanisms via the nucleic acid amplification method, (3) the newest strategies and future perspectives.

  3. The Application of Graphene and Its Derivatives to Energy Conversion, Storage, and Environmental and Biosensing Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Tahir, Asif; Ullah, Habib; Sudhagar, Pitchaimuthu; Asri Mat Teridi, Mohd; Devadoss, Anitha; Sundaram, Senthilarasu

    2016-06-01

    Graphene (GR) and its derivatives are promising materials on the horizon of nanotechnology and material science and have attracted a tremendous amount of research interest in recent years. The unique atom-thick 2D structure with sp(2) hybridization and large specific surface area, high thermal conductivity, superior electron mobility, and chemical stability have made GR and its derivatives extremely attractive components for composite materials for solar energy conversion, energy storage, environmental purification, and biosensor applications. This review gives a brief introduction of GR's unique structure, band structure engineering, physical and chemical properties, and recent energy-related progress of GR-based materials in the fields of energy conversion (e.g., photocatalysis, photoelectrochemical water splitting, CO2 reduction, dye-sensitized and organic solar cells, and photosensitizers in photovoltaic devices) and energy storage (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors). The vast coverage of advancements in environmental applications of GR-based materials for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, gas sensing, and removal of heavy-metal ions is presented. Additionally, the use of graphene composites in the biosensing field is discussed. We conclude the review with remarks on the challenges, prospects, and further development of GR-based materials in the exciting fields of energy, environment, and bioscience. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Gold-based hybrid nanomaterials for biosensing and molecular diagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Choi, Ji Hye; Colas, Marion; Kim, Dong Ha; Lee, Hyukjin

    2016-06-15

    The properties of gold nanomaterials are particularly of interest to many researchers, since they show unique physiochemical properties such as optical adsorption of specific wavelength of light, high electrical conductance with rich surface electrons, and facile surface modification with sulfhydryl groups. These properties have facilitated the use of gold nanomaterials in the development of various hybrid systems for biosensors and molecular diagnostics. Combined with various synthetic materials such as fluorescence dyes, polymers, oligonucleotides, graphene oxides (GO), and quantum dots (QDs), the gold-based hybrid nanomaterials offer multi-functionalities in molecular detection with high specificity and sensitivity. These two aspects result in the increase of detection speed as well as the lower detection limits, having shown that this diagnosis method is more effective than other conventional ones. In this review, we have highlighted various examples of nanomaterials for biosensing and molecular diagnostics. The gold-based hybrid systems are categorized by three distinct detection approaches, in which include (1) optical, such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), RAMAN, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), (2) fluorescence, such as förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and nanomaterial surface energy transfer (NSET), and (3) electrochemical, such as potentiometic, amperometric, and conductometric. Each example provides the detailed mechanism of molecular detection as well as the supporting experimental result with the limit of detection (LOD). Lastly, future perspective on novel development of gold-based hybrid nanomaterials is discussed as well as their challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Printable microfluidic systems using pressure sensitive adhesive material for biosensing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Nilsson, David; Norberg, Petronella

    2013-09-01

    In biosensors with a fluid analyte, the integration of a microfluidic system, which guides the analyte into the sensing area, is critical. Quicker and economical ways to build up microfluidic systems will make point of care diagnostics viable. Printing is a low-cost technology that is increasingly used in emerging organic and flexible electronics and biosensors. In this paper, we present printed fluidic systems on flexible substrates made with pressure sensitive adhesive materials. Printable pressure sensitive adhesive materials have been used for making microfluidic systems. Flexible substrates have been used, and two types of adhesive materials, one thermally dried and another UV curable, have been tested. Top sealing layer was laminated directly on top of the printed microfluidic structure. Flow tests were done with deionized water. Flow tests with deionized water show that both adhesive materials are suitable for capillary flow driven fluidic devices. Flow test using water as dielectric material was also done successfully on a printed electrolyte gated organic field effect transistor with an integrated microfluidic system. Due to its ease of process and low cost, printed microfluidic system is believed to find more applications in biosensing devices. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organic Bioelectronics-Novel Applications in Biomedicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  7. Surface-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing of avian influenza DNA hybridization using subwavelength metallic nanoarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Ae; Jang, Sung Min; Kim, Sung June [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Kyung Min [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyujung; Kim, Donghyun [Program of Nanomedical Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ma, Kyungjae; Oh, Youngjin [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Guk [College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Shuler, Michael L, E-mail: kmbyun@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    We demonstrated enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing based on subwavelength gold nanoarrays built on a thin gold film. Arrays of nanogratings (1D) and nanoholes (2D) with a period of 200 nm were fabricated by electron-beam lithography and used for the detection of avian influenza DNA hybridization. Experimental results showed that both nanoarrays provided significant sensitivity improvement and, especially, 1D nanogratings exhibited higher SPR signal amplification compared with 2D nanohole arrays. The sensitivity enhancement is associated with changes in surface-limited reaction area and strong interactions between bound molecules and localized plasmon fields. Our approach is expected to improve both the sensitivity and sensing resolution and can be applicable to label-free detection of DNA without amplification by polymerase chain reaction.

  8. Electronic learning and open educational resources in the health sciences in ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanu, Rmk; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Opare-Sem, O; Nkyekyer, K; Donkor, P; Lawson, A; Engleberg, N C

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether a group of Ghanaian students are able to easily use electronic learning material and whether they perceive this method of learning as acceptable. The University of Ghana Medical School (UGMS) and the School of Medical Sciences (SMS), Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and fifty third year medical students at SMS and nineteen fifth year medical students at UGMS METHODS: Two e-learning materials were developed, one on the polymerase chain reaction and the other on total abdominal hysterectomy and these were distributed to selected medical students. Two weeks after the distribution of the programmes, a one-page, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the target groups of students at the two institutions. Ninety three percent (139) of respondents at KNUST and 95% (18) at UG report having access to a computer for learning purposes. All of the UG students viewed the TAH programme; 82% (130) of the KNUST students viewed the PCR animations. All students who viewed the programmes at both institutions indicated that the e-learning pro-grammes were "more effective" in comparison to other methods of learning. Computer ownership or availability at both medical schools is sufficient to permit the distribution and viewing of e-learning materials by students and the medical students considered both programmes to be very helpful.

  9. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device function and longevity at autopsy: an underestimated resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sunil K; Crain, Barbara; Flickinger, Katie; Calkins, Hugh; Rickard, John; Cheng, Alan; Berger, Ronald; Tomaselli, Gordon; Marine, Joseph E

    2016-10-01

    The feasibility and safety of postmortem cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED; pacemaker or defibrillator) retrieval for reuse has been shown. To date, studies indicate a low yield of reusable postmortem CIEDs (17%-30%). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a higher rate of reusable CIEDs would be identified upon postmortem retrieval when an institutional protocol for systematic and routine acquisition, interrogation, reprogramming, and manufacturer analysis was used. Over a 6-year period, all subjects referred for autopsy underwent concomitant CIED pulse generator retrieval and enrollment in the Johns Hopkins Post-Mortem CIED Registry. CIEDs were interrogated, reprogrammed, and submitted for manufacturer analysis. In total, 84 autopsies had CIEDs (37 pacemakers, 47 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators). CIEDs were implanted 2.84 ± 2.32 years before death, with 30% implanted 60% of pacemakers and >50% of defibrillators demonstrated normal functional status with projected longevities >7 years on average. Formation of a national hospital-based "CIED donor network" would facilitate larger scale charitable efforts in underserved countries. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Shewanella oneidensis in a lactate-fed pure-culture and a glucose-fed co-culture with Lactococcus lactis with an electrode as electron acceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) employing mixed microbial communities as biocatalysts are gaining importance as potential renewable energy, bioremediation, or biosensing devices. While we are beginning to understand how individual microbial species interact with an electrode as electron donor, li...

  11. Engineering of DNA-mediated assemblies for biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Phyllis F.

    Traditionally known as the genetic code, in recent years DNA has been engineered in new ways and applied toward novel applications in materials science and bio-nanotechnology. The nanometer features and highly specific base-pairing of DNA has enabled its use to build complex 2- and 3D nano-architectures and nano-structures. Specific DNA scaffolds include branched DNA junctions, 2D and 3D DNA "tiles" and "bricks", and DNA hydrogels that can be used for applications across various fields of materials science. Another unique feature of DNA is its ability to bind other materials through molecular recognition which has made the use of DNA aptamer or DNA-protein conjugates highly useful for applications in biosensing and identification. The main focus of this thesis is to demonstrate the use of DNA as an invaluable tool for engineering specific nanostructures for biosensing. The first chapter introduces the basics of DNA and current research in various DNA structures and assemblies and their applications. The second and third chapters describe the self-assembly of two structurally different nanomaterials using DNA, carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles. In the second chapter, the successful large-scale alignment of carbon nanotubes on a surface is shown. The study goes into the factors that affect the quality of alignment, including salt concentration, length of DNA, and annealing. In the third chapter, we show how DNA can be used to engineer discrete gold nanocrystal assemblies-"nanodumbbells"- that can adopt different structural conformations through DNA interactions. By incorporating DNA aptamers in the nanoparticle structure, these nanodumbbells can be used to sense particular analytes in solution. Chapter 4 continues the study of the nanodumbbell structures and their potential use as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) biosensors. A large measurable difference in Raman signal was experimentally obtained from the two distinct nanodumbbell conformations. This

  12. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  13. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters ET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth T Masters,1 Jack Mardekian,1 Birol Emir,1 Andrew Clair,1 Max Kuhn,2 Stuart L Silverman,31Pfizer, Inc., New York, NY, 2Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT, 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies.Methods: This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296 were subjects ≥18 years old with ≥2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9 codes for FM (729.1 ≥30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ≥1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665 did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs.Results: Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001 and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318. Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001, especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition. Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0

  14. Recent Advances in Bioprinting and Applications for Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Dias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Future biosensing applications will require high performance, including real-time monitoring of physiological events, incorporation of biosensors into feedback-based devices, detection of toxins, and advanced diagnostics. Such functionality will necessitate biosensors with increased sensitivity, specificity, and throughput, as well as the ability to simultaneously detect multiple analytes. While these demands have yet to be fully realized, recent advances in biofabrication may allow sensors to achieve the high spatial sensitivity required, and bring us closer to achieving devices with these capabilities. To this end, we review recent advances in biofabrication techniques that may enable cutting-edge biosensors. In particular, we focus on bioprinting techniques (e.g., microcontact printing, inkjet printing, and laser direct-write that may prove pivotal to biosensor fabrication and scaling. Recent biosensors have employed these fabrication techniques with success, and further development may enable higher performance, including multiplexing multiple analytes or cell types within a single biosensor. We also review recent advances in 3D bioprinting, and explore their potential to create biosensors with live cells encapsulated in 3D microenvironments. Such advances in biofabrication will expand biosensor utility and availability, with impact realized in many interdisciplinary fields, as well as in the clinic.

  15. Recent Advances in Bioprinting and Applications for Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Andrew D.; Kingsley, David M.; Corr, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Future biosensing applications will require high performance, including real-time monitoring of physiological events, incorporation of biosensors into feedback-based devices, detection of toxins, and advanced diagnostics. Such functionality will necessitate biosensors with increased sensitivity, specificity, and throughput, as well as the ability to simultaneously detect multiple analytes. While these demands have yet to be fully realized, recent advances in biofabrication may allow sensors to achieve the high spatial sensitivity required, and bring us closer to achieving devices with these capabilities. To this end, we review recent advances in biofabrication techniques that may enable cutting-edge biosensors. In particular, we focus on bioprinting techniques (e.g., microcontact printing, inkjet printing, and laser direct-write) that may prove pivotal to biosensor fabrication and scaling. Recent biosensors have employed these fabrication techniques with success, and further development may enable higher performance, including multiplexing multiple analytes or cell types within a single biosensor. We also review recent advances in 3D bioprinting, and explore their potential to create biosensors with live cells encapsulated in 3D microenvironments. Such advances in biofabrication will expand biosensor utility and availability, with impact realized in many interdisciplinary fields, as well as in the clinic. PMID:25587413

  16. Graphene-bimetal plasmonic platform for ultra-sensitive biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jinguang; Jiang, Li; Chen, Huifang; Wang, Yiqin; Yong, Ken-Tye; Forsberg, Erik; He, Sailing

    2018-03-01

    A graphene-bimetal plasmonic platform for surface plasmon resonance biosensing with ultra-high sensitivity was proposed and optimized. In this hybrid configuration, graphene nanosheets was employed to effectively absorb the excitation light and serve as biomolecular recognition elements for increased adsorption of analytes. Coating of an additional Au film prevents oxidation of the Ag substrate during manufacturing process and enhances the sensitivity at the same time. Thus, a bimetal Au-Ag substrate enables improved sensing performance and promotes stability of this plasmonic sensor. In this work we optimized the number of graphene layers as well as the thickness of the Au film and the Ag substrate based on the phase-interrogation sensitivity. We found an optimized configuration consisting of 6 layers of graphene coated on a bimetal surface consisting of a 5 nm Au film and a 30 nm Ag film. The calculation results showed the configuration could achieve a phase sensitivity as high as 1 . 71 × 106 deg/RIU, which was more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of bimetal structure and graphene-silver structure. Due to this enhanced sensing performance, the graphene-bimetal plasmonic platform proposed in this paper is potential for ultra-sensitive plasmonic sensing.

  17. Trends in Flow-based Biosensing Systems for Pesticide Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Marty

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This review gives a survey on the state of the art of pesticide detection usingflow-based biosensing systems for sample screening. Although immunosensor systems havebeen proposed as powerful pesticide monitoring tools, this review is mainly focused onenzyme-based biosensors, as they are the most commonly employed when using a flowsystem. Among the different detection methods able to be integrated into flow-injectionanalysis (FIA systems, the electrochemical ones will be treated in more detail, due to theirhigh sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment, easy operational procedures and real-timedetection. During the last decade, new trends have been emerging in order to increase theenzyme stability, the sensitivity and selectivity of the measurements, and to lower thedetection limits. These approaches are based on (i the design of novel matrices for enzymeimmobilisation, (ii new manifold configurations of the FIA system, sometimes includingminiaturisation or lab-on-chip protocols thanks to micromachining technology, (iii the useof cholinesterase enzymes either from various commercial sources or genetically modifiedwith the aim of being more sensitive, (iv the incorporation of other highly specificenzymes, such as organophosphate hydrolase (OPH or parathion hydrolase (PH and (v thecombination of different electrochemical methods of detection. This article discusses thesenovel strategies and their advantages and limitations.

  18. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  19. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  20. Mobile phone-based biosensing: An emerging "diagnostic and communication" technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-González, Daniel; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-06-15

    In this review we discuss recent developments on the use of mobile phones and similar devices for biosensing applications in which diagnostics and communications are coupled. Owing to the capabilities of mobile phones (their cameras, connectivity, portability, etc.) and to advances in biosensing, the coupling of these two technologies is enabling portable and user-friendly analytical devices. Any user can now perform quick, robust and easy (bio)assays anywhere and at any time. Among the most widely reported of such devices are paper-based platforms. Herein we provide an overview of a broad range of biosensing possibilities, from optical to electrochemical measurements; explore the various reported designs for adapters; and consider future opportunities for this technology in fields such as health diagnostics, safety & security, and environment monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  2. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caprio, Kimberley

    1997-01-01

    ... No. 5AB-0052, "Audit of the Management and Administration of Research Projects Funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency," will discuss the adequacy of the Defense Advanced Research...

  3. Electronic Information Resources (EIR Adoption in Private University Libraries: The Moderating Effect of Productivity and Relative Advantage on Perceived Usefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuagbe, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tested a hybrid model with constructs drawn from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Diffusion of Innovation (DOI theory in order to examine the moderating effect of productivity and relative advantage (RA on perceived usefulness (PU vis-à-vis electronic information resources (EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States of Nigeria. The descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 61 (55.0% librarians and 50 (45.0% library officers (totaling 116—100% in Babcock University, Bells University, Covenant University, Bowen University, Oduduwa University, and Redeemer's University. Purposive sampling procedure was adopted after which total enumeration was used since the total population is small. The questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 116 copies of the questionnaire administered, 111 (95.7% were found usable. The instrument was structured based on a 4-point Likert agreement scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables of frequency counts and percentage. The findings revealed that productivity and relative advantage are significant moderators of perceived usefulness of EIR adoption in private university libraries in Ogun and Osun States, Nigeria.

  4. SERS substrates for in-situ biosensing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Priyamvada; Quilis, Nestor; Jakub, Dostalek; Wolfgang, Knoll

    2017-06-01

    Abstract: Recent years have seen a rapid progress in the field of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) which is attributed to the thriving field of plasmonics [1]. SERS is a susceptible technique that can address basic scientific questions and technological problems. In both cases, it is highly dependent upon the plasmonic substrate, where excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance enhances the vibrational scattering signal of the analyte molecules adsorbed on to the surface [2]. In this work, using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method we investigate the optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures with tuned plasmonic resonances as a function of dielectric environment and geometric parameters. An optimized geometry will be discussed based on the plasmonic resonant position and the SERS intensity. These SERS substrates will be employed for the detection of changes in conformation caused by interactions between an aptamer and analyte molecules. This will be done by using a microfluidic channel designed within the configuration of the lab-on-a-chip concept based on the intensity changes of the SERS signal. More efficient and reproducible results are obtained for such a quantitative measurement of analytes at low concentration levels. We will also demonstrate that the plasmonic substrates fabricated by top down approach such as e-beam lithography (EBL) and laser interference lithography (LIL) are highly reproducible, robust and can result in high electric field enhancement. Our results demonstrate the potential to use SERS substrates for highly sensitive detection schemes opening up the window for a wide range of applications including biomedical diagnostics, forensic investigation etc. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), project NANOBIOSENSOR (I 2647). References: [1] J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao and R. P. V. Duyne., " Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors," Nature

  5. Ferrocene-functionalized graphene electrode for biosensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabti, Amal [Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Université de Tunis El–Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie (LR99ES15), Campus universitaire de Tunis El–Manar, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C.; Baptista-Pires, Luis [Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Raouafi, Noureddine, E-mail: n.raouafi@fst.rnu.tn [Université de Tunis El–Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie (LR99ES15), Campus universitaire de Tunis El–Manar, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Merkoçi, Arben, E-mail: arben.merkoci@icn2.cat [Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); ICREA, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2016-07-05

    A novel ferrocene-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based electrode is proposed. It was fabricated by the drop casting of ferrocene-functionalized graphene onto polyester substrate as the working electrode integrated within screen-printed reference and counter electrodes. The ferrocene-functionalized rGO has been fully characterized using FTIR, XPS, contact angle measurements, SEM and TEM microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The XPS and EDX analysis showed the presence of Fe element related to the introduced ferrocene groups, which is confirmed by a clear CV signal at ca. 0.25 V vs. Ag/AgCl (0.1 KCl). Mediated redox catalysis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and bio-functionalization with glucose oxidase for glucose detection were achieved by the bioelectrode providing a proof for potential biosensing applications. - Graphical abstract: An easy-to-prepare standalone graphene electrode was obtained by the drop-casting ferrocene-functionalized rGO on PET polymer. This electrode can be used as an enzymeless electrochemical sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide or as an amperometric enzyme-based biosensor for sensitive glucose detection. - Highlights: • A novel ferrocene-functionalized reduced graphene oxide based electrode. • Ease of preparation by drop-casting of Fc-modified graphene and chitosan mixture. • Well-defined and exploitable ferrocene CV signal for sensing purposes. • Sensitive enzymeless detection of hydrogen peroxide at low potentials. • Enzymatic Sensitive detection of glucose on GOx-modified graphene electrode.

  6. Zinc oxide nanostructure-modified textile and its application to biosensing, photocatalysis, and as antibacterial material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamie, Amir; Khan, Azam; Golabi, Mohsen; Turner, Anthony P F; Beni, Valerio; Mak, Wing Cheung; Sadollahkhani, Azar; Alnoor, Hatim; Zargar, Behrooz; Bano, Sumaira; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2015-10-06

    Recently, one-dimensional nanostructures with different morphologies (such as nanowires, nanorods (NRs), and nanotubes) have become the focus of intensive research, because of their unique properties with potential applications. Among them, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials has been found to be highly attractive, because of the remarkable potential for applications in many different areas such as solar cells, sensors, piezoelectric devices, photodiode devices, sun screens, antireflection coatings, and photocatalysis. Here, we present an innovative approach to create a new modified textile by direct in situ growth of vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs onto textile surfaces, which can serve with potential for biosensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial applications. ZnO NRs were grown by using a simple aqueous chemical growth method. Results from analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the ZnO NRs were dispersed over the entire surface of the textile. We have demonstrated the following applications of these multifunctional textiles: (1) as a flexible working electrode for the detection of aldicarb (ALD) pesticide, (2) as a photocatalyst for the degradation of organic molecules (i.e., Methylene Blue and Congo Red), and (3) as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli. The ZnO-based textile exhibited excellent photocatalytic and antibacterial activities, and it showed a promising sensing response. The combination of sensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial properties provided by the ZnO NRs brings us closer to the concept of smart textiles for wearable sensing without a deodorant and antibacterial control. Perhaps the best known of the products that is available in markets for such purposes are textiles with silver nanoparticles. Our modified textile is thus providing acceptable antibacterial properties, compared to available commercial modified textiles.

  7. Visible light induced photoelectrochemical biosensing based on oxygen-sensitive quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenjing; Bao Lei; Lei Jianping; Tu Wenwen; Ju Huangxian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The near-infrared QDs are synthesized in an aqueous solution. ► QDs-based biosensor exhibits visible-light induced cathodic photocurrent. ► The oxygen dependency of the photocurrent is verified. ► A photoelectrochemical strategy is established by coupling with enzymatic reaction. ► Photoelectrochemical sensor shows high upper detection limit, acceptable stability and accuracy. - Abstract: A visible light induced photoelectrochemical biosensing platform based on oxygen-sensitive near-infrared quantum dots (NIR QDs) was developed for detection of glucose. The NIR QDs were synthesized in an aqueous solution, and characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The as-prepared NIR QDs were employed to construct oxygen-sensitive photoelectrochemical biosensor on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode. The oxygen dependency of the photocurrent was investigated at as-prepared electrode, which demonstrated the signal of photocurrent is suppressed with the decreasing of oxygen. Coupling with the consumption of oxygen during enzymatic reaction, a photoelectrochemical strategy was proposed for the detection of substrate. Using glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model enzyme, that is, GOx was covalently attached to the surface of CdTe QDs, the resulting biosensor showed the sensitive response to glucose. Under the irradiation of visible light of a wavelength at 505 nm, the proposed photoelectrochemical method could detect glucose ranging from 0.1 mM to 11 mM with a detection limit of 0.04 mM. The photoelectrochemical biosensor showed a good performance with high upper detection limit, acceptable stability and accuracy, providing an alternative method for monitoring biomolecules and extending the application of near-infrared QDs.

  8. A novel approach for application of nylon membranes in the biosensing domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmand, Elham; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Hosseini, Samira [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Center for Innovation in Medical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Rothan, Hussin A.; Yusof, Rohana [Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Koole, Leo H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Center for Innovation in Medical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Djordjevic, Ivan, E-mail: ivandjordjevich@hotmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Center for Innovation in Medical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polymer coated nylon membranes as bioreceptor surfaces. • Carboxylated porous surface for protein immobilization. • High level of biosensing performance for dengue virus detection. - Abstract: In this paper we report the polymer-coated microporous nylon membranes and their application as platforms for protein immobilization and subsequent detection of the dengue virus (DV) in blood serum. Protein recognition experiments were performed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The polymers used for coatings were synthesized by free-radical polymerization reaction between methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) in different concentrations. The MAA monomer has carefully been chosen to generate polymers with pendant carboxyl (–COOH) groups, which also exist on polymer surfaces. A high degree of control over surface-exposed –COOH groups has been achieved through variation of monomers concentration in polymerization reaction. The general aspect of this work relies on the dengue antibody (Ab) immobilization on surface –COOH groups via physical attachment or covalent immobilization. Prior to Ab immobilization and ELISA experiment, polymer-coated nylon samples were analyzed in detail for their physical properties by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and water-in-air contact angle (WCA) measurements. Membranes were further analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in order to establish the relationship between wettability, porosity, and surface roughness with chemical composition and concentration of –COOH groups on the coating's surface. Optimized coatings have shown high sensitivity towards dengue Ab molecules, revealing fundamental aspect of polymer–protein interfaces as a function of surface –COOH groups’ concentration.

  9. A novel approach for application of nylon membranes in the biosensing domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahmand, Elham; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Hosseini, Samira; Rothan, Hussin A.; Yusof, Rohana; Koole, Leo H.; Djordjevic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polymer coated nylon membranes as bioreceptor surfaces. • Carboxylated porous surface for protein immobilization. • High level of biosensing performance for dengue virus detection. - Abstract: In this paper we report the polymer-coated microporous nylon membranes and their application as platforms for protein immobilization and subsequent detection of the dengue virus (DV) in blood serum. Protein recognition experiments were performed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The polymers used for coatings were synthesized by free-radical polymerization reaction between methyl methacrylate (MMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) in different concentrations. The MAA monomer has carefully been chosen to generate polymers with pendant carboxyl (–COOH) groups, which also exist on polymer surfaces. A high degree of control over surface-exposed –COOH groups has been achieved through variation of monomers concentration in polymerization reaction. The general aspect of this work relies on the dengue antibody (Ab) immobilization on surface –COOH groups via physical attachment or covalent immobilization. Prior to Ab immobilization and ELISA experiment, polymer-coated nylon samples were analyzed in detail for their physical properties by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and water-in-air contact angle (WCA) measurements. Membranes were further analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in order to establish the relationship between wettability, porosity, and surface roughness with chemical composition and concentration of –COOH groups on the coating's surface. Optimized coatings have shown high sensitivity towards dengue Ab molecules, revealing fundamental aspect of polymer–protein interfaces as a function of surface –COOH groups’ concentration.

  10. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  11. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  12. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  13. 圖書館事業專欄/Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University/Nerisa Kamar

    OpenAIRE

    Nerisa Kamar

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learnin...

  14. Silicon nanomaterials platform for bioimaging, biosensing, and cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fei; Su, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Yiling; Fan, Chunhai; Lee, Shuit-Tong; He, Yao

    2014-02-18

    Silicon nanomaterials are an important class of nanomaterials with great potential for technologies including energy, catalysis, and biotechnology, because of their many unique properties, including biocompatibility, abundance, and unique electronic, optical, and mechanical properties, among others. Silicon nanomaterials are known to have little or no toxicity due to favorable biocompatibility of silicon, which is an important precondition for biological and biomedical applications. In addition, huge surface-to-volume ratios of silicon nanomaterials are responsible for their unique optical, mechanical, or electronic properties, which offer exciting opportunities for design of high-performance silicon-based functional nanoprobes, nanosensors, and nanoagents for biological analysis and detection and disease treatment. Moreover, silicon is the second most abundant element (after oxygen) on earth, providing plentiful and inexpensive resources for large-scale and low-cost preparation of silicon nanomaterials for practical applications. Because of these attractive traits, and in parallel with a growing interest in their design and synthesis, silicon nanomaterials are extensively investigated for wide-ranging applications, including energy, catalysis, optoelectronics, and biology. Among them, bioapplications of silicon nanomaterials are of particular interest. In the past decade, scientists have made an extensive effort to construct a silicon nanomaterials platform for various biological and biomedical applications, such as biosensors, bioimaging, and cancer treatment, as new and powerful tools for disease diagnosis and therapy. Nonetheless, there are few review articles covering these important and promising achievements to promote the awareness of development of silicon nanobiotechnology. In this Account, we summarize recent representative works to highlight the recent developments of silicon functional nanomaterials for a new, powerful platform for biological and

  15. Model-Based Evaluation Of System Scalability: Bandwidth Analysis For Smartphone-Based Biosensing Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Madsen, Jan; Dimaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    -engineering efforts for scaling a system specification efficaciously. We demonstrate the value of our methodology by investigating a smartphone-based biosensing instrumentation platform. Specifically, we carry out scalability analysis for the system’s bandwidth specification: the maximum analog voltage waveform...

  16. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide Microgel-Based Optical Devices for Sensing and Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molla R. Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Responsive polymer-based materials have found numerous applications due to their ease of synthesis and the variety of stimuli that they can be made responsive to. In this review, we highlight the group’s efforts utilizing thermoresponsive poly (N-isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAm microgel-based optical devices for various sensing and biosensing applications.

  17. High-throughput automated system for statistical biosensing employing microcantilevers arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosco, Filippo; Chen, Ching H.; Hwu, En T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a completely new and fully automated system for parallel microcantilever-based biosensing. Our platform is able to monitor simultaneously the change of resonance frequency (dynamic mode), of deflection (static mode), and of surface roughness of hundreds of cantilevers in ...

  18. IC Compatible Wafer Level Fabrication of Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors for Biosensing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moh, T.S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    In biosensing, nano-devices such as Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors (SiNW FETs) are promising components/sensors for ultra-high sensitive detection, especially when samples are low in concentration or a limited volume is available. Current processing of SiNW FETs often relies on expensive

  19. Bioengineering of Solution Processed Graphene for the Development of Ultrasensitive Flexible Biosensing Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halder, Arnab; Hemanth, Suhith; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2016-01-01

    Development of low-cost, flexible and ultrasensitive biosensing platforms for rapid detection of different human metabolites is of great importance for the healthcare, pharmaceuticals and biomedical diagnostics sectors. Synthesis of novel functionalized nanomaterials with high surface area is a k...

  20. Considerations on Circuit Design and Data Acquisition of a Portable Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Keke; Chen, Ruipeng; Wang, Shun; Li, Jianwei; Hu, Xinran; Liang, Hao; Cao, Baiqiong; Sun, Xiaohui; Ma, Liuzheng; Zhu, Juanhua; Jiang, Min; Hu, Jiandong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a circuit for an inexpensive portable biosensing system based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. This portable biosensing system designed for field use is characterized by a special structure which consists of a microfluidic cell incorporating a right angle prism functionalized with a biomolecular identification membrane, a laser line generator and a data acquisition circuit board. The data structure, data memory capacity and a line charge-coupled device (CCD) array with a driving circuit for collecting the photoelectric signals are intensively focused on and the high performance analog-to-digital (A/D) converter is comprehensively evaluated. The interface circuit and the photoelectric signal amplifier circuit are first studied to obtain the weak signals from the line CCD array in this experiment. Quantitative measurements for validating the sensitivity of the biosensing system were implemented using ethanol solutions of various concentrations indicated by volume fractions of 5%, 8%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%, respectively, without a biomembrane immobilized on the surface of the SPR sensor. The experiments demonstrated that it is possible to detect a change in the refractive index of an ethanol solution with a sensitivity of 4.99838 × 105 ΔRU/RI in terms of the changes in delta response unit with refractive index using this SPR biosensing system, whereby the theoretical limit of detection of 3.3537 × 10−5 refractive index unit (RIU) and a high linearity at the correlation coefficient of 0.98065. The results obtained from a series of tests confirmed the practicality of this cost-effective portable SPR biosensing system. PMID:26295398

  1. Considerations on Circuit Design and Data Acquisition of a Portable Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Chang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a circuit for an inexpensive portable biosensing system based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. This portable biosensing system designed for field use is characterized by a special structure which consists of a microfluidic cell incorporating a right angle prism functionalized with a biomolecular identification membrane, a laser line generator and a data acquisition circuit board. The data structure, data memory capacity and a line charge-coupled device (CCD array with a driving circuit for collecting the photoelectric signals are intensively focused on and the high performance analog-to-digital (A/D converter is comprehensively evaluated. The interface circuit and the photoelectric signal amplifier circuit are first studied to obtain the weak signals from the line CCD array in this experiment. Quantitative measurements for validating the sensitivity of the biosensing system were implemented using ethanol solutions of various concentrations indicated by volume fractions of 5%, 8%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%, respectively, without a biomembrane immobilized on the surface of the SPR sensor. The experiments demonstrated that it is possible to detect a change in the refractive index of an ethanol solution with a sensitivity of 4.99838 × 105 ΔRU/RI in terms of the changes in delta response unit with refractive index using this SPR biosensing system, whereby the theoretical limit of detection of 3.3537 × 10−5 refractive index unit (RIU and a high linearity at the correlation coefficient of 0.98065. The results obtained from a series of tests confirmed the practicality of this cost-effective portable SPR biosensing system.

  2. Efficient protein immobilization on polyethersolfone electrospun nanofibrous membrane via covalent binding for biosensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudifard, Matin [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soudi, Sara [Stem Cell Biology Department, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soleimani, Masoud [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinzadeh, Simzar [Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Department, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esmaeili, Elaheh [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vossoughi, Manouchehr, E-mail: vosoughi@sharif.edu [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce novel strategy for antibody immobilization using high surface area electrospun nanofibrous membrane based on ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling chemistry. To present the high performance of proposed biosensors, anti-staphylococcus enterotoxin B (anti-SEB) was used as a model to demonstrate the utility of our proposed system. Polymer solution of polyethersolfone was used to fabricate fine nanofibrous membrane. Moreover, industrial polyvinylidene fluoride membrane and conventional microtiter plate were also used to compare the efficiency of antibody immobilization. Scanning electron microscopy images were taken to study the morphology of the membranes. The surface activation of nanofibrous membrane was done with the help of O{sub 2} plasma. PES nanofibrous membrane with carboxyl functional groups for covalent attachment of antibodies were treated by EDC/NHS coupling agent. The quantity of antibody immobilization was measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) method. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was performed to confirm the covalent immobilization of antibody on membrane. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and invert fluorescence microscopy were used to analyze the antibody distribution pattern on solid surfaces. Results show that oxygen plasma treatment effectively increased the amount of antibody immobilization through EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. It was found that the use of nanofibrous membrane causes the improved detection signal of ELISA based biosensors in comparison to the standard assay carried out in the 96-well microtiter plate. This method has the potential to improve the ELISA-based biosensor and we believe that this technique can be used in various biosensing methods. - Highlights: • Introduction of novel strategy for antibody immobilization using high surface area electrospun

  3. The electronic Trauma Health Record: design and usability of a novel tablet-based tool for trauma care and injury surveillance in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Eiman; Schuurman, Nadine; Nicol, Andrew J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Cinnamon, Jonathan; Taulu, Tracey; Ricker, Britta; Garbutt Brown, David Ross; Navsaria, Pradeep; Hameed, S Morad

    2014-01-01

    Ninety percent of global trauma deaths occur in under-resourced or remote environments, with little or no capacity for injury surveillance. We hypothesized that emerging electronic and web-based technologies could enable design of a tablet-based application, the electronic Trauma Health Record (eTHR), used by front-line clinicians to inform trauma care and acquire injury surveillance data for injury control and health policy development. The study was conducted in 3 phases: 1. Design of an electronic application capable of supporting clinical care and injury surveillance; 2. Preliminary feasibility testing of eTHR in a low-resource, high-volume trauma center; and 3. Qualitative usability testing with 22 trauma clinicians from a spectrum of high- and low-resource and urban and remote settings including Vancouver General Hospital, Whitehorse General Hospital, British Columbia Mobile Medical Unit, and Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The eTHR was designed with 3 key sections (admission note, operative note, discharge summary), and 3 key capabilities (clinical checklist creation, injury severity scoring, wireless data transfer to electronic registries). Clinician-driven registry data collection proved to be feasible, with some limitations, in a busy South African trauma center. In pilot testing at a level I trauma center in Cape Town, use of eTHR as a clinical tool allowed for creation of a real-time, self-populating trauma database. Usability assessments with traumatologists in various settings revealed the need for unique eTHR adaptations according to environments of intended use. In all settings, eTHR was found to be user-friendly and have ready appeal for frontline clinicians. The eTHR has potential to be used as an electronic medical record, guiding clinical care while providing data for injury surveillance, without significantly hindering hospital workflow in various health-care settings. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published

  4. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  5. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  6. Magnetic loading of tyrosinase-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/mesoporous silica core/shell microspheres for high sensitive electrochemical biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Shuo, E-mail: wushuo@dlut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang Hainan; Tao Shengyang; Wang Chan; Zhang Lihui; Liu Zhiguang; Meng Changgong [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-02-07

    A new protocol is proposed for magnetic loading and sensitive electrochemical detection of phenol via the tyrosinase cross-linked mesoporous magnetic core/shell microspheres. The mesoporous magnetic microspheres, characterized by transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms, and magnetic curve displays high capacity for enzyme immobilization and strong magnetism to adhere to the magnetic electrode surface without any additional adhesive reagent. The biosensor exhibits a wide linear response to phenol ranging from 1.0 x 10{sup -9} to 1.0 x 10{sup -5} M, a high sensitivity of 78 {mu}A mM{sup -1}, a low detection limit of 1 nM, and a fast response rate (less than 5 s). The proposed method is simple, rapid, inexpensive and convenient in electrode renewal, which is recommended as a promising experimental platform for wider applications in biosensing.

  7. Chemical Modification of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes for Applications to Biosensors and Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svítková, Jana; Ignat, Teodora; Švorc, Ľubomír; Labuda, Ján; Barek, Jiří

    2016-05-03

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) is a prospective electrode material that possesses many exceptional properties including wide potential window, low noise, low and stable background current, chemical and mechanical stability, good biocompatibility, and last but not least exceptional resistance to passivation. These characteristics extend its usability in various areas of electrochemistry as evidenced by increasing number of published articles over the past two decades. The idea of chemically modifying BDD electrodes with molecular species attached to the surface for the purpose of creating a rational design has found promising applications in the past few years. BDD electrodes have appeared to be excellent substrate materials for various chemical modifications and subsequent application to biosensors and biosensing. Hence, this article presents modification strategies that have extended applications of BDD electrodes in electroanalytical chemistry. Different methods and steps of surface modification of this electrode material for biosensing and construction of biosensors are discussed.

  8. OLED Hybrid Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Biosensing for Point of Care Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Acharya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a microfluidic platform with external hybrid integration of an organic light emitting diode (OLED as an excitation source. This device can be used as a simple and cost effective biosensing element. The device is capable of rapid in-situ detection of biological elements such as sensing of interaction of antigen with fluorescent tagged antibody conjugates. These portable microfluidic systems have great potential for use an OLED in a single chip with very high accuracy and sensitivity for various point-of-care (POC diagnosis and lab on a chip (LOC applications, as the miniaturization of the biosensor is essential for handling smaller sample volumes in order to achieve high throughput. The biosensing element was successfully tested to detect anti-sheep IgG conjugates tagged to Alexafluor using a fluorescence based immunoassay method.

  9. Electrochemical biosensing of galactose based on carbon materials: graphene versus multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkıran, Berna; Erden, Pınar Esra; Kılıç, Esma

    2016-06-01

    In this study, two enzyme electrodes based on graphene (GR), Co3O4 nanoparticles and chitosan (CS) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), Co3O4 nanoparticles, and CS, were fabricated as novel biosensing platforms for galactose determination, and their performances were compared. Galactose oxidase (GaOx) was immobilized onto the electrode surfaces by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Optimum working conditions of the biosensors were investigated and the analytical performance of the biosensors was compared with respect to detection limit, linearity, repeatability, and stability. The MWCNTs-based galactose biosensor provided about 1.6-fold higher sensitivity than its graphene counterpart. Moreover, the linear working range and detection limit of the MWCNTs-based galactose biosensor was superior to the graphene-modified biosensor. The successful application of the purposed biosensors for galactose biosensing in human serum samples was also investigated.

  10. Functional Carbon Quantum Dots: A Versatile Platform for Chemosensing and Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui; Qian, Zhaosheng

    2017-11-24

    Carbon quantum dot has emerged as a new promising fluorescent nanomaterial due to its excellent optical properties, outstanding biocompatibility and accessible fabrication methods, and has shown huge application perspective in a variety of areas, especially in chemosensing and biosensing applications. In this personal account, we give a brief overview of carbon quantum dots from its origin and preparation methods, present some advance on fluorescence origin of carbon quantum dots, and focus on development of chemosensors and biosensors based on functional carbon quantum dots. Comprehensive advances on functional carbon quantum dots as a versatile platform for sensing from our group are included and summarized as well as some typical examples from the other groups. The biosensing applications of functional carbon quantum dots are highlighted from selective assays of enzyme activity to fluorescent identification of cancer cells and bacteria. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Magnetic Particles Coupled to Disposable Screen Printed Transducers for Electrochemical Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Yáñez-Sedeño

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasensitive biosensing is currently a growing demand that has led to the development of numerous strategies for signal amplification. In this context, the unique properties of magnetic particles; both of nano- and micro-size dimensions; have proved to be promising materials to be coupled with disposable electrodes for the design of cost-effective electrochemical affinity biosensing platforms. This review addresses, through discussion of selected examples, the way that nano- and micro-magnetic particles (MNPs and MMPs; respectively have contributed significantly to the development of electrochemical affinity biosensors, including immuno-, DNA, aptamer and other affinity modes. Different aspects such as type of magnetic particles, assay formats, detection techniques, sensitivity, applicability and other relevant characteristics are discussed. Research opportunities and future development trends in this field are also considered.

  12. Evolution of Surface Plasmon Supermodes in Metal-Clad Microwire and its Potential for Biosensing

    OpenAIRE

    Aminah, N. S.; Themistos, C.; Hidayat, R.; Djamal, M.; Rahman, B. M.

    2017-01-01

    A finite-element method based on the vector H-field formulation in conjunction with perturbation techniques is used to study metal-clad microwire waveguides for bio-sensing applications. Sensors are designed to detect DNA hybridization through the change of the effective index and attenuation constant of the waveguide structure. The key parameters, such as effective index, loss coefficient, and spot sizes, are presented and potential sensor applications are discussed.

  13. An Optical Biosensing Strategy Based on Selective Light Absorption and Wavelength Filtering from Chromogenic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jin Chun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the time and space constraints in disease diagnosis via the biosensing approach, we developed a new signal-transducing strategy that can be applied to colorimetric optical biosensors. Our study is focused on implementation of a signal transduction technology that can directly translate the color intensity signals—that require complicated optical equipment for the analysis—into signals that can be easily counted with the naked eye. Based on the selective light absorption and wavelength-filtering principles, our new optical signaling transducer was built from a common computer monitor and a smartphone. In this signal transducer, the liquid crystal display (LCD panel of the computer monitor served as a light source and a signal guide generator. In addition, the smartphone was used as an optical receiver and signal display. As a biorecognition layer, a transparent and soft material-based biosensing channel was employed generating blue output via a target-specific bienzymatic chromogenic reaction. Using graphics editor software, we displayed the optical signal guide patterns containing multiple polygons (a triangle, circle, pentagon, heptagon, and 3/4 circle, each associated with a specified color ratio on the LCD monitor panel. During observation of signal guide patterns displayed on the LCD monitor panel using a smartphone camera via the target analyte-loaded biosensing channel as a color-filtering layer, the number of observed polygons changed according to the concentration of the target analyte via the spectral correlation between absorbance changes in a solution of the biosensing channel and color emission properties of each type of polygon. By simple counting of the changes in the number of polygons registered by the smartphone camera, we could efficiently measure the concentration of a target analyte in a sample without complicated and expensive optical instruments. In a demonstration test on glucose as a model analyte, we

  14. Ambient light-based optical biosensing platform with smartphone-embedded illumination sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Min; Han, Yong Duk; Chun, Hyeong Jin; Yoon, Hyun C

    2017-07-15

    We present a hand-held optical biosensing system utilizing a smartphone-embedded illumination sensor that is integrated with immunoblotting assay method. The smartphone-embedded illumination sensor is regarded as an alternative optical receiver that can replaces the conventional optical analysis apparatus because the illumination sensor can respond to the ambient light in a wide range of wavelengths, including visible and infrared. To demonstrate the biosensing applicability of our system employing the enzyme-mediated immunoblotting and accompanying light interference, various types of ambient light conditions including outdoor sunlight and indoor fluorescent were tested. For the immunoblotting assay, the biosensing channel generating insoluble precipitates as an end product of the enzymatic reaction is fabricated and mounted on the illumination sensor of the smartphone. The intensity of penetrating light arrives on the illumination sensor is inversely proportional to the amount of precipitates produced in the channel, and these changes are immediately analyzed and quantified via smartphone software. In this study, urinary C-terminal telopeptide fragment of type II collagen (uCTX-II), a biomarker of osteoarthritis diagnosis, was tested as a model analyte. The developed smartphone-based sensing system efficiently measured uCTX-II in the 0-5ng/mL concentration range with a high sensitivity and accuracy under various light conditions. These assay results show that the illumination sensor-based optical biosensor is suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  16. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  17. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  18. SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    3] Recently, the emergence of the novel 2009 influenza A ( H1N1 ) virus and the SARS coronavirus have demonstrated how rapidly pathogens can spread...standards in both minimum data sets for disease surveillance and routine diagnosis and care. Analysis & Visualization. As previously discussed, the...g002 SAGES Electronic Disease Surveillance PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 3 May 2011 | Volume 6 | Issue 5 | e19750 for pandemic influenza as well as

  19. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  20. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  1. Surface treatment on amorphous InGaZnO4 thin film for single-stranded DNA biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dali; Matsui, Hiroaki; Wu, Chun-Nan; Tabata, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous InGaZnO4 (aIGZO) has been widely used as a transparent semiconductor. However, no research has been found yet applying aIGZO to biosensing. This paper examined the single strand DNA (ssDNA) immobilization on aIGZO by absorption with a comparison to ITO, which is the first step for many biosensing schemas. The DNA quantification by florescence intensity shows that the absorption capacity of aIGZO film to ssDNA is 6.7 times greater than that of ITO. XPS and contact angle analysis proved the high DNA absorption affinity on aIGZO film is related to its high effectiveness to OH- attachment. A feasible method to immobilized ssDNA on aIGZO thin film is evaluated in this paper, and consequently, enables a possible approach to apply aIGZO in biosensing.

  2. A partnership model for implementing electronic health records in resource-limited primary care settings: experiences from two nurse-managed health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Patricia; White, Mary P; Hamilton, Andrew; Pohl, Joanne M; Tanner, Clare; Onifade, Tiffiani J; Zheng, Kai

    2011-01-01

    To present a partnership-based and community-oriented approach designed to ease provider anxiety and facilitate the implementation of electronic health records (EHR) in resource-limited primary care settings. The approach, referred to as partnership model, was developed and iteratively refined through the research team's previous work on implementing health information technology (HIT) in over 30 safety net practices. This paper uses two case studies to illustrate how the model was applied to help two nurse-managed health centers (NMHC), a particularly vulnerable primary care setting, implement EHR and get prepared to meet the meaningful use criteria. The strong focus of the model on continuous quality improvement led to eventual implementation success at both sites, despite difficulties encountered during the initial stages of the project. There has been a lack of research, particularly in resource-limited primary care settings, on strategies for abating provider anxiety and preparing them to manage complex changes associated with EHR uptake. The partnership model described in this paper may provide useful insights into the work shepherded by HIT regional extension centers dedicated to supporting resource-limited communities disproportionally affected by EHR adoption barriers. NMHC, similar to other primary care settings, are often poorly resourced, understaffed, and lack the necessary expertise to deploy EHR and integrate its use into their day-to-day practice. This study demonstrates that implementation of EHR, a prerequisite to meaningful use, can be successfully achieved in this setting, and partnership efforts extending far beyond the initial software deployment stage may be the key.

  3. Structural studies of the mechanism for biosensing antibiotics in a fluorescein-labeled β-lactamase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Kwok-Yin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-lactamase conjugated with environment-sensitive fluorescein molecule to residue 166 on the Ω-loop near its catalytic site is a highly effective biosensor for β-lactam antibiotics. Yet the molecular mechanism of such fluorescence-based biosensing is not well understood. Results Here we report the crystal structure of a Class A β-lactamase PenP from Bacillus licheniformis 749/C with fluorescein conjugated at residue 166 after E166C mutation, both in apo form (PenP-E166Cf and in covalent complex form with cefotaxime (PenP-E166Cf-cefotaxime, to illustrate its biosensing mechanism. In the apo structure the fluorescein molecule partially occupies the antibiotic binding site and is highly dynamic. In the PenP-E166Cf-cefatoxime complex structure the binding and subsequent acylation of cefotaxime to PenP displaces fluorescein from its original location to avoid steric clash. Such displacement causes the well-folded Ω-loop to become fully flexible and the conjugated fluorescein molecule to relocate to a more solvent exposed environment, hence enhancing its fluorescence emission. Furthermore, the fully flexible Ω-loop enables the narrow-spectrum PenP enzyme to bind cefotaxime in a mode that resembles the extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Conclusions Our structural studies indicate the biosensing mechanism of a fluorescein-labelled β-lactamase. Such findings confirm our previous proposal based on molecular modelling and provide useful information for the rational design of β-lactamase-based biosensor to detect the wide spectrum of β-lactam antibiotics. The observation of increased Ω-loop flexibility upon conjugation of fluorophore may have the potential to serve as a screening tool for novel β-lactamase inhibitors that target the Ω-loop and not the active site.

  4. Emerging trends in biosensing using stripping voltammetric detection of metal-containing nanolabels – A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkinos, Christos; Economou, Anastasios, E-mail: aeconomo@chem.uoa.gr

    2017-04-08

    Over the last years, nanomaterials have found many applications in the development of electrochemical biosensors. Among other functions, metal nanoparticles (NPs) and quantum dots (QDs) (semiconducting nanocrystals composed of metal salts) are increasingly being used as voltammetric labels in affinity biosensing. Labeling is based on the attachment of the label(s) on the target biomolecules or on a biorecognition reporting probe. After an appropriate specific affinity interaction between the target and the reporting probe, the metallic nanolabels are converted to the respective cations which are quantified by a voltammetric technique. The very use of metal-containing nanoprobes as labels provides a first amplification step since each nanoprobe can release a very significant number of detectable cations. When anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) (in which a preconcentration step precedes the actual voltammetric scan) is further employed as the detection format, ultra-sensitive bioassays can be developed. The present paper reviews the emerging trends in affinity biosensing using ASV detection of metal-containing nanolabels. It provides a critical discussion of recent developments in ASV transduction and electrodes, novel strategies for signal enhancement, approaches for multiplexed detection as well as fluidics, paper-based and lab-on-a-chip devices. - Highlights: • This paper reviews the use of ASV for affinity biosensing with metal-containing nanolabels. • Both metal nanoparticles and quantum dots applications are considered. • Transducers and new electrode materials are covered. • Signal enhancement and multiplexing strategies are discussed. • Sensor arrays, paper-based, fluidic and lab-on-chip applications are described.

  5. Nanometal particle reagents for sensitive, MEMS based fiber-optic, multi-analyte, immuno-biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bin

    Integration of nanotechnology to medical diagnostics has brought a new era to public health practice. An excellent example is the utilization of unique optoelectronic properties of nanoparticles to develop highly sensitive biosensing devices for point-of-care (POC) disease diagnosis/prognosis. Fluorophore mediated, immuno-biosensors are important disease detection tools. The property of intra-molecular fluorescence quenching of most fluorophores, however, limits the sensitivity of this type of sensors. A plasmon-rich nanometal particle (NMP) can transfer the lone pair electrons of a fluorophore, which normally participate in the fluorescence self-quenching, to its surface plasmon field, resulting in artificial fluorescence enhancement. The enhancement was found to depend on the metal type, the particle size, the distance between a particle and a fluorophore, and the quantum yield of a fluorophore. Some biocompatible solvents were also found to increase the fluorescence emission efficiency via effective dipole coupling between the fluorophore and the solvent molecule. The application of solvents in inmuno-sensing could additionally improve the fluorescence light retrieval by the conformational change of the protein complexes in solvent. The mixture of the NMP and the solvent, which we defined as nanometal particle reagent (NMPR), provided even higher enhancements. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) kill 1 person in every 6 seconds. Among the CVDs, acute myocardial infarction (AMI; commonly known as heart attack) is the most dangerous and time-sensitive killer. A rapid and accurate AMI diagnosis is crucial for saving many lives. For this purpose, a fluorophore mediated, immuno-reaction based, multi-cardiac-marker sensing device was developed, to quantify four myocardium-specific proteins simultaneously, accurately, rapidly, and user-friendly. The four cardiac markers of our choice were myoglobin (MG), C-reactive protein (CRP), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and B

  6. Tunable nanogap devices for ultra-sensitive electrochemical impedance biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yong [Department of Chemistry, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002 (China); Guo, Zheng [Nanomaterials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Song, Jing-Jing; Huang, Qin-An; Zhu, Si-Wei [Department of Chemistry, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002 (China); Huang, Xing-Jiu [Nanomaterials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wei, Yan, E-mail: yanwei_wnmc@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002 (China)

    2016-01-28

    A wealth of research has been available discussing nanogap devices for detecting very small quantities of biomolecules by observing their electrical behavior generally performed in dry conditions. We report that a gold nanogapped electrode with tunable gap length for ultra-sensitive detection of streptavidin based on electrochemical impedance technique. The gold nanogap is fabricated using simple monolayer film deposition and in-situ growth of gold nanoparticles in a traditional interdigitated array (IDA) microelectrode. The electrochemical impedance biosensor with a 25-nm nanogap is found to be ultra-sensitive to the specific binding of streptavidin to biotin. The binding of the streptavidin hinder the electron transfer between two electrodes, resulting in a large increase in electron-transfer resistance (R{sub et}) for operating the impedance. A linear relation between the relative R{sub et} and the logarithmic value of streptavidin concentration is observed in the concentration range from 1 pM (picomolar) to 100 nM (nanomolar). The lowest detectable concentration actually measured reaches 1 pM. We believe that such an electrochemical impedance nanogap biosensor provides a useful approach towards biomolecular detection that could be extended to a number of other systems. - Highlights: • A tunable gold nanogap device was used as to electrochemical impedance biosensor. • Linear range from 1 pM to 100 nM with LOD of 1 pM for streptavidin detection was obtained. • The nanogap devices exhibit a satisfactory precision, stability, and reproducibility. • The combination of electrochemical impedance technique and nanogap devices was achieved.

  7. Optical and Electric Multifunctional CMOS Image Sensors for On-Chip Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Sasagawa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the concept, design, performance, and a functional demonstration of multifunctional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS image sensors dedicated to on-chip biosensing applications are described. We developed a sensor architecture that allows flexible configuration of a sensing pixel array consisting of optical and electric sensing pixels, and designed multifunctional CMOS image sensors that can sense light intensity and electric potential or apply a voltage to an on-chip measurement target. We describe the sensors’ architecture on the basis of the type of electric measurement or imaging functionalities.

  8. Nanotechnology-based approaches for regenerative medicine and biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Aniruddh P.

    The recent emergence of nanotechnology has set high expectations in many fields of science, especially in biology and medicine. Nanotechnology-based approaches are expected to solve key questions in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. Regenerative medicine essentially deals with regeneration of cells, ultimately leading to the formation of tissues and organs. For this purpose, stem cells, embryonic stem cells or adult stem cells, are thought to be ideal resources. However, many challenges need to be addressed before the full therapeutic potential of stem cells can be harnessed. Controlling the differentiation of stem cells into cells of a specific lineage is extremely vital and challenging. Addressing this challenge, in this work, novel nanotechnology-based approaches for controlling the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into neurons has been presented. Regeneration of damaged neurons, due to traumatic injuries or degenerative diseases, is extremely challenging. For this purpose, NSCs can be used as resources that can differentiate into neurons, thus having great potential in solving needs of many patients suffering from such conditions. For controlling the differentiation of stem cells, soluble cues (comprising of small molecules and biomolecules) and insoluble cues (cell-cell interactions and cell-microenvironment interactions) play a very important role. The delivery of soluble cues, such as genetic material, into stem cells is extremely challenging. The initial part of this work presents the use of nanomaterials for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small molecules and small interfering RNA (siRNA) into NSCs for controlling their differentiation into neurons. However, for regenerative purposes, it is preferred that least amounts of the delivery vehicle be used. Thus, the following part of the thesis presents the development and applications of nanotechnology-based approaches for enhancing the differentiation of NSCs into neurons

  9. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  10. Colorimetric detection for paper-based biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, C.; Joubert, T.-H.

    2016-02-01

    Research on affordable point-of-care health diagnostics is rapidly advancing1. Colorimetric biosensor applications are typically qualitative, but recently the focus has been shifted to quantitative measurements2,3. Although numerous qualitative point-of-care (POC) health diagnostic devices are available, the challenge exists of developing a quantitative colorimetric array reader system that complies with the ASSURED (Affordable, Sensitive, Specific, User-friendly, Rapid and Robust, Equipment-free, Deliverable to end-users) principles of the World Health Organization4. This paper presents a battery powered 8-bit tonal resolution colorimetric sensor circuit for paper microfluidic assays using low cost photo-detection circuitry and a low-power LED light source. A colorimetric 3×3-pixel array reader was developed for rural environments where resources and personnel are limited. The device sports an ultralow-power E-ink paper display. The colorimetric device includes integrated GPS functionality and EEPROM memory to log measurements with geo-tags for possible analysis of regional trends. The device competes with colour intensity measurement techniques using smartphone cameras, but proves to be a cheaper solution, compensating for the typical performance variations between cameras of different brands of smartphones. Inexpensive methods for quantifying bacterial assays have been shown using desktop scanners, which are not portable, and cameras, which suffer severely from changes in ambient light in different environments. Promising colorimetric detection results have been demonstrated using devices such as video cameras5, digital colour analysers6, flatbed scanners7 or custom portable readers8. The major drawback of most of these methods is the need for specialized instrumentation and for image analysis on a computer.

  11. Advanced glucose biosensing and nano-composite research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Humphreys Douglas I.

    The fascinating and enhanced properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been of intense interest since their discovery. This is primarily due to their exceptional mechanical , electrical, and thermal properties , as well as their many and varied applications in modern industries such as in fuel cells, sensors, reinforced composites, electromagnetic interference shielding applications, actuators and fabrication of sophisticated nanostructures. During the production of CNTs, there are associated impurities such as metal nanoparticle and carbonaceous impurities. There are different types of CNTs such as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), double-walled nanotubes (DWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs). In this study, XD-grade CNTs (XD) was used. XD is a mixture of SWNTs, DWNTs and MWNTs. The focus of this study was primarily geared toward the purification and application of CNTs. Two generally accepted cycles of purification were followed, purification under oxygen environment and purification under oxygen/argon mixture environment. XD was purified to different extents by oxidation and acid wash. The raw and purified CNTs were compounded into Epikote 862 and Epikure W epoxy resin to prepare composite materials and also in the biosensor studies. The CNTs and composite materials were characterized by means of thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transimssion electron microscopy (TEM). It was discovered that, excessive purification would not lead to further removal of metal residues; instead, it could result in disruption of the structure and property of CNTs. The use of CNTs as fillers was found to hinder the epoxy curing in general, and the removal of metal impurities seemed to worsen the situation. This would imply that the metal residue might catalyze the epoxy curing to a certain degree while the increased viscosity should be the primary reason for the slowed curing. An electrochemical

  12. High-quality multispectral bio-sensing with asymmetric all-dielectric meta-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengqi; Fu, Guolan; Liu, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yi; Tang, Li; Liu, Zhongmin; Liu, Guiqiang

    2017-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a strategy for achieving high-quality bio-sensing in an asymmetric all-dielectric meta-material (α-ADM), which can provide multispectral narrowband optical extinction with enhanced electromagnetic field and eventually paves a novel efficient sensing platform. High performance optical sensing with figure of merit (FoM) reaching 353 and spectral intensity change related FoM* exceeding 4700 is achieved in this lossless α-ADM platform, which is orders of magnitude larger than that of the metallic plasmonic sensors. In particular, due to the high sensitivity and complete extinction existed in the sharp spectrum, a remarkable spectral intensity change from a ‘dark’ state to a ‘bright’ state is obtained when the surrounding refractive index value is only varied slightly. Moreover, ultra-low detection limitation of the protein layer down to sub-nanometer thickness can be achieved. The sensing contrast ratio exceeding 34 dB is obtained for the sensor adsorbed with protein films, which suggests an ultra-high signal-to-noise ratio detection for this ultra-thin bio-molecule layer. In contrast to the traditional plasmonic sensors, these features lay a foundation for new sensing schemes based on the all-dielectric structures. The sensing performance including the spectral sensitivity and the detecting signal-to-noise ratio can hold the proposed α-ADM with applications in high-quality refractive index sensing and optical bio-sensing.

  13. A Graphene-Based Biosensing Platform Based on Regulated Release of an Aptameric DNA Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Chen, Yongli; Li, Song; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2015-11-09

    A novel biosensing platform was developed by integrating an aptamer-based DNA biosensor with graphene oxide (GO) for rapid and facile detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, as a model target). The DNA biosensor, which is locked by GO, is designed to contain two sensing modules that include recognition site for ATP and self-replication track that yields the nicking domain for Nt.BbvCI. By taking advantage of the different binding affinity of single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA and aptamer-target complex toward GO, the DNA biosensor could be efficiently released from GO in the presence of target with the help of a complementary DNA strand (CPDNA) that partially hybridizes to the DNA biosensor. Then, the polymerization/nicking enzyme synergetic isothermal amplification could be triggered, leading to the synthesis of massive DNA amplicons, thus achieving an enhanced sensitivity with a wide linear dynamic response range of four orders of magnitude and good selectivity. This biosensing strategy expands the applications of GO-DNA nanobiointerfaces in biological sensing, showing great potential in fundamental research and biomedical diagnosis.

  14. Preparation, Modification, Characterization, and Biosensing Application of Nanoporous Gold Using Electrochemical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay K. Bhattarai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous gold (np-Au, because of its high surface area-to-volume ratio, excellent conductivity, chemical inertness, physical stability, biocompatibility, easily tunable pores, and plasmonic properties, has attracted much interested in the field of nanotechnology. It has promising applications in the fields of catalysis, bio/chemical sensing, drug delivery, biomolecules separation and purification, fuel cell development, surface-chemistry-driven actuation, and supercapacitor design. Many chemical and electrochemical procedures are known for the preparation of np-Au. Recently, researchers are focusing on easier and controlled ways to tune the pores and ligaments size of np-Au for its use in different applications. Electrochemical methods have good control over fine-tuning pore and ligament sizes. The np-Au electrodes that are prepared using electrochemical techniques are robust and are easier to handle for their use in electrochemical biosensing. Here, we review different electrochemical strategies for the preparation, post-modification, and characterization of np-Au along with the synergistic use of both electrochemistry and np-Au for applications in biosensing.

  15. Nanopore extended field-effect transistor for selective single-molecule biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ren; Zhang, Yanjun; Nadappuram, Binoy Paulose; Akpinar, Bernice; Klenerman, David; Ivanov, Aleksandar P; Edel, Joshua B; Korchev, Yuri

    2017-09-19

    There has been a significant drive to deliver nanotechnological solutions to biosensing, yet there remains an unmet need in the development of biosensors that are affordable, integrated, fast, capable of multiplexed detection, and offer high selectivity for trace analyte detection in biological fluids. Herein, some of these challenges are addressed by designing a new class of nanoscale sensors dubbed nanopore extended field-effect transistor (nexFET) that combine the advantages of nanopore single-molecule sensing, field-effect transistors, and recognition chemistry. We report on a polypyrrole functionalized nexFET, with controllable gate voltage that can be used to switch on/off, and slow down single-molecule DNA transport through a nanopore. This strategy enables higher molecular throughput, enhanced signal-to-noise, and even heightened selectivity via functionalization with an embedded receptor. This is shown for selective sensing of an anti-insulin antibody in the presence of its IgG isotype.Efficient detection of single molecules is vital to many biosensing technologies, which require analytical platforms with high selectivity and sensitivity. Ren et al. combine a nanopore sensor and a field-effect transistor, whereby gate voltage mediates DNA and protein transport through the nanopore.

  16. In vitro inflammation inhibition model based on semi-continuous toll-like receptor biosensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Jeon

    Full Text Available A chemical inhibition model of inflammation is proposed by semi-continuous monitoring the density of toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1 expressed on mammalian cells following bacterial infection to investigate an in vivo-mimicked drug screening system. The inflammation was induced by adding bacterial lysate (e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa to a mammalian cell culture (e.g., A549 cell line. The TLR1 density on the same cells was immunochemically monitored up to three cycles under optimized cyclic bacterial stimulation-and-restoration conditions. The assay was carried out by adopting a cell-compatible immunoanalytical procedure and signal generation method. Signal intensity relative to the background control obtained without stimulation was employed to plot the standard curve for inflammation. To suppress the inflammatory response, sodium salicylate, which inhibits nuclear factor-κB activity, was used to prepare the standard curve for anti-inflammation. Such measurement of differential TLR densities was used as a biosensing approach discriminating the anti-inflammatory substance from the non-effector, which was simulated by using caffeic acid phenethyl ester and acetaminophen as the two components, respectively. As the same cells exposed to repetitive bacterial stimulation were semi-continuously monitored, the efficacy and toxicity of the inhibitors may further be determined regarding persistency against time. Therefore, this semi-continuous biosensing model could be appropriate as a substitute for animal-based experimentation during drug screening prior to pre-clinical tests.

  17. Biosensing utilizing the motion of magnetic microparticles in a microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2010-10-23

    The study for the design of a compact and inexpensive biosensing device, which can be operated either by primary care personnel or by patients as opposed to skilled operators, is presented. The main parts of the proposed device are a microfluidic channel, permanent magnets and functionalized magnetic microparticles. The innovative aspect of the proposed biosensing method is that it utilizes the volumetric increase of magnetic microparticles when analyte binds to their surface. Their velocity decreases drastically when they are accelerated by an externally applied magnetic force within a microfluidic channel. This effect is utilized to detect the presence of analyte e.g. microbes. Analytical calculations showed that a decrease in velocity of approximately 23% can be achieved due to the volumetric change of a magnetic microparticle of View the MathML source1μm diameter when HIV virions of approximately View the MathML source0,135μm are bound to its surface and by keeping its magnetic properties the same. Preliminary experiments were carried out utilizing superparamagnetic microparticles coated with streptavidin and polystyrene microparticles coated with biotin.

  18. A hollow nanogold/meso-magnetite composite: pulsed laser synthesis, properties, and biosensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nilima; Warule, Sambhaji; Agrawal, Shailaja; Thakare, Vishal; Jouen, Samuel; Hannoyer, Beatrice; Kale, Bharat; Paknikar, Kishore; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2013-12-01

    A facile and template-free UV (Excimer) laser photolysis process is demonstrated to transform a Fe-complex into unique hollow Fe3O4 nanosphere morphology with each sphere having nanometric pores and an opening. Depending on the Fe-complex concentration and processing time interesting configurations are seen to evolve. When an identical process is applied to a mixture of Fe-complex and chloroauric acid an enthrallingly decorated Au-Fe3O4 nanostructure evolves, with Au nanoparticles surface-loaded on mesospheric Fe3O4. This room temperature process implemented under normal laboratory conditions is clearly versatile and applicable to heterojunction nanomaterials synthesis in a single-step process. The potential application of these gold-decorated magnetic nanostructures was also investigated for immuno-magnetic capture of E. coli in biosensing and these were found to be sensitive even below 1,000 cfu/ml. The test results demonstrate linear sensing response in the range of 103-105 cfu/ml. We also show that these nanostructures can be used for simple electrical conductivity-based biosensing since they show dramatic conductivity change in a simple drop-cast test.

  19. FT-IR microspectroscopy characterization of supports for enzyme immobilization in biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaccio, M.; Della Ventura, B.; Gabrovska, K.; Marinov, I.; Godjevargova, T.; Mita, D. G.; Lepore, M.

    2010-04-01

    The investigation of materials suitable for enzyme immobilization in biosensing applications has a widespread interest. There are many studies on physico-chemical properties of these materials at macroscopic level but few studies have been devoted to examine and correlate these properties at microscopic level. FT-IR spectroscopy with Micro-Attenuated Total Reflection (Micro-ATR) approach can be extremely useful for understanding a variety of aspects of materials which can be used for optimising immobilization procedures. Moreover, this experimental approach is particularly simple to use (no sample preparation is required) and minimally invasive. Using a Perkin Elmer Spectrum One FT-IR spectrometer equipped with a mercury-cadmium-telluride detector and a micro-ATR element we investigated different materials used for immobilization procedures with various enzymes widely used for biosensing in environmental and clinical applications. In particular, composite membranes constituted by a chemically modified poly-acrylonitrile (PAN) membrane plus layers of tethered chitosan of different molecular weight have been examined. Also silica gel matrices without and with glucose oxidase have been investigated. Spectra have been analysed and the contribution of principal functional groups has been evidenced.

  20. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  1. Integrated microfluidic biosensing platform for simultaneous confocal microscopy and electrophysiological measurements on bilayer lipid membranes and ion channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze Greiving-Stimberg, Verena Carolin; Bomer, Johan G.; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; le Gac, Severine

    2018-01-01

    Combining high-resolution imaging and electrophysiological recordings is key for various types of experimentation on lipid bilayers and ion channels. Here, we propose an integrated biosensing platform consisting of a microfluidic cartridge and a dedicated chip-holder to conduct such dual

  2. 圖書館事業專欄/Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University/Nerisa Kamar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerisa Kamar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learning. These strategies include use of posters, notices, brochures, telephone calls, Current Awareness Services (CAS, workshops and seminars, and decentralization of services, among others. It concludes with a discussion of cost effective use of these strategies in research and teaching.

    頁次:89-93

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  4. Functional surface engineering of C-dots for fluorescent biosensing and in vivo bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changqin; Zhu, Anwei; Tian, Yang

    2014-01-21

    Nanoparticles are promising scaffolds for applications such as imaging, chemical sensors and biosensors, diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, energy, photonics, medicine, and more. Surface functionalization of nanoparticles introduces an additional dimension in controlling nanoparticle interfacial properties and provides an effective bridge to connect nanoparticles to biological systems. With fascinating photoluminescence properties, carbon dots (C-dots), carbon-containing nanoparticles that are attracting considerable attention as a new type of quantum dot, are becoming both an important class of imaging probes and a versatile platform for engineering multifunctional nanosensors. In order to transfer C-dots from proof-of-concept studies toward real world applications such as in vivo bioimaging and biosensing, careful design and engineering of C-dot probes is becoming increasingly important. A comprehensive knowledge of how C-dot surfaces with various properties behave is essential for engineering C-dots with useful imaging properties such as high quantum yield, stability, and low toxicity, and with desirable biosensing properties such as high selectivity, sensitivity, and accuracy. Several reviews in recent years have reported preparation methods and properties of C-dots and described their application in biosensors, catalysis, photovoltatic cells, and more. However, no one has yet systematically summarized the surface engineering of C-dots, nor the use of C-dots as fluorescent nanosensors or probes for in vivo imaging in cells, tissues, and living organisms. In this Account, we discuss the major design principles and criteria for engineering the surface functionality of C-dots for biological applications. These criteria include brightness, long-term stability, and good biocompatibility. We review recent developments in designing C-dot surfaces with various functionalities for use as nanosensors or as fluorescent probes with fascinating analytical performance

  5. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  6. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    loading capacity. MIPs have been intensively employed in classical solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. More recently, MIPs have been combined with magnetic bead extraction, which greatly simplifies sample handling procedures. Studies have consistently shown that MIPs can effectively...... minimize complex food matrix effects, and improve recoveries and detection limits. In addition to sample preparation, MIPs have also been viewed as promising alternatives to bio-receptors due to the inherent molecular recognition abilities and the high stability in harsh chemical and physical conditions....... MIPs have been utilized as receptors in biosensing platforms such as electrochemical, optical and mass biosensors to detect various analytes in food. In this review, we will discuss the current state-of-the-art of MIP synthesis and applications in the context of food analysis. We will highlight...

  7. A flexible mobile-device biosensing instrumentation platform for point-of-care medical diagnostics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Pfreundt, Andrea; Zulfiqar, Azeem

    2014-01-01

    for this work. We present a mobile-device based, PoC biosensing instrumentation platform, designed for multiplexed high-impedance sensing and the electrochemical detection of biological species on a LoC. The proposed system is thus designed as a flexible, user-friendly hardware and software platform allowing...... programmable electrical readout from LoCs potentially comprehending varied transducers addressing different targeted biological markers. A smart-phone/tablet docking-station embeds the hardware interface necessary for the implementation of a smart-phone digital lock-in amplifier. The platform is tested...... with high-impedimetric measurements from Silicon-nanowire Field Effect Transistors embedded in a LoC. Programmable firmware and flexible hardware will in turn allow for standard voltammetry and electrical impedance spectroscopy to be performed. The design of a mobile app and standard mobile software...

  8. Biosensing with Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Coupling between Fluorophores and Nanocarbon Allotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shaowei; Cargill, Allison A; Das, Suprem R; Medintz, Igor L; Claussen, Jonathan C

    2015-06-23

    Nanocarbon allotropes (NCAs), including zero-dimensional carbon dots (CDs), one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional graphene, exhibit exceptional material properties, such as unique electrical/thermal conductivity, biocompatibility and high quenching efficiency, that make them well suited for both electrical/electrochemical and optical sensors/biosensors alike. In particular, these material properties have been exploited to significantly enhance the transduction of biorecognition events in fluorescence-based biosensing involving Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET). This review analyzes current advances in sensors and biosensors that utilize graphene, CNTs or CDs as the platform in optical sensors and biosensors. Widely utilized synthesis/fabrication techniques, intrinsic material properties and current research examples of such nanocarbon, FRET-based sensors/biosensors are illustrated. The future outlook and challenges for the research field are also detailed.

  9. Graphene-like 2D nanomaterial-based biointerfaces for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2017-03-15

    Due to their unique structures and multifunctionalities, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have aroused increasing interest in the construction of the novel biointerfaces for biosensing applications. Efforts in constructing novel biointerfaces led to exploit the more versatile and tunable graphene-like 2D nanomaterials (e.g. graphitic carbon nitride, boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, and transition metal oxides) with various structural and compositional characteristics. This review highlights recent efforts in the design of graphene-like 2D nanomaterials and their derived biointerfaces and exploitation of their research on fluorescent sensors and a series of electrochemical sensors, including amperometric, electrochemiluminescence, photoelectrochemical and field-effect transistor sensors. Finally, we discuss some critical challenges and future perspectives in this field. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Rare earth based nanostructured materials: synthesis, functionalization, properties and bioimaging and biosensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero Alberto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth based nanostructures constitute a type of functional materials widely used and studied in the recent literature. The purpose of this review is to provide a general and comprehensive overview of the current state of the art, with special focus on the commonly employed synthesis methods and functionalization strategies of rare earth based nanoparticles and on their different bioimaging and biosensing applications. The luminescent (including downconversion, upconversion and permanent luminescence and magnetic properties of rare earth based nanoparticles, as well as their ability to absorb X-rays, will also be explained and connected with their luminescent, magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography bioimaging applications, respectively. This review is not only restricted to nanoparticles, and recent advances reported for in other nanostructures containing rare earths, such as metal organic frameworks and lanthanide complexes conjugated with biological structures, will also be commented on.

  11. Rare earth based nanostructured materials: synthesis, functionalization, properties and bioimaging and biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Alberto; Becerro, Ana I.; Carrillo-Carrión, Carolina; Núñez, Nuria O.; Zyuzin, Mikhail V.; Laguna, Mariano; González-Mancebo, Daniel; Ocaña, Manuel; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2017-06-01

    Rare earth based nanostructures constitute a type of functional materials widely used and studied in the recent literature. The purpose of this review is to provide a general and comprehensive overview of the current state of the art, with special focus on the commonly employed synthesis methods and functionalization strategies of rare earth based nanoparticles and on their different bioimaging and biosensing applications. The luminescent (including downconversion, upconversion and permanent luminescence) and magnetic properties of rare earth based nanoparticles, as well as their ability to absorb X-rays, will also be explained and connected with their luminescent, magnetic resonance and X-ray computed tomography bioimaging applications, respectively. This review is not only restricted to nanoparticles, and recent advances reported for in other nanostructures containing rare earths, such as metal organic frameworks and lanthanide complexes conjugated with biological structures, will also be commented on.

  12. Nitrite Biosensing via Selective Enzymes—A Long but Promising Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabriela Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decades have witnessed a steady increase of the social and political awareness for the need of monitoring and controlling environmental and industrial processes. In the case of nitrite ion, due to its potential toxicity for human health, the European Union has recently implemented a number of rules to restrict its level in drinking waters and food products. Although several analytical protocols have been proposed for nitrite quantification, none of them enable a reliable and quick analysis of complex samples. An alternative approach relies on the construction of biosensing devices using stable enzymes, with both high activity and specificity for nitrite. In this paper we review the current state-of-the-art in the field of electrochemical and optical biosensors using nitrite reducing enzymes as biorecognition elements and discuss the opportunities and challenges in this emerging market.

  13. Single-Stranded DNA Aptamers against Pathogens and Toxins: Identification and Biosensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ka Lok

    2015-01-01

    Molecular recognition elements (MREs) can be short sequences of single-stranded DNA, RNA, small peptides, or antibody fragments. They can bind to user-defined targets with high affinity and specificity. There has been an increasing interest in the identification and application of nucleic acid molecular recognition elements, commonly known as aptamers, since they were first described in 1990 by the Gold and Szostak laboratories. A large number of target specific nucleic acids MREs and their applications are currently in the literature. This review first describes the general methodologies used in identifying single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamers. It then summarizes advancements in the identification and biosensing application of ssDNA aptamers specific for bacteria, viruses, their associated molecules, and selected chemical toxins. Lastly, an overview of the basic principles of ssDNA aptamer-based biosensors is discussed. PMID:26199940

  14. Biosensing with Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Coupling between Fluorophores and Nanocarbon Allotropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shaowei; Cargill, Allison A.; Das, Suprem R.; Medintz, Igor L.; Claussen, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanocarbon allotropes (NCAs), including zero-dimensional carbon dots (CDs), one-dimensional carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and two-dimensional graphene, exhibit exceptional material properties, such as unique electrical/thermal conductivity, biocompatibility and high quenching efficiency, that make them well suited for both electrical/electrochemical and optical sensors/biosensors alike. In particular, these material properties have been exploited to significantly enhance the transduction of biorecognition events in fluorescence-based biosensing involving Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET). This review analyzes current advances in sensors and biosensors that utilize graphene, CNTs or CDs as the platform in optical sensors and biosensors. Widely utilized synthesis/fabrication techniques, intrinsic material properties and current research examples of such nanocarbon, FRET-based sensors/biosensors are illustrated. The future outlook and challenges for the research field are also detailed. PMID:26110411

  15. Recent advances in lab-on-a-chip for biosensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jönsson, Alexander; Senkbeil, Silja

    2016-01-01

    The marriage of highly sensitive biosensor designs with the versatility in sample handling and fluidic manipulation offered by lab-on-a-chip systems promises to yield powerful tools for analytical and, in particular, diagnostic applications. The field where these two technologies meet is rapidly...... and almost violently developing. Yet, solutions where the full potentials are being exploited are still surprisingly rare. In the context of this review, sensor designs are often fairly advanced, whereas the lab-on-a-chip aspect is still rather simplistic in many cases, albeit already offering significant...... improvements to existing methods. Recent examples, showing a staggering variety of lab-on-a-chip systems for biosensing applications, are presented, tabularized for overview, and briefly discussed....

  16. Recent advances in lab-on-a-chip for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Josiane P; Jönsson, Alexander; Senkbeil, Silja; Kutter, Jörg P

    2016-02-15

    The marriage of highly sensitive biosensor designs with the versatility in sample handling and fluidic manipulation offered by lab-on-a-chip systems promises to yield powerful tools for analytical and, in particular, diagnostic applications. The field where these two technologies meet is rapidly and almost violently developing. Yet, solutions where the full potentials are being exploited are still surprisingly rare. In the context of this review, sensor designs are often fairly advanced, whereas the lab-on-a-chip aspect is still rather simplistic in many cases, albeit already offering significant improvements to existing methods. Recent examples, showing a staggering variety of lab-on-a-chip systems for biosensing applications, are presented, tabularized for overview, and briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulsed Biosensing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fink, Dietmar; Hernandez, G. M.; Vacík, Jiří; Alfonta, L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2011), s. 1084-1087 ISSN 1530-437X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/11/1856 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Irradiated polymers Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2011

  18. Political Unrest and Educational Electronic Resource Usage in a Conflict Zone, Kashmir (Indian Administered Kashmir): Log Analysis as Politico Analytical Tool=Hindistan Tarafından Yönetilen Keşmir Anlaşmazlık Bölgesi’nde Siyasi Karışıklık ve Eğitimle İlgili Elektronik Kaynakların Kullanımı: Siyasi Analiz Aracı Olarak Log Analizleri

    OpenAIRE

    Sumeer Gul; Samrin Nabi; Samina Mushtaq; Tariq Ahmad Shah; Suhail Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Electronic resource usage has proved as one of the best decision making tools in the library setups. Electronic resource usage in relation to the political disturbance can act as one of the tools to highlight the impact of political disturbance on educational setups in general and the electronic resource usage in particular. The study takes a serious look in the electronic resource usage in Kashmir and the impact of unrest on it. The paper highlights a relational platform between educat...

  19. Exploiting multi-function Metal-Organic Framework nanocomposite Ag@Zn-TSA as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Sheying, E-mail: dongsyy@126.com [College of Sciences, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an, 710055 (China); Zhang, Dandan; Suo, Gaochao; Wei, Wenbo [College of Sciences, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an, 710055 (China); Huang, Tinglin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an, 710055 (China)

    2016-08-31

    A novel multi-function Metal-Organic Framework composite Ag@Zn-TSA (zinc thiosalicylate, Zn(C{sub 7}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}S), Zn-TSA) was synthesized as highly efficient immobilization matrixes of myoglobin (Mb)/glucose oxidase (GOx) for electrochemical biosensing. The electrochemical biosensors based on Ag@Zn-TSA composite and ionic liquid (IL) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) were fabricated successfully. Furthermore, the properties of the sensors were discussed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperometric current-time curve, respectively. The results showed the proposed biosensors had wide linear response to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the range of 0.3–20,000 μM, to nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) for 1.3 μM–1660 μM and 2262 μM–1,33,000 μM, to glucose for 2.0–1022 μM, with a low detection limit of 0.08 μM for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 0.5 μM for NO{sub 2}{sup −}, 0.8 μM for glucose. The values of the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) for Mb and GOx were estimated as 2.05 s{sup −1} and 2.45 s{sup −1}, respectively. Thus, Ag@Zn-TSA was a kind of ideal material as highly efficient immobilization matrixes for sensitive electrochemical biosensing. In addition, this work indicated that MOF nanocomposite had a great potential for constructing wide range of sensing interface. - Highlights: • Novel Ag@Zn-TSA was used as highly efficient immobilization matrixes of Mb/glucose. • We exploited multi-function MOFs for a wide range of electrocatalytic sensing interface. • The proposed biosensors had an excellent catalytic effect on the small molecule (NO{sub 2}{sup −}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, glucose).

  20. Microstructured optical fiber-based luminescent biosensing: Is there any light at the end of the tunnel? - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidenko, Sergey A; Burmistrova, Natalia A; Shuvalov, Andrey A; Chibrova, Anastasiya A; Skibina, Yulia S; Goryacheva, Irina Y

    2018-08-17

    This review covers the current state of the art of luminescent biosensors based on various types of microstructured optical fiber. The unique optical and structural properties of this type of optical fiber make them one of the most promising integrated platforms for bioassays. The individual sections of this review are devoted to a) classification of microstructured optical fibers, b) microstructured optical fiber materials, c) aspects of biosensing based on the biomolecules incorporated into the microstructured optical fibers, and d) development of models for prediction of the efficiency of luminescent signal processing. The authors' views on current trends and limitations of microstructured optical fibers for biosensing as well as the most promising areas and technologies for application in analytical practice are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced vibrational spectroscopy, intracellular refractive indexing for label-free biosensing and bioimaging by multiband plasmonic-antenna array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Kuang; Chang, Ming-Hsuan; Wu, Hsieh-Ting; Lee, Yao-Chang; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2014-10-15

    In this study, we report a multiband plasmonic-antenna array that bridges optical biosensing and intracellular bioimaging without requiring a labeling process or coupler. First, a compact plasmonic-antenna array is designed exhibiting a bandwidth of several octaves for use in both multi-band plasmonic resonance-enhanced vibrational spectroscopy and refractive index probing. Second, a single-element plasmonic antenna can be used as a multifunctional sensing pixel that enables mapping the distribution of targets in thin films and biological specimens by enhancing the signals of vibrational signatures and sensing the refractive index contrast. Finally, using the fabricated plasmonic-antenna array yielded reliable intracellular observation was demonstrated from the vibrational signatures and intracellular refractive index contrast requiring neither labeling nor a coupler. These unique features enable the plasmonic-antenna array to function in a label-free manner, facilitating bio-sensing and imaging development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  3. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  4. In situ biosensing of the nanomechanical property and electrochemical spectroscopy of Streptococcus mutans-containing biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haochih Liu, Bernard; Li, Kun-Lin; Kang, Kai-Li; Huang, Wen-Ke; Liao, Jiunn-Der

    2013-07-01

    This work presents in situ biosensing approaches to study the nanomechanical and electrochemical behaviour of Streptococcus mutans biofilms under different cultivation conditions and microenvironments. The surface characteristics and sub-surface electrochemistry of the cell wall of S. mutans were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based techniques to monitor the in situ biophysical status of biofilms under common anti-pathogenic procedures such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation and alcohol treatment. The AFM nanoindentation suggested a positive correlation between nanomechanical strength and the level of UV radiation of S. mutans; scanning impedance spectroscopy of dehydrated biofilms revealed reduced electrical resistance that is distinctive from that of living biofilms, which can be explained by the discharge of cytoplasm after alcohol treatment. Furthermore, the localized elastic moduli of four regions of the biofilm were studied: septum (Z-ring), cell wall, the interconnecting area between two cells and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) area. The results indicated that cell walls exhibit the highest elastic modulus, followed by Z-ring, interconnect and EPS. Our approach provides an effective alternative for the characterization of the viability of living cells without the use of biochemical labelling tools such as fluorescence dyeing, and does not rely on surface binding or immobilization for detection. These AFM-based techniques can be very promising approaches when the conventional methods fall short.

  5. Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of gold nanostructures for LSPR bio-sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghamin Al-Rubaye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This main aim of this work is the development of optical biosensors based on the LSPR phenomenon in nano-structured gold films suitable for detection of low molecular weight analytes such as mycotoxins. A simple technology of annealing thin gold films was utilized for the formation of gold nano-islands exhibiting the LSPR effect. The morphology of gold nano-structures produced was studied with SEM and AFM, and their optical properties were analysed with UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE. The position of LSPR band appeared to depend on the dimensions of gold nano-islands. The dependence of the LSPR band spectral shift on the refractive index of a medium was studied with both UV-vis absorption and SE, and the refractive index sensitivity (RIS was evaluated. The method of SE gave from two to three times higher values of RIS as compared to those obtained by absorption spectroscopy. LSPR bio-sensing tests were attempted using total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE; a noticeable spectral shift was recorded on course of immune binding of Aflatoxin B1 to specific antibodies immobilized on the surface of gold.

  6. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna; Chidambara, Vinayaka Aaydha; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong; Sun, Yi

    2017-05-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high loading capacity. MIPs have been intensively employed in classical solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. More recently, MIPs have been combined with magnetic bead extraction, which greatly simplifies sample handling procedures. Studies have consistently shown that MIPs can effectively minimize complex food matrix effects, and improve recoveries and detection limits. In addition to sample preparation, MIPs have also been viewed as promising alternatives to bio-receptors due to the inherent molecular recognition abilities and the high stability in harsh chemical and physical conditions. MIPs have been utilized as receptors in biosensing platforms such as electrochemical, optical and mass biosensors to detect various analytes in food. In this review, we will discuss the current state-of-the-art of MIP synthesis and applications in the context of food analysis. We will highlight the imprinting methods which are applicable for imprinting food templates, summarize the recent progress in using MIPs for preparing and analysing food samples, and discuss the current limitations in the commercialisation of MIPs technology. Finally, future perspectives will be given. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Two-photon fluorescence biosensing with conventional and photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myaing, Mon Thiri; Ye, Jing Yong; Norris, Theodore B.; Thomas, Thommey P.; Baker, James R., Jr.; Wadsworth, William J.; Bouwmans, Geraud; Knight, Jonathan C.; Russell, Philip S. J.

    2004-06-01

    Fluorescence is a powerful tool for biosensing, but conventional fluorescence measurements are limited because solid tumors are highly scattering media. To obtain quantitative in vivo fluorescence information from tumors, we have developed a two-photon optical fiber fluorescence (TPOFF) probe where excitation light is delivered and the two-photon fluorescence (TPF) excited at the tip of the fiber is collected back through the same fiber. In order to determine whether this system can provide quantitative information, we measured the fluorescence from a variety of systems including mouse tumors (both ex vivo and in vivo) which were transfected with the gene to express varying amounts of green fluorescence protein (GFP), and tumors which were labeled with targeted dendrimer-based drug delivery agents. The TPOFF technique showed results quantitatively in agreement with those from flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. In order to improve the sensitivity of our fiber probe, we developed a dual-clad photonic-crystal fiber which allowed single-mode excitation and multimode (high numerical aperture) collection of TPF. These experiments indicate that the TPOFF technique is highly promising for real-time, in vivo, quantitative fluorescence measurements.

  8. Thickness controlled sol-gel silica films for plasmonic bio-sensing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figus, Cristiana, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Quochi, Francesco, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Artizzu, Flavia, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Saba, Michele, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Marongiu, Daniela, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica - University of Cagliari, S.P. Km 0.7, I-09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Floris, Francesco; Marabelli, Franco; Patrini, Maddalena; Fornasari, Lucia [Dipartimento di Fisica - University of Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (PV) (Italy); Pellacani, Paola; Valsesia, Andrea [Plasmore S.r.l. -Via Grazia Deledda 4, I-21020 Ranco (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy)

    2014-10-21

    Plasmonics has recently received considerable interest due to its potentiality in many fields as well as in nanobio-technology applications. In this regard, various strategies are required for modifying the surfaces of plasmonic nanostructures and to control their optical properties in view of interesting application such as bio-sensing, We report a simple method for depositing silica layers of controlled thickness on planar plasmonic structures. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was used as silica precursor. The control of the silica layer thickness was obtained by optimizing the sol-gel method and dip-coating technique, in particular by properly tuning different parameters such as pH, solvent concentration, and withdrawal speed. The resulting films were characterized via atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform (FT) spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Furthermore, by performing the analysis of surface plasmon resonances before and after the coating of the nanostructures, it was observed that the position of the resonance structures could be properly shifted by finely controlling the silica layer thickness. The effect of silica coating was assessed also in view of sensing applications, due to important advantages, such as surface protection of the plasmonic structure.

  9. Boron-doped diamond nano/microelectrodes for bio-sensing and in vitro measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hua; Wang, Shihua; Galligan, James J.; Swain, Greg M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the fabrication of the first diamond electrode in the mid 1980s, repid progress has been made on the development and application of this new type of electrode material. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes exhibit outstanding properties compared to oxygen-containing sp2 carbon electrodes. These properties make BDD electrodes an ideal choice for use in complex samples. In recent years, BDD microelectrodes have been applied to in vitro and in vivo measurements of biological molecules in animals, tissues and cells. This review will summarize recent progress in the development and applications of BDD electrodes in bio-sensing and in vitro measurements of biomolecules. In the first section, the methods for BDD nanocrystalline diamond film deposition and BDD microelectrodes preparation are described. This is followed by a description and discussion of several approaches for characterization of the BDD electrode surface structure, morphology, and electrochemical activity. Further, application of BDD microelectrodes for use in the in vitro analysis of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), nitric oxide (NO), histamine, and adenosine from tissues are summarized and finally some of the remaining challenges are discussed. PMID:21196394

  10. Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators for Rapid Label-Free Biosensing in Small Volume Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgen, Sarah M.; Dunn, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid biosensing requires fast mass transport of the analyte to the surface of the sensing element. To optimize analysis times, both mass transport in solution and the geometry and size of the sensing element need to be considered. Small dielectric spheres, tens of microns in diameter, can act as label-free biosensors using whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances. WGM resonances are sensitive to the effective refractive index, which changes upon analyte binding to recognition sites on functionalized resonators. The spherical geometry and tens of microns diameter of these resonators provides an efficient target for sensing while their compact size enables detection in limited volumes. Here, we explore conditions leading to rapid analyte detection using WGM resonators as label-free sensors in 10 μL sample droplets. Droplet evaporation leads to potentially useful convective mixing, but also limits the time over which analysis can be completed. We show that active droplet mixing combined with initial binding rate measurements is required for accurate nanomolar protein quantification within the first minute following injection. PMID:25806835

  11. A Microfluidic Love-Wave Biosensing Device for PSA Detection Based on an Aptamer Beacon Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A label-free and selective aptamer beacon-based Love-wave biosensing device was developed for prostate specific antigen (PSA detection. The device consists of the following parts: LiTaO3 substrate with SiO2 film as wave guide layer, two set of inter-digital transducers (IDT, gold film for immobilization of the biorecongniton layer and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microfluidic channels. DNA aptamer, or “artificial antibody”, was used as the specific biorecognition probe for PSA capture. Some nucleotides were added to the 3'-end of the aptamer to form a duplex with the 3'-end, turning the aptamer into an aptamer-beacon. Taking advantage of the selective target-induced assembly changes arising from the “aptamer beacon”, highly selective and specific detection of PSA was achieved. Furthermore, PDMS microfluidic channels were designed and fabricated to realize automated quantitative sample injection. After optimization of the experimental conditions, the established device showed good performance for PSA detection between 10 ng/mL to 1 μg/mL, with a detection limit of 10 ng/mL. The proposed sensor might be a promising alternative for point of care diagnostics.

  12. A Microfluidic Love-Wave Biosensing Device for PSA Detection Based on an Aptamer Beacon Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Li, Shuangming; Cao, Kang; Wang, Pengjuan; Su, Yan; Zhu, Xinhua; Wan, Ying

    2015-06-11

    A label-free and selective aptamer beacon-based Love-wave biosensing device was developed for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection. The device consists of the following parts: LiTaO3 substrate with SiO2 film as wave guide layer, two set of inter-digital transducers (IDT), gold film for immobilization of the biorecongniton layer and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels. DNA aptamer, or "artificial antibody", was used as the specific biorecognition probe for PSA capture. Some nucleotides were added to the 3'-end of the aptamer to form a duplex with the 3'-end, turning the aptamer into an aptamer-beacon. Taking advantage of the selective target-induced assembly changes arising from the "aptamer beacon", highly selective and specific detection of PSA was achieved. Furthermore, PDMS microfluidic channels were designed and fabricated to realize automated quantitative sample injection. After optimization of the experimental conditions, the established device showed good performance for PSA detection between 10 ng/mL to 1 μg/mL, with a detection limit of 10 ng/mL. The proposed sensor might be a promising alternative for point of care diagnostics.

  13. Chitosan: An undisputed bio-fabrication material for tissue engineering and bio-sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Anupriya; Kumar, Ashutosh; Priyadharshini, A; Oggu, Gopi Suresh; Bhatnagar, Ira; Srivastava, Ananya; Chandra, Pranjal

    2018-04-15

    Biopolymers have been serving the mankind in various ways since long. Over the last few years, these polymers have found great demand in various domains which includes bio medicine, tissue engineering, bio sensor fabrications etc. because of their excellent bio compatibility. In this context, chitosan has found global attention due to its environmentally benign nature, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ease of availability. In last one decade or so, extensive research in active biomaterials, like chitosan has led to the development of novel delivery systems for drugs, genes, and biomolecules; and regenerative medicine. Additionally, chitosan has also witnessed its usage in functionalization of biocompatible materials, nanoparticle (NP) synthesis, and immobilization of various bio-recognition elements (BREs) to form active bio-surfaces with great ease. Keeping these aspects in mind, we have written a comprehensive review which aims to acquaint its readers with the exceptional properties of chitosan and its usage in the domain of biomedicine, tissue engineering, and biosensor fabrication. Herein, we have briefly explained various aspects of direct utilization of chitosan and then presented vivid strategies towards formulation of chitosan based nanocomposites for biomedicine, tissue engineering, and biosensing applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Combination of Computational and Biosensing Technologies for Selecting Aptamer against Prostate Specific Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Chou Hsieh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a method of combining bioinformatics and biosensing technologies to select aptamers against prostate specific antigen (PSA. The main objective of this study is to select DNA aptamers with higher binding affinity for PSA by using the proposed method. Based on the five known sequences of PSA-binding aptamers, we adopted the functions of reproduction and crossover in the genetic algorithm to produce next-generation sequences for the computational and experimental analysis. RNAfold web server was utilized to analyze the secondary structures, and the 3-dimensional molecular models of aptamer sequences were generated by using RNAComposer web server. ZRANK scoring function was used to rerank the docking predictions from ZDOCK. The biosensors, the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR instrument, were used to verify the binding ability of selected aptamer for PSA. By carrying out the simulations and experiments after two generations, we obtain one aptamer that can have the highest binding affinity with PSA, which generates almost 2-fold and 3-fold greater measured signals than the responses produced by the best known DNA sequence in the QCM and SPR experiments, respectively.

  15. Molecular Motor Propelled Filaments Reveal Light-Guiding in Nanowire Arrays for Enhanced Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowire arrays offer significant potential for biosensing applications with optical read-out due to their high surface area and due to the unique optical properties of one-dimensional materials. A challenge for optical read-out of analyte-binding to the nanowires is the need to efficiently collect and detect light from a three-dimensional volume. Here we show that light from fluorophores attached along several μm long vertical Al2O3 coated gallium phosphide nanowires couples into the wires, is guided along them and emitted at the tip. This enables effective collection of light emitted by fluorescent analytes located at different focal planes along the nanowire. We unequivocally demonstrate the light-guiding effect using a novel method whereby the changes in emitted fluorescence intensity are observed when fluorescent cytoskeletal filaments are propelled by molecular motors along the wires. The findings are discussed in relation to nanobiosensor developments, other nanotechnological applications, and fundamental studies of motor function. PMID:24367994

  16. Highly anisotropic black phosphorous-graphene hybrid architecture for ultrassensitive plasmonic biosensing: Theoretical insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yufeng; Yu, Xiantong; Ouyang, Qingling; Shao, Yonghong; Song, Jun; Qu, Junle; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2018-04-01

    This study proposed a novel highly anisotropic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor employing emerging 2D black phosphorus (BP) and graphene atomic layers. Light absorption and energy loss were well balanced by optimizing gold film thickness and number of BP layers to generate the strongest SPR excitation. The proposed SPR biosensor was designed by the phase-modulation approach and is more sensitive to biomolecule bindings, providing 3 orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than the red-shift in SPR angle. Our results show the optimized configuration was 48 nm Au film coated with 4-layer BP crystal to produce the sharpest phase variation (up to 89.8975°), and lowest minimum reflectivity (1.9119  ×  10-7). Detection sensitivity up to 7.4914  ×  104 degree/refractive index unit is almost 4.5 times enhanced compared to monolayer graphene-based SPR sensors with 48 nm Au film. The anisotropic BP layers act as a polarizer, so the proposed SPR biosensor would exhibit optically tunable detection sensitivity, making it a promising candidate for exploring highly anisotropic platforms in biosensing.

  17. Integrated lab-on-chip biosensing systems based on magnetic particle actuation--a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reenen, Alexander; de Jong, Arthur M; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Prins, Menno W J

    2014-06-21

    The demand for easy to use and cost effective medical technologies inspires scientists to develop innovative lab-on-chip technologies for point-of-care in vitro diagnostic testing. To fulfill medical needs, the tests should be rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and miniaturizable, and need to integrate all steps from sample-in to result-out. Here, we review the use of magnetic particles actuated by magnetic fields to perform the different process steps that are required for integrated lab-on-chip diagnostic assays. We discuss the use of magnetic particles to mix fluids, to capture specific analytes, to concentrate analytes, to transfer analytes from one solution to another, to label analytes, to perform stringency and washing steps, and to probe biophysical properties of the analytes, distinguishing methodologies with fluid flow and without fluid flow (stationary microfluidics). Our review focuses on efforts to combine and integrate different magnetically actuated assay steps, with the vision that it will become possible in the future to realize integrated lab-on-chip biosensing assays in which all assay process steps are controlled and optimized by magnetic forces.

  18. In situ biosensing of the nanomechanical property and electrochemical spectroscopy of Streptococcus mutans-containing biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Bernard Haochih; Li, Kun-Lin; Kang, Kai-Li; Huang, Wen-Ke; Liao, Jiunn-Der

    2013-01-01

    This work presents in situ biosensing approaches to study the nanomechanical and electrochemical behaviour of Streptococcus mutans biofilms under different cultivation conditions and microenvironments. The surface characteristics and sub-surface electrochemistry of the cell wall of S. mutans were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based techniques to monitor the in situ biophysical status of biofilms under common anti-pathogenic procedures such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation and alcohol treatment. The AFM nanoindentation suggested a positive correlation between nanomechanical strength and the level of UV radiation of S. mutans; scanning impedance spectroscopy of dehydrated biofilms revealed reduced electrical resistance that is distinctive from that of living biofilms, which can be explained by the discharge of cytoplasm after alcohol treatment. Furthermore, the localized elastic moduli of four regions of the biofilm were studied: septum (Z-ring), cell wall, the interconnecting area between two cells and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) area. The results indicated that cell walls exhibit the highest elastic modulus, followed by Z-ring, interconnect and EPS. Our approach provides an effective alternative for the characterization of the viability of living cells without the use of biochemical labelling tools such as fluorescence dyeing, and does not rely on surface binding or immobilization for detection. These AFM-based techniques can be very promising approaches when the conventional methods fall short. (paper)

  19. Special issue on organic electronic bio-devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsi, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present editorial is to briefly summarize the current scientific and technological accomplishments in the field of organic electronic biosensors as described in the articles published in this Special Issue. By definition, a biosensor is a robust analytical device that combines a biological recognition element (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, cells) with a transducer. Organic electronic bio-devices are considered as potentially reliable substitutes of conventional and rather expensive analytical techniques employed for several applications such as medical diagnosis, food safety and environment pollution monitoring. Some insights into the selection and immobilization of recognition elements, signal amplification, fabrication techniques and analytical performance of biosensing devices will be presented.

  20. Highly stable piezo-immunoglobulin-biosensing of a SiO2/ZnO nanogenerator as a self-powered/active biosensor arising from the field effect influenced piezoelectric screening effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yayu; Fu, Yongming; Wang, Penglei; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2015-01-01

    Highly stable piezo-immunoglobulin-biosensing has been realized from a SiO2/ZnO nanowire (NW) nanogenerator (NG) as a self-powered/active biosensor. The piezoelectric output generated by the SiO2/ZnO NW NG can act not only as a power source for driving the device, but also as a sensing signal for detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG). The stability of the device is very high, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) ranges from 1.20% to 4.20%. The limit of detection (LOD) of IgG on the device can reach 5.7 ng mL-1. The response of the device is in a linear relationship with IgG concentration. The biosensing performance of SiO2/ZnO NWs is much higher than that of bare ZnO NWs. A SiO2 layer uniformly coated on the surface of the ZnO NW acts as the gate insulation layer, which increases mechanical robustness and protects it from the electrical leakages and short circuits. The IgG biomolecules modified on the surface of the SiO2/ZnO NW act as a gate potential, and the field effect can influence the surface electron density of ZnO NWs, which varies the screening effect of free-carriers on the piezoelectric output. The present results demonstrate a feasible approach for a highly stable self-powered/active biosensor.

  1. Highly stable piezo-immunoglobulin-biosensing of a SiO2/ZnO nanogenerator as a self-powered/active biosensor arising from the field effect influenced piezoelectric screening effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yayu; Fu, Yongming; Wang, Penglei; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2015-02-07

    Highly stable piezo-immunoglobulin-biosensing has been realized from a SiO2/ZnO nanowire (NW) nanogenerator (NG) as a self-powered/active biosensor. The piezoelectric output generated by the SiO2/ZnO NW NG can act not only as a power source for driving the device, but also as a sensing signal for detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG). The stability of the device is very high, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) ranges from 1.20% to 4.20%. The limit of detection (LOD) of IgG on the device can reach 5.7 ng mL(-1). The response of the device is in a linear relationship with IgG concentration. The biosensing performance of SiO2/ZnO NWs is much higher than that of bare ZnO NWs. A SiO2 layer uniformly coated on the surface of the ZnO NW acts as the gate insulation layer, which increases mechanical robustness and protects it from the electrical leakages and short circuits. The IgG biomolecules modified on the surface of the SiO2/ZnO NW act as a gate potential, and the field effect can influence the surface electron density of ZnO NWs, which varies the screening effect of free-carriers on the piezoelectric output. The present results demonstrate a feasible approach for a highly stable self-powered/active biosensor.

  2. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications- ...

  3. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  4. A fluorescent biosensing platform based on the polydopamine nanospheres intergrating with Exonuclease III-assisted target recycling amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Weibing; Wang, Xi; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiang; Li, Hui; Xu, Danke

    2015-09-15

    Rapid, cost-effective, sensitive and specific analysis of biomolecules is important in the modern healthcare system. Here, a fluorescent biosensing platform based on the polydopamine nanospheres (PDANS) intergrating with Exonuclease III (Exo III) was developed. Due to the interaction between the ssDNA and the PDANS, the fluorescence of 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labelled in the probe would been quenched by PDANS through FRET. While, in the present of the target DNA, the probe DNA would hybridize with the target DNA to form the double-strand DNA complex. Thus, Exo III could catalyze the stepwise removal of mononucleotides from 3'-terminus in the probe DNA, releasing the target DNA. As the FAM was released from the probe DNA, the fluorescence would no longer been quenched, led to the signal on. As one target DNA molecule could undergo a number of cycles to trigger the degradation of abundant probe DNA, Exo III-assisted target recycling would led to the amplification of the signal. The detection limit for DNA was 5 pM, which was 20 times lower than that without Exo III. And the assay time was largely shortened due to the faster signal recovery kinetics. What is more, this target recycling strategy was also applied to conduct an aptamer-based biosensing platform. The fluorescence intensity was also enhanced for the assay of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). For the Exo III-assisted target recycling amplification, DNA and ATP were fast detected with high sensitivity and selectivity. This work provides opportunities to develop simple, rapid, economical, and sensitive biosensing platforms for biomedical diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of zirconium dioxide nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide composite as high performance electrochemical sensing and biosensing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teymourian, Hazhir; Salimi, Abdollah; Firoozi, Somayeh; Korani, Aazam; Soltanian, Saied

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One pot hydrothermal synthesis used for preparing of ZrO 2 NPs reduced graphene oxide. • Electrocatalytic activity of ZrO 2 /rGO improved in compared to ZrO 2 based C- materials. • ZrO 2 NPs/rGO modified GCE was used for electrocatalytic reduction of O 2 and H 2 O 2 . • ZrO 2 NPs/rGO/GCE shows excellent ability to simultaneous detection of AA,UA and DP. • With immobilization of GOX onto ZrO 2 NPs/rGO a sensitive glucose biosensor fabricated. - Abstract: We report on the synthesis of zirconium dioxide-reduced graphene oxide composite (ZrO 2 -rGO) and its application as a novel architecture for electrochemical sensing and biosensing purposes. ZrO 2 -rGO hybrid is synthesized through a simple one-step hydrothermal route, where the reduction of GO and the in-situ generation of ZrO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) occurred simultaneously. Characterization of the resultant hybrid material using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy clearly indicated the homogeneous dispersion of ZrO 2 NPs with particle sizes of ∼5 nm on rGO sheets. The potential application of ZrO 2 -rGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ZrO 2 -rGO/GC) for electroanalytical purposes was demonstrated by using several important electroactive compounds as representative examples (i.e., O 2 , hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), glucose, ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA)). Electrochemical control experiments by using different composites of ZrO 2 /graphite, ZrO 2 /Active Carbon and ZrO 2 electrodeposited on activated GC electrode revealed that the ZrO 2 -rGO composite possessed superior electrocatalytic activitiy towards the catalytic reduction of O 2 and H 2 O 2 at more reduced overpotentials. The linear range of H 2 O 2 concentration was from 0.10 to 1340 μM with the detection limit of 20 nM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, via immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme onto the

  6. Functional DNA-containing nanomaterials: cellular applications in biosensing, imaging, and targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Lv, Yifan; Gong, Liang; Wang, Ruowen; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Ronghua; Tan, Weihong

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: DNA performs a vital function as a carrier of genetic code, but in the field of nanotechnology, DNA molecules can catalyze chemical reactions in the cell, that is, DNAzymes, or bind with target-specific ligands, that is, aptamers. These functional DNAs with different modifications have been developed for sensing, imaging, and therapeutic systems. Thus, functional DNAs hold great promise for future applications in nanotechnology and bioanalysis. However, these functional DNAs face challenges, especially in the field of biomedicine. For example, functional DNAs typically require the use of cationic transfection reagents to realize cellular uptake. Such reagents enter the cells, increasing the difficulty of performing bioassays in vivo and potentially damaging the cell's nucleus. To address this obstacle, nanomaterials, such as metallic, carbon, silica, or magnetic materials, have been utilized as DNA carriers or assistants. In this Account, we describe selected examples of functional DNA-containing nanomaterials and their applications from our recent research and those of others. As models, we have chosen to highlight DNA/nanomaterial complexes consisting of gold nanoparticles, graphene oxides, and aptamer-micelles, and we illustrate the potential of such complexes in biosensing, imaging, and medical diagnostics. Under proper conditions, multiple ligand-receptor interactions, decreased steric hindrance, and increased surface roughness can be achieved from a high density of DNA that is bound to the surface of nanomaterials, resulting in a higher affinity for complementary DNA and other targets. In addition, this high density of DNA causes a high local salt concentration and negative charge density, which can prevent DNA degradation. For example, DNAzymes assembled on gold nanoparticles can effectively catalyze chemical reactions even in living cells. And it has been confirmed that DNA-nanomaterial complexes can enter cells more easily than free single

  7. Recent Advances in Nanoparticle-Based Förster Resonance Energy Transfer for Biosensing, Molecular Imaging and Drug Release Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Tzu Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET may be regarded as a “smart” technology in the design of fluorescence probes for biological sensing and imaging. Recently, a variety of nanoparticles that include quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, polymer, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and upconversion nanoparticles have been employed to modulate FRET. Researchers have developed a number of “visible” and “activatable” FRET probes sensitive to specific changes in the biological environment that are especially attractive from the biomedical point of view. This article reviews recent progress in bringing these nanoparticle-modulated energy transfer schemes to fruition for applications in biosensing, molecular imaging and drug delivery.

  8. Determination of lactic acid with special emphasis on biosensing methods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundir, Chandra S; Narwal, Vinay; Batra, Bhawna

    2016-12-15

    Lactic acid (2-Hydroxypropanoic acid) is generated from pyruvic acid under anaerobic condition in skeletal muscles, brain, red blood cells, and kidney. Lactate in normal human subjects get cleared very quickly at a rate of 320mmol/L/hr, mostly by liver metabolism and re-conversion of lactate back to pyruvate. Measurement of lactate level in serum is required for the differential diagnosis and medical management of hyperlactatemia, cardiac arrest and resuscitation, sepsis, reduced renal excretion, hypoxia induced cancer, decreased extra hepatic metabolism, intestinal infarction and lactic acidosis. Determination of lactate is also important in dairy products and beverages to access their quality. Among the various methods available for detection of lactate, most are complicated, nonspecific, less sensitive and require time-consuming sample pretreatment, expensive instrumental set-up and trained persons to operate, specifically for chromatographic methods. Biosensing methods overcome these drawbacks, as these are simple, fast, specific and highly sensitive. Lactate biosensors reported so far, work optimally within 3-180s, between pH, 5.5-8.5 and temperature 22°C to 37°C and lactate concentration ranging from 10 to 2000µM. These biosensors have been employed to measure lactate level in embryonic cell culture, beverages, urine, and serum samples and reused upto 200-times within a period of 7-216 days. This review presents the principles, merits and demerits of various analytical methods for lactate determination with special emphasis on lactate biosensors. The future perspective for improvement of analytic performance of lactate biosensors are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gold nanoparticle/nickel oxide/poly(pyrrole-N-propionic acid hybrid multilayer film: Electrochemical study and its application in biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karazehir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the fabrication of Indium Tin Oxide /gold nanoparticles/nickel oxide/poly(Pyrrole-N-propionic acid (ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA multilayered film, and its modification with Tyrosinase (Ty. The ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA electrode was fabricated by sequential electrochemical assembly onto ITO substrate which electrochemical deposition provides a facile, inexpensive technique for synthesis of multilayered film within the adherent morphology with controllable film thickness. Cyclic voltammetry (CV, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR, scanning electron microcopy (SEM, and atomic force microcopy (AFM were used to characterize the film assembly processes. The properties of a semiconductor/electrolyte interface were investigated based on the Mott–Schottky (M-S approach for the modified electrodes, with the flat band potential (EFB according to the potential intercept and the carrier density (ND according to the linear slopes. The ND and EFB of ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA were obtained as 2.48·1021 cm–3 and 0.26 V, respectively. Tyrosinase was immobilized using carbodiimide coupling reaction. The bioelectrode was characterized by FTIR-ATR, SEM, AFM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. A Randles equivalent circuit was introduced for modeling the performance of impedimetric biosensing for the detection of the dopamine (DP and the interface of bioelectrode/electrolyte. The EIS of the ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA-Ty exhibited significant changes in the charge transfer resistance (RCT value toward the detection of dopamine over a linear range of 80 µM to 0.2 mM with a limit of detection (LOD of 5.46 µM.

  10. Horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed polymerization of L-DOPA for mono-/bi-enzyme immobilization and amperometric biosensing of H2O2 and uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mengzhen; Huang, Ting; Chao, Long; Xie, Qingji; Tan, Yueming; Chen, Chao; Meng, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed polymerization of L-DOPA (vs. dopamine) in the presence of H2O2 (and uricase (UOx)) was exploited to immobilize mono-/bi-enzymes for hydroquinone-mediated amperometric biosensing of H2O2 and uric acid (UA). The relevant polymeric biocomposites (PBCs) were prepared in phosphate buffer solution containing HRP and L-DOPA (or plus UOx) after adding H2O2. The mono-/bi-enzyme amperometric biosensors were prepared simply by casting some of the PBCs on Au-plated Au (Au(plate)/Au) electrodes, followed by coating with an outer-layer chitosan (CS) film for each. UV-vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used for film characterization and/or process monitoring. The HRP immobilized by enzyme catalysis well preserved its bioactivity, as confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. Under optimized conditions, the monoenzyme CS/HRP-poly(L-DOPA) (PD)/Au(plate)/Au electrode potentiostated at -0.1V responded linearly to H2O2 concentration from 0.001 to 1.25mM with a sensitivity of 700μA mM(-1)cm(-2) and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1μM, and the bienzyme CS/UOx-HRP-PD/Au(plate)/Au electrode at -0.1V responded linearly to UA concentration from 0.001 to 0.4mM with a sensitivity of 349μA mM(-1)cm(-2) and a LOD of 0.1μM. The mono-/bi-enzyme biosensors based on biosynthesized PD performed better than many reported analogues and those based on similarly biosynthesized polydopamine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Innovative Resources for Education and Public Information: Electronic Services, Data and Information from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other NASA Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Carol A.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which supports the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope, is actively investigating and supporting innovative and experimental methods for improving science and math education content. The educational resources on the World Wide Web are derived from the latest data, scientific results, and advances…

  12. How Students Learn: Ways of Thinking about "Good Learning" in HE. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, one of a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. The topic of this first issues paper is a conceptual framework that can help members of a project (information resource)…

  13. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  14. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  15. Immobilization mechanisms of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to hafnium dioxide (HfO2) surfaces for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkopf, Nicholas M; Rice, P Zachary; Bergkvist, Magnus; Deskins, N Aaron; Cady, Nathaniel C

    2012-10-24

    Immobilization of biomolecular probes to the sensing substrate is a critical step for biosensor fabrication. In this work we investigated the phosphate-dependent, oriented immobilization of DNA to hafnium dioxide surfaces for biosensing applications. Phosphate-dependent immobilization was confirmed on a wide range of hafnium oxide surfaces; however, a second interaction mode was observed on monoclinic hafnium dioxide. On the basis of previous materials studies on these films, DNA immobilization studies, and density functional theory (DFT) modeling, we propose that this secondary interaction is between the exposed nucleobases of single stranded DNA and the surface. The lattice spacing of monoclinic hafnium dioxide matches the base-to-base pitch of DNA. Monoclinic hafnium dioxide is advantageous for nanoelectronic applications, yet because of this secondary DNA immobilization mechanism, it could impede DNA hybridization or cause nonspecific surface intereactions. Nonetheless, DNA immobilization on polycrystalline and amorphous hafnium dioxide is predominately mediated by the terminal phosphate in an oriented manner which is desirable for biosensing applications.

  16. Description of an Advantageous Optical Label-Free Biosensing Interferometric Read-Out Method to Measure Biological Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Holgado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report a new, simple, and reliable optical read-out detection method able to assess Rotavirus present in human sera as well as in the viral pollution sources. It is based on the interference of two interferometers used as biophotonic transducers. The method significantly improves the optical label-free biosensing response measuring both, the concentration of the AgR and its corresponding size. Two different immunoassays were carried out: Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA, and the recognition by its antibody (anti-BSA; and Rotavirus (AgR and the recognition by its antibody (anti-AgR. In the cases studied, and using as model interferometer a simple Fabry-Perot transducer, we demonstrate a biosensing enhancement of two orders of magnitude in the Limit of Detection (LoD. In fact, this read-out optical method may have significant implications to enhance other optical label-free photonic transducers reported in the scientific literature.

  17. Influence of aspect ratio and surface defect density on hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods towards amperometric glucose biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mayoorika; Pramila; Dixit, Tejendra; Prakash, Rajiv; Palani, I. A.; Singh, Vipul

    2017-11-01

    In this work, hydrothermally grown ZnO Nanorods Array (ZNA) has been synthesized over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate, for biosensing applications. In-situ addition of strong oxidizing agent viz KMnO4 during hydrothermal growth was found to have profound effect on the physical properties of ZNA. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was later immobilized over ZNA by means of physical adsorption process. Further influence of varying aspect ratio, enzyme loading and surface defects on amperometric glucose biosensor has been analyzed. Significant variation in biosensor performance was observed by varying the amount of KMnO4 addition during the growth. Moreover, investigations revealed that the suppression of surface defects and aspect ratio variation of the ZNA played key role towards the observed improvement in the biosensor performance, thereby significantly affecting the sensitivity and response time of the fabricated biosensor. Among different biosensors fabricated having varied aspect ratio and surface defect density of ZNA, the best electrode resulted into sensitivity and response time to be 18.7 mA cm-2 M-1 and bio-sensing applications.

  18. An optical biosensing film for biochemical oxygen demand determination in seawater with an automatic flow sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Lingling; Wang, Xudong; Guo, Guangmei; Wang, Xiaoru; Chen, Xi

    2007-09-01

    An on-line roboticized apparatus, including an optical biosensing film with an automatic flow sampling system, has been developed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) determination of seawater. The sensing film employed in the apparatus consisted of an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) film embedded with tri(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) perchlorate. Three species of microorganism cultivated from seawater were immobilized in an ORMOSIL-polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Possible factors affecting BOD determination were studied, including sampling frequency, temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration. Based on measurements of the linear fluctuant coefficients and the reproducibility of its response to seawater, the BOD apparatus showed the advantages of high veracity and short response time. Generally, the linear fluctuant coefficient (R2) in the BOD range 0.2-40 mg l-1 was 0.9945 when using a glucose/glutamate (GGA) BOD standard solution. A reproducible response for the BOD sensing film of within ±2.8% could be obtained in the 2 mg l-1 GGA solution. The BOD apparatus was applied to the BOD determination of seawater, and the values estimated by this biosensing apparatus correlated well with those determined by the conventional 5 day BOD (BOD5) test.

  19. [The Effects of a Biosensing Game on the Physical Health-Related Fitness of Chronic Schizophrenic Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Wu, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2016-02-01

    Being overweight is a common problem among chronic schizophrenic patients. However, these patients lack related exercise interventions that are both effective and convenient. To explore the effects of a biosensing game intervention on the health-related fitness of chronic schizophrenic patients. Two rehabilitation wards at a psychiatric hospital in New Taipei City were selected as the study sites. Simple random sampling was used to recruit participants. Participants in the experimental group received a 12-week biosensing game intervention, while participants in the control group received routine nursing care only. The study instruments included a demographic data sheet and anthropometric measurements. In addition, health-related fitness variables including cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition (e.g., body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, and body fat) were used as outcome indicators. A total of 35 patients participated in the experimental group and 35 patients participated in the control group. The results showed that the mean differences between the pre-test and post-test values for body weight (t=6.07, phealth-related fitness, especially in terms of body weight, BMI, and waist-hip ratio. This study may be used as a reference for the promotion of health-related fitness programs in psychiatric institutes in the future.

  20. Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Катунцов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.

  1. In vitro selection, characterization, and biosensing application of high-affinity cylindrospermopsin-targeting aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafey, Reda; Siaj, Mohamed; Zourob, Mohammed

    2014-09-16

    Contamination of freshwater with cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) represents a significant global concern for public health. The sensitive detection of CYN is necessary to effectively manage and control the treatment of water resources. Here we report a novel, highly sensitive label-free aptasensor for CYN analysis, using aptamers as specific receptors. We have selected the DNA aptamers from a diverse random library using the in vitro screening SELEX approach. The aptamers exhibited high affinity for CYN with Kd of nanomolar range. One aptamer exhibited conformational change upon CYN recognition (CD analysis) and was used to fabricate the label-free impedimetric aptasensor for CYN. A self-assembled monolayer from a disulfide-derivatized aptamer was formed on a gold electrode to fabricate the aptasensor. Upon CYN capturing to the aptasensor surface, a marked drop in the electron transfer resistance was obtained, which was used as the principle of detection of CYN. This resulted from the aptamer's conformational change induced by CYN recognition. The present aptasensor could detect CYN with the limit of detection as low as 100 pM and a wide linear range of 0.1 to 80 nM. When mounted on the gold surface, the aptamer exhibited a lower dissociation constant for CYN than that observed in the fluorescence assay, implying that the anchoring of the aptamer on the Au surface improved its affinity to CYN. Moreover, the aptasensor showed high specificity toward other coexistent cyanobacterial toxins of microcystin-LR and Anatoxin-a. Further biosensor designs will be generated using those aptamers for simple and sensitive CYN monitoring.

  2. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  3. A wireless bio-sensing microfluidic chip based on resonating 'μ-divers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Cong; Yang, Chen; Xu, Tiegang; Zhan, Jing; Li, Xinxin

    2015-05-21

    A magneto-elastic resonant 'micro-diver' system (MER-μDS) is proposed and developed for rapid liquid-phase detection of pathogens in a wireless way. The magneto-elastic micro-resonator (i.e., the μ-diver) is placed in the micro-chamber of the MER-μDS that is connected to the inlet/outlet for flow of the liquid analyte and a closed-loop micro-channel. After specific attachment of the analyte onto the μ-diver, the μ-diver is conveyed by the flow into the detection segment of the channel, around which a metal micro-coil is wound for both excitation resonance of the μ-diver and reading of its resonance frequency signal. After the pre-functionalized μ-diver captures the analyte and, then, is driven into the detection channel segment, the added mass induced resonant frequency shift can be wirelessly sensed by the coil. The micro-system features rapid and repeatable liquid-phase bio-sensing and the wireless signal readout scheme is favorable to real-time pathogen detection in liquid food, e.g., milk or juice, for food safety applications. An equivalent circuit model is established for design of the magneto-elastic μ-diver. After a bar-shaped μ-diver with length-extensional bulk-resonance mode is optimally designed and micro-fabricated, the MER-μDS is formed by micro-machining/assembling techniques. By placing a biotin-immobilized μ-diver into the wireless micro-sensing system, avidin-attached magnetic beads are detected to calibrate the mass sensitivity as 0.061 Hz pg(-1), which well confirms the modeling result. By using the antibody-immobilized μ-diver, PBS solution with an E. coli concentration of 10(2)-10(8) CFU mL(-1) is detected, resulting in a corresponding wireless f0-shift sensing signal of about 300-2300 Hz and a limit of detection of 10(2) CFU mL(-1). Food safety application potential of the MER-μDS technique is proven by detection of E. coli added to orange and apple juices (E. coli concentration: 10(4)-10(8) CFU mL(-1)).

  4. Interferometric biosensing platform for multiplexed digital detection of viral pathogens and biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaboul, George

    Label-free optical biosensors have been established as proven tools for monitoring specific biomolecular interactions. However, compact and robust embodiments of such instruments have yet to be introduced in order to provide sensitive, quantitative, and high-throughput biosensing for low-cost research and clinical applications. Here we present the interferometric reflectance-imaging sensor (IRIS). IRIS allows sensitive label free analysis using an inexpensive and durable multi-color LED illumination source on a silicon based surface. IRIS monitors biomolecular interaction through measurement of biomass addition to the sensor's surface. We demonstrate the capability of this system to dynamically monitor antigen---antibody interactions with a noise floor of 5.2 pg/mm 2 and DNA single mismatch detection under isothermal melting conditions in an array format. Ensemble detection of binding events using IRIS did not provide the sensitivity needed for detection of infectious disease and biomarkers at clinically relevant concentrations. Therefore, a new approach was adapted to the IRIS platform that allowed the detection and identification of individual nanoparticles on the sensor's surface. The new detection method was termed single-particle IRIS (SP-IRIS). We developed two detection modalities for SP-IRIS. The first modality is when the target is a nanoparticle such as a virus. We verified that SP-IRIS can accurately detect and size individual viral particles. Then we demonstrated that single nanoparticle counting and sizing methodology on SP-IRIS leads to a specific and sensitive virus sensor that can be multiplexed. Finally, we developed an assay for the detection of Ebola and Marburg. A detection limit of 3 x 103 PFU/ml was demonstrated for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotyped with Ebola or Marburg virus glycoprotein. We have demonstrated that virus detection can be done in human whole blood directly without the need for sample preparation. The second modality

  5. Integrated Lateral Flow Device for Flow Control with Blood Separation and Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Betancur

    2017-12-01

    with the LFD. The developed LFD can be used as a flexible and versatile platform, and has the potential for detecting circulating biomarkers from whole blood. Sandwich-immunoassays can be performed directly on the LFD by patterning receptors for analytes on a desired substrate, and detections can be performed using a variety of sensing methods including nanoelectronic, colorimetric, or fluorescence sensors. The described bio-sensing technology presents an alternative for POC testing using small samples of human whole blood. It could benefit regions with limited access to healthcare, where delays in diagnosis can lead to quick deterioration of the quality of life and increase the morbidity and mortality.

  6. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  7. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  8. Electrical double layer modulation of hybrid room temperature ionic liquid/aqueous buffer interface for enhanced sweat based biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Badrinath; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2018-08-03

    We have investigated the role of kosmotropic anionic moieties and chaotropic cationic moieties of room temperature hydrophilic ionic liquids in enhancing the biosensing performance of affinity based immunochemical biosensors in human sweat. Two ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM[BF 4 ]) and choline dihydrogen phosphate (Choline[DHP]) were investigated in this study with Choline[DHP] being more kosmotropic in nature having a more protein stabilizing effect based on the hofmeister series. Non-faradaic interfacial charge transfer has been employed as the mechanism for evaluating the formation and the biosensing of capture probe antibodies in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs)/aqueous human sweat interface. The charge of the ionic moieties were utilized to form compact electrical double layers around the antibodies for enhancing the stability of the antibody capture probes, which was evaluated through zeta potential measurements. The zeta potential measurements indicated stability of antibodies due to electrostatic repulsion of the RTIL charged moieties encompassing the antibodies, thus preventing any aggregation. Here, we report for the first time of non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy equivalent circuit model analysis for analyzing and interpreting affinity based biosensing at hybrid electrode/ionic liquid-aqueous sweat buffer interface guided by the choice of the ionic liquid. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cortisol two commonly occurring biomarkers in human sweat were evaluated using this method. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained using both ionic liquids for IL-6 was 0.2 pg mL -1 with cross-reactivity studies indicating better performance of IL-6 detection using Choline[DHP] and no response to cross-reactive molecule. The LOD of 0.1 ng/mL was achieved for cortisol and the cross-reactivity studies indicated that cortisol antibody in BMIM[BF 4 ] did not show any signal response to cross-reactive molecules

  9. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  10. Preliminary Study of Fiber Optic Multi-Cardiac-Marker Biosensing System for Rapid Coronary Heart Disease Diagnosis and Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Kang, Kyung A.

    A fiber-optic biosensing system for the simultaneous quantification of four cardiac markers is currently under development, in our research group, for rapid coronary disease diagnosis and prognosis. As an initial effort, four individual BNP, cTnI, MG, and CRP sensors were developed. The sensors showed excellent performance in quantifying these cardiac markers in their clinically significant ranges within 15 minutes, at a S/N ratio of 25-50. The cross-reactivity of the four sensors was also found to be negligible. A mixture of four AF647-2o Mabs has shown only a slight interference to the four sensors, indicating that the mixture can be applied through a multi-sensing unit for simultaneous detection with an easier operation.

  11. Optical Microbubble Resonators with High Refractive Index Inner Coating for Bio-Sensing Applications: An Analytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barucci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The design of Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators (WGMRs used as an optical transducer for biosensing represents the first and crucial step towards the optimization of the final device performance in terms of sensitivity and Limit of Detection (LoD. Here, we propose an analytical method for the design of an optical microbubble resonator (OMBR-based biosensor. In order to enhance the OMBR sensing performance, we consider a polymeric layer of high refractive index as an inner coating for the OMBR. The effect of this layer and other optical/geometrical parameters on the mode field distribution, sensitivity and LoD of the OMBR is assessed and discussed, both for transverse electric (TE and transverse magnetic (TM polarization. The obtained results do provide physical insights for the development of OMBR-based biosensor.

  12. A comparative study of graphene-hydrogel hybrid bionanocomposites for biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrs, S L; Vanegas, D C; Rong, Y; Bhargava, M; Mechulan, N; Hendershot, P; Yamaguchi, H; Gomes, C; McLamore, E S

    2015-03-07

    Hydrogels have become increasingly popular as immobilization materials for cells, enzymes and proteins for biosensing applications. Enzymatic biosensors that utilize hydrogel as an encapsulant have shown improvements over other immobilization techniques such as cross linking and covalent bonding. However, to date there are no studies which directly compare multiple hydrogel-graphene nanocomposites using the same enzyme and test conditions. This study compares the performance of four different hydrogels used as protein encapsulants in a mediator-free biosensor based on graphene-nanometal-enzyme composites. Alcohol oxidase (AOx) was encapsulated in chitosan poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAM), silk fibroin or cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) hydrogels, and then spin coated onto a nanoplatinum-graphene modified electrode. The transduction mechanism for the biosensor was based on AOx-catalyzed oxidation of methanol to produce hydrogen peroxide. To isolate the effect(s) of stimulus response on biosensor behavior, all experiments were conducted at 25 °C and pH 7.10. Electroactive surface area (ESA), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), sensitivity to methanol, response time, limit of detection, and shelf life were measured for each bionanocomposite. Chitosan and PNIPAAM had the highest sensitivity (0.46 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.1 μA mM(-1), respectively) and electroactive surface area (0.2 ± 0.06 and 0.2 ± 0.02 cm(2), respectively), as well as the fastest response time (4.3 ± 0.8 and 4.8 ± 1.1 s, respectively). Silk and CNC demonstrated lower sensitivity (0.09 ± 0.02 and 0.15 ± 0.03 μA mM(-1), respectively), lower electroactive surface area (0.12 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.03 cm(2), respectively), and longer response time (8.9 ± 2.1 and 6.3 ± 0.8 s, respectively). The high porosity of chitosan, PNIPAAM, and silk gels led to excellent transport, which was significantly better than CNC bionanocomposites. Electrochemical performance of CNC bionanocomposites were

  13. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  14. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  15. Facile synthesis of N-rich carbon quantum dots from porphyrins as efficient probes for bioimaging and biosensing in living cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu FS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fengshou Wu,1,2,* Huifang Su,3,* Kai Wang,1 Wai-Kwok Wong,2 Xunjin Zhu2 1Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, 2Department of Chemistry and Institute of Advanced Materials, HKBU Institute of Research and Continuing Education (Shenzhen, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, 3Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yet-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: N-rich metal-free and metal-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs have been prepared through one-step hydrothermal method using tetraphenylporphyrin or its transition metal (Pd or Pt complex as precursor. The structures and morphology of the as-prepared nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Three kinds of nanocomposites show similar structures except for the presence of metal ions in Pd-CQDs and Pt-CQDs indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All of them display bright blue emission upon exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. The CQDs exhibit typical excitation-dependent emission behavior, with the emission quantum yield of 10.1%, 17.8%, and 15.2% for CQDs, Pd-CQDs, and Pt-CQDs, respectively. Moreover, the CQDs, Pd-CQDs, and Pt-CQDs could serve as fluorescent probes for the specific and sensitive detection of Fe3+ ions in aqueous solution. The low cytotoxicity of CQDs is demonstrated by MTT assay against HeLa cells. Therefore, the CQDs can be used as efficient probes for cellular multicolor imaging and fluorescence sensors for the detection of Fe3+ ions due to their low toxicity, excellent biocompatibility, and low detection limits. This work provides a new

  16. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  17. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  18. A Pd/SBA-15 composite: synthesis, characterization and protein biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yuge; Zhang Jingjing; Hou Wenhua; Zhu Junjie [Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: whou@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: jjzhu@nju.edu.cn

    2008-04-02

    In this paper, palladium (Pd) nanoparticles have been successfully encapsulated into the channels of modified SBA-15 in situ via a facile, ethylene glycol (EG)-assisted sonochemical method. The products were confirmed by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption analysis. The Pd/SBA-15 composite was used for the realization of direct electron transfer of hemoglobin (Hb). Electrochemical results showed that the Pd nanoparticles in the channels of SBA-15 could enhance the direct electron transfer between Hb and the electrode surface. The composite modified electrode displayed excellent electrochemical behavior. The sensor fabricated by the composite showed an excellent response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), and the linear range for the determination of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was from 1.8 to 119.3 {mu}M with a detection limit of 0.8 {mu}M.

  19. Cohort profile of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register: current status and recent enhancement of an Electronic Mental Health Record-derived data resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Gayan; Broadbent, Matthew; Callard, Felicity; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Downs, Johnny; Dutta, Rina; Fernandes, Andrea; Hayes, Richard D; Henderson, Max; Jackson, Richard; Jewell, Amelia; Kadra, Giouliana; Little, Ryan; Pritchard, Megan; Shetty, Hitesh; Tulloch, Alex; Stewart, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and its Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured and open-text data derived from the electronic health record system used by SLaM, a large mental healthcare provider in southeast London. In this paper, we update this register's descriptive data, and describe the substantial expansion and extension of the data resource since its original development. Descriptive data were generated from the SLaM BRC Case Register on 31 December 2014. Currently, there are over 250,000 patient records accessed through CRIS. Since 2008, the most significant developments in the SLaM BRC Case Register have been the introduction of natural language processing to extract structured data from open-text fields, linkages to external sources of data, and the addition of a parallel relational database (Structured Query Language) output. Natural language processing applications to date have brought in new and hitherto inaccessible data on cognitive function, education, social care receipt, smoking, diagnostic statements and pharmacotherapy. In addition, through external data linkages, large volumes of supplementary information have been accessed on mortality, hospital attendances and cancer registrations. Coupled with robust data security and governance structures, electronic health records provide potentially transformative information on mental disorders and outcomes in routine clinical care. The SLaM BRC Case Register continues to grow as a database, with approximately 20,000 new cases added each year, in addition to extension of follow-up for existing cases. Data linkages and natural language processing present important opportunities to enhance this type of research resource further, achieving both volume and depth of data. However, research projects still

  20. Real-Time Tau Protein Detection by Sandwich-Based Piezoelectric Biosensing: Exploring Tubulin as a Mass Enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dujuan; Scarano, Simona; Lisi, Samuele; Palladino, Pasquale; Minunni, Maria

    2018-03-22

    Human tau protein is one of the most advanced and accepted biomarkers for AD and tauopathies diagnosis in general. In this work, a quartz crystal balance (QCM) immunosensor was developed for the detection of human tau protein in buffer and artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), through both direct and sandwich assays. Starting from a conventional immuno-based sandwich strategy, two monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes of tau protein were used, achieving a detection limit for the direct assay in nanomolar range both in HBES-EP and aCSF. Afterward, for exploring alternative specific receptors as secondary recognition elements for tau protein biosensing, we tested tubulin and compared its behavior to a conventional secondary antibody in the sandwich assay. Tau-tubulin binding has shown an extended working range coupled to a signal improvement in comparison with the conventional secondary antibody-based approach, showing a dose-response trend at lower tau concentration than is usually investigated and closer to the physiological levels in the reference matrix for protein tau biomarker. Our results open up new and encouraging perspectives for the use of tubulin as an alternative receptor for tau protein with interesting features due to the possibility of taking advantage of its polymerization and reversible binding to this key hallmark of Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Surface stress sensor based on MEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer with high wavelength selectivity for label-free biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Hizawa, Takeshi; Misawa, Nobuo; Taki, Miki; Sawada, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a surface stress sensor based on a microelectromechanical Fabry-Perot interferometer with high wavelength selectivity by using Au half-mirrors, for highly sensitive label-free biosensing. When the target molecule is adsorbed by the antigen-antibody reaction onto a movable membrane with a thin Au film, which acts as an upper mirror of the optical interferometer, the amount of deflection of the movable membrane deflected by the change in surface stress can be detected with high sensitivity. To improve the signal at the small membrane deflection region of this biosensor resulting in detection of low concentration molecules, by integrating 50 nm-thick Au half-mirrors, the wavelength selectivity of the optical interferometer has been successfully improved 6.6 times. Furthermore, the peak shift in the reflection spectrum due to the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) antigen with a concentration of 10 ng ml-l by the antigen-antibody reaction was spectroscopically measured on the fabricated optical interferometer, and the deflection amount of the movable membrane after 10 min treatment was 2.4 times larger than that of nonspecific adsorption with the avidin molecules. This result indicated that the proposed sensor can be used for selective detection of low-concentration target antigen molecules.

  2. Integrated fabrication-conjugation methods for polymeric and hybrid microparticles for programmable drug delivery and biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sukwon; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Lee, Chang-Soo; Yi, Hyunmin

    2016-12-01

    Functionalized polymeric microparticles possess significant potential for controlled drug delivery and biosensing applications, yet current fabrication techniques face challenges in simple and scalable fabrication and biofunctionalization. For programmable manufacture of biofunctional microparticles in a simple manner, we have developed robust micromolding methods combined with biopolymeric conjugation handles and bioorthogonal click reactions. In this focused minireview, we present detailed methods for our integrated approaches for fabrication of microparticles with controlled 2D and 3D shapes and dimensions toward controlled release, and for biomacromolecular conjugation via strain promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) and tetrazine-trans-cyclooctene (Tz-TCO) ligation reactions utilizing a potent aminopolysaccharide chitosan as an efficient conjugation handle. We believe that the fabrication-conjugation methods reported here from a range of our recent reports illustrate the simple, robust and readily reproducible nature of our approaches to creating multifaceted microparticles in a programmable, cost-efficient and scalable manner toward a wide range of medical and biotechnological application areas. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Coreactant enhanced anodic electrochemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots at low potential for sensitive biosensing amplified by enzymatic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Ju, Huangxian

    2008-07-15

    This work used sulfite as a coreactant to enhance the anodic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of mercaptopropionic acid modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs). This strategy proposed the first coreactant anodic ECL of QDs and led to a sensitive ECL emission of QDs in aqueous solution at relatively low potential. In the presence of dissolved oxygen, the stable ECL emission resulted from the excited QDs. Thus, an ECL detection method was proposed at +0.90 V (vs Ag/AgCl) based on the quenching of excited QDs by the analyte. Using tyrosine as a model compound, whose electrooxidized product could quench the excited QDs and thus the ECL emission, an analytical method for detection of tyrosine in a wide concentration range was developed. Furthermore, by combining an enzymatic cycle of trace tyrosinase to produce the oxidized product with an energy-transfer process, an extremely sensitive method for ECL detection of tyrosine with a subpicomolar limit of detection was developed. The sulfite-enhanced anodic ECL emission provided an alternative for traditional ECL light emitters and a new methodology for extremely sensitive ECL detection of mono- and dihydroxybenzenes at relatively low anodic potential. This strategy could be easily realized and opened new avenues for the applications of QDs in ECL biosensing.

  4. Gold Nanoparticles Like A Matrix For Covalent Immobilization Of Cholesterol Oxidase – Application For Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojnarowska R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles are emerging as promising agents for various areas of material science as well as nanotechnology, electronics and medicine. The interest in this material is provided due to its unique optical, electronic and molecular-recognition properties. This paper presents results of preparation, characterization and biofunctionalization of gold nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have been conjugated with the cholesterol oxidase enzyme in order to prepare the active element for biosensors. Cholesterol oxidase is one of the most important analytical enzyme, used for cholesterol assay in clinical diagnostics, and there is still a necessity in improvement of existing analytical techniques, including bio-nanotechnological approaches based on modern nanosystems. The prepared bio-nanosystem was characterized by the enzyme activity test. Obtained results showed a stable binding of the enzyme with nanoparticles and preserved the bioactivity approves which gives possibility to use the prepared bio-nanosystems for analytical purposes.

  5. Glucose oxidase and graphene bionanocomposite bridged by ionic liquid unit for glucose biosensing application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qixian; Li, Fenghua

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid functionalized graphene (IL-graphene) composite was synthesized successfully through an epoxide ring-opening reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and amine-terminated ionic liquid (NH2-IL). The IL-graphene exhibited good electronic conductivity, stability and electrocatalytical...... activity towards the reduction of O2 and H2O2. Then negatively charged glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized onto the composite matrix simply by ionic exchange. The ionic liquid here could improve the dispersibility of graphene and provide a favorable conductive microenvironment for the immobilized GOD......, thus promote its direct electron transfer at the GC electrode. This novel IL-graphene–GOD bionanocomposite could act as a biosensor towards the detection of glucose with a linear response up to 16mM. In this report, the method for immobilizing GOD by ionic interaction is of universality and has...

  6. Polyphosphonate induced coacervation of chitosan: Encapsulation of proteins/enzymes and their biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hailing; Cui, Yanyun; Li, Pan; Zhou, Yiming; Chen, Yu; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Based on the coacervation of chitosan via the ionotropic crosslinking interaction, proteins/enzymes can be encapsulated in situ into chitosan matrix. -- Highlights: •The ionotropic crosslinking interactions result in the coacervation of chitosan. •A phosphonate-assisted encapsulation of proteins in chitosan matrix is introduced. •The encapsulated proteins retain their bioactivity. •The encapsulation method can be used to fabricate various chitosan-based biosensors. -- Abstract: Based on the polyphosphonate-assisted coacervation of chitosan, a simple and versatile procedure for the encapsulation of proteins/enzymes in chitosan–carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composites matrix was developed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) mapping demonstrated the hemoglobin (Hb) uniformly distributed into chitosan–CNTs composites matrix. Raman measurements indicated the CNTs in composites matrix retained the electronic and structural integrities of the pristine CNTs. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy displayed the encapsulated Hb preserved their near-native structure, indicating the polyphosphonate–chitosan–CNTs composites possessed excellent biocompatibility for the encapsulation of proteins/enzymes. Electrochemical measurements indicated the encapsulated Hb could directly exchange electron with the substrate electrode. Moreover, the modified electrode showed excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. Under optimum experimental conditions, the fabricated electrochemical sensor displayed the fast response (less than 3 s), wide linear range (7.0 × 10 −7 to 2.0 × 10 −3 M) and low detection limit (4.0 × 10 −7 M) for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. This newly developed protocol was simple and mild and would certainly

  7. Polyphosphonate induced coacervation of chitosan: Encapsulation of proteins/enzymes and their biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hailing; Cui, Yanyun; Li, Pan; Zhou, Yiming; Chen, Yu, E-mail: ndchenyu@yahoo.cn; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong

    2013-05-07

    Graphical abstract: Based on the coacervation of chitosan via the ionotropic crosslinking interaction, proteins/enzymes can be encapsulated in situ into chitosan matrix. -- Highlights: •The ionotropic crosslinking interactions result in the coacervation of chitosan. •A phosphonate-assisted encapsulation of proteins in chitosan matrix is introduced. •The encapsulated proteins retain their bioactivity. •The encapsulation method can be used to fabricate various chitosan-based biosensors. -- Abstract: Based on the polyphosphonate-assisted coacervation of chitosan, a simple and versatile procedure for the encapsulation of proteins/enzymes in chitosan–carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composites matrix was developed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) mapping demonstrated the hemoglobin (Hb) uniformly distributed into chitosan–CNTs composites matrix. Raman measurements indicated the CNTs in composites matrix retained the electronic and structural integrities of the pristine CNTs. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy displayed the encapsulated Hb preserved their near-native structure, indicating the polyphosphonate–chitosan–CNTs composites possessed excellent biocompatibility for the encapsulation of proteins/enzymes. Electrochemical measurements indicated the encapsulated Hb could directly exchange electron with the substrate electrode. Moreover, the modified electrode showed excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. Under optimum experimental conditions, the fabricated electrochemical sensor displayed the fast response (less than 3 s), wide linear range (7.0 × 10{sup −7} to 2.0 × 10{sup −3} M) and low detection limit (4.0 × 10{sup −7} M) for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. This newly developed protocol was simple and mild and

  8. (Bio)Sensing Using Nanoparticle Arrays: On the Effect of Analyte Transport on Sensitivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lynn, Nicholas Scott; Homola, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 24 (2016), s. 12145-12151 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1101 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Nanoelectrode Arrays * Nanoscale * Diffusion Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  9. Synthesis of phthalocyanine stabilized rhodium nanoparticles and their application in biosensing of cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokesh, K S; Shivaraj, Y; Dayananda, B P; Chandra, Sudeshna

    2009-06-01

    A single step synthesis route is described for the preparation of rhodium nanoparticles using a cobalt aminophthalocyanine macrocyclic complex as a stabilizer. The results of nanoparticles characterization using electronic absorption, Raman and X-ray spectroscopes as well as transmission electron microscopy are reported. Rhodium nanoparticle modified electrode behavior as examined by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry is also provided. The nanoparticles were found to be well dispersed and stabilized throughout the macromolecular matrix. TEM studies showed that they have an average diameter of 3 to 5 nm with spherical shape. The colloidal rhodium was then used for electrochemical sensing of cytochrome c using glassy carbon electrode. The results showed that the colloidal rhodium nanoparticles enhanced the electron transfer process between cytochrome c and the electrode. Differential pulse voltammetric measurements of cytochrome c at the colloidal rhodium nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode showed a linear relationship with the oxidation peak currents in the concentration range of 100 nM to 3 microM of cytochrome c.

  10. Amplification of biological targets via on-chip culture for biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Jason C.; Edwards, Thayne L.; Carson, Bryan; Finley, Melissa; Arndt, William

    2018-01-02

    The present invention, in part, relates to methods and apparatuses for on-chip amplification and/or detection of various targets, including biological targets and any amplifiable targets. In some examples, the microculture apparatus includes a single-use, normally-closed fluidic valve that is initially maintained in the closed position by a valve element bonded to an adhesive coating. The valve is opened using a magnetic force. The valve element includes a magnetic material or metal. Such apparatuses and methods are useful for in-field or real-time detection of targets, especially in limited resource settings.

  11. Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research…

  12. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  13. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  14. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  15. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    to the source, supply rate, sediment type and seabed topography. Indian Ocean is second largest and least explored for nonrenewable resources. Compared to deep-sea, relatively better knowledge is available for the near shore deposits. A concise account...

  16. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  17. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  18. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  19. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  20. Non-Cytotoxic Quantum Dot–Chitosan Nanogel Biosensing Probe for Potential Cancer Targeting Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Maxwell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum dot (Qdot biosensors have consistently provided valuable information to researchers about cellular activity due to their unique fluorescent properties. Many of the most popularly used Qdots contain cadmium, posing the risk of toxicity that could negate their attractive optical properties. The design of a non-cytotoxic probe usually involves multiple components and a complex synthesis process. In this paper, the design and synthesis of a non-cytotoxic Qdot-chitosan nanogel composite using straight-forward cyanogen bromide (CNBr coupling is reported. The probe was characterized by spectroscopy (UV-Vis, fluorescence, microscopy (Fluorescence, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Dynamic Light Scattering. This activatable (“OFF”/“ON” probe contains a core–shell Qdot (CdS:Mn/ZnS capped with dopamine, which acts as a fluorescence quencher and a model drug. Dopamine capped “OFF” Qdots can undergo ligand exchange with intercellular glutathione, which turns the Qdots “ON” to restore fluorescence. These Qdots were then coated with chitosan (natural biocompatible polymer functionalized with folic acid (targeting motif and Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC; fluorescent dye. To demonstrate cancer cell targetability, the interaction of the probe with cells that express different folate receptor levels was analyzed, and the cytotoxicity of the probe was evaluated on these cells and was shown to be nontoxic even at concentrations as high as 100 mg/L.

  1. Internet and Electronic Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    centers to form consortia and share electronic information sources. Although traditional resource sharing arrangements encouraged competition rather... electronic information sources are a challenge for electronic information managers. Libraries and information centers are no longer “the only game in town...

  2. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase, use and disposal of electronics.The EEBC estimates the environmental and economic benefits of: Purchasing Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered products; Enabling power management features on computers and monitors above default percentages; Extending the life of equipment beyond baseline values; Reusing computers, monitors and cell phones; and Recycling computers, monitors, cell phones and loads of mixed electronic products.The EEBC may be downloaded as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.See https://www.federalelectronicschallenge.net/resources/bencalc.htm for more details.

  3. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is an urgent demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that the power capacity has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of energy should be as efficient as possible and incentives to save...... energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...

  4. Design, characterization and applications of new ionic liquid matrices for multifunctional analysis of biomolecules: A novel strategy for pathogenic bacteria biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser; Khan, M Shahnawaz; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Design and characterize novel UV absorbed-ionic liquid matrices series. • Apply the new series for different analytes. • Introduce a novel methodology for pathogenic bacteria biosensing. • Tabulate the physical parameters of the new series. - Abstract: The design, preparation and performance for novel UV-light absorbing (room-temperature) ionic liquid matrices (UV-RTILMs) for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were reported. A series of UV-RTILMs was prepared by ultrasonication of equimolar of acid (mefenamic acid) and bases (aniline (ANI), pyridine (Pyr), dimethyl aniline (DMANI) and 2-methyl picoline (2-P)). The UV-RTILMs have not only significant absorbance at the desired wavelength (337 nm of the N 2 Laser), but also have available protons that can easily undergo proton transfer reactions to ionize the target molecules. The novel UV-RTILMs have the ability to ionize different and wide classes of compounds such as drugs, carbohydrate, and amino acids. The new UV-RTILMs series have been successfully and selectively applied for biosensing the lysates of pathogenic bacteria in the presence of the cell macromolecules. A new strategy for biosensing pathogens was presented via sensing the pathogens lysate in the cell suspension. The new materials can effectively detect the bacterial toxins without separation or any pretreatment. They offered excellent ionization of labile oligosaccharides with protonated peaks. They could significantly enhance the analyte signals, produce homogeneous spotting, reducing spot-to-spot variation, excellent vacuum stability, higher ion peak intensity, and wide application possibility. The physical parameters such as molar refractivity, molar volume, parachor, surface tension, density and polarizability were calculated and tabulated. The new UV-RTILMs could offer excellent reproducibility and great repeatability and they are promising matrices for wide applications on MALDI-MS

  5. Exploiting enzyme catalysis in ultra-low ion strength media for impedance biosensing of avian influenza virus using a bare interdigitated electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yingchun; Callaway, Zachary; Lum, Jacob; Wang, Ronghui; Lin, Jianhan; Li, Yanbin

    2014-02-18

    Enzyme catalysis is broadly used in various fields but generally applied in media with high ion strength. Here, we propose the exploitation of enzymatic catalysis in ultra-low ion strength media to induce ion strength increase for developing a novel impedance biosensing method. Avian influenza virus H5N1, a serious worldwide threat to poultry and human health, was adopted as the analyte. Magnetic beads were modified with H5N1-specific aptamer to capture the H5N1 virus. This was followed by binding concanavalin A (ConA), glucose oxidase (GOx), and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) to create bionanocomposites through a ConA-glycan interaction. The yielded sandwich complex was transferred to a glucose solution to trigger an enzymatic reaction to produce gluconic acid, which ionized to increase the ion strength of the solution, thus decreasing the impedance on a screen-printed interdigitated array electrode. This method took advantages of the high efficiency of enzymatic catalysis and the high susceptibility of electrochemical impedance on the ion strength and endowed the biosensor with high sensitivity and a detection limit of 8 × 10(-4) HAU in 200 μL sample, which was magnitudes lower than that of some analogues based on biosensing methods. Furthermore, the proposed method required only a bare electrode for measurements of ion strength change and had negligible change on the surficial properties of the electrode, though some modification of magnetic beads/Au nanoparticles and the construction of a sandwich complex were still needed. This helped to avoid the drawbacks of commonly used electrode immobilization methods. The merit for this method makes it highly useful and promising for applications. The proposed method may create new possibilities in the broad and well-developed enzymatic catalysis fields and find applications in developing sensitive, rapid, low-cost, and easy-to-operate biosensing and biocatalysis devices.

  6. Design, characterization and applications of new ionic liquid matrices for multifunctional analysis of biomolecules: A novel strategy for pathogenic bacteria biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, Assuit University, Assuit, 71515 (Egypt); Khan, M Shahnawaz [Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hui-Fen, E-mail: hwu@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 800, Taiwan (China); Institute of Medical Science and Technology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Design and characterize novel UV absorbed-ionic liquid matrices series. • Apply the new series for different analytes. • Introduce a novel methodology for pathogenic bacteria biosensing. • Tabulate the physical parameters of the new series. - Abstract: The design, preparation and performance for novel UV-light absorbing (room-temperature) ionic liquid matrices (UV-RTILMs) for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were reported. A series of UV-RTILMs was prepared by ultrasonication of equimolar of acid (mefenamic acid) and bases (aniline (ANI), pyridine (Pyr), dimethyl aniline (DMANI) and 2-methyl picoline (2-P)). The UV-RTILMs have not only significant absorbance at the desired wavelength (337 nm of the N{sub 2} Laser), but also have available protons that can easily undergo proton transfer reactions to ionize the target molecules. The novel UV-RTILMs have the ability to ionize different and wide classes of compounds such as drugs, carbohydrate, and amino acids. The new UV-RTILMs series have been successfully and selectively applied for biosensing the lysates of pathogenic bacteria in the presence of the cell macromolecules. A new strategy for biosensing pathogens was presented via sensing the pathogens lysate in the cell suspension. The new materials can effectively detect the bacterial toxins without separation or any pretreatment. They offered excellent ionization of labile oligosaccharides with protonated peaks. They could significantly enhance the analyte signals, produce homogeneous spotting, reducing spot-to-spot variation, excellent vacuum stability, higher ion peak intensity, and wide application possibility. The physical parameters such as molar refractivity, molar volume, parachor, surface tension, density and polarizability were calculated and tabulated. The new UV-RTILMs could offer excellent reproducibility and great repeatability and they are promising matrices for wide applications on MALDI-MS.

  7. Optimal Synthesis of Horizontally Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Biofunctionalization for Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawoon Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As an influential candidate for highly sensitive biomolecule sensor, which can capture disease related biomolecules, carbon nanotube is useful material due to its unique properties. To adopt as a sensing platform, it is strongly needed to find optimal refined synthetic condition. In order to find the optimal synthetic conditions of horizontally aligned CNT, we performed quantity control of the mixed gases of H2 and CH4 injected. We successfully find that the formation of amorphous-like carbon was critically affected by some gas condition such as the flow rate of injected gases and ratios of gas mixture. Moreover, it should be noted that our horizontally aligned carbon nanotube array platform developed would offer another potential in developing nanoscale light source, where light emission results from electron-hole carrier recombination.

  8. Nitrogen-Vacancy color center in diamond-emerging nanoscale applications in bioimaging and biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Gopalakrishnan; Lazariev, Andrii; Arumugam, Sri Ranjini; Duan, De-Wen

    2014-06-01

    Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) color center in diamond is a flourishing research area that, in recent years, has displayed remarkable progress. The system offers great potential for realizing futuristic applications in nanoscience, benefiting a range of fields from bioimaging to quantum-sensing. The ability to image single NV color centers in a nanodiamond and manipulate NV electron spin optically under ambient condition is the main driving force behind developments in nanoscale sensing and novel imaging techniques. In this article we discuss current status on the applications of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FND) for optical super resolution nanoscopy, magneto-optical (spin-assisted) sub-wavelength localization and imaging. We present emerging applications such as single molecule spin imaging, nanoscale imaging of biomagnetic fields, sensing molecular fluctuations and temperatures in live cellular environments. We summarize other current advances and future prospects of NV diamond for imaging and sensing pertaining to bio-medical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Functionalized Solid Electrodes for Electrochemical Biosensing of Purine Nucleobases and Their Analogues: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vimal Kumar; Jelen, Frantisek; Trnkova, Libuse

    2015-01-01

    Interest in electrochemical analysis of purine nucleobases and few other important purine derivatives has been growing rapidly. Over the period of the past decade, the design of electrochemical biosensors has been focused on achieving high sensitivity and efficiency. The range of existing electrochemical methods with carbon electrode displays the highest rate in the development of biosensors. Moreover, modification of electrode surfaces based on nanomaterials is frequently used due to their extraordinary conductivity and surface to volume ratio. Different strategies for modifying electrode surfaces facilitate electron transport between the electrode surface and biomolecules, including DNA, oligonucleotides and their components. This review aims to summarize recent developments in the electrochemical analysis of purine derivatives, as well as discuss different applications. PMID:25594595

  10. Photo-physical characterization of fluorophore Ru(bpy32+ for optical biosensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Sciuto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied absorption, emission and lifetime of the coordination compound tris(2,2′-bipyridylruthenium(II fluorophore (Ru(bpy32+ both dissolved in water solutions and dried. Lifetime measurements were carried out using a new detector, the Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM, which is more sensitive and physically much smaller than conventional optical detectors, such as imager and scanner. Through these analyses and a morphological characterization with transmission electron microscopy, revealed its usability for sensor applications, in particular, as dye in optical DNA-chip technology, a viable alternative to the conventional CY5 fluorophore. The use of Ru(bpy32+ would solve some of the typical disadvantages related to Cy5’s application, such as self-absorption of fluorescence and photobleaching. In addition, the Ru(bpy32+ longer lifetime may play a key role in the definition of new optical DNA-chip.

  11. Functionalized Solid Electrodes for Electrochemical Biosensing of Purine Nucleobases and Their Analogues: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Kumar Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in electrochemical analysis of purine nucleobases and few other important purine derivatives has been growing rapidly. Over the period of the past decade, the design of electrochemical biosensors has been focused on achieving high sensitivity and efficiency. The range of existing electrochemical methods with carbon electrode displays the highest rate in the development of biosensors. Moreover, modification of electrode surfaces based on nanomaterials is frequently used due to their extraordinary conductivity and surface to volume ratio. Different strategies for modifying electrode surfaces facilitate electron transport between the electrode surface and biomolecules, including DNA, oligonucleotides and their components. This review aims to summarize recent developments in the electrochemical analysis of purine derivatives, as well as discuss different applications.

  12. Fabrication of Aluminum Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride MESFET And It's Applications in Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alur, Siddharth

    Gallium Nitride has been researched extensively for the past three decades for its application in Light Emitting Diodes (LED's), power devices and UV photodetectors. With the recent developments in crystal growth technology and the ability to control the doping there has been an increased interest in heterostructures formed between Gallium nitride and it's alloy Aluminium Gallium Nitride. These heterostructures due to the combined effect of spontaneous and piezoelectric effect can form a high density and a high mobility electron gas channel without any intentional doping. This high density electron gas makes these heterostructures ideal to be used as sensors. Gallium Nitride is also chemically very stable. Detection of biomolecules in a fast and reliable manner is very important in the areas of food safety and medical research. For biomolecular detection it is paramount to have a robust binding of the probes on the sensor surface. Therefore, in this dissertation, the fabrication and application of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors for the detection of DNA and Organophosphate hydrolase enzyme is discussed. In order to use these AlGaN/GaN heterostructures as biological sensors capable of working in a liquid environment photodefinable polydimethyl-siloxane is used as an encapsulant. The immobilization conditions for a robust binding of thiolated DNA and the catalytic receptor enzyme organophosphate hydrolase on gold surfaces is developed with the help of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. DNA and OPH are detected by measuring the change in the drain current of the device as a function of time.

  13. Combined TD-DFT-SOS-CIS(D) Study of BOPHY Derivatives with Potential Application in Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Vargas, Miguel; Azarias, Cloé; Jacquemin, Denis; Le Guennic, Boris

    2017-12-07

    A set of 13 bis(difluoroboron)-1,2-bis((pyrrol-2-yl)methylene)hydrazine (BOPHY) dyes is studied through a hybrid time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT)-scaled opposite spin-configuration interaction singles with a double correction [SOS-CIS(D)] approach accounting for solvent effects, to shed light onto the structure-property relationships of these recently developed chromophores. In the first step, we calculate the absorption-fluorescence crossing points with refined TD-DFT models considering the influences of both vibrational and solvent contributions. We found that the systematic overestimation of the 0-0 energies is effectively reduced by combining polarizable continuum model-TD-DFT with a scaled opposite spin-configuration interaction singles with a double correction [SOS-CIS(D)]. Next, for a representative system, the vibrationally resolved spectrum within the harmonic approximation is computed on the basis of TD-DFT vibrational signatures and an excellent match with experiment is found. Finally, the influence of different lateral groups on the spectroscopic properties is rationalized by investigating charge transfer parameters and examining electronic density difference maps. It is found that one can tune the position of the absorption/emission maxima by a judicious choice of the lateral substituents or by using π-extended segments. The largest absorption and emission wavelengths as well as the largest Stokes shifts are obtained for BOPHYs containing strong electron-donor dimethylaminophenyl groups attached to the α-positions of the pyrrole units through vinyl linkers, making these chromophores promising candidates for bioluminescence applications.

  14. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    OpenAIRE

    Huang-Yu Liu; Jung-Huei Shu

    2008-01-01

    電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public...

  15. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed to ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics on ...

  16. Resource Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  17. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  18. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide intercalated ZnO quantum dots nanoballs for selective biosensing detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing; Zhao, Minggang; Li, Yingchun; Fan, Sisi; Ding, Longjiang; Liang, Jingjing; Chen, Shougang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A MWCNTs/rGO/ZnO quantum dots intercalation nanoballs decorated 3D hierarchical architecture is fabricated on Ni foam. • Large numbers of ZnO quantum dots are intercalated by rGO sheets to construct hierarchical nanoballs. • Improved mechanical, kinetic and electrochemical properties are found. • The strong interfacial effect makes the material can be used for selective detection of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid. - Abstract: ZnO quantum dots (QDs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are always used in sensors due to their excellent electrochemical characteristics. In this work, ZnO QDs were intercalated by rGO sheets with cross-linked MWCNTs to construct intercalation nanoballs. A MWCNTs/rGO/ZnO QDs 3D hierarchical architecture was fabricated on supporting Ni foam, which exhibited excellent mechanical, kinetic and electrochemical properties. The intercalation construction can introduce strong interfacial effects to improve the surface electronic state. The selectively determinate of uric acid, dopamine, and ascorbic acid by an electrode material using distinct applied potentials was realized.

  19. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide intercalated ZnO quantum dots nanoballs for selective biosensing detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing; Zhao, Minggang, E-mail: zhaomg@ouc.edu.cn; Li, Yingchun; Fan, Sisi; Ding, Longjiang; Liang, Jingjing; Chen, Shougang, E-mail: sgchen@ouc.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A MWCNTs/rGO/ZnO quantum dots intercalation nanoballs decorated 3D hierarchical architecture is fabricated on Ni foam. • Large numbers of ZnO quantum dots are intercalated by rGO sheets to construct hierarchical nanoballs. • Improved mechanical, kinetic and electrochemical properties are found. • The strong interfacial effect makes the material can be used for selective detection of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid. - Abstract: ZnO quantum dots (QDs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are always used in sensors due to their excellent electrochemical characteristics. In this work, ZnO QDs were intercalated by rGO sheets with cross-linked MWCNTs to construct intercalation nanoballs. A MWCNTs/rGO/ZnO QDs 3D hierarchical architecture was fabricated on supporting Ni foam, which exhibited excellent mechanical, kinetic and electrochemical properties. The intercalation construction can introduce strong interfacial effects to improve the surface electronic state. The selectively determinate of uric acid, dopamine, and ascorbic acid by an electrode material using distinct applied potentials was realized.

  20. Graphene versus Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Electrochemical Glucose Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Lam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available : A simple procedure was developed for the fabrication of electrochemical glucose biosensors using glucose oxidase (GOx, with graphene or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. Graphene and MWCNTs were dispersed in 0.25% 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and drop cast on 1% KOH-pre-treated glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs. The EDC (1-ethyl-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide-activated GOx was then bound covalently on the graphene- or MWCNT-modified GCE. Both the graphene- and MWCNT-based biosensors detected the entire pathophysiological range of blood glucose in humans, 1.4–27.9 mM. However, the direct electron transfer (DET between GOx and the modified GCE’s surface was only observed for the MWCNT-based biosensor. The MWCNT-based glucose biosensor also provided over a four-fold higher current signal than its graphene counterpart. Several interfering substances, including drug metabolites, provoked negligible interference at pathological levels for both the MWCNT- and graphene-based biosensors. However, the former was more prone to interfering substances and drug metabolites at extremely pathological concentrations than its graphene counterpart.

  1. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  2. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... organizations are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  4. Novel label-free biosensing technology for monitoring of aqueous solutions (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Florian; Bielecki, Robert; Follonier, Stephane; Dorokhin, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Waste water, drinking water and other industrial water sources are more and more/increasingly polluted with a large variety of contaminants, such as pesticides or residuals of pharmaceuticals. These compounds can impact human and animal organisms and lead to serious health issues. Today, in order to analyze the presence and quantity of the abovementioned micropollutants, samples are typically sent to specialized centralized laboratories and their processing may take up to several days. In order to meet the demand for continuous and consistent monitoring of aqueous solutions we propose a novel label-free technology system comprising proprietary chip and reader device designs. The core of the system is constituted by a planar-grated-waveguide (PGW) chip. Label-free biosensors, based on PGWs are sensitive to effective refractive index changes caused by the adsorption of biomolecules (micropollutants) onto the sensor surface or due to refractive index changes of the bulk solution. The presented reader device operates with a novel readout concept based on a scanning MEMS mirror for the angular interrogation of input grating couplers at a high repetition rate. The reader has fully integrated optics, electronics and fluidics and at the same time consumes limited energy (portable, field use ready). In the recent experiments, the effectiveness of the technology has been demonstrated with various liquids and bioassays showing (i) an excellent refractometric sensitivity with a limit of detection towards effective refractive index changes of ▵neff < 2 x 10-7, and (ii) the capability to perform affinity measurements for large (<150 kDa) and small (<250 Da) molecules.

  5. A three-dimensional hierarchical nanoporous PdCu alloy for enhanced electrocatalysis and biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Aihua [Laboratory for Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, and Key Laboratory for Biofuels, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Geng Haoran [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Xu Caixia, E-mail: chm_xucx@ujn.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Qiu Huajun, E-mail: qiuhuajun@gmail.com [Laboratory for Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, and Key Laboratory for Biofuels, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2011-10-10

    Highlights: {yields} Nanotubular mesoporous PdCu (NM-PdCu) alloy is facilely fabricated via one-step metal replacement reaction between nanoporous Cu and H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4}. {yields} The NM-PdCu exhibits remarkably improved structure stability and electrocatalytic activity towards formic acid and hydrogen peroxide oxidation compared with NP-Pd. {yields} When coupled with GOx, the GOx/NM-PdCu electrode can be used for sensitive detection of glucose over a wide concentration range. - Abstract: Nanoporous copper (NPC) obtained by dealloying CuAl alloy is used as both three-dimensional template and reducing agent for the fabrication of nanoporous PdCu alloy with hollow ligaments by a simple galvanic replacement reaction with H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4} aqueous solution. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction characterizations demonstrate that after the replacement reaction, the ligaments become hollow tubular structure and the ligament shell is also comprised of small pores and nanoparticles with a typical size of {approx}4 nm (third order porosity). The as-prepared nanotubular mesoporous PdCu alloy (NM-PdCu) structure exhibits remarkably improved electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of formic acid and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} compared with nanoporous Pd (NP-Pd), and can be used for sensitive electrochemical sensing applications. After coupled with glucose oxidase (GOx), the enzyme modified NM-PdCu electrode can sensitively detect glucose over a wide linear range (0.5-20 mM).

  6. Amperometric biosensing of organophosphate and organocarbamate pesticides utilizing polypyrrole entrapped acetylcholinesterase electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rekha Rani; Puzari, Panchanan

    2014-02-15

    The work presented here describes a novel, easy and low-cost method of fabrication of a highly sensitive acetylcholinesterase biosensor and its application to detect organophosphate and organocarbamate pesticides. Acetylcholinesterase was electro-immobilized into a thick conducting layer of polypyrrole. Porcine skin gelatin and gluteraldehyde mixture was used for stabilizing the system. Acetylthiocholine chloride was used as the substrate. Polypyrrole catalyzed the electrochemical oxidation of thiocholine and promoted the electron transfer, thus lowering the oxidation potential and increasing the detection sensitivity. Electro oxidation of thiocholine in polypyrrole matrix occurred at 0.1 V under low potential scan rate. The thiocholine sensitivity of the electrode was found to be 143 mA/M. The sensor was applied to detect the sample organophosphate pesticide ethylparaoxon and organocarbamate pesticide carbofuran. The detection limit for paraoxon was found to be 1.1 ppb and that for carbofuran is 0.12 ppb. The sensor showed good intra and inter state precision with relative standard deviation (RSD) 0.742% and 6.56% respectively. Both dry and wet storage stability were studied. The sensor stored at 0°C in dry condition had a good storage stability retaining 70% of its original activity for 4 months. During wet storage, the activity decrease followed the same trend, however, the operational stability at the end of the storage period was found to be less compared to the dry storage case. The developed biosensor is as a promising new tool for analysis of cholinesterase inhibitors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MISENS DEVICE AS A NEW AUTOMATED BIOSENSING PLATFORM BASED ON REAL-TIME ELECTROCHEMICAL PROFILING (REP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yıldız uludağ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In various fields like health, environmental control, food security and military defense; there is an increasing demand for on-site detection, fast identification and urgent response which brings the necessity to employ laboratory detection procedures on standalone automatic devices. In response to that TUBITAK BILGEM’s Bioelectronic Devices and Systems Group has been developing portable and fully automated biosensor devices using optical and electrochemical biosensor detection techniques. Here we describe a new integrated and fully automated lab-on-a-chip based biosensor device ‘MiSens’. The key features of the MiSens include a new electrode array, an integrated microfluidic system and real-time amperometric measurements during the flow of enzyme substrate. While simple protocols can be controlled from the LCD display on the device, other main device control procedures can be run wireless by a tablet/PC using the MiCont™ software developed by the team. For the device, a new plug and play type sensor chip docking station has been designed that with one move it enables the formation of a ~ 7-10 µl capacity flow cell on the electrode array with the necessary microfluidic and electronic connections. The MiSens device has been developed by our multi-disciplinary team by integrating and automatising the earlier developed sensing platform REP™ (Real-time Electrochemical Profiling. The performance of the MiSens device has been tested using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry tests and the results were compared with an of the shelf potantiostat.

  8. Titania nanotubes decorated with gold nanoparticles for electrochemiluminescent biosensing of glycosylated hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qun [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Dushu Lake Campus, Soochow University, Industrial Park, Suzhou, 215123 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong, 226019 (China); Tang, Shan [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Dushu Lake Campus, Soochow University, Industrial Park, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Fang, Chen [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Dushu Lake Campus, Soochow University, Industrial Park, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Second Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215004 (China); Tu, Yi-Feng, E-mail: tuyf@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Dushu Lake Campus, Soochow University, Industrial Park, Suzhou, 215123 (China)

    2016-09-14

    A glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) biosensor with high performance has been constructed in this work. Here the fructosyl amino acid oxidase was immobilized onto a pre-functionalized indium tin oxide glass with titania nanotubes decorated with gold nanoparticles. The property of nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electromicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemistry and spectroscopy. Under the optimum conditions, fructosyl valine was detected by this biosensor. It exhibited a linear detection range from 4.0 × 10{sup −9} M to 7.2 × 10{sup −7} M, and a limit of detection for 3.8 × 10{sup −9} M at the signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Thus the HbA1c level in whole blood samples of healthy individuals or diabetic patients were evaluated with designed biosensor after pre-treatment of hydrolysis. The results of our detection were closely consistent with that of the standard method. At the same time, our biosensor has some advantages including high sensitivity, disposable usage and low cost, which implies its great promising application in point-of-care testing of HbA1c. - Highlights: • The enhanced electrochemiluminescence of luminol by AuNPs/TiNTs. • An ECL biosensor for HbA1c assay with ultra-high sensitivity. • A promising disposable device for diabetic diagnosis and treatment even for POCT. • The excellent regression of detected results with gold-standard method.

  9. Reusable split-aptamer-based biosensor for rapid detection of cocaine in serum by using an all-fiber evanescent wave optical biosensing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunfei; Long, Feng; Gu, Chunmei; Wang, Cheng; Han, Shitong; He, Miao

    2016-08-24

    A rapid, facile, and sensitive assay of cocaine in biological fluids is important to prevent illegal abuse of drugs. A two-step structure-switching aptasensor has been developed for cocaine detection based on evanescent wave optical biosensing platform. In the proposed biosensing platform, two tailored aptamer probes were used to construct the molecular structure switching. In the existence of cocaine, two fragments of cocaine aptamer formed a three-way junction quickly, and the fluorophore group of one fragment was effectively quenched by the quencher group of the other one. The tail of the three-way junction hybridized with the cDNA sequences immobilized on the optical fiber biosensor. Fluorescence was excited by evanescent wave, and the fluorescence signal was proportional to cocaine concentration. Cocaine was detected in 450 s (300 s for incubation and 150 s for detection and regeneration) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 165.2 nM. The proposed aptasensor was evaluated in human serum samples, and it exhibited good recovery, precision, and accuracy without complicated sample pretreatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  11. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  12. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  13. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  14. Fc-specific biotinylation of antibody using an engineered photoactivatable Z–Biotin and its biosensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hong-Ming; Bao, Ru-Meng; Yu, Chang-Mei; Lv, Yan-Na; Zhang, Wei-Fen; Tang, Jin-Bao, E-mail: tangjb@wfmc.edu.cn

    2017-01-01

    The development of a site-specific and covalent attachment methodology is crucial for antibody–biotin conjugates to preserve the antigen-binding ability of antibodies and yield homogeneous products. In this study, an engineered photoactivatable Z-domain variant [an UV-active amino acid benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) was genetically incorporated into the Z-domain] carrying one biotin molecule (Z{sub Bpa}–Biotin) was prepared by employing aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/suppressor tRNA and Avitag/BirA techniques. The site-specific and covalent attachment of IgG–biotin conjugates, viz. photo-biotinylated IgG, was successfully achieved after UV exposure by combining the inherent Fc-binding capability of the Z-domain with the formation of covalent bond by the photo-crosslinker. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay showed that more than 90% of IgGs conjugated with Z{sub Bpa}–Biotin molecules suffered 3 h UV irradiation. Further pepsin digestion analysis confirmed that the Z{sub Bpa}–Biotin was conjugated to the Fc fragment of IgG without interference. We took the tumor biomarker carcinoembryoic antigen (CEA) as model to evaluate the detection efficiency of the site-specific photo-biotinylated IgG in biosensing application using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. The photo-biotinylated IgG coated surface gave a limit of detection (LOD) of 2 ng mL{sup -1}, is 5-fold lower than that of the randomly NHS-biotinylated IgG (10 ng mL{sup -1}). Given that the (strept)avidin–biotin complex is extensively used in immunoassays, the proposed method for biotinylated IgG provides a powerful approach to further expand related applications. - Highlights: • A photoactivable Z{sub Bpa}–Biotin was fabricated by aaRS/tRNA and Avitag/BirA techniques. • A approach for Fc-specific photo-biotinylated IgG via Z{sub Bpa}–Biotin was proposed. • The photo-biotinylated IgG was used to fabricate an immunosensor for detecting CEA. • It gave a LOD

  15. Fc-specific biotinylation of antibody using an engineered photoactivatable Z–Biotin and its biosensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong-Ming; Bao, Ru-Meng; Yu, Chang-Mei; Lv, Yan-Na; Zhang, Wei-Fen; Tang, Jin-Bao

    2017-01-01

    The development of a site-specific and covalent attachment methodology is crucial for antibody–biotin conjugates to preserve the antigen-binding ability of antibodies and yield homogeneous products. In this study, an engineered photoactivatable Z-domain variant [an UV-active amino acid benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) was genetically incorporated into the Z-domain] carrying one biotin molecule (Z Bpa –Biotin) was prepared by employing aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/suppressor tRNA and Avitag/BirA techniques. The site-specific and covalent attachment of IgG–biotin conjugates, viz. photo-biotinylated IgG, was successfully achieved after UV exposure by combining the inherent Fc-binding capability of the Z-domain with the formation of covalent bond by the photo-crosslinker. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay showed that more than 90% of IgGs conjugated with Z Bpa –Biotin molecules suffered 3 h UV irradiation. Further pepsin digestion analysis confirmed that the Z Bpa –Biotin was conjugated to the Fc fragment of IgG without interference. We took the tumor biomarker carcinoembryoic antigen (CEA) as model to evaluate the detection efficiency of the site-specific photo-biotinylated IgG in biosensing application using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. The photo-biotinylated IgG coated surface gave a limit of detection (LOD) of 2 ng mL -1 , is 5-fold lower than that of the randomly NHS-biotinylated IgG (10 ng mL -1 ). Given that the (strept)avidin–biotin complex is extensively used in immunoassays, the proposed method for biotinylated IgG provides a powerful approach to further expand related applications. - Highlights: • A photoactivable Z Bpa –Biotin was fabricated by aaRS/tRNA and Avitag/BirA techniques. • A approach for Fc-specific photo-biotinylated IgG via Z Bpa –Biotin was proposed. • The photo-biotinylated IgG was used to fabricate an immunosensor for detecting CEA. • It gave a LOD of 2 ng mL -1 CEA, was 5

  16. Organic Electronics for Point-of-Care Metabolite Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Anna-Maria; Parlak, Onur; Scheiblin, Gaetan; Mailley, Pascal; Salleo, Alberto; Owens, Roisin M

    2018-01-01

    In this review we focus on demonstrating how organic electronic materials can solve key problems in biosensing thanks to their unique material properties and implementation in innovative device configurations. We highlight specific examples where these materials solve multiple issues related to complex sensing environments, and we benchmark these examples by comparing them to state-of-the-art commercially available sensing using alternative technologies. We have categorized our examples by sample type, focusing on sensing from body fluids in vitro and on wearable sensors, which have attracted significant interest owing to their integration with everyday life activities. We finish by describing a future trend for in vivo, implantable sensors, which aims to build on current progress from sensing in biological fluids ex vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  18. Universal quantum dot-based sandwich-like immunoassay strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of small molecules using portable and reusable optofluidic nano-biosensing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Liping; Zhu, Anna; Lou, Xuening; Song, Dan; Yang, Rong; Shi, Hanchang; Long, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A universal sandwich-like immunoassay strategy based on quantum-dots immunoprobe (QD-labeled anti-mouse IgG antibody) was developed for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of small molecules. A portable and reusable optofluidic nano-biosensing platform was applied to investigate the sandwich-like immunoassay mechanism and format of small molecules, as well as the binding kinetics between QD immunoprobe and anti-small molecule antibody. A two-step immunoassay method that involves pre-incubation mixture of different concentration of small molecule and anti-small molecule antibody, and subsequent introduction of QD immunoprobe into the optofluidic cell was conducted for small molecule determination. Compared with the one-step immunoassay method, the two-step immunoassay method can obtain higher fluorescence signal and higher sensitivity index, thus improving the nano-biosensing performance. Based on the proposed strategy, two mode targets, namely, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and Bisphenol A (BPA) were tested with high sensitivity, rapidity, and ease of use. A higher concentration of small molecules in the sample led to less anti-small molecule antibody bound with antigen-carrier protein conjugate immobilized onto the sensor surface, and less QD immunoprobes bound with anti-small molecule antibody. This phenomenon lowered the fluorescence signal detected by nano-biosensing platform. Under optimal operating conditions, MC-LR and BPA exhibited a limit of detection of 0.003 and 0.04 μg/L, respectively. The LODs were better than those of the indirect competitive immunoassay method for small molecules via Cy5.5-labeled anti-small molecule antibody. The proposed QD-based sandwich-like immunoassay strategy was evaluated in spiked water samples, and showed good recovery, precision and accuracy without complicated sample pretreatments. All these results demonstrate that the new detection strategy could be readily applied to the other trace small molecules in real water samples

  19. Universal quantum dot-based sandwich-like immunoassay strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of small molecules using portable and reusable optofluidic nano-biosensing platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liping; Zhu, Anna; Lou, Xuening; Song, Dan; Yang, Rong [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing (China); Shi, Hanchang [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Long, Feng, E-mail: longf04@ruc.edu.cn [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing (China)

    2016-01-28

    A universal sandwich-like immunoassay strategy based on quantum-dots immunoprobe (QD-labeled anti-mouse IgG antibody) was developed for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of small molecules. A portable and reusable optofluidic nano-biosensing platform was applied to investigate the sandwich-like immunoassay mechanism and format of small molecules, as well as the binding kinetics between QD immunoprobe and anti-small molecule antibody. A two-step immunoassay method that involves pre-incubation mixture of different concentration of small molecule and anti-small molecule antibody, and subsequent introduction of QD immunoprobe into the optofluidic cell was conducted for small molecule determination. Compared with the one-step immunoassay method, the two-step immunoassay method can obtain higher fluorescence signal and higher sensitivity index, thus improving the nano-biosensing performance. Based on the proposed strategy, two mode targets, namely, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and Bisphenol A (BPA) were tested with high sensitivity, rapidity, and ease of use. A higher concentration of small molecules in the sample led to less anti-small molecule antibody bound with antigen-carrier protein conjugate immobilized onto the sensor surface, and less QD immunoprobes bound with anti-small molecule antibody. This phenomenon lowered the fluorescence signal detected by nano-biosensing platform. Under optimal operating conditions, MC-LR and BPA exhibited a limit of detection of 0.003 and 0.04 μg/L, respectively. The LODs were better than those of the indirect competitive immunoassay method for small molecules via Cy5.5-labeled anti-small molecule antibody. The proposed QD-based sandwich-like immunoassay strategy was evaluated in spiked water samples, and showed good recovery, precision and accuracy without complicated sample pretreatments. All these results demonstrate that the new detection strategy could be readily applied to the other trace small molecules in real water samples

  20. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  1. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  3. Composite films of Prussian blue and N-substituted polypyrroles: covalent immobilization of enzymes and application to near infrared optical biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncki, R; Wolfbeis, O S

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of optical biosensing using a material which, in essence, is a modified inorganic film to which various enzymes were covalently attached. Thin and transparent blue films composed of Prussian blue and incorporated into a network of N-substituted polypyrroles are sensitive to pH in the 5-9 range at 720 nm wavelength and can be modified with enzymes to result in the respective biosensors. Several methods of enzyme immobilization, using bifunctional crosslinking reagents, and various enzymes were tested. The best results were obtained using the one-step carbodiimide method which resulted in highly active, stable and transparent biosensor films for optical determination of urea and acetylcholine. The operational stability exceeded 1 month and even after 2 months of dry storage at room temperature the activity did not drop. The biosensors allow optical determination of the respective substrates in the millimolar concentration range.

  4. Photonics-on-a-chip: recent advances in integrated waveguides as enabling detection elements for real-world, lab-on-a-chip biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Adam L; Bailey, Ryan C

    2011-01-21

    By leveraging advances in semiconductor microfabrication technologies, chip-integrated optical biosensors are poised to make an impact as scalable and multiplexable bioanalytical measurement tools for lab-on-a-chip applications. In particular, waveguide-based optical sensing technology appears to be exceptionally amenable to chip integration and miniaturization, and, as a result, the recent literature is replete with examples of chip-integrated waveguide sensing platforms developed to address a wide range of contemporary analytical challenges. As an overview of the most recent advances within this dynamic field, this review highlights work from the last 2-3 years in the areas of grating-coupled, interferometric, photonic crystal, and microresonator waveguide sensors. With a focus towards device integration, particular emphasis is placed on demonstrations of biosensing using these technologies within microfluidically controlled environments. In addition, examples of multiplexed detection and sensing within complex matrices--important features for real-world applicability--are given special attention.

  5. Accurate and visual discrimination of single-base mismatch by utilization of binary DNA probes in gold nanoparticles-based biosensing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weijun; Ren, Jiangtao; Zhu, Jinbo; Zhou, Zhixue; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-12-01

    Herein we report a colorimetric biosensing strategy to discriminate single-nucleotide mutation in DNA with high selectivity using unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as indicators. In the AuNPs-based colorimetric strategy, binary DNA probes were produced by splitting a long DNA probe in the middle for sensitive differentiation of single-base mismatch. The detection limit of this method toward target DNA was 5nM. The developed system has superior advantages of utilization of inexpensive materials, simplicity and visualization. Moreover, binary DNA probes not only can distinguish single-base mutation in the target DNA very well, as compared to long DNA probe, but also can construct "AND" logic gate using two distinct target DNAs as inputs, which holds great potential for increasing the accuracy of disease diagnosis in clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  7. A lanthanide complex with dual biosensing properties: CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer) and BIRDS (biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts) with europium DOTA-tetraglycinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Daniel; Kiefer, Garry E; Rothman, Douglas L; Sherry, A Dean; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2011-12-01

    Responsive contrast agents (RCAs) composed of lanthanide(III) ion (Ln3R) complexes with a variety of1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (DOTA4S) derivatives have shown great potential as molecular imaging agents for MR. A variety of LnDOTA–tetraamide complexes have been demonstrated as RCAs for molecular imaging using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). The CEST method detects proton exchange between bulk water and any exchangeable sites on the ligand itself or an inner sphere of bound water that is shifted by a paramagnetic Ln3R ion bound in the core of the macrocycle. It has also been shown that molecular imaging is possible when the RCA itself is observed (i.e. not its effect on bulk water) using a method called biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS). The BIRDS method utilizes redundant information stored in the nonexchangeable proton resonances emanating from the paramagnetic RCA for ambient factors such as temperature and/or pH.Thus, CEST and BIRDS rely on exchangeable and nonexchangeable protons, respectively, for biosensing. We posited that it would be feasible to combine these two biosensing features into the same RCA (i.e. dual CEST and BIRDS properties). A complex between europium(III) ion (Eu3R) and DOTA–tetraglycinate [DOTA–(gly)S4] was used to demonstrate that its CEST characteristics are preserved, while its BIRDS properties are also detectable. The in vitro temperature sensitivity of EuDOTA–(gly)S4 was used to show that qualitative MR contrast with CEST can be calibrated using quantitative MR mapping with BIRDS, thereby enabling quantitative molecular imaging at high spatial resolution.

  8. 研究/電子資源使用統計標準與規範之探討/陳雪華;許嘉珍;朱雅琦 | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳雪華、許嘉珍、朱雅琦

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    近年來,由於資訊科技的進步,圖書館中的電子資源數量快速增加,所佔預算金額比例也大幅增長。圖書館希望能夠透過評鑑電子資源的使用,以便能夠在電 子資源館藏發展等方面做出正確的決策。由於體認到電子資源使用統計之重要性,圖書館界與相關組織紛紛發展或修訂圖書館統計標準,增列電子資源使用統計的項 目以充分反映圖書館電子資源使用之狀況。本文主要採用文獻分析法以及內容分析法,收集探討並比較近軍來國內外電子資源使用統計之相關規範及標準,包含 ISO 2789、 ICOLC Guidelines、州ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrlcs、E-Measures Project、以及Project COUNTER等。

    Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 、ICOLC Guidelines、ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrics、E-Measures Project、and Project COUNTER etc.

    頁次:89-102

  9. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  10. Managing Tradeoffs in the Electronic Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of the development of electronic resources over the past three decades, discussing key features, disadvantages, and benefits of traditional online databases and CD-ROM and Web-based resources. Considers the decision to shift collections and resources toward purely digital formats, ownership of content, licensing, and user…

  11. Innovations in electronic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Wach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Summarry Existence in electronic business has become increasingly difficult. High competition and considerable financial resources needed to enter electronic market are the problems of most micro and small sized enterprises, starting or developing their business. Nevertheless, there is a market niche for them, which can ensure success and grant partial financing of the business. This niche are small web projects, providing the customer with personalized service, hitting his tastes and meeting immediate needs. A projects that large websites are unable to perform. Financial sourcing of those projects comes from EU subsidies, in the framework of the Działanie 8.1. PO IG, 2007-2013.

  12. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  13. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  14. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  15. Vacuum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Eichmeier, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen experts from the electronics industry, research institutes and universities have joined forces to prepare this book. ""Vacuum Electronics"" covers the electrophysical fundamentals, the present state of the art and applications, as well as the future prospects of microwave tubes and systems, optoelectronics vacuum devices, electron and ion beam devices, light and X-ray emitters, particle accelerators and vacuum interrupters. These topics are supplemented by useful information about the materials and technologies of vacuum electronics and vacuum technology.

  16. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  17. Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  18. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    (a) facilitate ecommerce;2. (b) remove and prevent barriers to electronic communications in South Africa;3. (c) ensure that electronic transactions in the Republic conform to the highest international standards;4. (d) promote the development of electronic transactions services which are responsive to the needs of users and ...

  19. Development of thematic sections of the "Ecology and management of natural resources", "Marine biology", "Pollution" of the Electronic Marine Atlas ESIMO on the Arctic seas of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev D. V

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly describes the history of appearance and purpose of the Electronic Marine Atlas ESIMO. The information sources used to build the thematic layers have been introduced. The methodology of data processing for the Atlas has been considered. Main results of the work and examples of the existing atlas have been presented

  20. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  1. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  2. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  3. Building the electronic industry's roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    JTEC panelists found a strong consistency among the electronics firms they visited: all the firms had clear visions or roadmaps for their research and development activities and had committed resources to ensure that they achieve targeted results. The overarching vision driving Japan's electronics industry is that of achieving market success through developing appealing, high-quality, low-cost consumer goods - ahead of the competition. Specifics of the vision include improving performance, quality, and portability of consumer electronics products. Such visions help Japanese companies define in detail the roadmaps they will follow to develop new and improved electronic packaging technologies.

  4. Dublin Core and Electronic Information Retrieval | Gbaje | Samaru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dublin Core (DC) provides a relatively simple and concise method for resource discovery of composite electronic resources over various networks. This article examines the importance and application of Dublin Core metadata in electronic resource discover over various networks. It is expected that the endorsement of ...

  5. Electronic Recruitment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

  6. The electron and the electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Balmaseda, M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present a brief report of those historical events that originated and contributed to the scientific area of Electronics. The main discovering and investigations in both Vacuum Electronics and Semiconductor Electronics are reviewed. (Author) 12 refs

  7. Natural resource depletion and the resource curse

    OpenAIRE

    Stokke, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies the relationship between natural resources and economic wealth, in two parts. Previous studies have found a negative relationship between natural resources and economic wealth, a phenomenon known as the curse of natural resources. Later studies reject the resource curse, in its simplest form, as their findings show a positive relationship when measuring economic wealth by GDP levels instead of growth. The argument is that the inclusion of initial GDP, when u...

  8. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  9. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  10. Challenges of accessibility of information resources by the post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings revealed that library resources were not easily accessible to the students as a result of inadequacies emanating from out-datedness of resources; ineffective bibliographic organization and ineffective library services. It was recommended among others that electronic /online information resources should be ...

  11. INTEGRATION OF OPEN ACCESS SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Brichkovskij

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the generation, use and dissemination of electronic information resources is analyzed. The integration of information resources and services through the application of advanced technologies of metadata have been considered. An approach aimed at creating a single information space of research and educational resources of open access is offered.

  12. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  13. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  14. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  15. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Robert; Carroll-Garrison, Martina; Donovan, Daniel; Fisher, John; Guemmer, Paul; Harms, Robert; Kelly, Timothy; Love, Mattie; McReynolds, James; Ward, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    .... Government action to preserve strategic access to semiconductor producers is clearly needed to ensure DoD electronic systems can be built without compromising sensitive technology, though every...

  16. Isolated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrom, Ph.; Winwland, D.

    1981-08-01

    The problem of electron g-factor measurement by means of an isolated electron is considered. The technique of the experiment performed at the Washington university is described. A single electron is enclosed in a homogeneous magnetic field which is superimposed by an electric field. The electric field configuration represents a Penning trap. The trap together with the enclosed electron forms an ''atom'' of macroscopic dimensions. The electron trajectory in the trap consists of three components. The electron quickly rotates over small loops (cyclotron motion), the centre of these loops slowly moves over a large circle (magistron motion). Meanwhile the electron oscillates back and forth along the trap axis. The electron motion in the atom field is quantized and the transitions between various types of motions correspond to definite radiation frequencies. At the anomal frequency the transition with spin flip is registered and the electron g-factor is measured. The value g=2.0023193044 is obtained with a probable error less than a unit of the last decimal digit.

  17. Functionalizable low-fouling coatings for label-free biosensing in complex biological media: advances and applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaisocherová, Hana; Brynda, Eduard; Homola, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 407, č. 14 (2015), s. 3927-3953 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Label-free optical biosensors * Polymer brushes * Blood plasma Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.125, year: 2015

  18. Coding of Electronic Laboratory Reports for Biosurveillance, Selected United States Hospitals, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sanjaya; Burrer, Sherry L; Winston, Carla A; Dey, Achintya; Ajani, Umed; Groseclose, Samuel L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Electronic laboratory reporting has been promoted as a public health priority. The Office of the U.S. National Coordinator for Health Information Technology has endorsed two coding systems: Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) for laboratory test orders and Systemized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) for test results. Materials and Methods We examined LOINC and SNOMED CT code use in electronic laboratory data reported in 2011 by 63 non-federal hospitals to BioSense electronic syndromic surveillance system. We analyzed the frequencies, characteristics, and code concepts of test orders and results. Results A total of 14,028,774 laboratory test orders or results were reported. No test orders used SNOMED CT codes. To describe test orders, 77% used a LOINC code, 17% had no value, and 6% had a non-informative value, "OTH". Thirty-three percent (33%) of test results had missing or non-informative codes. For test results with at least one informative value, 91.8% had only LOINC codes, 0.7% had only SNOMED codes, and 7.4% had both. Of 108 SNOMED CT codes reported without LOINC codes, 45% could be matched to at least one LOINC code. Conclusion Missing or non-informative codes comprised almost a quarter of laboratory test orders and a third of test results reported to BioSense by non-federal hospitals. Use of LOINC codes for laboratory test results was more common than use of SNOMED CT. Complete and standardized coding could improve the usefulness of laboratory data for public health surveillance and response.

  19. The electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestenes, David; Weingartshofer, Antonio

    1991-01-01

    The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs

  20. Electronic marketplaces

    OpenAIRE

    TALAFOUSOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the principles of electronic and Internet marketplaces. For analyzing the status of the use of electronic marketplaces and online polling was done with the actual marketplace and society, which is a member of the marketplace. Proposal that trade through the market is prepared for a particular company, which previously traded through the marketplace.

  1. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  2. Power electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishore Chatterjee

    reference material for power electronics engineers, students and academicians. We thank the editors of Sadhana for inviting us to guest-edit this special issue on power electronics. July 2017. KISHORE CHATTERJEE. Department of Electrical Engineering,. Indian Institute of Technology,. Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, ...

  3. A real-time de-noising method applied for transient and weak biomolecular interaction analysis in surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Shuyue; Song, Hong; Shi, Chunfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Ou, Huichao

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing technology will likely become a type of label-free technology for transient and weak biomolecular interaction analysis (BIA); however, it needs some improvement with regard to high-speed and high-resolution measurement. We studied a type of real-time de-noising (RD) data processing method for SPR sensorgrams based on moving average; it can immediately distinguish ultra-weak signals during the process of experiment, and can display a low-noise sensorgram in real time. A flow injection analysis experiment and a CM5 sensorchip affinity experiment are designed to evaluate the characteristics of the RD method. High noise suppression ability and low signal distortion risks of the RD method have been proved. The RD method does not significantly distort signals of the sensorgram in the molecular affinity experiment, and K D values of the RD method essentially coincide with those of the raw sensorgram with a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Meanwhile, by the RD method denoising the sensorgram with an ultralow SNR that is closer to the condition of the transient and weak molecular interactions, the kinetic constant can be more accurately analyzed, whereas it cannot be realized for the raw sensorgram. The crucial function and significance of the RD method are primarily embodied in the measurement limit of SPR sensing. (paper)

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of a Stabilized Thin Film Ag/AgCl Reference Electrode Modified with Self-Assembled Monolayer of Alkane Thiol Chains for Rapid Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzilur Rahman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of miniaturized electrical biosensing devices can enable the rapid on-chip detection of biomarkers such as miRNA molecules, which is highly important in early-stage cancer detection. The challenge in realizing such devices remains in the miniaturization of the reference electrodes, which is an integral part of electrical detection. Here, we report on a novel thin film Ag/AgCl reference electrode (RE that has been fabricated on top of a Au-sputtered glass surface, which was coated with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM of 6-mercepto-1-hexanol (MCH. The electrode showed very little measurement deviation (−1.5 mv from a commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrode and exhibited a potential drift of only ± 0.2 mV/h. In addition, the integration of this SAM-modified microfabricated thin film RE enabled the rapid detection (<30 min of miRNA (let-7a. The electrode can be integrated seamlessly into a microfluidic device, allowing the highly stable and fast measurement of surface potential and is expected to be very useful for the development of miniature electrical biosensors.

  5. Flexible regulation of DNA displacement reaction through nucleic acid-recognition enzyme and its application in keypad lock system and biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Shi, Liu; Tao, Yaqin; Mao, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Yang; Li, Genxi

    2017-08-30

    Toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement reaction (SDR) plays pivotal roles for the construction of diverse dynamic DNA nanodevices. To date, many elements have been introduced into SDR system to achieve controllable activation and fine regulation. However, as the most relevant stimuli for nucleic acid involved reaction, nucleic acid-recognizing enzymes (NAEs) have received nearly no attention so far despite SDR often takes place in NAEs-enriched environment (i.e., biological fluids). Herein, we report a set of NAEs-controlled SDR strategies, which take full advantage of NAEs' properties. In this study, three different kinds of enzymes belonging to several classes (i.e., exonuclease, endonuclease and polymerase) have been used to activate or inhibit SDR, and more importantly, some mechanisms behind these strategies on how NAEs affect SDR have also been revealed. The exploration to use NAEs as possible cues to operate SDR will expand the available toolbox to build novel stimuli-fueled DNA nanodevices and could open the door to many applications including enzyme-triggered biocomputing and biosensing.

  6. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin and biosensing for hydrogen peroxide using a film containing silver nanoparticles and poly(amidoamine) dendrimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarin, Marina [Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology Group, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-390 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Janegitz, Bruno C., E-mail: brunocj@ymail.com [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Ciências da Natureza, Matemática e Educação, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13600-970 Araras, SP (Brazil); Berté, Rodrigo [Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology Group, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13566-390 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Banks, Craig E. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and the Environment, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M15GD (United Kingdom); Fatibello-Filho, Orlando [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-01

    A new architecture for a biosensor is proposed using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with hemoglobin (Hb) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) encapsulated in poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM). The biosensors were characterized using ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, ζ-potential and cyclic voltammetry to investigate the interactions between Hb, AgNPs and the PAMAM film. The biosensor exhibited a well-defined cathodic peak attributed to reduction of the Fe{sup 3+} present in the heme group in Hb, as revealed by cyclic voltammetry in the presence of O{sub 2}. An apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate of 4.1 s{sup −1} was obtained. The Hb–AgNPs-PAMAM/GCE third generation biosensor was applied in the amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide over the linear range from 6.0 × 10{sup −6} to 9.1 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 4.9 × 10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1}. The proposed method can be extended to immobilize and evaluate the direct electron transfer of other redox enzymes. - Highlights: • A new architecture for biosensor using Hb, AgNPs and PAMAM is proposed. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is determined by amperometry using the proposed third generation biosensor. • The direct electron transfer was obtained from Hb using Hb–AgNPs–PAMAM.

  7. Introduction of home electronics for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Hideyuki; Shirai, Iwao

    Development of electronics has accelerated the automation and labor saving at factories and offices. Home electronics is also expected to be needed more and more in Japan towards the 21st century, as the advanced information society and the elderly society will be accelerated, and women's participation in social affairs will be increased. Resources Council, which is the advisory organ of the Minister of State for Science and Technology, forecast to what extent home electronics will be popularized by the year of 2010. The Council expected to promote home electronics, because resource and energy saving should be accelerated and people should enjoy much more their individual lives at home.

  8. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current research activity is quite intensive in the use of mathematical tools such as cryptography, game theory, mechanism design, optimization, ...

  9. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  10. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  11. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  12. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  13. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  14. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  15. Australian uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Miezitis, Y.; McKay, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Australia's uranium resources amount to 29% of the WOCA countries (world outside centrally-planned-economies areas) low-cost Reasonably Assured Resources and 28% of the WOCA countries low-cost Estimated Additional Resources. As at 1 January 1986, the Bureau of Mineral Resources estimated Australia's uranium resources as: (1) Cost range to US$80/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 465 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 256 000 t U; (2) Cost range US$80-130/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 56 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 127 000 t U. Most resources are contained in Proterozoic unconformity-related deposits in the Alligator Rivers uranium field in the Northern Territory (Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek deposits) and the Proterozoic stratabound deposit at Olympic Dam on the Stuart Shelf in South Australia

  16. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  17. Electron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaodong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Shaw, J.J.; Bahri, C.

    1990-01-01

    Electron scattering is one of the best probes available to us to probe the nucleus. It has revealed to us, with unprecedented accuracy, the charge and current distributions of nuclei. It has provided us with positive evidence for meson exchange currents. It was used to 'discover' the quark and it revealed to us that nucleons may be modified in the nuclear environment (EMC Effect). In short, electron scattering has revolutionized the study of nuclear physics. Several recent developments will insure that electron beams which will soon become availabe at CEBAF, Bates and elsewhere will make high-precision coincidence experiments possible. As the technology is becoming available, we are just beginning to exploit polarization degrees of freedom in our experiments. In this paper, we will introduce the formalism of electron scattering, review what we have learned in the past and look ahead toward the future

  18. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  20. Electron Emitters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2002-01-01

    When two carbon-nanotube coated electrodes are placed at a small distance from each other, electron emission from carbon nanotubes allows a DC or AC electrical current to flow between these two electrodes...