WorldWideScience

Sample records for biosecurity approaches plans

  1. Biosecurity Plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    This Biosecurity Plan for Palmyra Atoll was developed for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. The Biosecurity Plan is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The Biosecurity Plan focuses on ecosystem security, and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to non-native and potentially invasive species. The Plan attempts to identify pathways of invasion and strategies for preventing or reducing new introductions. Overall, the Biosecurity Plan provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to non-native species on Palmyra Atoll. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. At present, Palmyra Atoll harbors various non-native or invasive species in the terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The most notable examples of terrestrial invasive species include coconut trees (Cocos nucifera) and black rats (Rattus rattus). Although it is unclear whether they are non-native, coconut trees are currently the most dominant plant across Palmyra Atoll. They compete with native plant species for space and resources, and are potentially detrimental to seabirds dependent on native vegetation. Black rats are known to predate ground-nesting seabirds and are likely responsible for the lack of burrowing seabird reproduction on Palmyra Atoll. The most notable example of a marine invasive species is the corallimorph (Rhodactis howsei). Although Rhodactis howsei is a native species, it can take advantage of human-altered habitat and significantly change the natural habitat by aggressively outcompeting native corals. Although the

  2. Implementing Biosecurity Education: Approaches, Resources and Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minehata, Masamichi; Sture, Judi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Whitby, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to present possible approaches, resources and programmes to introduce the topic of biosecurity to life scientists and engineers at the higher education level. Firstly, we summarise key findings from a number of international surveys on biosecurity education that have been carried out in the United States, Europe, Israel and the Asia–Pacific region. Secondly, we describe the development of our openly-accessible education resource, illustrating the scope and content of these materials. Thirdly, we report on actual cases of biosecurity education that have been implemented. These include achievements in and lessons derived from the implementation of biosecurity education at the National Defense Medical College in Japan. These experiences are followed by presentation of the expert-level “Train-the-Trainer” programmes subsequently launched by the University of Bradford in the United Kingdom. These examples will help readers to understand how educators can enhance their own understanding about biosecurity issues and how they can then disseminate their knowledge through development of their own customised, relevantly-targeted and stage-tailored education programmes within their own life science communities. By providing these examples, we argue that education for life scientists, policy-makers and other stakeholders about social responsibility on dual-use issues is easily achievable and need not be expensive, time-consuming or over-burdening. We suggest that recurring classes or courses be held at appropriate times during educational programmes to accommodate the developing expertise and advancing learning stages of students. PMID:22038099

  3. Implementing biosecurity education: approaches, resources and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minehata, Masamichi; Sture, Judi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Whitby, Simon

    2013-12-01

    This paper aims to present possible approaches, resources and programmes to introduce the topic of biosecurity to life scientists and engineers at the higher education level. Firstly, we summarise key findings from a number of international surveys on biosecurity education that have been carried out in the United States, Europe, Israel and the Asia-Pacific region. Secondly, we describe the development of our openly-accessible education resource, illustrating the scope and content of these materials. Thirdly, we report on actual cases of biosecurity education that have been implemented. These include achievements in and lessons derived from the implementation of biosecurity education at the National Defense Medical College in Japan. These experiences are followed by presentation of the expert-level "Train-the-Trainer" programmes subsequently launched by the University of Bradford in the United Kingdom. These examples will help readers to understand how educators can enhance their own understanding about biosecurity issues and how they can then disseminate their knowledge through development of their own customised, relevantly-targeted and stage-tailored education programmes within their own life science communities. By providing these examples, we argue that education for life scientists, policy-makers and other stakeholders about social responsibility on dual-use issues is easily achievable and need not be expensive, time-consuming or over-burdening. We suggest that recurring classes or courses be held at appropriate times during educational programmes to accommodate the developing expertise and advancing learning stages of students.

  4. Bioattribution Needs a Coherent International Approach to Improve Global Biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Randall Steven

    2015-01-01

    The forensic investigation of hoax, suspected or actual biological weapons attacks, and bioproliferation activities is recognized by biosecurity-advanced nations as an important pillar in a national biosecurity program. Some nations have taken this seriously; most others have not or are not aware of the potential. When law enforcement and forensic science investigations are performed in a coordinated manner, decisions assigning attribution are informed and accountability is supported through legal and policy decisions and actions. Incorporating public health investigative and tailored scientific assets makes the system even more effective, dynamic, and robust. Perpetrators and enablers must be held at risk of being brought to justice, or through a policy decision resulting in direct action being taken or sanctions imposed. This paper provides a foundation and path forward to establish substantially expanded capability founded on establishing and leveraging national and regional programs and international agreement that attribution is an important component of biosecurity. Specific forward-looking initiatives will be recommended and discussed.

  5. One-health approach as counter-measure against "autoimmune" responses in biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsaers, Inge

    2015-03-01

    This Swine flu pandemic of 2009 and the potential Avian flu threat of 2011-2012 have revived a most challenging debate on protection against infectious diseases. The response to the Swine flu pandemic has been ambivalent, both on the societal (political) and the scientific level. While some scientists warned against potential massive loss of human lives and urged for immediate and large-scale vaccination, others accused them of unnecessary scaremongering, arguing that the pandemic would not be that severe. The lab-created virulent Avian flu virus - which has been created in order to 'fight' a potential Avian flu pandemic - sparked a fierce debate on the dual-use risks of such a pre-emptive strategy. This article involves an analysis of the medical-political response to these recent viral threats using Peter Sloterdijk's immunological framework as diagnostic tool. In his trilogy Spheres Sloterdijk uses immunological concepts to analyse and assess the contemporary biopolitical situation. It shows how drawing a parallel between the functioning of the biological immune system and "immune responses" on socio-political level enables to assess and reconceptualise biosecurity. It demonstrates that ideas such as "nature is the biggest terrorist" - as advanced by many virologists - sometimes result in exaggerated "immunisation responses". This strong defensive attitude sometimes brings about collateral damage. In other words, fierce biosecurity measures sometimes risk developing into "autoimmune" responses that actually destruct the body politic they are meant to protect. By drawing on recent insights in the functioning of the biological immune system it is shown how a One-Health approach that incorporates a broader and nuanced "immunological" repertoire could act as counter-measure against "autoimmune" responses in biosecurity.

  6. Communicating biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Shifting from risk-calculation orientations focusing on populations to preparedness perspectives that model uncertainty through scenario-based projections, biosecurity debates redefined notions of "health" and "security." Nevertheless, a key focus of biosecurity discussions--the domain labeled "communication"--has not been fundamentally rethought, even as it has expanded and professionalized. Bracketing preconceived ideas about the term's content, the article traces debates about biosecurity "communication" from the 1990s to the present, drawing on ethnography and textual analysis. Using a notion of biocommunicability, the cultural modeling of how discourse is produced, circulates, and is received, the article analyzes assumptions regarding subjects, subject-positions, objects, spatializing and temporalizing practices, scales, economies of affect, and regimes of ethics that are built into discourse about "communication." Ironically, the conviction that "communication" is of marginal importance as a focus of critical inquiry, seemingly shared by most medical anthropologists, enables these assumptions to fundamentally shape discussions of biosecurity and emergency management.

  7. Why biosecurity matters: students' knowledge of biosecurity and implications for future engagement with biosecurity initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Rajesh; France, Bev; Birdsall, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on biosecurity is important as New Zealand's agricultural export-driven economy is susceptible to biosecurity threats. Because New Zealand is reliant on the primary industries to drive its economy, bovine diseases such as foot and mouth could have a devastating effect on the economy. Purpose: Making sure that the general public are aware of the importance of maintaining biosecurity is crucial in order to protect New Zealand's economy, human health, the environment, and social and cultural values. New Zealand Year 9 students' knowledge of biosecurity was gauged as these students represented the next generation of individuals tasked to maintain biosecurity in New Zealand. Design: A qualitative approach using the interpretive mode of inquiry was used to investigate the knowledge about biosecurity with New Zealand Year 9 students. Questionnaires and interviews were the data collection tools. Sample: One hundred and seventy-one students completed a questionnaire that consisted of Likert-type questions and open-ended questions. Nine students were interviewed about their knowledge. Results: The findings showed that New Zealand Year 9 students lacked specific knowledge about unwanted plants, animals and microorganisms. These students saw illicit drug plants as unwanted plants and mainly saw possums as unwanted animals in New Zealand. Their knowledge about unwanted microorganisms in New Zealand was dominated by human-disease-causing microbes. A lack of knowledge of biosecurity issues in New Zealand was seen as the major factor in these students limited understanding of biosecurity. Conclusions: Based on these findings, it can be said that knowledge of an issue is critical in enabling individuals to develop an understanding about biosecurity. Explicit teaching of biosecurity-related curriculum topics could provide New Zealand Year 9 students with an opportunity to develop knowledge about biosecurity in New Zealand.

  8. Conceptual framework for biosecurity levels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson

    2004-10-01

    Biosecurity must be implemented without impeding biomedical and bioscience research. Existing security literature and regulatory requirements do not present a comprehensive approach or clear model for biosecurity, nor do they wholly recognize the operational issues within laboratory environments. To help address these issues, the concept of Biosecurity Levels should be developed. Biosecurity Levels would have increasing levels of security protections depending on the attractiveness of the pathogens to adversaries. Pathogens and toxins would be placed in a Biosecurity Level based on their security risk. Specifically, the security risk would be a function of an agent's weaponization potential and consequences of use. To demonstrate the concept, examples of security risk assessments for several human, animal, and plant pathogens will be presented. Higher security than that currently mandated by federal regulations would be applied for those very few agents that represent true weapons threats and lower levels for the remainder.

  9. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  10. Biosecurity of veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Paul S

    2002-03-01

    Hospitalization of sick animals tremendously increases their risk of acquiring infections as this congregates animals that are most likely to be shedding infectious agents with animals that often have enhanced susceptibility. In order to provide the best veterinary care possible, veterinarians have an underlying responsibility to minimize the risk of additional harm that might unintentionally befall a patient because of their interventions. This includes minimizing the risk of exposing patients to infectious agents. It is therefore incumbent upon veterinarians to actively manage the risk of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections in veterinary hospitals are not solely a patient-care concern; the spread of infectious agents can also significantly impact normal hospital operations, revenue, client confidence, public image, and can even affect the morale of hospital personnel. In some cases nosocomial agents can also be zoonotic. This paper discusses the need for biosecurity programs in veterinary practices, and describes a practical approach for developing biosecurity practices that are tailored to individual facilities.

  11. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance.

  12. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level.

  13. Species delimitation and global biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Laura M; Armstrong, Karen F; Kubatko, Laura; De Barro, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Species delimitation directly impacts on global biosecurity. It is a critical element in the decisions made by national governments in regard to the flow of trade and to the biosecurity measures imposed to protect countries from the threat of invasive species. Here we outline a novel approach to species delimitation, "tip to root", for two highly invasive insect pests, Bemisia tabaci (sweetpotato whitefly) and Lymantria dispar (Asian gypsy moth). Both species are of concern to biosecurity, but illustrate the extremes of phylogenetic resolution that present the most complex delimitation issues for biosecurity; B. tabaci having extremely high intra-specific genetic variability and L. dispar composed of relatively indistinct subspecies. This study tests a series of analytical options to determine their applicability as tools to provide more rigorous species delimitation measures and consequently more defensible species assignments and identification of unknowns for biosecurity. Data from established DNA barcode datasets (COI), which are becoming increasingly considered for adoption in biosecurity, were used here as an example. The analytical approaches included the commonly used Kimura two-parameter (K2P) inter-species distance plus four more stringent measures of taxon distinctiveness, (1) Rosenberg's reciprocal monophyly, (P(AB)),1 (2) Rodrigo's (P(randomly distinct)),2 (3) genealogical sorting index, (gsi),3 and (4) General mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC).4,5 For both insect datasets, a comparative analysis of the methods revealed that the K2P distance method does not capture the same level of species distinctiveness revealed by the other three measures; in B. tabaci there are more distinct groups than previously identified using the K2P distances and for L. dipsar far less variation is apparent within the predefined subspecies. A consensus for the results from P(AB), P(randomly distinct) and gsi offers greater statistical confidence as to where genetic limits might

  14. Enhancing knowledge and awareness of biosecurity practices for control of African swine fever among smallholder pig farmers in four districts along the Kenya-Uganda border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantima, Noelina; Davies, Jocelyn; Dione, Michel; Ocaido, Michael; Okoth, Edward; Mugisha, Anthony; Bishop, Richard

    2016-04-01

    A study was undertaken along the Kenya-Uganda border in four districts of Tororo and Busia (Uganda) and Busia and Teso (Kenya) to understand smallholder farmers' knowledge, practices and awareness of biosecurity measures. Information was collected by administering questionnaires to 645 randomly selected pig households in the study area. In addition, focus group discussions were carried out in 12 villages involving 248 people using a standardized list of questions. The outcome suggested that there was a very low level of awareness of biosecurity practices amongst smallholder farmers. We conclude that adoption of specific biosecurity practices by smallholder farmers is feasible but requires institutional support. There is a clear requirement for government authorities to sensitize farmers using approaches that allow active participation of farmers in the design, planning and implementation of biosecurity practices to enable enhanced adoption.

  15. Personal Approaches to Career Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMont, Billie; DeMont, Roger

    1983-01-01

    Identifies four approaches to career planning based on situational leadership theory: the network approach, self-help approach, engineering approach, and mentor approach. Guidelines for the selection of a planning method based on the nature of the work environment and personal preference are discussed. (JAC)

  16. APTASENSORS FOR BIOSECURITY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N; Tarasow, T; Tok, J

    2007-01-03

    Nucleic acid aptamers have found steadily increased utility and application steadily over the last decade. In particular, aptamers have been touted as a valuable complement to and in some cases replacement for antibodies due to their structural and functional robustness as well as their ease in generation and synthesis. They are thus attractive for biosecurity applications, e.g. pathogen detection, and are especially well suited since their in vitro generation process does not require infection of any host systems. Herein we provide a brief overview of the aptamers generated against biopathogens over the last few years. In addition, a few recently described detection platforms using aptamers (aptasensors) and potentially suitable for biosecurity applications will be discussed.

  17. Auditing laboratory rodent biosecurity programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William P; Horn, Mandy J; Cooper, Dale M; Klein, Hilton J

    2013-10-22

    A rodent biosecurity program that includes periodic evaluation of procedures used in an institution's vivarium can be used to ensure that best practices are in place to prevent a microbial pathogen outbreak. As a result of an ongoing comprehensive biosecurity review within their North American and European production facilities, the authors developed a novel biosecurity auditing process and worksheet that could be useful in other animal care and use operations. The authors encourage other institutions to consider initiating similar audits of their biosecurity programs to protect the health of their laboratory animals.

  18. Why Biosecurity Matters: Students' Knowledge of Biosecurity and Implications for Future Engagement with Biosecurity Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Rajesh; France, Bev; Birdsall, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on biosecurity is important as New Zealand's agricultural export-driven economy is susceptible to biosecurity threats. Because New Zealand is reliant on the primary industries to drive its economy, bovine diseases such as foot and mouth could have a devastating effect on the economy. Purpose: Making sure that the general…

  19. Education for life scientists on the dual-use implications of their research : commentary on "implementing biosecurity education: approaches, resources and programmes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorff, Kathryn

    2013-12-01

    Advances in the life sciences are occurring with extreme rapidity and accumulating a great deal of knowledge about life's vital processes. While this knowledge is essential for fighting disease in a more effective way, it can also be misused either intentionally or inadvertently to develop novel and more effective biological weapons. For nearly a decade civil-academic society as well as States Parties to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention have recognised the importance of dual-use biosecurity education for life scientists as a means to foster a culture of responsibility and prevent the potential misuse of advances in the life sciences for non-peaceful purposes. Nevertheless, the implementation of dual-use biosecurity education for life scientists has made little progress in institutions of higher learning. Professional societies and academic organizations have worked from the bottom-up in developing online dual-use biosecurity education modules that can be used for instruction. However, top-down help is needed from goverments if further progress is to be made in implementing biosecurity education for life scientists.

  20. Biosecurity on Finnish cattle, pig and sheep farms - results from a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Kyyrö, Jonna; Lyytikäinen, Tapani

    2014-11-01

    Biosecurity is important in order to prevent disease transmission between animals on farms as well as from farm to farm. Personal biosecurity routines such as hand washing and the use of protective clothing and footwear are measures that should be used at all farms. Other measures are for example related to purchasing new animals to the farm. A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken to study the frequency of use of different biosecurity measures on cattle, pig and sheep farms in Finland. Information about which biosecurity measures are in use is needed for contingency planning of emerging diseases or when combating endemic diseases. Knowledge about the level of biosecurity of a farm is also needed in order to assess if and where improvement is needed. Information regarding biosecurity levels may benefit future animal disease risk assessments. A total of 2242 farmers responded to the questionnaire resulting in a response rate of 45%. The implementation frequencies of different biosecurity measures are reported. The results revealed differences between species: large pig farms had a better biosecurity level than small cattle farms. There were also differences between production types such as dairy farming versus beef cattle farming, but these were not as remarkable. Sheep farming in Finland is sparse and the large number of hobby farmers keeps the biosecurity level low on sheep farms. This might represent a risk for the entire sheep farming industry. The Finnish farmers were satisfied with their on-farm biosecurity. Eighty percent of the farmers report that they were satisfied even though the biosecurity level was not particularly high. The implementation of biosecurity measures could be further improved. Even though the disease situation in Finland is good today, one must be prepared for possible epidemics of threatening diseases.

  1. Institutional Planning: A Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Willie D.

    This four-chapter report explores the possible contributions of a systems approach to institutional planning. After introductory comments, Chapter I reviews the management theory of Henry Fayol, which emphasizes management tasks, such as planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling, which are "universal" regardless of the level…

  2. Simplified Approach to Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Allan; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    A simplified and practically applicable approach for risk based inspection planning of fatigue sensitive structural details is presented. The basic idea behind the approach is that the fatigue sensitive details are categorized according to their stress intensity factors and their design fatigue l...... of steel structures. The validity of the proposed approach is illustrated through a study regarding inspection planning of offshore structures....... life to service life ratio, i.e. the fatigue design factor (FDF) and SN curve. When the reserve strength ratio (RSR) and the corresponding probability of total structural failure given fatigue failure of the considered detail is known it is possible to make a generic description of fatigue sensitive...... structural details and thereby develop pre-made inspection plans in tables which depend on relative cost of inspections, repairs and failures. Due to the simplicity of the format of the developed inspection plans the proposed approach has a high potential in code making for the design and maintenance...

  3. Horse owners' biosecurity practices following the first equine influenza outbreak in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Taylor, M R; Toribio, J-A L M L; Dhand, N K

    2011-12-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 759 Australian horse owners to determine their biosecurity practices and perceptions one year after the 2007 equine influenza outbreak and to investigate the factors influencing these perceptions and practices. A web link to an online questionnaire was sent to 1224 horse owners as a follow-up to a previous study to obtain information about biosecurity perceptions and practices, impacts of the 2007 EI outbreak, demographic information and information about horse industry involvement. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine factors associated with poor biosecurity practices. Biosecurity compliance (low, medium, high), as determined by horse owners' responses to a 16-item question on the frequency of various biosecurity measures, was used as the outcome variable in ordinal logistic regression analyses. Variables with a univariable p-value ≤0.2 were eligible for inclusion in multivariable models built using a manual stepwise approach. Variables with a p-value biosecurity compliance and were performing biosecurity practices 'not very often' or 'never'. Younger people, people with two or more children, those who were not involved with horses commercially and those who had no long-term business impacts resulting from the 2007 EI outbreak were more likely to have lower biosecurity compliance. People who were not fearful of a future outbreak of equine influenza in Australia and those who thought their current hygiene and access control practices were not very effective in protecting their horses also had poor biosecurity practices. In this observational study we identified factors associated with a group of horse owners with low levels of biosecurity compliance. As this cross-sectional study only assesses associations, the identified factors should be further investigated in order to be considered in the design of extension activities to increase horse owners' biosecurity compliance.

  4. Laboratory biorisk management biosafety and biosecurity

    CERN Document Server

    Salerno, Reynolds M

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades bioscience facilities worldwide have experienced multiple safety and security incidents, including many notable incidents at so-called ""sophisticated facilities"" in North America and Western Europe. This demonstrates that a system based solely on biosafety levels and security regulations may not be sufficient.Setting the stage for a substantively different approach for managing the risks of working with biological agents in laboratories, Laboratory Biorisk Management: Biosafety and Biosecurity introduces the concept of biorisk management-a new paradigm that encompas

  5. Biosecurity in 121 Danish sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Houe, H.

    2003-01-01

    Herds are under constant risk of introducing new pathogens from different sources. In this article we describe biosecurity practices in Danish sow herds. Between December 1, 1999 and February 29, 2000, 121 sow units were interviewed regarding biosecurity on the site. The questionnaire contained 62...... to be cleaned (16%) or cleaned and disinfected (48%) before the transport; large sites and SPF sites more often required stricter biosecurity measures, for example a quarantine period before the transport of weaners....

  6. Mini-review: Assessing the drivers of ship biofouling management--aligning industry and biosecurity goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian; Scianni, Christopher; Hewitt, Chad; Everett, Richard; Holm, Eric; Tamburri, Mario; Ruiz, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling exerts a frictional and cost penalty on ships and is a direct cause of invasion by marine species. These negative consequences provide a unifying purpose for the maritime industry and biosecurity managers to prevent biofouling accumulation and transfer, but important gaps exist between these sectors. This mini-review examines the approach to assessments of ship biofouling among sectors (industry, biosecurity and marine science) and the implications for existing and emerging management of biofouling. The primary distinctions between industry and biosecurity in assessment of vessels biofouling revolve around the resolution of biological information collected and the specific wetted surface areas of primary concern to each sector. The morphological characteristics of biofouling and their effects on propulsion dynamics are of primary concern to industry, with an almost exclusive focus on the vertical sides and flat bottom of hulls and an emphasis on antifouling and operational performance. In contrast, the identity, biogeography, and ecology of translocated organisms is of highest concern to invasion researchers and biosecurity managers and policymakers, especially as it relates to species with known histories of invasion elsewhere. Current management practices often provide adequate, although not complete, provision for hull surfaces, but niche areas are well known to enhance biosecurity risk. As regulations to prevent invasions emerge in this arena, there is a growing opportunity for industry, biosecurity and academic stakeholders to collaborate and harmonize efforts to assess and manage biofouling of ships that should lead to more comprehensive biofouling solutions that promote industry goals while reducing biosecurity risk and greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. The biosecurity status and its associations with production and management characteristics in farrow-to-finish pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, M; Backhans, A; Collineau, L; Loesken, S; Sjölund, M; Belloc, C; Emanuelson, U; Grosse Beilage, E; Stärk, K D C; Dewulf, J

    2016-03-01

    Disease prevention through biosecurity measures is believed to be an important factor for improvement of the overall health status in animal production. This study aimed at assessing the levels of implementation of biosecurity measures in pig production in four European Union (EU) countries and to describe possible associations between the biosecurity level and farm and production characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 232 farrow-to-finish pig herds in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden between December 2012 and December 2013. The biosecurity status in each of these herds was described and quantified by using the risk-based scoring tool Biocheck.UGentTM (www.biocheck.ugent.be). Production and management characteristics, obtained from the herd management system and by interviewing the farmer, were analysed for their association with the biosecurity level. A causal path was designed to study statistical associations. The results showed that there was substantial room for improvement in the biosecurity status on many pig farms. Significant differences (Pbiosecurity levels were observed between countries. The external biosecurity status, combining all measures taken to prevent disease introduction into the herd, was highest in Germany and lowest in France. The internal biosecurity status, combining all measures taken to prevent within herd disease transmission, was highest in Sweden and lowest, with a large variation, in Belgium. External biosecurity scores were in general higher compared to internal biosecurity scores. The number of pathogens vaccinated against was significantly associated with internal biosecurity status, suggesting an overall more preventive approach towards the risk of disease transmission. A higher external biosecurity was associated with more weaned piglets per sow per year. Furthermore also the weaning age and the mortality till weaning were highly associated with the number of weaned piglets per sow per year. The negative

  8. An Approach for Improved Planning in Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Roger G.

    Planning and management systems for colleges should be tailor-made to fit each particular college. The approach suggested here is flexible so that it can be adapted to individual circumstances in a variety of colleges. What is being suggested is an approach to planning rather than a technique. The approach results in two types of output documents:…

  9. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håstein, T.; Binde, M.; Hine, M.

    2008-01-01

    and eradication are also discussed. Important to the effectiveness of such strategies are provision of financial, personnel and other resources to implement them, including incentives such as indemnification or compensation in eradication programmes, and practical linkage to regulatory or government policy...

  10. An assessment of external biosecurity on Southern Ontario swine farms and its application to surveillance on a geographic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Kate; Poljak, Zvonimir; Friendship, Robert; Deardon, Rob; Alsop, Janet; Dewey, Cate

    2013-10-01

    Risk-based surveillance is becoming increasingly important in the veterinary and public health fields. It serves as a means of increasing surveillance sensitivity and improving cost-effectiveness in an increasingly resource-limited environment. Our approach for developing a tool for the risk-based geographical surveillance of contagious diseases of swine incorporates information about animal density and external biosecurity practices within swine herds in southern Ontario. The objectives of this study were to group the sample of herds into discrete biosecurity groups, to develop a map of southern Ontario that can be used as a tool in the risk-based geographical surveillance of contagious swine diseases, and to identify significant predictors of biosecurity group membership. A subset of external biosecurity variables was selected for 2-step cluster analysis and latent class analysis (LCA). It was determined that 4 was the best number of groups to describe the data, using both analytical approaches. The authors named these groups: i) high biosecurity herds that were open with respect to replacement animals; ii) high biosecurity herds that were closed with respect to replacement animals; iii) moderate biosecurity herds; and iv) low biosecurity herds. The risk map was developed using information about the geographic distribution of herds in the biosecurity groups, as well as the density of swine sites and of grower-finisher pigs in the study region. Finally, multinomial logistic regression identified heat production units (HPUs), number of incoming pig shipments per month, and herd type as significant predictors of biosecurity group membership. It was concluded that the ability to identify areas of high and low risk for disease may improve the success of surveillance and eradication projects.

  11. Security planning an applied approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lincke, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This book guides readers through building an IT security plan. Offering a template, it helps readers to prioritize risks, conform to regulation, plan their defense and secure proprietary/confidential information. The process is documented in the supplemental online security workbook. Security Planning is designed for the busy IT practitioner, who does not have time to become a security expert, but needs a security plan now. It also serves to educate the reader of a broader set of concepts related to the security environment through the Introductory Concepts and Advanced sections. The book serv

  12. A conductometric biosensor for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad-Tahir, Zarini; Alocilja, Evangelyn C

    2003-05-01

    The paper describes the development of a conductometric biosensor for detecting foodborne pathogens. The biosensor consists of two components: an immunosensor that is based on electrochemical sandwich immunoassay, and a reader for signal measurement. The architecture of the immunosensor utilizes a lateral flow system that allows the liquid sample to move from one pad to another. The biosensor provides a specific, sensitive, low volume, and near real-time detection mechanism. Results are presented to highlight the performance of the biosensor for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp., which are of concern to biosecurity. The lower limit of detection is approximately 7.9 x 10(1) colony forming units per milliliter within a 10-min process. The ability to change the specificity of the antibodies will enable the biosensor to be used as a detection device for other types of foodborne pathogens.

  13. Criminal Genomic Pragmatism: Prisoners' Representations of DNA Technology and Biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Within the context of the use of DNA technology in crime investigation, biosecurity is perceived by different stakeholders according to their particular rationalities and interests. Very little is known about prisoners’ perceptions and assessments of the uses of DNA technology in solving crime. Aim. To propose a conceptual model that serves to analyse and interpret prisoners’ representations of DNA technology and biosecurity. Methods. A qualitative study using an interpretative approach based on 31 semi-structured tape-recorded interviews was carried out between May and September 2009, involving male inmates in three prisons located in the north of Portugal. The content analysis focused on the following topics: the meanings attributed to DNA and assessments of the risks and benefits of the uses of DNA technology and databasing in forensic applications. Results. DNA was described as a record of identity, an exceptional material, and a powerful biometric identifier. The interviewees believed that DNA can be planted to incriminate suspects. Convicted offenders argued for the need to extend the criteria for the inclusion of DNA profiles in forensic databases and to restrict the removal of profiles. Conclusions. The conceptual model entitled criminal genomic pragmatism allows for an understanding of the views of prison inmates regarding DNA technology and biosecurity.

  14. Protecting US cattle. The role of national biosecurity programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, William D; Taylor, Jared D

    2002-03-01

    The bovine practitioner has a critical role to play in promoting biosecurity at both the farm level and the national level. Successful exclusion of exotic diseases, biocontainment of endemic diseases, and emergency preparedness rest soundly on bovine practitioners as part of the national biosecurity team. Bovine practitioners must voice their opinions on the strengths and weaknesses of existing and proposed national biosecurity programs. Healthy debate about national biosecurity programs and consideration of biosecurity issues by national veterinary organizations provide valuable feedback for the continual improvement of the programs and enhance their credibility. The health and productivity of US agriculture depend on national biosecurity.

  15. Planning approaches for rurban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Hidding, Marjan; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2009-01-01

    .g. the spatial policy discussed and recommended in the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) emphasises the compact city concept, rural-urban linkages and conservation of nature and cultural heritage. This paper compares planning practice for rurban areas in three cases: Roskilde municipality (Denmark...

  16. Test Planning Approach and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Douglas A.; Brown, Kendall K.

    2004-01-01

    As NASA began technology risk reduction activities and planning for the next generation launch vehicle under the Space Launch Initiative (SLI), now the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program, a review of past large liquid rocket engine development programs was performed. The intent of the review was to identify any significant lessons from the development testing programs that could be applied to current and future engine development programs. Because the primary prototype engine in design at the time of this study was the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS-84, the study was slightly biased towards LOX/RP-1 liquid propellant engines. However, the significant lessons identified are universal. It is anticipated that these lessons will serve as a reference for test planning in the Engine Systems Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Towards the end of F-1 and J-2 engine development testing, NASA/MSFC asked Rocketdyne to review those test programs. The result was a document titled, Study to Accelerate Development by Test of a Rocket Engine (R-8099). The "intent (of this study) is to apply this thinking and learning to more efficiently develop rocket engines to high reliability with improved cost effectivenes" Additionally, several other engine programs were reviewed - such as SSME, NSTS, STME, MC-1, and RS-83- to support or refute the R-8099. R-8099 revealed two primary lessons for test planning, which were supported by the other engine development programs. First, engine development programs can benefit from arranging the test program for engine system testing as early as feasible. The best test for determining environments is at the system level, the closest to the operational flight environment. Secondly, the component testing, which tends to be elaborate, should instead be geared towards reducing risk to enable system test. Technical risk can be reduced at the component level, but the design can only be truly verified and validated after engine system testing.

  17. Evaluation of external biosecurity practices on southern Ontario sow farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Kate; Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Cate; Deardon, Rob; Holtkamp, Derald; Friendship, Robert

    2013-04-01

    External biosecurity protocols, aimed at preventing the introduction of new pathogens to the farm environment, are becoming increasingly important in the swine industry. Although assessments at the individual farm level occur regularly, efforts to cluster swine herds into meaningful biosecurity groups and to summarize this information at the regional level are relatively infrequent. The objectives of this study were: (i) to summarize external biosecurity practices on sow farms in southern Ontario; (ii) to cluster these farms into discrete biosecurity groups and to describe their characteristics, the variables of importance in differentiating between these groups, and their geographic distribution; and (iii) to identify significant predictors of biosecurity group membership. Data were collected using the Production Animal Disease Risk Assessment Program's Survey for the Breeding Herd. A subset of variables pertaining to external biosecurity practices was selected for two-step cluster analysis, which resulted in 3 discrete biosecurity groups. These groups were named by the authors as: (i) high biosecurity herds that were open with respect to replacement animals, (ii) high biosecurity herds that were closed with respect to replacement animals, and (iii) low biosecurity herds. Variables pertaining to trucking practices and the source of replacement animals were the most important in differentiating between these groups. Multinomial logistic regression provided insight into which demographic and neighborhood variables serve as significant predictors of biosecurity group membership (pbiosecurity group that was open with respect to replacement animals, relative to the low biosecurity group, increased 1.001 times for each additional sow (p=0.001). The odds of belonging to the high biosecurity group that was open with respect to replacement animals, relative to the low biosecurity group, were 6.5 times greater for farms that produced genetic animals than for farms that

  18. The implementation of biosecurity practices and visitor protocols on non-commercial horse properties in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanowski, S M; Rogers, C W; Cogger, N; Benschop, J; Stevenson, M A

    2012-11-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate biosecurity practices on non-commercial horse properties, to describe the number of visits by horse professionals and any protocols that visitors were required to follow before interacting with resident horses. Data were collected in November 2009 during a cross-sectional study of non-commercial horse properties, in New Zealand, selected using generalised random-tessellated stratified design and a self-administered postal questionnaire. Data were described and the associations between property-level factors and biosecurity practices were analysed using logistic regression analysis. In total there were 791 respondents from non-commercial horse properties, of which 660 (83%) answer at least one question relating to biosecurity practices. Of the respondents, 95% had at least one biosecurity practice for arriving horses. Only 31% of properties isolated horses for more than four days, and few respondents checked for pyrexia or other clinical signs of infectious disease in new horses. Moving horses from a property was associated with the implementation of biosecurity practices and practices specific to the clinical signs of respiratory disease. Overall, 79% of properties had horse professional's visit, but only 33% of respondents reported biosecurity protocols for these visitors. Most properties had some knowledge about newly arriving horses, but the effectiveness of these practices for biosecurity were questionable, as few practices would stop disease spread to resident horses. Horse professionals are likely candidates for disease spread due to contact with horses, limited visitor protocols and the frequency of visits. The development of a plan to improve biosecurity for endemic and exotic disease is recommended.

  19. A pragmatic phenomenological approach in environmental planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a philosophical approach to issues of environmental planning. Although interventions in the landscape are often subject to extensive protests, a systematic critique of the presumptions involved in the design is missing. A thorough analysis of the issue requires a philosophical

  20. Participatory planning. An interactive management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E W

    1987-09-01

    Planning meetings are usually viewed as a means for accomplishing tasks, creating plans, exchanging information, or analyzing material. Although a large part of this article includes a description of work that resulted from planning meetings, the value of the meetings should not be overlooked. Working together on common problems at the hospital regenerated esprit de corps and served to remind individuals of their shared goals. The process fostered an appreciation of the constraints, objectives, and external demands of each professional group using the OR and helped explain seemingly arbitrary or irrational behavior. The meetings also forced tensions out into the open and helped defuse "hot" issues that might have been played out in the OR suite. Although most work units engage in some form of planning, there is a tendency to "get it over with" as quickly as possible until another crisis occurs. Another approach is to schedule group planning and design on a regular basis as a form of group catharsis. Given the high levels of stress that members of the OR are subjected to, this idea may make more than just good planning sense.

  1. New global ecourbarchitectonic approach to planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cekić Nikola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper accentuates questions of a different town planning, architectural, environmental, de facto, an organic approach to planning the rurban agglomerations, where remodeling of existing physical structures is inevitable. The goal is to build adequate, normal communities in urban terms, where people will be active daily, make non-conflicting decisions for a non-deformed urbanization and a more sustainable state of city-building sprit, for a general, well thought-out repair of rurban matrices. It is an effort to create a new, restored urbanity in different social-historical-economic circumstances which excludes the profiteering, immoral, primitive weakness of the planners, selfish investors and builders.

  2. A Biosecurity Survey in Kenya, November 2014 to February 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhine, Edwardina Otieno; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Osoro, Eric Mogaka; Olsen, Katja N; Rugutt, Moses; Wanjohi, Cathryn W; Mwanda, Walter; Kinyagia, Benson Mburu; Steenhard, Nina R; Hansen, John-Erik Stig

    2016-01-01

    A biosecurity survey was performed to gather information on the biosecurity level and laboratory capacity in Kenya for the purpose of providing information outlining relevant components for biosecurity legislation, biosecurity implementation, and enforcement of biosecurity measures in Kenya. This survey is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be published from an African country. A total of 86 facilities with laboratories covering relevant categories, such as training laboratories, human diagnostic laboratories, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and research laboratories, were selected to participate in the survey. Each facility was visited by a survey team and staff were asked to answer 29 groups of questions from a questionnaire. The survey showed that Kenyan laboratory facilities contain biological agents of biosecurity concern. The restrictions for these agents were found to be limited for several of the facilities, in that many laboratory facilities and storage units were open for access by either students or staff who had no need of access to the laboratory. The survey showed a great deal of confusion in the terms biosecurity and biosafety and a generally limited biosecurity awareness among laboratory personnel. The survey showed that the security of biological agents of biosecurity concern in many facilities does not meet the international requirements. The authors recommend developing a legal framework in Kenya for effective controls, including national biosecurity regulations, guidelines, and procedures, thereby reducing the risk that a Kenyan laboratory would be the source of a future biological attack.

  3. MENGAPA BIOSECURITY MENJADI PENTING PADA LABORATORIUM PENYAKIT INFEKSI ?

    OpenAIRE

    Frans X Suharyanto Halim

    2012-01-01

    Abstract . Laboratory biosecurity is the protection, control and accountability for valuable biological material ( VBM ) laboratories, in order to prevent their unauthorized access, loss, theft, misuse, diversion or intentional release. The efforts of biosecurity have capability to anticipate the potential probability of releasing biohazard agent from the laboratory, the risk assessment study in the infectious disease laboratories was an effort to know whether biosecurity measures were applie...

  4. Biosecurity and mastitis in intensive dairy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boboš Stanko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly purchased animals that enter a herd with high milk production can be infected with pathogens of the mammary gland and are a potential risk of infection to the cows on the farm. This risk cannot be avoided entirely, but it can be minimized by taking biosecurity measures that should be written as a policy developed for biosecurity oversight of veterinary service: when older cows are purchased, they should be bought with complete lactations and SCC records, and bacterial examination of milk from the udder quarters must be negative for pathogens of the udder; newly purchased cows should come from herds in which the geometric mean somatic cell count is less than 200,000. The herd must have individual cow SCC recorded at least bimonthly for the previous 6 months; the herd must not have had any history of Strep. agalactiae infection in the last 2 years, the herd should be BVDV-free or vaccinated, and the herd owner must be honest and willing to provide all this information. Our country has accepted the standards for milk quality and hygienic properties that comply with EU standards. The proposed biosafety measures presented in this paper enable the determination of the health status of the herd and the biosecurity level of mastitis in commercial farming in intensive dairy production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31034

  5. Biosecurity through Public Health System Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finley, Patrick D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arndt, William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walser, Alex Christian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We applied modeling and simulation to examine the real-world tradeoffs between developingcountry public-health improvement and the need to improve the identification, tracking, and security of agents with bio-weapons potential. Traditionally, the international community has applied facility-focused strategies for improving biosecurity and biosafety. This work examines how system-level assessments and improvements can foster biosecurity and biosafety. We modeled medical laboratory resources and capabilities to identify scenarios where biosurveillance goals are transparently aligned with public health needs, and resource are distributed in a way that maximizes their ability to serve patients while minimizing security a nd safety risks. Our modeling platform simulates key processes involved in healthcare system operation, such as sample collection, transport, and analysis at medical laboratories. The research reported here extends the prior art by provided two key compone nts for comparative performance assessment: a model of patient interaction dynamics, and the capability to perform uncertainty quantification. In addition, we have outlined a process for incorporating quantitative biosecurity and biosafety risk measures. Two test problems were used to exercise these research products examine (a) Systemic effects of technological innovation and (b) Right -sizing of laboratory networks.

  6. Broken biosecurity? Veterinarians' framing of biosecurity on dairy farms in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Orla; Ruston, Annmarie; Green, Martin; Brennan, Marnie; Wapenaar, Wendela; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2016-09-15

    There is seen to be a need for better biosecurity - the control of disease spread on and off farm - in the dairy sector. Veterinarians play a key role in communicating and implementing biosecurity measures on farm, and little research has been carried out on how veterinarians see their own and farmers' roles in improving biosecurity. In order to help address this gap, qualitative interviews were carried out with 28 veterinarians from Royal College of Veterinary Surgeon farm accredited practices in England. The results were analysed using a social ecology framework and frame analysis to explore not only what barriers vets identified, but also how vets saw the problem of inadequate biosecurity as being located. Veterinarians' frames of biosecurity were analysed at the individual, interpersonal and contextual scales, following the social ecology framework, which see the problem in different ways with different solutions. Farmers and veterinarians were both framed by veterinarians as individualised groups lacking consistency. This means that best practice is not spread and veterinarians are finding it difficult to work as a group to move towards a "predict and prevent" model of veterinary intervention. But diversity and individualism were also framed as positive and necessary among veterinarians to the extent that they can tailor advice to individual farmers. Veterinarians saw their role in educating the farmer as not only being about giving advice to farmers, but trying to convince the farmer of their perspective and values on disease problems. Vets felt they were meeting with limited success because vets and farmers may be emphasising different framings of biosecurity. Vets emphasise the individual and interpersonal frames that disease problems are a problem on farm that can and should be controlled by individual farmers working with vets. According to vets, farmers may emphasise the contextual frame that biosecurity is largely outside of their control on dairy farms

  7. Biosecurity in aquatic animal facilities: concepts and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosecurity includes measures to minimize the risk of introduction and spread of infectious organisms within or between aquatic animal populations. Biosecurity measures at the site level include bioexclusion, within-site infectious disease control and biocontainment. This talk will focus on bioexclu...

  8. ENPEP: An integrated approach to energy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, B.P.; Cirillo, R.R.; Buehring, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Many models have been developed to analyze various aspects of the energy system. The Energy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP) is a set of microcomputer-based energy planning tools that are designed to provide an integrated analysis capability. ENPEP begins with a macroeconomic analysis, develops an energy demand forecast based on this analysis, carries out an integrated supply/demand analysis for the entire energy system, evaluates the electric system component of the energy system in detail, and determines the impacts of alternative configurations. This approach is an enhancement of existing techniques in that it places emphasis on looking at the electric system as an integral part of the entire energy supply system. Also, it explicitly considers the impacts the power system has on the rest of the energy system and on the economy as a whole.

  9. ENPEP: An integrated approach to energy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, B.P.; Cirillo, R.R.; Buehring, W.A.

    1992-09-01

    Many models have been developed to analyze various aspects of the energy system. The Energy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP) is a set of microcomputer-based energy planning tools that are designed to provide an integrated analysis capability. ENPEP begins with a macroeconomic analysis, develops an energy demand forecast based on this analysis, carries out an integrated supply/demand analysis for the entire energy system, evaluates the electric system component of the energy system in detail, and determines the impacts of alternative configurations. This approach is an enhancement of existing techniques in that it places emphasis on looking at the electric system as an integral part of the entire energy supply system. Also, it explicitly considers the impacts the power system has on the rest of the energy system and on the economy as a whole.

  10. Biosecurity management recommendations for rinderpest laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Benjamin H [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arndt, William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Rinderpest is a virus that can affect cattle and other even toes ungulates; evidence of outbreaks from over 10,000 years ago highlights the potential impact of this virus. During the 18th century, Rinderpest caused huge losses in cattle throughout Europe. Starting in the mid 1900’s vaccination efforts seemed feasible and work was initiated to vaccinate large populations of cattle. Walter Plowright received numerous awards for updating the Rinderpest vaccine which many believed would be the key to eradication. Vaccination of the disease lead to a massive drop in outbreaks and the last confirmed case of Rinderpest in Asia was in 2000 and in Africa in 2001.1 At this point, Rinderpest has been declared eradicated from nature. However, stocks of the virus are still in many laboratories.2 Rinderpest was investigated as a biological weapon agent during the Second World War. However, following WWII, rinderpest was not considered a high risk as a biological weapon as there was no direct military advantage. Now, with the concern of the use of biological agents as weapons in acts of terrorism, concern regarding rinderpest has resurfaced. Since the eradication of this virus, cattle populations are highly susceptibility to the virus and the economic impacts would be significant. This paper will discuss the specific nature of the terrorism risks associated with rinderpest; and based upon those risks provide recommendations regarding biosecurity management. The biosecurity management measures will be defined in a manner to align with the CWA 15793: the laboratory biorisk management document.

  11. Epidemiological investigations in regard to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in Quebec, Canada. Part 1: biosecurity practices and their geographical distribution in two areas of different swine density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Marie-Ève; Poljak, Zvonimir; Arsenault, Julie; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2012-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a considerable threat to the swine industry and implementing biosecurity measures is essential for the control of its transmission. The aims of this study were: (1) to describe biosecurity practices in production sites located in a moderate density (MD) and a high density (HD) pig area according to production type; (2) to group sites in different patterns according to their biosecurity practices; and (3) to determine the geographical distribution of sites according to biosecurity patterns. Biosecurity practices were selected based on PRRS epidemiology. A questionnaire was completed on 125 breeding sites (MD=54; HD=71) and 120 growing (HD) sites, between 2005 and 2008. Depending on area and production type, the frequency of biosecurity practices used ranged from 0 to 2% for barrier at site entrance, 0 to 19% for use of shower, 25 to 35% for washing truck between loads of pigs, 51 to 57% for absence of rendering or rendering without access to the site, and 26 to 51% for absence of gilt purchase or purchase with quarantine. Better practices pertaining to entrance protocol (i.e. "no-entry" sign, shower, ≥24 h downtime) were reported more frequently on breeding sites in the MD than the HD area (Pbiosecurity than breeding sites. Using a two-step clustering procedure performed separately for breeding and growing sites, two different patterns were obtained for each production type, which corresponded to a high and low level of biosecurity. For breeding sites, a higher biosecurity level was observed at sites located away from other pig sites, set at more than 300 m from the public road, having higher sow inventory, or being part of an integrated production (Pbiosecurity pattern were detected. This study identified some shortcomings regarding biosecurity that should be addressed before implementing any PRRSV regional control. Vicinity of sites with different biosecurity levels also suggests difficulties in

  12. Green Infrastructure and German Landscape Planning: A Comparison of Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina VIEIRA MEJÍA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of similarities between green infrastructure and the German landscape planning can be found in comparing the approaches of the two planning instruments. Principles of green infrastructure such as multifunctionality, the multi-scale approach and connectivity show correspondences with landscape planning elements. However, some differences are apparent. The objective of this paper is to determine whether the main aims of these two frameworks overlap. It also seeks to deduce what benefits from ecosystem services could be provided by integrating the green infrastructure approach into the German landscape planning system. The results show that the green infrastructure concept is not well-known in German planning practice, although its principles are generally implemented through traditional landscape planning. Nevertheless, green infrastructure could act as a supplementary approach to current landscape planning practices by improving public acceptance and strengthening the social focus of the current landscape planning system.

  13. Forest Resource Management Plans: A Sustainability Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pile, Lauren S.; Watts, Christine M.; Straka, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Forest Resource Management Plans is the capstone course in many forestry and natural resource management curricula. The management plans are developed by senior forestry students. Early management plans courses were commonly technical exercises, often performed on contrived forest "tracts" on university-owned or other public lands, with a goal of…

  14. Biosecurity practices in Spanish pig herds: perceptions of farmers and veterinarians of the most important biosecurity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Grifé, M; Martín-Valls, G E; Vilar-Ares, M J; García-Bocanegra, I; Martín, M; Mateu, E; Casal, J

    2013-06-01

    One hundred Spanish pig farms were surveyed to determine the biosecurity measures currently applied, as reported by farmers, and to investigate the importance awarded by farmers and veterinarians to each of these measures. Data was gathered by means of a questionnaire administered to farmers and veterinarians. Biosecurity measures were reported based on two scenarios: in the presence and in the absence of a highly contagious disease. Multiple-correspondence and two-step cluster analyses were performed to investigate the effect of farm type on the biosecurity level. Farmers awarded significantly higher scores to their farms' level of biosecurity than the veterinarians servicing said farms. According to the farmers and veterinarians, the most important biosecurity measures were those aimed at minimising the risk of disease introduction by visits and vehicles. Biosecurity practices seeking to reduce the risk of disease introduction by breeding stock were not applied on a considerable number of farms. The findings also revealed that medium-sized to large farms located in high pig density regions reported higher biosecurity measures than small herds located in low pig density areas.

  15. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the "myths".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Catherine; Lentzos, Filippa; Marris, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology, a field that aims to "make biology easier to engineer," is routinely described as leading to an increase in the "dual-use" threat, i.e., the potential for the same scientific research to be "used" for peaceful purposes or "misused" for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the "de-skilling" of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of do-it-yourself (DIY) biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend toward greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify five "myths" that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these "myths" play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a "promissory" field of research and as an "emerging technology" in need of governance.

  16. An exploration of the drivers to bio-security collective action among a sample of UK cattle and sheep farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Claire; Nielsen, Louise; Thomson, Kim; Gunn, George

    2008-11-17

    At present, collective action regarding bio-security among UK cattle and sheep farmers is rare. Despite the occurrence of catastrophic livestock diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and foot and mouth disease (FMD), within recent decades, there are few national or local farmer-led animal health schemes. To explore the reasons for this apparent lack of interest, we utilised a socio-psychological approach to disaggregate the cognitive, emotive and contextual factors driving bio-security behaviour among cattle and sheep farmers in the United Kingdom (UK). In total, we interviewed 121 farmers in South-West England and Wales. The main analytical tools included a content, cluster and logistic regression analysis. The results of the content analysis illustrated apparent 'dissonance' between bio-security attitudes and behaviour.(1) Despite the heavy toll animal disease has taken on the agricultural economy, most study participants were dismissive of the many measures associated with bio-security. Justification for this lack of interest was largely framed in relation to the collective attribution or blame for the disease threats themselves. Indeed, epidemic diseases were largely related to external actors and agents. Reasons for outbreaks included inadequate border control, in tandem with ineffective policies and regulations. Conversely, endemic livestock disease was viewed as a problem for 'bad' farmers and not an issue for those individuals who managed their stock well. As such, there was little utility in forming groups to address what was largely perceived as an individual problem. Further, we found that attitudes toward bio-security did not appear to be influenced by any particular source of information per se. While strong negative attitudes were found toward specific sources of bio-security information, e.g. government leaflets, these appear to simply reflect widely held beliefs. In relation to actual bio-security behaviours, the logistic

  17. DPOCL A Principled Approach to Discourse Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Young, R M; Moore, Johanna D.

    1994-01-01

    Research in discourse processing has identified two representational requirements for discourse planning systems. First, discourse plans must adequately represent the intentional structure of the utterances they produce in order to enable a computational discourse agent to respond effectively to communicative failures \\cite{MooreParisCL}. Second, discourse plans must represent the informational structure of utterances. In addition to these representational requirements, we argue that discourse planners should be formally characterizable in terms of soundness and completeness.

  18. Biosecurity and the management of emergency animal disease among commercial beef producers in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Higgins, V; Bryant, M; Rast, L; McShane, C

    2016-11-01

    Australia places great importance on the prevention and management of emergency animal diseases (EAD), with strict quarantine measures offshore and at the border. Livestock producers are crucial for disease control onshore; however, limited information is available on commercial livestock producers' practices in relation to the management of disease risks. The aims of this paper are to investigate how commercial beef producers in Australia's Northern and Southern beef zones manage EADs and to identify drivers for effective biosecurity and EAD prevention. This paper forms part of a broader mixed methods research project involving an analysis of literature and current policies, qualitative semi-structured interviews with government and industry stakeholders and a cross-sectional study among beef producers. The cross-sectional study used a postal survey (n=182) and face-to-face interviews (n=34) to gather data on beef producers' knowledge and practices on biosecurity and EADs and their communication networks. Findings indicate that producers are uncertain about the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders involved in biosecurity and EAD management. This uncertainty may create confusion about EAD management and impact upon producers' willingness to report animal disease, with over 20% reporting the last veterinary contact more than five years ago and an additional 8.5% who had never contacted a veterinarian. Producers had a generally high awareness of the key sources of animal disease risk and they prioritise herd health planning as part of their everyday practices. Over 40% of producers had limited knowledge of the meaning of EAD; and EAD and biosecurity planning was given a low priority, primarily due to the perceived limited likelihood of an EAD event in Australia and the belief that EAD prevention is primarily the role of government. Only a moderate implementation of biosecurity practices, such as isolating incoming animals, having a single property entry point

  19. A Comprehensive Approach to Emergency Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Tracy L.; Beckering, Don

    2007-01-01

    It is essential that the traditional emergency management structure be used as a framework for higher education emergency planning. The four phases of emergency management should be reflected in the architecture of all planning efforts. These include "preparedness," "response," "mitigation," and "recovery." All of the phases overlap, are…

  20. A community-based education trial to improve backyard poultry biosecurity in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, Anne; Ponsich, Aurélia; Luce Goutard, Flavie; Khiev, Ratana; Tarantola, Arnaud; Sorn, San; Vong, Sirenda

    2013-03-01

    The emergence and spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 has caused substantial poultry-related economic losses and public health concerns in relation to a potential pandemic. While biosecurity measures for commercial poultry industry are of the highest standards, these measures are difficult to implement and often unaffordable for backyard poultry farming, particularly in tropical and low-income settings. We designed a feasible biosecurity intervention to improve flock hygiene in Cambodia, - based on community hygiene, cleaning of poultry flock areas and human and poultry movement control. We conducted a cluster randomized and controlled intervention trial in 18 villages in Takeo province to evaluate improvements in biosecurity-related knowledge and practices. The intervention relied on community involvement and community education using special information dissemination tools. We trained village teams (VT) to assist villagers in implementing the intervention using a cascade training approach, in which a few individuals were trained, who in turn trained a larger group of people. During the 14 month follow up, we conducted observational and interview-based surveys (baseline vs. final surveys, VT supervision visits, monitoring surveys) to assess VTs' motivation, intervention messages dissemination and the implementation of recommended measures. Most of villagers (95%, confidence interval: 87.8-100.0%) in intervention villages received general information about how to raise poultry. Farmers in intervention villages reported to have made more changes (≥1 biosecurity related practice during the study period) compared with that of control villages (70.0% (260/372) vs. 22.6% (85/377), p valuebiosecurity-related practices in intervention villages, overall scores increased significantly (pbiosecurity practices in the community. However, further follow-ups are needed to assess whether practices-related changes persist over a longer period of time.

  1. Zero-tolerance biosecurity protects high-conservation-value island nature reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John K; McKirdy, Simon J; van der Merwe, Johann; Green, Roy; Burbidge, Andrew A; Pickles, Greg; Hardie, Darryl C; Morris, Keith; Kendrick, Peter G; Thomas, Melissa L; Horton, Kristin L; O'Connor, Simon M; Downs, Justin; Stoklosa, Richard; Lagdon, Russell; Marks, Barbara; Nairn, Malcolm; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2017-04-10

    Barrow Island, north-west coast of Australia, is one of the world's significant conservation areas, harboring marsupials that have become extinct or threatened on mainland Australia as well as a rich diversity of plants and animals, some endemic. Access to construct a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant, Australia's largest infrastructure development, on the island was conditional on no non-indigenous species (NIS) becoming established. We developed a comprehensive biosecurity system to protect the island's biodiversity. From 2009 to 2015 more than 0.5 million passengers and 12.2 million tonnes of freight were transported to the island under the biosecurity system, requiring 1.5 million hrs of inspections. No establishments of NIS were detected. We made four observations that will assist development of biosecurity systems. Firstly, the frequency of detections of organisms corresponded best to a mixture log-normal distribution including the high number of zero inspections and extreme values involving rare incursions. Secondly, comprehensive knowledge of the island's biota allowed estimation of false positive detections (62% native species). Thirdly, detections at the border did not predict incursions on the island. Fourthly, the workforce detected more than half post-border incursions (59%). Similar approaches can and should be implemented for all areas of significant conservation value.

  2. Natural or deliberate outbreak in Pakistan: how to prevent or detect and trace its origin: biosecurity, surveillance, forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Khalil, Ali Talha; Nasim, Anwar

    2014-08-01

    Over the last few decades biosecurity and biosafety have emerged as a prominent public health concern due to some high-profile accidents. Effective strategies to deal with the outbreak, whether deliberate or non-deliberate requires a multidisciplinary approach and coordinated decision-making by various state departments such as health, forensics, agriculture, environment, intelligence, law and enforcement, etc. In a dynamic global environment and the overwhelming asymmetric threats from the non-state actors, it is of utmost importance to understand the biosecurity issues and initiate a coordinated global effort to cope with biosecurity and biosafety breaches and develop an as effective response mechanism. An attractive choice for the terrorists, state enemies and non-state actors is the use of biological weapons. An unwanted incident may not only bring chaos to the people, but also can inflict severe economic damage industrially and locally as was in the notorious foot-and-mouth disease outbreak. Because of special geopolitical compulsion, Pakistan is one of the hot spots where special action needs to be taken. The current review focuses on the various approaches, technologies that can be used to alleviate the chances of biosafety and biosecurity incident and emphasizes the role of modern technology that can be used in this regard.

  3. 生物安全是国家战略必需的生命工程%Biosecurity is a living-project essential to national strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑涛; 田德桥; 祖正虎; 朱联辉; 黄培堂; 沈倍奋

    2014-01-01

    该文通过对生物安全主要领域形势的分析,总结了生物安全有别于传统安全的3个典型特征,提出生物安全是国家的生命工程,有足够能力保障生物安全是成熟大国、世界强国的必要条件的观点。通过分析了美国发展生物安全的国家战略特征和基本做法,指出美国已经从国家层面建立了一套能力发展目标明确、政府机构职责清晰、法规战略相互衔接的生物安全发展规划与路线图。我国生物安全建设步入到了十字路口,危机与机遇并存,亟需确立生物安全的国家战略地位。%Based on situation assessment of the core areas of biosecurity , this paper summarizes three typical features of biosecurity that make it different from traditional safety , abd proposes that biosecurity be regarded as a living-project of a country .A mature and powerful country has to possess sufficient capacity to ensure biosecurity .This study also analyzes the national biosecurity strategyies and practices of the United States ,which has established a national-level capacity building strategy and roadmap with clear objectives ,specified the responsibilities of each federal agency , and regulations linked up with strategic planning .Biosecurity in China is at the crossroads where crisis coexists with opportunity , making it urgent to establish the national biosecurity strategy .

  4. Business planning for digital libraries international approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Mel

    2010-01-01

    This book brings together international experience of business planning for digital libraries: the business case, the planning processes involved, the costs and benefi ts, practice and standards, and comparison with the traditional library where appropriate. Although there is a vast literature already on other aspects of digital libraries, business planning is a subject that until now has not been systematically integrated in a book.Digital libraries are being created not only by traditional libraries, but by museums, archives, media organizations, and indeed any organization concerned with ma

  5. The NASA planning process, appendix D. [as useful planning approach for solving urban problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, H. A.

    1973-01-01

    The planning process is outlined which NASA used in making some fundamental post-Apollo decisions concerning the reuseable space shuttle and the orbiting laboratory. It is suggested that the basic elements and principles of the process, when combined, form a useful planning approach for solving urban problems. These elements and principles are defined along with the basic strengths of the planning model.

  6. Invertebrate Biosecurity Challenges in High-Productivity Grassland: The New Zealand Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, Stephen L.; Barratt, Barbara I. P.; Armstrong, Karen F.

    2016-01-01

    To protect productive grasslands from pests and diseases, effective pre- and at-border planning and interventions are necessary. Biosecurity failure inevitably requires expensive and difficult eradication, or long-term and often quite ineffective management strategies. This is compared to the early intervention more likely for sectors where there is public and political interest in plants of immediate economic and/or social value, and where associated pests are typically located above-ground on host plantings of relatively limited distribution. Here, biosecurity surveillance and responses can be readily designed. In contrast, pastures comprising plants of low inherent unit value create little, if any, esthetic interest. Yet, given the vast extent of pasture in New Zealand and the value of the associated industries, these plants are of immense economic importance. Compounding this is the invasibility of New Zealand’s pastoral ecosystems through a lack of biotic resistance to incursion and invasion. Further, given the sheer area of pasture, intervention options are limited because of costs per unit area and the potential for pollution if pesticides are used. Biosecurity risk for pastoral products differs from, say, that of fruit where at least part of an invasive pathway can be recognized and risks assessed. The ability to do this via pastoral sector pathways is much reduced, since risk organisms more frequently arrive via hitchhiker pathways which are diffuse and varied. Added to this pasture pests within grassland ecosystems are typically cryptic, often with subterranean larval stages. Such characteristics make detection and response particularly difficult. The consequences of this threaten to add to the already-increasing stressors of production intensification and climate change. This review explores the unique challenges faced by pasture biosecurity and what may be done to confront existing difficulties. While there is no silver bullet, and limited opportunity

  7. Invertebrate Biosecurity Challenges in High-Productivity Grassland: The New Zealand Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, Stephen L; Barratt, Barbara I P; Armstrong, Karen F

    2016-01-01

    To protect productive grasslands from pests and diseases, effective pre- and at-border planning and interventions are necessary. Biosecurity failure inevitably requires expensive and difficult eradication, or long-term and often quite ineffective management strategies. This is compared to the early intervention more likely for sectors where there is public and political interest in plants of immediate economic and/or social value, and where associated pests are typically located above-ground on host plantings of relatively limited distribution. Here, biosecurity surveillance and responses can be readily designed. In contrast, pastures comprising plants of low inherent unit value create little, if any, esthetic interest. Yet, given the vast extent of pasture in New Zealand and the value of the associated industries, these plants are of immense economic importance. Compounding this is the invasibility of New Zealand's pastoral ecosystems through a lack of biotic resistance to incursion and invasion. Further, given the sheer area of pasture, intervention options are limited because of costs per unit area and the potential for pollution if pesticides are used. Biosecurity risk for pastoral products differs from, say, that of fruit where at least part of an invasive pathway can be recognized and risks assessed. The ability to do this via pastoral sector pathways is much reduced, since risk organisms more frequently arrive via hitchhiker pathways which are diffuse and varied. Added to this pasture pests within grassland ecosystems are typically cryptic, often with subterranean larval stages. Such characteristics make detection and response particularly difficult. The consequences of this threaten to add to the already-increasing stressors of production intensification and climate change. This review explores the unique challenges faced by pasture biosecurity and what may be done to confront existing difficulties. While there is no silver bullet, and limited opportunity

  8. A Biosecurity Checklist for School Foodservice Programs: Developing a Biosecurity Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to introduce the need for securing foodservice operations from bioterrorism, provide a checklist of suggestions for improving the security of foodservice operations, and assist individuals responsible for school food service programs in strengthening the safety of the foodservice operation. While not mandatory, the…

  9. A Boolean Approach to Interactive Program Planning

    OpenAIRE

    George Abonyi; Nigel Howard

    1980-01-01

    Program planning refers to the process of selecting an integrated set of projects for implementation. Ultimately, decisions tend to be "political" in the sense that they involve compromises and tradeoffs among different interests, though the arguments may be couched in technical terms. Program planning may be structured as a multi-stage process. One stage involves the assessment of various alternatives for the project components of the program. A second stage then involves the selection of th...

  10. METHODICAL APPROACH TO CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY PLANNING

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Modrak; Ioan Constantin Dima; Mariana Man

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present some methodical aspects of CSF. Corporate Sustainability Planning (CSP) can be defined as “the process of specific strategies and action plan development to help ensure the long-term goals”. In generally, this presents a complex process and task which includes considering the full range of resources and competencies such as financial, political, administrative and managerial.

  11. Swedish Farmers' Opinions about Biosecurity and Their Intention to Make Professionals Use Clean Protective Clothing When Entering the Stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöremark, Maria; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna; Ernholm, Linda; Frössling, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    The study was part of a series of studies aiming to increase knowledge about spread and prevention of livestock diseases in Sweden. A specific biosecurity behavior, i.e., making professionals (e.g., veterinarian, repairman, livestock transporter) wear clean protective clothing when entering the stables was investigated through focus groups and a questionnaire survey. This behavior was seen as a proxy for other biosecurity behaviors. As part of questionnaire development, three focus group discussions with a total of 11 participating livestock farmers were held. The questionnaire was based on the model of Theory of Planned Behavior. Response was received from 2,081 farmers. In the focus groups, farmers expressed a willingness to provide visitors with clean protective clothing. However, some had experienced difficulties in making veterinarians use protective clothing, and mentioned a reluctance to correct their veterinarians. The participants mostly focused on diseases regulated by control programs, especially Salmonella. In parts, participants were well informed but some showed a lack of knowledge concerning routes of disease spread. They also mentioned external factors that made them deviate from biosecurity recommendations. Farmers called for biosecurity advice with focus on cost-benefit return. Among survey respondents, the intention to make visitors wear protective clothing was moderate. Analysis of underlying elements showed that a majority of farmers (88%) had a neutral attitude, i.e., they were neither in favor nor against this behavior. Measures of subjective norm indicated a varying degree of social pressure among respondents. However, the majority (63%) indicated a strong behavioral control, thus suggesting that they could make visitors use protective clothing if they wanted to. Although most farmers (84%) indicated a strong willingness to comply with the opinion of their veterinarians in biosecurity matters, 30% replied that their farm veterinarian is

  12. Biosecurity interceptions of an invasive lizard: origin of stowaways and human-assisted spread within New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, David G; Whitaker, Anthony H; Chapple, Stephanie N J; Miller, Kimberly A; Thompson, Michael B

    2013-02-01

    Globalization, and the resultant movement of animals beyond their native range, creates challenges for biosecurity agencies. Limited records of unintentional introductions inhibit our understanding of the trade pathways, transport vectors and mechanisms through which hitchhiker organisms are spread as stowaways. Here, we adopt a phylogeographic approach to determine the source and human-mediated dispersal pathways of New Zealand's only invasive lizard, the delicate skink (Lampropholis delicata), intercepted by biosecurity agencies in New Zealand. Biosecurity agencies correctly predicted the source region of 77% of stowaways, which were usually solitary adults, arriving via air or sea pathways during the cooler months, evading initial border checks and alive when detected. New arrivals from Australia comprised 16% of detections originating from the region between Brisbane and Sydney. Our analyses indicate human-mediated dispersal has driven the post-border spread of L. delicata within New Zealand. Propagule pressure was substantially greater for L. delicata compared with the noninvasive, congeneric Lampropholis guichenoti. Our results highlight the transport pathways, spread mechanisms, and stowaway characteristics of Lampropholis lizards entering New Zealand, which could enhance current biosecurity protocols and prevent the establishment of additional lizard species.

  13. Implementing biosecurity measures on dairy farms in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, R G; Sayers, G P; Mee, J F; Good, M; Bermingham, M L; Grant, J; Dillon, P G

    2013-08-01

    Dairy farms in Ireland are expanding in preparation for a new era of unrestricted milk production with the elimination of the European Union (EU) production quotas in 2015. Countries experiencing a changing agricultural demographic, including farm expansion, can benefit from documenting the implementation of on-farm biosecurity. The objectives of this study were to document and describe influences on biosecurity practices and related opinions on dairy farms. A representative response rate of 64% was achieved to a nationwide telesurvey of farmers. A 20% discrepancy was found between self-declared and truly 'closed' herds indicating a lack of understanding of the closed herd concept. Although >72% of farmers surveyed considered biosecurity to be important, 53% stated that a lack of information might prevent them from improving their biosecurity. Logistic regression highlighted regional, age, and farm-size related differences in biosecurity practices and opinions towards its implementation. Farmers in the most dairy cattle dense region were three times more likely to quarantine purchased stock than were their equivalents in regions where dairy production was less intense (P=0.012). Younger farmers in general were over twice as likely as middle-aged farmers to implement biosecurity guidelines (P=0.026). The owners of large enterprises were almost five times more likely to join a voluntary animal health scheme (P=0.003), and were over three times more likely to pay a premium price for health accredited animals (P=0.02) than were those farming small holdings. The baseline data recorded in this survey will form the basis for more detailed sociological and demographic research which will facilitate the targeting of future training of the farming community in biosecurity.

  14. MENGAPA BIOSECURITY MENJADI PENTING PADA LABORATORIUM PENYAKIT INFEKSI ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans X Suharyanto Halim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract . Laboratory biosecurity is the protection, control and accountability for valuable biological material ( VBM laboratories, in order to prevent their unauthorized access, loss, theft, misuse, diversion or intentional release. The efforts of biosecurity have capability to anticipate the potential probability of releasing biohazard agent from the laboratory, the risk assessment study in the infectious disease laboratories was an effort to know whether biosecurity measures were applied in the laboratory. The usage of modified checklist questionnaire of biosecurity for collecting data and observation was done to identify potential hazard in the infectious disease laboratories according to the conceptional framework of agent, host and environmental principal. The places of this assessment are in the five regional referral infectious disease laboratories , i.e., Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara (UISU Medan, Universitas Indonesia (UI - Jakarta, Balai Pengembangan Laboratorium Kesehatan (BPLK - Bandung, Universitas Diponegoro (UNDIP - Semarang , Universitas Hasanudin (UNHAS - Makassar, one referral hospital , i.e., Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah (RSUD - Tangerang and one national referral laboratory of Center for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research and Development, National Institute of Health Research and Development ( NIHRD, Ministry of Health (MOH, Jakarta. The risk assessment study was done in year 2008-2009. Physical security, personnel management and information security as components of biosecurity were not applied properly in the 7 infectious disease laboratories. Applying biosecurity in the infectious disease laboratories was very important and need to be done completely to anticipate their unauthorized access, loss, theft, misuse, diversion or intentional release.Keywords : biosecurity,   bioterrorism , infectious disease laboratory, and valuable biological materials (VBM

  15. Biosecurity in public and private office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Artênio José Isper; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Arcieri, Renato Moreira; Crossato, Michel; Ferreira, Nelly Foster

    2005-06-01

    Biosecurity is currently a concern for all health-related services, including dentistry, since infection control has a relevant importance. In dental practice, health-related occupations have contact with a great number of individuals who are potentially capable to transmit pathogens. This study comprised a descriptive evaluation of the universal precaution measures for infection control adopted by dental practitioners working at public and private offices in the city of Araçatuba, SP. Data collection was performed by a quiz with questions about individual and collective protection equipments. The results showed that the use of caps was reported by 55% of the professionals working at the public sector and 90% for the private sector. The use of masks and gloves was reported by all professionals surveyed; nevertheless, glove change between patients was not reported by 40% of professionals working at the public sector. There were more flaws in public offices as to the use of protective barriers, since except for the use of gloves, gowns and masks, the frequency of use of those barriers was smaller than at private offices.

  16. Implementation planning for industrial energy conservation: approach and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alston, T.G.; Falk, G.; Grogan, P.J.; Katz, D.; Tatar, J.

    1981-01-01

    Details of an industry-specific Conservation Technology Implementation Branch implementation plan is described in detail. CTIB has conducted implementation planning in the steel, pulp/paper, and agriculture/food processing industries, but in FY 1981, CTIB plans to conduct planning for the chemicals, petroleum refining, aluminum, glass, cement, and textile industries. Guidelines are presented for each contractor for each industry toward a common methodology in terms of approach, areas of analysis, assumptions, and reporting. The major parts of the CTIB plan are: an implementation study consisting of technology selection, market demand analysis, and policy analysis, and a plan consisting of a detailed description and schedule of future CTIB actions, followed by a recommended system for monitoring market results when the plan is implemented. (MCW)

  17. Optimization approaches to volumetric modulated arc therapy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, Jan, E-mail: junkelbach@mgh.harvard.edu; Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Alber, Markus [Department of Medical Physics and Department of Radiation Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C DK-8000 (Denmark); Bangert, Mark [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg D-69120 (Germany); Bokrantz, Rasmus [RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm SE-111 34 (Sweden); Chen, Danny [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Men, Chunhua [Department of Research, Elekta, Maryland Heights, Missouri 63043 (United States); Nill, Simeon [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Papp, Dávid [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Romeijn, Edwin [H. Milton Stewart School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Salari, Ehsan [Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas 67260 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has found widespread clinical application in recent years. A large number of treatment planning studies have evaluated the potential for VMAT for different disease sites based on the currently available commercial implementations of VMAT planning. In contrast, literature on the underlying mathematical optimization methods used in treatment planning is scarce. VMAT planning represents a challenging large scale optimization problem. In contrast to fluence map optimization in intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning for static beams, VMAT planning represents a nonconvex optimization problem. In this paper, the authors review the state-of-the-art in VMAT planning from an algorithmic perspective. Different approaches to VMAT optimization, including arc sequencing methods, extensions of direct aperture optimization, and direct optimization of leaf trajectories are reviewed. Their advantages and limitations are outlined and recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  18. The approach to regional planning in Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Thorrington-Smith

    1965-03-01

    Full Text Available Limitations on the development of regional planning in the Republic are no longer due to lack of public interest or the availability of funds, but rather to a tragic shortage of men and women trained to undertake the work. While being conscious and most appreciative of the great honour and kindness extended to me by the University of Potchefstroom in inviting me to address so distinguished a company today, may I also say what a great pleasure it is to be present at the inauguration of an Institute for Regional Planning which will have as one of its main objects, the training of regional planners to help meet South Africa’s needs.

  19. Ameliorated GA approach for base station planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andong; Sun, Hongyue; Wu, Xiaomin

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at locating base station (BS) rationally to satisfy the most customs by using the least BSs. An ameliorated GA is proposed to search for the optimum solution. In the algorithm, we mesh the area to be planned according to least overlap length derived from coverage radius, bring into isometric grid encoding method to represent BS distribution as well as its number and develop select, crossover and mutation operators to serve our unique necessity. We also construct our comprehensive object function after synthesizing coverage ratio, overlap ratio, population and geographical conditions. Finally, after importing an electronic map of the area to be planned, a recommended strategy draft would be exported correspondingly. We eventually import HongKong, China to simulate and yield a satisfactory solution.

  20. Investigation of smallholder farmer biosecurity and implications for sustainable foot-and-mouth disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J R; Suon, S; Olmo, L; Bun, C; Hok, C; Ashley, K; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2017-01-24

    implement a systems approach to enhance farmer KAP in biosecurity, nutrition, reproduction and marketing of cattle.

  1. Measuring the costs of biosecurity on poultry farms: a case study in broiler production in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Siekkinen Kirsi-Maarit; Heikkilä Jaakko; Tammiranta Niina; Rosengren Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Farm-level biosecurity provides the foundation for biosecurity along the entire production chain. Many risk management practices are constantly in place, regardless of whether there is a disease outbreak or not. Nonetheless, the farm-level costs of preventive biosecurity have rarely been assessed. We examined the costs incurred by preventive biosecurity for Finnish poultry farms. Methods We used a semi-structured phone interview and obtained results from 17 broiler produce...

  2. Biosecurity Management of Submarine Niche Areas: the Effect of Water Pressure on Biofouling Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Biosecurity Management of Submarine Niche Areas: the Effect of Water Pressure on Biofouling Survival Clare...operational impacts and biosecurity risks. Approved for public release RELEASE LIMITATION UNCLASSIFIED...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Biosecurity Management of Submarine Niche Areas: the Effect of Water Pressure on Biofouling Survival Executive Summary

  3. Bio-Security Proficiencies Project for Beginning Producers in 4-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Borba, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Improving bio-security practices among 4-H members who raise and show project animals is important. Bio-security measures can reduce the risk of disease spread and mitigate potential health and economic risks of disease outbreaks involving animal and zoonotic pathogens. Survey data provided statistical evidence that the Bio-Security Proficiencies…

  4. [Bioterrorism, parasites as potential bioterrorism agents and biosecurity studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Umit

    2006-01-01

    A variety of agents have a potential risk for being use as weapons of biological terrorism. However, the use of parasites as bioterrorism agents has not received so much attention. Parasites could contribute to the installation of fear in human population upon intentional addition to their food and water supplies. On the other hand, vector-borne parasites can also constitute risk of bioterrorism. Biosecurity issues are gaining importance as a consequence of globalization. Surveillance is critical in maintaining biosecurity and early detection of infectious disease agents is essential. In this review article, bioterrorism, the role of parasites as potential bioterrorism agents, studies on biosecurity and laboratory design for biosafety have been discussed under the light of recent literature.

  5. Health Workforce Planning: An overview and suggested approach in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawai, Abdulaziz; Al-Shishtawy, Moeness M

    2015-02-01

    In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested.

  6. Health Workforce Planning: An overview and suggested approach in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Al-Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested.

  7. Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning A Modeling-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Naser, Arab

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning: A Modeling-Based Approach provides a new paradigm for evacuation planning strategies and techniques. Recently, evacuation planning and modeling have increasingly attracted interest among researchers as well as government officials. This interest stems from the recent catastrophic hurricanes and weather-related events that occurred in the southeastern United States (Hurricane Katrina and Rita). The evacuation methods that were in place before and during the hurricanes did not work well and resulted in thousands of deaths. This book offers insights into the methods and techniques that allow for implementing mathematical-based, simulation-based, and integrated optimization and simulation-based engineering approaches for evacuation planning. This book also: Comprehensively discusses the application of mathematical models for evacuation and intelligent transportation modeling Covers advanced methodologies in evacuation modeling and planning Discusses principles a...

  8. Corridor X in Serbia: Approach to spatial planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijić Saša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For the infrastructural corridor's area, of the national importance, is predicted making spatial plans of area of special use, as the most complex instruments for the developing and arranging management of these areas. These plans should have an integrative and problem-oriented approach towards development planning and arrangement of such an area, and it is obliged to include: a complex evaluation of state and function of infrastructural system in the corridor; an analysis of infrastructural corridor influence on the development of the planning area and its surrounding; an alternative conception of long-term protection, improvement, organization and use of the planning area; a choice of the priorities and assumption of the realization phases; instructions for the implementation of the plan etc. The approach in making of this category of plans, as well as, experiences in planning, arrangement and use of multimodal corridors, have been considered on the example of Spatial plan of the infrastructural corridor E-75 section Belgrade-Nis area.

  9. Planning-Based Approaches for Supporting Sustainable Landscape Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Albert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Planning often yields only limited influence on policy making. This paper explores how planning could address this challenge and support most effectively transitions towards sustainable landscape change. In merging insights from sustainability science research and nine recently concluded case studies of landscape planning, the paper reflects upon the applicability of the concept of “transition support”, discusses planning approaches and their perceived effectiveness to induce change in landscape governance, and identifies lessons learned. The paper’s outcomes include insights and potentially useful approaches that can be attributed to four emerging cross-cutting themes: approaches for (i dealing with the high degree of complexity and uncertainty of landscape systems, (ii integrating the various perspectives of experts, decision makers, and stakeholders in the assessment process (transdisciplinarity, (iii enhancing policy influence, and (iv initiating and sustaining learning and adaptive governance.

  10. Avian influenza biosecurity: a key for animal and human protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Charisis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern biosecurity methods have provided the best way of preventing the spread of a communicable disease since people realised that human and animal contact can transmit exotic diseases. The avian influenza virus is readily transmitted through animal vectors and inanimate matter and incurs heavy losses to the poultry industry. Biosecurity measures include the prevention of vaccination of flocks in an endemic area and the isolation of farms from the surrounding world (villages, other farms, fields, etc.. Veterinary services work in liaison with owners to implement national quarantine and vaccination measures for the benefit of farmers and the industry and for protection of public health.

  11. A planning approach for agricultural watersheds using precision conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This brief article, written for a non-technical audience, discusses a recently-developed approach for watershed planning and nutrient reduction. The approach can help local stakeholders identify conservation practices that are locally preferred and determine how those practices can be distributed ac...

  12. Improving resource capacity planning in hospitals with business approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lent, van Wineke Agnes Marieke

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation contributed to the knowledge on the translation of approaches from businesses and services to improve the resource capacity planning on tactical and operational level in (oncologic) hospital care. The following studies were presented: * Chapter 2 surveyed the business approache

  13. The Team Approach to Planning a College Science Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, David B.

    In considering the team approach to architectural service, emphasis is given to the advantages of many specialists working together to solve complex building problems. An actual use of the team approach is described to illustrate how Caudill, Rowlett and Scott Architects solved the problems in planning a science building for Colorado College. The…

  14. Planning a Whole-School Approach to STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Becca

    2014-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to STEM has huge benefits in terms of engaging young people and increasing their awareness of the opportunities that STEM skills can provide. However, planning a whole-school approach to STEM education can be challenging. This article gives case studies of two recent projects in STEM education and introduces two…

  15. Exploring expert opinion on the practicality and effectiveness of biosecurity measures on dairy farms in the United Kingdom using choice modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Orla; Green, Martin; Brennan, Marnie; Wapenaar, Wendela; Kaler, Jasmeet

    2017-03-01

    Biosecurity, defined as a series of measures aiming to stop disease-causing agents entering or leaving an area where farm animals are present, is very important for the continuing economic viability of the United Kingdom dairy sector, and for animal welfare. This study gathered expert opinion from farmers, veterinarians, consultants, academics, and government and industry representatives on the practicality and effectiveness of different biosecurity measures on dairy farms. The study used best-worst scaling, a technique that allows for greater discrimination between choices and avoids the variability in interpretation associated with other methods, such as Likert scales and ranking methods. Keeping a closed herd was rated as the most effective measure overall, and maintaining regular contact with the veterinarian was the most practical measure. Measures relating to knowledge, planning, and veterinary involvement; buying-in practices; and quarantine and treatment scored highly for effectiveness overall. Measures relating to visitors, equipment, pest control, and hygiene scored much lower for effectiveness. Overall, measures relating to direct animal-to-animal contact scored much higher for effectiveness than measures relating to indirect disease transmission. Some of the most effective measures were also rated as the least practical, such as keeping a closed herd and avoiding nose-to-nose contact between contiguous animals, suggesting that real barriers exist for farmers when implementing biosecurity measures on dairy farms. We observed heterogeneity in expert opinion on biosecurity measures; for example, veterinarians rated the effectiveness of consulting the veterinarian on biosecurity significantly more highly than dairy farmers, suggesting a greater need for veterinarians to promote their services on-farm. Still, both groups rated it as a practical measure, suggesting that the farmer-veterinarian relationship holds some advantages for the promotion of

  16. Tourism Planning: A Case Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the tourism marketing and attraction strategies adopted by various countries. A case study based approach is adopted in this study. On the basis of investigation of tourism development strategies adopted by various countries, suggestions are also made at the end. These suggestions are aimed to increase visitors our tourists’ base in a country. These suggestions can be used by any country to increase visitors or tourists. Future directions are also given at the end.

  17. Unified approach to mid-term resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highley, D.D.; Fulks, G.L. (Associated Electric Cooperative, Inc., Clifton Hill, MO (United States)); Le, K.D.; Yin, C.K.; Malone, M.J.; Mousseau, T.E. (Advanced Systems Technology Div., ABB Power Systems Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (US))

    1991-01-01

    In 1986, a wholesale power supplier in Springfield, Missouri, predicted that, barring emergencies that cannot be currently predicted, their electricity rates will be stable for the next 10 years. This prediction was the result of a 4-month study that was performed that year, using a planning package. Since 1985, the cooperative has been able to operate without a rate increase. Management credited part of this success to a sound planning approach, which calls for a tight interaction between planners, operators, and financial personnel, and makes extensive use of modern computerized tools to simulate future planning scenarios. The purpose of this article is to: Review the generation planning process, Describe the computer tools that were developed to meet the needs, and present several case studies to illustrate how the tools are currently used to guide important planning decisions.

  18. A minimally invasive approach for a compromised treatment plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibaum, Wayne W

    2016-01-01

    A primary goal in dentistry is the execution of appropriate treatment plans that are minimally invasive and maintainable. However, it is sometimes necessary to repair existing dental restorations or revise treatment plans to accommodate changes in a patient's condition. In the present case, a patient who was satisfied with a removable partial overdenture lost a critical abutment tooth. A creative, minimally invasive approach enabled the patient to keep his existing partial prosthesis and avoid the need for a full reconstruction or complete denture.

  19. Laboratory Biosafety and Biosecurity Risk Assessment Technical Guidance Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M; Caskey, Susan Adele

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this document is threefold: 1) to describe the laboratory bio safety and biosecurity risk assessment process and its conceptual framework; 2) provide detailed guidance and suggested methodologies on how to conduct a risk assessment; and 3) present some practical risk assessment process strategies using realistic laboratory scenarios.

  20. Building Collaborative Capacity for Biosecurity at the Georgia Seaports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    tularensis) • Viral hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa , Machupo]) CATEGORY B (DEFINITION BELOW...roles and responsibilities, strengthen relationships and develop a unified response to a biosecurity threat originating or occurring at the seaport...federal agencies with overlapping jurisdictions and responsibilities to protect the public from the threat of infectious diseases that originate

  1. Integrated Transport Planning Framework Involving Combined Utility Regret Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yang; Monzon, Andres; Di Ciommo, Floridea;

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable transport planning requires an integrated approach involving strategic planning, impact analysis, and multicriteria evaluation. This study aimed at relaxing the utility-based decision-making assumption by newly embedding anticipated-regret and combined utility regret decision mechanisms...... in a framework for integrated transport planning. The framework consisted of a two-round Delphi survey, integrated land use and transport model for Madrid, and multicriteria analysis. Results show that (a) the regret-based ranking has a similar mean but larger variance than the utility-based ranking does, (b...

  2. Assessing the impact of tailored biosecurity advice on farmer behaviour and pathogen presence in beef herds in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, J M; Van Winden, S; Beauvais, W; Mastin, A; De Glanville, W A; Hardstaff, J; Booth, R E; Fishwick, J; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-12-01

    BHV1 seropositivity in year 2 than at the outset. Variations in farm-level MAP seropositivity were not associated with intervention status. There were increased odds of M. bovis on intervention farms compared with control farms at the end of the study. Results suggest a structured annual risk assessment process, conducted as a collaboration between veterinarian and farmer, is valuable in encouraging improved biosecurity practices. There were some indications, but not conclusive evidence, that tailored biosecurity advice packages have potential to reduce pathogen presence. These findings will inform development of a collaborative approach to biosecurity between veterinarians and farmers, including adoption of cost-effective strategies effective across pathogens.

  3. Isotopes and trace elements as natal origin markers of Helicoverpa armigera--an experimental model for biosecurity pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Peter W; Armstrong, Karen; Van Hale, Robert; Millet, Marc-Alban; Frew, Russell; Clough, Timothy J; Baker, Joel A

    2014-01-01

    Protecting a nation's primary production sector and natural estate is heavily dependent on the ability to determine the risk presented by incursions of exotic insect species. Identifying the geographic origin of such biosecurity breaches can be crucial in determining this risk and directing the appropriate operational responses and eradication campaigns, as well as ascertaining incursion pathways. Reading natural abundance biogeochemical markers using mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for tracing ecological pathways as well as provenance determination of commercial products and items of forensic interest. However, application of these methods to trace insects has been underutilised to date and our understanding in this field is still in a phase of basic development. In addition, biogeochemical markers have never been considered in the atypical situation of a biosecurity incursion, where sample sizes are often small, and of unknown geographic origin and plant host. These constraints effectively confound the interpretation of the one or two isotope geo-location markers systems that are currently used, which are therefore unlikely to achieve the level of provenance resolution required in biosecurity interceptions. Here, a novel approach is taken to evaluate the potential for provenance resolution of insect samples through multiple biogeochemical markers. The international pest, Helicoverpa armigera, has been used as a model species to assess the validity of using naturally occurring δ2H, 87Sr/86Sr, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb isotope ratios and trace element concentration signatures from single moth specimens for regional assignment to natal origin. None of the biogeochemical markers selected were individually able to separate moths from the different experimental regions (150-3000 km apart). Conversely, using multivariate analysis, the region of origin was correctly identified for approximately 75% of individual H. armigera samples. The geographic resolution

  4. Isotopes and trace elements as natal origin markers of Helicoverpa armigera--an experimental model for biosecurity pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Holder

    Full Text Available Protecting a nation's primary production sector and natural estate is heavily dependent on the ability to determine the risk presented by incursions of exotic insect species. Identifying the geographic origin of such biosecurity breaches can be crucial in determining this risk and directing the appropriate operational responses and eradication campaigns, as well as ascertaining incursion pathways. Reading natural abundance biogeochemical markers using mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for tracing ecological pathways as well as provenance determination of commercial products and items of forensic interest. However, application of these methods to trace insects has been underutilised to date and our understanding in this field is still in a phase of basic development. In addition, biogeochemical markers have never been considered in the atypical situation of a biosecurity incursion, where sample sizes are often small, and of unknown geographic origin and plant host. These constraints effectively confound the interpretation of the one or two isotope geo-location markers systems that are currently used, which are therefore unlikely to achieve the level of provenance resolution required in biosecurity interceptions. Here, a novel approach is taken to evaluate the potential for provenance resolution of insect samples through multiple biogeochemical markers. The international pest, Helicoverpa armigera, has been used as a model species to assess the validity of using naturally occurring δ2H, 87Sr/86Sr, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb isotope ratios and trace element concentration signatures from single moth specimens for regional assignment to natal origin. None of the biogeochemical markers selected were individually able to separate moths from the different experimental regions (150-3000 km apart. Conversely, using multivariate analysis, the region of origin was correctly identified for approximately 75% of individual H. armigera samples. The

  5. Isotopes and Trace Elements as Natal Origin Markers of Helicoverpa armigera – An Experimental Model for Biosecurity Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Peter W.; Armstrong, Karen; Van Hale, Robert; Millet, Marc-Alban; Frew, Russell; Clough, Timothy J.; Baker, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Protecting a nation's primary production sector and natural estate is heavily dependent on the ability to determine the risk presented by incursions of exotic insect species. Identifying the geographic origin of such biosecurity breaches can be crucial in determining this risk and directing the appropriate operational responses and eradication campaigns, as well as ascertaining incursion pathways. Reading natural abundance biogeochemical markers using mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for tracing ecological pathways as well as provenance determination of commercial products and items of forensic interest. However, application of these methods to trace insects has been underutilised to date and our understanding in this field is still in a phase of basic development. In addition, biogeochemical markers have never been considered in the atypical situation of a biosecurity incursion, where sample sizes are often small, and of unknown geographic origin and plant host. These constraints effectively confound the interpretation of the one or two isotope geo-location markers systems that are currently used, which are therefore unlikely to achieve the level of provenance resolution required in biosecurity interceptions. Here, a novel approach is taken to evaluate the potential for provenance resolution of insect samples through multiple biogeochemical markers. The international pest, Helicoverpa armigera, has been used as a model species to assess the validity of using naturally occurring δ2H, 87Sr/86Sr, 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb isotope ratios and trace element concentration signatures from single moth specimens for regional assignment to natal origin. None of the biogeochemical markers selected were individually able to separate moths from the different experimental regions (150–3000 km apart). Conversely, using multivariate analysis, the region of origin was correctly identified for approximately 75% of individual H. armigera samples. The geographic resolution

  6. An Approach to Software Product Line Acquisition Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    2009 Carnegie Mellon University An Approach to Software Product Line Acquisition Planning Army Product Line Workshop Orlando, Florida 12 February...including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis...FEB 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Approach to Software Product Line Acquisition

  7. Planning in Reverse: A Viable Approach to Organizational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Scott; Berret, Beth; Wells, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Planning in Reverse is an innovative concept designed to make organizations more successful by altering the perspective utilized in the strategy process. What is needed for organizations to thrive in this new environment of change and uncertainty is a short-term approach for long-term viability. In this book, tools and concepts regarding Planning…

  8. The Integrated Curriculum of "Planned Approach to Healthier Schools"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbery, Monica; Gast, Julie; Smith, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Planned Approach to Healthier Schools (PATHS) is a multicomponent school program that aims to establish and sustain a social norm consistent with physical activity and healthy nutrition in the school community. The PATHS components include: (1) a professional development and wellness program for faculty and staff; (2) ongoing social-marketing…

  9. Shifting Approaches to Planning Theory: Global North and South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Watson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning theory has shifted over time in response to changes in broader social and philosophical theory as well as changes in the material world. Postmodernism and poststructuralism dislodged modernist, rational and technical approaches to planning. Consensualist decision-making theories of the 1980s took forms of communicative and collaborative planning, drawing on Habermasian concepts of power and society. These positions, along with refinements and critiques within the field, have been hegemonic in planning theory ever since. They are, in most cases, presented at a high level of abstraction, make little reference to the political and social contexts in which they are based, and hold an unspoken assumption that they are of universal value, i.e. valid everywhere. Not only does this suggest important research methodology errors but it also renders these theories of little use in those parts of the world which are contextually very different from theory origin—in most cases, the global North. A more recent ‘southern turn’ across a range of social science disciplines, and in planning theory, suggests the possibility of a foundational shift toward theories which acknowledge their situatedness in time and place, and which recognize that extensive global difference in cities and regions renders universalized theorising and narrow conceptual models (especially in planning theory, given its relevance for practice as invalid. New southern theorising in planning is drawing on a range of ideas on societal conflict, informality, identity and ethnicity. Postcolonialism and coloniality have provided a useful frame for situating places historically and geographically in relation to the rest of the world. However, the newness of these explorations still warrants the labelling of this shift as a ‘southern theorizing project’ in planning rather than a suggestion that southern planning theory has emerged.

  10. Workload and workforce planning: taking a national approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Karen; Barkby, Irene; Kellagher, Mairi

    2010-02-01

    In response to an Audit Scotland report, the Scottish Executive, now the Scottish Government, set up the national Nursing and Midwifery Workload and Workforce Planning (NMWWP) programme to define workload and workforce needs, and to analyse the use of bank and agency staff. After extensive research, a systematic, national approach to nursing and midwifery workload and workforce planning was recommended. This article, the first in a series of five on this topic, describes the legislation and policies that underpin the NMWWP programme, and highlights the demographic issues that are pertinent to the nursing and midwifery workforce in Scotland.

  11. A STOCHASTIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A.M. Moraes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work reports on modeling and numerical experience in solving the liquefied natural gas (LNG planning for an oil and gas company. We developed a model to optimize said purchase, optimizing the amount of LNG bought on the spot and on the long-term markets, based on the predicted demand for the planning horizon. A stochastic approach to address uncertainties related to the LNG demand and spot prices is presented. The expected cost of the operation is minimized, considering stock costs and the possibility to export the surplus gas. Numerical experiments in a real-life case are assessed.

  12. Combined Heuristic and Evolutionary approach for Reactive Power Planning Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Goswami

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper authors have used mixed heuristic and evolutionary technique for solving the reactive power problem. In doing so, power system control variables are treated as planning & dispatch variables. All the variables of the reactive power optimization problem do not involve cost. The variables which does not involve cost treated as dispatch variable and those involve cost are treated as planning variable. Heuristic method is used for installation of capacitor’s on weak buses and evolutionary programming approach is used for setting of transformer tap positions and reactive generations of the Generator’s.

  13. A Modelling Approach for Integrated Planning of Port Capacity- Trade-Offs in Rotterdam Investment Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Dekker

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modelling approach for planning ofport capacity. The approach integrates port commercial andpublic interests. It further incorporates route competition andautonomous demand growth. It is applied to port expansion,which can be considered as a strategy for an individual port todeal with route competition. The basis for solving this planningproblem comprises an analysis of port demand and supply in apartial equilibrium model. With such an approach, the reactionof a single port on the change in a transport network comprisingalternative routes to a hinterland destination can be simulated.To establish the optimal expansion strategy, port expansion iscombined with congestion pricing. This is used for the simultaneousdetermination of 1 optimal expansion size, and 2 investmentrecovery period. The modelling approach will be appliedto Rotterdam port focusing on port expansion by means ofland reclamation. The scenmio of the entry of a new competingroute via the Italian port Gioia Tauro is used to address sometrade-offs in Rotterdam investment planning.

  14. Trypanosomes of Australian Mammals: Knowledge Gaps Regarding Transmission and Biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Craig K; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Trypanosomes infect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, and are transmitted by haematophagous invertebrate vectors. Eight native trypanosome species have been described from Australian indigenous mammals, along with other unnamed isolates and genotypes. Associated difficulties relating to the confirmation of cyclical and mechanical vector candidates has hindered vector identification in Australia, with no successful experimental transmission documented for any of these native trypanosomes to indigenous mammals. We discuss pending biosecurity issues, with significant importance placed on the close phylogenetic and phenotypic relationship shared between Trypanosoma cruzi and some Australian trypanosomes. With such a dearth of information, we highlight the importance of keeping an open mind, which considers all possibilities during future investigations of vectors and their associated biosecurity issues in Australia.

  15. Limits of use of social media for monitoring biosecurity events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welvaert, Marijke; Al-Ghattas, Omar; Cameron, Mark; Caley, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Compared to applications that trigger massive information streams, like earthquakes and human disease epidemics, the data input for agricultural and environmental biosecurity events (ie. the introduction of unwanted exotic pests and pathogens), is expected to be sparse and less frequent. To investigate if Twitter data can be useful for the detection and monitoring of biosecurity events, we adopted a three-step process. First, we confirmed that sightings of two migratory species, the Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) and the Common Koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus) are reported on Twitter. Second, we developed search queries to extract the relevant tweets for these species. The queries were based on either the taxonomic name, common name or keywords that are frequently used to describe the species (symptomatic or syndromic). Third, we validated the results using ground truth data. Our results indicate that the common name queries provided a reasonable number of tweets that were related to the ground truth data. The taxonomic query resulted in too small datasets, while the symptomatic queries resulted in large datasets, but with highly variable signal-to-noise ratios. No clear relationship was observed between the tweets from the symptomatic queries and the ground truth data. Comparing the results for the two species showed that the level of familiarity with the species plays a major role. The more familiar the species, the more stable and reliable the Twitter data. This clearly presents a problem for using social media to detect the arrival of an exotic organism of biosecurity concern for which public is unfamiliar.

  16. Microorganisms: Good or Evil, MIRRI Provides Biosecurity Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Martin, Dunja; Novossiolova, Tatyana

    2017-03-01

    The life-science community is a key stakeholder in the effort to ensure that the advances in biotechnology are not misused. Unfortunately, to date, the engagement of life scientists with issues of biosecurity has been limited. Microorganisms have been harnessed for the benefit of humankind but in the wrong hands could be used in direct or indirect acts against humans, livestock, crops, food, water infrastructure and other economically valuable entities. The Microbial Resources Research Infrastructure in its preparatory phase has addressed the topic implementing a code of conduct as part of its programme of prevention of malicious use and continues to work with the international community to raise awareness of best practice to avoid misuse of microorganisms. Biosecurity has become a major concern for several countries creating numerous activities to put in place counter measures, risk assessment, legislation and emergency response. The goal is to implement measures to protect us against malicious use of microorganisms, their products, information and technology transfer. Through this paper, we wish to discuss some of the activities that are underway, mention key educational tools and provide scientists with information on addressing biosecurity issues.

  17. Appraisal of Chicken Production with Associated Biosecurity Practices in Commercial Poultry Farms Located in Jos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduka, C V; Igbokwe, I O; Atsanda, N N

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire-based study of chicken production system with on-farm biosecurity practices was carried out in commercial poultry farms located in Jos, Nigeria. Commercial and semicommercial farms had 75.3% and 24.5% of 95,393 birds on 80 farms, respectively. Farms using deep litter and battery cage systems were 69 (86.3%) and 10 (12.5%), respectively. In our biosecurity scoring system, a correct practice of each indicator of an event scored 1.00 and biosecurity score (BS) of each farm was the average of the scores of biosecurity indicators for the farm, giving BS of zero and 1.00 as absence of biosecurity and optimal biosecurity, respectively. Semicommercial farms had higher BS than commercial farms. The flock size did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect the mean BS. Disease outbreaks correlated (r = -0.97) with BS, showing a tendency of reduction of disease outbreaks with increasing BS. Outbreaks were significantly (p biosecurity practices and weak points in the biosecurity could be ameliorated by extension of information to farmers in order to support expansion of chicken production with robust biosecurity measures that drastically reduce risk of disease outbreak.

  18. Biosecurity Conditions in Small Commercial Chicken Farms, Bangladesh 2011-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimi, N A; Sultana, R; Muhsina, M

    2017-01-01

    In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 is endemic in poultry. This study aimed to understand the biosecurity conditions and farmers' perception of avian influenza biosecurity in Bangladeshi small commercial chicken farms. During 2011-2012, we conducted observations, in-depth interv......In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 is endemic in poultry. This study aimed to understand the biosecurity conditions and farmers' perception of avian influenza biosecurity in Bangladeshi small commercial chicken farms. During 2011-2012, we conducted observations, in...

  19. A NEW METRIC APPROACH IN DESIGN PROCESS PLANNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘溪涓; 倪炎榕; 蒋寿伟

    2002-01-01

    Poor plans of design project are often caused by the difficulties in realizing the underlying complexities and immeasurable characteristics in the deisgn process. To overcome this diffculty, a metric approach based on the tasks analysis model of task importance degree was proposed. The model suggests that importance of a task can be measured through the influence to the project incurred by the imaginary failure of the task, which can be measured through three parts: the critical degree of a task to the whole project, the direct cost by the failure of a task, and the indirect cost on the other tasks affected by the failure of the task. The Analytic Hierarchy Process approach was applied to determine the critical degree and Case-based Reasoning idea was used in detecting the implied error in the task. As an application case, a review work planning was given and some conclusions were arrived at.

  20. Contingency planning: preparation of contingency plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, J M

    2008-01-01

    . The risk of introducing disease pathogens into a country and the spread of the agent within a country depends on a number of factors including import controls, movement of animals and animal products and the biosecurity applied by livestock producers. An adequate contingency plan is an important instrument...

  1. Meshing human resources planning with strategic business planning: a model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, L; Meshoulam, I; DeGive, G

    1983-01-01

    Many people are touting the need to take a strategic approach to human resources management--but this is more easily said than done, point out authors Lloyd Baird, associate professor of management at the School of Management and the Human Resources Policy Institute at Boston University; Ilan Meshoulam, personnel executive at Digital Equipment Corporation; and Ghislaine DeGive, Boston University. Obviously, people cannot be moved around as easily or as speedily as can other resources to help move a company to a strategically identified future position. Thus a great deal of planning is required. The authors present an integrative human resources strategic planning model that focuses on four elements: the environment, the organization's culture, the corporate mission statement, and overall corporate strategy. Each part of the model is thoroughly discussed, and checklist questions are included to help the individual manager develop and implement human resources management plans for his or her own organization.

  2. [Landscape planning approaches for biodiversity conservation in agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-hui; Li, Liang-tao; Yu, Zhen-rong

    2008-11-01

    Biodiversity conservation in agriculture not only relates to the sustainable development of agriculture, but also is an essential part of species conservation. In recent years, the landscape planning approach for biodiversity was highlighted instead of species-focused approach. In this paper, the landscape factors affecting the biodiversity in agriculture were reviewed, and the possible landscape approaches at three different scales for more efficient conservation of biodiversity in agro-landscape were suggested, including: (1) the increase of the proportion of natural or semi-natural habitats in agriculture, diversification of land use or crop pattern, and protection or construction of corridor at landscape level; (2) the establishment of non-cropping elements such as field margin at between-field level; and (3) the application of reasonable crop density, crop distribution pattern and rotation, and intercrop etc. at within-field level. It was suggested that the relevant policies for natural conservation, land use planning, and ecological compensation should be made to apply the landscape approaches for biodiversity conservation at larger scale.

  3. 9 CFR 56.10 - Initial State response and containment plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the relevant State. This plan must include: (1) Provisions for a standing emergency disease management... affected; (2) A minimum biosecurity plan followed by all poultry producers; (3) Provisions for...

  4. A Unified Approach to Model-Based Planning and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Dorais, Gregory A.; Fry, Chuck; Levinson, Richard; Plaunt, Christian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Writing autonomous software is complex, requiring the coordination of functionally and technologically diverse software modules. System and mission engineers must rely on specialists familiar with the different software modules to translate requirements into application software. Also, each module often encodes the same requirement in different forms. The results are high costs and reduced reliability due to the difficulty of tracking discrepancies in these encodings. In this paper we describe a unified approach to planning and execution that we believe provides a unified representational and computational framework for an autonomous agent. We identify the four main components whose interplay provides the basis for the agent's autonomous behavior: the domain model, the plan database, the plan running module, and the planner modules. This representational and problem solving approach can be applied at all levels of the architecture of a complex agent, such as Remote Agent. In the rest of the paper we briefly describe the Remote Agent architecture. The new agent architecture proposed here aims at achieving the full Remote Agent functionality. We then give the fundamental ideas behind the new agent architecture and point out some implication of the structure of the architecture, mainly in the area of reactivity and interaction between reactive and deliberative decision making. We conclude with related work and current status.

  5. Emerging Technologies: Biosecurity and Consequence Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Dana; Nordmann, Brian

    The natural outbreaks of disease and pandemics are transnational threats that create international challenges when detection and containment are not timely due to scarce human and material resources. Whether the cause of those outbreaks is natural or intentional in origin, the main goal of consequence management operations is to save lives. The consequence management process is a continuum of inter-connected phases such as planning, preparation, response, and recovery. The rapid advances of life sciences and the emergence of dual-use technologies such as synthetic biology and nanotechnology pose additional challenges in terms of planning for the unknown potential threats whether they may be synthetic microorganisms with unpredictable dissemination patterns or nanoscale-manipulated biological agents evading current detection capabilities. The US National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats is emphasizing prevention while continuing to support the national preparedness goals and response/recovery capabilities. The recent policies, guidelines, and recommendations on overhauling the biological risk management in the United States are a proactive stance to a rapidly changing global environment. They include optimization of the current oversight frameworks and active engagement of the industry and academia in order to reduce the risk that individuals with ill intent may exploit the commercial application of nucleic acid synthesis technology to access genetic material derived from or by encoding Biological Select Agents or Toxins. We are also actively seeking to increase our knowledge of health effects of various types of nanomaterials, and how to assess, control, and prevent harmful exposure, taking into consideration the numerous gaps that currently exist with regard to the distinct behavior of nanoparticles compared to the same chemical or material at "macro-scale". Fundamentally, a biological incident, whether it is of natural, accidental, or deliberate origin

  6. Social marketing: an approach to planned social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, P; Zaltman, G

    1971-07-01

    This article examines the applicability of marketing concepts to social causes and social change. Social marketing is defined as the design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing research. Wiebe examined four social advertising campaigns and concluded that their effectiveness depended on the presence of adequate force, direction, adequate and compatible social mechanism, and distance (the "cost" of the new attitude as seen by message's message"s recepient). A marketing planning approach is not a guarantee for the achievement of social objectives; yet, it represents a bridging mechanism linking the knowledge of the behavioral scientist with the socially useful implementation of that knowledge.

  7. Multi-Robot Motion Planning: A Timed Automata Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Bak, Thomas; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes how a network of interacting timed automata can be used to model, analyze, and verify motion planning problems in a scenario with multiple robotic vehicles. The method presupposes an infra-structure of robots with feed-back controllers obeying simple restriction on a planar...... against specification requirements formulated in computational tree logic (CTL). In this way, all feasible trajectories that satisfy specifications and which moves the robots from a set of initial positions to a set of desired goal positions may be algorithmically analyzed. The trajectories can...... then subsequently be used as a high-level motion plan for the robots. This paper reports on the timed automata framework, results of two verification experiments, promise of the approach, and gives a perspective for future research....

  8. Multi-Robot Motion Planning: A Timed Automata Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quottrup, Michael Melholt; Bak, Thomas; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    This paper describes how a network of interacting timed automata can be used to model, analyze, and verify motion planning problems in a scenario with multiple robotic vehicles. The method presupposes an infra-structure of robots with feed-back controllers obeying simple restriction on a planar...... against specification requirements formulated in computational tree logic (CTL). In this way, all feasible trajectories that satisfy specifications and which moves the robots from a set of initial positions to a set of desired goal positions may be algorithmically analyzed. The trajectories can...... then subsequently be used as a high-level motion plan for the robots. This paper reports on the timed automata framework, results of two verification experiments, promise of the approach, and gives a perspective for future research....

  9. 3 CFR 13486 - Executive Order 13486 of January 9, 2009. Strengthening Laboratory Biosecurity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Strengthening Laboratory Biosecurity in the United States 13486 Order 13486 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13486 of January 9, 2009 EO 13486 Strengthening Laboratory Biosecurity in the... Strengthening the Biosecurity of the United States (Working Group). (b) The Working Group shall...

  10. Limits of use of social media for monitoring biosecurity events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welvaert, Marijke; Al-Ghattas, Omar; Cameron, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Compared to applications that trigger massive information streams, like earthquakes and human disease epidemics, the data input for agricultural and environmental biosecurity events (ie. the introduction of unwanted exotic pests and pathogens), is expected to be sparse and less frequent. To investigate if Twitter data can be useful for the detection and monitoring of biosecurity events, we adopted a three-step process. First, we confirmed that sightings of two migratory species, the Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) and the Common Koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus) are reported on Twitter. Second, we developed search queries to extract the relevant tweets for these species. The queries were based on either the taxonomic name, common name or keywords that are frequently used to describe the species (symptomatic or syndromic). Third, we validated the results using ground truth data. Our results indicate that the common name queries provided a reasonable number of tweets that were related to the ground truth data. The taxonomic query resulted in too small datasets, while the symptomatic queries resulted in large datasets, but with highly variable signal-to-noise ratios. No clear relationship was observed between the tweets from the symptomatic queries and the ground truth data. Comparing the results for the two species showed that the level of familiarity with the species plays a major role. The more familiar the species, the more stable and reliable the Twitter data. This clearly presents a problem for using social media to detect the arrival of an exotic organism of biosecurity concern for which public is unfamiliar. PMID:28231339

  11. Determinants of biosecurity behaviour of British cattle and sheep farmers-a behavioural economics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Heffernan, Claire; Ringrose, Siân; Gunn, George J

    2013-03-01

    The paper analyses the impact of a priori determinants of biosecurity behaviour of farmers in Great Britain. We use a dataset collected through a stratified telephone survey of 900 cattle and sheep farmers in Great Britain (400 in England and a further 250 in Wales and Scotland respectively) which took place between 25 March 2010 and 18 June 2010. The survey was stratified by farm type, farm size and region. To test the influence of a priori determinants on biosecurity behaviour we used a behavioural economics method, structural equation modelling (SEM) with observed and latent variables. SEM is a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relationships amongst variables, some of which may be latent using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. Thirteen latent variables were identified and extracted, expressing the behaviour and the underlying determining factors. The variables were: experience, economic factors, organic certification of farm, membership in a cattle/sheep health scheme, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, knowledge about biosecurity measures, perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, perceived effect (on farm business in the past five years) of welfare/health regulation, perceived effect of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, attitudes towards livestock biosecurity, attitudes towards animal welfare, influence on decision to apply biosecurity measures and biosecurity behaviour. The SEM model applied on the Great Britain sample has an adequate fit according to the measures of absolute, incremental and parsimonious fit. The results suggest that farmers' perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, organic certification of farm, knowledge about biosecurity measures, attitudes towards animal welfare, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, perceived effect on business during the past five years of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, membership

  12. Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing: Practical Approach to Test Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan Allen; Berg, Melanie D.

    2014-01-01

    While standards and guidelines for performing SEE testing have existed for several decades, guidance for developing SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this presentation, the variety of areas that need to be considered ranging from resource issues (funds, personnel, schedule) to extremely technical challenges (particle interaction and circuit application), shall be discussed. Note: we consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: Mission-specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account.

  13. Associations between biosecurity and outbreaks of canine distemper on Danish mink farms in 2012-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers-Jensen, Louise; Agger, Jens Frederik; Hammer, Anne Sofie Vedsted;

    2015-01-01

    in biosecurity on the mink farms. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and association of specific biosecurity measures with the outbreak. The study was carried out in an epidemiological case-control design. The case group consisted of the 61 farms, which had a confirmed outbreak of canine...... farms, indicating that the control farms had a better biosecurity or were not equally exposed to canine distemper virus. Generally, all farms had very few specific precautions at the gate entrance in respect to human visitors as well as animals. The use of biosecurity measures was very variable in both....... The results of the study indicate that consistent use of correct vaccination strategies, implementation of biosecurity measures and limiting human and animal access to the mink farm can be important factors in reducing the risk for canine distemper outbreaks....

  14. International biosecurity symposium : securing high consequence pathogens and toxins : symposium summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-06-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation Policy sponsored an international biosecurity symposium at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The event, entitled 'Securing High Consequence Pathogens and Toxins', took place from February 1 to February 6, 2004 and was hosted by Dr. Reynolds M. Salerno, Principal Member of the Technical Staff and Program Manager of the Biosecurity program at Sandia. Over 60 bioscience and policy experts from 14 countries gathered to discuss biosecurity, a strategy aimed at preventing the theft and sabotage of dangerous pathogens and toxins from bioscience facilities. Presentations delivered during the symposium were interspersed with targeted discussions that elucidated, among other things, the need for subsequent regional workshops on biosecurity, and a desire for additional work toward developing international biosecurity guidelines.

  15. Biosecurity Techbase FY07 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Williams, P L

    2007-10-22

    This tech base award has close links with the Viral Identification Characterization Initiative (VICI) ER LDRD. The tech base extends developed code to enable a capability for biodefense, biosurveillance, and clinical diagnostics. The code enables the design of signatures to detect and discover viruses, without relying on prior assumptions as to the species of virus present. This approach for primer and signature design contrasts with more traditional PCR approaches, in which a major weakness is the unlikelihood of viral discovery or detection of unanticipated species. There were three crucial areas of the project that were not research and development, so could not be funded under the ER LDRD, but were a reduction to practice of the existing VICI algorithm that were necessary for the success of overall computational project goals. These areas, funded by the 2007 Tech Base award, were: (1) improvement of the code developed under the VICI LDRD by incorporating T{sub m} and free energy predictions using Unafold; (2) porting of code developed on the kpath Sun Solaris cluster to the Yana and Zeus LC machines; and (3) application of that code to perform large numbers of simulations to determine parameter effects.

  16. Untangling the complex inter-relationships between horse managers' perceptions of effectiveness of biosecurity practices using Bayesian graphical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, Kathrin; Lewis, Fraser I; Firestone, Simon M; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Taylor, Melanie R; Dhand, Navneet K

    2013-05-15

    On-farm biosecurity practices have been promoted in many animal industries to protect animal populations from infections. Current approaches based on regression modelling techniques for assessing biosecurity perceptions and practices are limited for analysis of the interrelationships between multivariate data. A suitable approach, which does not require background knowledge of relationships, is provided by Bayesian network modelling. Here we apply such an approach to explore the complex interrelationships between the variables representing horse managers' perceptions of effectiveness of on-farm biosecurity practices. The dataset was derived from interviews conducted with 200 horse managers in Australia after the 2007 equine influenza outbreak. Using established computationally intensive techniques, an optimal graphical statistical model was identified whose structure was objectively determined, directly from the observed data. This methodology is directly analogous to multivariate regression (i.e. multiple response variables). First, an optimal model structure was identified using an exact (exhaustive) search algorithm, followed by pruning the selected model for over-fitting by the parametric bootstrapping approach. Perceptions about effectiveness of movement restrictions and access control were linked but were generally segregated from the perceptions about effectiveness of personal and equipment hygiene. Horse managers believing in the effectiveness of complying with movement restrictions in stopping equine influenza spread onto their premises were also more likely to believe in the effectiveness of reducing their own contact with other horses and curtailing professional visits. Similarly, the variables representing the effectiveness of disinfecting vehicles, using a disinfectant footbath, changing into clean clothes on arrival at the premises and washing hands before contact with managed horses were clustered together. In contrast, horse managers believing in

  17. Selected approaches to determining the purpose of emergency planning zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobeš, Pavel; Baudišová, Barbora; Sluka, Vilém; Skřínský, Jan; Danihelka, Pavel; Dlabka, Jakub; Řeháček, Jakub

    2013-04-01

    One of the major accident hazards (hereinafter referred to as "MAH") tools to determine the range of effects of a major accident and consequent protection of the public is the determination of the emergency planning zone (hereinafter referred to as "zone"). In the Czech Republic, the determination of the zone is regulated by the Decree No. 103/2006 Coll. laying down the principles for determination of the emergency planning zone and the extent and manner of elaborating the external emergency plan (hereinafter referred to as "Decree") 3. The Decree is based on the principles of the IAEA-TECDOC-727 method - Manual for the Classification and Prioritization of Risks Due to Major Accidents in Process and Related Industries (hereinafter referred to as "method" and "manual", respectively)3. In the manual, it is pointed out that the method used is not suitable for making emergency plans for special situations (industrial activities in an inhabited area). Nonetheless, its principles and procedures are still used for such purposes in the Czech Republic. The expert scientific community dealing with MAH issues in the Czech Republic, however, realizes that the procedure of the zone boundary delineation should be modified to reflect up-to-date knowledge in protection of the public and its enhancement. Therefore, the OPTIZON Project (Optimization of the Emergency Planning Zone Designation and Elaboration of Emergency Plans Based on Threatening Effects of Dangerous Chemical Substances at Operational Accidents with Respect to Inhabitant Protection Enhancement) was developed and approved for the Program of Security Research of the Czech Republic 2010 - 2015 (BV II/2-VS). One of the main project's objectives is to define clearly the purpose of the zone because at present it is not quite apparent. From the general view, this step may seem insignificant or trivial, but the reverse is true. It represents one of the most important stages in seeking the approach to the zone designation as

  18. Generating Treatment Plan in Medicine: A Data Mining Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Razali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on a research effort on generating treatment plan to handle the error and complexity of treatment process for healthcare providers. Focus has been given for outpatient and was based on data collected from various health centers throughout Malaysia. These clinical data were recorded using SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan format approach as being practiced in medicine and were recorded electronically via Percuro Clinical Information System (Percuro. Cross-Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM model has been utilized for the entire research. We used data mining analysis through decision trees technique with C5 algorithm. The scopes that have been set are patients complaint, gender, age, race, type of plan and detailed item given to patient. Acute upper respiratory infection disease or identified as J06.9 in International Classification of Diseases 10 by World Health Organization has been selected as it was the most common problem encountered. The model created for J06.9 disease is that type of plan recommended through giving drug to patients without the need to consider patients complaint, gender, age and race, with accuracy obtained for the model is 94.73%. Inspite of that, we also identified detailed items that have been given to J06.9 patients and the occurancy of them. This can be as a guideline for future treatment with item recommendation is less than 0.078% compared to item inventory in Percuro database. The research is expected to aid healthcare provider as well as to minimize error during treatment process while benefited from technology information to increase the health care delivery.

  19. Optimal Control Approaches to the Aggregate Production Planning Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. Davizón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the area of production planning and control, the aggregate production planning (APP problem represents a great challenge for decision makers in production-inventory systems. Tradeoff between inventory-capacity is known as the APP problem. To address it, static and dynamic models have been proposed, which in general have several shortcomings. It is the premise of this paper that the main drawback of these proposals is, that they do not take into account the dynamic nature of the APP. For this reason, we propose the use of an Optimal Control (OC formulation via the approach of energy-based and Hamiltonian-present value. The main contribution of this paper is the mathematical model which integrates a second order dynamical system coupled with a first order system, incorporating production rate, inventory level, and capacity as well with the associated cost by work force in the same formulation. Also, a novel result in relation with the Hamiltonian-present value in the OC formulation is that it reduces the inventory level compared with the pure energy based approach for APP. A set of simulations are provided which verifies the theoretical contribution of this work.

  20. Infection control and biosecurity in equine disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J S

    2014-11-01

    Infectious diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in horses, along with economic costs and broader impacts associated with the loss of members of a species that generates income, acts as a working animal and is a companion. Endemic diseases continue to challenge, emerging diseases are an ever-present threat and outbreaks can be both destructive and disruptive. While infectious diseases can never be completely prevented, measures can be introduced to restrict the entry of pathogens into a population or limit the implications of the presence of a pathogen. Objective research regarding infection control and biosecurity in horses is limited, yet a variety of practical infection prevention and control measures can be used. Unfortunately, infection control can be challenging, because of the nature of the equine industry (e.g. frequent horse movement) and endemic pathogens, but also because of lack of understanding or motivation to try to improve practices. Recognition of the basic concepts of infection control and biosecurity, and indeed the need for measures to control infectious diseases, is the foundation for successful infection prevention and control.

  1. The biosecurity of on-farm mortality composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, K G

    2007-03-01

    Composting is a natural biological decomposition process that takes place under aerobic and thermophilic conditions. It can be used for the day-to-day management of mortalities on farms and for carcass disposal in emergency animal disease (EAD) outbreaks. In mortality composting, carcasses are placed in piles or bins together with supplemental carbon sources such as sawdust, litter, straw or wood shavings. Composting is particularly suitable for broiler-farm mortalities and litter. In the case of emergency disease outbreaks, composting can be conducted either inside or outside the poultry house following killing. Composting has been successfully employed for emergency disposal of carcasses in a few cases in North America, but research is lacking on the biosecurity of the process. Composting is a well-established pathogen reduction technology, but process management and heterogenous pile conditions pose particular challenges for validating the microbiological safety of mortality composting. This paper reviews the available information on the biosecurity of mortality composting, identifies potential sources of risk, and highlights emerging research needs. Reports to date of the use of composting in EAD outbreaks are also discussed.

  2. Comparison of Different Approaches to the Cutting Plan Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bober

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Allocation of specific cutting plans and their scheduling to individual cutting machines presents a combinatorial optimization problem. In this respect, various approaches and methods are used to arrive to a viable solution. The paper reports three approaches represented by three discreet optimization methods. The first one is back-tracing algorithm and serves as a reference to verify functionality of the other two ones. The second method is optimization using genetic algorithms, and the third one presents heuristic approach to optimization based on anticipated properties of an optimal solution. Research results indicate that genetic algorithms are demanding to calculate though not dependant on the selected objective function. Heuristic algorithm is fast but dependant upon anticipated properties of the optimal solution. Hence, at change of the objective function it has to be changed. When the scheduling by genetic algorithms is solvable in a sufficiently short period of time, it is more appropriate from the practical point than the heuristic algorithm. The back-tracing algorithm usually does not provide a result in a feasible period of time.

  3. An innovative approach of risk planning for space programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P

    2000-07-01

    According to the current rule-based risk management approach at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the effort is directed to contain all identified risks of a program. The identification of hazards and mitigation effort proceeds along with the development of the system hardware, till all the tradable resources for a program is exhausted. In this process, no conscious effort is made to evaluate risks and associated cost, and the final design is likely to have undesirable residual risks. This approach also results in allocating a significant amount of resources to gain only marginal mitigation of hazard and leave some undesirable hazards in the system due to the budget limitation. The approach in the proposed knowledge-based risk planning system makes a conscious attempt to trade risk with other resources, e.g., schedule, cost, reliability, performance, and others in a judicious and cost-effective way. A knowledge of the feasible option sets requiring high incremental cost for a marginal gain in hazard reduction helps the management to make decision for residual risk that falls within an acceptable range for an option set.

  4. Biosecurity Measures Applied in the United Arab Emirates - a Comparative Study Between Livestock and Wildlife Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaber, A L; Saegerman, C

    2016-03-09

    In 2013, the livestock population in the UAE exceeded 4.3 million heads with sheep and goats accounting for 90% of this. The overall number of captive wild ungulates (gazelle types) is difficult to assess as there is no registration system in place or enforced in the UAE with regard to the possession of wildlife. Those animal collections, mainly owned by high-ranking families, are therefore not registered and kept far from public viewing. Nonetheless, some collections are housing more than 30 000 ungulates in one location. The primary objective of this study was to describe the biosecurity measures currently applied in UAE ungulate facilities for different wildlife and livestock sectors. A secondary objective was to use the output from this biosecurity survey to investigate which sector could be categorized into risk groups for disease introduction and spread. Between October 2014 and May 2015, biosecurity questionnaire data were collected in the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah, Fujeirah, Ajman, Umm al Quwain and Sharjah from 14 wildlife collections, 30 livestock farms and 15 mixed (wildlife and livestock farms). These investigations through questionnaires allowed us to quantify and assess statistically biosecurity practices and levels for both livestock and wildlife sectors. In both sectors, biosecurity measures could be improved and only a few facilities had high biosecurity scores. The group of small unregistered farms (Ezba) represented the highest risk of disease transmission to other animals due to their lack of biosecurity awareness.

  5. Green city Banda Aceh: city planning approach and environmental aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    Banda Aceh as the capital of Aceh Province is the region with the tsunami disaster that occurred on December 26, 2004 the most severe of which over 60% of the city area were destroyed mainly coastal region and settlements. One product plan for rehabilitation and reconstruction of Banda Aceh is made of Banda Aceh as Green City. To realize the Green City Banda Aceh, urban development process should be conducted in a planned and integrated way with attention to spatial and environmental aspects to ensure an efficient urban management and to create a healthy, beautiful and comfortable environment. There is a weakness of the process in urban planning and development that occurred at present where cities tend to minimize the development of green open space and land conversion into a commercial district, residential areas, industrial areas, transport networks and infrastructure and facilities for other cities. Another tendency that occurs is urban environment only developed economically but not ecologically, whereas ecological balance is as important as the development of the economic value of urban areas. Such conditions have caused unbalance of urban ecosystems including increased air temperature, air pollution, declining water table, flooding, salt water intrusion and increased content of heavy metals in the soil. From an ecological perspective, unfavorable microclimate, high-temperature increase due to the lack of trees as a sieve / filter against heavy rain, can cause flooding. These conditions result in inconvienient, arid and less beautiful urban areas. The author identifies the elements contained in the Green City Banda Aceh and how the efforts and approaches must be made toward Green City Banda Aceh.

  6. Backwards planning approach for rapid attitude maneuvers steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbin, D.

    Remote sensing satellites are often built with payloads that do not include line of sight steering mechanisms. In cases, when frequent line of sight retargeting is required, there is a need for efficient actuators and control schemes that would support rapid attitude manoeuvring together with adequate pointing accuracy and stability between the manoeuvres. Within this frame, this research develops the Backwards Planning approach as one of the possible control methods for rapid manoeuvring. The method is based on state feedback and combines time efficient together with straight forward computation flow. Novel efficient methods to execute the Backwards Planning Control in the 3D attitude space are proposed here. The methods refer both for the first saturated control phase of the manoeuvre and for the last braking phase. The actuators used for the spacecraft control in this research are either Reaction Wheels (RWs) or Single Gimbal Control Moments Gyros (SGCMGs) or both of them together. The advantage of the SGCMG is in rapid rotational manoeuvring, but their application for high quality pointing requires very accurate gimbal mechanisms. On the other hand, RWs are usually more suitable for accurate pointing, but their torque to power performance is inferior in manoeuvring. It is shown that the coordination of SGCMGs and RWs together enables to draw more performance from the SGCMGs in terms of agility and meet the pointing requirements between manoeuvres where only the RWs are used. Novel SGCMG steering laws are suggested as well. While the steering laws determine the required angular rate for each gimbal, most steering laws are defined in the angular momentum domain and output the gimbals angular rates to produce a given required torque or angular momentum increment. This research however, practices a novel steering law in the gimbal angles domain. While both steering laws turn to be dynamically equivalent for small control signals, as in the steady state, it is shown

  7. An approach to improve Romanian geological repository planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Veronica [Romanian Association for Nuclear Energy, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Prisecaru, Ilie [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-04-15

    International standards recommend typical phases to be included within any national program for the development of a geological repository dedicated to disposal of the high level radioactive wastes generated in countries using nuclear power. However, these are not universally applicable and the content of each of these phases may need to be adapted for each national situation and regulatory and institutional framework. Several national geological repository programs have faced failures in schedules and have revised their programs to consider an adapted phased management approach. The authors have observed that in the case of those countries in the early phases of a geological repository program where boundary conditions have not been fully defined, international recommendations for handling delays/failures in the national program might not immediately help. This paper considers a case study of the influences of the national context risks on the current planning schedule of the Romanian national geological repository. It proposes an optimum solution for an integrated response to any significant adverse impact arising from these risks, enabling sustainable program planning.

  8. Smart Dialogue for Smart Citizens: Assertive Approaches for Strategic Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Fasolino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to know how to communicate, but even more important is knowing how to listen. There is no dialogue without listening. Listening and speaking can generate a virtuous cycle that, enriching the field of information, allows the introduction of essential elements of innovation. It is relevant in this context the assertive ability of who manages and coordinates the decision-making processes. The potential of new approaches based on assertiveness are the new frontier of research discipline that is able to meet future challenges aiming to contribute to the construction of places and forms of living together in the growing interest of fairness and justice. Assertive facilitator knows how to guide difficult people and handle very hard situations without adopting manipulative behaviors. He is able to detect the potential conflict and to bring to light the reasons for disagreement , softening the tone and avoiding any possible uncontrolled escalation. He encourages debates and open discussions; he has to build links too, fueling reports profits, collaborating with others toward common goals; speaking and discussing in groups and among groups; seeking solutions in which, both parties, come out winning. So the view expressed is argument of discussion in the development of the tools of urban structure, with the aim of implementing a participatory methodology in the development of planning tools. We propose an application in the series of meetings of initial preparatory participation to the formation of a Preliminary Plan for a medium size town.

  9. Application of routines that contribute to on-farm biosecurity as reported by Swedish livestock farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöremark, M; Frössling, J; Lewerin, S S

    2010-08-01

    On-farm biosecurity is important for preventing the spread of several contagious animal diseases. In this study, biosecurity routines among Swedish farmers with livestock (cattle, pigs, sheep or goats) were examined through questionnaires posted by mail. Moreover, the use of protective clothing among professionals visiting farms, such as animal transporters and veterinarians, were investigated through assessments made by the farmers. Questionnaires were completed, partly or fully, by 518 farmers (overall response rate 34%). Possible associations between biosecurity routines and livestock species, geographic location and herd size were analysed. Large variations in biosecurity routines were found, both within and between groups, and some farms appeared to have a relatively high level of biosecurity. However, biosecurity was reported by farmers with herds with only pigs, when compared to farmers with cattle, sheep/goats or mixed species. A higher level of biosecurity was also reported by larger farms compared to hobby farms. Inconsistent biosecurity routines were reported, which was interpreted as a lack of knowledge of how different infections can spread and how this can be prevented. Furthermore, some replies indicated that the farmers perceived the risk of introduction of disease as low. According to the farmers' assessments, the use of protective clothing among professionals visiting farms varied considerably, both among different professions and within the same profession. On average, veterinarians and artificial insemination (AI) technicians got high scores in this assessment, while salesmen, repairmen and animal transporters were reported to seldom use protective clothing. Based on the findings, there is room for improvement of on-farm biosecurity. There is also a need to further investigate the motivators and constraints for altered routines among both Swedish livestock farmers and professionals visiting farms.

  10. Water Resources Planning under Uncertainty: A "Real Options" Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuland, M. A.; Whittington, D.

    2011-12-01

    This research develops a real options approach for planning new water resources developments, in infrastructure construction and system operation, under uncertainty. The approach treats the planning problem as a series of staged decisions - the selection of new projects; their scale, timing and sequencing; and finally their operating rules - each of which is characterized by varying levels of irreversibility. The performance of different configurations of the system is then assessed along the various dimensions of the decision space, using simulation methods. The methodology is then made operational using an existing hydrological simulation model that can be used to study the example of hydropower development options in the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The model includes physical linkages between climate change and system hydrology, and allows users to test the sensitivity of the basin-wide economic consequences of dams, which consist of energy generation, changes in irrigation crop-water demand, the value of flood control, and other basin-wide impacts, to climate change or changes in runoff, as well as to other uncertainties. The analysis shows that, from an economic perspective, there is no single optimal system configuration across a range of future climate conditions deemed plausible for this basin. For example, small infrastructures perform best in scenarios with reduced runoff into the river, whereas large ones are best when runoff increases. The real options framework therefore becomes useful for helping to identify configurations that are both more robust to poor outcomes and still contain sufficient flexibility to capture high upside benefits should favorable future conditions arise. The framework could readily be extended to explore a range of features that could be usefully built into water resources projects more generally, to improve the long-term economic performance of such investments.

  11. Biosafety, biosecurity and internationally mandated regulatory regimes: compliance mechanisms for education and global health security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sture, Judi; Whitby, Simon; Perkins, Dana

    2015-01-01

    This paper highlights the biosafety and biosecurity training obligations that three international regulatory regimes place upon states parties. The duty to report upon the existence of such provisions as evidence of compliance is discussed in relation to each regime. We argue that such mechanisms can be regarded as building blocks for the development and delivery of complementary biosafety and biosecurity teaching and training materials. We show that such building blocks represent foundations upon which life and associated scientists – through greater awareness of biosecurity concerns – can better fulfil their responsibilities to guard their work from misuse in the future. PMID:24494580

  12. An evaluation of biosecurity compliance levels and assessment of associated risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection of live-bird-markets, Nigeria and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanmi, Olubunmi G; Ahmed, Syed Sayeem U; Oladele-Bukola, Mutiu O; El-Tahawy, Abdelgawad S; Elbestawy, Ahmed R; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2016-12-01

    Live bird market (LBM) is integral component in the perpetuation of HPAI H5N1, while biosecurity is crucial and key to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Biosecurity compliance level and risk factor assessments in 155LBMs was evaluated in Nigeria and Egypt through the administration of a 68-item biosecurity checklist, scored based on the modifications of previous qualitative data, and analysed for degree of compliance. LBMs were scored as "complied with a biosecurity item" if they had good-very good scores (4). All scores were coded and analysed using descriptive statistics and risk or protective factors were determined using univariable and multivariable logistic regression at p≤0.05. Trading of wild birds and other animal in the LBMs (Odd Ratio (OR)=34.90; p=0.01) and claims of hand disinfection after slaughter (OR=31.16; p=0.03) were significant risk factors while mandatory routine disinfection of markets (OR=0.13; p≤0.00), fencing and gates for live bird market (OR=0.02; p≤0.01) and hand washing after slaughter (OR=0.41; p≤0.05) were protective factors for and against the infection of Nigerian and Egyptian LBMs with the HPAI H5N1 virus. Almost all the LBMs complied poorly with most of the variables in the checklist (p≤0.05), but pathways to improved biosecurity in the LBMs existed. We concluded that the LBM operators play a critical role in the disruption of transmission of H5N1 virus infection through improved biosecurity and participatory epidemiology and multidisciplinary approach is needed.

  13. Public Economy versus Planned Economy. Current Approaches and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available he present paper proposes a review of the current object and problems facing the public economy. For the past decade and a half, public economy has clearly come back in the attention of the research interests of specialists from the Central and Eastern European countries. Among these, the scientific research encompassed by the public economy area interrelates with the international trends. At a closer look, public economy appears to be a science, particularly interdisciplinary, with sociological, political, econometrical or systemic approaches possible to prevail. To continue, the author makes reference to four pillars of the public economy: optimum, welfare, social choice and economic justice that allow different approaches to develop. A science branch, equally theoretical and practical, public economy will stress its connections with the economic and mathematic modeling, systemic analysis or sociological and political research. Still, seve¬ral problems in public economy remain open. These concentrate on the public interest, intervention and decision. Conceptualization, understanding and description of the mechanisms that allow the operationalisation may form the basis for further developments on both theoretical and practical level. A clear distinction in order to justify the title of this article needs to be made. Public economy is not to be confused with planning economy. The state remains but one of the producers and delivery agents of public goods and services.

  14. A strategic approach for Water Safety Plans implementation in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jose M P

    2011-03-01

    Effective risk assessment and risk management approaches in public drinking water systems can benefit from a systematic process for hazards identification and effective management control based on the Water Safety Plan (WSP) concept. Good results from WSP development and implementation in a small number of Portuguese water utilities have shown that a more ambitious nationwide strategic approach to disseminate this methodology is needed. However, the establishment of strategic frameworks for systematic and organic scaling-up of WSP implementation at a national level requires major constraints to be overcome: lack of legislation and policies and the need for appropriate monitoring tools. This study presents a framework to inform future policy making by understanding the key constraints and needs related to institutional, organizational and research issues for WSP development and implementation in Portugal. This methodological contribution for WSP implementation can be replicated at a global scale. National health authorities and the Regulator may promote changes in legislation and policies. Independent global monitoring and benchmarking are adequate tools for measuring the progress over time and for comparing the performance of water utilities. Water utilities self-assessment must include performance improvement, operational monitoring and verification. Research and education and resources dissemination ensure knowledge acquisition and transfer.

  15. Public Economy versus Planned Economy. Current Approaches and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a review of the current object and problems facing the public economy. For the past decade and a half, public economy has clearly come back in the attention of the research interests of specialists from the Central and Eastern European countries. Among these, the scientific research encompassed by the public economy area interrelates with the international trends. At a closer look, public economy appears to be a science, particularly interdisciplinary, with sociological, political, econometrical or systemic approaches possible to prevail. To continue, the author makes reference to four pillars of the public economy: optimum, welfare, social choice and economic justice that allow different approaches to develop. A science branch, equally theoretical and practical, public economy will stress its connections with the economic and mathematic modeling, systemic analysis or sociological and political research. Still, seve¬ral problems in public economy remain open. These concentrate on the public interest, intervention and decision. Conceptualization, understanding and description of the mechanisms that allow the operationalisation may form the basis for further developments on both theoretical and practical level. A clear distinction in order to justify the title of this article needs to be made. Public economy is not to be confused with planning economy. The state remains but one of the producers and delivery agents of public goods and services.

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF APPLIED TO BIO-SECURITY PROFESSIONAL RADIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Trevisan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the importance of biosecurity in the work of technicians and technologists in Radiology. As a means of motivation research, it was observed that despite the investment of the hospitals and clinics for the improvement of radiological techniques, little has been done to prevent the spread of diseases among the professionals in radiology. To do so, held the same direction by quantitatively and qualitatively, using the analytical method and a questionnaire as the technique of analysis, with the sample of 29 professionals located in public hospitals, the School LS and in private practice. The results demonstrated that there is knowledge of biosafety among radiology professionals, but there is no understanding of the relevance of the subject by some a good portion of them.

  17. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the ‘myths’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eJefferson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology, a field that aims to ‘make biology easier to engineer’, is routinely described as leading to an increase in the ‘dual use’ threat, i.e. the potential for the same piece of scientific research to be ‘used’ for peaceful purposes or ‘misused’ for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the ‘de-skilling’ of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of DIY biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend towards greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify 5 ‘myths’ that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these ‘myths’ play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a ‘promissory’ field of research and as an ‘emerging technology’ in need of governance.

  18. Planning Education: Exchanging Approaches to Teaching Practice-Based Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Heather; Sheppard, Adam; Croft, Nick; Peel, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Planning curricula have continually evolved to meet changing societal needs, technological change and employer expectations. The professional accrediting body in the United Kingdom, the Royal Town Planning Institute, stipulates the core planning skills required, differentiating between formal classroom-based learning and professional competencies,…

  19. Biosecurity procedures for the environmental management of carcasses burial sites in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon-Ha; Pramanik, Sudipta

    2016-12-01

    Avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease are two main contagious pathogenic viral disease which are responsible for the massive burials of livestock in Korea since burial is the primary measure to control these outbreaks. Biosecurity is a set of preventive measures designed to prevent the risk of spreading of these infectious diseases. The main objective of this paper is to discuss about the requirements of biosecurity and develop protocol outlines for environmental management of burial sites in Korea. Current practice prescribes to minimize the potential for on-farm pollution and the spread of the infectious diseases. Specific biosecurity procedures such as proper assessment of leachate quality, safe handling and disposal of leachate, adequate leachate pollution monitoring, necessary seasonal management of burial site, and appropriate sterilization process must be carried out to prevent the indirect transmission of pathogens from the burial sites. Policy makers should acquire robust knowledge of biosecurity for establishing more effective future legislation for carcasses disposal in Korea.

  20. A benders decomposition approach to multiarea stochastic distributed utility planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Susan Ann

    Until recently, small, modular generation and storage options---distributed resources (DRs)---have been installed principally in areas too remote for economic power grid connection and sensitive applications requiring backup capacity. Recent regulatory changes and DR advances, however, have lead utilities to reconsider the role of DRs. To a utility facing distribution capacity bottlenecks or uncertain load growth, DRs can be particularly valuable since they can be dispersed throughout the system and constructed relatively quickly. DR value is determined by comparing its costs to avoided central generation expenses (i.e., marginal costs) and distribution investments. This requires a comprehensive central and local planning and production model, since central system marginal costs result from system interactions over space and time. This dissertation develops and applies an iterative generalized Benders decomposition approach to coordinate models for optimal DR evaluation. Three coordinated models exchange investment, net power demand, and avoided cost information to minimize overall expansion costs. Local investment and production decisions are made by a local mixed integer linear program. Central system investment decisions are made by a LP, and production costs are estimated by a stochastic multi-area production costing model with Kirchhoff's Voltage and Current Law constraints. The nested decomposition is a new and unique method for distributed utility planning that partitions the variables twice to separate local and central investment and production variables, and provides upper and lower bounds on expected expansion costs. Kirchhoff's Voltage Law imposes nonlinear, nonconvex constraints that preclude use of LP if transmission capacity is available in a looped transmission system. This dissertation develops KVL constraint approximations that permit the nested decomposition to consider new transmission resources, while maintaining linearity in the three

  1. Merging facility and financial planning: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, R; Hoffman, S

    1988-01-01

    This article seeks to help hospital administrators and boards (especially planning and finance committees) balance facility and financial aspects of a construction project by planning for each concurrently. It recommends that the process start with formal strategic plans, and that facility and capital plans be advanced interactively, thus maintaining flexibility to ensure that the hospital's objectives can be met within manageable financial limits. The authors suggest that the project thus delivered will be the most effective and efficient project possible within defined constraints. And, once planned, the project will be ready for implementation--false starts will be eliminated.

  2. An Approach to Temporal Planning and Scheduling in Domains with Predictable Exogenous Events

    CERN Document Server

    Gerevini, A; Serina, I; 10.1613/jair.1742

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of exogenous events in planning is practically important in many real-world domains where the preconditions of certain plan actions are affected by such events. In this paper we focus on planning in temporal domains with exogenous events that happen at known times, imposing the constraint that certain actions in the plan must be executed during some predefined time windows. When actions have durations, handling such temporal constraints adds an extra difficulty to planning. We propose an approach to planning in these domains which integrates constraint-based temporal reasoning into a graph-based planning framework using local search. Our techniques are implemented in a planner that took part in the 4th International Planning Competition (IPC-4). A statistical analysis of the results of IPC-4 demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in terms of both CPU-time and plan quality. Additional experiments show the good performance of the temporal reasoning techniques integrated into our planner.

  3. Assessment of biosecurity practices of small-scale broiler producers in central Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro-Calduch, E; Elfadaly, S; Tibbo, M; Ankers, P; Bailey, E

    2013-06-01

    In the current situation of endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Egypt, improving the biosecurity of poultry production has become essential to the progressive reduction the incidence of the disease. A significant proportion of the Egyptian commercial poultry system consists of small-scale poultry producers operating with low to minimal biosecurity measures. An investigation was conducted into the level of adoption of standard biosecurity measures of the small-scale commercial chicken growers, including both farm- and home-based commercial production, input suppliers and other actors along the meat chicken value chain in Fayoum, Egypt. The study which used direct observations and group discussions of nearly 160 participants and structured interviews with 463 respondents, assessed biosecurity implementation to improve management practices and ultimately to control and prevent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The survey found that overall, biosecurity measures are rarely implemented in small-scale commercial poultry production units. Compliance with recommended biosecurity practices did not greatly vary from home-based to farm-based commercial production. Furthermore, serious risk practices were identified, such as unsafe disposal of poultry carcasses and potential disease spread posed by poor biosecurity measures implemented during vaccination. HPAI control measures have been ineffective due to limited cooperation between public and private sector, aggravated by the unpopular measures taken in the event of outbreaks and no compensation paid for incurred losses. Outreach and biosecurity awareness raising initiatives should be specifically developed for small-scale producers with the objective of improving general poultry management and thus preventing HPAI and other poultry diseases.

  4. Improving Smallholder Farmer Biosecurity in the Mekong Region Through Change Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J R; Evans-Kocinski, S; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2015-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases including foot-and-mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia remain a major constraint for improving smallholder large ruminant productivity in the Mekong region, producing negative impacts on rural livelihoods and compromising efforts to reduce poverty and food insecurity. The traditional husbandry practices of smallholders largely exclude preventive health measures, increasing risks of disease transmission. Although significant efforts have been made to understand the social aspects of change development in agricultural production, attention to improving the adoption of biosecurity has been limited. This study reviews smallholder biosecurity risk factors identified in the peer-reviewed literature and from field research observations conducted in Cambodia and Laos during 2006-2013, considering these in the context of a change management perspective aimed at improving adoption of biosecurity measures. Motivation for change, resistance to change, knowledge management, cultural dimensions, systems theory and leadership are discussed. Due to geographical, physical and resource variability, the implementation of biosecurity interventions suitable for smallholders is not a 'one size fits all'. Smallholders should be educated in biosecurity principles and empowered to make personal decisions rather than adopt prescribed pre-defined interventions. Biosecurity interventions should be aligned with smallholder farmer motivations, preferably offering clear short-term risk management benefits that elicit interest from smallholders. Linking biosecurity and disease control with improved livestock productivity provides opportunities for sustainable improvements in livelihoods. Participatory research and extension that improves farmer knowledge and practices offers a pathway to elicit sustainable broad-scale social change. However, examples of successes need to be communicated both at the 'evidence-based level' to influence regional policy

  5. U.S.-Singapore-Malaysia-Indonesia Multilateral Dialogue on Biosecurity: Year 2

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict; Cicero, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Performer: University of Pennsylvania Medical Center (UPMC) Center for Health Security Project Lead: Anita Cicero Project Cost: $223,784 FY16–17 This follow-on project will comprise two biosecurity dialogues among the United States, Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia to address regional risks related to deliberate or accidental misuse of biological materials, biosecurity and biosafety vulnerabilities at high-containment laboratories, security issues posed by dual-use ...

  6. Approaching plans and programmes under the strategic environmental assessment view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OROIAN I.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Even strategic environmental assessment (SEA is a concept which must be implemented at national level,no official regulations concerning the implementation nor adequate knowledge of this problem exist. The briefpresentation of this concept is the aim of this study. By definition, SEA is a process aiming to supply the takinginto consideration of the impact upon the environment when developmental sugestions at policy, planprogramme or project levels are elaborated, before the final decision connected to their promotion. The processof SEA implementation and its seven stages (framing, domain definition, P/P evaluation, performing theEnvironmental Report, consultation with authories and public, taking decision and monitoring are presented inthis paper. The advantages of using this approach are also emphasized: acheiving sustainable management fromthe environmental point of view, improvement of the quality of the policy, plan or programme elaborationprocess, increase of the efficiency and efficacy of the decisonal process, stregthening of the leading system andinstitutional efficiency, strengthening of the EIA process for projects, facilitation of the transfrontaliercooperation.

  7. The educational approach within Colombia's nutrition plan (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pizano, Julia Mejia

    1980-03-01

    With the knowledge that malnutrition affects the quality of life of an individual, the Colombian Government set up in 1976 a unique multi-sectorial plan (PAN), to combat the country's serious malnutrition. Government agencies and private industries in the sectors of production, distribution, health, sanitation, and education have coordinated their previously independent efforts. Among the interesting aspects are the coordination of sectors through work at various levels and through control of the budget, the limitation of bureaucracy, and the decentralization of decision-making. The ongoing attempts to overcome the difficulties encountered include making decisions in the face of inconclusive knowledge on what constitutes a well-balanced diet; combating the lack of knowledge of professionals about the environment of the poorest percentage of the population; and revising the traditional teaching method to make it more successful through a multi-media approach to assure wider coverage and more impact for the least cost, using materials such as games, puppets, posters and radio.

  8. The cost-benefit of biosecurity measures on infectious diseases in the Egyptian household poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, F O; Ali, A M; Yilma, J M; Thieme, O; Ankers, P

    2012-02-01

    Increased animal intensification presents with increasing risks of animal diseases. The Egyptian household poultry is peculiar in its management style and housing and this present with particular challenges of risk of infection to both the flock and humans. Biosecurity remains one of the most important means of reducing risks of infection in the household poultry, however not much information is available to support its feasibility at the household level of production. In this study financial feasibilities of biosecurity were modeled and evaluated based on certain production parameters. Risks of particular importance to the household poultry were categorized and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 was the most risky disease while people-related risk was the most important risk category. It was observed that basic biosecurity measures were applicable in the household poultry and it would be 8.45 times better to implement biosecurity than to do nothing against HPAI H5N1; 4.88 times better against Newcastle disease and 1.49 times better against coccidiosis. Sensitivity analyses proved that the household poultry project was robust and would withstand various uncertainties. An uptake pathway for basic biosecurity was suggested. The outcome of this work should support decisions to implement biosecurity at the household sector of poultry production.

  9. Relationship between biosecurity and production/antimicrobial treatment characteristics in pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanen, M; Persoons, D; Ribbens, S; de Jong, E; Callens, B; Strubbe, M; Maes, D; Dewulf, J

    2013-11-01

    The biosecurity status of 95 breeder-finisher pig herds was quantified using a risk-based weighted scoring system. Data relating to herd-, farmer- and production-characteristics and to the prophylactic use of antimicrobials were also collected. The average external biosecurity score (measures to prevent pathogens from entering a herd) was 65 (range, 45-89) and the average internal score (measures to reduce the within-herd spread of pathogens) was 52 (range, 18-87). External scores were positively associated with herd size, while internal scores were negatively associated with both 'age of buildings' and 'years of experience of the farmer', indicating that biosecurity is generally better implemented in larger herds, in more modern facilities and by younger farmers. External and internal biosecurity scores were positively associated with daily weight gain and negatively associated with feed conversion ratio of fattening pigs. Internal scores were negatively associated with disease treatment incidence, suggesting that improved biosecurity might help in reducing the amount of antimicrobials used prophylactically. This study demonstrates and quantifies a clear link between biosecurity and both production- and antimicrobial treatment-related criteria in pig herds.

  10. An approach for systematic process planning of gear transmission parts

    OpenAIRE

    Bagge, Mats

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to find and develop methods that enhance and support the creation of evolvable master process plans with possibilities to challenge productivity and meet changing design requirements. The condition for achieving this is primarily that both the fundamental thinking and the results behind a process plan can be described. How should this be done? The focus is laid on process planning of gear transmission parts for heavy vehicles like trucks and coaches. Process pl...

  11. The Portfolio Approach Developed to Underpin the Capital Investment Program Plan Review (CIPPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-06

    Basinger, Director, DCI, CFD Scientific Letter The PORTFOLIO APPROACH developed to underpin the Capital Investment Program Plan Review (CIPPR) To better...the key concepts about the new analytical approach that has been used to produce alternative project portfolios for consideration within the Capital...Investment Program Plan Review (CIPPR). This approach has come to be known as the portfolio approach. This letter begins with a brief description of

  12. Population planning: a well co-ordinated approach required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    of the region explicit or implicit incentives and/or disincentives are included in the population/family planning program. In the Philippine Population Program, incentives are explicitly given only to volunteer program workers. Disincentives are incorporated in the Internal Revenue Code and the Woman and Child Labor Code. In Indonesia preference is given to incentives rather than to disincentives. The government of Bangladesh is seriously considering the introduction of a package deal of incentives and disincentives in an all out effort to reach desired demographic objectives. In Nepal such a package is already in operation. The more recent innovative measures to encourage the 2-child child family norm in India include: increased compensation money to acceptors of sterilization and IUD and giving lottery tickets to acceptors of sterilization. There is recognition in these countries of the need for an integrated approach to population and development programs.

  13. A survey on biosecurity and management practices in selected Belgian cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Steven; Cay, Ann Brigitte; Laureyns, Jozef; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2014-11-01

    The shift from cure towards prevention in veterinary medicine involves the implementation of biosecurity, which includes all measures preventing pathogens from entering a herd and reducing the spread of pathogens within a herd. In Belgium no studies have considered the implementation of biosecurity measures in the daily management of cattle farms. Therefore the aim of the study was to map the current application of biosecurity measures in Belgian cattle farms in the prevention of disease transmission within and between farms. Between March 2011 and April 2013 the data were collected as part of a larger cross-sectional study, conducted to identify risk factors for reinfection with BVDV in cattle herds assumed free from BVDV. Questionnaire data from 33 dairy farms, 16 beef farms and 25 mixed (dairy and beef cattle) farms were analyzed using a combination of a linear scoring system, a categorical principal component analysis and a two-step cluster analysis to differentiate these farms based on their biosecurity levels and visit frequencies. Further enhancement of preventive measures considering external and internal biosecurity was still possible for each farm, as none of the farms obtained an overall high biosecurity level. Three groups of cattle farms were differentiated with a biosecurity level varying from low to high-medium, of which the group with the lowest biosecurity level mainly consisted of mixed farms. Animal-to-animal contacts with cattle from other herds were frequently possible as only 12% of the farmers purchasing cattle quarantined purchased animals at least three weeks and contacts over fences on pasture were possible in 70% of the herds. Basic biosecurity measures such as farm-specific protective clothing and boots were present in the majority of the farms, but they were insufficiently or incorrectly used. Cattle farms were very often visited by professional visitors of which the herd veterinarian, the AI technician and the cattle salesman most

  14. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.; Spiller, M.; Leusbrock, I.; Zeeman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a governmen

  15. Sustainable cities: challenges of an integrated planning approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Geenhuizen, van Marina

    1995-01-01

    This paper will identify specific planning conditions that arise when planning aims at sustainable development. First, attention will be paid tosocio-ethical attitudes toward sustainability issues and to the reasons why much of the sustainability debate deserves an urban focus. Then, specificplannin

  16. A Comparative Study of Strategic HRD Approaches for Workforce Planning in the Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Kenneth; Johnson, Karen; Schneider, Ingrid E.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the outcomes of two often used approaches for strategic HRD planning. Using methods framed within a strategic HRD planning framework the outcomes of a qualitative primary data approach are examined against quantitative labor market projections in a study of the future Minnesota tourism workforce. Results show each planning…

  17. SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS FOR ASSESSING SOCIAL CAPITAL IN BIOSECURITY ECOLITERACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Putu Kaler Surata

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Social Network Analysis for Assessing Social Capital in Biosecurity Ecoliteracy. Biosecurity ecoliteracy (BEL is a view of literacy that applies ecological concepts to promote in-depth understanding, critical reflection, creative thinking, self consciousness, communication and social skills, in analyzing and managing issues around plant health/living, animal health/living and the risks that are associated with the environment. We used social network analysis (SNA to evaluate two distinct forms of social capital of BEL: social cohesion and network structure. This study was executed by employing cooperative learning in BEL toward 30 undergraduate teacher training students. Data then was analyzed using UCINET software. We found the tendency of so­cial cohesion to increase after students participated in BEL. This was supported by several SNA measures (density, closeness and degree and these values at the end were statistically different than at the beginning of BEL. The social structure map (sociogram after BEL visualized that students were much more likely to cluster in groups compared with the sociogram before BEL. Thus BEL, through cooperative learning, was able to promote social capital. In addition SNA proved a useful tool for evaluating the achievement levels of social capital of BEL in the form of network cohesion and network structure. Abstrak: Analisis Jaringan Sosial untuk Menilai Ekoliterasi Ketahanan Hayati. Ekoliterasi ketahanan hayati (EKH adalah literasi yang mengaplikasikan berbagai konsep ekologi untuk mempromosikan pe­mahaman yang mendalam, refleksi kritis, kesadaran diri, keterampilan sosial dan berkomunikasi, dalam menganalisis, dan mengelola isu yang terkait dengan kesehatan/kehidupan tanaman, kesehatan/kehidupan binatang, dan risiko yang terkait dengan lingkungan. Analisis jaringan kerja sosial (AJS telah digunakan untuk mengevaluasi dua bentuk model sosial EKH: kohesi sosial dan struktur jaringan kerja. Untuk itu

  18. Fast 3D route-planning approach for air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jilin; Ding, Mingyue; Zhou, Chengping; Ai, Haojun

    1997-06-01

    A fast 3-D route planning method for unmanned air vehicle is proposed which can generate physically realizable 3-D route within a reasonable time. Our method includes two steps: First, 2-D route planning generates a route which satisfies turning radius constraint(abbreviated as R-constrained below); second, 3-D route planning generates 3-D route in vertical profile of the 2-D route. To make 2-D route R-constrained, a method is proposed by supposing 2-D route of air vehicle is composed of a sequence of arc route segments and tangential points between neighboring arcs are searching nodes. 3 -D route planning is considered as optimal control problem, and its route can be determined by applying motion equations of air vehicle. The experiments show that our method can produce feasible 3-D routes within a reasonable time, and ensure the planned 3-D routes satisfy aerodynamics constraints of air vehicle.

  19. An Ontology- and Constraint-based Approach for Dynamic Personalized Planning in Renal Disease Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normadiah Mahiddin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare service providers, including those involved in renal disease management, are concerned about the planning of their patients’ treatments. With efforts to automate the planning process, shortcomings are apparent due to the following reasons: (1 current plan representations or ontologies are too fine grained, and (2 current planning systems are often static. To address these issues, we introduce a planning system called Dynamic Personalized Planner (DP Planner which consists of: (1 a suitably light-weight and generic plan representation, and (2 a constraint-based dynamic planning engine. The plan representation is based on existing plan ontologies, and developed in XML. With the available plans, the planning engine focuses on personalizing pre-existing (or generic plans that can be dynamically changed as the condition of the patient changes over time. To illustrate our dynamic personalized planning approach, we present an example in renal disease management. In a comparative study, we observed that the resulting DP Planner possesses features that rival that of other planning systems, in particular that of Asgaard and O-Plan.

  20. Language Management Theory as One Approach in Language Policy and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvapil, Jirí

    2016-01-01

    Language Policy and Planning is currently a significantly diversified research area and thus it is not easy to find common denominators that help to define basic approaches within it. Richard B. Baldauf attempted to do so by differentiating between four basic approaches: (1) the classical approach, (2) the language management approach (Language…

  1. Evaluation of Maryland backyard flocks and biosecurity practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-06-01

    Domesticated poultry are susceptible to infectious and zoonotic diseases and can serve as a transmission source to other bird and human populations. In recent years, the number of noncommercial poultry has been on the rise in the United States. To evaluate potential risks of this growing population, a descriptive epidemiologic survey was conducted among Maryland backyard flocks. Owner and flock demographics were characterized as well as management practices such as husbandry, human-to-bird interaction, bird exposure risks, poultry health status, and biosecurity. Data from the 41 returned questionnaires indicated a median flock size of 38 birds (range, 3-901). Chickens accounted for 86.5% of the reported birds overall. Just over half of the owners (51.2%) kept chickens only, with the remaining backyard flocks consisting of chickens, other gallinaceous species, waterfowl, or a combination. Of flocks with multiple species, 70.0% of owners did not keep them separate. Almost two thirds of owners (61.0%) had kept poultry for backyard flocks. These results can be useful in developing educational extension and outreach programs as well as policies, in efforts to further mitigate the spread of diseases.

  2. Global governmentality: Biosecurity in the era of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappah, Jlateh Vincent; Smith, Danielle Taana

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses Foucault's concept of governmentality to examine relationships between globalisation, the threat of infectious diseases and biosecurity. It draws attention to forms of calculated practices which Foucault notes as technologies of power that aim to foster positive demographic and economic trends in societies through the apparatus of security. These practices are employed at the global level with similar ambitions; hence, we adopt the term global governmentality. We discuss the applications of global governmentality by actors in the global core through the apparatus of security and (neo)liberal economic practices. We then provide examples of resistance/contestation from actors mainly in the global periphery through discussions of viral sovereignty; access to essential medicines, including HIV drugs; and health for all as a human right. We conclude that despite the core-periphery power asymmetry and competing paradigms, these developments tend to complement and/or regulate the phenomenon termed global governmentality, which is made evident by the tremendous successes in global health.

  3. A Landscape-Scale Approach to Refuge System Planning

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Planning Implementation Team (PIT) was chartered to address Recommendation 1 (Incorporate the lessons learned from our first round of CCPs and HMPs into the next...

  4. Methodical approaches in the Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources; Metodiske problemstillinger ved Samlet plan for vassdrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowitz, Einar

    1997-12-31

    The Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources instructs the management not to consider applications for concession to develop hydroelectric projects in the so called category II of the plan. These are the environmentally most controversial projects or the most expensive projects. This report discusses the methods used in this Master Plan to classify the projects. The question whether the assessments of the environmental disadvantages of hydropower development are reasonable is approached in two ways: (1) Compare the environmental costs imbedded in the Plan with direct assessments, and (2) Discuss the appropriateness of the methodology used for environmental evaluations in the Plan. The report concludes that (1) the environmental costs that can be derived from the ranking in the Plan are significantly greater than those following from direct evaluations, (2) the differences are generally so great that one may ask whether the methods used in the Plan overestimate the real environmental costs, (3) it seems to have been difficult to make a unified assessment of the environmental disadvantages, (4) the Plan has considered the economic impact on agriculture and forestry very roughly and indirectly, which may have contributed to overestimated environmental costs of hydropower development. 20 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Environmental planning, ecosystem science, and ecosystem approaches for integrating environment and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, D. Scott

    1993-05-01

    Currently popular concepts such as sustainable development and sustainability seek the integration of environment and development planning. However, there is little evidence that this integration is occurring in either mainstream development planning or environmental planning. This is a function of the history, philosophies, and evolved roles of both. A brief review of the experience and results of mainstream planning, environmental planning, and ecosystem science suggests there is much in past scientific and professional practice that is relevant to the goal of integrated planning for environment and development, but still such commonly recommended reforms as systems and multidisciplinary approaches, institutional integration, and participatory, goal-oriented processes are rarely achieved. “Ecosystem approaches,” as developed and applied in ecology, human ecology, environmental planning, anthropology, psychology, and other disciplines, may provide a more transdisciplinary route to successful integration of environment and development. Experience with ecosystem approaches is reviewed, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed, and they are compared to traditional urban and regional planning, environmental planning, and ecosystem science approaches. Ultimately a synthesis of desirable characteristics for a framework to integrate environment and development planning is presented as a guide for future work and a criterion for evaluating existing programs.

  6. Use of Bayesian Belief Network techniques to explore the interaction of biosecurity practices on the probability of porcine disease occurrence in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ruth; Revie, Crawford W; Hurnik, Daniel; Sanchez, Javier

    2016-09-01

    Identification and quantification of pathogen threats need to be a priority for the Canadian swine industry so that resources can be focused where they will be most effective. Here we create a tool based on a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) to model the interaction between biosecurity practices and the probability of occurrence of four different diseases on Canadian swine farms. The benefits of using this novel approach, in comparison to other methods, is that it enables us to explore both the complex interaction and the relative importance of biosecurity practices on the probability of disease occurrence. In order to build the BBN we used two datasets. The first dataset detailed biosecurity practices employed on 218 commercial swine farms across Canada in 2010. The second dataset detailed animal health status and disease occurrence on 90 of those farms between 2010 and 2012. We used expert judgement to identify 15 biosecurity practices that were considered the most important in mitigating disease occurrence on farms. These included: proximity to other livestock holdings, the health status of purchased stock, manure disposal methods, as well as the procedures for admitting vehicles and staff. Four diseases were included in the BBN: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), (a prevalent endemic aerosol pathogen), Swine influenza (SI) (a viral respiratory aerosol pathogen), Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP) (an endemic respiratory disease spread by close contact and aerosol) and Swine dysentery (SD) (an enteric disease which is re-emerging in North America). This model indicated that the probability of disease occurrence was influenced by a number of manageable biosecurity practices. Increased probability of PRRS and of MP were associated with spilt feed (feed that did not fall directly in a feeding trough), not being disposed of immediately and with manure being brought onto the farm premises and spread on land adjacent to the pigs. Increased probabilities of SI

  7. Solving an aggregate production planning problem by using multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripon Kumar Chakrabortty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In hierarchical production planning system, Aggregate Production Planning (APP falls between the broad decisions of long-range planning and the highly specific and detailed short-range planning decisions. This study develops an interactive Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA approach for solving the multi-product, multi-period aggregate production planning (APP with forecasted demand, related operating costs, and capacity. The proposed approach attempts to minimize total costs with reference to inventory levels, labor levels, overtime, subcontracting and backordering levels, and labor, machine and warehouse capacity. Here several genetic algorithm parameters are considered for solving NP-hard problem (APP problem and their relative comparisons are focused to choose the most auspicious combination for solving multiple objective problems. An industrial case demonstrates the feasibility of applying the proposed approach to real APP decision problems. Consequently, the proposed MOGA approach yields an efficient APP compromise solution for large-scale problems.

  8. Measuring the costs of biosecurity on poultry farms: a case study in broiler production in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Farm-level biosecurity provides the foundation for biosecurity along the entire production chain. Many risk management practices are constantly in place, regardless of whether there is a disease outbreak or not. Nonetheless, the farm-level costs of preventive biosecurity have rarely been assessed. We examined the costs incurred by preventive biosecurity for Finnish poultry farms. Methods We used a semi-structured phone interview and obtained results from 17 broiler producers and from 5 hatching egg producers, corresponding to about 10% of all producers in Finland. Results Our results indicate that the average cost of biosecurity is some 3.55 eurocent per bird for broiler producers (0.10 eurocent per bird per rearing day) and 75.7 eurocent per bird for hatching egg producers (0.27 eurocent per bird per rearing day). For a batch of 75,000 broilers, the total cost would be €2,700. The total costs per bird are dependent on the annual number of birds: the higher the number of birds, the lower the cost per bird. This impact is primarily due to decreasing labour costs rather than direct monetary costs. Larger farms seem to utilise less labour per bird for biosecurity actions. There are also differences relating to the processor with which the producer is associated, as well as to the gender of the producer, with female producers investing more in biosecurity. Bird density was found to be positively related to the labour costs of biosecurity. This suggests that when the bird density is higher, greater labour resources need to be invested in their health and welfare and hence disease prevention. The use of coccidiostats as a preventive measure to control coccidiosis was found to have the largest cost variance between the producers, contributing to the direct costs. Conclusions The redesign of cost-sharing in animal diseases is currently ongoing in the European Union. Before we can assert how the risk should be shared or resort to the 'polluter pays' principle

  9. From justice in planning toward planning for justice: A capability approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basta, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of Rawls’ Theory and Sen’s Idea of justice to contemporary planning theory by drawing on the writings of the two philosophers. Besides providing a comprehensive account of what the two respective frameworks imply for the foundation of public planning and for the

  10. Evaluation of egg production after adoption of biosecurity strategies by backyard poultry farmers in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Samanta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: On the basis of identified source of major bacterial infections at four agro-climatic zones in West Bengal the cost-effective biosecurity strategy was formulated for backyard poultry farmers. The aim of the present study was to assess the adoption. So, the study was aimed to detect the adoption level of the formulated biosecurity strategy to mitigate the Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination level in the sources and its correlation with egg production in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared querying regarding the biosecurity measures presently followed by the farmers, if any and egg production of their birds. Subsequent to the interview the formulated biosecurity strategy was conveyed. After 3 months, the interview with the same questionnaire was conducted to the same farmers to detect their adoption level. Results: The change in practices were noted in certain parameters which differs significantly (p<0.01 or p<0.05. As a consequence, the average egg production/flock was increased in 3 months after adoption of the strategy (618.2±37.77/flock in comparison to last 3 months average before adoption of the strategy (495.3±30.00/flock which also differs significantly (p<0.01. Conclusion: The present study detected the implementation of the biosecurity strategy in backyard poultry farming in West Bengal can substantially benefit the farmers in terms of increased egg production.

  11. A survey of biosecurity-related practices, opinions and communications across dairy farm veterinarians and advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, R G; Good, M; Sayers, G P

    2014-05-01

    Biosecurity at farm-level can often be poorly implemented, and lack of information has been cited by many studies as a potential explanation. Veterinary practitioners (VPs) and dairy advisors (DAs) play a central role in the provision of animal health and management services to dairy farmers. The objective of this study was to document and compare biosecurity-related practices and opinions across VPs and DAs in Ireland. A selection of veterinary experts (VEs) from outside of Ireland was also surveyed. Questionnaires were completed and response rates of 47% (VPs), 97% (DAs), and 65% (VEs) were achieved. Significant differences were identified in the promotion and implementation of biosecurity between VPs and DAs, with a higher proportion of VPs regularly receiving requests from (P = 0.004), and dispensing advice to (P biosecurity implementation, the majority of VPs (62%) prioritised external factors such as 'economic benefit' and 'mandatory obligation', while the majority of DAs prioritised health/animal-related factors (69%), which were similar to those of farmers (83.1%), although they remained significantly less likely (OR = 1.8) than farmers to choose such motivators (P = 0.005). Inconsistencies in the implementation of, and in opinions relating to, farm biosecurity were highlighted across all the groups surveyed emphasising the need for standardised information and improved communication.

  12. The Single And Multi Project Approach To Planning And Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2008-01-01

    The fragmentation of the construction industry in Denmark is reflected in the organisation of construction projects, which typically involves a large number of subcontractors. The main contractor, being responsible for the planning and scheduling of construction work, is thus faced......, reallocations of subcontracting resources lead to project interruptions which counteract on the overall productivity of the single construction project. Thus, there is a planning and scheduling conflict between the operational multi project management of the subcontracting firm and the management of single...... projects carried out by the management on site. This paper explains the single and multi project perspective on construction planning and scheduling represented by the main and the subcontractors and further, it describes how the prevailing scheduling method of today, i.e. the critical path method, conduce...

  13. Mobile transporter path planning using a genetic algorithm approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffes, Paul; Wang, Lui

    1988-01-01

    The use of an optimization technique known as a genetic algorithm for solving the mobile transporter path planning problem is investigated. The mobile transporter is a traveling robotic vehicle proposed for the Space Station which must be able to reach any point of the structure autonomously. Specific elements of the genetic algorithm are explored in both a theoretical and experimental sense. Recent developments in genetic algorithm theory are shown to be particularly effective in a path planning problem domain, though problem areas can be cited which require more research. However, trajectory planning problems are common in space systems and the genetic algorithm provides an attractive alternative to the classical techniques used to solve these problems.

  14. Weighted Additive Fuzzy Goal Programming Approach to Aggregate Production Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed. Mekidiche

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new formulation of Weighted Additive fuzzy goal programming model developed by Yaghoobi and Tamiz [21]. and Yaghoobi et al [22] for aggregate production planning (WAFGP-APP, The proposed formulation attempts to minimize total production and work force costs, carrying inventory costs and rates of changes in Work force. A real-world industrial case study demonstrates applicability of proposed model to practical APP decision problems. LINGO computer package has been used to solve final crisp linear programming problem package and getting optimal production plan.

  15. Multi-criteria analysis and systemic planning: Towards a tetra-logical approach to planning and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This paper presents systemic planning (SP) with emphasis on multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Specifically, SP is presented as a “tetra-logical” methodology approach with MCDA as one out of four major method orientations. The Danish-Swedish Øresund Fixed Link is used as application example...

  16. A Fuzzy Linear Programming Approach for Aggregate Production Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Cevikcan, Emre

    2014-01-01

    a mathematical programming framework for aggregate production planning problem under imprecise data environment. After providing background information about APP problem, together with fuzzy linear programming, the fuzzy linear programming model of APP is solved on an illustrative example for different a...

  17. A stochastic optimization approach for integrated urban water resource planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Chen, J; Zeng, S; Sun, F; Dong, X

    2013-01-01

    Urban water is facing the challenges of both scarcity and water quality deterioration. Consideration of nonconventional water resources has increasingly become essential over the last decade in urban water resource planning. In addition, rapid urbanization and economic development has led to an increasing uncertain water demand and fragile water infrastructures. Planning of urban water resources is thus in need of not only an integrated consideration of both conventional and nonconventional urban water resources including reclaimed wastewater and harvested rainwater, but also the ability to design under gross future uncertainties for better reliability. This paper developed an integrated nonlinear stochastic optimization model for urban water resource evaluation and planning in order to optimize urban water flows. It accounted for not only water quantity but also water quality from different sources and for different uses with different costs. The model successfully applied to a case study in Beijing, which is facing a significant water shortage. The results reveal how various urban water resources could be cost-effectively allocated by different planning alternatives and how their reliabilities would change.

  18. Planning Additions to Academic Library Buildings: A Seamless Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Pat, Ed.; Martin, Ron G., Ed.

    This document presents three case studies that illustrate how library staffs and architectural design teams can work together to plan additions that are successful solutions to building problems. The case studies cover the experiences of Hope College, Holland, Michigan (David Jensen, Margaret Jensen), Western Maryland College, Westminster,…

  19. Strategic by Design: Iterative Approaches to Educational Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Linear planning and decision-making models assume a level of predictability that is uncommon today. Such models inadequately address the complex variables found in higher education. When academic organizations adopt paired-down business strategies, they restrict their own vision. They fail to harness emerging opportunities or learn from their own…

  20. Cluster randomised trial of the impact of biosecurity measures on poultry health in backyard flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, Anne; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Holl, Davun; Ra, Sok; Ponsich, Aurélia; Tarantola, Arnaud; Sorn, San; Vong, Sirenda

    2013-12-01

    In Cambodia, most poultry are raised in backyard flocks with a low level of biosecurity, which increases the risk of spread of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a practical biosecurity intervention based on affordable basic measures. A cluster randomised trial was conducted in 18 villages in Cambodia from November 2009 to February 2011. Generalised estimating equations were used to test the association between the intervention and mortality rates in flocks of chickens and ducks. Mortality rates in chicken flocks in intervention villages (mean 6.3%, range 3.5-13.8%, per month) were significantly higher than in control villages (mean 4.5%, range 2.0-9.7%, per month; Pbiosecurity intervention implemented in this study was not associated with improvements in poultry mortality rates. These findings suggest that basic biosecurity measures may not suffice to limit the spread of infectious diseases in backyard poultry flocks in Cambodia.

  1. Avian influenza transmission risks: analysis of biosecurity measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssematimba, A; Hagenaars, T J; de Wit, J J; Ruiterkamp, F; Fabri, T H; Stegeman, J A; de Jong, M C M

    2013-04-01

    In the 2003 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Dutch poultry, between-farm virus transmission continued for considerable time despite control measures. Gaining more insight into the mechanisms of this spread is necessary for the possible development of better control strategies. We carried out an in-depth interview study aiming to systematically explore all the poultry production activities to identify the activities that could potentially be related to virus introduction and transmission. One of the between-farm contact risks that were identified is the movement of birds between farms during thinning with violations of on-farm biosecurity protocols. In addition, several other risky management practices, risky visitor behaviours and biosecurity breaches were identified. They include human and fomite contacts that occurred without observing biosecurity protocols, poor waste management practices, presence of other animal species on poultry farms, and poor biosecurity against risks from farm neighbourhood activities. Among the detailed practices identified, taking cell phones and jewellery into poultry houses, not observing shower-in protocols and the exchange of unclean farm equipment were common. Also, sometimes certain protocols or biosecurity facilities were lacking. We also asked the interviewed farmers about their perception of transmission risks and found that they had divergent opinions about the visitor- and neighbourhood-associated risks. We performed a qualitative assessment of contact risks (as transmission pathways) based on contact type, corresponding biosecurity practices, and contact frequency. This assessment suggests that the most risky contact types are bird movements during thinning and restocking, most human movements accessing poultry houses and proximity to other poultry farms. The overall risk posed by persons and equipment accessing storage rooms and the premises-only contacts was considered to be medium. Most of the exposure

  2. Biosecurity measures for backyard poultry in developing countries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conan Anne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry represents an important sector in animal production, with backyard flocks representing a huge majority, especially in the developing countries. In these countries, villagers raise poultry to meet household food demands and as additional sources of incomes. Backyard production methods imply low biosecurity measures and high risk of infectious diseases, such as Newcastle disease or zoonosis such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI. We reviewed literature on biosecurity practices for prevention of infectious diseases, and published recommendations for backyard poultry and assessed evidence of their impact and feasibility, particularly in developing countries. Documents were sourced from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO website, and from Pubmed and Google databases. Results A total of 62 peer-reviewed and non-referred documents were found, most of which were published recently (after 2004 and focused on HPAI/H5N1-related biosecurity measures (64%. Recommendations addressed measures for flock management, feed and water management, poultry trade and stock change, poultry health management and the risk to humans. Only one general guideline was found for backyard poultry-related biosecurity; the other documents were drawn up for specific developing settings and only engaged their authors (e.g. consultants. These national guidelines written by consultants generated recommendations regarding measures derived from the highest standards of commercial poultry production. Although biosecurity principles of isolation and containment are described in most documents, only a few documents were found on the impact of measures in family poultry settings and none gave any evidence of their feasibility and effectiveness for backyard poultry. Conclusions Given the persistent threat posed by HPAI/H5N1 to humans in developing countries, our findings highlight the importance of encouraging applied research toward identifying

  3. Putting people on the map through an approach that integrates social data in conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanson, Sheri L; Mascia, Michael B

    2014-10-01

    Conservation planning is integral to strategic and effective operations of conservation organizations. Drawing upon biological sciences, conservation planning has historically made limited use of social data. We offer an approach for integrating data on social well-being into conservation planning that captures and places into context the spatial patterns and trends in human needs and capacities. This hierarchical approach provides a nested framework for characterizing and mapping data on social well-being in 5 domains: economic well-being, health, political empowerment, education, and culture. These 5 domains each have multiple attributes; each attribute may be characterized by one or more indicators. Through existing or novel data that display spatial and temporal heterogeneity in social well-being, conservation scientists, planners, and decision makers may measure, benchmark, map, and integrate these data within conservation planning processes. Selecting indicators and integrating these data into conservation planning is an iterative, participatory process tailored to the local context and planning goals. Social well-being data complement biophysical and threat-oriented social data within conservation planning processes to inform decisions regarding where and how to conserve biodiversity, provide a structure for exploring socioecological relationships, and to foster adaptive management. Building upon existing conservation planning methods and insights from multiple disciplines, this approach to putting people on the map can readily merge with current planning practices to facilitate more rigorous decision making.

  4. Methodological approaches to developing a plan of land and economic unit of the settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with problematic of legislation, the legal relations regulated by which are associated with the use of land in the settlements of Ukraine. Methodological approaches on the development of the plan on land-economic settlements unit have been suggested. It is proved that the land management documentation provides an effective planning of the territorial development of urban and rural settlements.

  5. An LNS Approach for Container Stowage Multi-port Master Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario

    2013-01-01

    The generation of competitive stowage plans have become a priority for the shipping industry. Stowage planning is NP-hard and is a challenging optimization problem in practice. Two-phase decomposition approaches have proved to give viable solutions. We propose a large neighborhood search (LNS) to...

  6. A knowledge discovery in databases approach for industrial microgrid planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamarra, Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.; Montero, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    to minimize the environmental impact of manufacturing processes. At the same time, microgrid architectures are progressively being developed, proving to be suitable for supplying energy to continuous and intensive consumptions, such as manufacturing processes. In the merge of these two tendencies, industrial...... microgrid development could be considered a step forward towards more sustainable manufacturing processes if planning engineers are capable to design a power supply system, not only focused on historical demand data, but also on manufacturing and environmental data. The challenge is to develop a more...... sustainable and proactive microgrid which allows identifying, designing and developing energy efficiency strategies at supply, management and energy use levels. In this context, the expansion of Internet of Things and Knowledge Discovery in Databases techniques will drive changes in current microgrid planning...

  7. An integrated approach for warehouse design and planning

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Guilherme; Geraldes, Carla Alexandra Soares; Carvalho, Maria Sameiro

    2011-01-01

    Warehouse design and planning is a great challenge in the field of Supply Chain Management. Inventory level management, warehouse design and operations, and customers’ requirements are examples of important challenges in this context. Throughout this work we discuss a mathematical model aiming to support some warehouse management decisions and inventory decisions. Our aim is to show model’s potentialities and weaknesses when applied to real world problems and to identify challenging research ...

  8. Including the public in pandemic planning: a deliberative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braunack-Mayer Annette J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Against a background of pandemic threat posed by SARS and avian H5N1 influenza, this study used deliberative forums to elucidate informed community perspectives on aspects of pandemic planning. Methods Two deliberative forums were carried out with members of the South Australian community. The forums were supported by a qualitative study with adults and youths, systematic reviews of the literature and the involvement of an extended group of academic experts and policy makers. The forum discussions were recorded with simultaneous transcription and analysed thematically. Results Participants allocated scarce resources of antiviral drugs and pandemic vaccine based on a desire to preserve society function in a time of crisis. Participants were divided on the acceptability of social distancing and quarantine measures. However, should such measures be adopted, they thought that reasonable financial, household and psychological support was essential. In addition, provided such support was present, the participants, in general, were willing to impose strict sanctions on those who violated quarantine and social distancing measures. Conclusions The recommendations from the forums suggest that the implementation of pandemic plans in a severe pandemic will be challenging, but not impossible. Implementation may be more successful if the public is engaged in pandemic planning before a pandemic, effective communication of key points is practiced before and during a pandemic and if judicious use is made of supportive measures to assist those in quarantine or affected by social isolation measures.

  9. [Biosecurity and clinical care nursing: contributions for the promotion of worker's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Samanta Rauber; Fontana, Rosane Teresinha

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative study that aimed at investigating concepts and practices of nursing technicians on biosecurity and its interface with biological hazards, with 20 workers developed a clinical care unit of a hospital in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul. Data were collected through interviews and systematic observation. Thematic analysis was the methodology used for data processing. The negligence of its employees on the use of individual protection equipment and work overload are risk factors for accidents with biological material. Suggested that partnerships between the actors involved in caring for the construction of healthy environments and accountability for negligence on biosecurity.

  10. 我国生物安全能力可持续发展的重点%Priorities of biosecurity capacity-building for sustainable development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑涛; 沈倍奋; 黄培堂

    2012-01-01

    生物安全是指全球化时代国家有效应对生物及其技术因素的影响和威胁,维护和保障自身安全与利益的状态和能力.生物安全的能力建设主要包括监测、预警、鉴别、处置、恢复等方面.未来相当长时期我国生物安全能力建设应突出重点,有计划地加强针对高风险病原体的疫苗和药物基础与开发研究能力,全面加强基于建模与多种信息资源融合的风险预测与危害评估分析能力,重视加强新兴生物技术谬用的风险评估能力,确保生物安全能力的可持续发展.%Biosecurity refers to the effective response of countries to biological and biotechnical threats, safeguard and protect national security and interest in the era of globalization. Biosecurity capability building involves monitoring, early warning, identification, disposal and recovery. China should work out a long-term plan to strengthen the research and development of vaccines and drugs for high-risk pathogens, strengthen risk prediction and hazard assessment based on modeling and integration of a variety of information resources, and enhance the risk assessability of emerging biotechnology abuse to ensure the sustainable development of biosecurity capability.

  11. Spatial Planning for Sustainable Development: An Action Planning Approach for Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Silver

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penataan ruang di kota-kota Indonesia telah menjadi suatu proses politis sejak diberlakukannya otonomi tahun 2001. Hal ini telah membangkitkan ekspektasi masyarakat untuk menuntut pemerintah agar perencanaan dan implementasinya lebih memperhatikan kepentingan mereka. Proses perencanaan dari bawah tidaklah cukup untuk menghadapi tantangan-tantangan suatu proses yang terpolitisasi, terlebih apabila perencanaan tersebut lebih difokuskan pada proyek-proyek raksasa yang berdampak kecil pada kehidupan sehari-hari. Sebagaimana ditunjukkan oleh sektor pengelolaan air di Jakarta, suatu proses perencanaan tindak yang menyatukan intervensi jangka pendek dan jangka panjang kemungkinan besar akan mendapat dukungan politis bila dapat membuat proses di pemerintah lebih tahan terhadap permasalahan yang terus ada, dan apabila mengambil langkah nyata untuk mewujudkan lingkungan yang lebih berkelanjutan.Kata Kunci: Perencanaan spasial, pembangunan berkelanjutan, JakartaAbstract: Spatial planning in Indonesian cities has become an increasingly political process since the implementation of decentralization after 2001. This has elevated the expectation of public groups to demand the government-led planning and implementation to specifically address their concerns. The bottom-up plan making process is in itself insufficient to address the challenges of a politicized process, especially when the focus of the planning is largely on mega-projects that have little impact on everyday life. As demonstrated in the area of water management in Jakarta, an action planning process that melds short term and long term interventions is more likely to gain political backing, especially if its enables the government processes to become more resilient in the face of continuous problems, and if it takes concrete steps to realize a more sustainable environment.Keywords: Spatial planning, sustainable development, Jakarta

  12. A Knowledge-Based Approach to Improving and Homogenizing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning Quality Among Treatment Centers: An Example Application to Prostate Cancer Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, David [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Lo, Joseph [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiology and Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Wu, Q. Jackie; Yin, Fang-Fang [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Das, Shiva K., E-mail: shiva.das@duke.edu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning can have wide variation among different treatment centers. We propose a system to leverage the IMRT planning experience of larger institutions to automatically create high-quality plans for outside clinics. We explore feasibility by generating plans for patient datasets from an outside institution by adapting plans from our institution. Methods and Materials: A knowledge database was created from 132 IMRT treatment plans for prostate cancer at our institution. The outside institution, a community hospital, provided the datasets for 55 prostate cancer cases, including their original treatment plans. For each “query” case from the outside institution, a similar “match” case was identified in the knowledge database, and the match case’s plan parameters were then adapted and optimized to the query case by use of a semiautomated approach that required no expert planning knowledge. The plans generated with this knowledge-based approach were compared with the original treatment plans at several dose cutpoints. Results: Compared with the original plan, the knowledge-based plan had a significantly more homogeneous dose to the planning target volume and a significantly lower maximum dose. The volumes of the rectum, bladder, and femoral heads above all cutpoints were nominally lower for the knowledge-based plan; the reductions were significantly lower for the rectum. In 40% of cases, the knowledge-based plan had overall superior (lower) dose–volume histograms for rectum and bladder; in 54% of cases, the comparison was equivocal; in 6% of cases, the knowledge-based plan was inferior for both bladder and rectum. Conclusions: Knowledge-based planning was superior or equivalent to the original plan in 95% of cases. The knowledge-based approach shows promise for homogenizing plan quality by transferring planning expertise from more experienced to less experienced institutions.

  13. Planning Approaches to the Management of Water Problems in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ruelas-Monjardin, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter it has been established that Mexico figures among the nations facing severe scarcity. Scarcity was defined as a situation where population has less than 1000 cubic meter per capita per year to satisfy their basic needs. In order to face problems like scarcity, the Mexican government has employed three different approaches. The supply oriented approach was just conceived to solve particular problems and specific or sectoral water demands, eg. To enable and improve irrigation, t...

  14. Analytic network process (ANP approach for product mix planning in railway industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Pazoki Toroudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Given the competitive environment in the global market in recent years, organizations need to plan for increased profitability and optimize their performance. Planning for an appropriate product mix plays essential role for the success of most production units. This paper applies analytical network process (ANP approach for product mix planning for a part supplier in Iran. The proposed method uses four criteria including cost of production, sales figures, supply of raw materials and quality of products. In addition, the study proposes different set of products as alternatives for production planning. The preliminary results have indicated that that the proposed study of this paper could increase productivity, significantly.

  15. The New Approach : A New Model to Develop a Plan Proposal. North Strathfield, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Klåvus, Malin; Lennartsson, Elenor

    2009-01-01

    This diploma work is carried through in Australia on a site in North Strathfield in the Sydney region. The whole work is built up around the idea to do four plan proposals that are optimized from different aspects. These aspects are chosen because we believe they are the most important issues in planning. Our four approaches are transportation, commercial, environmental and social aspects which will be joined into one final plan proposal. For each approach we have chosen what to focus on to d...

  16. A 3-Component Approach Incorporating Focus Groups in Strategic Planning for Sexual Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Woelk, Leona; Bear, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence is of special concern in New Mexico because of the presence of large priority populations in which its prevalence is high. This article describes a 3-component approach to developing a strategic plan to prevent sexual violence in the state that consisted of an advisory group, subject matter experts, and focus groups from geographically and demographically diverse communities. Both common and community-specific themes emerged from the focus groups and were included in the strategic plan. By incorporating community needs and experiences, this approach fosters increased investment in plan implementation.

  17. Revisiting a programmatic planning approach: managing linkages between transport and land use planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Tim; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The body of knowledge on transport and land use planning shows considerable overlap with management theories and practices. Notable examples can be found in project management and strategic management. Recently, in the field of management theory, the idea of programme management has gained prominenc

  18. Business plan: A preliminary approach to an unknown genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Navarro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The business plan has been widely included in the curricula of economics degrees and is key to business practice worldwide, but has not been studied from a socio-discursive perspective yet due to restrictions in its social, spatial, and temporal circulation. Based on interviews and a qualitative analysis of a corpus of 38 texts written in Spanish, I aim to provide a preliminary description of the genre. Results indicate that a chain of four phases is associated to a continuum of social settings organized through entrepreneurial/corporate and expert/training variables; its rhetorical structure includes “describing present/potential situation of the company and market” and “describing future processes of strategic actions regarding the marketing, production, and financial plans”. This analysis offers methodological innovations to account for occluded genres, encourages the contrastive study of the business plan in different cultural and linguistic environments, and assists business teachers with a situated picture of the genre

  19. A moment-based approach for DVH-guided radiotherapy treatment plan optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarepisheh, M.; Shakourifar, M.; Trigila, G.; Ghomi, P. S.; Couzens, S.; Abebe, A.; Noreña, L.; Shang, W.; Jiang, Steve B.; Zinchenko, Y.

    2013-03-01

    The dose-volume histogram (DVH) is a clinically relevant criterion to evaluate the quality of a treatment plan. It is hence desirable to incorporate DVH constraints into treatment plan optimization for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Yet, the direct inclusion of the DVH constraints into a treatment plan optimization model typically leads to great computational difficulties due to the non-convex nature of these constraints. To overcome this critical limitation, we propose a new convex-moment-based optimization approach. Our main idea is to replace the non-convex DVH constraints by a set of convex moment constraints. In turn, the proposed approach is able to generate a Pareto-optimal plan whose DVHs are close to, or if possible even outperform, the desired DVHs. In particular, our experiment on a prostate cancer patient case demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach by employing two and three moment formulations to approximate the desired DVHs.

  20. A greedy-navigator approach to navigable city plans

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sang Hoon

    2012-01-01

    We use a set of four theoretical navigability indices for street maps to investigate the shape of the resulting street networks, if they are grown by optimizing these indices. The indices compare the performance of simulated navigators (having a partial information about the surroundings, like humans in many real situations) to the performance of optimally navigating individuals. We show that our simple greedy shortcut construction strategy generates the emerging structures that are different from real road network, but not inconceivable. The resulting city plans, for all navigation indices, share common qualitative properties such as the tendency for triangular blocks to appear, while the more quantitative features, such as degree distributions and clustering, are characteristically different depending on the type of metrics and routing strategies. We show that it is the type of metrics used which determines the overall shapes characterized by structural heterogeneity, but the routing schemes contribute to m...

  1. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  2. Approaching value added planning in the green environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to link economic value to urban green spaces to enhance the value of green urban spaces, along with the added benefit it can offer to the urban environment. Design/methodology/approach – As part of the VALUE project (Valuing Attractive Landscapes in the Urban E

  3. State-of-the-art in biosafety and biosecurity in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Anna; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar

    2014-06-01

    The terms biosafety and biosecurity are widely used in different concepts and refer not only to protection of human beings and their surrounding environment against hazardous biological agent, but also to global disarmament of weapons of mass destruction. As a result, the biosafety and biosecurity issues should be considered interdisciplinary based on multilateral agreements against proliferation of biological weapons, public health and environmental protection. This publication presents information on both, international and national biosafety and biosecurity legislation. Status of national implementation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, penalization issues and measures to account for and secure production, use, storage of particularly dangerous pathogens or activities involving humans, plants and animals where infection may pose a risk have been analyzed. Safety and security measures in laboratories have been studied. Moreover, dual-use technology and measures of secure transport of biohazard materials have been also taken into account. In addition, genetic engineering regulations, biosecurity activities in laboratories and code of conducts have been investigated, as well.

  4. Prevention of losses for hog farmers in China: insurance, on-farm biosecurity practices, and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-hua; Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chen, Kevin Z

    2013-10-01

    Using agricultural household survey data and claim records from insurers in China, this paper analyzes hog producers' choice of the ways to prevent possible losses and identifies the relationships among biosecurity practices, vaccination, and hog insurance. By combining one probit and two structural equations, we adopt three-stage estimations by a mixed-process model to obtain results. The findings indicate that biosecurity practices provide the basic infrastructure for operating pig farms and complement both the usage of quality vaccines and the uptake of hog insurance. In addition, there is a strong substitution relationship between the quality of vaccine and the demand for hog insurance. Hog farmers that implement better biosecurity practices are more likely to seek high-quality vaccines or buy into hog insurance schemes, but not both. For those households with hog insurance, better biosecurity status, better management practices, and higher-quality vaccines significantly help to reduce loss ratios. However, we also find a moral hazard effect in that higher premium expenditures by the insured households might induce larger loss ratios.

  5. Biosecurity and yield improvement technologies are strategic complements in the fight against food insecurity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Cook

    Full Text Available The delivery of food security via continued crop yield improvement alone is not an effective food security strategy, and must be supported by pre- and post-border biosecurity policies to guard against perverse outcomes. In the wake of the green revolution, yield gains have been in steady decline, while post-harvest crop losses have increased as a result of insufficiently resourced and uncoordinated efforts to control spoilage throughout global transport and storage networks. This paper focuses on the role that biosecurity is set to play in future food security by preventing both pre- and post-harvest losses, thereby protecting crop yield. We model biosecurity as a food security technology that may complement conventional yield improvement policies if the gains in global farm profits are sufficient to offset the costs of implementation and maintenance. Using phytosanitary measures that slow global spread of the Ug99 strain of wheat stem rust as an example of pre-border biosecurity risk mitigation and combining it with post-border surveillance and invasive alien species control efforts, we estimate global farm profitability may be improved by over US$4.5 billion per annum.

  6. Biosecurity State in Gamecock (Gallus gallus Breeding Farms in Yacuanquer, Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Astaíza Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry in Colombia is sanitarily controlled and regulated; therefore, gamecock breeding farms should be regulated, but to this moment there are no studies about the biosecurity measurements implemented, which is a growing concern due to the sanitary impact this might have on the poultry industry. The goal of this work was to assess the knowledge and application of biosecurity norms in gamecock (Gallus gallus breeding farms from the Yacuanquer municipality, in Nariño, Colombia, as regulated by Resolution 3642 of August 21st of 2013, issued by the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario. 157 breeders were surveyed, from which 88.54% does not recognize the biosecurity concept and does not control the entrance of people not related to the farm; 61.15% does not disinfect locations; 100% does not keep a pediluvium at the entrance of the farm nor do they carry out disinfection procedures for their vehicles; only 23.57% does a sanitary break inside their breeding farms and 63.7% does not put a quarantine period in place for the new specimens they acquire; 64.33% does not vaccinate and 98.09% does not have any veterinary advice. In conclusion, it was established that gamecock breeders in Yacuanquer do not know and have not implemented biosecurity measurements, which represents a risk factor for the poultry industry of the region.

  7. Survey of biosecurity protocols and practices adopted by growers on commercial poultry farms in Georgia, U. S. A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorea, F C; Berghaus, R; Hofacre, C; Cole, D J

    2010-09-01

    The integrated commercial poultry system is a highly connected network in which routine activities keep farms within a geographic area in constant contact. Consequently, biosecurity practices designed to minimize the transmission of infectious diseases between and within farms are an important component of modern flock health programs. A survey of Georgia poultry growers was conducted in order to assess the level of adoption of standard biosecurity measures by farm personnel and visitors. The results showed that compliance with recommended biosecurity practices did not significantly vary by company, farm size, or number of farms owned by the same grower. However, biosecurity was higher in the northern part of the state, where the density of farms is higher, and where there was an ongoing outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis at the time of the study. The survey found that growers place more emphasis on biosecurity measures targeting farm visitors than those targeting farm personnel. Most growers reported that all visitors to the farm were required to wear shoe covers, although visitors were not typically required to park outside the farm entrance or to wash tires on their vehicles. No visitor type was reportedly excluded from poultry houses during grow out on all farms. The results highlight the need to evaluate the comparative efficacy of specific biosecurity measures in order to set priorities and attain feasible rates of implementation of targeted biosecurity practices.

  8. Description of 44 biosecurity errors while entering and exiting poultry barns based on video surveillance in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Manon; Venne, Daniel; Durivage, André; Vaillancourt, Jean-Pierre

    2011-07-01

    The effectiveness of biosecurity measures depends largely on the consistency of their applications by all those involved in poultry production. Unfortunately, poor biosecurity compliance has been reported repeatedly in poultry, as well in all other major animal productions. As part of a larger study, we conducted an investigation on eight poultry farms in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate compliance of existing biosecurity measures using hidden cameras. The objectives were to evaluate and describe the application of biosecurity measures when entering and exiting poultry barns. A total of 44 different mistakes were observed from 883 visits done by 102 different individuals. On average, four errors were recorded per visit. The maximum number of errors made by one individual during one visit was 14. People observed over several visits made on average six different errors. Twenty-seven out of the 44 errors (61.4%) were related to area delimitation (clean versus contaminated), six to boots (13.6%), five to hand washing (11.4%), three to coveralls (6.8%) and three to logbooks (6.8%). The nature and frequency of errors suggest a lack of understanding of biosecurity principles. There is thus a need to improve biosecurity training by making educational material available to all poultry personnel demonstrating why and how to apply biosecurity measures.

  9. An Integrated Spreadsheet Approach to Production Planning and Control in the Introductory POM Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William

    1989-01-01

    Discusses an integrated approach for presenting production planning and control fundamentals at the survey level using a Lotus 1-2-3 template. This approach provides an overview of the relationships between the problem components and highlights managerial decision-making points. (Author/JOW)

  10. On-farm characteristics and biosecurity protocols for small-scale swine producers in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, N; Hernandez-Jover, M; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are considered high risk for the introduction and spread of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Australia. Facilities where animals from different origins are commingled, such as saleyards, pose a high risk for disease spread. Sound on-farm management practices and biosecurity protocols are the first line of defence against a potential on-farm disease outbreak. This study evaluated the practices of 104 producers (vendors who sold pigs and purchasers of live pigs for grow-out) who traded pigs at 6 peri-urban and rural saleyards in eastern Australia. Specifically, management and on-farm biosecurity practices were assessed using an in-depth questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate (1) producer associations: producer type, State, motivation to keep pigs, farm type, gender, years having owned pigs, and the acquisition of formal livestock qualifications; and (2) pig associations: herd size, housing, management (husbandry and feeding) practices and biosecurity (including pig movement) practices. Backyard operations (biosecurity practices. Producers who kept pigs for primary income were more likely to provide footwear precautions (P=0.007) and ask visitors about prior pig contacts (P=0.004). Approximately 40% of backyard and small-scale producers reported not having any quarantine practices in place for incoming pigs, compared to only 9.1% among larger producers. The main reasons cited for not adopting on-farm biosecurity practices in this study included having no need on their property (43.1%) and a lack of information and support (by the industry and/or authorities; 18.5%). Up to three-quarters of all producers maintained an open breeding herd, regularly introducing new pigs to the main herd. Saleyards are an important source of income for backyard and small-scale producers as well as an important risk factor for the introduction and dissemination of endemic and emerging animal diseases. Differing management and

  11. A complex systems approach to planning, optimization and decision making for energy networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Jessica; Kempener, Ruud [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Building J01, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Cohen, Brett [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa); Petrie, Jim [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Building J01, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    2008-08-15

    This paper explores a new approach to planning and optimization of energy networks, using a mix of global optimization and agent-based modeling tools. This approach takes account of techno-economic, environmental and social criteria, and engages explicitly with inherent network complexity in terms of the autonomous decision-making capability of individual agents within the network, who may choose not to act as economic rationalists. This is an important consideration from the standpoint of meeting sustainable development goals. The approach attempts to set targets for energy planning, by determining preferred network development pathways through multi-objective optimization. The viability of such plans is then explored through agent-based models. The combined approach is demonstrated for a case study of regional electricity generation in South Africa, with biomass as feedstock. (author)

  12. Determinants of Knowledge and Biosecurity Preventive Behaviors for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Risk Among Chinese Poultry Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bin; Liu, Zong Ping

    2016-06-01

    Biosecurity measures are the first line of defense against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) on farms. It is generally recognized that an individual's behavior can be influenced by the knowledge they possess. However, empirical study has not reported an association between poultry producers' awareness of HPAI symptoms and their actual biosecurity actions. The aim of this study is to classify knowledge items of HPAI by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and to examine the determinants of different types of knowledge and the effect of different types of knowledge on biosecurity preventive behaviors (BPBs). The survey (n = 297) was conducted using a questionnaire to measure the level of awareness of items related to HPAI and the actual adoption of BPBs among poultry farmers in the Chinese province of Jiangsu. The EFA revealed three main types of knowledge, which were categorized as avian influenza (AI) epidemic characteristics, primary biosecurity preventive knowledge (basic biosecurity preventive knowledge against AI), and essential biosecurity preventive knowledge (crucial biosecurity preventive knowledge against infection of AI). Multivariate regression showed that only poultry farmers' awareness of essential biosecurity preventive knowledge was positively associated with their actual BPBs. Additionally, educational attainment, number of years of experience raising poultry, farming operation size, and training were associated both with BPB and most of the knowledge factors or knowledge items. Training of existing poultry farmers is probably a feasible scheme; furthermore, the training should focus on the essential biosecurity preventive knowledge. On the other hand, policy initiatives to encourage large-scale poultry farming while discouraging small-scale backyard poultry husbandry would be an effective method of improving the management standards of rural poultry farming.

  13. Assessment of producers' response to Salmonella biosecurity issues and uptake of advice on laying hen farms in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, R J; Martelli, F; Wintrip, A; Sayers, A R; Wheeler, K; Davies, R H

    2014-01-01

    High standards of biosecurity are known to reduce the risk of disease outbreaks; however, uptake of advice and implementation of biosecurity measures are dependent on many factors. This study assessed the uptake of targeted biosecurity advice by 60 laying hen farms provided during biosecurity audit visits. Advice was provided as bullet point cards focusing on specific areas identified as benefitting from improvement. These covered site entrance, site tidiness, vaccination, boot hygiene, hand hygiene, house tidiness, rodent control, fly control, red mite control and cleaning and disinfection between flocks. Background knowledge of Salmonella and biosecurity and farmers' willingness and intent to implement additional measures were assessed. About 50% of the principal decision-makers had basic background knowledge of Salmonella, with 22% considered well informed; almost all agreed that biosecurity could impact on Salmonella control and many appeared willing to implement additional biosecurity measures. Sixty-three per cent of study farms were categorised using the Defra Farmer Segmentation Model as Modern Family Businesses (MFBs), with 7-11% of farms being categorised as Custodian, Lifestyle Choice, Pragmatist or Challenged Enterprise; however, categorisation, did not determine uptake of advice. The most frequently used advice cards were boot hygiene, red mite control, hand hygiene, site entrance and cleaning and disinfection; uptake of advice ranged from 54 to 80% depending on the advice card. Uptake of advice by the farmers was encouraging, especially considering it was being provided by people other than their usual source of biosecurity information. Those who did not implement the recommended measures cited cost, difficulty of enforcement and practicality as the main reasons. However, the positive uptake of advice and implementation of recommended measures by many farmers demonstrates that targeted advice, discussed face to face with farmers, on a small number of

  14. Solving touristic trip planning problem by using taboo search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Sylejmani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an algorithm that automatically plans a touristic trip by considering some hard and soft constrains. Opening and closing hours of POIs, trip duration and trip allocated budget represent the hard constraints, while the satisfaction factors of the POIs and travelling distance in the trip are considered as soft constraints. We use the soft constraints to evaluate the generated solution of the algorithm. The algorithm is developed by utilizing the taboo search method as a meta heuristic. The operators of Swap, Insert and Delete are used to explore the search space. The Swap and Insert operator are used in each iteration of the algorithm loop, while the Delete operator is used whenever the algorithm tends to enter in an endless cycle. The algorithm is developed by using Java programming language, while the data repositories are created in the XML format. The algorithm is tested with 40 instances of POIs of the city of Vienna. Various entry parameters of the algorithm are used to test its performance. The results gained are discussed and compared in respect to the optimal solution.

  15. A Motion Planning Approach to Studying Molecular Motions

    KAUST Repository

    Amato, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    While structurally very different, protein and RNA molecules share an important attribute. The motions they undergo are strongly related to the function they perform. For example, many diseases such as Mad Cow disease or Alzheimer\\'s disease are associated with protein misfolding and aggregation. Similarly, RNA folding velocity may regulate the plasmid copy number, and RNA folding kinetics can regulate gene expression at the translational level. Knowledge of the stability, folding, kinetics and detailed mechanics of the folding process may help provide insight into how proteins and RNAs fold. In this paper, we present an overview of our work with a computational method we have adapted from robotic motion planning to study molecular motions. We have validated against experimental data and have demonstrated that our method can capture biological results such as stochastic folding pathways, population kinetics of various conformations, and relative folding rates. Thus, our method provides both a detailed view (e.g., individual pathways) and a global view (e.g., population kinetics, relative folding rates, and reaction coordinates) of energy landscapes of both proteins and RNAs. We have validated these techniques by showing that we observe the same relative folding rates as shown in experiments for structurally similar protein molecules that exhibit different folding behaviors. Our analysis has also been able to predict the same relative gene expression rate for wild-type MS2 phage RNA and three of its mutants.

  16. A Different Approach to Strategic Planning Using Appreciative Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Openo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The interview describes the integration of Appreciative Inquiry (AI into the strategic planning cycle at Medicine Hat College. Appreciative Inquiry can play a powerful role in initiating and managing change through the process of asking generative questions. AI increases the possibility of introducing successful and transformative change at all levels within an organization. The interview was conducted in December 2015 by Innovations in Practice Editor Jennifer Easter. Dans l’entretien, il s’agit de l’intégration de l’enquête appréciative (Appreciative Inquiry en cycle de planification stratégique au Medicine Hat College. L’enquête appréciative peut jouer un rôle vigoureux dans l’initiation et la gestion de changement par le processus de poser des questions génératrices. L’enquête appréciative augmente la possibilité d’introduire le changement réussi et significatif à tous les niveaux d’une organisation. L’entretien a été mené en décembre de 2015 par Jennifer Easter, la rédactrice d’Innovations in Practice.

  17. Biosecurity on cattle farms: a study in north-west England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Brennan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have considered in detail the range of biosecurity practices undertaken on cattle farms, particularly within the UK. In this study, 56 cattle farmers in a 100 km² area of north-west England were questioned regarding their on-farm biosecurity practices, including those relating to animal movements, equipment sharing and companies and contractors visiting the farms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was great variation between farms in terms of the type of, and extent to which, biosecurity was carried out. For example, the majority of farmers did not isolate stock bought onto the farm, but a small proportion always isolated stock. Many farmers administered treatments post-movement, primarily vaccinations and anthelmintics, but very few farms reported carrying out any health checks after moving animals on. In addition, there appeared to be much variation in the amount of biosecurity carried out by the different companies and contractors visiting the farms. Deadstock collectors and contracted animal waste spreaders, although likely to have a high potential for contact with infectious agents, were reported to infrequently disinfect themselves and their vehicles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that although certain biosecurity practices are undertaken, many are carried out infrequently or not at all. This may be due to many factors, including cost (in time and money, lack of proven efficacies of practices and lack of relevant education of veterinary surgeons, producers and other herd health specialists. Further research exploring the reasons for the lack of uptake is imperative if preventive medicine is to be utilised fully by the farming industry.

  18. An in silico comparison between margin-based and probabilistic target-planning approaches in head and neck cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Laan, Hans Paul; Witte, Marnix; Shakirin, Georgy; Roelofs, Erik; Langendijk, Johannes; Larnbin, Philippe; van Herk, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To apply target probabilistic planning (TPP) approach to intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Material and methods: Twenty plans of HNC patients were re-planned replacing the simultaneous integrated boost IMRT optimization obj

  19. Project management a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling project management text for students and professionals-now updated and expanded This Eleventh Edition of the bestselling ""bible"" of project management maintains the streamlined approach of the prior editions and moves the content even closer to PMI''s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). New content has been added to this edition on measuring project management ROI, value to the organization and to customers, and much more. The capstone ""super"" case on the ""Iridium Project"" has been maintained, covering all aspects of project management. Increased use of sideba

  20. [Communicative approach of Situational Strategic Planning at the local level: health and equity in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Martínez, Henny Luz; Artmann, Elizabeth; Porto, Silvia Marta

    2010-06-01

    The article discusses the results of operationalizing Situational Strategic Planning adapted to the local level in health, considering the communicative approach and equity in a parish in Venezuela. Two innovative criteria were used: estimated health needs and analysis of the actors' potential for participation. The problems identified were compared to the corresponding article on rights in the Venezuelan Constitution. The study measured inequalities using health indicators associated with the selected problems; equity criteria were incorporated into the action proposals and communicative elements. Priority was assigned to the problem of "low case-resolving capacity in the health services network", and five critical points were selected for the action plan, which finally consisted of 6 operations and 21 actions. The article concludes that the combination of epidemiology and planning expands the situational explanation. Incorporation of the communicative approach and the equity dimension into Situational Strategic Planning allows empowering health management and helps decrease the gaps from inequality.

  1. Motion and operation planning of robotic systems background and practical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Barvo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the broad multi-disciplinary topic of robotics, and presents the basic techniques for motion and operation planning in robotics systems. Gathering contributions from experts in diverse and wide ranging fields, it offers an overview of the most recent and cutting-edge practical applications of these methodologies. It covers both theoretical and practical approaches, and elucidates the transition from theory to implementation. An extensive analysis is provided, including humanoids, manipulators, aerial robots and ground mobile robots. ‘Motion and Operation Planning of Robotic Systems’ addresses the following topics: *The theoretical background of robotics. *Application of motion planning techniques to manipulators, such as serial and parallel manipulators. *Mobile robots planning, including robotic applications related to aerial robots, large scale robots and traditional wheeled robots. *Motion planning for humanoid robots. An invaluable reference text for graduate students and researche...

  2. Contractors’ Strategic Approaches to Risk Assessment Techniques at Project Planning Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Zaini, Afzan; Endut, Intan Rohani; Takim, Roshana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract — The construction industry is still plagued by poor quality, poor workmanship, poor safety and health environment, and poor practices. The current main problem in the Malaysian Construction Industry is delayed projects under the Ninth Malaysia Plan. The idea of introducing formal risk assessment among Malaysian contractors during the project planning stage is a proactive approach to achieve project objectives. Therefore, this research intends to achieve the following objectives: (1)...

  3. Multidisciplinary Approach to a Recovery Plan of Historical Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the advantages of employing multiple data techniques—geology, GPS, surveys of cracking, boreholes, seismic refraction and electrical resistivity tomography—to image the shallow stratigraphy and hypothesize the cause of instability of an urban area. The study is focused on the joint interpretation of the crack pattern, topographic monitoring and the features of the underground, to define the area affected by instability and the direction of ground motion with the objective to advance a hypothesis on the cause of the instability of the area and to depict the main features. Borehole stratigraphies for a univocal interpretation of the lithology of electrical and seismic data and electrical resistivity tomography to constrain the interpretation of the lateral velocity variations and thickness of seismic bedrock were used. The geophysical surveys reveals to be complementary in the depicting of underground features. The study is approached at small and medium scale.

  4. Research approach for forming a new typology of spatial planning theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulajić Vladan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available What is being suggested in this paper is the research approach for the classification of theoretical contributions in the scientific domain of the spatial planning. Typology is a multidimensional classification, actually it is the framework for the understanding of the subject area, theory and practice, ideas and methodologies. The complex approach is needed to organize the complex and diverse domain of spatial planning theory, which has been shaped by different schools of thought and the influences of the related scientific disciplines. It has been suggested that the research approach becomes the bridge between two cultures, in other words it should be the synthesis of the qualitative and quantitative methods of the typology construction. With the analysis of the existing typologies, which are quantitatively derived, the chosen concepts will be improved and completed due to the computerized statistical analysis of the appropriate bibliometrical data. Moreover, the procedure in the opposite direction will be used, which also connects empiric types with their conceptual counterparts. With that approach, the main aim is to achieve the comprehensive classification scheme, which will take part of the platform for integration of the interdisciplinary approach in the spatial planning domain. That concept of the research belongs to the wider approach that has got the aim that with the scientific innovations and imaginations bring about the solving of the problems and challenges that the spatial planning faces with. The forming of the new typology is the first step in that direction.

  5. An Improved VFF Approach for Robot Path Planning in Unknown and Dynamic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot path planning in unknown and dynamic environments is one of the hot topics in the field of robot control. The virtual force field (VFF is an efficient path planning method for robot. However, there are some shortcomings of the traditional VFF based methods, such as the local minimum problem and the higher computational complexity, in dealing with the dynamic obstacle avoidance. In this paper, an improved VFF approach is proposed for the real-time robot path planning, where the environment is unknown and changing. An area ratio parameter is introduced into the proposed VFF based approach, where the size of the robot and obstacles are considered. Furthermore, a fuzzy control module is added, to deal with the problem of obstacle avoidance in dynamic environments, by adjusting the rotation angle of the robot. Finally, some simulation experiments are carried out to validate and demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  6. Motion Planning for Vibration Reducing of Free-floating Redundant Manipulators Based on Hybrid Optimization Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yihuan; LI Daokui; TANG Guojin

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with optimal motion planning for vibration reducing of flee-floating flexible redundant manipulators.Firstly,dynamic model of the system is established based on Lagrange method,and the motion planning model for vibration reducing is proposed.Secondly,a hybrid optimization approach employing Gauss pseudospectral method(GPM) and direct shooting method(DSM),is proposed to solve the motion planning problem.In this approach,the motion planning problem is transformed into a non-linear parameter optimization problem using GPM,and genetic algorithm(GA) is employed to locate the approximate solution.Subsequently,an optimization model is formulated based on DSM,and sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm is used to obtain the accurate solution,with the approximate solution as an initial reference solution.Finally,several numerical simulations are investigated,and the global vibration or residual vibration of flexible link is obviously reduced by the joint trajectory which is obtained by the hybrid optimization approach.The numerical simulation results indicate that the approach is effective and stable to the motion planning problem of vibration reducing.

  7. Biocheck.UGent: a quantitative tool to measure biosecurity at broiler farms and the relationship with technical performances and antimicrobial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaude, P; Schlepers, M; Verlinden, M; Laanen, M; Dewulf, J

    2014-11-01

    The Biocheck.UGent scoring system has been developed to measure and quantify the level of biosecurity on broiler farms. This tool is composed of all relevant components of biosecurity on broiler farms and is subdivided into external (purchase of 1-d-old chicks, off-farm movements of live animals, feed and water supply, removal of manure and dead birds, entrance of visitors and personnel, supply of materials, infrastructure and biological vectors, location of the farm) and internal (disease management, cleaning and disinfection, materials, and measures between compartments) biosecurity. The unique feature of this scoring system is that it takes the relative importance of the different biosecurity aspects into account, resulting in a risk-based weighted score. The Biocheck.UGent scoring system and accompanying questionnaire can be filled in for free at www.Biocheck.UGent.be. The obtained biosecurity scores are provided immediately after completion of the questionnaire, and the scores for each subcategory can be compared with national averages to allow the farmer to benchmark the obtained results to his colleagues. Preliminary results (n = 15) show a huge range in the biosecurity level on broilers farms in Belgium, with internal biosecurity scores ranging from 54/100 to 87/100 and external biosecurity scores ranging from 55/100 to 72/100. These first results show that despite the well-known importance of biosecurity, there's a lack of implementation of many biosecurity measures and room for improvement.

  8. Carvacrol codrugs: a new approach in the antimicrobial plan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cacciatore

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections led to identify alternative strategies for a novel therapeutic approach. In this study, we synthesized ten carvacrol codrugs - obtained linking the carvacrol hydroxyl group to the carboxyl moiety of sulphur-containing amino acids via an ester bond - to develop novel compounds with improved antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and reduced toxicity respect to carvacrol alone.All carvacrol codrugs were screened against a representative panel of Gram positive (S. aureus and S. epidermidis, Gram negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa bacterial strains and C. albicans, using broth microdilution assays.Results showed that carvacrol codrug 4 possesses the most notable enhancement in the anti-bacterial activity displaying MIC and MBC values equal to 2.5 mg/mL for all bacterial strains, except for P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (MIC and MBC values equal to 5 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively. All carvacrol codrugs 1-10 revealed good antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231. The cytotoxicity assay showed that the novel carvacrol codrugs did not produce human blood hemolysis at their MIC values except for codrugs 8 and 9. In particular, deepened experiments performed on carvacrol codrug 4 showed an interesting antimicrobial effect on the mature biofilm produced by E. coli ATCC 8739, respect to the carvacrol alone. The antimicrobial effects of carvacrol codrug 4 were also analyzed by TEM evidencing morphological modifications in S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans.The current study presents an insight into the use of codrug strategy for developing carvacrol derivatives with antibacterial and antibiofilm potentials, and reduced cytotoxicity.

  9. Security and privacy preserving approaches in the eHealth clouds with disaster recovery plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahi, Aqeel; Lai, David; Li, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Cloud computing was introduced as an alternative storage and computing model in the health sector as well as other sectors to handle large amounts of data. Many healthcare companies have moved their electronic data to the cloud in order to reduce in-house storage, IT development and maintenance costs. However, storing the healthcare records in a third-party server may cause serious storage, security and privacy issues. Therefore, many approaches have been proposed to preserve security as well as privacy in cloud computing projects. Cryptographic-based approaches were presented as one of the best ways to ensure the security and privacy of healthcare data in the cloud. Nevertheless, the cryptographic-based approaches which are used to transfer health records safely remain vulnerable regarding security, privacy, or the lack of any disaster recovery strategy. In this paper, we review the related work on security and privacy preserving as well as disaster recovery in the eHealth cloud domain. Then we propose two approaches, the Security-Preserving approach and the Privacy-Preserving approach, and a disaster recovery plan. The Security-Preserving approach is a robust means of ensuring the security and integrity of Electronic Health Records, and the Privacy-Preserving approach is an efficient authentication approach which protects the privacy of Personal Health Records. Finally, we discuss how the integrated approaches and the disaster recovery plan can ensure the reliability and security of cloud projects.

  10. The Role of Regional Strategies in Sustainable Development: The Approach of City Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Polat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the world economy and development, understanding changes are occurring, with the EU integration process of developments and understanding of planning priorities when considered as together, "city" scale development approach and an appropriate planning system, that is the basis of Turkey`s administrative division and the national management system, should be improved self-rises. To reduce disparities among regions to an acceptable level and development of relatively underdeveloped regions and cities, naturally, a development and planning system even starting from the city and province levels, is required. In today's sustainable understanding and evolution tools, burden important functions to local units, as "participation" in the foreground stands out in the stages of planning and execution of the development strategies. Regional and city development plans and strategies as the center of rapid and balanced development dynamics are sensitive to local needs and local initiatives are required in being a trigger level. The study is done with Goal Directed Project Management methodology, and in the study city level taken as an example of city scale development approach and an appropriate planning system.

  11. Prosthetic management of gingival recession around implants: lessons learned from staged-approach treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Louis R; Hirsh, Leslie Stone

    2015-03-01

    Complex implant rehabilitations can include procedures requiring multiple phases of treatment, commonly referred to as staged approaches. The reasons for staged approaches are varied but usually involve serial extraction of hopeless teeth. These treatment plans both enable the patient to avoid removable prostheses by keeping natural teeth during healing phases, and circumvent the immediate loading of some implants placed in grafted bone. One major disadvantage to serial extraction in a staged approach is the potential for gingival changes. These changes include gingival recession around abutments that can affect the gingival profile around the finished case. This article discusses varying approaches for dealing with these gingival changes and suggests protocol modifications during the implant treatment-planning phase.

  12. Transmission Expansion Planning – A Multiyear Dynamic Approach Using a Discrete Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiva J. T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic objective of Transmission Expansion Planning (TEP is to schedule a number of transmission projects along an extended planning horizon minimizing the network construction and operational costs while satisfying the requirement of delivering power safely and reliably to load centres along the horizon. This principle is quite simple, but the complexity of the problem and the impact on society transforms TEP on a challenging issue. This paper describes a new approach to solve the dynamic TEP problem, based on an improved discrete integer version of the Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO meta-heuristic algorithm. The paper includes sections describing in detail the EPSO enhanced approach, the mathematical formulation of the TEP problem, including the objective function and the constraints, and a section devoted to the application of the developed approach to this problem. Finally, the use of the developed approach is illustrated using a case study based on the IEEE 24 bus 38 branch test system.

  13. Knowledge-Based Approach to Assembly Sequence Planning for Wind-Driven Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiping Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly sequence planning plays an essential role in the manufacturing industry. However, there still exist some challenges for the research of assembly planning, one of which is the weakness in effective description of assembly knowledge and information. In order to reduce the computational task, this paper presents a novel approach based on engineering assembly knowledge to the assembly sequence planning problem and provides an appropriate way to express both geometric information and nongeometric knowledge. In order to increase the sequence planning efficiency, the assembly connection graph is built according to the knowledge in engineering, design, and manufacturing fields. Product semantic information model could offer much useful information for the designer to finish the assembly (process design and make the right decision in that process. Therefore, complex and low-efficient computation in the assembly design process could be avoided. Finally, a product assembly planning example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Initial experience with the approach indicates the potential to reduce lead times and thereby can help in completing new product launch projects on time.

  14. Strategic Environmental Assessment of Port Plans in Italy: Experiences, Approaches, Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale De Toro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation is increasingly important in decision-making processes for the sustainable planning and design of port plans. It acts as a support for plan preparation, for making values, interests and needs explicit, and for exploring the components of the decision-making process itself. Evaluation can be likened to an “implicit tool” that can integrate approaches, methodologies and models, adapting to the many needs revealed during the decision-making process. New sustainability challenges call for new approaches to creating frameworks for the analysis and evaluation of plans and projects that allow the integration of multidimensional goals and values. Utilizing some selected case studies of port plans in six Italian cities, this paper explores how environmental assessment can become a tool for dialog and interaction among different fields of expertise to support dynamic learning processes, knowledge management and the creation of shared choices, using suitable approaches and tools. In this view, Integrated Spatial Assessment (ISA can be useful in supporting decision-making processes on different scales and institutional levels to stimulate dialog between technical and political evaluations, referring to complex values that are part of conflicting and changing realities in which it has become imperative to operate according to sustainability principles.

  15. Description of the pig production systems, biosecurity practices and herd health providers in two provinces with high swine density in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawneh, J I; Barnes, T S; Parke, C; Lapuz, E; David, E; Basinang, V; Baluyut, A; Villar, E; Lopez, E L; Blackall, P J

    2014-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2011 and March 2012 in two major pig producing provinces in the Philippines. Four hundred and seventy one pig farms slaughtering finisher pigs at government operated abattoirs participated in this study. The objectives of this study were to group: (a) smallholder (S) and commercial (C) production systems into patterns according to their herd health providers (HHPs), and obtain descriptive information about the grouped S and C production systems; and (b) identify key HHPs within each production system using social network analysis. On-farm veterinarians, private consultants, pharmaceutical company representatives, government veterinarians, livestock and agricultural technicians, and agricultural supply stores were found to be actively interacting with pig farmers. Four clusters were identified based on production system and their choice of HHPs. Differences in management and biosecurity practices were found between S and C clusters. Private HHPs provided a service to larger C and some larger S farms, and have little or no interaction with the other HHPs. Government HHPs provided herd health service mainly to S farms and small C farms. Agricultural supply stores were identified as a dominant solitary HHP and provided herd health services to the majority of farmers. Increased knowledge of the routine management and biosecurity practices of S and C farmers and the key HHPs that are likely to be associated with those practices would be of value as this information could be used to inform a risk-based approach to disease surveillance and control.

  16. Evaluation of strategies to enhance biosecurity compliance on poultry farms in Québec: effect of audits and cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Manon; Venne, Daniel; Durivage, André; Vaillancourt, Jean-Pierre

    2012-02-01

    Biosecurity compliance is generally poor in all types of animal production systems around the world. Therefore, it is essential to define strategies to improve the implementation of biosecurity measures. This study evaluated the value of audits and visible cameras on compliance with biosecurity measures required when entering and exiting poultry barns on 24 poultry farms in Québec, Canada. Short term (first two weeks) and medium term (six months later) compliance were determined. Application of biosecurity measures was evaluated using hidden cameras. Video viewing revealed a total of 2748 visits by 259 different individuals. Results showed that bimonthly audits did not have any impact on medium term compliance. Visible cameras had a significant impact on changing boots (OR=9.6; 1.9-48.4) and respecting areas (contaminated vs. clean) during the visit (OR=14.5; 1.2-175.1) for the short term period. However, six months later, compliance declined and was no longer significantly different from controls. Duration and moment of the visit, presence of the grower or an observer, barn entrance design, number of barns, number of biosecurity measures requested, type of boots worn, gender and being a member of a grower's family were significantly associated with biosecurity compliance.

  17. Cost implications of African swine fever in smallholder farrow-to-finish units: economic benefits of disease prevention through biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, F O; Lazarus, D D; Spencer, B T; Makinde, A A; Bastos, A D S

    2012-06-01

    African swine fever remains the greatest limitation to the development of the pig industry in Africa, and parts of Asia and Europe. It is especially important in West and Central African countries where the disease has become endemic. Biosecurity is the implementation of a set of measures that reduce the risk of infection through segregation, cleaning and disinfection. Using a 122-sow piggery unit, a financial model and costing were used to estimate the economic benefits of effective biosecurity against African swine fever. The outcomes suggest that pig production is a profitable venture that can generate a profit of approximately US$109,637.40 per annum and that an outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) has the potential to cause losses of up to US$910,836.70 in a single year. The implementation of biosecurity and its effective monitoring can prevent losses owing to ASF and is calculated to give a benefit-cost ratio of 29. A full implementation of biosecurity will result in a 9.70% reduction in total annual profit, but is justified in view of the substantial costs incurred in the event of an ASF outbreak. Biosecurity implementation is robust and capable of withstanding changes in input costs including moderate feed price increases, higher management costs and marginal reductions in total outputs. It is concluded that biosecurity is a key to successful pig production in an endemic situation.

  18. Planning Approach to Organisational and Methodical Provision of Formation and Functioning of Logistic Systems of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodizyeva Tetyana O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses factors of external and internal environment of enterprises that influence the process of formation of logistic systems and justifies expediency of use of the planning approach to development of the organisational and methodical provision of functioning of logistic systems of enterprises. The article offers to conduct development of organisational and methodical provision of formation of functioning of logistic systems with the use of not one but several methodological approaches: situational, process, functional and planning. The conducted analysis allowed composing a basic project, which could be laid in the foundation of formation of a logistic system by any enterprise for meeting requirements of the planning triangle: content / borders, time, cost, taking into consideration the forth limitation – quality.

  19. Emergency Planning Guidelines for Campus Health Services: An All-Hazards Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document, written collaboratively by members of ACHA's Emerging Public Health Threats and Emergency Response Coalition and Campus Safety and Violence Coalition, is designed to assist members of the college health community in planning for emergencies using an all-hazards approach. Its perspective is both macro and micro, beginning with a…

  20. University Strategic Planning and the Foresight/Futures Approach: An Irish Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Ronaldo; McConnell, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    The contemporary university operates within a global context characterized by ever-increasing uncertainty and complexity. Strategic planning must, therefore, be cognizant of future trends and how those trends will affect the university by creating both threats and opportunities. Our hypothesis is that an approach we refer to as "strategic…

  1. MULTI-ROBOT MOTION PLANNING: A MODIFIED RECEDING HORIZON APPROACH FOR REACHING GOAL STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Mendes Filho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the real-time implementation of an algorithm for collision-free motion planning based on a receding horizon approach, for the navigation of a team of mobile robots in presence of obstacles of different shapes. The method is simulated with three robots. Impact of parameters is studied with regard to computation time, obstacle avoidance and travel time.

  2. A Planning Approach of Engineering Characteristics Based on QFD-TRIZ Integrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shang; Shi, Dongyan; Zhang, Ying

    Traditional QFD planning method compromises contradictions between engineering characteristics to achieve higher customer satisfaction. However, this compromise trade-off can not eliminate the contradictions existing among the engineering characteristics which limited the overall customer satisfaction. QFD (Quality function deployment) integrated with TRIZ (the Russian acronym of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) becomes hot research recently for TRIZ can be used to solve contradictions between engineering characteristics which construct the roof of HOQ (House of quality). But, the traditional QFD planning approach is not suitable for QFD integrated with TRIZ for that TRIZ requires emphasizing the contradictions between engineering characteristics at problem definition stage instead of compromising trade-off. So, a new planning approach based on QFD / TRIZ integration is proposed in this paper, which based on the consideration of the correlation matrix of engineering characteristics and customer satisfaction on the basis of cost. The proposed approach suggests that TRIZ should be applied to solve contradictions at the first step, and the correlation matrix of engineering characteristics should be amended at the second step, and at next step IFR (ideal final result) must be validated, then planning execute. An example is used to illustrate the proposed approach. The application indicated that higher customer satisfaction can be met and the contradictions between the characteristic parameters are eliminated.

  3. An approach for visually supporting the creation of Personal Development Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melero, Javier; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Arroyo, Ernesto; Aguilar, Albert; Blat, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Melero, J., Hernández-Leo, D., Arroyo, E., Aguilar, A., & Blat J. (submitted). An approach for visually supporting the creation of Personal Development Plans. The 9th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. July, 14-18, 2009, Riga, Latvia.

  4. College Seniors' Plans for Graduate School: Do Deep Approaches Learning and Holland Academic Environments Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocconi, Louis M.; Ribera, Amy K.; Nelson Laird, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which college seniors' plans for graduate school are related to their tendency to engage in deep approaches to learning (DAL) and their academic environments (majors) as classified by Holland type. Using data from the National Survey of Student Engagement, we analyzed responses from over 116,000 seniors attending…

  5. [Biosecurity infrastructure for biological agents in hospitals from the south of Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Maridalva de Souza; Oliveira, Tânia Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the biosecurity infrastructure in hospitals located in the South Region of Bahia State, Brazil. That was a descriptive-exploratory study carried out in commissions hospital infections control and institutional prevention commission of accidents about the existence of written norms, the accomplishment of training, the existence of concernments institutional registers to the biosecurity, and the existence of practical attention to the health of the professionals and isolated patients. Hospitals are compared according to the presence of each one of the itens under analysis as its classification, legal-financial issues, etc. It was conclude that the general situation is precarious regarding the presence of the items investigated, that impels to consider the necessity that must take into account an analysis of hospital quality, and also the care of the life of its workers.

  6. A survey of Asian life scientists :the state of biosciences, laboratory biosecurity, and biosafety in Asia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie

    2006-02-01

    Over 300 Asian life scientists were surveyed to provide insight into work with infectious agents. This report provides the reader with a more complete understanding of the current practices employed to study infectious agents by laboratories located in Asian countries--segmented by level of biotechnology sophistication. The respondents have a variety of research objectives and study over 60 different pathogens and toxins. Many of the respondents indicated that their work was hampered by lack of adequate resources and the difficulty of accessing critical resources. The survey results also demonstrate that there appears to be better awareness of laboratory biosafety issues compared to laboratory biosecurity. Perhaps not surprisingly, many of these researchers work with pathogens and toxins under less stringent laboratory biosafety and biosecurity conditions than would be typical for laboratories in the West.

  7. Effect of envelope material on biosecurity during emergency bovine mortality composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, T D; Ahn, H K; Richard, T L; Harmon, J D; Reynolds, D L; Akinc, S

    2013-02-01

    The biosecurity of composting as an emergency disposal method for cattle mortalities caused by disease was evaluated by conducting full-scale field trials begun during three different seasons and using three different envelope materials. Process biosecurity was significantly affected by the envelope material used to construct the composting matrix. Internal temperatures met USEPA Class A time/temperature criteria for pathogen reduction in 89%, 67%, and 22%, respectively of seasonal test units constructed with corn silage, straw/manure, or ground cornstalks. In trials begun in the winter, survival times of vaccine strains of avian encephalomyelitis and Newcastle disease virus were noticeably shorter in silage test units than in the other two materials, but during summer/spring trials survival times in ground cornstalk and straw/manure test units were similar to those in test units constructed with silage.

  8. Biosecurity in 116 Danish fattening swineherds: descriptive results and factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Alban, L.; Mortensen, Sten;

    2004-01-01

    level of biosecurity for visitors. A site scoring high on factor 2 was a multi-site farm, which had personnel working on more than one of the sites, only received weaners from one sow herd, had delivering herds placed close to the participating site, and transported animals themselves. A site scoring...... producers purchased weaners from a market. Almost all herds (95%) received weaners from one sow herd at one time, and only one herd received from >5 sow herds in one batch. Twenty-one percent did not use an effective barrier between the loading area and the stables when delivering pigs for slaughter. Entry...... high on factor 3 was a site which hired commercial transport for slaughter, was situated far from the abattoir and had a high level of biosecurity when loading pigs. A production site scoring high on factor 4 was a large site, which used all-in/all-out management, washed and disinfected between each...

  9. Biosecurity measures for backyard poultry in developing countries: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Poultry represents an important sector in animal production, with backyard flocks representing a huge majority, especially in the developing countries. In these countries, villagers raise poultry to meet household food demands and as additional sources of incomes. Backyard production methods imply low biosecurity measures and high risk of infectious diseases, such as Newcastle disease or zoonosis such as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI). We reviewed literature on b...

  10. Biosecurity in pulmonary tuberculosis and nursing practice in a university hospital, RJ, BRAZIL.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Ingrid; Residente de enfermagem pela Universidade federal do estado do rio de janeiro ( UNIRIO); Souza, Fabiana Barbosa Assumpção de; Professora adjunto da Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro ( UNIRIO); Oliveira, Alexandre Baroli; Doutorando em enfermagem pela UFRJ e enfermeiro do Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia. ( M.S)

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to use bio in nursing practice with clients in precautionary air for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in a University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro (RJ). OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of biosafety in nursing practice with clients holder of pulmonary tuberculosis; characterize the circumstances of use of biosecurity in nursing practice to patients in respiratory precautions for pulmonary tuberculosis. The theoretical addressed: etiology, transmission and pathogenesis of pulmonary tub...

  11. Effect of enhanced biosecurity and selected on-farm factors on Campylobacter colonization of chicken broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, M; Beauvais, W; Guitian, J

    2017-02-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial infection in the EU; poultry meat has been identified as the main source of infection. We tested the hypothesis that enhanced biosecurity and other factors such as welfare status, breed, the practice of partial depopulation and number of empty days between flocks may prevent Campylobacter spp. caecal colonization of poultry batches at high levels (>123 000 c.f.u./g in pooled caecal samples). We analysed data from 2314 poultry batches sampled at slaughter in the UK in 2011-2013. We employed random-effects logistic regression to account for clustering of batches within farms and adjust for confounding. We estimated population attributable fractions using adjusted risk ratios. Enhanced biosecurity reduced the odds of colonization at partial depopulation [odds ratio (OR) 0·25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·14-0·47] and, to a lesser extent, at final depopulation (OR 0·47, 95% CI 0·25-0·89). An effect of the type of breed was also found. Under our assumptions, approximately 1/3 of highly colonized batches would be avoided if they were all raised under enhanced biosecurity or without partial depopulation. The results of the study indicate that on-farm measures can play an important role in reducing colonization of broiler chickens with Campylobacter spp. and as a result human exposure.

  12. Mathematical theories in biosecurity%数学在生物安全中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巾杰; 祖正虎; 许晴; 张文斗; 徐致靖; 郑涛

    2014-01-01

    用数学建模的方法对生物事件进行抽象,揭示其发生发展机制,可以使人们更深刻认识生物事件成灾规律,从而为生物事件的应急准备和有效处置提供更为精准的科学支持,对国家生物防御能力建设具有重要意义。该文概析了数学理论作为研究与分析工具在生物防御领域中的应用,展望了该领域研究发展趋势。%Modeling biosecurity events based on mathematical theories to reveal the inherent mechanism can shed light on the development of biosecurity events and offer accurate scientific support to emergency preparation and response , con-tributing much to national biodefense capability .This paper reviews the applications of mathematical theories as a research and analytic tool in biosecurity and discusses the trends of development in this field .

  13. A Descriptive Case Study of Appreciative Inquiry as an Approach to Strategic Planning for Special Education in a Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Paul L., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study's purpose was to describe appreciative inquiry (AI) as an approach to strategic planning for special education in a public school. The study investigated four research questions. How do plans for special education emerge as participants engage in the four phases of AI during strategic planning for the future of special education in a…

  14. Approach to the regional plan elaboration: The case of Kolubara district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perišić Dimitrije

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The explicit regional planning experiences in Serbia have been elucidated upon the case of the elaboration and implementation approach of the Kolubarski district regional spatial plan. Specific circumstances going along with the plan’s elaboration demanded the advancement of the regional planning methodology with an efficient approach in defining a strong working team organisation, and clear temporal and spatial guidelines. Furthermore, the means were required for the communication improvement between planners and interested groups on the national, regional and particularly local level so as to determine development goals and mediate conflicting interests. In the preparation and consideration of this spatial plan’s elaboration phases, the cooperation between the planners and responsible authorities and expert agencies of the municipalities of Valjevo, Lajkovac, Ljig, Mionica, Osecina and Ub was particularly valuable and useful. The same goes for the Kolubarski district, the Agency for construction and development of the Kolubarski district affected by the earthquake and other expert institutions, organisations and enterprises from this planning region. The achieved cooperation provided for the quality and actuality of the planning propositions and the ensuing approval by the local communities smoothed the Spatial plan’s implementation.

  15. Process planning optimization on turning machine tool using a hybrid genetic algorithm with local search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A turning machine tool is a kind of new type of machine tool that is equipped with more than one spindle and turret. The distinctive simultaneous and parallel processing abilities of turning machine tool increase the complexity of process planning. The operations would not only be sequenced and satisfy precedence constraints, but also should be scheduled with multiple objectives such as minimizing machining cost, maximizing utilization of turning machine tool, and so on. To solve this problem, a hybrid genetic algorithm was proposed to generate optimal process plans based on a mixed 0-1 integer programming model. An operation precedence graph is used to represent precedence constraints and help generate a feasible initial population of hybrid genetic algorithm. Encoding strategy based on data structure was developed to represent process plans digitally in order to form the solution space. In addition, a local search approach for optimizing the assignments of available turrets would be added to incorporate scheduling with process planning. A real-world case is used to prove that the proposed approach could avoid infeasible solutions and effectively generate a global optimal process plan.

  16. A heuristic approach for short-term operations planning in a catering company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Poorya; Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    Certain types of food such as catering foods decay very rapidly. This paper investigates how the quality of such foods can be improved by shortening the time interval between production and delivery. To this end, we develop an approach which integrates short-term production and distribution...... planning in a novel iterative scheme. The production scheduling problem is solved through an MILP modeling approach which is based on a block planning formulation complemented by a heuristic simplification procedure. Our investigation was motivated by a catering company located in Denmark. The production...... configuration and the processes assumed in our numerical experiments reflect real settings from this company. First numerical results are reported which demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach....

  17. Narrative Financial Therapy: Integrating a Financial Planning Approach with Therapeutic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. McCoy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article serves as one of the first attempts to develop an integrated theoretical approach to financial therapy that can be used by practitioners from multiple disciplines. The presented approach integrates the components of the six-step financial planning process with components of empirically-supported therapeutic methods. This integration provides the foundation for a manualized approach to financial therapy, shaped by the writings of narrative theorists and select cognitive-behavioral interventions that can be used both by mental health and financial professionals.

  18. Methodical Approach to Developing a Decision Support System for Well Interventions Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silich, V. A.; Savelev, A. O.; Isaev, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    The paper contains aspects of developing a decision support systems aimed for well interventions planning within the process of oil production engineering. The specific approach described by authors is based on system analysis methods and object model for system design. Declared number of problem-decision principles as follows: the principle of consolidated information area, the principle of integrated control, the principle of development process transparency. Also observed a set of models (class model, object model, attribute interdependence model, component model, coordination model) specified for designing decision support system for well intervention planning.

  19. An exact approach to direct aperture optimization in IMRT treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men Chunhua [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6595 (United States); Romeijn, H Edwin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6595 (United States); Taskin, Z Caner [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6595 (United States); Dempsey, James F [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States)

    2007-12-21

    We consider the problem of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning using direct aperture optimization. While this problem has been relatively well studied in recent years, most approaches employ a heuristic approach to the generation of apertures. In contrast, we use an exact approach that explicitly formulates the fluence map optimization (FMO) problem as a convex optimization problem in terms of all multileaf collimator (MLC) deliverable apertures and their associated intensities. However, the number of deliverable apertures, and therefore the number of decision variables and constraints in the new problem formulation, is typically enormous. To overcome this, we use an iterative approach that employs a subproblem whose optimal solution either provides a suitable aperture to add to a given pool of allowable apertures or concludes that the current solution is optimal. We are able to handle standard consecutiveness, interdigitation and connectedness constraints that may be imposed by the particular MLC system used, as well as jaws-only delivery. Our approach has the additional advantage that it can explicitly account for transmission of dose through the part of an aperture that is blocked by the MLC system, yielding a more precise assessment of the treatment plan than what is possible using a traditional beamlet-based FMO problem. Finally, we develop and test two stopping rules that can be used to identify treatment plans of high clinical quality that are deliverable very efficiently. Tests on clinical head-and-neck cancer cases showed the efficacy of our approach, yielding treatment plans comparable in quality to plans obtained by the traditional method with a reduction of more than 75% in the number of apertures and a reduction of more than 50% in beam-on time, with only a modest increase in computational effort. The results also show that delivery efficiency is very insensitive to the addition of traditional MLC constraints; however, jaws

  20. Individualized Surgical Approach Planning for Petroclival Tumors Using a 3D Printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelleman, Thomas John; Peterson, Jeremy; Chowdhury, Naweed Iffat; Gorup, Jason; Camarata, Paul; Lin, James

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To determine the utility of three-dimensional (3D) printed models in individualized petroclival tumor resection planning by measuring the fidelity of printed anatomical structures and comparing tumor exposure afforded by different approaches. Design Case series and review of the literature. Setting Tertiary care center. Participants Three patients with petroclival lesions. Main Outcome Measures Subjective opinion of access by neuro-otologists and neurosurgeons as well as surface area of tumor exposure. Results Surgeons found the 3D models of each patient's skull and tumor useful for preoperative planning. Limitations of individual surgical approaches not identified through preoperative imaging were apparent after 3D models were evaluated. Significant variability in exposure was noted between models for similar or identical approaches. A notable drawback is that our printing process did not replicate mastoid air cells. Conclusions We found that 3D modeling is useful for individualized preoperative planning for approaching petroclival tumors. Our printing techniques did produce authentic replicas of the tumors in relation to bony structures.

  1. NOVEL APPROACH FOR ROBOT PATH PLANNING BASED ON NUMERICAL ARTIFICIAL POTENTIAL FIELD AND GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Weizhong; ZHAO Jie; GAO Yongsheng; CAI Hegao

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach for collision-free path planning of a multiple degree-of-freedom (DOF)articulated robot in a complex environment is proposed. Firstly, based on visual neighbor point (VNP), a numerical artificial potential field is constructed in Cartesian space, which provides the heuristic information, effective distance to the goal and the motion direction for the motion of the robot joints. Secondly, a genetic algorithm, combined with the heuristic rules, is used in joint space to determine a series of contiguous configurations piecewise fiom initial configuration until the goal configuration is attained. A simulation shows that the method can not only handle issues on path planning of the articulated robots in environment with complex obstacles, but also improve the efficiency and quality of path planning.

  2. A Cost-Effective Planning Graph Approach for Large-Scale Web Service Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Yin Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Web Service Composition (WSC problems can be considered as a service matching problem, which means that the output parameters of a Web service can be used as inputs of another one. However, when a very large number of Web services are deployed in the environment, the service composition has become sophisticated and complicated process. In this study, we proposed a novel cost-effective Web service composition mechanism. It utilizes planning graph based on backward search algorithm to find multiple feasible solutions and recommends a best composition solution according to the lowest service cost. In other words, the proposed approach is a goal-driven mechanism, which can recommend the approximate solutions, but it consumes fewer amounts of Web services and less nested levels of composite service. Finally, we implement a simulation platform to validate the proposed cost-effective planning graph mechanism in large-scale Web services environment. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm based on the backward planning graph has reduced by 94% service cost in three different environments of service composition that is compared with other existing service composition approaches which are based on a forward planning graph.

  3. A robust online path planning approach in cluttered environments for micro rotorcraft drones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shupeng LAI; Kangli WANG; Hailong QIN; Jin Q CUI; Ben M CHEN

    2016-01-01

    We present in this paper a robust online path planning method, which allows a micro rotorcraft drone to fly safely in GPS-denied and obstacle-strewn environments with limited onboard computational power. The approach is based on an effi-ciently managed grid map and a closed-form solution to the two point boundary value problem (TPBVP). The grid map assists trajectory evaluation whereas the solution to the TPBVP generates smooth trajectories. Finally, a top-level trajectory switching algorithm is utilized to minimize the computational cost. Advantages of the proposed approach include its conservation of com-putational resource, robustness of trajectory generation and agility of reaction to unknown environment. The result has been realized on actual drones platforms and successfully demonstrated in real flight tests. The video of flight tests can be found at:http://uav.ece.nus.edu.sg/robust-online-path-planning-Lai2015.html.

  4. Single string planning problem arising in liner shipping industries: A heuristic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Neamatian Monemi, Rahimeh; Mahey, Philippe;

    2013-01-01

    is regularly encountered by all LSPs, and a major part of their seasonal network planning process is devoted to repeatedly solving SSPP for different regions using experts' knowledge. Despite the practical importance of the problem, very little has been written about it in the literature. A revision is carried......We propose an efficient heuristic approach for solving instances of the Single String Planning Problem (SSPP) arising in the liner shipping industry. In the SSPP a Liner Service Provider (LSP) only revises one of its many operational strings, and it is assumed that the other strings......., corresponding to the LSP's seasonal strategy. Exact decomposition methods are limited and can solve only very small size instances—small in terms of the number of ports, vessel classes, vessel number and commodities. In contrast, the proposed heuristic method is an efficient approach for obtaining high quality...

  5. Monitoring Teams by Overhearing: A Multi-Agent Plan-Recognition Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminka, G A; Tambe, M; 10.1613/jair.970

    2011-01-01

    Recent years are seeing an increasing need for on-line monitoring of teams of cooperating agents, e.g., for visualization, or performance tracking. However, in monitoring deployed teams, we often cannot rely on the agents to always communicate their state to the monitoring system. This paper presents a non-intrusive approach to monitoring by 'overhearing', where the monitored team's state is inferred (via plan-recognition) from team-members' routine communications, exchanged as part of their coordinated task execution, and observed (overheard) by the monitoring system. Key challenges in this approach include the demanding run-time requirements of monitoring, the scarceness of observations (increasing monitoring uncertainty), and the need to scale-up monitoring to address potentially large teams. To address these, we present a set of complementary novel techniques, exploiting knowledge of the social structures and procedures in the monitored team: (i) an efficient probabilistic plan-recognition algorithm, well...

  6. Application of an uncertainty analysis approach to strategic environmental assessment for urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining; He, Weiqi; Tong, Qingyuan; Li, Wangfeng

    2010-04-15

    Urban planning has been widely applied as a regulatory measure to guide a city's construction and management. It represents official expectations on future population and economic growth and land use over the urban area. No doubt, significant variations often occur between planning schemes and actual development; in particular in China, the world's largest developing country experiencing rapid urbanization and industrialization. This in turn leads to difficulty in estimating the environmental consequences of the urban plan. Aiming to quantitatively analyze the uncertain environmental impacts of the urban plan's implementation, this article developed an integrated methodology combining a scenario analysis approach and a stochastic simulation technique for strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Based on industrial development scenarios, Monte Carlo sampling is applied to generate all possibilities of the spatial distribution of newly emerged industries. All related environmental consequences can be further estimated given the industrial distributions as input to environmental quality models. By applying a HSY algorithm, environmentally unacceptable urban growth, regarding both economic development and land use spatial layout, can be systematically identified, providing valuable information to urban planners and decision makers. A case study in Dalian Municipality, Northeast China, is used to illustrate applicability of this methodology. The impacts of Urban Development Plan for Dalian Municipality (2003-2020) (UDP) on atmospheric environment are also discussed in this article.

  7. Changing Perspectives on the Planning of Ankara (1924-2007 and Lessons for a New Master-Planning Approach to Developing Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgu Çalişkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the newly planned capitals in the 20th century – like Islamabad, Canberra and Brazil –, Ankara represents an original case in planning history: from shaping a new town under the influence of early European urbanism to the control of a dynamic metropolitan form by structural planning approaches. Forming its urban core according to the initial planning perspectives between the beginning of 1930s and the mid-1970s, the city has entered a rapid phase of space production in its extensions for about the last thirty years.In the current period of development, highly fragmented urban peripheral formation has being occurred in Ankara. Since the existing trend on the dispersion of urban form lacking spatial coherence at different scale-levels causes the dominance of the private domain and a loss of urbanity, this trend might at first glance be considered as a break with the European tradition and the emergence of Anglo-Americanization in Turkish planning system in terms of looser development control approach on urban form.Before, coming to such a critical end-point, the paper prefers a closer look into the changing dynamics of master plans of the city. It is aimed to reveal the developmental logic of the city by means of master plan analysis. The comprehensive outlook – called plan matrix – is integrated into each master plan schema by correlating the basic components like main policy directions, depth of control, settlement typology, and city structure and form. Such a framework has a potential to be utilized for any kind of plan analysis at metropolitan scale for different cases. At the end of the analysis, the paper tends to address an alternative master planning approach for the similar types of developing cities striving for keeping its urban character within a fragmented urban body.

  8. An approach to cork oak forest management planning: a case study in southwestern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    A. Costa; A.C. Oliveira; Vidas, F.; J. G. Borges

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of research aiming at the development of tools that may enhance cork oak (Quercus suber L.) forest management planning. Specifically, it proposes an hierarchical approach that encompasses the spatial classification of a cork oak forest and the temporal scheduling of cork harvests. The use of both geographical information systems and operations research techniques is addressed. Emphasis is on the achievement of cork even flow objectives. Resu...

  9. Status and prospect of global biosecurity%当前国际生物安全形势与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑涛; 黄培堂; 沈倍奋

    2012-01-01

    Biosecurity refers to the ability of a country to respond effectively to biological and biotechnical threats, safeguard and protect national security and interest in the era of globalization. Based on analysis of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, bioterrorism, infectious diseases, biotechnology abuse and biosecurity of CM foods,this article argues that the current situation in global biosecurity as a whole tends to become severe, but biosecurity in China is becoming stable. This article recommends that China should attach importance to sustainable development of biosecurity.%生物安全是指全球化时代国家有效应对生物及生物技术因素的影响和威胁,维护和保障自身安全与利益的状态和能力.本文通过对《禁止生物武器公约》履约、生物恐怖、传染病以及生物技术谬用、转基因生物安全等的形势分析,认为总体上,国际生物安全形势趋于负面,我国生物安全形势趋于平稳,建议国家重视生物安全的可持续发展.

  10. African swine fever outbreak on a medium-sized farm in Uganda: biosecurity breaches and within-farm virus contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenais, Erika; Sternberg-Lewerin, Susanna; Boqvist, Sofia; Liu, Lihong; LeBlanc, Neil; Aliro, Tonny; Masembe, Charles; Ståhl, Karl

    2017-02-01

    In Uganda, a low-income country in east Africa, African swine fever (ASF) is endemic with yearly outbreaks. In the prevailing smallholder subsistence farming systems, farm biosecurity is largely non-existent. Outbreaks of ASF, particularly in smallholder farms, often go unreported, creating significant epidemiological knowledge gaps. The continuous circulation of ASF in smallholder settings also creates biosecurity challenges for larger farms. In this study, an on-going outbreak of ASF in an endemic area was investigated on farm level, including analyses of on-farm environmental virus contamination. The study was carried out on a medium-sized pig farm with 35 adult pigs and 103 piglets or growers at the onset of the outbreak. Within 3 months, all pigs had died or were slaughtered. The study included interviews with farm representatives as well as biological and environmental sampling. ASF was confirmed by the presence of ASF virus (ASFV) genomic material in biological (blood, serum) and environmental (soil, water, feed, manure) samples by real-time PCR. The ASFV-positive biological samples confirmed the clinical assessment and were consistent with known virus characteristics. Most environmental samples were found to be positive. Assessment of farm biosecurity, interviews, and the results from the biological and environmental samples revealed that breaches and non-compliance with biosecurity protocols most likely led to the introduction and within-farm spread of the virus. The information derived from this study provides valuable insight regarding the implementation of biosecurity measures, particularly in endemic areas.

  11. AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH FOR PLANNING AND EXECUTION OF PRE-EXPERIMENTAL RUNS FOR DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan Farooq, Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the study of the pre-experimental planning phase of the Design of Experiments (DoE in order to improve the final product quality. The pre-experimental planning phase includes a clear identification of the problem statement, selection of control factors and their respective levels and ranges. To improve production quality based on the DoE a new approach for the pre-experimental planning phase, called Non-Conformity Matrix (NCM, is presented. This article also addresses the key steps of the pre-experimental runs considering a consumer goods manufacturing process. Results of the application for an industrial case show thatthis methodology can support a clear definition ofthe problem and also a correct identification of the factor ranges in particular situations. The proposed new approach allows modeling the entire manufacturing system holistically and correctly defining the factor ranges and respective levels for a more effective application of DoE. This new approach can be a useful resource for both research and industrial practitioners who are dedicated to large DoE projects with unknown factor interactions, when the operational levels and ranges are not completely defined.

  12. Risk assessment for enterprise resource planning (ERP) system implementations: a fault tree analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yajun; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J.

    2013-08-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system implementations are often characterised with large capital outlay, long implementation duration, and high risk of failure. In order to avoid ERP implementation failure and realise the benefits of the system, sound risk management is the key. This paper proposes a probabilistic risk assessment approach for ERP system implementation projects based on fault tree analysis, which models the relationship between ERP system components and specific risk factors. Unlike traditional risk management approaches that have been mostly focused on meeting project budget and schedule objectives, the proposed approach intends to address the risks that may cause ERP system usage failure. The approach can be used to identify the root causes of ERP system implementation usage failure and quantify the impact of critical component failures or critical risk events in the implementation process.

  13. Measures of safeguard and rehabilitation for landscape protection planning: a qualitative approach based on diversity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Daniele; Privitera, Riccardo; Martinico, Francesco; La Greca, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Maintaining existing levels of landscape diversity is becoming more and more important for planning considering the increasing pressures on agricultural ecosystems due to soil sealing, sprawl processes and intensive agriculture. Norms for land-use regulation and measures for landscape Safeguard and Rehabilitation have to take into consideration these threats in landscape planning. Evaluating the diversity of agricultural ecosystems is a fundamental step for proposing sound approaches to planning and managing both soil and landscape, as well as maintaining the related ecosystem services. The paper proposes a method aimed at the qualitative evaluation of spatial diversity of agricultural landscapes using a reduced set of ecological indicators based on land-use vector data. Indicators are calculated for defined landscape units characterized by landscape homogeneity. GIS geoprocessing and spatial analysis functions are employed. The study area is the Province of Enna in Sicily (Italy), which is characterized by cultivation mosaics in its southern region, cereal cultivation in the central region and prevailing natural environments in the northern region. Results from the indicator calculations are used to define measures to be included in a Landscape Protection Plan. Safeguard and Rehabilitation measures are introduced, which link indicator scores to planning protection aims. The results highlight the relevance of some agricultural mosaics in proximity to streams and seasonal fluvial environments, where some undamaged natural environments are still present. For these areas, specific landscape safeguard measures are proposed to preserve their diversity features together with their original agricultural functions. The work shows that even with a reduced number of indicators, a differentiated set of measures can be proposed for a Landscape Protection Plan.

  14. A participatory approach to design a toolbox to support forest management planning at regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Marques

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Forest management planning in a region typically involves multiple stakeholders. Decisions processes are idiosyncratic, driven by individual goals and supported by segmented forest-based information. Nevertheless, stakeholders’ decisions do impact one another leading to complex interaction networks where communication, cooperation and negotiation play a key role. This research addresses the need to develop decision tools to support these roles. Emphasis is on the integration of participatory planning tools and techniques in the architecture of a regional decision support toolbox.Area of the study: The proposed approach was applied in the Chamusca County in Central Portugal although it is easily extended to other regions.Material and methods: This research proposes an Enterprise Architecture methodological approach to design a toolbox that may address distinct stakeholders’ interests and decision processes, while enabling communication, cooperation, negotiation and information sharing among all those involved in the regional interactions network.Main results: the proposed approach was tested in a regional network involving decision processes and information shared by 22 entities clustered into 13 stakeholders groups, including industrial owners, and non-industrial private forestland owners (NIPF - acting individually or grouped into associations and federations -, national and regional offices of the forest authority, forest services providers, non-governmental organizations and research centers. Results suggest that the proposed approach may provide a toolbox that may effectively address stakeholders’ decision processes and goals and support the regional interaction network.Key-words: forest management; multiple stakeholders; decision support systems; enterprise architecture; participatory process.

  15. Pilot-testing an applied competency-based approach to health human resources planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin Murphy, Gail; MacKenzie, Adrian; Alder, Rob; Langley, Joanne; Hickey, Marjorie; Cook, Amanda

    2013-10-01

    A competency-based approach to health human resources (HHR) planning is one that explicitly considers the spectrum of knowledge, skills and judgement (competencies) required for the health workforce based on the health needs of the relevant population in some specific circumstances. Such an approach is of particular benefit to planners challenged to make optimal use of limited HHR as it allows them to move beyond simply estimating numbers of certain professionals required and plan instead according to the unique mix of competencies available from the existing health workforce. This kind of flexibility is particularly valuable in contexts where healthcare providers are in short supply generally (e.g. in many developing countries) or temporarily due to a surge in need (e.g. a pandemic or other disease outbreak). A pilot application of this approach using the context of an influenza pandemic in one health district of Nova Scotia, Canada, is described, and key competency gaps identified. The approach is also being applied using other conditions in other Canadian jurisdictions and in Zambia.

  16. Indirect Transmission of Influenza A Virus between Pig Populations under Two Different Biosecurity Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt W Allerson

    Full Text Available Respiratory disease due to influenza virus is common in both human and swine populations around the world with multiple transmission routes capable of transmitting influenza virus, including indirect routes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of fomites in influenza A virus (IAV transmission between pig populations separated by two different biosecurity settings. Thirty-five pigs were divided into four experimental groups: 10 pigs (1 replicate were assigned to the infected group (I, 10 pigs (2 replicates of 5 pigs were assigned to the low biosecurity sentinel group (LB, 10 pigs (2 replicates of 5 pigs were assigned to the medium biosecurity sentinel group (MB, and 5 pigs (1 replicate were assigned to the negative control group (NC. Eight of 10 pigs in the infected group were inoculated with IAV and 36 hours following inoculation, personnel movement events took place in order to move potentially infectious clothing and personal protective equipment (PPE to sentinel pig rooms. Following contact with the infected group, personnel moved to the MB group after designated hygiene measures while personnel moved directly to the LB group. Nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from pigs to assess IAV infection status and fomites were sampled and tested via RRT-PCR. All experimentally inoculated pigs were infected with IAV and 11 of the 144 fomite samples collected following contact with infected pigs were low level positive for IAV genome. One replicate of each sentinel groups LB and MB became infected with IAV and all five pigs were infected over time. This study provides evidence that fomites can serve as an IAV transmission route from infected to sentinel pigs and highlights the need to focus on indirect routes as well as direct routes of transmission for IAV.

  17. Field application of a combined pig and poultry market chain and risk pathway analysis within the Pacific Islands region as a tool for targeted disease surveillance and biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Limited resources are one of the major constraints in effective disease monitoring and control in developing countries. This paper examines the pig and poultry market chains of four targeted Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs): Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu and combines them with a risk pathway analysis to identify the highest risk areas (risk hotspots) and risky practices and behaviours (risk factors) of animal disease introduction and/or spread, using highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) as model diseases because of their importance in the region. The results show that combining a market chain analysis with risk pathways is a practical way of communicating risk to animal health officials and improving biosecurity. It provides a participatory approach that helps officials to better understand the trading regulations in place in their country and to better evaluate their role as part of the control system. Common risk patterns were found to play a role in all four PICTs. Legal trade pathways rely essentially on preventive measures put in place in the exporting countries while no or only limited control measures are undertaken by the importing countries. Legal importations of animals and animal products are done mainly by commercial farms which then supply local smallholders. Targeting surveillance on these potential hotspots would limit the risk of introduction and spread of animal diseases within the pig and poultry industry and better rationalize use of skilled manpower. Swill feeding is identified as a common practice in the region that represents a recognized risk factor for dissemination of pathogens to susceptible species. Illegal introduction of animals and animal products is suspected, but appears restricted to small holder farms in remote areas, limiting the risk of spread of transboundary animal diseases along the market chain. Introduction of undeclared goods hidden within a legal

  18. Sample size planning for the coefficient of variation from the accuracy in parameter estimation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ken

    2007-11-01

    The accuracy in parameter estimation approach to sample size planning is developed for the coefficient of variation, where the goal of the method is to obtain an accurate parameter estimate by achieving a sufficiently narrow confidence interval. The first method allows researchers to plan sample size so that the expected width of the confidence interval for the population coefficient of variation is sufficiently narrow. A modification allows a desired degree of assurance to be incorporated into the method, so that the obtained confidence interval will be sufficiently narrow with some specified probability (e.g., 85% assurance that the 95 confidence interval width will be no wider than to units). Tables of necessary sample size are provided for a variety of scenarios that may help researchers planning a study where the coefficient of variation is of interest plan an appropriate sample size in order to have a sufficiently narrow confidence interval, optionally with somespecified assurance of the confidence interval being sufficiently narrow. Freely available computer routines have been developed that allow researchers to easily implement all of the methods discussed in the article.

  19. A cross-sectional study on biosecurity practices and communication networks of poultry exhibition in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, Marta; Schemann, Kathrin; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2013-07-01

    Poultry exhibitors are perceived to pose a biosecurity risk due to the high frequency of movements of birds and the close contact between birds at poultry shows. This cross-sectional study assessed the risks posed by poultry exhibitors in Australia using face-to-face interviews (n=46) at eight poultry shows and a postal survey. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between age, sex, location, number of birds, number of shows attended per year and distance travelled to a show, with biosecurity and communication practices. A total of 357 (29.1%) exhibitors responded to the postal survey. Among all participants (n=403), most had owned poultry for more than 15 years (71.9%), kept less than 200 birds (83.4%), mainly chicken (96.7%) and waterfowl (17.8%), and reported not having any commercial poultry operation within 5 km of their property (85.4%). Despite most exhibitors (90.8%) having at least some knowledge of biosecurity principles; some of their practices could pose a risk for disease introduction and spread. Most exhibitors kept their birds with outdoor access (87.0%) and 67.0% of exhibitors reported contact of wild birds with domestic birds being possible. Only 60% and 40.6% of exhibitors cleaned transport cages after each use and isolated birds for over two weeks, respectively, with men and exhibitors keeping more birds less likely (P=0.003) to conduct this practice. Most exhibitors (75.0%) attended more than 5 shows per year, travelling long distances (up to 1000 km) to attend a show. Although most exhibitors would source and sell their birds from and to other exhibitors and at poultry shows, some reported sourcing (15.2%) and selling (25.3%) their birds at live bird markets. In addition, contact with veterinarians was low (23.1%), with younger exhibitors and women more likely to contact a veterinarian than older exhibitors (P=0.006) and men (P=0.017). Other poultry exhibitors were reported as the most

  20. Rapid identification of bio-molecules applied for detection of biosecurity agents using rolling circle amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Göransson

    Full Text Available Detection and identification of pathogens in environmental samples for biosecurity applications are challenging due to the strict requirements on specificity, sensitivity and time. We have developed a concept for quick, specific and sensitive pathogen identification in environmental samples. Target identification is realized by padlock- and proximity probing, and reacted probes are amplified by RCA (rolling-circle amplification. The individual RCA products are labeled by fluorescence and enumerated by an instrument, developed for sensitive and rapid digital analysis. The concept is demonstrated by identification of simili biowarfare agents for bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pantoea agglomerans and spores (Bacillus atrophaeus released in field.

  1. A hybrid simulation approach for integrating safety behavior into construction planning: An earthmoving case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Askar Ali, Mohamed Jawad

    2016-08-01

    One of the key challenges in improving construction safety and health is the management of safety behavior. From a system point of view, workers work unsafely due to system level issues such as poor safety culture, excessive production pressure, inadequate allocation of resources and time and lack of training. These systemic issues should be eradicated or minimized during planning. However, there is a lack of detailed planning tools to help managers assess the impact of their upstream decisions on worker safety behavior. Even though simulation had been used in construction planning, the review conducted in this study showed that construction safety management research had not been exploiting the potential of simulation techniques. Thus, a hybrid simulation framework is proposed to facilitate integration of safety management considerations into construction activity simulation. The hybrid framework consists of discrete event simulation (DES) as the core, but heterogeneous, interactive and intelligent (able to make decisions) agents replace traditional entities and resources. In addition, some of the cognitive processes and physiological aspects of agents are captured using system dynamics (SD) approach. The combination of DES, agent-based simulation (ABS) and SD allows a more "natural" representation of the complex dynamics in construction activities. The proposed hybrid framework was demonstrated using a hypothetical case study. In addition, due to the lack of application of factorial experiment approach in safety management simulation, the case study demonstrated sensitivity analysis and factorial experiment to guide future research.

  2. From principles to practice: a spatial approach to systematic conservation planning in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedding, L M; Friedlander, A M; Kittinger, J N; Watling, L; Gaines, S D; Bennett, M; Hardy, S M; Smith, C R

    2013-12-22

    Increases in the demand and price for industrial metals, combined with advances in technological capabilities have now made deep-sea mining more feasible and economically viable. In order to balance economic interests with the conservation of abyssal plain ecosystems, it is becoming increasingly important to develop a systematic approach to spatial management and zoning of the deep sea. Here, we describe an expert-driven systematic conservation planning process applied to inform science-based recommendations to the International Seabed Authority for a system of deep-sea marine protected areas (MPAs) to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem function in an abyssal Pacific region targeted for nodule mining (e.g. the Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone, CCZ). Our use of geospatial analysis and expert opinion in forming the recommendations allowed us to stratify the proposed network by biophysical gradients, maximize the number of biologically unique seamounts within each subregion, and minimize socioeconomic impacts. The resulting proposal for an MPA network (nine replicate 400 × 400 km MPAs) covers 24% (1 440 000 km(2)) of the total CCZ planning region and serves as example of swift and pre-emptive conservation planning across an unprecedented area in the deep sea. As pressure from resource extraction increases in the future, the scientific guiding principles outlined in this research can serve as a basis for collaborative international approaches to ocean management.

  3. An approach for evaluating the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on transmission expansion planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongrit CHATTHAWORN; Surachai CHAITUSANEY

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new robust optimization approach to evaluate the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on transmission expansion planning (TEP). The objective function of TEP is composed of the investment cost of the transmission line and the operating cost of conventional generators. A method to select suitable scenarios representing the intermittent renewable energy generation and loads is proposed to obtain robust expansion planning for all possible scenarios. A meta-heuristic algorithm called adaptive tabu search (ATS) is employed in the proposed TEP. ATS iterates between the main problem, which minimizes the investment and operating costs, and the subproblem, which minimizes the cost of power generation from conventional generators and curtailments of renewable energy generation and loads. The subproblem is solved by nonlinear programming (NLP) based on an interior point method. Moreover, the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP was evaluated by comparing expansion planning with and without consideration of a renewable energy source. The IEEE Reliability Test System 79 (RTS 79) was used for testing the proposed method and evaluating the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP. The results show that the proposed robust optimization approach provides a more robust solution than other methods and that the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP should be considered.

  4. A spatially explicit risk approach to support marine spatial planning in the German EEZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimpel, Antje; Stelzenmüller, Vanessa; Cormier, Roland; Floeter, Jens; Temming, Axel

    2013-05-01

    An ecosystem approach to marine spatial planning (MSP) promotes sustainable development by organizing human activities in a geo-spatial and temporal context. (1) This study develops and tests a spatially explicit risk assessment to support MSP. Using the German exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the North Sea as a case study area, current and future spatial management scenarios are assessed. (2) Different tools are linked in order to carry out a comprehensive spatial risk assessment of current and future spatial management scenarios for ecologic and economic ecosystem components, i.e. Pleuronectes platessa nursery grounds. With the identification of key inputs and outputs the suitability of each tool is tested. (3) Here, the procedure as well as the main findings of the spatially explicit risk approach are summarised to demonstrate the applicability of the framework and the need for an ecosystem approach to risk management techniques using geo-spatial tools.

  5. Biosafety and Biosecurity in U.S.Biology Laboratories,and Suggestions to Biosafety in China%美国实验室生物安全管理与安保措施及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宏涛; 郭晓燕

    2012-01-01

    Through the investigation of biological laboratory safety management standards and operating manuals from several research institutes and universities in the U. S. A. , the U. S. Biological laboratory safety management programs and biosecurity measures were introduced, including the basic concepts of laboratory management, laboratory biosafety and laboratory biosecurity, and laboratory biorisk evaluation criteria. Taking the BSL3-level biology laboratory as an example,the specific implementation plan was discribed. Finally,several suggestions for biosafety management in China were presented based on the laboratory bisafety management experience gained in the U. S. A and the laboratory biosafety situation in China.%通过调研美国几个研究院所、大学生物实验室的安全管理规范和操作手册,对美国生物实验室的安全管理方案与生物安保措施作了系统介绍,包括实验室管理、实验室生物安全( Biosafety)和实验室生物安保(Biosecurity)的基本概念、实验室生物风险(Biorisk)的评估标准,并以BSL3级生物实验室为例介绍了具体的实施方案.最后,结合国内的生物实验室安全管理的实际情况提出了一些建议.

  6. A systematic conservation planning approach to fire risk management in Natura 2000 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresta, Massimiliano; Carranza, Maria Laura; Garfì, Vittorio; Di Febbraro, Mirko; Marchetti, Marco; Loy, Anna

    2016-10-01

    A primary challenge in conservation biology is to preserve the most representative biodiversity while simultaneously optimizing the efforts associated with conservation. In Europe, the implementation of the Natura 2000 network requires protocols to recognize and map threats to biodiversity and to identify specific mitigation actions. We propose a systematic conservation planning approach to optimize management actions against specific threats based on two fundamental parameters: biodiversity values and threat pressure. We used the conservation planning software Marxan to optimize a fire management plan in a Natura 2000 coastal network in southern Italy. We address three primary questions: i) Which areas are at high fire risk? ii) Which areas are the most valuable for threatened biodiversity? iii) Which areas should receive priority risk-mitigation actions for the optimal effect?, iv) which fire-prevention actions are feasible in the management areas?. The biodiversity values for the Natura 2000 spatial units were derived from the distribution maps of 18 habitats and 89 vertebrate species of concern in Europe (Habitat Directive 92/43/EEC). The threat pressure map, defined as fire probability, was obtained from digital layers of fire risk and of fire frequency. Marxan settings were defined as follows: a) planning units of 40 × 40 m, b) conservation features defined as all habitats and vertebrate species of European concern occurring in the study area, c) conservation targets defined according with fire sensitivity and extinction risk of conservation features, and d) costs determined as the complement of fire probabilities. We identified 23 management areas in which to concentrate efforts for the optimal reduction of fire-induced effects. Because traditional fire prevention is not feasible for most of policy habitats included in the management areas, alternative prevention practices were identified that allows the conservation of the vegetation structure. The

  7. Developing a planning tool for South African prosecution resources: challenges and approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Koen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In every country the prosecution of criminal cases is governed by different laws, policies and processes. In South Africa, the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA has the responsibility of planning and managing all prosecution functions. The NPA has certain unique characteristics that make it different from other similar organisations internationally. The development of a planning tool that the NPA could use to plan their future resource requirements over the short to medium term required extensive modelling, and its final form included features which, to the best knowledge of the development team, make it unique both locally and internationally. Model design was largely influenced by the challenges emanating from the special requirements and context of the problem. Resources were not forecasted directly, but were derived with the help of simulation models that traced docket flows through various resource-driven processes. Docket flows were derived as a proportion of reported crimes, and these were forecasted using a multivariate statistical model which could take into account explanatory variables as well as the correlations between the patterns observed within different crime categories. The simulation consisted of a number of smaller models which could be run independently, and not of one overarching model. This approach was found to make the best use of available data, and compensated for the fact that certain parameters, linking different courts and court types, were not available. In addition, it simplified scenario testing and sensitivity analysis. The various components of the planning tool, including inputs and outputs of the simulation models and the linkages between the forecasts and the simulation models, were implemented in a set of spreadsheets. By using spreadsheets as a common user interface, the planning tool could be used by prosecutors and managers who may not have extensive mathematical or modelling experience.

  8. PROGRAM AND PURPOSE APPROACH TO FINANCE PLANNING (Military Budgets taken as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Mozhilovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A necessity to improve financial planning of military budgets according to bottom-up approach and elaboration of proposals on practical application of methodology for financial planning and preparation of budget on the basis of program and purpose approach are considered in the paper.The paper proposes to create program and purpose space, in other words organizational, informative and legal medium which makes it possible accurately and timely to give answers to such questions as: what resources, for what purposes and whom they are transferred, how they are spent? Specificity of the program and purpose approach application (military budgets taken as an example is revealed in the paper.  Determination of requirements in financial resources is broken up in stages.The paper describes advantages of the program and purpose budgeting realization in finance management of military bodies.Some moments concerning determination of the requirements in financial resources and events organized on their basis  can be useful and applicable at other budget organizations.

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake. CAU 496 consists of one site located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  10. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allnutt, Thomas F; McClanahan, Timothy R; Andréfouët, Serge; Baker, Merrill; Lagabrielle, Erwann; McClennen, Caleb; Rakotomanjaka, Andry J M; Tianarisoa, Tantely F; Watson, Reg; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value). The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative approaches during

  11. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Allnutt

    Full Text Available The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value. The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative

  12. An agent based approach for simulating complex systems with spatial dynamicsapplication in the land use planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimazahra BARRAMOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research a new agent based approach for simulating complex systems with spatial dynamics is presented. We propose architecture based on coupling between two systems: multi-agent systems and geographic information systems. We also propose a generic model of agent-oriented simulation that we will apply to the field of land use planning. In fact, simulating the evolution of the urban system is a key to help decision makers to anticipate the needs of the city in terms of installing new equipment and opening new urbanization’ areas to install the new population.

  13. Genetic algorithm-fuzzy based dynamic motion planning approach for a mobile robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Presents the mobile robots dynamic motion planning problem with a task to find an obstacle-free route that requires minimum travel time from the start point to the destination point in a changing environment, due to the obstacle's moving. An Genetic Algorithm fuzzy(GA-Fuzzy)based optimal approach proposed to find any obstacle-free path and the GA used to select the optimal one, points ont that using this learned knowledge off line, a mobile robot can navigate to its goal point when it faces new scenario on-line. Concludes with the opti mal rule base given and the simulation results showing its effectiveness.

  14. Letting youths choose for themselves: concept mapping as a participatory approach for program and service planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Anita; Patel, Sejal; Bruce-Barrett, Cindy; OʼCampo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring that the voices of youths are heard is key in creating services that align with the needs and goals of youths. Concept mapping, a participatory mixed-methods approach, was used to engage youths, families, and service providers in an assessment of service gaps facing youth in an underserviced neighborhood in Toronto, Canada. We describe 6 phases of concept mapping: preparation, brainstorming, sorting and rating, analysis, interpretation, and utilization. Results demonstrate that youths and service providers vary in their conceptualizations of youth service needs and priorities. Implications for service planning and for youth engagement in research are discussed.

  15. Virtual endoscopy (VE) of the basal cisterns: its value in planning the neurosurgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boor, S; Resch, K M; Perneczky, A; Stoeter, P

    1998-12-01

    Virtual endoscopy (VE) is a postprocessing technique based on a diverging ray casting algorithm to create perspective 3 D-images from computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MR) data. By applying VE to aneurysms, tumors, and vascular compression syndromes within the basal cisterns, endoscopic-like views of these structures are achieved from an intracisternal point above the cranial base. These views closely simulate the surgeon's impression during intraoperative endoscopy or microscopy and facilitate preoperative planning of different approaches.

  16. Integrating marker passing and problem solving a spreading activation approach to improved choice in planning

    CERN Document Server

    Hendler, James A

    2014-01-01

    A recent area of interest in the Artificial Intelligence community has been the application of massively parallel algorithms to enhance the choice mechanism in traditional AI problems. This volume provides a detailed description of how marker-passing -- a parallel, non-deductive, spreading activation algorithm -- is a powerful approach to refining the choice mechanisms in an AI problem-solving system. The author scrutinizes the design of both the algorithm and the system, and then reviews the current literature and research in planning and marker passing. Also included: a comparison of this

  17. A Harmonic Potential Approach For Simultaneous Planning And Control Of A Generic UAV Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud, Ahmad A.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous planning and control of a large variety of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is tackled using the harmonic potential field (HPF) approach. A dense reference velocity field generated from the gradient of an HPF is used to regulate the velocity of the UAV concerned in a manner that would propel the UAV to a target point while enforcing the constraints on behavior that were a priori encoded in the reference field. The regulation process is carried-out using a novel and simple concept ...

  18. Biosecurity and Disinfection Controls of Poultry Microbial Pathogen Infections in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene U. Chima

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, industrial poultry production occupies a place of pride among the livestock enterprises due to its rapid monetary turnover. However, Intensive poultry farming provides the optimum conditions for the concentration of disease causing pathogens and transmission. The presence of these diseases has created the need for the control of poultry pathogens in the intensive farming system. Microbiological contamination can be prevented and controlled using proper management practices and healthcare products such as disinfectants. Disinfection consists of destroying disease-producing microbes by chemical and physical means. Hygiene involves the setting up of physical barriers to restrict the access of disease causing agents to the flock and to limit the spread of infectious materials. Biosecurity on the other hand is the protection of poultry flock from any type of infectious agents, whether viral, bacterial, fungi or parasitic in nature. In many developing countries, such as Nigeria, provision for biosecurity are usually inadequate due to; outdated laws and inadequate legal infrastructure; lack of resources, budget and infrastructure for inspection and enforcement; poor cooperation between agencies; lack of technical resources and infrastructure for risk assessment, etc. Measures to enhance safety of food and good quality poultry products from farm to table are however key concerns for all stakeholders in the industry. Since Global concerns about poultry pathogen play a prime role in poultry exports and food policy decisions in international trade, Nigerian poultry farmers need proper diseases control environment in order to sustain asses to international trade.

  19. Status of biosecurity and prevalent parasitic diseases in finfish hatcheries of Jessore, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdus Samad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the status of biosecurity and prevalent parasitic diseases in finfish hatcheries of Jessore district. The peak season of seed production was found April to May. Management of biosecurity has been practiced to prevent disease outbreaks and exert quite satisfactory. It was observed; hatchery owners cleaned their hatchery units regularly and maintained hygiene (76.66%, water quality (56.66%, disinfected equipments (76.00%, stocked disease free broods (76.00% and quarantine (56.66%. Prevalence of diseases were- lernaeasis (34.10%, argulosis (23.86%, leeches (11.36%, dactylogyrosis (7.95%, gyrodactylosis (10.23% and others (12.50% in brood fish and fry. In broods, average prevalence was 16.67% with 9.25% mortality. Besides average prevalence was 10-15% with 10% mortality in fry. The epizootiological pattern showed the highest frequency of parasitic diseases during winter because of loss of appetites. The study demonstrated that sumithion was used by (93.32%, magic (46.33%, depterax (56.67%, lime with KMnO4 (80.00%, lime with salt (66.67% and lime- salt- KMnO4 (50.00% by hatchery owners respectively for treatments. Lack of assistance, proper knowledge and suitable therapeutics with its proper use were the major problems in the hatcheries.

  20. Analyzing an Integrated Planning Approach Among Planning Scale and Sector A Case Study of Malang City’s Vision as The City of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Amirudin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated planning is more needed by government today because of the complexity of problems and limited resources. Integrated planning can undertake the problems by giving comprehensive solution and provide how much resources are needed to reach the goal. Integrated planning approach is implied to provide better tools to guide actions towards the development of cities, improvement of human conditions, and ultimately a better urbanism. So the research focused on integrated planning in Malang City based on Malang City’s vision, strategic planning, operational planning, budgeting planning in Malang City to achieve Malang City’s vision as the city of Education. In this study, researcher used qualitative method with descriptive research, which is a research process aims to describe the exact nature / something happened and took place on the research conducted. The research purpose is to identify and describe and analyze the process of Malang City Planning Agency integrate other planning scale and sector in developing planning; and to identify, describe and analyze the process of Malang City Planning Agency integrated all stakeholders in Integrated Planning process. This research use descriptive research method. The reason to use descriptive research method in this study because the principle objectives of this study aimed to describe, illustrate in a systematic, factual and accurate statement of the facts and the relationship between phenomenon. Then qualitative method was directed at the individual's background and a holistic (whole. So in this case should not isolate the individual or organization into a variable or hypothesis, but should view it as part of wholeness. The result of this research in the case study of Malang City has shown thatThe case study of Malang City showed that various sectors recognized but did not pay much attention to Malang City’s vision as City of Education in their plans; however, Regional Mid-term Development

  1. Strategic Planning Approaches for Creating Resilient Cities: A Case Study on Hangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Dan; Hua; Chen

    2015-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the population in China will be increasingly urbanized – focusing the sustainability challenge on cities and raising new challenges to address the urban resilience capacity. During the past two decades, China’s urban policies are state institution-directed, growth-oriented, and land-based, imposing unprecedented challenges on sustainability. Strengthening the capacity of cities to manage resilience appears to be a key factor for cities to effectively pursue sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to explore strategic planning approaches for creating resilient cities in China through a study on Hangzhou City in an integrated framework. Firstly, the paper gives a systematic insight into the structure of Hangzhou City. Secondly, the development trajectory of the urban system is analyzed to understand how the past has shaped the present and to get a broader perspective on its evolution. Thirdly, scenario planning is conducted to explore the adaptive capacity of Hangzhou City under different future conditions. At last, having analyzed the past, present, and future of the urban system, the paper discusses the strategies for resilient planning, which helps to identify factors and trends that might enhance or inhabit the adaptability.

  2. The GeoCitizen-approach: community-based spatial planning - an Ecuadorian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzmanstorfer, Karl; Resl, Richard; Eitzinger, Anton; Izurieta, Xiomara

    2014-05-27

    Over the last years, geospatial web platforms, social media, and volunteered geographic information (VGI) have opened a window of opportunity for traditional Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) to usher in a new era. Taking advantage of these technological achievements, this paper presents a new approach for a citizen-orientated framework of spatial planning that aims at integrating participatory community work into existing decision-making structures. One major cornerstone of the presented approach is the application of a social geoweb platform (the GeoCitizen platform) that combines geo-web technologies and social media in one single tool allowing citizens to collaboratively report observations, discuss ideas, solve, and monitor problems in their living environment at a local level. This paper gives an account of an ongoing participatory land-zoning process in the Capital District of Quito, Ecuador, where the GeoCitizen platform is applied in a long-term study.

  3. Planning additional drilling campaign using two-space genetic algorithm: A game theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Ozer, Umit

    2013-03-01

    Grade and tonnage are the most important technical uncertainties in mining ventures because of the use of estimations/simulations, which are mostly generated from drill data. Open pit mines are planned and designed on the basis of the blocks representing the entire orebody. Each block has different estimation/simulation variance reflecting uncertainty to some extent. The estimation/simulation realizations are submitted to mine production scheduling process. However, the use of a block model with varying estimation/simulation variances will lead to serious risk in the scheduling. In the medium of multiple simulations, the dispersion variances of blocks can be thought to regard technical uncertainties. However, the dispersion variance cannot handle uncertainty associated with varying estimation/simulation variances of blocks. This paper proposes an approach that generates the configuration of the best additional drilling campaign to generate more homogenous estimation/simulation variances of blocks. In other words, the objective is to find the best drilling configuration in such a way as to minimize grade uncertainty under budget constraint. Uncertainty measure of the optimization process in this paper is interpolation variance, which considers data locations and grades. The problem is expressed as a minmax problem, which focuses on finding the best worst-case performance i.e., minimizing interpolation variance of the block generating maximum interpolation variance. Since the optimization model requires computing the interpolation variances of blocks being simulated/estimated in each iteration, the problem cannot be solved by standard optimization tools. This motivates to use two-space genetic algorithm (GA) approach to solve the problem. The technique has two spaces: feasible drill hole configuration with minimization of interpolation variance and drill hole simulations with maximization of interpolation variance. Two-space interacts to find a minmax solution

  4. Mission Planning and Decision Support for Underwater Glider Networks: A Sampling on-Demand Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Gabriele; Cococcioni, Marco; Alvarez, Alberto

    2015-12-26

    This paper describes an optimal sampling approach to support glider fleet operators and marine scientists during the complex task of planning the missions of fleets of underwater gliders. Optimal sampling, which has gained considerable attention in the last decade, consists in planning the paths of gliders to minimize a specific criterion pertinent to the phenomenon under investigation. Different criteria (e.g., A, G, or E optimality), used in geosciences to obtain an optimum design, lead to different sampling strategies. In particular, the A criterion produces paths for the gliders that minimize the overall level of uncertainty over the area of interest. However, there are commonly operative situations in which the marine scientists may prefer not to minimize the overall uncertainty of a certain area, but instead they may be interested in achieving an acceptable uncertainty sufficient for the scientific or operational needs of the mission. We propose and discuss here an approach named sampling on-demand that explicitly addresses this need. In our approach the user provides an objective map, setting both the amount and the geographic distribution of the uncertainty to be achieved after assimilating the information gathered by the fleet. A novel optimality criterion, called A η , is proposed and the resulting minimization problem is solved by using a Simulated Annealing based optimizer that takes into account the constraints imposed by the glider navigation features, the desired geometry of the paths and the problems of reachability caused by ocean currents. This planning strategy has been implemented in a Matlab toolbox called SoDDS (Sampling on-Demand and Decision Support). The tool is able to automatically download the ocean fields data from MyOcean repository and also provides graphical user interfaces to ease the input process of mission parameters and targets. The results obtained by running SoDDS on three different scenarios are provided and show that So

  5. The West Central Alberta Woodland Caribou Landscape Plan: Using a Modeling Approach to Develop Alternative Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hubbs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus are classified as threatened in Alberta. In support of Canada's Species at Risk Act, a Recovery Plan for Woodland Caribou in Alberta was completed in 2004 which required local implementation plans to be completed within 5 areas of the province. The West Central Alberta Caribou Landscape Plan (WCCLP is the first of these to be initiated and it addresses the recovery strategies for 4 herds. Two aspatial computer models built on the STELLA© modelling platform (ISee Systems, 2007 were used to assist the planning team in evaluating cumulative effects and alternative scenarios for caribou conservation. The ALCES© (Forem Technologies 2008 modelling tool was used to forecast potential changes in the west central Alberta landscape over time. Yearly landscape condition outputs from ALCES© were then exported into a caribou-specific population model, REMUS© (Weclaw, 2004, that was used to project potential population responses by woodland caribou, other primary prey species [moose (Alces alces, elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus sp.] and wolves (Canis lupus (Weclaw & Hudson, 2004. Simulated habitat management strategies that resulted in the highest likelihood of caribou recovery included the maintenance of a high proportion of old forest, the aggregation of industrial footprints and the reclamation of historic seismic lines (although the latter took decades to provide real dividends. Sharing of industrial roads, protection of fragments of old-growth, and expanding an already aggressive fire control strategy in Alberta had little additional effect on caribou recovery. Simulated population management strategies that were successful all involved decades of intensive wolf control, either directly or indirectly through intensive primary prey control (with the exception of woodland caribou until old-growth forests recovered to densities that provided caribou habitat and decreased alternate prey of wolves. Although

  6. Tools for an integrated systems approach to sustainable port city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Morel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Large port cities like Shanghai, Amsterdam and Rio de Janeiro are key cogwheels in international logistics and transport networks but also serve as showcases for the rest of the world; as such, they constitute strategic assets for the host country´s economy and international influence. Historically, a city and its port often developed independently, through sometimes contradictory or even confrontational policies. Today, the growing number of usage disputes over increasingly coveted coastal areas is prompting local managers to incorporate urban and port-related issues in overarching planning programs. In particular, planning of the sea front and the buffer zone between the port and the city must contribute decisively to the deployment of more effective, cleaner transport services for the port city as a whole. In general, one of the key global challenges for planners and decision-makers consists in integrating sustainable development goals (environmental and social components, as well as the stimulation of industrial competitiveness into urban planning. In this context the PHEBUS research group has initiated an international program of research to develop innovative methods and tools that can help territorial stakeholders to design, evaluate, compare and ultimately choose development scenarios for the future of their port cities. The main themes are addressed via a multidisciplinary systems approach on the scale of a coastal urban area with an industrial and port complex. In particular, the themes include sea front planning, the city-port interface, energy optimization (e.g. the introduction and sharing of renewable energies, risk resilience, climate change and multimodal, clean transport.

  7. Multimodal Logistics Network Design over Planning Horizon through a Hybrid Meta-Heuristic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Wada, Takeshi

    Logistics has been acknowledged increasingly as a key issue of supply chain management to improve business efficiency under global competition and diversified customer demands. This study aims at improving a quality of strategic decision making associated with dynamic natures in logistics network optimization. Especially, noticing an importance to concern with a multimodal logistics under multiterms, we have extended a previous approach termed hybrid tabu search (HybTS). The attempt intends to deploy a strategic planning more concretely so that the strategic plan can link to an operational decision making. The idea refers to a smart extension of the HybTS to solve a dynamic mixed integer programming problem. It is a two-level iterative method composed of a sophisticated tabu search for the location problem at the upper level and a graph algorithm for the route selection at the lower level. To keep efficiency while coping with the resulting extremely large-scale problem, we invented a systematic procedure to transform the original linear program at the lower-level into a minimum cost flow problem solvable by the graph algorithm. Through numerical experiments, we verified the proposed method outperformed the commercial software. The results indicate the proposed approach can make the conventional strategic decision much more practical and is promising for real world applications.

  8. Scenario planning to leap-frog the Sustainable Development Goals: An adaptation pathways approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.A. Butler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined how to mainstream future climate change uncertainty into decision-making for poverty alleviation in developing countries. With potentially drastic climate change emerging later this century, there is an imperative to develop planning tools which can enable vulnerable rural communities to proactively build adaptive capacity and ‘leap-frog’ the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. Using an example from Indonesia, we present a novel participatory approach to achieve this. We applied scenario planning to operationalise four adaptation pathways principles: (1 consideration of climate change as a component of multi-scale social-ecological systems; (2 recognition of stakeholders’ competing values, goals and knowledge through co-learning; (3 coordination of responses across multiple decision-making levels; and (4 identification of strategies which are ‘no regrets’, incremental (tackling proximate drivers of community vulnerability and transformative (tackling systemic drivers. Workshops with stakeholders from different administrative levels identified drivers of change, an aspirational vision and explorative scenarios for livelihoods in 2090, and utilised normative back-casting to design no regrets adaptation strategies needed to achieve the vision. The resulting ‘tapestry’ of strategies were predominantly incremental, and targeted conventional development needs. Few directly addressed current or possible future climate change impacts. A minority was transformative, and higher level stakeholders identified proportionately more transformative strategies than local level stakeholders. Whilst the vast majority of strategies were no regrets, some were potentially mal-adaptive, particularly for coastal areas and infrastructure. There were few examples of transformative innovations that could generate a step-change in linked human and environmental outcomes, hence leap-frogging the SDGs. We conclude that whilst

  9. It takes a combination of biosecurity, testing, and vaccination to keep bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) under control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the third installment of a 3 part series on bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), written for a lay publication whose core audience in dairy producers. Control of BVD in any dairy operation must rely on the implementation of an organized strategy combining biosecurity, surveillance and increased herd...

  10. Colonization of Campylobacter spp. in Broiler Chickens and Laying Hens Reared in Tropical Climates with Low-Biosecurity Housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalupahana, R.S.; Kottawatta, K.S.A.; Kanankege, K.S.T.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Abeynayake, P.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The onset and prevalence of Campylobacter colonization in broilers and layers at commercial farms with low biosecurity in tropical climates were tested. Despite the presence of positive animals at the same farms, the broiler flocks tested negative until, on average, 21 days. Prelaying flocks showed

  11. Biosecurity for Translocations: Cirl Bunting (Emberiza cirlus), Fisher's Estuarine Moth (Gortyna borelii lunata), Short-Haired Bumblebee (Bombus subterraneus) and Pool Frog (Pelophylax lessonae) Translocations as Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan-Higgins, R J; Masters, N; Sainsbury, A W

    2016-08-04

    Exposure to parasites in conservation translocations increases the risks to recipient and translocated populations from disease, and therefore there has been interest in implementing biosecurity methods. Using four case examples we described how biosecurity was applied in practical translocation scenarios prior to and during a translocation and also post-release. We implemented biosecurity, including quarantine barriers, at specific points in the translocation pathway where hazards, identified by the disease risk analysis, had the potential to induce disease. Evidence that biosecurity protected translocated and recipient populations, included an absence of mortality associated with high-risk non-native parasites, a reduction in mortality associated with endemic parasites, the absence of high-risk pathogenic parasites, or associated diseases, at the destination; and the apparent absence of diseases in closely related species at the destination site. The biosecurity protocols did not alter the level or duration of translocated species confinement and therefore probably did not act as a stressor. There is a monetary cost involved in biosecurity but the epidemiological evidence suggests that conservation translocation managers should carefully consider its use. Breakdowns in quarantine have occurred in human hospitals despite considerable investment and training for health professionals, and we therefore judge that there is a need for training in the objectives and maintenance of quarantine barriers in conservation translocations. Biosecurity protocols for conservation translocations should be continually updated in response to findings from disease risk analysis and post-release disease surveillance and we recommend further studies to evaluate their effectiveness.

  12. Comparison of anatomy-based, fluence-based and aperture-based treatment planning approaches for VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao Min; Cao Daliang; Chen Fan; Ye Jinsong; Mehta, Vivek; Wong, Tony; Shepard, David, E-mail: min.mrao@gmail.co [Department of Radiation Oncology, Swedish Cancer Institute, 1221 Madison St Seattle, WA 98104 (United States)

    2010-11-07

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) has the potential to reduce treatment times while producing comparable or improved dose distributions relative to fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy. In order to take full advantage of the VMAT delivery technique, one must select a robust inverse planning tool. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of VMAT planning techniques of three categories: anatomy-based, fluence-based and aperture-based inverse planning. We have compared these techniques in terms of the plan quality, planning efficiency and delivery efficiency. Fourteen patients were selected for this study including six head-and-neck (HN) cases, and two cases each of prostate, pancreas, lung and partial brain. For each case, three VMAT plans were created. The first VMAT plan was generated based on the anatomical geometry. In the Elekta ERGO++ treatment planning system (TPS), segments were generated based on the beam's eye view (BEV) of the target and the organs at risk. The segment shapes were then exported to Pinnacle{sup 3} TPS followed by segment weight optimization and final dose calculation. The second VMAT plan was generated by converting optimized fluence maps (calculated by the Pinnacle{sup 3} TPS) into deliverable arcs using an in-house arc sequencer. The third VMAT plan was generated using the Pinnacle{sup 3} SmartArc IMRT module which is an aperture-based optimization method. All VMAT plans were delivered using an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator and the plan comparisons were made in terms of plan quality and delivery efficiency. The results show that for cases of little or modest complexity such as prostate, pancreas, lung and brain, the anatomy-based approach provides similar target coverage and critical structure sparing, but less conformal dose distributions as compared to the other two approaches. For more complex HN cases, the anatomy-based approach is not able to provide clinically acceptable

  13. A LAGRANGIAN RELAXATION APPROACH FOR SUPPLY CHAIN PLANNING WITH ORDER/SETUP COSTS AND CAPACITY CONSTRAINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haoxun CHEN; Chengbin CHU

    2003-01-01

    A heuristic approach is developed for supply chain planning modeled as multi-item multi-levelcapacitated lot sizing problems. The heuristic combines Lagrangian relaxation (LR) with local search.Different from existing LR approaches that relax capacity constraints and/or inventory balanceconstraints, our approach only relaxes the technical constraints that each 0-1 setup variable must takevalue 1 if its corresponding continuous variable is positive. The relaxed problem is approximatelysolved by using the simplex algorithm for linear programming, while Lagrange multipliers are updatedby using a surrogate subgradient method that ensures the convergence of the dual problem in case ofthe approximate resolution of the relaxed problem. At each iteration, a feasible solution of the originalproblem is constructed from the solution of the relaxed problem. The feasible solution is furtherimproved by a local search that changes the values of two setup variables at each time. By taking theadvantages of a special structure of the lot-sizing problem, the local search can be implemented byusing a modified simplex algorithm, which significantly reduces its computation time. Numericalexperiments show that our approach can find very good solutions for problems of realistic sizes in ashort computation time and is more effective than an existing commercial optimization code.

  14. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kuster

    Full Text Available Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively. Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest to 5 (highest. Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT, Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD, Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR. Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF, Enzootic Pneumonia (EP, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS, as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers

  15. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  16. Horse owners'/managers' perceptions about effectiveness of biosecurity measures based on their experiences during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Firestone, S M; Taylor, M R; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2012-09-15

    Following the first ever equine influenza outbreak in Australia in 2007, a study was conducted involving 200 horse owners and managers to determine their perceptions about effectiveness of biosecurity measures and the factors associated with these perceptions. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners/managers to obtain information about their perceptions of the effectiveness of biosecurity practices, their sources of information about infection control during the outbreak and their horse industry involvement. Two outcome variables were created from horse owners' responses to a 17-item question on the perceived effectiveness of various recommended equine influenza biosecurity measures: (a) a binary outcome variable (Low/High biosecurity effectiveness) and (b) a continuous outcome variable (the proportion of the 17 measures considered 'very effective'). These outcomes were used in binomial logistic and linear regression analyses, respectively, to determine factors associated with perceptions of biosecurity effectiveness. Variables with a p-value biosecurity measures were very effective for protecting their horses from equine influenza infection in the event of a future outbreak. Interviewees that were more likely to judge on-farm biosecurity measures as effective were those who received infection control information from a veterinarian during the outbreak, did not experience equine influenza infection in their horses, and those on small acreage premises (homes with horses on site). Greater levels of preparedness for a future equine influenza outbreak and greater interest in information about infection control were associated with a better perception about effectiveness of biosecurity measures. This study identified factors associated with horse owners' and managers' perception of effectiveness of biosecurity measures. These findings should be considered in the design of infection control programs.

  17. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  18. Collaborative multi-stakeholder approach to drafting flood risk management plans in Wallonia, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroy, Edith; Javaux, Mathieu; Vandermosten, Pierre; Englebert, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The Flood Directive 2007/60/CE establishes a common framework within the European Union for assessing and reducing risks posed by floods on human health, the environment, economic activity and cultural heritage. For that purpose, Member States had to establish flood areas and flood risk maps, and subsequently, flood risk management plans (due December 2015). According to the Directive, special attention is to be paid to international coordination for transboundary water courses, integrated management approaches at the catchment scale, cost-effectiveness of measures and public involvement. Management measures must focus on reducing the probability of flooding and the potential consequences of flooding. They must cover prevention, protection and preparedness and must take into account relevant aspects, such as water management, soil management, spatial planning, land use and nature conservation. Floods in Wallonia mostly originate from overflowing of both little sloped rivers and highly reactive rivers but also, from concentrated runoff in the intensely cultivated and erosion-prone region north of the Sambre-Meuse axis. Consequently, walloon flood area maps not only show flood areas based on hydraulic modelling and observations but also runoff concentration axis in agricultural areas. Now released to the public, this information can be used to assess the risk of damage for land planning and erosion control strategies. Incidentally, some 166 km2 were mapped as flood hazard area with a return period of 25 years, 28.8 of which are urbanized or destined to urbanisation and counting of number of approximatively 39.000 people living in those areas. Flood area and flood risk maps should be the starting point of elaborating flood risk management plans. In order to involve the diversity of water managers and stakeholders in the drafting of a management plan for hydrographic districts in Wallonia, responsible authorities decided to mandate scientists and engineers to organize

  19. A Toolkit Modeling Approach for Sustainable Forest Management Planning: Achieving Balance between Science and Local Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Sturtevant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To assist forest managers in balancing an increasing diversity of resource objectives, we developed a toolkit modeling approach for sustainable forest management (SFM. The approach inserts a meta-modeling strategy into a collaborative modeling framework grounded in adaptive management philosophy that facilitates participation among stakeholders, decision makers, and local domain experts in the meta-model building process. The modeling team works iteratively with each of these groups to define essential questions, identify data resources, and then determine whether available tools can be applied or adapted, or whether new tools can be rapidly created to fit the need. The desired goal of the process is a linked series of domain-specific models (tools that balances generalized "top-down" models (i.e., scientific models developed without input from the local system with case-specific customized "bottom-up" models that are driven primarily by local needs. Information flow between models is organized according to vertical (i.e., between scale and horizontal (i.e., within scale dimensions. We illustrate our approach within a 2.1 million hectare forest planning district in central Labrador, a forested landscape where social and ecological values receive a higher priority than economic values. However, the focus of this paper is on the process of how SFM modeling tools and concepts can be rapidly assembled and applied in new locations, balancing efficient transfer of science with adaptation to local needs. We use the Labrador case study to illustrate strengths and challenges uniquely associated with a meta-modeling approach to integrated modeling as it fits within the broader collaborative modeling framework. Principle advantages of the approach include the scientific rigor introduced by peer-reviewed models, combined with the adaptability of meta-modeling. A key challenge is the limited transparency of scientific models to different participatory groups

  20. Use of stakeholder analysis to inform risk communication and extension strategies for improved biosecurity amongst small-scale pig producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Gilmour, J; Schembri, N; Sysak, T; Holyoake, P K; Beilin, R; Toribio, J-A L M L

    2012-05-01

    Extension and communication needs amongst small-scale pig producers, described as pig producers with less than 100 sows, have been previously identified. These producers, who are believed to pose a biosecurity risk to commercial livestock industries, are characterized by a lack of formal networks, mistrust of authorities, poor disease reporting behaviour and motivational diversity, and reliance on other producers, veterinarians and family for pig health and production advice. This paper applies stakeholder identification and analysis tools to determine stakeholders' influence and interest on pig producers' practices. Findings can inform a risk communication process and the development of an extension framework to increase producers' engagement with industry and their compliance with biosecurity standards and legislation in Australia. The process included identification of stakeholders, their issues of concerns regarding small-scale pig producers and biosecurity and their influence and interest in each of these issues. This exercise identified the capacity of different stakeholders to influence the outcomes for each issue and assessed their success or failure to do so. The disconnection identified between the level of interest and influence suggests that government and industry need to work with the small-scale pig producers and with those who have the capacity to influence them. Successful biosecurity risk management will depend on shared responsibility and building trust amongst stakeholders. Flow-on effects may include legitimating the importance of reporting and compliance systems and the co-management of risk. Compliance of small-scale pig producers with biosecurity industry standards and legislation will reduce the risks of entry and spread of exotic diseases in Australia.

  1. Live pig markets in eastern Indonesia: Trader characteristics, biosecurity and implications for disease spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever has been negatively impacting pig production in Nusa Tenggara Timur province in eastern Indonesia since its introduction in the 1990s, with live market trade contributing to disease spread. To understand market trader knowledge and practices regarding pig management, biosecurity, pig movements and pig health (specifically CSF), a repeated survey was conducted with pig sellers and pig buyers at 9 market sites across West Timor and the islands of Flores and Sumba. A total of 292 sellers and 281 buyers were interviewed in 2009 during two periods (rounds), a high-demand month (September) and a low-demand month (November). Information was collected via questionnaire. The majority of traders were male (sellers: 89%; buyers: 87%) with the highest level of completed education being primary school (sellers: 48%; buyers: 41%). The primary occupation of most respondents was farming: 90% of sellers and 87% of buyers were smallholder pig farmers and tended to sell their own home-raised pigs at market (52%). Pigs were sold for monetary gain either for primary (52%) or extra income (44%). Markets tended to be selected based on a good reputation (62%), a location close to residence (62%) and having the desired pig type (59%). Pig sales through markets were reported to be highest from August to October with 31% of sellers trading pigs at two or more markets. Prices at market were significantly higher on Sumba compared to West Timor and cross-bred pigs were significantly more expensive than indigenous pigs. Understanding of CSF and biosecurity was limited: 85% of sellers and 83% of buyers had no prior knowledge of CSF. Fifty-four percent of sellers reported no use of any biosecurity practices at market. Most respondents (88%) were able to recognise at least one clinical sign of a sick pig. Informal pig movements were also identified: 18% of pig buyers purchased pigs directly from other farmers. This study has provided baseline information on market trader

  2. Participatory approach in planning for low carbon and eco-village: A case of Felda Taib Andak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngah, I.; Zulkifli, A. S.

    2014-02-01

    Participatory approaches have becoming an important tool in planning of sustainable communities. Although participation is conceived as a malleable concept there are certain methods that planners can adopt to ensure a meaningful participation. This paper will provide some experiences and lessons on how participatory planning could be carried out with local people, the role of planners in the process of plan preparation, implementation and the outcome. This paper first explores some of the meanings of participation, the criteria of participation and the approaches of participation in planning for sustainable community. The second part is a description and discussion of how participatory approach in planning was applied in planning for low carbon and eco-village in Iskandar Malaysia based on a case study of planning of Felda Taib Andak scheme. The participatory approach involved a series of meetings, site visit and focus group discussions with representative of the Felda Village to come out with action plan and actual implementation. From focus group discussions a roadmap consisted of a vision and objectives and a dozen actions were formulated and adopted. In the process of implementation the main implementation & coordination committee was form in which the author (planner) is one of its members to look into fund raising & implementation strategies together with the local people. Several task forces or sub committees responsible to implement the dozen actions were also formed. The outcome was encouraging in which some of the actions such as planting of bamboo trees, reduction of pollution from oil palm factory and bicycling activities has been implemented and shown progress. The paper also highlights some of the issues and challenges in participatory planning.

  3. Biologically optimized helium ion plans: calculation approach and its in vitro validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairani, A.; Dokic, I.; Magro, G.; Tessonnier, T.; Kamp, F.; Carlson, D. J.; Ciocca, M.; Cerutti, F.; Sala, P. R.; Ferrari, A.; Böhlen, T. T.; Jäkel, O.; Parodi, K.; Debus, J.; Abdollahi, A.; Haberer, T.

    2016-06-01

    Treatment planning studies on the biological effect of raster-scanned helium ion beams should be performed, together with their experimental verification, before their clinical application at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT). For this purpose, we introduce a novel calculation approach based on integrating data-driven biological models in our Monte Carlo treatment planning (MCTP) tool. Dealing with a mixed radiation field, the biological effect of the primary 4He ion beams, of the secondary 3He and 4He (Z  =  2) fragments and of the produced protons, deuterons and tritons (Z  =  1) has to be taken into account. A spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) in water, representative of a clinically-relevant scenario, has been biologically optimized with the MCTP and then delivered at HIT. Predictions of cell survival and RBE for a tumor cell line, characterized by {{(α /β )}\\text{ph}}=5.4 Gy, have been successfully compared against measured clonogenic survival data. The mean absolute survival variation ({μΔ \\text{S}} ) between model predictions and experimental data was 5.3%  ±  0.9%. A sensitivity study, i.e. quantifying the variation of the estimations for the studied plan as a function of the applied phenomenological modelling approach, has been performed. The feasibility of a simpler biological modelling based on dose-averaged LET (linear energy transfer) has been tested. Moreover, comparisons with biophysical models such as the local effect model (LEM) and the repair-misrepair-fixation (RMF) model were performed. {μΔ \\text{S}} values for the LEM and the RMF model were, respectively, 4.5%  ±  0.8% and 5.8%  ±  1.1%. The satisfactorily agreement found in this work for the studied SOBP, representative of clinically-relevant scenario, suggests that the introduced approach could be applied for an accurate estimation of the biological effect for helium ion radiotherapy.

  4. Planning for Water Resources of South Florida: A system dynamics modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.

    2006-12-01

    With enormous growth in population, changes in land use, substantial agriculture activity, and need to protect vital environmental resources such as Everglades, south Florida presents a very challenging case for water resources planning. Working with stakeholders to meet challenges of water resources planning in south Florida, we are exploring important questions: (a) What are some major changes in terms of population growth, land use, water demand, and water availability that can be expected in south Florida in the short and long term?; (b) What would be the major hydrologic effects of climate variability and change on south Florida's water system?; (c) How could Florida's water system adapt to anticipated population growth, urban sprawl, and climate change?; and (d) What are the most promising (cost effective) policies for south Florida's water management in response to growth and climate change? We are developing a decision support (DS) framework, using system dynamics modeling approach, to evaluate and compare different short and long term water management policies. Besides climate information, the integrated DS framework considers other major factors that influence water demand and availability including: demographic changes, land use changes, economy, and environment. We analyze how increased or better use of climate information can lead to better, more cost-effective decisions for sustainable management of water resources. Using games/scenarios involving decision makers, we evaluate cost-effectiveness of different policy choices for short and long term water management in the region. We evaluate policies based on both demand side management through efficiency and conservation (low flow appliances, xeriscaping, pricing) and supply side management (desalination, water reuse). The outcome is a framework for exploring cost-effectiveness of alternative water management policies. The research advances work on water resources planning considering the impacts of

  5. Multi-functional approach in forest landscape management planning: an application in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paletto, A.; Ferretti, F.; Cantiani, P.; Meo, I. de

    2012-11-01

    Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP) is intended to have an intermediate role between forest management plans on a regional level and forest management on a unit level. FLMP addresses long-term management issues, with special attention to social and environmental functions, normally not meticulously considered when working on a single forest property level. This paper presents a method to evaluate forest multi functionality, in order to define management guidelines and support forest planning. A FLMP was conducted in a district of the Basilicata region (Italy). A total of 92 inventory plots comprising the main forest types: i) turkey oak, Hungarian oak, and sessile oak forests (Quercus cerris L. dominant), ii) downy oak forests (Quercus pubescens Willd. dominant), iii) Mediterranean evergreen oak forests (Quercus ilex L. dominant), were considered. Technicians evaluated the multifunctionality of each area by estimating in the context of an Index of Importance of Function (I) the capacity of each forest to fulfil different functions. The index was successively aggregated according to forest type and forest system (high forest and coppice). The results showed that the higher level of multifunctionality was found in the high forests. According to the synthetic indicators of multifunctionality, the turkey oak forests obtained the highest values among all forest types. The last part of the paper illustrates an approach to multi-functional forest management, analysing how different silvicultural systems are able to fulfil the main forest functions. This method, as shown in the results, seems to provide a useful support for technicians to evaluate multifunctionality related to forest types and different silvicultural treatments. (Author) 55 refs.

  6. Local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abdu A; Assam, Assam; Ndang, Tabe-Ntui L

    2013-01-01

    The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated.

  7. Motion planning for mobile manipulators using the FSP (full space parameterization) approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.; Morgansen, K.A.; Tulloch, F.A.; Hacker, C.J.

    1996-05-01

    The efficient utilization of the motion capabilities of mobile manipulators, i.e., manipulators mounted on mobile platforms, requires the resolution of the kinematically redundant system formed by the addition of the degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) of the platform to those of the manipulator. At the velocity level, the linearized Jacobian equation for such a redundant system represents an underspecified system of algebraic equations. In addition, constraints such as obstacle avoidance or joint limits may appear at any time during the trajectory of the system. A method, which we named the FSP (Full Space Parameterization), has recently been developed to resolve such underspecified systems with constraints that may vary in time and in number during a single trajectory. In this paper, we review the principles of the FSP and give analytical solutions for the constrained motion case, with a general optimization criterion for resolving the redundancy. We then focus on a solution to the problem introduced by the combined use of prismatic and revolute joints (a common occurrence in practical mobile manipulators) which makes the dimensions of the joint displacement vector components non-homogeneous. Successful applications to the motion planning of several large-payload mobile manipulators with up to 11 d.o.f. are discussed. Sample trajectories involving combined motions of the platform and manipulator under the time-varying occurrence of obstacle and joint limit constraints are presented to illustrate the use and efficiency of the FSP approach in complex motion planning problems.

  8. Lazy Toggle PRM: A single-query approach to motion planning

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2013-05-01

    Probabilistic RoadMaps (PRMs) are quite suc-cessful in solving complex and high-dimensional motion plan-ning problems. While particularly suited for multiple-query scenarios and expansive spaces, they lack efficiency in both solving single-query scenarios and mapping narrow spaces. Two PRM variants separately tackle these gaps. Lazy PRM reduces the computational cost of roadmap construction for single-query scenarios by delaying roadmap validation until query time. Toggle PRM is well suited for mapping narrow spaces by mapping both Cfree and Cobst, which gives certain theoretical benefits. However, fully validating the two resulting roadmaps can be costly. We present a strategy, Lazy Toggle PRM, for integrating these two approaches into a method which is both suited for narrow passages and efficient single-query calculations. This simultaneously addresses two challenges of PRMs. Like Lazy PRM, Lazy Toggle PRM delays validation of roadmaps until query time, but if no path is found, the algorithm augments the roadmap using the Toggle PRM methodology. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Lazy Toggle PRM in a wide range of scenarios, including those with narrow passages and high descriptive complexity (e.g., those described by many triangles), concluding that it is more effective than existing methods in solving difficult queries. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Potential Odor Intensity Grid Based UAV Path Planning Algorithm with Particle Swarm Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a potential odor intensity grid based optimization approach for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV path planning with particle swarm optimization (PSO technique. Odor intensity is created to color the area in the searching space with highest probability where candidate particles may locate. A potential grid construction operator is designed for standard PSO based on different levels of odor intensity. The potential grid construction operator generates two potential location grids with highest odor intensity. Then the middle point will be seen as the final position in current particle dimension. The global optimum solution will be solved as the average. In addition, solution boundaries of searching space in each particle dimension are restricted based on properties of threats in the flying field to avoid prematurity. Objective function is redesigned by taking minimum direction angle to destination into account and a sampling method is introduced. A paired samples t-test is made and an index called straight line rate (SLR is used to evaluate the length of planned path. Experiments are made with other three heuristic evolutionary algorithms. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of generating higher quality paths efficiently for UAV than any other tested optimization techniques.

  10. 3-Phase Recognition Approach to Pseudo 3D Building Generation from 2D Floor Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Moloo, Raj Kishen; Auleear, Abu Salmaan

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays three dimension (3D) architectural visualisation has become a powerful tool in the conceptualisation, design and presentation of architectural products in the construction industry, providing realistic interaction and walkthrough on engineering products. Traditional ways of implementing 3D models involves the use of specialised 3D authoring tools along with skilled 3D designers with blueprints of the model and this is a slow and laborious process. The aim of this paper is to automate this process by simply analyzing the blueprint document and generating the 3D scene automatically. For this purpose we have devised a 3-Phase recognition approach to pseudo 3D building generation from 2D floor plan and developed a software accordingly. Our 3-phased 3D building system has been implemented using C, C++ and OpenCV library [24] for the Image Processing module; The Save Module generated an XML file for storing the processed floor plan objects attributes; while the Irrlitch [14] game engine was used to impleme...

  11. MULTI ACTOR-BASED APPROACH TO PLANNING DECISIONS FOR CULTURAL INDUSTRIES IN NEW ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur MENGI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Along with the new economy, the competitive advantage of cities is now derived from management of their cultural productions. However, pottery making as cultural industry including ceramic and other earthenware products, currently suffers from many difficulties as inefficient role of government, environmental problems, and the lack of promotion and marketing strategies and falls behind the recent urban development trends. Menemen-Izmir/Turkey has been selected as case area, where the pottery making inherited for five generations. The aim of this study is to suggest a model to tackle with the current difficulties of and also to develop cultural production. The data have been collected via questionnaire and interviews with the pottery masters and Pottery Makers Association. The research proposes the multi actor-based approach through statistically analyses and maps to manage cultural industries and integrate various actors related to the cultural production into the decision making process of urban planning.

  12. Africa takes a more male-friendly approach to family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuodo, D O

    1996-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that men are more likely to support family planning (FP) and to use a method themselves if services and educational programs are targeted to them. Because men fear that contraception reduces their control over their wives' sexuality, male-friendly approaches can enhance gender equality in reproductive health decisions. In Togo, the media is being used to encourage positive attitudes towards FP in specific male groups. In Ghana, FP services targeted to men have resulted in increased male involvement. In Swaziland, male audiences are targeted with FP education. In Sierra Leone, men have met in groups to learn about how to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and about the benefits of FP, and in Kenya, three male-only clinics exist to provide FP services to men.

  13. Avian influenza seroprevalence and biosecurity risk factors in Maryland backyard poultry: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jennifer M; Zimmermann, Nickolas G; Timmons, Jennifer; Tablante, Nathaniel L

    2013-01-01

    Major implications on a country's economy, food source, and public health. With recent concern over the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks around the world, government agencies are carefully monitoring and inspecting live bird markets, commercial flocks, and migratory bird populations. However, there remains limited surveillance of non-commercial poultry. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in backyard poultry flocks using a convenience sampling method across three regions of Maryland from July 2011 to August 2011. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza by investigating the prevalence and seroprevalence in this potentially vulnerable population and by evaluating biosecurity risk factors associated with positive findings. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds among 39 registered premises. Analysis indicated bird and flock seroprevalence as 4.2% (11/262) and 23.1% (9/39), respectively. Based on RT-qPCR analysis, none of the samples were found to be positive for AI RNA and evidence of AI hemagglutinin subtypes H5, H7, or H9 were not detected. Although no statistically significant biosecurity associations were identified (p≤0.05), AI seroprevalence was positively associated with exposure to waterfowl, pest control, and location. AI seropositive flocks exposed to waterfowl were 3.14 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those not exposed (p = 0.15). AI seropositive flocks that did not use pest control were 2.5 times as likely to be AI seropositive compared to those that did and AI seropositive flocks located in the Northern region of Maryland were 2.8 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those that were located elsewhere.

  14. Avian influenza seroprevalence and biosecurity risk factors in Maryland backyard poultry: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Madsen

    Full Text Available Major implications on a country's economy, food source, and public health. With recent concern over the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks around the world, government agencies are carefully monitoring and inspecting live bird markets, commercial flocks, and migratory bird populations. However, there remains limited surveillance of non-commercial poultry. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in backyard poultry flocks using a convenience sampling method across three regions of Maryland from July 2011 to August 2011. The objective of this study was to develop a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influenza by investigating the prevalence and seroprevalence in this potentially vulnerable population and by evaluating biosecurity risk factors associated with positive findings. Serum, tracheal, and cloacal swabs were randomly collected from 262 birds among 39 registered premises. Analysis indicated bird and flock seroprevalence as 4.2% (11/262 and 23.1% (9/39, respectively. Based on RT-qPCR analysis, none of the samples were found to be positive for AI RNA and evidence of AI hemagglutinin subtypes H5, H7, or H9 were not detected. Although no statistically significant biosecurity associations were identified (p≤0.05, AI seroprevalence was positively associated with exposure to waterfowl, pest control, and location. AI seropositive flocks exposed to waterfowl were 3.14 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those not exposed (p = 0.15. AI seropositive flocks that did not use pest control were 2.5 times as likely to be AI seropositive compared to those that did and AI seropositive flocks located in the Northern region of Maryland were 2.8 times as likely to be AI seropositive than those that were located elsewhere.

  15. Collision-free Multiple Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles Cooperative Trajectory Planning for Time-critical Missions using Differential Flatness Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqiang Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the cooperative trajectory planning for multiple unmanned combat aerial vehicles in performing autonomous cooperative air-to-ground target attack missions. Firstly, the collision-free cooperative trajectory planning problem for time-critical missions is formulated as a cooperative trajectory optimal control problem (CTP-OCP, which is based on an approximate allowable attack region model, several constraints model, and a multi-criteria objective function. Next, a planning algorithm based on the differential flatness, B-spline curves and nonlinear programming is designed to solve the CTP-OCP. In particular, the notion of the virtual time is introduced to deal with the temporal constraints. Finally, the proposed approach is validated by two typical scenarios and the simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed planning approach.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 1, January 2014, DOI:10.14429/dsj.64.2999

  16. A Practical Approach for Integrating Automatically Designed Fixtures with Automated Assembly Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, Terri L.; Peters, Ralph R.

    1999-07-20

    This paper presents a practical approach for integrating automatically designed fixtures with automated assembly planning. Product assembly problems vary widely; here the focus is on assemblies that are characterized by a single base part to which a number of smaller parts and subassemblies are attached. This method starts with three-dimension at CAD descriptions of an assembly whose assembly tasks require a fixture to hold the base part. It then combines algorithms that automatically design assembly pallets to hold the base part with algorithms that automatically generate assembly sequences. The designed fixtures rigidly constrain and locate the part, obey task constraints, are robust to part shape variations, are easy to load, and are economical to produce. The algorithm is guaranteed to find the global optimum solution that satisfies these and other pragmatic conditions. The assembly planner consists of four main elements: a user interface, a constraint system, a search engine, and an animation module. The planner expresses all constraints at a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constrain discovery and documentation. The combined algorithms guarantee that the fixture will hold the base part without interfering with any of the assembly operations. This paper presents an overview of the planners, the integration approach, and the results of the integrated algorithms applied to several practical manufacturing problems. For these problems initial high-quality fixture designs and assembly sequences are generated in a matter of minutes with global optimum solutions identified in just over an hour.

  17. THE APPROACH TO PENSION PLANS THROUGH THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ACCOUNTING POSTULATE

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana Cenar

    2011-01-01

    To decipher the "threads" of various forms and elements of content that show the pension plans, public or private, we appealed to the principle of accounting entity. The plans of defined contributions and the plans of defined benefits were investigated in terms of the following entities: the state, the employer, the reporting different entity by the employers of plan participants.

  18. SU-E-T-521: Feasibility Study of a Rotational Step-And-Shoot IMRT Treatment Planning Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X [Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chang, S [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Cullip, T [UNC Hospitals, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Yuan, L; Zhang, X [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Lian, J; Tang, X [UniversityNorth Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tracton, G; Dooley, J [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Rotational step-and-shot IMRT (r-IMRT) could improve delivery efficiency with good dose conformity, especially if it can leverage the burst mode of the accelerator where radiation is turned on/off momentarily while the gantry rotates continuously. The challenge for the r-IMRT planning is to minimize the number of beams to achieve a fast and smooth rotational delivery. Methods: Treatment plans for r-IMRT were created using an in-house treatment planning system. To generate the plan using a very few beams, gantry angle was optimized by weighting the beam monitoring unit (MU), and beam shape optimization was a combination of column search with k-means clustering. A prostate case and a head and neck case were planned using r-IMRT. The dosimetry is compared to s-IMRT planned with Varian Eclipse treatment planning system. Results: With the same PTV dose coverage D95=100%, the r-IMRT plans shows comparable sparing as the s-IMRT plans in the prostate for the rectum D10cc and the bladder Dmean, and in the head and neck for the spinal cord Dmax, the brain stem Dmax, the left/right parotid Dmean, the larynx Dmean, and the mandible Dmean. Both plans meet the established institutional clinical dosimetric criteria. The r-IMRT plan uses 19 beam/405 MU for the prostate, and 68 beam/880 MU for the head and neck, while the s-IMRT uses 7 beam/724 MU and 9 beam/1812 MU, respectively. Compared to the corresponding s-IMRT, r-IMRT has a reduction of MUs of 44% for the prostate case and 41% for the head and neck case. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a rotational step and shoot IMRT treatment planning approach that significantly shortens the conventional IMRT treatment beam-on time without degrading the dose comformity.

  19. Technical Approach and Plan for Transitioning Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-10-06

    This document describes the approach and process in which the 100-K Area Facilities are to be deactivated and transitioned over to the Environmental Restoration Program after spent nuclear fuel has been removed from the K Basins. It describes the Transition Project's scope and objectives, work breakdown structure, activity planning, estimated cost, and schedule. This report will be utilized as a planning document for project management and control and to communicate details of project content and integration.

  20. An Indoor Navigation Approach Considering Obstacles and Space Subdivision of 2d Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Wei, Shuangfeng; Zlatanova, Sisi

    2016-06-01

    The demand for indoor navigation is increasingly urgent in many applications such as safe management of underground spaces or location services in complex indoor environment, e.g. shopping centres, airports, museums, underground parking lot and hospitals. Indoor navigation is still a challenging research field, as currently applied indoor navigation algorithms commonly ignore important environmental and human factors and therefore do not provide precise navigation. Flexible and detailed networks representing the connectivity of spaces and considering indoor objects such as furniture are very important to a precise navigation. In this paper we concentrate on indoor navigation considering obstacles represented as polygons. We introduce a specific space subdivision based on a simplified floor plan to build the indoor navigation network. The experiments demonstrate that we are able to navigate around the obstacles using the proposed network. Considering to well-known path-finding approaches based on Medial Axis Transform (MAT) or Visibility Graph (VG), the approach in this paper provides a quick subdivision of space and routes, which are compatible with the results of VG.

  1. An approach to the symbolic representation of brain arteriovenous malformations for management and treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlowski, Piotr; Noble, Alison [University of Oxford, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, Oxford (United Kingdom); Mahmud, Imran; Kamran, Mudassar; Byrne, James V. [University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Summers, Paul [University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Modena (Italy); Ventikos, Yiannis [University College London, Department of Mechanical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    There is currently no standardised approach to arteriovenous malformation (AVM) reporting. Existing AVM classification systems focuses on angioarchitectural features and omit haemodynamic, anatomical and topological parameters intuitively used by therapists. We introduce a symbolic vocabulary to represent the state of an AVM of the brain at different stages of treatment. The vocabulary encompasses the main anatomic and haemodynamic features of interest in treatment planning and provides shorthand symbols to represent the interventions themselves in a schematic representation. The method was presented to 50 neuroradiologists from14 countries during a workshop and graded 7.34 ± 1.92 out of ten for its usefulness as means of standardising and facilitating communication between clinicians and allowing comparisons between AVM cases. Feedback from the survey was used to revise the method and improve its completeness. For an AVM test case, participants were asked to produce a conventional written report and subsequently a diagrammatic report. The two required, on average, 6.19 ± 2.05 and 5.09 ± 3.01 min, respectively. Eighteen participants said that producing the diagram changed the way they thought about the AVM test case. Introduced into routine practice, the diagrams would represent a step towards a standardised approach to AVM reporting with consequent benefits for comparative analysis and communication as well as for identifying best treatment strategies. (orig.)

  2. Spatial Evaluation Approach in the Planning Process of Transport Logistic Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Pavliha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The "state-of-the-art" of the present global European situationis in desperate need for a new approach to development ofurban and rural environment with an interdisciplinary approach,when introducing the elements of transport infrastructureand transport infrastructure landscape into space and environment.In order to reach a decision regarding the location of a certaintransport logistic terminal some constraints (technical andtechnological as well as financial should be considered. Aspart of the process trying to respond to these constraints, associatedprimarily with the traffic conditions at the appointed networklocations, a careful evaluation in respect to cargo flowsand infrastructure connections as well as spatial planningshould be performed.M01phological indicators, which directly and indirectly affectthe structure and the form of the transport infrastructure elements- transport logistic terminals, are extracted and presentedin the paper. At this point, the paper concludes that thelaying down and the evaluation of transport infrastructure elementsare based on two categories of morphological elements:Constructed morphological elements (all constntctionsand their elements, andNatural morphological elements (topography, climate, vegetation,etc..The presented spatial methodology deals with the interactionsbetween the constructed and natural morphological elements- the quality and the characteristics of the design areadded to both groups.Findings and projections acquired on the basis of a spatialevaluation and transport logistic analysis constitute, togetherwith financial-economic assumptions, the basis for elaboratinga business plan - a significant element in the decision-makingprocess regarding the development of a transport logistic terminal.

  3. Capacity planning for waste management systems: an interval fuzzy robust dynamic programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xianghui; Huang, Guo H; Li, Yongping

    2009-11-01

    This study integrates the concepts of interval numbers and fuzzy sets into optimization analysis by dynamic programming as a means of accounting for system uncertainty. The developed interval fuzzy robust dynamic programming (IFRDP) model improves upon previous interval dynamic programming methods. It allows highly uncertain information to be effectively communicated into the optimization process through introducing the concept of fuzzy boundary interval and providing an interval-parameter fuzzy robust programming method for an embedded linear programming problem. Consequently, robustness of the optimization process and solution can be enhanced. The modeling approach is applied to a hypothetical problem for the planning of waste-flow allocation and treatment/disposal facility expansion within a municipal solid waste (MSW) management system. Interval solutions for capacity expansion of waste management facilities and relevant waste-flow allocation are generated and interpreted to provide useful decision alternatives. The results indicate that robust and useful solutions can be obtained, and the proposed IFRDP approach is applicable to practical problems that are associated with highly complex and uncertain information.

  4. Planning Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Medard

    1984-01-01

    To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)

  5. Development of a residency program in radiation oncology physics: an inverse planning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rao F H; Dunscombe, Peter B

    2016-03-08

    Over the last two decades, there has been a concerted effort in North America to organize medical physicists' clinical training programs along more structured and formal lines. This effort has been prompted by the Commission on Accreditation of Medical Physics Education Programs (CAMPEP) which has now accredited about 90 residency programs. Initially the accreditation focused on standardized and higher quality clinical physics training; the development of rounded professionals who can function at a high level in a multidisciplinary environment was recognized as a priority of a radiation oncology physics residency only lately. In this report, we identify and discuss the implementation of, and the essential components of, a radiation oncology physics residency designed to produce knowledgeable and effective clinical physicists for today's safety-conscious and collaborative work environment. Our approach is that of inverse planning, by now familiar to all radiation oncology physicists, in which objectives and constraints are identified prior to the design of the program. Our inverse planning objectives not only include those associated with traditional residencies (i.e., clinical physics knowledge and critical clinical skills), but also encompass those other attributes essential for success in a modern radiation therapy clinic. These attributes include formal training in management skills and leadership, teaching and communication skills, and knowledge of error management techniques and patient safety. The constraints in our optimization exercise are associated with the limited duration of a residency and the training resources available. Without compromising the knowledge and skills needed for clinical tasks, we have successfully applied the model to the University of Calgary's two-year residency program. The program requires 3840 hours of overall commitment from the trainee, of which 7%-10% is spent in obtaining formal training in nontechnical "soft skills".

  6. Scenario planning for community development in Vietnam: a new tool for integrated health approaches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vi Nguyen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Like many countries in Southeast Asia, Vietnam's rapid population and economic growth has met challenges in infrastructure development, especially sanitation in rural areas. Objective: As an entry point, we developed scenario planning as an action–research tool in a peri-urban community to identify first steps towards improving their complex sanitation problem and to, systemically, address emerging/re-emerging infectious diseases, as these are commonly linked to unsafe water and inadequate sanitation conditions. As an integrated approach, the process of constructing scenarios allowed us to work across sectors and stakeholders to incorporate this knowledge into a common vision. Design: We conducted focus group discussions to identify and rank driving forces, orally constructed scenarios for the most uncertain drivers, discussed scenario implications and options, and examined the overall process for usefulness and sustainability. During a one-month scoping phase and in between focus group meetings, we carried out household visits which helped us understand the context of data and gather feedback from participants outside of the formal data collection process. Recorded results from these activities were used to develop subsequent tools. Results and Conclusions: The research process gave us insights into how to adapt the scenario planning tool to identify alternative options. This involved choosing boundary partners, negotiating priorities, drawing out participant learning through self-assessment of our process (a prerequisite for changing mental models and thus achieving outcomes, and understanding how conveyed messages may reinforce the status quo. These insights showed the importance of examining research results beyond outputs and outcomes, namely through process.

  7. Identification of biosecurity measures and spatial variables as potential risk factors for Aleutian disease in Danish mink farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Houe, Hans; Agger, Jens Frederik Gramstrup

    2012-01-01

    for the infection in this region based on logistic regression of spatial (environmental, neighbourhood) variables and biosecurity measures. Information on potential biosecurity (management) risk factors in the region was obtained from interviews in 342 registered farms in the region using a structured questionnaire......Eradication of Aleutian disease was initiated in Denmark in 1976. The prevalence of positive farms has since then been reduced from 100% to only being continuously present in the region of Vendsyssel, Northern Denmark since 2004. In this study, we attempted to identify risk factors....... A total of 279 questionnaires were completed (response rate 82%). Additional spatial variables were included in the analysis. The study shows that farm size (the number of animals in the farm) and proportion of infected neighbouring farms were significant risk factors for infection with Aleutian Mink...

  8. Hybrid Motion Planning Method for Autonomous Robots Using Kinect Based Sensor Fusion and Virtual Plane Approach in Dynamic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doopalam Tuvshinjargal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reactive motion planning method for an autonomous vehicle in dynamic environments is proposed. The new dynamic motion planning method combines a virtual plane based reactive motion planning technique with a sensor fusion based obstacle detection approach, which results in improving robustness and autonomy of vehicle navigation within unpredictable dynamic environments. The key feature of the new reactive motion planning method is based on a local observer in the virtual plane which allows the effective transformation of complex dynamic planning problems into simple stationary in the virtual plane. In addition, a sensor fusion based obstacle detection technique provides the pose estimation of moving obstacles by using a Kinect sensor and a sonar sensor, which helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of the reactive motion planning approach in uncertain dynamic environments. The performance of the proposed method was demonstrated through not only simulation studies but also field experiments using multiple moving obstacles even in hostile environments where conventional method failed.

  9. Sustainable Coastal Development and Open Planning? Transferring the Integrated Area Approach to Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, C.; Boesten, R.; Hovens, J.; Tonkes, H.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development asks for open planning processes. Such open planning processes have become common practice in the Netherlands and other Western countries. Since EU accession, new member states such as Bulgaria also have to face the challenge of organizing more open planning processes in thei

  10. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboy, Celine H; Chapman, Will; Albetkova, Adilya; Kennedy, Sarah; Rayfield, Mark A

    2010-12-03

    The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  11. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biologica Engagement Program (CBEP works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  12. Assessment, Development and Implementation of Training Materials for Food Defense/Safety, Biosecurity, and Traceability within the Catfish Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Anna F.; Williams, J. Byron; Crist, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research and subsequent training sessions was to assess food defense in the catfish industry, promote awareness and educate catfish farmers and processors on the principles of food defense, biosecurity and traceability of agricultural commodities and ingredients used in human food production. In the catfish processing chain, preliminary investigations have indicated that there are areas throughout production, processing and distribution that are susceptible to potential ...

  13. Understanding the associations between on-farm biosecurity practice and equine influenza infection during the 2007 outbreak in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Simon M; Lewis, Fraser I; Schemann, Kathrin; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Dhand, Navneet K

    2013-05-15

    In a previous premises-level case-control study of the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia, the protective effect of several variables representing on-farm biosecurity practices was identified. However, using logistic regression it was not possible to definitively identify individual effects and associations between each of the personal biosecurity measures implemented by horse premises owners and managers in the face of the outbreak. In this study we apply Bayesian network modelling to identify the complex web of associations between these variables, horse premises infection status and other premises-level covariates. We focussed this analysis primarily on the inter-relationship between the nine variables representing on-farm personal biosecurity measures (of people residing on the premises and those visiting), and all other variables from the final logistic regression model of our previous analysis. Exact structure discovery was used to identify the globally optimal model from across the landscape of all directed acyclic graphs possible for our dataset. Bootstrapping was used to adjust the model for over-fitting. Our final Bayesian graphic network model included 18 variables linked by 23 arcs, each arc analogous to a single multivariable generalised linear model, combined in a probabilistically coherent way. Amongst the personal biosecurity measures, having a footbath in place, certain practices of visitors (hand-washing, changing clothes and shoes) in contact with the horses, and the regularity of horse handling were statistically associated with premises infection status. The results of this in-depth analysis provide new insight into the complex web of direct and indirect associations between risk factors and horse premises infection status during the first 7 weeks of the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia. In future outbreaks, unnecessary contact and handling of horses should be avoided, especially by those coming from off the premises. Prior

  14. Associations Between the Level of Biosecurity and Occurrence of Dermanyssus gallinae and Salmonella spp. in Layer Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylejmani, Driton; Musliu, Arben; Ramadani, Naser; Sparagano, Olivier; Hamidi, Afrim

    2016-06-01

    Salmonella and the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) remain very challenging diseases for the poultry industry worldwide because of the inefficiency of implementing and integrating eradication and control programs, which results in very high economic losses to the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to determine the association between biosecurity levels in layer farms and the occurrence of both D. gallinae and Salmonella spp., as well as the relationship between D. gallinae infestations on farms and Salmonella occurrence. For this purpose, 22 layer farms using the common battery cage housing system in different parts of Kosovo were randomly selected and analyzed for the presence of D. gallinae and Salmonella in samples, such as feces, water, feed, and dust. Two pooled samples of D. gallinae (2n = 100) were directly analyzed for the presence of Salmonella in the outer and inner parts of cuticula from D. gallinae. A chi-square test was used to determine the association between experience in poultry production, rearing, and level of different biosecurity elements in relation to the occurrence of D. gallinae and Salmonella. Dermanyssus gallinae was found on 15 farms, whereas Salmonella was found on eight of those 15 farms from different environmental samples and on one farm where D. gallinae was not found. In two pooled samples Salmonella was isolated directly from the inner part of the cuticula from D. gallinae, which represents the first direct isolation of Salmonella from D. gallinae mites. Association between the level of biosecurity and the occurrence of D. gallinae and Salmonella was strong. The study indicates that proper biosecurity measures should be in place to lower the occurrence of D. gallinae and Salmonella.

  15. Practical Application of Participatory Approach in Land Conversion Project Planning: A Case in Quxian County, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Application of participatory approaches in governmental forestry projects is a bran-new forestry design method. The purpose is to plan the utilization of land correctly, and to determine planting sites, planting species, participating households and management models, based on the projects' requirements and the farmers' demands. Participatory approaches are now practiced in some of the counties in Land Conversion Project. The paper presents the significance and necessity of practicing community mechanis...

  16. A unifying probabilistic Bayesian approach to derive electron density from MRI for radiation therapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhan Reddy Gudur, Madhu; Hara, Wendy; Le, Quynh-Thu; Wang, Lei; Xing, Lei; Li, Ruijiang

    2014-11-01

    MRI significantly improves the accuracy and reliability of target delineation in radiation therapy for certain tumors due to its superior soft tissue contrast compared to CT. A treatment planning process with MRI as the sole imaging modality will eliminate systematic CT/MRI co-registration errors, reduce cost and radiation exposure, and simplify clinical workflow. However, MRI lacks the key electron density information necessary for accurate dose calculation and generating reference images for patient setup. The purpose of this work is to develop a unifying method to derive electron density from standard T1-weighted MRI. We propose to combine both intensity and geometry information into a unifying probabilistic Bayesian framework for electron density mapping. For each voxel, we compute two conditional probability density functions (PDFs) of electron density given its: (1) T1-weighted MRI intensity, and (2) geometry in a reference anatomy, obtained by deformable image registration between the MRI of the atlas and test patient. The two conditional PDFs containing intensity and geometry information are combined into a unifying posterior PDF, whose mean value corresponds to the optimal electron density value under the mean-square error criterion. We evaluated the algorithm’s accuracy of electron density mapping and its ability to detect bone in the head for eight patients, using an additional patient as the atlas or template. Mean absolute HU error between the estimated and true CT, as well as receiver operating characteristics for bone detection (HU > 200) were calculated. The performance was compared with a global intensity approach based on T1 and no density correction (set whole head to water). The proposed technique significantly reduced the errors in electron density estimation, with a mean absolute HU error of 126, compared with 139 for deformable registration (p = 2  ×  10-4), 283 for the intensity approach (p = 2  ×  10-6) and 282 without density

  17. Identifying Opportunities for Decision Support Systems in Support of Regional Resource Use Planning: An Approach Through Soft Systems Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu; Dale

    2000-10-01

    / Regional resource use planning relies on key regional stakeholder groups using and having equitable access to appropriate social, economic, and environmental information and assessment tools. Decision support systems (DSS) can improve stakeholder access to such information and analysis tools. Regional resource use planning, however, is a complex process involving multiple issues, multiple assessment criteria, multiple stakeholders, and multiple values. There is a need for an approach to DSS development that can assist in understanding and modeling complex problem situations in regional resource use so that areas where DSSs could provide effective support can be identified, and the user requirements can be well established. This paper presents an approach based on the soft systems methodology for identifying DSS opportunities for regional resource use planning, taking the Central Highlands Region of Queensland, Australia, as a case study.

  18. Defining the biosecurity risk posed by transported soil: Effects of storage time and environmental exposure on survival of soil biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. McNeill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil frequently occurs as a contaminant on numerous sea, land and air transport pathways. It can carry unwanted invasive species, is widely recognized as a biosecurity risk, and is usually strictly regulated by biosecurity authorities. However, little is known about relative risk levels between pathways, thus authorities have limited capability to identify and target the riskiest soil pathways for management. We conducted a an experiment to test the hypotheses that biosecurity risks from soil organisms will increase both with declining transport duration and with increasing protection from environmental extremes. Soil was collected from two sites, a native forest remnant and an orchard, and stored on, in and under sea containers, or in cupboards, and assayed after 0, 3, 6 and 12 months for bacteria, fungi, nematodes and seeds. Results showed that viability of Pseudomonas spp., bacteria, nematodes and plants declined over 12 months, irrespective of soil source. Also, mortality of most biota was higher when exposed to sunlight, moisture and desiccation than when protected. However, bacterial and fungal numbers were higher in exposed environments, possibly due to ongoing colonization of exposed soil by airborne propagules. The results were consistent with our observations of organisms in soil intercepted from airports and sea ports, and indicated there is potential to rank risks from transported soils based partly on transport duration and environmental exposure. This would help authorities to optimally allocate management resources according to pathway-specific risks.

  19. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITYNEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada.

  20. A Strategic Spatial Planning Approach to Cross-Border Place Branding with References to Galicia and Northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo; Zenker, Sebastian; Jacobsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter adopts a strategic spatial planning approach to think strategically about potential joint place-branding initiatives between cross-border regions. The case study focuses on the extended cross-border European region composed of the NUTS III Alto Minho, Cávado, Ave, Área Metropolitina do

  1. 7 CFR 210.10 - Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for lunches and requirements for afterschool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... this section, depending on the menu planning approach used); (2) Provision of the lunchtime energy... Child Nutrition Database. The nutrient analysis is based on the Child Nutrition Database. This database... systems for schools may contact FNS for more information about the database. (ii) Software evaluation....

  2. Natural resource assessment: an approach to science based planning in national parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Carolyn G; Vanderhorst, James P; Young, John A

    2009-06-01

    We conducted a natural resource assessment at two national parks, New River Gorge National River and Shenandoah National Park, to help meet the goals of the Natural Resource Challenge--a program to help strengthen natural resource management at national parks. We met this challenge by synthesizing and interpreting natural resource information for planning purposes and we identified information gaps and natural significance of resources. We identified a variety of natural resources at both parks as being globally and/or nationally significant, including large expanses of unfragmented, mixed-mesophytic forests that qualify for wilderness protection, rare plant communities, diverse assemblages of neotropical migratory birds and salamanders, and outstanding aquatic recreational resources. In addition, these parks function, in part, as ecological reserves for plants in and wildlife. With these significant natural resources in mind, we also developed a suite of natural resource management recommendations in light of increasing threats from within and outside park boundaries. We hope that our approach can provide a blueprint for natural resource conservation at publically owned lands.

  3. Oil and gas planning and development in Alberta : new approaches to integrate grizzly bear conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenhouse, G. [Foothills Model Forest Grizzly Bear Research Program, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper reported on a grizzly bear research program that was initiated in the province of Alberta to provide new knowledge and tools to ensure the long term survival of grizzly bears on a multiple use landscape. The Foothills Model Forest (FMF) Grizzly Bear Research Program was formed by scientists from across Canada from a variety of scientific disciplines. A strong partner base has been created to allow the FMF's research efforts to span the entire current distribution of grizzly bear habitat in Alberta. The FMF has provided new large scale seamless maps of grizzly bear habitat and, using detailed grizzly bear GPS movement data, has constructed and tested models that can identify key grizzly bear habitat. This presentation focused on the results of 9 years of applied research and described the new tools and models that are now available to program partners in Alberta. The products are currently being used by both industry and government in Alberta as new standards in landscape management planning in grizzly bear habitat. The author suggested that the approach taken with grizzly bears in Alberta could be used and adapted for a variety of wildlife species in the north. figs.

  4. State-of-the-art risk-based approach to spill contingency planning and risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Etkin, Dagmar [Environmental Research Consulting (United States)], email: etkin@environmental-research.com; Reilly, Timothy [Lighthouse Technical Consultants, Inc (United States); French McCay, Deborah [Applied Science Associates, Inc (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The paper proposes incorporating a comprehensive examination of spill risk into risk management and contingency planning, and applying state-of-the-art modeling tools to evaluate various alternatives for appropriate spill response measures and optimize protective responses. The approach allows spill contingency planners and decision-makers to determine the types of spill scenarios that may occur in a particular location or from a particular source and calculate the probability distribution of the various scenarios. The spill probability information is useful in assessing and putting into perspective the various costs options for spill control systems that will be recommended ultimately. Using advanced modeling tools helps in estimating the potential environmental and socioeconomic consequences of each spill scenario based on location-specific factors over a range of stochastic possibilities, simulating spill scenarios and determining optimal responses and protection strategies. The benefits and costs of various response alternatives and variations in response time can be calculated and modeling tools for training and risk allocation/transfer purposes used.

  5. A Markov decision process approach to temporal modulation of dose fractions in radiation therapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M; Ghate, A; Phillips, M H

    2009-07-21

    The current state of the art in cancer treatment by radiation optimizes beam intensity spatially such that tumors receive high dose radiation whereas damage to nearby healthy tissues is minimized. It is common practice to deliver the radiation over several weeks, where the daily dose is a small constant fraction of the total planned. Such a 'fractionation schedule' is based on traditional models of radiobiological response where normal tissue cells possess the ability to repair sublethal damage done by radiation. This capability is significantly less prominent in tumors. Recent advances in quantitative functional imaging and biological markers are providing new opportunities to measure patient response to radiation over the treatment course. This opens the door for designing fractionation schedules that take into account the patient's cumulative response to radiation up to a particular treatment day in determining the fraction on that day. We propose a novel approach that, for the first time, mathematically explores the benefits of such fractionation schemes. This is achieved by building a stylistic Markov decision process (MDP) model, which incorporates some key features of the problem through intuitive choices of state and action spaces, as well as transition probability and reward functions. The structure of optimal policies for this MDP model is explored through several simple numerical examples.

  6. A comprehensive approach for managing feasible solutions in production planning by an interacting network of Zero-Suppressed Binary Decision Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Takahashi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Product Lifecycle Management (PLM ranges from design concepts of products to disposal. In this paper, we focus on the production planning phase in PLM, which is related to process planning and production scheduling and so on. In this study, key decisions for the creation of production plans are defined as production-planning attributes. Production-planning attributes correlate complexly in production-planning problems. Traditionally, the production-planning problem splits sub-problems based on experiences, because of the complexity. In addition, the orders in which to solve each sub-problem are determined by priorities between sub-problems. However, such approaches make solution space over-restricted and make it difficult to find a better solution. We have proposed a representation of combinations of alternatives in production-planning attributes by using Zero-Suppressed Binary Decision Diagrams. The ZDD represents only feasible combinations of alternatives that satisfy constraints in the production planning. Moreover, we have developed a solution search method that solves production-planning problems with ZDDs. In this paper, we propose an approach for managing solution candidates by ZDDs׳ network for addressing larger production-planning problems. The network can be created by linkages of ZDDs that express constraints in individual sub-problems and between sub-problems. The benefit of this approach is that it represents solution space, satisfying whole constraints in the production planning. This case study shows that the validity of the proposed approach.

  7. A sketch planning methodology for determining interventions for bicycle and pedestrian crashes: an ecological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Thakuriah, P.; Cottrill, C.; Thomas, N.; Vaughn, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bicycle and pedestrian safety planning have recently been gaining increased attention. With this focus, however, comes increased responsibilities for planning agencies and organizations tasked with evaluating and selecting safety interventions, a potentially arduous task given limited staff and resources. This study presents a sketch planning framework based on ecological factors that attempts to provide an efficient and effective method of selecting appropriate intervention measures. A Chica...

  8. The Downfall of Adaptive Planning: Finding a New Approach after a Failed Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    the entire DOD system is a perfect model of what Henry Mintzberg , Bruce Ahlstrand, and Joseph Lampel call the “planning school” of strategy.1 In a...Space Power Journal | 127 Views planning is plagued by what Mintzberg , Ahlstrand, and Lampel call “the fallacy of predetermination.” They write that...stability.” Mintzberg , Ahlstrand, and Lampel also observe that, effectively, “the world has to hold still while the planning process unfolds” and then

  9. Reducing Campylobacter and Salmonella infection: two studies of the economic cost and attitude to adoption of on-farm biosecurity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, R W; Williams, N T; Powell, L F; Cook, A J C

    2010-12-01

    To date there has been little research in the UK on farmer adoption of biosecurity measures to control food-borne zoonoses that have little or no impact on animal health or production but which threaten public health. Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the two most common causes of food-borne infectious intestinal disease in people in Great Britain, causing approximately 57,000 and 13,000 reported cases in 2007 respectively (Anon 2008a) with an important cost to society. Poultry are an important source of both infections, while pigs may also contribute to human salmonellosis. However, these infections in poultry and pigs seldom cause disease. Research has shown that improved farm biosecurity may reduce the prevalence of these infections in livestock and if the majority of farmers were prepared to enhance biosecurity then there could be an important impact on public health. This article reports on the findings of two studies of farmer attitudes to and cost of the adoption of on-farm biosecurity measures to reduce the risk of animal diseases and therefore enhance food safety. One study, of Campylobacter infection among broiler flocks, is based on a survey of farmers faced with a hypothetical biosecurity intervention, while the other study, of Salmonella infection among pigs, is based on the participation of a group of farmers in an intervention study. In both cases, the results show a clear inverse relationship between the willingness of farmers to adopt a biosecurity measure and its estimated cost. This finding has implications for the success of on-farm biosecurity-enhancement policies based on voluntary adoption by farmers. In particular, financial inducements or penalties to farmers could be necessary to facilitate adoption of these measures.

  10. Pig, cattle and poultry farmers with a known interest in research have comparable perspectives on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanen, M; Maes, D; Hendriksen, C; Gelaude, P; De Vliegher, S; Rosseel, Y; Dewulf, J

    2014-07-01

    To motivate farmers for the implementation of preventive measures for animal health, it is crucial to understand their perspective on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity. To study this, an online questionnaire was conducted in which 218 pig, 279 cattle and 61 poultry farmers in Flanders, Belgium have participated. The participants are farmers known for their interest in research and are therefore probably better informed on these topics. Although approximately half of the respondents in all three sectors are convinced of the positive effect of biosecurity on reduction of diseases at their farms, the farmers estimated their own level of knowledge on biosecurity as being rather low. Less than 10% of the farmers in all three sectors were able to give a correct explanation of the term 'biosecurity', even though the participants are likely to be better informed than the average farmer. In general, pig, cattle and poultry farmers share comparable ideas on disease prevention and biosecurity. Cattle farmers perceived animal welfare as more important. Pig farmers indicated stability of the farm more important than farmers in the other sectors. Farmers indicate that little to no barriers are present for taking preventive measures. The often observed absence or limited implementation of biosecurity and disease prevention measures is therefore likely due to insufficient motivation. Across the species, farmers indicate that insufficient information on costs and especially revenues is a major holdback for investments in preventive measures. Not surprisingly, more information on the economic benefits of measures is indicated as the primary interest for taking measures in disease prevention. The veterinarian is seen as the main source of information concerning disease prevention and biosecurity, so it is important that veterinarians have sufficient knowledge on these topics and are able to communicate this to farmers. Especially since farmers indicate that receiving more

  11. Applying Bayesian network modelling to understand the links between on-farm biosecurity practice during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak and horse managers' perceptions of a subsequent outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Simon M; Lewis, Fraser I; Schemann, Kathrin; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Taylor, Melanie R; Dhand, Navneet K

    2014-10-01

    Australia experienced its first ever outbreak of equine influenza in August 2007. Horses on 9359 premises were infected over a period of 5 months before the disease was successfully eradicated through the combination of horse movement controls, on-farm biosecurity and vaccination. In a previous premises-level case-control study of the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia, the protective effect of several variables representing on-farm biosecurity practices were identified. Separately, factors associated with horse managers' perceptions of the effectiveness of biosecurity measures have been identified. In this analysis we applied additive Bayesian network modelling to describe the complex web of associations linking variables representing on-farm human behaviours during the 2007 equine influenza outbreak (compliance or lack thereof with advised personal biosecurity measures) and horse managers' perceptions of the effectiveness of such measures in the event of a subsequent outbreak. Heuristic structure discovery enabled identification of a robust statistical model for 31 variables representing biosecurity practices and perceptions of the owners and managers of 148 premises. The Bayesian graphical network model we present statistically describes the associations linking horse managers' on-farm biosecurity practices during an at-risk period in the 2007 outbreak and their perceptions of whether such measures will be effective in a future outbreak. Practice of barrier infection control measures were associated with a heightened perception of preparedness, whereas horse managers that considered their on-farm biosecurity to be more stringent during the outbreak period than normal practices had a heightened perception of the effectiveness of other measures such as controlling access to the premises. Past performance in an outbreak setting may indeed be a reliable predictor of future perceptions, and should be considered when targeting infection control guidance to

  12. Welfare and biosecurity standards for dairy cow and pig farms: Cattle and swine rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Slavča

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the essential elements concerning cattle and swine rearing and growing conditions were given in order to establish welfare and biosecurity standards. These elements were formed according to detailed annual investigations on 11 cattle and 5 swine farms and include relevant spatial, microclimate and hygienic conditions. In order to establish welfare standards, certain spatial conditions have higher importance, such as correct construction and maintenance of beds, pens and yards, and type and quality of materials used to build beds and walls. It is necessary to enable movement of animals in stables and yards as basic physiological and ethologic needs, according to latest scientific data. Also, optimal temperature, relative humidity and air velocity insuring have to be considered, as well as quality ventilation in order to establish and preserve optimal microclimate conditions. Also, it must be pointed out that hygiene maintenance of stable surfaces and animal bodies on a regular bases is essential. Basic principles and criteria for welfare level assessment are given in this paper. According to results obtained in previous investigations, special attention is given to possibilities to correct rearing and growing conditions in cattle and swine farms in our country. .

  13. Task-space separation principle: a force-field approach to motion planning for redundant manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, Paolo; Campolo, Domenico

    2017-02-03

    In this work, we address human-like motor planning in redundant manipulators. Specifically, we want to capture postural synergies such as Donders' law, experimentally observed in humans during kinematically redundant tasks, and infer a minimal set of parameters to implement similar postural synergies in a kinematic model. For the model itself, although the focus of this paper is to solve redundancy by implementing postural strategies derived from experimental data, we also want to ensure that such postural control strategies do not interfere with other possible forms of motion control (in the task-space), i.e. solving the posture/movement problem. The redundancy problem is framed as a constrained optimization problem, traditionally solved via the method of Lagrange multipliers. The posture/movement problem can be tackled via the separation principle which, derived from experimental evidence, posits that the brain processes static torques (i.e. posture-dependent, such as gravitational torques) separately from dynamic torques (i.e. velocity-dependent). The separation principle has traditionally been applied at a joint torque level. Our main contribution is to apply the separation principle to Lagrange multipliers, which act as task-space force fields, leading to a task-space separation principle. In this way, we can separate postural control (implementing Donders' law) from various types of tasks-space movement planners. As an example, the proposed framework is applied to the (redundant) task of pointing with the human wrist. Nonlinear inverse optimization (NIO) is used to fit the model parameters and to capture motor strategies displayed by six human subjects during pointing tasks. The novelty of our NIO approach is that (i) the fitted motor strategy, rather than raw data, is used to filter and down-sample human behaviours; (ii) our framework is used to efficiently simulate model behaviour iteratively, until it converges towards the experimental human strategies.

  14. TERRORIST PROTECTION PLANNING USING A RELATIVE RISK REDUCTION APPROACH, SESSION VIII: TECHNOLOGY FORUM FOCUS GROUPS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    INDUSI,J.P.

    2003-06-16

    Since the events of 9/11, there have been considerable concerns and associated efforts to prevent or respond to acts of terrorism. Very often we hear calls to reduce the threat from or correct vulnerabilities to various terrorist acts. Others fall victim to anxiety over potential scenarios with the gravest of consequences involving hundreds of thousands of casualties. The problem is complicated by the fact that planners have limited, albeit in some cases significant, resources and less than perfect intelligence on potential terrorist plans. However, valuable resources must be used prudently to reduce the overall risk to the nation. A systematic approach to this process of asset allocation is to reduce the overall risk and not just an individual element of risk such as vulnerabilities. Hence, we define risk as a function of three variables: the threat (the likelihood and scenario of the terrorist act), the vulnerability (the vulnerability of potential targets to the threat), and the consequences (health and safety, economic, etc.) resulting from a successful terrorist scenario. Both the vulnerability and consequences from a postulated adversary scenario can be reasonably well estimated. However, the threat likelihood and scenarios are much more difficult to estimate. A possible path forward is to develop scenarios for each potential target in question using experts from many disciplines. This should yield a finite but large number of target-scenario pairs. The vulnerabilities and consequences for each are estimated and then ranked relative to one another. The resulting relative risk ranking will have targets near the top of the ranking for which the threat is estimated to be more likely, the vulnerability greatest, and the consequences the most grave. In the absence of perfect intelligence, this may be the best we can do.

  15. Earthquake Early Warning using a Seismogeodetic Approach: An operational plan for Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bodin, P.; Vidale, J. E.; Schmidt, D. A.; Melbourne, T. I.; Scrivner, C. W.; Santillan, V. M.; Szeliga, W. M.; Minson, S. E.; Bock, Y.; Melgar, D.

    2013-12-01

    We present an operational plan for implementing combined seismic and geodetic time series in an earthquake early warning system for Cascadia. The Cascadian subduction zone presents one of the greatest risks for a megaquake in the continental United States. Ascertaining the full magnitude and extent of large earthquakes is problematic for earthquake early warning systems due to instability when double integrating strong-motion records to ground displacement. This problem can be mitigated by augmenting earthquake early warning systems with real-time GPS data, allowing for the progression and spatial extent of large earthquakes to be better resolved due to GPS's ability to measure both dynamic and permanent displacements. The Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) at the University of Washington is implementing an integrated seismogeodetic approach to earthquake early warning. Regional GPS data are provided by the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Array (PANGA) at Central Washington University. Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solutions are sent from PANGA to the PNSN through JSON formatted streams and processed with a Python-based quality control (QC) module. The QC module also ingest accelerations from PNSN seismic stations through the Earthworm seismic acquisition and processing system for the purpose of detecting outliers and Kalman filtering when collocated instruments exist. The QC module outputs time aligned and cleaned displacement waveforms to ActiveMQ, an XML-based messaging broker that is currently used in seismic early warning architecture. Earthquake characterization modules read displacement information from ActiveMQ when triggered by warnings from ElarmS earthquake early warning algorithm. Peak ground displacement and P-wave scaling relationships from Kalman filtered waveforms provide initial magnitude estimates. Additional modules perform more complex source modeling such as centroid moment tensors and slip inversions that characterize the full size and

  16. A Variational Approach to Path Planning in Three Dimensions Using Level Set Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-08

    planning. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automa- tion, 14(1), 1998. [15] L. Kavraki, P. Svestka, J. Latombe, and M. Overmars. Probabilistic roadmaps...for path planning in high dimensional configuration spaces. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 12(4), 1996. [16] Ron Kimmel and James A

  17. Incorporating Private Sector Ideas into Military Retirement Reform: A Cash Balance Plan Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Contributions ..........................................................40 d. Roth Availability...time, effort, and insights that guided me through this process. Lastly, I would like to thank Mason for her patience during the many hours of research...America, 2013) d. Roth Availability Plan sponsors continue to add Roth 401(k) options to their plans. According to the PSCA (2013), 53.8 percent of

  18. A Case Study of a Different Approach to Planning, Management and Evaluation (PME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hugh L.

    1980-01-01

    Many small, private colleges lack the resources to develop a planning, management and evaluation (PME) system and the result is planning becomes a neglected function. An in-depth study by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for the Detroit Institute of Technology is described. (MLW)

  19. Succession Planning and Leadership Development for School Principals: Comparing English and South African Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Succession planning has become increasingly important because of the shortage of headship applicants in England, and in many other countries. Leadership development is a central part of any succession planning strategy. This article compares the findings from two longitudinal studies, in England and South Africa, where the governments are seeking…

  20. Valuing ecosystem services in community-based landscape planning: introducing a wellbeing-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Opdam, P.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of incorporating the concept of ecosystem services in landscape planning has been widely acknowledged, yet values of ecosystem services are not well considered in current landscape planning and environmental governance. This is particularly the case when local stakeholders are strongly

  1. Adapt or Perish: A Review of Planning Approaches for Adaptation under Deep Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, W.E.; Haasnoot, M.; Kwakkel, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in long-term plans that can adapt to changing situations under conditions of deep uncertainty. We argue that a sustainable plan should not only achieve economic, environmental, and social objectives, but should be robust and able to be adapted over time to (unforeseen) f

  2. A Peer-Based Financial Planning & Education Service Program: An Innovative Pedagogic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Joseph W.; Durband, Dorothy B.; Halley, Ryan E.; Davis, Kimberlee

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a peer-based financial planning and education program as a strategy to address the lack of financial literacy among college students and provide an experiential learning opportunity for students majoring in financial planning or other financial services-related disciplines. Benefits of such programs to campus communities are…

  3. Implementation of a personnel reliability program as a facilitator of biosafety and biosecurity culture in BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jacki J; Weaver, Patrick; Fitch, J Patrick; Johnson, Barbara; Pearl, R Marene

    2013-06-01

    In late 2010, the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) implemented a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) with the goal of enabling active participation by its staff to drive and improve the biosafety and biosecurity culture at the organization. A philosophical keystone for accomplishment of NBACC's scientific mission is simultaneous excellence in operations and outreach. Its personnel reliability program builds on this approach to: (1) enable and support a culture of responsibility based on human performance principles, (2) maintain compliance with regulations, and (3) address the risk associated with the insider threat. Recently, the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) governing use and possession of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) was amended to require a pre-access suitability assessment and ongoing evaluation for staff accessing Tier 1 BSAT. These 2 new requirements are in addition to the already required Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Security Risk Assessment (SRA). Two years prior to the release of these guidelines, NBACC developed its PRP to supplement the SRA requirement as a means to empower personnel and foster an operational environment where any and all work with BSAT is conducted in a safe, secure, and reliable manner.

  4. Issues concerning Landowner Management Plan Adoption Decisions: A Recursive Bivariate Probit Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkar Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the likely benefits of having a written forest management plan, a small number of landowners in the United States have the one. A recursive bivariate probit model was used to identify the possible relationship between landowners’ decision to obtain a management plan and their interest in future timber harvesting. Our study results based on recursive bivariate model suggest that landowners having larger land ownerships, longer forest ownership tenure, and higher education were more likely to have a forest management plan and future timber harvesting interest. While the landowners having interest for wildlife management were also interested to have a written management plan, they did not prefer to harvest in future. Study results indicate that written management plan means more than a timber harvesting strategy to landowners in general. Many elderly landowners with a low level of income and less formal education and those having small or medium sized tracts of forestland are less likely to own a written management plan. Therefore, this group requires special attention in various government sponsored forest management related extension activities. Future research on understanding landowner perception behind written management plan is recommended.

  5. Multi-action planning for threat management: a novel approach for the spatial prioritization of conservation actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattarino, Lorenzo; Hermoso, Virgilio; Carwardine, Josie; Kennard, Mark J; Linke, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Planning for the remediation of multiple threats is crucial to ensure the long term persistence of biodiversity. Limited conservation budgets require prioritizing which management actions to implement and where. Systematic conservation planning traditionally assumes that all the threats in priority sites are abated (fixed prioritization approach). However, abating only the threats affecting the species of conservation concerns may be more cost-effective. This requires prioritizing individual actions independently within the same site (independent prioritization approach), which has received limited attention so far. We developed an action prioritization algorithm that prioritizes multiple alternative actions within the same site. We used simulated annealing to find the combination of actions that remediate threats to species at the minimum cost. Our algorithm also accounts for the importance of selecting actions in sites connected through the river network (i.e., connectivity). We applied our algorithm to prioritize actions to address threats to freshwater fish species in the Mitchell River catchment, northern Australia. We compared how the efficiency of the independent and fixed prioritization approach varied as the importance of connectivity increased. Our independent prioritization approach delivered more efficient solutions than the fixed prioritization approach, particularly when the importance of achieving connectivity was high. By spatially prioritizing the specific actions necessary to remediate the threats affecting the target species, our approach can aid cost-effective habitat restoration and land-use planning. It is also particularly suited to solving resource allocation problems, where consideration of spatial design is important, such as prioritizing conservation efforts for highly mobile species, species facing climate change-driven range shifts, or minimizing the risk of threats spreading across different realms.

  6. Multi-action planning for threat management: a novel approach for the spatial prioritization of conservation actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cattarino

    Full Text Available Planning for the remediation of multiple threats is crucial to ensure the long term persistence of biodiversity. Limited conservation budgets require prioritizing which management actions to implement and where. Systematic conservation planning traditionally assumes that all the threats in priority sites are abated (fixed prioritization approach. However, abating only the threats affecting the species of conservation concerns may be more cost-effective. This requires prioritizing individual actions independently within the same site (independent prioritization approach, which has received limited attention so far. We developed an action prioritization algorithm that prioritizes multiple alternative actions within the same site. We used simulated annealing to find the combination of actions that remediate threats to species at the minimum cost. Our algorithm also accounts for the importance of selecting actions in sites connected through the river network (i.e., connectivity. We applied our algorithm to prioritize actions to address threats to freshwater fish species in the Mitchell River catchment, northern Australia. We compared how the efficiency of the independent and fixed prioritization approach varied as the importance of connectivity increased. Our independent prioritization approach delivered more efficient solutions than the fixed prioritization approach, particularly when the importance of achieving connectivity was high. By spatially prioritizing the specific actions necessary to remediate the threats affecting the target species, our approach can aid cost-effective habitat restoration and land-use planning. It is also particularly suited to solving resource allocation problems, where consideration of spatial design is important, such as prioritizing conservation efforts for highly mobile species, species facing climate change-driven range shifts, or minimizing the risk of threats spreading across different realms.

  7. An MILP approach to shelf life integrated planning and scheduling in scalded sausage production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, H.O.; van Beek, P.; Grunow, Martin

    2006-01-01

    In the production of perishable products such as dairy, meat, or bakery goods, the consideration of shelf life in production planning is of particular importance. Retail customers with relatively low inventory turns can benefit significantly from longer product shelf life as wastage and out......-of-stock rates decrease. However, in today’s production planning and control systems shelf life issues with regard to specific products or customers are seldom taken into account. Therefore the objective of this paper is to pay attention to these issues. The way to do that is by means of optimization models...... in which shelf life aspects are integrated into operational production planning and scheduling functions. Specifically we make use of so-called Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) models. Our research is based on an industrial case study of yogurt production. Relying on the principle of block planning...

  8. SOME SIMPLE APPROACHES TO PLANNING THE INVENTORY OF SPARE COMPONENTS OF AN INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Brezavšek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two variants of a simple stochastic model for planning the inventory of spare components supporting maintenance of an industrial system are developed. In both variants, the aim is to determine how many spare components are needed at the beginning of a planning interval to fulfil demand for corrective replacements during this interval. Under the first variant, the acceptable probability of spare shortage during the planning interval is chosen as a decision variable while in the second variant, the adequate spare inventory level is assessed taking into account the expected number of component failures within the planning interval. Calculation of the number of spare components needed depends on the form of the probability density function of component failure times. Different statistical density functions that are useful to describe this function are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of using a particular density function in our model are discussed. The applicability of the model is given through illustrative numerical examples.

  9. Concept, approaches and applications of integrated coastal zone management in planning and management of Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, M.C.; Sinha, R.; Nigam, R.; Gujar, A.R.; Kotnala, K.L.

    of coastal planning and management in India is to achieve a balance between these two. In order to regulate coastal development and to ensure minimisation of long term problems, a specific coastal legislation namely Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) was enacted...

  10. The Construct Lesson Plan: Evaluating the Efficiency of a New Approach to Group/Classroom Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrick, Lillian; Tarquinio, Nancy Fergusson

    1978-01-01

    Describes the chronological development and data collection processes used in evaluating two construct lesson plan courses concurrently offered by the American College, and comments on an earlier published article by Danny G. Langdon. (Author/JEG)

  11. Robot Path Planning in Uncertain Environments: A Language-Measure-Theoretic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    especially to ensure collision-free naviga- tion. In this case, Markov decision process (MDP) tools may not be suitable because of the requirement...of robot path planning (see Assumption (4) at the beginning of this section). Therefore, probabilistic decisions of path planning need Journal of...Autonomous Underwater Vehicles,” IEEE Conference on Decision and Con- trol (CDC), Atlanta, GA, Dec. 15–17, pp. 5828–5834. [4] Lolla, T., Ueckermann, P

  12. A Practical Approach to Obstacle Field Route Planning for Unmanned Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlet, Jason K.; Schulein, Greg; Mansur, M. Hossein

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous helicopter operations in the near-earth environment will require robust and efficient obstacle field route planning. A method for obstacle field route planning is presented, which is composed of a mesh generation phase, a graph search phase, and a route refinement phase. The method mixes optimization and heuristics to obtain a satisfactory solution quickly. Simulations based on an unmanned helicopter model are presented.

  13. A morphological adaptation approach to path planning inspired by slime mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    Path planning is a classic problem in computer science and robotics which has recently been implemented in unconventional computing substrates such as chemical reaction-diffusion computers. These novel computing schemes utilise the parallel spatial propagation of information and often use a two-stage method involving diffusive propagation to discover all paths and a second stage to highlight or visualise the path between two particular points in the arena. The true slime mould Physarum polycephalum is known to construct efficient transport networks between nutrients in its environment. These networks are continuously remodelled as the organism adapts its body plan to changing spatial stimuli. It can be guided towards attractant stimuli (nutrients, warm regions) and it avoids locations containing hazardous stimuli (light irradiation, repellents, or regions occupied by predatory threats). Using a particle model of slime mould we demonstrate scoping experiments which explore how path planning may be performed by morphological adaptation. We initially demonstrate simple path planning by a shrinking blob of virtual plasmodium between two attractant sources within a polygonal arena. We examine the case where multiple paths are required and the subsequent selection of a single path from multiple options. Collision-free paths are implemented via repulsion from the borders of the arena. Finally, obstacle avoidance is implemented by repulsion from obstacles as they are uncovered by the shrinking blob. These examples show proof-of-concept results of path planning by morphological adaptation which complement existing research on path planning in novel computing substrates.

  14. Achieving Smart Energy Planning Objectives. The Approach of the Transform Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Delponte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cities play a dual role in the field of energy and integrated planning. They function as institutional planning and decision making bodies and interfere as actors, e.g. as project developers or launching customers. In the first case their attempts at integrated plans are often unsuccessful in integrating vision, goals and instruments of all stakeholders so that waste, water, energy cycles, urban planning and budgets proceed with no connection to each other.  TRANSFORM Project “Transformation Agenda for Low Carbon Cities” (FP7 tries to improve the integrated energy policy and decision making process of cities, both at a strategic and operational level, by providing the cities with a framework based on overall planning experiences and on-the-field projects and qualitative and quantitative analysis support models. The project intends also to make a step further in the quality of research, by providing a replicable and tested framework for the production of a strategic Transformation Agenda for the city as a whole, combined with district Implementation Plans.

  15. A Collaborative Web-Based Approach to Planning Research, Integration, and Testing Using a Wiki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Michael M.; Koshimoto, Edwin T.; Noble, Deleena; Duggan, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Integrated Vehicle Health Management program touches on many different research areas while striving to enable the automated detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation of adverse events at the aircraft and system level. At the system level, the research focus is on the evaluation of multidisciplinary integrated methods, tools, and technologies for achieving the program goal. The participating program members form a diverse group of government, industry, and academic researchers. The program team developed the Research and Test Integration Plan in order to track significant test and evaluation activities, which are important for understanding, demonstrating, and communicating the overall project state and project direction. The Plan is a living document, which allows the project team the flexibility to construct conceptual test scenarios and to track project resources. The Plan also incorporates several desirable feature requirements for Plan users and maintainers. A wiki has proven to be the most efficient and effective means of implementing the feature requirements for the Plan. The wiki has proven very valuable as a research project management tool, and there are plans to expand its scope.

  16. Theoretical Antecedents of Standing at Work: An Experience Sampling Approach Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Renée Umstattd Meyer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Time spent sitting has been associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cancer, obesity, and mental health impairments. However, 75% of Americans spend most of their days sitting, with work-sitting accounting for 63% of total daily sitting time. Little research examining theory-based antecedents of standing or sitting has been conducted. This lack of solid groundwork makes it difficult to design effective intervention strategies to decrease sitting behaviors. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB as our theoretical lens to better understand factors related with beneficial standing behaviors already being practiced, we examined relationships between TPB constructs and time spent standing at work among “positive deviants” (those successful in behavior change. Experience sampling methodology (ESM, 4 times a day (midmorning, before lunch, afternoon, and before leaving work for 5 consecutive workdays (Monday to Friday, was used to assess employees’ standing time. TPB scales assessing attitude (α = 0.81–0.84, norms (α = 0.83, perceived behavioral control (α = 0.77, and intention (α = 0.78 were developed using recommended methods and collected once on the Friday before the ESM surveys started. ESM data are hierarchically nested, therefore we tested our hypotheses using multilevel structural equation modeling with Mplus. Hourly full-time university employees (n = 50; 70.6% female, 84.3% white, mean age = 44 (SD = 11, 88.2%in full-time staff positions with sedentary occupation types (time at desk while working ≥6 hours/day participated. A total of 871 daily surveys were completed. Only perceived behavioral control (β = 0.45, p < 0.05 was related with work-standing at the event-level (model fit: just fit; mediation through intention was not supported. This is the first study to examine theoretical antecedents of real-time work-standing in a naturalistic field setting among positive deviants. These relationships should be further

  17. Biossegurança em uma unidade de terapia intensiva: a percepção da equipe de enfermagem Bioseguridad en una unidad de terapia intensiva: la percepción del equipo de enfermería Biosecurity in an intensive care unit: the nursing team perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistina Feitoza Correa

    2007-06-01

    relación con la importancia de adoptar e implementar las medidas de bioseguridad y posibilidades de intervención para la adopción e implementación de medidas de bioseguridad. Se ha verificado que las normas de bioseguridad deben incluir las buenas prácticas, posibilitando alcanzar un ambiente laboral sin riesgos ocupacionales.The descriptive study having a qualitative approach aimed at: describing the biosecurity measures adopted by the nursing team during the attendance on an ICU identifying the perception of the nursing team about the importance of adopting and implementing biosecurity measures during the attendance and analyzing the possibilities to the team of implementing some biosecurity measures during the attendance. The data were obtained by means of the systematic observation and interviews with semi-structured script, carried out on an ICU where 29 nurses used to work. The thematic analysis of the interviews allowed identifying three categories: biosecurity measures adopted by the nurse team; perception of this team concerning the importance of adopting and implementing the biosecurity measures and the possibilities of intervention for the adoption and implementation of the biosecurity measures. It was verified that the biosecurity rules must include the good practices, making possible to reach a labor ambience with no occupational risks.

  18. Knowledge of poultry diseases, biosecurity and husbandry practices among stakeholders in poultry production in Kogi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ON Ameji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial poultry production is low in Kogi State even before the advent of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 outbreak in Nigeria. The low level of poultry production has persisted long after the socio-economic impacts of HPAI had improved. A study was conducted among 94 poultry stakeholders in the state with the use of questionnaire to assess their knowledge of poultry diseases, biosecurity and poultry husbandry practices in six Local Government Areas of Kogi State. The findings showed that 60.0% of poultry production was rural while the rest were backyard (semi commercial poultry. About 64.7% of poultry kept were under extensive management with the commonest diseases seen under this management system being Newcastle disease (62.9%, Coccidiosis (52.3%, Fowl pox (46.9%, Gumboro disease (39.1% and Fowl typhoid (36.1%. Biosecurity was poor as 92.9% of respondents did not have footbath or hand wash disinfection; 70% would throw away poultry litter in the refuse dump; 12% would use the poultry litter as manure while 11% would sell out the litter. In addition, 64.7% of the poultry farmers obtained their rearing stock from the live bird market and other unknown sources while only 35.3% obtained theirs from the hatchery. The findings of this study showed that the low level of commercial poultry production in Kogi State might be due to the impacts of diseases and poor husbandry practices undertaken by the farmers. It is recommended that government should train poultry farmers on biosecurity, disease prevention and the adoption of modern husbandry practices suitable for the traditional poultry production system.

  19. ZONAL IMPACT ANALYSIS OF A STRATEGIC PLANNING APPROACH FOR LAND DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin LIMAPORNWANITCH

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid urban developments in developing cities, the integration of land-use and transportation planning is very necessary. However, up-to-date land-use and transportation interaction planning is still difficult, because of rapid urbanization and complex relationships. The lack of human resources, budget, and necessary data are some of the hindrances. The planners in Bangkok have tried to utilize Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA in harmonizing land developments and transportation improvements, but without a complete land-use comprehensive plan, the TIA cannot effectively manage urbanization. This paper intends to propose a Zonal Impact Analysis (ZIA framework as a strategic planning tool to balance travel demands of land developments and performance of transportation systems over urban areas. First, the land-use planning situation in Bangkok is explained, afterwards the framework is described. The framework is applied into Bangkapi areas as a case study. Both single and simultaneous development cases are considered. It was found that more comprehensive development alternatives were established. The most suitable zone for a single project is Zone 179, as the advantages of location in the center of radial networks, so full accessibility can be provided. Without any network improvements in Zone 179, the simultaneous developments should be implemented in Zone 168 and 173, as high capacities of the expressway are available. The results give a better understanding on the characteristics of land-use and transportation planning in Bangkapi. Finally, it was emphasized that the ZIA framework is a strategic planning alternative to increase the capabilities of growth management for sustainable developments.

  20. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries: Case study of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstens, S.M., E-mail: sjoerd.kerstens@rhdhv.com [Royal HaskoningDHV, P.O. Box 1132, 3800 BC, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Spiller, M., E-mail: marc.spiller@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Leusbrock, I., E-mail: ingo.leusbrock@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Zeeman, G., E-mail: grietje.zeeman@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a government policy to nationwide planning is missing. Therefore, we propose a framework to facilitate the nationwide planning process for the implementation of wastewater and solid waste services. The framework requires inputs from government planners and experts in the formulation of starting points and targets. Based on a limited number of indicators (population density, urban functions) three outputs are generated. The first output is a visualization of the spatial distribution of wastewater and solid waste systems to support regional priority setting in planning and create awareness. Secondly, the total number of people served, budget requirements and distribution of systems is determined. Thirdly, the required budget is allocated to the responsible institution to assure effective implementation. The determined budgets are specified by their beneficiaries, distinguishing urban, rural, poor and non-poor households. The framework was applied for Indonesia and outputs were adopted in the National Development Plan. The required budget to reach the Indonesian government's 2019 target was determined to be 25 billion US$ over 5 years. The contribution from the national budget required a more than fivefold increase compared to the current budget allocation in Indonesia, corresponding to an increase from 0.5 to 2.7 billion US$ per year. The budget for campaigning, advocacy and institutional strengthening to enable implementation was determined to be 10% of the total budget. The proposed framework is not only suitable for Indonesia, but could also be applied to any developing country that aims to increase access to wastewater and solid waste facilities. - Highlights: • A nationwide

  1. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  2. Reserve network planning for fishes in the middle and lower Yangtze River basin by systematic conservation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyi; Li, Fan; Chen, Jiakuan

    2016-03-01

    Although China has established more than 600 wetland nature reserves, conservation gaps still exist for many species, especially for freshwater fishes. Underlying this problem is the fact that top-level planning is missing in the construction of nature reserves. To promote the development of nature reserves for fishes, this study took the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin (MLYRB) as an example to carry out top-level reserve network planning for fishes using approaches of systematic conservation planning. Typical fish species living in freshwater habitats were defined and considered in the planning. Based on sample data collected from large quantities of literatures, continuous distribution patterns of 142 fishes were obtained with species distribution modeling and subsequent processing, and the distributions of another eleven species were artificially designated. With the distribution pattern of species, Marxan was used to carry out conservation planning. To obtain ideal solutions with representativeness, persistence, and efficiency, parameters were set with careful consideration regarding existing wetland reserves, human disturbances, hydrological connectivity, and representation targets of species. Marxan produced the selection frequency of planning units (PUs) and a best solution. Selection frequency indicates the relative protection importance of a PU. The best solution is a representative of ideal fish reserve networks. Both of the PUs with high selection frequency and those in the best solution have low proportions included in existing wetland nature reserves, suggesting that there are significant conservation gaps for fish species in MLYRB. The best solution could serve as a reference for establishing a fish reserve network in the MLYRB. There is great flexibility for replacing selected PUs in the solution, and such flexibility facilitates the implementation of the solution in reality in case of unexpected obstacles. Further, we suggested

  3. A Graph-based Ant Colony Optimization Approach for Integrated Process Planning and Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinfeng Wang; Xiaoliang Fan; Chaowei Zhang; Shuting Wan

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers an ant colony optimization algorithm based on AND/OR graph for integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS). General y, the process planning and scheduling are studied separately. Due to the complexity of manufacturing system, IPPS combining both process planning and scheduling can depict the real situation of a manufacturing system. The IPPS is represented on AND/OR graph consisting of nodes, and undirected and directed arcs. The nodes denote operations of jobs, and undirected/directed arcs denote possible visiting path among the nodes. Ant colony goes through the necessary nodes on the graph from the starting node to the end node to obtain the optimal solution with the objective of minimizing makespan. In order to avoid local convergence and low convergence, some improved strategy is incorporated in the standard ant colony optimiza-tion algorithm. Extensive computational experiments are carried out to study the influence of various parameters on the system performance.

  4. Defining and representing events in a satellite scheduling system - The IEPS (Interactive Experimenter Planning System) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, David R.; Littlefield, Ronald G.; Macoughtry, William O.

    A methodology is described for defining and representing satellite events from the IEPS perspective. The task of doing this is divided into four categories and includes defining and representing resource windows, event parameters, event scheduling strategies, and event constraints. The description of each of these categories includes examples from the IEPS ERBS-TDRSS Contact Planning System. This is a system which is being used by the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) schedulers to request TDRSS contact times from the NCC. The system is written in the C programming language and uses a custom built inference engine (TIE1) to do constraint checking and a custom built strategies interpreter to derive the plan. The planning system runs on the IBM-PC/AT or on any similar hardware which has a C development environment and 640K of memory.

  5. EXPLORING FACTORS INFLUENCING FINANCIAL PLANNING AFTER RETIREMENT: STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Jalil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the critical factors that influence financial planning after retirement among Malaysians, an area which has somewhat been largely overlooked by the extant literature. The study has used a quantitative method to survey a sample of 170 Malaysian citizens, from various places in the Klang Valley area. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data. The results suggest that the paths are interrelated to the casual processes significantly. Furthermore, individual’s income or monthly salary is found to be the most important factor influencing financial planning, followed by attitude and culture. The results are mainly favourable to academics and practitioners in Malaysia by contributing an understanding into critical factors that influence people to make financial plan before their retirement. The study provides implications of the findings in the concluding section.

  6. A Comprehensive Approach to Bi-National Regional Energy Planning in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Morrison

    2007-12-31

    The Pacific NorthWest Economic Region, a statutory organization chartered by the Northwest states of Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Oregon, and the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and the Yukon through its Energy Working Group launched a bi-national energy planning initiative designed to create a Pacific Northwest energy planning council of regional public/private stakeholders from both Canada and the US. There is an urgent need to deal with the comprehensive energy picture now before our hoped for economic recovery results in energy price spikes which are likely to happen because the current supply will not meet predicted demand. Also recent events of August 14th have shown that our bi-national energy grid system is intricately interdependent, and additional planning for future capacity is desperately needed.

  7. Working Notes from the 1992 AAAI Spring Symposium on Practical Approaches to Scheduling and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Mark; Fox, Mark; Tate, Austin; Zweben, Monte

    1992-01-01

    The symposium presented issues involved in the development of scheduling systems that can deal with resource and time limitations. To qualify, a system must be implemented and tested to some degree on non-trivial problems (ideally, on real-world problems). However, a system need not be fully deployed to qualify. Systems that schedule actions in terms of metric time constraints typically represent and reason about an external numeric clock or calendar and can be contrasted with those systems that represent time purely symbolically. The following topics are discussed: integrating planning and scheduling; integrating symbolic goals and numerical utilities; managing uncertainty; incremental rescheduling; managing limited computation time; anytime scheduling and planning algorithms, systems; dependency analysis and schedule reuse; management of schedule and plan execution; and incorporation of discrete event techniques.

  8. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries: Case study of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstens, S M; Spiller, M; Leusbrock, I; Zeeman, G

    2016-04-15

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a government policy to nationwide planning is missing. Therefore, we propose a framework to facilitate the nationwide planning process for the implementation of wastewater and solid waste services. The framework requires inputs from government planners and experts in the formulation of starting points and targets. Based on a limited number of indicators (population density, urban functions) three outputs are generated. The first output is a visualization of the spatial distribution of wastewater and solid waste systems to support regional priority setting in planning and create awareness. Secondly, the total number of people served, budget requirements and distribution of systems is determined. Thirdly, the required budget is allocated to the responsible institution to assure effective implementation. The determined budgets are specified by their beneficiaries, distinguishing urban, rural, poor and non-poor households. The framework was applied for Indonesia and outputs were adopted in the National Development Plan. The required budget to reach the Indonesian government's 2019 target was determined to be 25 billion US$ over 5years. The contribution from the national budget required a more than fivefold increase compared to the current budget allocation in Indonesia, corresponding to an increase from 0.5 to 2.7 billion US$ per year. The budget for campaigning, advocacy and institutional strengthening to enable implementation was determined to be 10% of the total budget. The proposed framework is not only suitable for Indonesia, but could also be applied to any developing country that aims to increase access to wastewater and solid waste facilities.

  9. Wildlife connectivity approaches and best practices in U.S. state wildlife action plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacher, Iara; Wilkerson, Marit L.

    2014-01-01

    As habitat loss and fragmentation threaten biodiversity on large geographic scales, creating and maintaining connectivity of wildlife populations is an increasingly common conservation objective. To assess the progress and success of large-scale connectivity planning, conservation researchers need a set of plans that cover large geographic areas and can be analyzed as a single data set. The state wildlife action plans (SWAPs) fulfill these requirements. We examined 50 SWAPs to determine the extent to which wildlife connectivity planning, via linkages, is emphasized nationally. We defined linkage as connective land that enables wildlife movement. For our content analysis, we identified and quantified 6 keywords and 7 content criteria that ranged in specificity and were related to linkages for wide-ranging terrestrial vertebrates and examined relations between content criteria and statewide data on focal wide-ranging species, spending, revenue, and conserved land. Our results reflect nationwide disparities in linkage conservation priorities and highlight the continued need for wildlife linkage planning. Only 30% or less of the 50 SWAPs fulfilled highly specific content criteria (e.g., identifying geographic areas for linkage placement or management). We found positive correlations between our content criteria and statewide data on percent conserved land, total focal species, and spending on parks and recreation. We supplemented our content analysis with interviews with 17 conservation professionals to gain specific information about state-specific context and future directions of linkage conservation. Based on our results, relevant literature, and interview responses, we suggest the following best practices for wildlife linkage conservation plans: collect ecologically meaningful background data; be specific; establish community-wide partnerships; and incorporate sociopolitical and socioeconomic information.

  10. Planning for Heritage Preservation in Western Turkey: A GIS Approach to Archaeotourism and Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis, Caitlin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Marmara Lake basin, western Turkey, the burial mounds of Bin Tepe are constantly threatened by looting, development, and agricultural expansion. This study outlines a Geographic Information Systems (GIS methodology used to plan for a solution to preservation through archaeotourism development and agricultural policy compromise in the region. The components of this study include determining how to best take advantage of the scenic view of the mounds for tourism, projecting the potential future visual impact of growing olive trees, and developing a plan to mitigate this impact with unplanted zones. Fieldwork in 2011 both confirmed and furthered GIS analyses.

  11. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems. A context-oriented planning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten;

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a planning tool for comparing and assessing the sustainability of different wastewater systems. The core of the planning tool is an assessment method based on both technical and social elements. The point of departure is that no technique is inherently sustainable or ecological...... in itself, but that the sustainability of the total system of technologies for a particular settlement in a given location must be assessed in a holistic and transparent manner. A pilot case is used to demonstrate the structure and the results of the assessment method. The assessment method is still under...

  12. A model for planning the chemical integrated system under uncertainty by the grey programming approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2013-01-01

    A model to optimize the planning of the chemical integrated system comprised by multi-devices and multi-products has been proposed in this paper. With the objective to make more profits, the traditional model for optimizing production planning has been proposed. The price of chemicals, the market...... demand, and the production capacity have been considered as mutative variables, then an improved model in which some parameters are not constant has been developed and a new method to solve the grey linear programming has been proposed. In the grey programming model, the value of credibility can...

  13. Assessment of factors that predict physical activity among Oklahoma clergy: a theory of planned behavior approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwin, Shannon; Taylor, E Laurette; Branscum, Paul; Hofford, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of physical activity among clergy members in Oklahoma, using the theory of planned behavior. A 51-item valid and reliable instrument, measuring theory of planned behavior constructs and physical activity, was developed and administered to 141 clergy members. Results indicated that the majority of those surveyed were white (93%), college educated (97%), and overweight or obese (84%). Stepwise multiple regression analysis found that intentions accounted for 13.8% of the variance of physical activity whereas attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control accounted for 54.8% of the variance of intention. Implications for intervention development are discussed.

  14. Hierarchical robot control structure and Newton's divided difference approach to robot path planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A hierarchical robot control is proposed for robot soccer system. The Newton' s divided difference is utilized in robot path planning. This paper describes the problems encoutered, software design considerations, vision algorithm and controls of individual robots. The solutions.to the problems implemented are simple and di rect. It is observed that many of the ideas and solutions can be evolved based on simple theories and concepts. This paper focuses on software structure of multi-agent controls, vision algorithm and simple path planning method.

  15. Access to "Jiggasha program: a family planning communication approach" and its exposure to the selected background characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M W; Khan, H T; Begum, A

    1999-06-01

    This paper studies the effectiveness of "Jiggasha," an innovative communication approach for the promotion of family planning in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data from the 1996 Jiggasha follow-up survey were used, which gathered information by interviewing a network sample of 1862 married women and a subsample of 608 men. The study used the sample constituted by women respondents and included data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the respondents and their knowledge, attitude and practice relating to contraceptives. Findings showed that Jiggasha respondents have more access to radio than television. All respondents reported having a radio in their homes and they emphasized the importance of broadcasting more family planning messages via both electronic media. Only 16% of the women in the study setting were exposed to group meetings. Of the respondents reporting participation in group meetings, 38.25% joined in a Jiggasha meeting, 23.15% in a Grameen Bank group meeting, and 4.70% in a Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee group meeting. Logistic regression analysis indicated more access to Jiggashas among women over 30 years of age than among the younger age groups. Religion and education levels of respondents have significant impact on access to Jiggashas. Husbands' approval plays an important role among the Jiggasha respondents in using family planning method. This study provides important information for policy-makers to make family planning program a success.

  16. Smart city planning from a bottom-up approach: local communities' intervention for a smarter urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverti, Maroula; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Kyriakidis, Phaedon; Serraos, Konstantinos

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the concept of "smart" cities from the perspective of inclusive community participation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS).The concept of a smart city is critically analyzed, focusing on the power/knowledge implications of a "bottom-up" approach in planning and how GIS could encourage community participation in smart urban planning. The paper commences with a literature review of what it means for cities to be "smart". It draws supporting definitions and critical insights into smart cities with respect to the built environment and the human factor. The second part of the paper, analyzes the "bottom-up" approach in urban planning, focusing on community participation reviewing forms and expressions through good practices from European cities. The third part of the paper includes a debate on how smart urban cities policies and community participation interact and influence each other. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of the insights that were found and offers recommendations on how this debate could be addressed by Information and Communication Technologies and GIS in particular.

  17. Inter-active and dynamic approaches on forest and land-use planning - proceedings from a training workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandewall, Mats [ed.

    1999-07-01

    This document summarises the outcome of a training workshop, 'Inter-active and dynamic approaches on forest and land-use planning', that was organised in Vietnam and Lao PDR during April 1999. The workshop was arranged by researchers from SLU, Umeaa in cooperation with SIDA and it's CCB programme, The National Board of Forestry and concerned government institutions in Lao PDR - The national Programme for Shifting Cultivation Stabilisation, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry , and in Vietnam - the Forest Inventory and Planning Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. The main purpose of this paper are: (1) to review and conclude the outcome of the workshop to all those who have participated or been concerned with it; (2) to summarise an evaluation of the somewhat unique arrangement, with participants from different sectors, administrative levels, gender and countries; and (3) to present 'the APM approach' on land use planning, which was put forward, tested and discussed during the workshop.

  18. An MILP modeling approach for shelf life integrated planning in yoghurt production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lütke Entrup, M.; Grunow, M.; Günther, H.O.; Seiler, T.; Beek, van P.

    2005-01-01

    In the production of perishable products such as dairy, meat, or bakery goods, the consideration of shelf life in production planning is of particular importance. Retail customers with relatively low inventory turns can benefit significantly from longer product shelf life as wastage and out-of-stock

  19. A New Extended MILP MRP Approach to Production Planning and Its Application in the Jewelry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Yazıcı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to manage reverse material flows such as recycling, reusing, and remanufacturing in a production environment. This paper addresses a production planning problem which involves reusing of scrap and recycling of waste that occur in the various stages of the production process and remanufacturing/recycling of returns in a closed-loop supply chain environment. An extended material requirement planning (MRP is proposed as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP model which includes—beside forward—these reverse material flows. The proposed model is developed for the jewelry industry in Turkey, which uses gold as the primary resource of production. The aim is to manage these reverse material flows as a part of production planning to utilize resources. Considering the mostly unpredictable nature of reverse material flows, the proposed model is likewise transformed into a fuzzy model to provide a better review of production plan for the decision maker. The suggested model is examined through a case study to test the applicability and efficiency.

  20. An integrated approach for requirement selection and scheduling in software release planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Chen; Akker, van den Marjan; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Diepen, Guido

    2010-01-01

    It is essential for product software companies to decide which requirements should be included in the next release and to make an appropriate time plan of the development project. Compared to the extensive research done on requirement selection, very little research has been performed on time schedu

  1. Economic aspects in landscape decision-making: a participatory planning tool based on a representative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der C.M.; Blaeij, de A.T.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method for spatial decision support that combines economic efficiency â¿¿ measured by the concept op willingness to pay â¿¿ with a participatory planning tool, that allows for an active collaboration among the actors involved, in such a way that decision makers can

  2. Investigating Constraint-Based Approaches for the Development of Agile Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    presen ...fra mented in T state‐space planning pr n or partia operations All these a and. e environm constraints ynchronizin tion measur the current...is expressed with a time‐parameterized differential inclusion ∈ , for all 0, where the set‐ valued map is defined

  3. Ecological Approaches to Transition Planning for Students with Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dente, Claire L.; Parkinson Coles, Kallie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a compelling case for the increased role of social workers in work with individuals with autism and Asperger's syndrome in secondary school settings, specifically in transition planning for postsecondary educational pursuits. Social work education prepares social workers to address micro, mezzo, and macro levels of practice…

  4. Group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of nature development plans : A multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, AE; Vlek, CAJ; Coeterier, JF

    1998-01-01

    The study presented here addresses theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the issue of group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of natural landscapes. Beauty ratings of an agrarian landscape and five computer simulations of nature development plans in this landscape were collected

  5. Cost-Benefit Analysis in Planning Processes: An Interactive Instrument in an Integrated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhard, A.J.; Gaaff, A.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing pressure on space demands careful assessment between competing functions in a planning process. Especially, in metropolitan landscapes, space is in short supply and hence expensive. Housing, industrial sites and office parks, and infrastructure are strong drivers of landscape change, ofte

  6. Leadership succession planning: an evidence-based approach for managing the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Richard W

    2006-06-01

    Leadership succession planning is a key business strategy to help organizational leaders deal effectively with the future. Evidence from industry provides a variety of best practices that can ensure that a pipeline of leaders will be available when they are needed. The author addresses the essential needs that individuals face when developing a cadre of available leaders prepared for managing an uncertain future.

  7. Academic Misconduct: A Goals-Plans-Action Approach to Peer Confrontation and Whistle-Blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller; Valde, Kathleen S.; Denbow, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Academic misconduct is a serious, pervasive, communication phenomenon on college campuses. In this study, the goals-plans-action model (Dillard, 1990) was used as a theoretical framework to investigate peer confrontation of cheating and whistle-blowing to a course instructor. In an experiment, participants were asked to respond to measures of…

  8. Challenges and Approaches in River Delta Planning - report on training workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten, J.H.M.; Douven, W.; Long Phi, H.; Fida Abdullah Khan, M.

    2012-01-01

    River delta’s, like the Mekong Delta (Vietnam), Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (Bangladesh), Irrawady (Myanmar) and Ciliwung Delta (Indonesia) are developing rapidly and characterized by large-scale urbanization and industrialization processes. They are facing serious planning challenges related to issues

  9. Students' Perceptions of a Scaffolded Approach to Learning Financial Planning: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Michelle; Davis, Glenda

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the global financial crisis (GFC), one understandable area of scrutiny and pressure for reform is the educational background and professionalism of personal financial advisers. This Australian study reports on a three-year investigation into students' perceptions of "scaffolded" instruction in financial planning. The…

  10. New grid-planning and certification approaches for the large-scale offshore-wind farm grid-connection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heising, C.; Bartelt, R. [Avasition GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Zadeh, M. Koochack; Lebioda, T.J.; Jung, J. [TenneT Offshore GmbH, Bayreuth (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Stable operation of the offshore-wind farms (OWF) and stable grid connection under stationary and dynamic conditions are essential to achieve a stable public power supply. To reach this aim, adequate grid-planning and certification approaches are a major advantage. Within this paper, the fundamental characteristics of the offshore-wind farms and their grid-connection systems are given. The main goal of this research project is to study the stability of the offshore grid especially in terms of subharmonic stability for the likely future extension stage of the offshore grids i.e. having parallel connection of two or more HVDC links and for certain operating scenarios e.g. overload scenario. The current requirements according to the grid code are not the focus of this research project. The goal is to study and define potential additional grid code requirements, simulations, tests and grid planning methods for the future. (orig.)

  11. A Fast Approach for Time Optimal and Smooth Trajectory Planning of Robot Manipulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Liu∗; Chao Yun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a fast approach to generate time optimal and smooth trajectory has been developed and tested. Minimum time is critical for the productivity in industrial applications. Meanwhile, smooth trajectories based on cubic splines are desirable for their ability to limit vibrations and ensure the continuity of position, velocity and acceleration during the robot movement. The main feature of the approach is a satisfactory solution that can be obtained by a local modification process among each interval between two consecutive via⁃points. An analytical formulation simplifies the approach to smooth trajectory and few iterations are enough to determine the correct values. The approach can be applied in many robot manipulators which require high performance on time and smooth. The simulation and application of the approach on a palletizer robot are performed, and the experimental results provide evidence that the approach can realize the robot manipulators more efficiency and high smooth performance.

  12. A GIS-Based Approach in Support of Spatial Planning for Renewable Energy: A Case Study of Fukushima, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianna Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach in support of spatial planning for renewable energy at the regional level. It aims to establish an elaborate and informative procedure, as well as integrated quantification and visualization, to support decision making. The proposed approach is composed of a set of sequential steps that include primary energy consumption estimation, renewable energy potential estimation, energy self-sufficiency analysis, and composite map preparation using Geographic Information System (GIS. GIS is used to analyze solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, and hydro-power potential within Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Potential sites are determined based on geographic, topographic, and land use constraints. Evacuees’ population and forest radiation levels are specifically considered in the context of consequent issues emanating from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear crisis. Energy self-sufficiency analysis has been conducted for years 2020 and 2030. A composite map showing potential sites and their interrelation to the above renewable energy resources has also been presented. These results may support decision making in regional renewable energy planning, by providing information on regional potentials and restrictions to different energy stakeholders. This can help to build an energy developmental vision, which can drive regional energy development towards sustainability. The proposed approach can also be applied to other Japanese municipalities or regions. It provides an example on how to establish local GIS databases through the utilization of various online open GIS resources in Japan.

  13. Research-Based Development of a Lesson Plan on Shower Gels and Musk Fragrances Following a Socio-Critical and Problem-Oriented Approach to Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ralf; Eilks, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    A case is described of the development of a lesson plan for 10th grade (age range 15-16) chemistry classes on the chemistry of shower gels. The lesson plan follows a socio-critical and problem-oriented approach to chemistry teaching. This means that, aside from learning about the basic chemistry of the components making up modern shower gels in…

  14. Biosecurity risks associated with current identification practices of producers trading live pigs at livestock sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Schembri, N; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

    2008-11-01

    Approximately 5% of pigs produced in Australia is believed to be traded at livestock sales. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with producers (106 and 30 producers, respectively), who traded pigs at livestock sales. The purpose of the study was to gather information on how producers identified their pigs in order to evaluate how these practices may impact the ability to trace pig movements in the event of an emergency animal disease outbreak or food safety hazard. Results were analyzed according to herd size (0 to 150 sows, 150+ sows) and location (peri-urban, regional) as prior studies suggested a higher biosecurity risk among smaller farms and due to perceptions that peri-urban farms pose additional risk. Most producers (91.5%) had less than 150 sows and a high proportion (70.8%) resided in regional areas compared with only 29.2% residing in peri-urban areas. A higher proportion of large-scale producers identified their pigs than small-scale producers. A third of small-scale producers reported not identifying breeding stock and most did not identify progeny. The most common forms of on-farm identification used were ear tags for breeding stock and ear notches for progeny. Producers identified breeding stock to assist with mating management and genetic improvement. Ear notches were used to determine the litter of origin of progeny. All large-scale producers owned a registered swine brand and used the official body tattoo for post-farm-gate identification. However, approximately 15% of small-scale producers did not own a registered swine brand, and an additional 8% did not identify their pigs post-farm-gate. Producers were satisfied with tattoos as a methodology for post-farm-gate identification of pigs and considered other methodologies cost-prohibitive. However, variations in the maintenance of the branding equipment, the type of ink used and the time of tattoo application in relation to the animal sale were highlighted during focus group

  15. Integrating landscape analysis and planning: a multi-scale approach for oriented management of tourist recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aranzabal, Itziar; Schmitz, María F; Pineda, Francisco D

    2009-11-01

    Tourism and landscape are interdependent concepts. Nature- and culture-based tourism are now quite well developed activities and can constitute an excellent way of exploiting the natural resources of certain areas, and should therefore be considered as key objectives in landscape planning and management in a growing number of countries. All of this calls for careful evaluation of the effects of tourism on the territory. This article focuses on an integrated spatial method for landscape analysis aimed at quantifying the relationship between preferences of visitors and landscape features. The spatial expression of the model relating types of leisure and recreational preferences to the potential capacity of the landscape to meet them involves a set of maps showing degrees of potential visitor satisfaction. The method constitutes a useful tool for the design of tourism planning and management strategies, with landscape conservation as a reference.

  16. Assessing the sustainability of small wastewater systems. A context-oriented planning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a planning tool for comparing and assessing the sustainability of different wastewater systems. The core of the planning tool is an assessment method based on both technical and social elements. The point of departure is that no technique is inherently sustainable or ecological...... in itself, but that the sustainability of the total system of technologies for a particular settlement in a given location must be assessed in a holistic and transparent manner. A pilot case is used to demonstrate the structure and the results of the assessment method. The assessment method is still under...... development, and this paper discusses crucial points in the development of the method. Ó 2000 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved....

  17. Approach and status for a unified national plan for satellite remote sensing research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Kristine; Okerson, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Public Law 98-365, the Land Remote-Sensing Commercialization Act of 1984, requires that the Secretary of the Department of Commerce and the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 'shall, within one year after the date of the Law's enactment and biennially thereafter, jointly develop and transmit to the Congress a report that includes (1) a unified national plan for remote-sensing research and development applied to the earth and its atmosphere; (2) a compilation of progress in the relevant on-going research and development activities of Federal agencies; and (3) an assessment of the state of our knowledge of the Earth and its atmosphere, the needs for additional research (including research related to operational Federal remote-sensing space programs), and opportunities available for further progress'. NASA and NOAA have organized a series of public forums to encourage interest and discussion of the national plan.

  18. The Vicious Circle of Illiteracy, Over Population and Poverty--Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning Education Approach to Tackle It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajapeer, M.

    1976-01-01

    The interrelated nature of the problems of illiteracy, overpopulation, and poverty in developing countries is explored and an integrated approach to solving these problems in India, the Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning Education program, is described. (MS)

  19. An extended berry's field theoretic approach to intra-urban system in the toyota planning region

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Keiji

    1987-01-01

    An interdependence between spatial structure and spatial behavior in the Toyota Planning Region is examined, based on the framework of the Berry(1966)'s general field theory of spatial behavior. Canonical analysis reveals journey to work is determined by areal difference of industrial activities, and journey to shop is by areal differences of commercial activities and urban land use. While conventional field theoretic studies in geography have laid emphasis on mere description of the interdep...

  20. Development of an interaction and visualisation approach for egress path planning

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann Eilenberger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] Many disasters during the past decades, such as natural disasters or terrorist attacks showed that building evacuation is an important issue that has to be analysed thoroughly. Nowadays, static evacuation plans are still used where evacuees have to follow a predefined path to reach the exit of a building. But what happens if this path is blocked due to agglomeration of people, fire or smoke spreading? The escape paths need to be dynamic and building planners require efficient tools t...

  1. Towards phronetic knowledge for strategic planning in corporate real estate management: A real options approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reedt Dortland, van Maartje; Voordijk, Hans; Dewulf, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The objective of this paper is to provide insights about the potential of real option thinking for corporate real estate management (CREM) from the owner-user perspective. A promising approach to classifying and evaluating flexibility in real estate is the real options approach. Most lite

  2. Training Tactical-Level Planning Skills: An Investigation of Problem-Centered and Direct Instruction Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The present research chose three approaches representing distinct pedagogies and developed the instructional design and training materials for each...present research chose three approaches representing distinct pedagogies and developed the instructional design and training materials for each...4) • Group, hands on discussion in sharing of ideas (1) • Conducting the OPORD which allowed for autonomy and freedom (1) • Quality of

  3. An inexact multi-objective programming approach for strategic environmental assessment on regional development plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jihua; GUO Huaicheng; LIU Lei; HAO Mingjia; ZHANG Ming; LU Xiaojian; XING Kexia

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an inexact multi-objective programming (IMOP) model and its application to the strategic environmental assessment (SEA) for the regional development plan for the Hunnan New Zone (HNZ) in Shenyang City, China. Inexact programming and multi-objective programming methods are employed to effectively account for extensive uncertainties in the study system and to reflect various interests from different stakeholders, respectively. In the case study, balancing-economy-and-environment scenario and focusing-industry-development scenario are analyzed by the interactive solution process for addressing the preferences from local authorities and compromises among different objectives. Through interpreting the model solutions under both scenarios, analysis of industrial structure, waste water treatment plant(WWTP) expansion, water consumption and pollution generation and treatment are undertaken for providing a solid base to justify and evaluate the HNZ regional development plan. The study results show that the developed IMOP-SEA framework is feasible and applicable in carrying comprehensive environmental impact assessments for development plan in a more effective and efficient manner.

  4. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Prandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  5. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandi, F.; Magliocchetti, D.; Poveda, A.; De Amicis, R.; Andreolli, M.; Devigili, F.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas) project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  6. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy Sarah; Albetkova Adilya; Chapman Will; Taboy Celine H; Rayfield Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimiz...

  7. Robot Path Planning in Uncertain Environments: A Language Measure-theoretic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    approximation of chance-constrained stochastic predic- tive control. IEEE Transactions on Robotics . 2010;26(3):502–517. [7] Chakravorty S, Kumar S... Transactions on Robotics and Automation. 2007;23(2):331–341. [3] Rhoads B, Mezić I, Poje A. Minimum Time feedback control of autonomous underwater vehicles...2005. p. 194–198. [2] Pêtrès C, Pailhas Y, Patrón P, Petillot Y, Evans J, Lane D. Path Planning for autonomous underwater vehicles. IEEE

  8. Plan Recognition and Discourse Analysis: An Integrated Approach for Understanding Dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Intelligence 5. 2 (1974). 115-135. 80. E. D. Sacerdoi. A Structure for Plans and Behavior. Elsevier. New York. 1977. xIe Sq. 183 81. H. Sacks . E. A. Schegloff ...achieve social regularity. For example, Sacks et aT [81] show how a systemics for the organiza- tion of turn-taking can account for linguistic...Modelling Simple Dialogs, Master’s Thesis, Technical Report Number 108, University of Toronto, May 1977. 48. G. Jefferson and J. Schenkein, Some S

  9. A fuzzy approach to the generation expansion planning problem in a multi-objective environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Samir A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In many power system problems, the use of optimization techniques has proved inductive to reducing the costs and losses of the system. A fuzzy multi-objective decision is used for solving power system problems. One of the most important issues in the field of power system engineering is the generation expansion planning problem. In this paper, we use the concepts of membership functions to define a fuzzy decision model for generating an optimal solution for this problem. Solutions obtained by the fuzzy decision theory are always efficient and constitute the best compromise. .

  10. An Object-oriented approach to Robotic planning using Taxi domain

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Aasheesh

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to implement Object-Oriented Markov Decision Process (OO-MDPs) for goal planning and navigation of robot in an indoor environment. We use the OO-MDP representation of the environment which is a natural way of modeling the environment based on objects and their interactions. The paper aims to extend the well known Taxi domain example which has been tested on grid world environment to robotics domain with larger state-spaces. For the purpose of this project we have created simul...

  11. A Model-Based Approach for Planning and Developing a Family of Technology-Based Products

    OpenAIRE

    V. Krishnan; Rahul Singh; Devanath Tirupati

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we address the product-family design problem of a firm in a market in which customers choose products based on some measure of product performance. By developing products as a family, the firm can reduce the cost of developing individual product variants due to the reuse of a common product platform. Such a platform, designed in an aggregate-planning phase that precedes the development of individual product variants, is itself expensive to develop. Hence, its costs must be weig...

  12. Eco and Green cities as new approaches for planning and developing cities in Egy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam K. El Ghorab

    2016-03-01

    This paper will introduce the first practice in planning and developing Green and Eco new city in Egypt (located at Eastern Desert, Sohaj governorate, on the corridor of Upper Egypt⧹Red Sea, including elaboration of its urban structure, land use and its green systems which produce most of its needed infrastructure (specially electricity power network, integrated sewage and solid waste management systems without making any pressures on the national and local existing infrastructure systems. Finally, the paper will conclude lessons learned from the introduced practice, and present recommendations to improve Egyptian cities and make it more sustainable.

  13. Identifying Unique Neighborhood Characteristics to Guide Health Planning for Stroke and Heart Attack: Fuzzy Cluster and Discriminant Analyses Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Ashley; Seaver, William; Odoi, Agricola

    2011-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic factors are known determinants of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) risk. Clustering of these factors in neighborhoods needs to be taken into consideration during planning, prioritization and implementation of health programs intended to reduce disparities. Given the complex and multidimensional nature of these factors, multivariate methods are needed to identify neighborhood clusters of these determinants so as to better understand the unique neighborhood profiles. This information is critical for evidence-based health planning and service provision. Therefore, this study used a robust multivariate approach to classify neighborhoods and identify their socio-demographic characteristics so as to provide information for evidence-based neighborhood health planning for stroke and MI. Methods and Findings The study was performed in East Tennessee Appalachia, an area with one of the highest stroke and MI risks in USA. Robust principal component analysis was performed on neighborhood (census tract) socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, obtained from the US Census, to reduce the dimensionality and influence of outliers in the data. Fuzzy cluster analysis was used to classify neighborhoods into Peer Neighborhoods (PNs) based on their socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Nearest neighbor discriminant analysis and decision trees were used to validate PNs and determine the characteristics important for discrimination. Stroke and MI mortality risks were compared across PNs. Four distinct PNs were identified and their unique characteristics and potential health needs described. The highest risk of stroke and MI mortality tended to occur in less affluent PNs located in urban areas, while the suburban most affluent PNs had the lowest risk. Conclusions Implementation of this multivariate strategy provides health planners useful information to better understand and effectively plan for the unique

  14. Lung cancer: Morphological and functional approach to screening, staging and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, Emmanuel; Lonneux, Max; Geets, Xavier

    2010-03-01

    Lung cancer is a major problem in public health and constitutes the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography is promising but needs to overcome many difficulties, such as the large number of incidentally discovered nodules, the radiation dose delivered to the patient during a whole screening program and its cost. The ultimate target point represented by the reduction of lung cancer-related mortality needs to be proved in large, well-designed, randomized, multicenter, prospective trials. Lung cancer staging by morphological tools seems to be limited owing to the presence of metastases in normal-sized lymph nodes. In this context, multidetector computed tomography cannot be used alone but is useful in conjunction with molecular imaging and MRI. Today, flurodeoxglucose PET-CT appears to be the most accurate method for lung cancer staging and may prevent unnecessary thoracotomies. For treatment planning, flurodeoxglucose PET-CT is playing an increasing role in radiotherapy planning at the target selection and definition steps.

  15. Sustainable transport planning using GIS and remote sensing: an integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgoudis, Marios D.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Shiftan, Yoram

    2014-08-01

    The main advantage of using GIS is its ability to access and analyze spatially distributed data. The applications of GIS to transportation can be viewed as involving either on data retrieval; data integrator; or data analysis. The use of remote sensing can assist the retrieval of land use changes. Indeed, the integration of GIS and remote sensing will be used to fill the gap in the smart transport planning. A four step research is going to be done in order to try to integrate the usage of GIS and remote sensing to sustainable transport planning. The proposed research will be held in the city of Limassol, Cyprus. The data that are going to be used are data that are going to be collected through questionnaires, and other available data from the Cyprus Public Works Department and from the Remote Sensing Laboratory and Geo-Environment Research Lab of the Cyprus University of Technology. Overall, statistical analysis and market segmentation of data will be done, the land usage will be examined, and a scenario building on mode choice will be held. This paper presents an overview of the methodology that will be adopted.

  16. Strategic level proton therapy patient admission planning: a Markov decision process modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Ridvan; Zhang, Shengfan; Rainwater, Chase

    2016-01-25

    A relatively new consideration in proton therapy planning is the requirement that the mix of patients treated from different categories satisfy desired mix percentages. Deviations from these percentages and their impacts on operational capabilities are of particular interest to healthcare planners. In this study, we investigate intelligent ways of admitting patients to a proton therapy facility that maximize the total expected number of treatment sessions (fractions) delivered to patients in a planning period with stochastic patient arrivals and penalize the deviation from the patient mix restrictions. We propose a Markov Decision Process (MDP) model that provides very useful insights in determining the best patient admission policies in the case of an unexpected opening in the facility (i.e., no-shows, appointment cancellations, etc.). In order to overcome the curse of dimensionality for larger and more realistic instances, we propose an aggregate MDP model that is able to approximate optimal patient admission policies using the worded weight aggregation technique. Our models are applicable to healthcare treatment facilities throughout the United States, but are motivated by collaboration with the University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute (UFPTI).

  17. Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pauleit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the presentations and synthesis of the discussion during a Symposium on ‘Transformation of rural-urban cultural landscapes in Europe: Integrating approaches from ecological, socio-economic and planning perspectives’ held at the European IALE conference 2009 in Salzburg, Austria. The symposium addressed an extended and much debated subject of the landscape dynamics in Europe. The papers presented during the symposium showcased a broad spectrum of cutting edge research questions and challenges faced by the cultural landscapes of Europe. During six sessions, 18 presentations (besides 20 posters were made by 36 scientists (including co-authors from 14 countries, representing 25 institutions of Europe. A glance at the presentations revealed that the state-of-the-art focuses on driving forces and selected aspects of transformation processes, methods of its analysis and planning support as dimensions of research in this field. However, inter- and transdisciplinary research and integrative approaches to the development of rural-urban cultural landscapes are needed. The extended discussion session at the latter part of the symposium highlighted some critical and unaddressed research questions which remained a pending agenda for future research.

  18. 反规划”途径:理论、应用与展望%THEORY, APPLICATION AND PROSPECT OF NEGATIVE PLANNING APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 黄梓茜

    2016-01-01

    “反规划”是一种通过优先控制非建设区域来进行空间规划的逆向规划途径。它以景观安全格局为方法论,以生态基础设施为规划战略和成果,形成一个维护国土安全和保障土地生态系统服务功能的绿色网络,作为控制城市建设用地增长的刚性框架。本文分析了“反规划”的概念特征与理论体系,论述了近十年来该理论在国土尺度的空间规划与国土保护规划、海绵城市建设、新型城镇化和新农村建设4个方面的新发展;随后综合述评了其应用领域和实践探索;最后基于研究现状,提出了对接耦合“正反规划”、强化定量实证研究、考虑城市自组织增长和存量更新、加强管控实施等研究展望。%Negative Planning Approach is a reverse spatial planning method which gives priority to preserving and planning non-urban development area. Taking landscape security pattern as its methodological base, Negative Planning Approach is a rigid framework to control urban growth, aiming to develop ecological infrastructure plans as its planning strategy and results, and establishing a green network which can ensure national territorial security and ecosystem services. This article reviews the concept and theories of Negative Planning Approach and elaborates its new theoretical advances in the fields of spatial planning and protection planning of national territory, sponge city construction, new urbanization, and new rural construction. Then it further reviews the application and exploration of Negative Planning Approach in the past decade. Finally, this article points out the insufficiency of the current research on Negative Planning Approach, and puts forward prospects including the combination of Negative Planning Approach with conventional planning methods, strengthening quantitative evidence-based study, taking urban self-organized growth and inventory renewal into consideration, and enhancing

  19. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  20. Perspectives on a Multidisciplinary Team Approach to Implementation of Planned Emergent Use Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racedo Africano, Carlos J; Gallo de Moraes, Alice; Smischney, Nathan J

    2015-09-19

    In this paper we present the viewpoints of three members of a research team, on the approach to teamwork in the development of an emergent use clinical trial when dealing with diversity of opinions, in order to facilitate stakeholder buy-in. We also discuss a specific approach to the coordination of the team members, which in our opinion had a positive impact on the implementation of the project. We also comment on the influence of the team organization in the timeline and completion of a clinical trial. We hope to start a conversation on team dynamics in the design of clinical trials, especially in the context of emergent use research.

  1. Calibration approach and plan for the sea and land surface temperature radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L.; Nightingale, Tim J.; Mortimer, Hugh; Middleton, Kevin; Edeson, Ruben; Cox, Caroline V.; Mutlow, Chris T.; Maddison, Brian J.; Coppo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The sea and land surface temperature radiometer (SLSTR) to be flown on the European Space Agency's (ESA) Sentinel-3 mission is a multichannel scanning radiometer that will continue the 21 year dataset of the along-track scanning radiometer (ATSR) series. As its name implies, measurements from SLSTR will be used to retrieve global sea surface temperatures to an uncertainty of SLSTR instrument, the infrared calibration sources, and the alignment equipment. The calibration rig has been commissioned and results of these tests will be presented. Finally, the authors will present the planning for the on-orbit monitoring and calibration activities to ensure that the calibration is maintained. These activities include vicarious calibration techniques that have been developed through previous missions and the deployment of ship-borne radiometers.

  2. An approach to understanding, representing, and managing uncertainty in integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schaffhauser, A.J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This report addresses the issue of uncertainty in integrated resource planning (IRP). IRP is a process employed by electric utilities, often at the bellest of Public Utility Commissions (PUCs), to evaluate the acquisition of resources to meet forecast energy demands and other criteria such as energy efficiency and fuel diversity. Uncertainty plagues the preparation of IRPs, from forecasting energy prices and electricity demand to estimating costs and benefits expected from new resource acquisitions. As a result all those involved in the IRP process (including PUC commissioners and staff, utility decision makers, IRP analysts, and experts in particular areas) need to appreciate how uncertainty affects IRP and learn about available techniques to reduce its effects.

  3. DOE organization and management approach in responding to recommendation 94-2 - The implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmayer, D.

    1995-12-31

    In March, the Department of Energy (DOE) submitted the Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} This paper discusses the management organization and interactions established to accomplish the tasks developed to respond to the DNFSB Recommendation. The organization of the tasks into six technical areas and the interfaces and connections between the tasks are briefly described. A summary of how each significant part of the DNFSB Recommendation is being addressed is presented. This paper provides a brief introduction to the remaining presentations in this session.

  4. An integrated approach for supply-production planning in a supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sabet Motlagh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many firms try to optimize their supply and production levels separately, but this method could limit influence profitability, negatively. Thus, it is becoming more important to analyze these two levels, simultaneously. In this paper, an integrated supply-production planning is considered, simultaneously. We develop a mathematical model, which calculates the optimal inventory lot sizing for each supplier and minimizes the total cost associated with the process of procuring raw material, transferring and holding raw materials and manufacturing. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming and heuristic genetic algorithm (GA method is developed to solve the resulted problem. We examine the performance of the proposed model for a case study conducted in Iran. Experimental results show that such a model can reduce the costs of the case study, substantially.

  5. USING INTERNET AND TRAVEL AGENCIES IN PLANNING A TRIP. A QUALITATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Tugulea

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to discover and to understand young people’s touristic behaviour. We investigated the process of planning a trip, the perception about travel agencies and about Internet using qualitative methods. The aim of this paper is also to establish how important are qualitative methods when trying to understand touristic behaviour. We used exploratory qualitative research. Even we made only a qualitative research there are some managerial implications of this study. Managers must focus on human factor when promoting a touristic product. They can use Internet to inform young tourists but they must understand the importance of presenting the real conditions and not an improved option of the real offer. Travel agencies must be as flexible as the situation allows. This paper is important because it investigates in-depth the young tourists opinions and allow a comparison between the perception on travel agencies and the Internet.

  6. MILP Approach for Bilevel Transmission and Reactive Power Planning Considering Wind Curtailment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugranli, Faruk; Karatepe, Engin; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2017-01-01

    In this study, two important planning problems in power systems that are transmission expansion and reactive power are formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming taking into account the bilevel structure due to the consideration of market clearing under several load-wind scenarios....... The objective of the proposed method is to minimize the installation cost of transmission lines, reactive power sources, and the annual operation costs of conventional generators corresponding to the curtailed wind energy while maintaining the reliable system operation. Lower level problems of the bilevel...... structure are designated for the market clearing which is formulated by using the linearized optimal power flow equations. In order to obtain mixed-integer linear programming formulation, the so-called lower level problems are represented by using primal-dual formulation. By using the proposed method, power...

  7. A soft-contact and wrench based approach to study grasp planning and execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tarkeshwar; Ambike, Satyajit

    2015-11-01

    Grasping research in robotics has made remarkable progress in the last three decades and sophisticated computational tools are now available for planning robotic grasping in complex environments. However, studying the neural control of prehension in humans is more complex than studying robotic grasping. The elaborate musculoskeletal geometries and complex neural inputs to the hand facilitate a symphonic interplay of power and precision that allows humans to grasp fragile objects in a stable way without either crushing or dropping them. Most prehension studies have focused on a planar simplification of prehension since planar analyses render the complex problem of prehension tractable with few variables. The caveat is that planar simplification allows researchers to ask only a limited set of questions. In fact, one of the problems with extending prehension studies to three dimensions is the lack of analytical tools for quantifying features of spatial prehension. The current paper provides a theoretical adaptation and a step-by-step implementation of a widely used soft-contact wrench model for spatial human prehension. We propose two indices, grasp caliber and grasp intensity, to quantitatively relate digit placement and digit forces to grasp stability. Grasp caliber is the smallest singular value of the grasp matrix and it indicates the proximity of the current grasp configuration to instability. Grasp intensity is the magnitude of the excessive wrench applied by the digits to counter perturbations. Apart from quantifying stability of spatial grasps, these indices can also be applied to investigate sensory-motor coupling and the role of perception in grasp planning.

  8. A synoptic approach for analyzing erosion as a guide to land-use planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William M.; Hines, Walter G.; Rickert, David A.; Beach, Gary L.

    1979-01-01

    A synoptic approach has been devised to delineate the relationships that exist' between physiographic factors, land-use activities, and resultant erosional problems. The approach involves the development of an erosional-depositional province map and a numerical impact matrix for rating the potential for erosional problems. The province map is prepared by collating data on the natural terrain factors that exert the dominant controls on erosion and deposition in each basin. In addition, existing erosional and depositional features are identified and mapped from color-infrared, high-altitude aerial imagery. The axes of the impact matrix are composed of weighting values for the terrain factors used in developing the map and by a second set of values for the prevalent land-use activities. The body of the matrix is composed of composite erosional-impact ratings resulting from the product of the factor sets. Together the province map and problem matrix serve as practical tools for estimating the erosional impact of human activities on different types of terrain. The approach has been applied to the Molalla River basin, Oregon, and has proven useful for the recognition of problem areas. The same approach is currently being used by the State of Oregon (in the 208 assessment of nonpoint-source pollution under Public Law 92-500) to evaluate the impact of land-management practices on stream quality.

  9. Reaction Workup Planning: A Structured Flowchart Approach, Exemplified in Difficult Aqueous Workup of Hydrophilic Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, George B.; Sweeney, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Reaction workup can be a complex problem for those facing novel synthesis of difficult compounds for the first time. Workup problem solving by systematic thinking should be inculcated as mid-graduate-level is reached. A structured approach is proposed, building decision tree flowcharts to analyze challenges, and an exemplar flowchart is presented…

  10. A risk-based approach to maintenance planning utilizing in-line inspection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenyvesi, L.L. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Colquhoun, I.; Kania, R.; Gu, B. [GE Power Systems (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The pipeline industry routinely performs in-line inspections (ILI) to manage external corrosion in pipelines. ILIs are followed by repairs of defects that fail a deterministic criterion. Re-inspection is then performed after a prescribed time interval has elapsed. However, due to uncertainties associated with magnetic flux leakage (MFL) defect sizing and corrosion growth rates, a deterministic repair and re-inspection may result in nonessential maintenance expenditure. In addition, critical features may sometimes remain unidentified. This paper suggested that in order to evaluate the sensitivity of a defect's failure probability more effectively, a better approach would be to evaluate corrosion defects by viewing the process as an analysis of a set of stochastic variables rather than deterministic values. Therefore, this paper outlined the proposed stochastic approach in which tool error and growth rate uncertainty were explicitly considered. Computer simulation was used along with a process for continuously improving the characterization of each variable through a feedback loop. In order to minimize analysis time, the paper also outlined alternative methods to Monte Carlo, such as Importance Sampling. The approach has been successfully applied in field situations. It was shown that the approach can incorporate new information through repeat inspections or field excavations. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool: An approach for incorporating LID into integrated water management plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assist communities in the evaluation of green infrastructure, low impact development, and land conservation practices as part of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has supported the development of the Wat...

  12. Isotopes and trace elements as geo-location markers for biosecurity: determining the origin of exotic pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Peter W.; Armstrong, Karen; Clough, Tim; Frew, Russell; van Hale, Robert; Baker, Joel A.; Millet, Marc-Alban

    2010-05-01

    Background. The benefits of accurate point of origin discrimination in biosecurity include achieving appropriate operational responses in exotic pest eradication and post-border incursion campaigns, and identifying risk pathways. Reading natural abundance biogeochemical markers via mass spectrometry methods is a powerful tool for tracing ecological pathways and provenance determination of agricultural products and items of forensic interest. However, the application of these methods to trace insects - man's most damaging competitors - has been underutilised to date and our understanding in this field is still in a phase of basic development. Stable isotope ratio analyses using δ2H, δ13C have given spatial resolution in the monarch butterfly, single host system in eastern North America. Subsequently, the same method was employed in an attempt to determine the origin of important biosecurity pests in New Zealand. However, the results were contentious as the accuracy and limitations of the method in a biosecurity application were unknown. Further investigation has shown the value of existing invertebrate stable isotope geo-location methodology (i.e., using only two light elements) is tenuous in the biosecurity context, where the sample sizes are usually only one or two insects, and the specimens are generally polyphagous and accidentally introduced, and so from an unknown and unpredictable place, point in time and host: The spatial distribution of 2H in New Zealand may not be reliable over insect life-span time-scales; and fractional variables are un-quantified and potentially overwhelm any New Zealand signal. Further, the geo-location value of 13C is uncertain, especially for polyphagous insects. Research aims. The internationally distributed Helicoverpa armigera [Noctuidae] is being used to examine the processes fundamental to the location-to-plant-to-insect biogeochemical profile imprinting in phytophagous insects, including the turn over of elements in adult

  13. The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leusbrock, I; Nanninga, T A; Lieberg, K; Agudelo-Vera, C M; Keesman, K J; Zeeman, G; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2015-01-01

    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource management concepts are indispensable. In recent years we have developed and applied the urban harvest approach (UHA). The UHA aims to model and quantify the urban water cycle on different temporal and spatial scales. This approach allowed us to quantify the impact of the implementation of water saving measures and new water treatment concepts in cities. In this paper we will introduce the UHA and its application for urban water cycles. Furthermore, we will show first results for an extension to energy cycles and highlight future research items (e.g. nutrients, water-energy-nexus).

  14. Realtime motion planning for a mobile robot in an unknown environment using a neurofuzzy based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Taixiong

    2005-12-01

    A neuro-fuzzy network based approach for robot motion in an unknown environment was proposed. In order to control the robot motion in an unknown environment, the behavior of the robot was classified into moving to the goal and avoiding obstacles. Then, according to the dynamics of the robot and the behavior character of the robot in an unknown environment, fuzzy control rules were introduced to control the robot motion. At last, a 6-layer neuro-fuzzy network was designed to merge from what the robot sensed to robot motion control. After being trained, the network may be used for robot motion control. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective for robot motion control in unknown environment.

  15. Planning and Assessing Stability Operations: A Proposed Value Focus Thinking Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    alternatives) the DM evaluates the cars on factors common to all three: most “ sportiness ”, gas mileage and safety. The DM has limited himself in this approach...DM chooses the same values: “ sportiness ,” highest gas mileage, and highest safety. In his critical thinking about the decision context, the DM...important; she would like the ability to haul more items from the home improvement store; and “ sportiness ” is not something to think about in a family

  16. Approach levels of spatial planning in Romania or What is happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Niculae Sârbu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning happiness, well being and satisfaction developed in territorial approach tries to conciliate measurable economic information with subjective and individual aspects, underlying prudence related to the use of the resulted generalizations as basis for decisions. This paper focused on the particular aspect of the relationship of the obtaining of “territorial happiness” with the balances of the actors of the territorial development in Romania.

  17. A Geographical-Based Multi-Criteria Approach for Marine Energy Farm Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Maslov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to devise a strategy for developing a flexible tool to efficiently install a marine energy farm in a suitable area. The current methodology is applied to marine tidal current, although it can be extended to other energy contexts with some adaptations. We introduce a three-step approach that searches for marine farm sites and technological solutions. The methodology applied is based on a combination of Geographic Information Systems (GIS, multi-criteria analysis (MCA and an optimization algorithm. The integration of GIS and MCA is at the core of the search process for the best-suited marine areas, taking into account geographical constraints, such as human activity, pressure on the environment and technological opportunities. The optimization step of the approach evaluates the most appropriate technologies and farm configurations in order to maximize the quantity of energy produced while minimizing the cost of the farm. Three main criteria are applied to finally characterize a location for a marine energy farm: the global cost of the project, the quantity of energy produced and social acceptance. The social acceptance criterion is evaluated by the MCA method, Electre III, while the optimization of the energy cost is approximated by a genetic algorithm. The whole approach is illustrated by a case study applied to a maritime area in North-West France.

  18. Assessment of farmer knowledge of large ruminant health and production in developing village-level biosecurity in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, S; Rast, L; Khounsy, S; Windsor, P A

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine baseline knowledge and identify knowledge gaps of farmers on biosecurity, risk of transmission of transboundary diseases and large ruminant health and production in three provinces of northern Laos, Hua Phan (HP), Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK). The survey was conducted in six villages that are project sites for an Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) project, with two villages located in each of the three provinces. A census survey was conducted by interview with all 238 farmers participating in the ACIAR project, using a structured questionnaire. The interviews were conducted in Lao language and took 1-2 h per farmer. The answers were recorded in Lao and the survey data were translated into English and transcribed into Microsoft Excel, and a linear mixed model in the Genstat statistical analysis package was used to compare quantitative traits between the target provinces. The results showed that the prediction mean of farmer knowledge scores on parasitic disorders, infectious disease, reproduction and nutrition management were significantly different between the target provinces. The prediction mean of farmer knowledge scores on infectious disease questions ranged between 5.11 in HP to 8.54 in XK of 24 marks (P < 0.001). The prediction mean of total knowledge scores was 13.48 in LPB and 19.29 in XK of 42 marks (P < 0.001). The results indicate both the need for and scope required to attain improvements in farmer knowledge of large ruminant health and production. It was concluded that a participatory research and extension programme to address village-level biosecurity and reduce disease risks, plus enhance large ruminant production capabilities of smallholder producers, is a valid and potentially important strategy to address transboundary disease risk and rural poverty in northern Laos.

  19. Farm-level plans and husbandry measures for aquatic animal disease emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C V; Phillips, M J; Bhat, B V; Umesh, N R; Padiyar, P A

    2008-04-01

    Disease is one of the gravest threats to the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. A good understanding of biosecurity and disease causation is essential for developing and implementing farm-level plans and husbandry measures to respond to disease emergencies. Using epidemiological approaches, it is possible to identify pond- and farm-level risk factors for disease outbreaks and develop intervention strategies. Better management practices (BMPs) should be simple, science-based, cost-effective and appropriate to their context if farmers are to adopt and implement them. As part of a regional initiative by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) to control aquatic animal diseases, effective extension approaches to promote the widespread adoption of BMPs have been developed in India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand, and have proved their worth. A highly successful programme, which addresses rising concerns about the effect of disease on the sustainability of shrimp farming in India, is now in its seventh year. In this paper, the authors present a brief insight into the details of the programme, its outcomes and impact, the lessons learned and the way forward.

  20. Developing and promoting OKP production system: a JIT production planning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samavati, Mehran

    2011-10-01

    The role of production in competitive system of market on one hand and the changing conditions of market on the other hand has caused the need for more developed planning in such environments. The general purpose of the present research is to realize One-of- a- Kind- Product model (OKP) that is developed in two stages. In OKP model presented in 1994 only one sample of each product is produced and only one production method is considered for each product. In order to make OKP model more real and to use it in promoting more production methods, the following developments were made in this research: 1-First Development: Considering various methods for producing each product. 2-Second Development: Producing more than one sample of each product, while considering various production methods for each product. These models promoted OKP model of 1994. They can be used in more diversified production methods in order to promote them. In present model, while describing the main OKP model new models are provided as well. The significance of OKP has been described in Introduction