WorldWideScience

Sample records for biosciences laboratory biosecurity

  1. A survey of Asian life scientists :the state of biosciences, laboratory biosecurity, and biosafety in Asia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie

    2006-02-01

    Over 300 Asian life scientists were surveyed to provide insight into work with infectious agents. This report provides the reader with a more complete understanding of the current practices employed to study infectious agents by laboratories located in Asian countries--segmented by level of biotechnology sophistication. The respondents have a variety of research objectives and study over 60 different pathogens and toxins. Many of the respondents indicated that their work was hampered by lack of adequate resources and the difficulty of accessing critical resources. The survey results also demonstrate that there appears to be better awareness of laboratory biosafety issues compared to laboratory biosecurity. Perhaps not surprisingly, many of these researchers work with pathogens and toxins under less stringent laboratory biosafety and biosecurity conditions than would be typical for laboratories in the West.

  2. Laboratory biorisk management biosafety and biosecurity

    CERN Document Server

    Salerno, Reynolds M

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades bioscience facilities worldwide have experienced multiple safety and security incidents, including many notable incidents at so-called ""sophisticated facilities"" in North America and Western Europe. This demonstrates that a system based solely on biosafety levels and security regulations may not be sufficient.Setting the stage for a substantively different approach for managing the risks of working with biological agents in laboratories, Laboratory Biorisk Management: Biosafety and Biosecurity introduces the concept of biorisk management-a new paradigm that encompas

  3. Biosafety and biosecurity in veterinary laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Melissa R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brass, Van Hildren [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Here, with recent outbreaks of MERS-Cov, Anthrax, Nipah, and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, much emphasis has been placed on rapid identification of infectious agents globally. As a result, laboratories are building capacity, conducting more advanced and sophisticated research, increasing laboratory staff, and establishing collections of dangerous pathogens in an attempt to reduce the impact of infectious disease outbreaks and characterize disease causing agents. With this expansion, the global laboratory community has started to focus on laboratory biosafety and biosecurity to prevent the accidental and/or intent ional release o f these agents. Laboratory biosafety and biosecurity systems are used around the world to help mit igate the risks posed by dangerous pathogens in the laboratory. Veterinary laboratories carry unique responsibilities to workers and communities to safely and securely handle disease causing microorganisms. Many microorganisms studied in veterinary laboratories not only infect animals, but also have the potential to infect humans. This paper will discuss the fundamentals of laboratory biosafety and biosecurity.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Bioscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    biological agents. We integrate our renowned engineering, nanotechnology, and computational capabilities to Foundations Bioscience Computing & Information Science Electromagnetics Engineering Science Geoscience Opportunities Microsensors Bioscience Leadership Computing and Information Science Engineering Science

  5. Biosecurity management recommendations for rinderpest laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Benjamin H [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arndt, William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Rinderpest is a virus that can affect cattle and other even toes ungulates; evidence of outbreaks from over 10,000 years ago highlights the potential impact of this virus. During the 18th century, Rinderpest caused huge losses in cattle throughout Europe. Starting in the mid 1900’s vaccination efforts seemed feasible and work was initiated to vaccinate large populations of cattle. Walter Plowright received numerous awards for updating the Rinderpest vaccine which many believed would be the key to eradication. Vaccination of the disease lead to a massive drop in outbreaks and the last confirmed case of Rinderpest in Asia was in 2000 and in Africa in 2001.1 At this point, Rinderpest has been declared eradicated from nature. However, stocks of the virus are still in many laboratories.2 Rinderpest was investigated as a biological weapon agent during the Second World War. However, following WWII, rinderpest was not considered a high risk as a biological weapon as there was no direct military advantage. Now, with the concern of the use of biological agents as weapons in acts of terrorism, concern regarding rinderpest has resurfaced. Since the eradication of this virus, cattle populations are highly susceptibility to the virus and the economic impacts would be significant. This paper will discuss the specific nature of the terrorism risks associated with rinderpest; and based upon those risks provide recommendations regarding biosecurity management. The biosecurity management measures will be defined in a manner to align with the CWA 15793: the laboratory biorisk management document.

  6. Laboratory Biosafety and Biosecurity Risk Assessment Technical Guidance Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M; Caskey, Susan Adele

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this document is threefold: 1) to describe the laboratory bio safety and biosecurity risk assessment process and its conceptual framework; 2) provide detailed guidance and suggested methodologies on how to conduct a risk assessment; and 3) present some practical risk assessment process strategies using realistic laboratory scenarios.

  7. Multimedia Interactive eBooks in Laboratory Bioscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Neil P.; Lambe, James

    2017-01-01

    Bioscience students in the UK higher education system are making increasing use of technology to support their learning within taught classes and during private study. This experimental study was designed to assess the role for multimedia interactive eBooks in bioscience laboratory classes, delivered using a blended learning approach. Thirty-nine…

  8. [Biosafety and biosecurity in the medical laboratory. Update and trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, G; Neguţ, M; Combiescu, A A

    2007-01-01

    Biosafety includes the protective measures against the risks of contamination with pathogen germs in the laboratories that handle pathogens, or stock or manipulate potentially contaminated products, or perform microbiological tests for medical or scientific research purposes, as well as the means of protecting the environment and the human collectivities against hazard contaminations that have as starting point these laboratories. Besides, lately, a new notion emerged, that of biosecurity, which refers to the sum of measures designed to protect workers, environment and population against the loss, theft, use and release in the environment of pathogenic biological agents. The work overviews the present concerns for the regulation of these two notions and the way in which a system for the management of the biological risks in a laboratory that handles pathogens should be documented and implemented. The need for the continuous professional training of the staff and for the establishment of individual and collective responsibilities for preventing biosafety incidents and trespassing biosecurity rules are as well emphasized. The main biosafety measures are pointed out and a series of considerations regarding biosafety and bioterrorism in correlation with the medical laboratory are as well mentioned.

  9. A tool for assessment of animal health laboratory safety and biosecurity: The safety module of the Food and Agriculture Organization’s laboratory mapping tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mouillé, B; Dauphin, G; Wiersma, L; Blacksell, SD; Claes, F; Kalpravidh, W; Kabore, Y; Hietala, S

    2018-01-01

    The Laboratory Management Tool (LMT) is a standardized spreadsheet-based assessment tool developed to help support national, regional, and global efforts to maintain an effective network of animal health and veterinary public health laboratories. The safety and biosecurity module of the LMT (LMT-S) includes 98 measures covering administrative, operational, engineering, and personal protective equipment practices used to provide laboratory safety and biosecurity. Performance aspects of laborat...

  10. Biosafety and Biosecurity in European Containment Level 3 Laboratories: Focus on French Recent Progress and Essential Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pastorino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Even if European Union (EU Member States are obliged to implement EU Directives 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work, national biosafety regulations and practices varied from country to country. In fact, EU legislation on biological agents and genetically modified microorganisms is often not specific enough to ensure harmonization leading to difficulties in implementation for most laboratories. In the same way, biosecurity is a relatively new concept and a few EU Member States are known to have introduced national laboratory biosecurity legislation. In France, recent regulations have reinforced biosafety/biosecurity in containment level 3 (CL-3 laboratories but they concern a specific list of pathogens with no correlation in other European Members States. The objective of this review was to summarize European biosafety/biosecurity measures concerning CL-3 facilities focusing on French specificities. Essential requirements needed to preserve efficient biosafety measures when manipulating risk group 3 biological agents are highlighted. In addition, International, European and French standards related to containment laboratory planning, operation or biosafety equipment are described to clarify optimal biosafety and biosecurity requirements.

  11. Biosafety and Biosecurity in European Containment Level 3 Laboratories: Focus on French Recent Progress and Essential Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Boris; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi

    2017-01-01

    Even if European Union (EU) Member States are obliged to implement EU Directives 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work , national biosafety regulations and practices varied from country to country. In fact, EU legislation on biological agents and genetically modified microorganisms is often not specific enough to ensure harmonization leading to difficulties in implementation for most laboratories. In the same way, biosecurity is a relatively new concept and a few EU Member States are known to have introduced national laboratory biosecurity legislation. In France, recent regulations have reinforced biosafety/biosecurity in containment level 3 (CL-3) laboratories but they concern a specific list of pathogens with no correlation in other European Members States. The objective of this review was to summarize European biosafety/biosecurity measures concerning CL-3 facilities focusing on French specificities. Essential requirements needed to preserve efficient biosafety measures when manipulating risk group 3 biological agents are highlighted. In addition, International, European and French standards related to containment laboratory planning, operation or biosafety equipment are described to clarify optimal biosafety and biosecurity requirements.

  12. A Tool for Assessment of Animal Health Laboratory Safety and Biosecurity: The Safety Module of the Food and Agriculture Organization’s Laboratory Mapping Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Mouillé

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratory Management Tool (LMT is a standardized spreadsheet-based assessment tool developed to help support national, regional, and global efforts to maintain an effective network of animal health and veterinary public health laboratories. The safety and biosecurity module of the LMT (LMT-S includes 98 measures covering administrative, operational, engineering, and personal protective equipment practices used to provide laboratory safety and biosecurity. Performance aspects of laboratory infrastructure and technical compliance considered fundamental for ensuring that a laboratory is able to appropriately function in a safe and biosecure manner are systematically queried and scored for compliance on a four-point scale providing for a semi-quantitative assessment. Data collected is used to generate graphs and tables mapping levels of compliance with international standards and good practices, as well as for documenting progress over time. The LMT-S was employed by trained auditors in 34 laboratories located in 19 countries between 2015 and 2017. The tool is intended to help standardize animal health laboratory assessments, document compliance with recognized laboratory safety and biosecurity measures, serve as a self-help and training tool, and assist global laboratory development efforts by providing an accurate measurement of laboratory safety and biosecurity at local, national, and regional levels.

  13. Biosafety and Biosecurity in European Containment Level 3 Laboratories: Focus on French Recent Progress and Essential Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Pastorino; Boris Pastorino; Xavier de Lamballerie; Xavier de Lamballerie; Rémi Charrel; Rémi Charrel

    2017-01-01

    Even if European Union (EU) Member States are obliged to implement EU Directives 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work, national biosafety regulations and practices varied from country to country. In fact, EU legislation on biological agents and genetically modified microorganisms is often not specific enough to ensure harmonization leading to difficulties in implementation for most laboratories. In the same way, biosecurity is a r...

  14. New International Initiatives on Enhancement of Biosafety and Biosecurity Regulations for Laboratories Handling Infectious Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netesov, S. V.; Drozdov, I. G.

    2007-01-01

    Before we entered the era of antibiotics, development of antiseptics rules and reliable water purification systems the infectious pathogens had played a major role in morbidity and mortality of global human population. The advances in revealing the nature of dangerous infections and studying their causative agents during the recent years have led not only to big progress in their control but also to the study of their potential as weapons. During the last fifty years, several attempts have been made to use them for criminal or terrorist purposes that demonstrated that even primitively organized terrorist attacks may lead to quite significant consequences. The October 2001 events showed that bioterrorism attacks may be prepared, probably, as a result of theft of the pathogen from a lab. All this led to the revision and radical improvement of current national rules and international recommendations in the field of handling, storage and transportation of infectious agents. As a result, during the past two years these rules have been significantly revised by both the World Health Organization and some countries. However, their harmonization of is still far from what is desired. Therefore, biosafety professionals in some countries, including those of the European Union, are establishing professional biosafety associations. In addition, new initiatives are being proposed to develop internationally harmonized biosecurity rules to govern dangerous pathogens handling and storage. The most important of them are as follows: 1. Development, under the auspices of WHO, of new recommendations concerning a set of requirements to provide physical security of both biological agents and laboratories involved in research on extremely hazardous infections; 2. Enhacement, under the auspices of WHO, of current international recommendations on inventory procedures and regulations, inventory monitoring, and transportation of specimens and strains of extremely hazardous infections; 3

  15. Biosafety and Biosecurity: A Relative Risk-Based Framework for Safer, More Secure, and Sustainable Laboratory Capacity Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Sheeley, Heather; Lightfoot, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory capacity building is characterized by a paradox between endemicity and resources: countries with high endemicity of pathogenic agents often have low and intermittent resources (water, electricity) and capacities (laboratories, trained staff, adequate regulations). Meanwhile, countries with low endemicity of pathogenic agents often have high-containment facilities with costly infrastructure and maintenance governed by regulations. The common practice of exporting high biocontainment facilities and standards is not sustainable and concerns about biosafety and biosecurity require careful consideration. A group at Chatham House developed a draft conceptual framework for safer, more secure, and sustainable laboratory capacity building. The draft generic framework is guided by the phrase "LOCAL - PEOPLE - MAKE SENSE" that represents three major principles: capacity building according to local needs (local) with an emphasis on relationship and trust building (people) and continuous outcome and impact measurement (make sense). This draft generic framework can serve as a blueprint for international policy decision-making on improving biosafety and biosecurity in laboratory capacity building, but requires more testing and detailing development.

  16. Biosafety and Biosecurity: A relative risk-based framework for safer, more secure and sustainable laboratory capacity building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eDickmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory capacity building is characterized by a paradox between endemicity and resources: Countries with high endemicity of pathogenic agents often have low and intermittent resources (water, electricity and capacities (laboratories, trained staff, adequate regulations. Meanwhile, countries with low endemicity of pathogenic agents often have high containment facilities with costly infrastructure and maintenance governed by regulations. The common practice of exporting high biocontainment facilities and standards is not sustainable and concerns about biosafety and biosecurity require careful consideration. Methods: A group at Chatham House developed a draft conceptual framework for safer, more secure and sustainable laboratory capacity building. Results: The draft generic framework is guided by the phrase ‘LOCAL – PEOPLE – MAKE SENSE’ that represents three major principles: capacity building according to local needs (local with an emphasis on relationship and trust-building (people and continuous outcome and impact measurement (make sense. Conclusions: This draft generic framework can serve as a blueprint for international policy decision-making on improving biosafety and biosecurity in laboratory capacity building, but requires more testing and detailing development.

  17. Biosecurity in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, Kristian H; Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke; Hansen, John-Erik Stig; Heegaard, Erik D

    2007-03-01

    This article investigates the extent to which biosecurity measures are recognized and have been implemented in the Nordic countries, in the absence of formalized security standards and legislation. Two trials were undertaken: first, a broad combined biosafety and biosecurity questionnaire survey of the Nordic countries, and, second, a focused on-site audit of 22 facilities, with 94 laboratories, in Denmark. Both trials indicated that external security had been partially implemented but that little attention had been paid to internal security and the establishment of biosecurity. It was demonstrated that the backgrounds and identities of insiders were rarely checked and that they could have gained access to both pathogen inventory lists and freezers in many facilities. In 81% of pathogen-containing facilities, pathogens were not routinely and centrally accounted for. The authors recommend the establishment of a legal framework congruent with international standards and obligations; novel governmental national biosecurity authorities, requiring a fusion of both microbiological and technical expertise and legislative powers; and the formulation of a new code of conduct termed "Good Biosecurity Practice."

  18. A Biosecurity Survey in Kenya, November 2014 to February 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhine, Edwardina Otieno; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Osoro, Eric Mogaka; Olsen, Katja N; Rugutt, Moses; Wanjohi, Cathryn W; Mwanda, Walter; Kinyagia, Benson Mburu; Steenhard, Nina R; Hansen, John-Erik Stig

    2016-01-01

    A biosecurity survey was performed to gather information on the biosecurity level and laboratory capacity in Kenya for the purpose of providing information outlining relevant components for biosecurity legislation, biosecurity implementation, and enforcement of biosecurity measures in Kenya. This survey is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be published from an African country. A total of 86 facilities with laboratories covering relevant categories, such as training laboratories, human diagnostic laboratories, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and research laboratories, were selected to participate in the survey. Each facility was visited by a survey team and staff were asked to answer 29 groups of questions from a questionnaire. The survey showed that Kenyan laboratory facilities contain biological agents of biosecurity concern. The restrictions for these agents were found to be limited for several of the facilities, in that many laboratory facilities and storage units were open for access by either students or staff who had no need of access to the laboratory. The survey showed a great deal of confusion in the terms biosecurity and biosafety and a generally limited biosecurity awareness among laboratory personnel. The survey showed that the security of biological agents of biosecurity concern in many facilities does not meet the international requirements. The authors recommend developing a legal framework in Kenya for effective controls, including national biosecurity regulations, guidelines, and procedures, thereby reducing the risk that a Kenyan laboratory would be the source of a future biological attack.

  19. Gateway to the Future. Skill Standards for the Bioscience Industry for Technical Workers in Pharmaceutical Companies, Biotechnology Companies, and Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    The Bioscience Industry Skills Standards Project (BISSP) is developing national, voluntary skill standards for technical jobs in biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and clinical laboratories in hospitals, universities, government, and independent settings. Research with employees and educators has pinpointed three issues underscoring the…

  20. Biosafety and Biosecurity: A Relative Risk-Based Framework for Safer, More Secure, and Sustainable Laboratory Capacity Building

    OpenAIRE

    Dickmann, Petra; Sheeley, Heather; Lightfoot, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Background Laboratory capacity building is characterized by a paradox between endemicity and resources: countries with high endemicity of pathogenic agents often have low and intermittent resources (water, electricity) and capacities (laboratories, trained staff, adequate regulations). Meanwhile, countries with low endemicity of pathogenic agents often have high-containment facilities with costly infrastructure and maintenance governed by regulations. The common practice of exporting high ...

  1. Biosafety and Biosecurity: A relative risk-based framework for safer, more secure and sustainable laboratory capacity building

    OpenAIRE

    Petra eDickmann; Heather eSheeley; Nigel Francis Lightfoot; Nigel Francis Lightfoot

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laboratory capacity building is characterized by a paradox between endemicity and resources: Countries with high endemicity of pathogenic agents often have low and intermittent resources (water, electricity) and capacities (laboratories, trained staff, adequate regulations). Meanwhile, countries with low endemicity of pathogenic agents often have high containment facilities with costly infrastructure and maintenance governed by regulations. The common practice of exporting high bi...

  2. Writing Activities Embedded in Bioscience Laboratory Courses to Change Students' Attitudes and Enhance Their Scientific Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Susan E.; Woods, Kyra J.; Tonissen, Kathryn F.

    2011-01-01

    We introduced writing activities into a project style third year undergraduate biomolecular science laboratory to assist the students to produce a final report in the form of a journal article. To encourage writing while the experimental work was proceeding, the embedded writing activities required ongoing analysis of experimental data. After…

  3. MENGAPA BIOSECURITY MENJADI PENTING PADA LABORATORIUM PENYAKIT INFEKSI ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans X Suharyanto Halim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract . Laboratory biosecurity is the protection, control and accountability for valuable biological material ( VBM laboratories, in order to prevent their unauthorized access, loss, theft, misuse, diversion or intentional release. The efforts of biosecurity have capability to anticipate the potential probability of releasing biohazard agent from the laboratory, the risk assessment study in the infectious disease laboratories was an effort to know whether biosecurity measures were applied in the laboratory. The usage of modified checklist questionnaire of biosecurity for collecting data and observation was done to identify potential hazard in the infectious disease laboratories according to the conceptional framework of agent, host and environmental principal. The places of this assessment are in the five regional referral infectious disease laboratories , i.e., Universitas Islam Sumatera Utara (UISU Medan, Universitas Indonesia (UI - Jakarta, Balai Pengembangan Laboratorium Kesehatan (BPLK - Bandung, Universitas Diponegoro (UNDIP - Semarang , Universitas Hasanudin (UNHAS - Makassar, one referral hospital , i.e., Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah (RSUD - Tangerang and one national referral laboratory of Center for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research and Development, National Institute of Health Research and Development ( NIHRD, Ministry of Health (MOH, Jakarta. The risk assessment study was done in year 2008-2009. Physical security, personnel management and information security as components of biosecurity were not applied properly in the 7 infectious disease laboratories. Applying biosecurity in the infectious disease laboratories was very important and need to be done completely to anticipate their unauthorized access, loss, theft, misuse, diversion or intentional release.Keywords : biosecurity,   bioterrorism , infectious disease laboratory, and valuable biological materials (VBM

  4. Biosecurity through Public Health System Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finley, Patrick D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arndt, William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walser, Alex Christian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We applied modeling and simulation to examine the real-world tradeoffs between developingcountry public-health improvement and the need to improve the identification, tracking, and security of agents with bio-weapons potential. Traditionally, the international community has applied facility-focused strategies for improving biosecurity and biosafety. This work examines how system-level assessments and improvements can foster biosecurity and biosafety. We modeled medical laboratory resources and capabilities to identify scenarios where biosurveillance goals are transparently aligned with public health needs, and resource are distributed in a way that maximizes their ability to serve patients while minimizing security a nd safety risks. Our modeling platform simulates key processes involved in healthcare system operation, such as sample collection, transport, and analysis at medical laboratories. The research reported here extends the prior art by provided two key compone nts for comparative performance assessment: a model of patient interaction dynamics, and the capability to perform uncertainty quantification. In addition, we have outlined a process for incorporating quantitative biosecurity and biosafety risk measures. Two test problems were used to exercise these research products examine (a) Systemic effects of technological innovation and (b) Right -sizing of laboratory networks.

  5. Why Biosecurity Matters: Students' Knowledge of Biosecurity and Implications for Future Engagement with Biosecurity Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Rajesh; France, Bev; Birdsall, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on biosecurity is important as New Zealand's agricultural export-driven economy is susceptible to biosecurity threats. Because New Zealand is reliant on the primary industries to drive its economy, bovine diseases such as foot and mouth could have a devastating effect on the economy. Purpose: Making sure that the general…

  6. Implementation of a personnel reliability program as a facilitator of biosafety and biosecurity culture in BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jacki J; Weaver, Patrick; Fitch, J Patrick; Johnson, Barbara; Pearl, R Marene

    2013-06-01

    In late 2010, the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) implemented a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) with the goal of enabling active participation by its staff to drive and improve the biosafety and biosecurity culture at the organization. A philosophical keystone for accomplishment of NBACC's scientific mission is simultaneous excellence in operations and outreach. Its personnel reliability program builds on this approach to: (1) enable and support a culture of responsibility based on human performance principles, (2) maintain compliance with regulations, and (3) address the risk associated with the insider threat. Recently, the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) governing use and possession of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) was amended to require a pre-access suitability assessment and ongoing evaluation for staff accessing Tier 1 BSAT. These 2 new requirements are in addition to the already required Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Security Risk Assessment (SRA). Two years prior to the release of these guidelines, NBACC developed its PRP to supplement the SRA requirement as a means to empower personnel and foster an operational environment where any and all work with BSAT is conducted in a safe, secure, and reliable manner.

  7. Marburg biosafety and biosecurity scale (MBBS): a framework for risk assessment and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Apfel, Franklin; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Current risk assessment and risk communication of biosafety and biosecurity concerns lack a convenient metric and conceptual framework. The absence of such a systematic tool makes communication more difficult and can lead to ambiguous public perception of and response to laboratory biosafety incidents and biosecurity threats. A new 7-category scoring scale is proposed for incidents and situations in laboratories related to the handling of human and animal pathogens. The scale aims to help clarify risk categories, facilitate coordination and communication, and improve public understanding of risk related to biosafety and biosecurity.

  8. Adaptive approaches to biosecurity governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David C; Liu, Shuang; Murphy, Brendan; Lonsdale, W Mark

    2010-09-01

    This article discusses institutional changes that may facilitate an adaptive approach to biosecurity risk management where governance is viewed as a multidisciplinary, interactive experiment acknowledging uncertainty. Using the principles of adaptive governance, evolved from institutional theory, we explore how the concepts of lateral information flows, incentive alignment, and policy experimentation might shape Australia's invasive species defense mechanisms. We suggest design principles for biosecurity policies emphasizing overlapping complementary response capabilities and the sharing of invasive species risks via a polycentric system of governance. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis

  9. Biosafety and biosecurity measures: management of biosafety level 3 facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Adel N

    2010-11-01

    With the increasing biological threat from emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism, it has become essential for governments around the globe to increase awareness and preparedness for identifying and containing those agents. This article introduces the basic concepts of laboratory management, laboratory biosafety and laboratory biosecurity. Assessment criteria for laboratories' biorisk should include both biosafety and biosecurity measures. The assessment requires setting specific goals and selecting management approaches. In order to implement technologies at the laboratory working level, a management team should be created whose role is to implement biorisk policies, rules and regulations appropriate for that facility. Rules and regulations required by government authorities are presented, with special emphasis on methods for air control, and liquid and solid waste management. Management and biorisk measures and appropriate physical facilities must keep pace, ensuring efficient facilities that protect workers, the environment, the product (research, diagnostic and/or vaccine) and the biological pathogen. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The changing world of biocontainment and biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeggo, M

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980s, a number of key events have significantly altered our ideas on biosecurity and the role of biocontainment laboratories, such as the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreaks and the anthrax episode of 2001 in the USA. This has resulted in the development of plans to build "high containment" facilities around the world and an array of new regulations at both national and international levels regarding the management of pathogens, the operation of high containment facilities, the use of genetically modified material, and the transportation of such agents and personnel security issues. Considering the cost, however, it is debatable whether every country needs to build its own high containment facility. The Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL) provides an example of what might be considered best practice in biocontainment while considering regulations, cost and need.

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 1 ... Department of Safety and Environmental Management, College of Engineering and Mineral Resources, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA; Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and ...

  12. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 2. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 31, Issue 2. June 2006, pages 177-292. pp 177-179. Clipboard: Simple laboratory tests of ecological theories: what we can learn from them, and when we should be cautious · Mike S Fowler Lasse Ruokolainen · More Details ...

  13. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the "myths".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Catherine; Lentzos, Filippa; Marris, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology, a field that aims to "make biology easier to engineer," is routinely described as leading to an increase in the "dual-use" threat, i.e., the potential for the same scientific research to be "used" for peaceful purposes or "misused" for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the "de-skilling" of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of do-it-yourself (DIY) biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend toward greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify five "myths" that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these "myths" play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a "promissory" field of research and as an "emerging technology" in need of governance.

  14. LabTrove: A Lightweight, Web Based, Laboratory “Blog” as a Route towards a Marked Up Record of Work in a Bioscience Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsted, Andrew J.; Hale, Jennifer R.; Frey, Jeremy G.; Neylon, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Background The electronic laboratory notebook (ELN) has the potential to replace the paper notebook with a marked-up digital record that can be searched and shared. However, it is a challenge to achieve these benefits without losing the usability and flexibility of traditional paper notebooks. We investigate a blog-based platform that addresses the issues associated with the development of a flexible system for recording scientific research. Methodology/Principal Findings We chose a blog-based approach with the journal characteristics of traditional notebooks in mind, recognizing the potential for linking together procedures, materials, samples, observations, data, and analysis reports. We implemented the LabTrove blog system as a server process written in PHP, using a MySQL database to persist posts and other research objects. We incorporated a metadata framework that is both extensible and flexible while promoting consistency and structure where appropriate. Our experience thus far is that LabTrove is capable of providing a successful electronic laboratory recording system. Conclusions/Significance LabTrove implements a one-item one-post system, which enables us to uniquely identify each element of the research record, such as data, samples, and protocols. This unique association between a post and a research element affords advantages for monitoring the use of materials and samples and for inspecting research processes. The combination of the one-item one-post system, consistent metadata, and full-text search provides us with a much more effective record than a paper notebook. The LabTrove approach provides a route towards reconciling the tensions and challenges that lie ahead in working towards the long-term goals for ELNs. LabTrove, an electronic laboratory notebook (ELN) system from the Smart Research Framework, based on a blog-type framework with full access control, facilitates the scientific experimental recording requirements for reproducibility, reuse

  15. LabTrove: a lightweight, web based, laboratory "blog" as a route towards a marked up record of work in a bioscience research laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsted, Andrew J; Hale, Jennifer R; Frey, Jeremy G; Neylon, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    The electronic laboratory notebook (ELN) has the potential to replace the paper notebook with a marked-up digital record that can be searched and shared. However, it is a challenge to achieve these benefits without losing the usability and flexibility of traditional paper notebooks. We investigate a blog-based platform that addresses the issues associated with the development of a flexible system for recording scientific research. We chose a blog-based approach with the journal characteristics of traditional notebooks in mind, recognizing the potential for linking together procedures, materials, samples, observations, data, and analysis reports. We implemented the LabTrove blog system as a server process written in PHP, using a MySQL database to persist posts and other research objects. We incorporated a metadata framework that is both extensible and flexible while promoting consistency and structure where appropriate. Our experience thus far is that LabTrove is capable of providing a successful electronic laboratory recording system. LabTrove implements a one-item one-post system, which enables us to uniquely identify each element of the research record, such as data, samples, and protocols. This unique association between a post and a research element affords advantages for monitoring the use of materials and samples and for inspecting research processes. The combination of the one-item one-post system, consistent metadata, and full-text search provides us with a much more effective record than a paper notebook. The LabTrove approach provides a route towards reconciling the tensions and challenges that lie ahead in working towards the long-term goals for ELNs. LabTrove, an electronic laboratory notebook (ELN) system from the Smart Research Framework, based on a blog-type framework with full access control, facilitates the scientific experimental recording requirements for reproducibility, reuse, repurposing, and redeployment.

  16. LabTrove: a lightweight, web based, laboratory "blog" as a route towards a marked up record of work in a bioscience research laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Milsted

    Full Text Available The electronic laboratory notebook (ELN has the potential to replace the paper notebook with a marked-up digital record that can be searched and shared. However, it is a challenge to achieve these benefits without losing the usability and flexibility of traditional paper notebooks. We investigate a blog-based platform that addresses the issues associated with the development of a flexible system for recording scientific research.We chose a blog-based approach with the journal characteristics of traditional notebooks in mind, recognizing the potential for linking together procedures, materials, samples, observations, data, and analysis reports. We implemented the LabTrove blog system as a server process written in PHP, using a MySQL database to persist posts and other research objects. We incorporated a metadata framework that is both extensible and flexible while promoting consistency and structure where appropriate. Our experience thus far is that LabTrove is capable of providing a successful electronic laboratory recording system.LabTrove implements a one-item one-post system, which enables us to uniquely identify each element of the research record, such as data, samples, and protocols. This unique association between a post and a research element affords advantages for monitoring the use of materials and samples and for inspecting research processes. The combination of the one-item one-post system, consistent metadata, and full-text search provides us with a much more effective record than a paper notebook. The LabTrove approach provides a route towards reconciling the tensions and challenges that lie ahead in working towards the long-term goals for ELNs. LabTrove, an electronic laboratory notebook (ELN system from the Smart Research Framework, based on a blog-type framework with full access control, facilitates the scientific experimental recording requirements for reproducibility, reuse, repurposing, and redeployment.

  17. Biosecurity in 121 Danish sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Houe, H.

    2003-01-01

    Herds are under constant risk of introducing new pathogens from different sources. In this article we describe biosecurity practices in Danish sow herds. Between December 1, 1999 and February 29, 2000, 121 sow units were interviewed regarding biosecurity on the site. The questionnaire contained 6...

  18. Biosecurity and globalising economic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mather

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter is concerned with the global regulation of animal health. Our case is a recent outbreak of avian influenza in South Africa’s ostrich industry. The analysis confirms an important theme in the emerging social sciences literature on biosecurity, i.e. the paradox of control methods that are rigid and inflexible, and diseases that are indeterminate. We also examine a second approach to the outbreak that relied on local experience and knowledge. Our chapter explores the complex ways in which globalizing economic spaces are integrated into new global regulatory regimes, with important implications for economic, social and geographical processes.

  19. Biosecurity for animal facilities and associated laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jonathan Y; Nesby-O'Dell, Shanna

    2003-01-01

    Although working with human pathogens and zoonotic agents has always carried a certain degree of danger, current events have resulted in an increased focus on the subject, including new regulations. The authors discuss a number of risk assessment and management activities that animal research facilities should use to evaluate strengthen their current programs.

  20. Biosecurity Plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    This Biosecurity Plan for Palmyra Atoll was developed for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. The Biosecurity Plan is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The Biosecurity Plan focuses on ecosystem security, and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to non-native and potentially invasive species. The Plan attempts to identify pathways of invasion and strategies for preventing or reducing new introductions. Overall, the Biosecurity Plan provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to non-native species on Palmyra Atoll. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. At present, Palmyra Atoll harbors various non-native or invasive species in the terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The most notable examples of terrestrial invasive species include coconut trees (Cocos nucifera) and black rats (Rattus rattus). Although it is unclear whether they are non-native, coconut trees are currently the most dominant plant across Palmyra Atoll. They compete with native plant species for space and resources, and are potentially detrimental to seabirds dependent on native vegetation. Black rats are known to predate ground-nesting seabirds and are likely responsible for the lack of burrowing seabird reproduction on Palmyra Atoll. The most notable example of a marine invasive species is the corallimorph (Rhodactis howsei). Although Rhodactis howsei is a native species, it can take advantage of human-altered habitat and significantly change the natural habitat by aggressively outcompeting native corals. Although the

  1. Journal of Biosciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    The Journal of Biosciences welcomes contributions containing the results of original research in any area of biology. Both brief communications (within 4 typed pages or 1500 words of text) and full-length articles are accepted. There are no page charges for printing colour photographs. Fifty reprints will be supplied free of ...

  2. Journal of Applied Biosciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Applied Biosciences provides a forum for scholars and practitioners in all spheres of biological sciences to publish their research findings or theoretical concepts and ideas of a scientific nature. Other websites related to this journal: http://m.elewa.org/Journals/about-jab/ ...

  3. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Biosecurity measures in 48 isolation facilities managing highly infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puro, Vincenzo; Fusco, Francesco M; Schilling, Stefan; Thomson, Gail; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Brouqui, Philippe; Maltezou, Helena C; Bannister, Barbara; Gottschalk, René; Brodt, Hans-Rheinhard; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Biosecurity measures are traditionally applied to laboratories, but they may also be usefully applied in highly specialized clinical settings, such as the isolation facilities for the management of patients with highly infectious diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fevers, SARS, smallpox, potentially severe pandemic flu, and MDR- and XDR-tuberculosis). In 2009 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a survey in 48 isolation facilities in 16 European countries to determine biosecurity measures for access control to the facility. Security personnel are present in 39 facilities (81%). In 35 facilities (73%), entrance to the isolation area is restricted; control methods include electronic keys, a PIN system, closed-circuit TV, and guards at the doors. In 25 facilities (52%), identification and registration of all staff entering and exiting the isolation area are required. Access control is used in most surveyed centers, but specific lacks exist in some facilities. Further data are needed to assess other biosecurity aspects, such as the security measures during the transportation of potentially contaminated materials and measures to address the risk of an "insider attack."

  5. Bioscience, bioinnovations, and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisola, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Biosciences and their applications, which we call biotechnology, have affected human society in many ways. Great hopes have been set on future biotechnology. The future depends on three key issues. First, we need good science. Recent developments in biosciences have surprised us in many ways. I shall explain in this article how. Secondly, we need structured innovation systems in order to commercialize our discoveries. Europe is slow in this respect compared to our Japanese and American competitors and may lose in the competition. I shall describe the Finnish innovation chain using the rewarded Otaniemi model as an example of how commercialization can be done in a systematic way. Thirdly, we need norms to guide what to do and where to go. Bioethics is probably the most neglected of the three key issues. With modern biotechnology we are able to do things that should worry every citizen, but the ethical discussion has been largely neglected or the discussion in our pluralistic society is leading nowhere. I shall finally discuss these problems from a historical perspective.

  6. State-of-the-art in biosafety and biosecurity in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Anna; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar

    2014-06-01

    The terms biosafety and biosecurity are widely used in different concepts and refer not only to protection of human beings and their surrounding environment against hazardous biological agent, but also to global disarmament of weapons of mass destruction. As a result, the biosafety and biosecurity issues should be considered interdisciplinary based on multilateral agreements against proliferation of biological weapons, public health and environmental protection. This publication presents information on both, international and national biosafety and biosecurity legislation. Status of national implementation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, penalization issues and measures to account for and secure production, use, storage of particularly dangerous pathogens or activities involving humans, plants and animals where infection may pose a risk have been analyzed. Safety and security measures in laboratories have been studied. Moreover, dual-use technology and measures of secure transport of biohazard materials have been also taken into account. In addition, genetic engineering regulations, biosecurity activities in laboratories and code of conducts have been investigated, as well.

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. DALE JAMIESON. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 3-8 Commentary. Liberating primatology · SINDHU RADHAKRISHNA DALE JAMIESON · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF ...

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Vidita A Vaidya. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 25 Issue 2 June 2000 pp 123-124. Clipboard: Stress, depression and hippocampal damage · Vidita A Vaidya · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Cover page gallery. Cover page gallery. Journal of Biosciences. Cover page. Journal of Biosciences. Current Issue : Vol. 43, Issue 1. Current Issue Volume 43 | Issue 1. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Gallery of Cover Art · Search ...

  10. Biosecurity and mastitis in intensive dairy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boboš Stanko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly purchased animals that enter a herd with high milk production can be infected with pathogens of the mammary gland and are a potential risk of infection to the cows on the farm. This risk cannot be avoided entirely, but it can be minimized by taking biosecurity measures that should be written as a policy developed for biosecurity oversight of veterinary service: when older cows are purchased, they should be bought with complete lactations and SCC records, and bacterial examination of milk from the udder quarters must be negative for pathogens of the udder; newly purchased cows should come from herds in which the geometric mean somatic cell count is less than 200,000. The herd must have individual cow SCC recorded at least bimonthly for the previous 6 months; the herd must not have had any history of Strep. agalactiae infection in the last 2 years, the herd should be BVDV-free or vaccinated, and the herd owner must be honest and willing to provide all this information. Our country has accepted the standards for milk quality and hygienic properties that comply with EU standards. The proposed biosafety measures presented in this paper enable the determination of the health status of the herd and the biosecurity level of mastitis in commercial farming in intensive dairy production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31034

  11. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the ‘myths’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eJefferson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology, a field that aims to ‘make biology easier to engineer’, is routinely described as leading to an increase in the ‘dual use’ threat, i.e. the potential for the same piece of scientific research to be ‘used’ for peaceful purposes or ‘misused’ for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the ‘de-skilling’ of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of DIY biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend towards greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify 5 ‘myths’ that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these ‘myths’ play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a ‘promissory’ field of research and as an ‘emerging technology’ in need of governance.

  12. Synthetic Biology and Biosecurity: Challenging the “Myths”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Catherine; Lentzos, Filippa; Marris, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology, a field that aims to “make biology easier to engineer,” is routinely described as leading to an increase in the “dual-use” threat, i.e., the potential for the same scientific research to be “used” for peaceful purposes or “misused” for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the “de-skilling” of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of do-it-yourself (DIY) biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend toward greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify five “myths” that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these “myths” play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a “promissory” field of research and as an “emerging technology” in need of governance. PMID:25191649

  13. Environmental Biosciences Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2007-01-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene and low-dose ionizing radiation. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the DOE. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making. Questions, comments or requests for further information concerning the activities under this

  14. [Viral biosafety, biosecurity, and bioterrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, D

    2010-02-01

    Intentional release of infectious agents has always been considered as a possible weapon. Today this risk has expanded from use for wartime mass destruction to small-scale terrorist acts. Viruses, some of tropical origin, constitute a special biological hazard for several reasons: great infectious potential, adaptability to the host, difficulty for diagnosis in the hospital, and absence of specific treatment for the main agents involved. Handling of the dangerous biological agents requires special biocontainment laboratories equipped and classified according to increasing risk up to level 4. This article discusses the modalities of classification.

  15. Biosecurity and geospatial analysis of mycoplasma infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geospatial database of farm locations and biosecurity measures are essential to control disease outbreaks. A study was conducted to establish geospatial database on poultry farms in Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi region of Libya, to evaluate the biosecurity level of each farm and to determine the seroprevalence of mycoplasma and ...

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. JONAS P RAMOS. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 657-664 Article. In vitro leishmanicidal, antibacterial and antitumour potential of anhydrocochlioquinone A obtained from the fungus Cochliobolus sp. FERNANDA F CAMPOS JONAS ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Chen Fang. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 30 Issue 3 June 2005 pp 351-357 Articles. Expression of a ribosome inactivating protein (curcin 2) in Jatropha curcas is induced by stress · Wei Qin Huang Ming-Xing Xu Ying Zhang Xin-Shen Chen Fang · More Details ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Vibha Dwivedi. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 40 Issue 2 June 2015 pp 281-297 Articles. Suppression of induced but not developmental apoptosis in Drosophila by Ayurvedic Amalaki Rasayana and Rasa-Sindoor · Vibha Dwivedi Shweta Tiwary Subhash C ...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Priyakshi Mahanta. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 39 Issue 3 June 2014 pp 351-364 Articles. FUMET: A fuzzy network module extraction technique for gene expression data · Priyakshi Mahanta Hasin Afzal Ahmed Dhruba Kumar Bhattacharyya Ashish Ghosh.

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Kamalvishnu P Gottimukkala. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 36 Issue 3 August 2011 pp 461-469 Articles. N-terminal PDZ-like domain of chromatin organizer SATB1 contributes towards its function as transcription regulator · Dimple Notani Praveena L Ramanujam ...

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. XIAOQIAN DING. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 637-645 Article. MicroRNA-146 protects A549 and H1975 cells from LPS-induced apoptosis and inflammation injury · QIANG WANG DAGANG LI YUQUAN HAN XIAOQIAN DING TAO ...

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. MASOUD SOLEIMANI. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 1 March 2017 pp 23-30 Article. Overexpression of hsa-miR-939 follows by NGFR down-regulation and apoptosis reduction · FAHIMEH HOSSEINI AGHDAEI BAHRAM M SOLTANI SADAT ...

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Anil K Gupta. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 27 Issue 7 December 2002 pp 703-714 Review Article. Applications of inulin and oligofructose in health and nutrition · Narinder Kaur Anil K Gupta · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Inulin and oligofructose belong to a ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. LAXMAN S MEENA. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 149-154 Mini-Review. Triacylglycerol: nourishing molecule in endurance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis · PRATAP C MALI LAXMAN S MEENA · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. HIMANI DEY. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 2 June 2017 pp 333-344 Review. Regulation of dynamin family proteins by post-translational modifications · USHA P KAR HIMANI DEY ABDUR RAHAMAN · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Dynamin ...

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Urvashi Bahadur. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 26 Issue 1 March 2001 pp 39-46 Articles. Characterization of chicken riboflavin carrier protein gene structure and promoter regulation by estrogen · Nandini Vasudevan Urvashi Bahadur Paturu Kondaiah.

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Biosciences. Current Issue : Vol. 43, Issue 1 · Current Issue Volume 43 | Issue 1. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Gallery of Cover Art · Search · Online submission at eBiosciences · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Sebastian Fettig. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 32 Issue 3 April 2007 pp 501-510 Articles. specific and unspecific responses of plants to cold and drought stress · Erwin H Beck Sebastian Fettig Claudia Knake Katja Hartig Tribikram Bhattarai · More Details Abstract ...

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Carissa Reason. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 40 Issue 2 June 2015 pp 389-398 Articles. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland, Australia, are not the result of a single event · Skye McKenna Jessie Jarvis Tonia Sankey Carissa Reason ...

  10. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. PRASAD A DESHPANDE. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 647-656 Article. IGF1 stimulates differentiation of primary follicles and their growth in ovarian explants of zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) cultured in vitro · PANCHARATNA A KATTI ...

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Samira Mansour. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 38 Issue 4 November 2013 pp 815-823 Review. Casuarina glauca: A model tree for basic research in actinorhizal symbiosis · Chonglu Zhong Samira Mansour Mathish Nambiar-Veetil Didier Bogusz Claudine ...

  12. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Biosciences. Current Issue : Vol. 43, Issue 1. Current Issue Volume 43 | Issue 1. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Gallery of Cover Art · Search · Online submission at eBiosciences · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Rashmi Chhabra. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 28 Issue 1 February 2003 pp 7-11. Effects of exogenous vitamin E supplementation on the levels of oxidants and antioxidants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease · M K Daga Rashmi Chhabra Bhavneesh ...

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Lidia Andreu Guillo. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 1 March 2012 pp 33-39 Articles. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism in pigmentary phenotypes · Kárita Antunes Costa Lidia Andreu Guillo · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The p53 protein exerts different ...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Odir A Dellagostin. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 33 Issue 3 September 2008 pp 355-363 Articles. Purification and molecular cloning of a new galactose-specific lectin from Bauhinia variegata seeds · Luciano S Pinto Celso S Nagano Taianá M Oliveira Tales R ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Shweta Dubey. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 31 Issue 5 December 2006 pp 497-501. Clipboard: Putting T cells to sleep: a new paradigm for immune evasion by persistent viruses · Shweta Dubey Shahid Jameel · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Bhagyashri A Shanbhag. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 29 Issue 1 March 2004 pp 105-110 Articles. Factors influencing offspring traits in the oviparous multi-clutched lizard, Calotes versicolor (Agamidae) · Rajkumar S Radder Bhagyashri A Shanbhag.

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. S A Ranade. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 25 Issue 3 September 2000 pp 291-299 Review articles. Role of polyamines and ethylene as modulators of plant senescence · S Pandey S A Ranade P K Nagar Nikhil Kumar · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Devarshi U Gajjar. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 6 December 2012 pp 979-987 Articles. Cx43, ZO-1, alpha-catenin and beta-catenin in cataractous lens epithelial cells · Anshul I Arora Kaid Johar Devarshi U Gajjar Darshini A Ganatra Forum B Kayastha ...

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Subrata Basu Ray. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 26 Issue 5 December 2001 pp 555-559. Commentary: The enigma of morphine tolerance: recent insights · Subrata Basu Ray Shashi Wadhwa · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 29 Issue 1 March 2004 pp 51-56 ...

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. GEOFFREY BODENHAUSEN. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 38 Issue 2 June 2013 pp 189-199. Commentary: On toxic effects of scientific journals · Antoinette Molinié Geoffrey Bodenhausen · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The advent of online publishing ...

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. ABDUR RAHAMAN. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 2 June 2017 pp 333-344 Review. Regulation of dynamin family proteins by post-translational modifications · USHA P KAR HIMANI DEY ABDUR RAHAMAN · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Dynamin ...

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. A Sahni. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 34 Issue 5 November 2009 pp 673-686 Articles. The origin and early evolution of whales: macroevolution documented on the Indian Subcontinent · S Bajpai J G M Thewissen A Sahni · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Victor Smetacek. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 4 September 2012 pp 589-607 Perspectives. Making sense of ocean biota: How evolution and biodiversity of land organisms differ from that of the plankton · Victor Smetacek · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Surendra Ghaskadbi. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 26 Issue 2 June 2001 pp 153-155 Articles. Hydra constitutively expresses transcripts involved in vertebrate neural differentiation · Sandipan Chatterjee Shweta Lahudkar N N Godbole Surendra Ghaskadbi.

  12. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Tonina Fernandes. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 35 Issue 3 September 2010 pp 427-434 Articles. Unusual radioresistance of nitrogen-fixing cultures of Anabaena strains · Harinder Singh Tonina Fernandes Shree Kumar Apte · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. PRATAP C MALI. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 149-154 Mini-Review. Triacylglycerol: nourishing molecule in endurance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis · PRATAP C MALI LAXMAN S MEENA · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Srinivasan. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 27 Issue 1 February 2002 pp 15-25. Comparative genomics using data mining tools · Tannistha Nandi Chandrika B-Rao Srinivasan Ramachandran · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. We have analysed the genomes of ...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. C SUDHEER KUMAR. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 3 September 2017 pp 469-479 Article. Modulation of chaperone-like and membranolytic activities of major horse seminal plasma protein HSP-1/2 by L-carnitine · C SUDHEER KUMAR MUSTI J ...

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Ardashir K Masouleh. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 5 November 2012 pp 829-841 Articles. Application of large-scale sequencing to marker discovery in plants · Robert J Henry Mark Edwards Daniel L E Waters S Gopala Krishnan Peter Bundock Timothy ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. G P Talwar. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 30 Issue 4 September 2005 pp 435-447 Perspectives. A destiny to fulfill · G P Talwar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 34 Issue 6 December 2009 pp 909-916 Articles. A partner monoclonal antibody to Moab 730 kills ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Manjula Kalia. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 33 Issue 4 November 2008 pp 451-464. Molecular biology and pathogenesis of hepatitis E virus · Vivek Chandra Shikha Taneja Manjula Kalia Shahid Jameel · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The hepatitis E virus ...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. L Singh. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 36 Issue 4 September 2011 pp 739-748 Review. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities · R S Policegoudra S M Aradhya L Singh · More Details Abstract ...

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. D Raghunath. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 33 Issue 4 November 2008 pp 593-603. Emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria with special reference to India · D Raghunath · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The antibiotic era started in the 1940s and changed ...

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Pankaj Verma. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 2 June 2012 pp 221-226 Brief communication. Molecular typing of fecal eukaryotic microbiota of human infants and their respective mothers · Prashant K Pandey Jay Siddharth Pankaj Verma Ashish Bavdekar ...

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Vidya Ramachandran. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 26 Issue 4 November 2001 pp 437-464. Epidemiological profile of India: Historical and contemporary perspectives · M D Gupte Vidya Ramachandran R K Mutatkar · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. VINCENZO IERARDI. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 623-636 Article. Klebsiella pneumoniae antibiotic resistance identified by atomic force microscopy · VINCENZO IERARDI PAOLO DOMENICHINI SILVIA REALI GIAN MARCO ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Satish K Amarnath. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 33 Issue 4 November 2008 pp 539-547. Brucellosis in India – a review · Basappa G Mantur Satish K Amarnath · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Brucellosis is an important re-emerging zoonosis with a ...

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Xiuhong Yang. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 33 Issue 1 March 2008 pp 103-112 Articles. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gene encoding RING zinc finger ankyrin protein from drought-tolerant Artemisia desertorum · Xiuhong Yang Chao Sun Yuanlei ...

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Finny Monickaraj. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 38 Issue 1 March 2013 pp 113-122 Articles. Accelerated fat cell aging links oxidative stress and insulin resistance in adipocytes · Finny Monickaraj Sankaramoorthy Aravind Pichamoorthy Nandhini Paramasivam ...

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. MOHAMMAD HOSSEIN GHAHREMANI. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 555-563 Article. Induction of morphological and functional differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells by miR-124 · SAMANEH SHARIF MOHAMMAD ...

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Harinder Singh. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 35 Issue 3 September 2010 pp 427-434 Articles. Unusual radioresistance of nitrogen-fixing cultures of Anabaena strains · Harinder Singh Tonina Fernandes Shree Kumar Apte · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Jacinta S D'souza. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 28 Issue 2 March 2003 pp 223-233 Articles. Purification and characterization of a Ca -dependent/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase from moss chloronema cells · Jacinta S D'souza Man Mohan Johri.

  10. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Ashwin Kotnis. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 30 Issue 1 February 2005 pp 93-102. Genotype, phenotype and cancer: Role of low penetrance genes and environment in tumour susceptibility · Ashwin Kotnis Rajiv Sarin Rita Mulherkar · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. ZAKI ABU RABI. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 2 June 2017 pp 265-274 Article. Interleukin 8 in progression of hormone-dependent early breast cancer · JELENA MILOVANOVIĆ NATAŠA TODOROVIĆ-RAKOVIĆ TIJANA VUJASINOVIĆ ZAKI ABU RABI.

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. PAIKE JAYADEVA BHAT. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 34 Issue 4 October 2009 pp 513-522 Articles. Epigenetics of the yeast galactose genetic switch · Paike Jayadeva Bhat Revathi S Iyer · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The transcriptional activation of ...

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Subhash C Lakhotia. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 29 Issue 3 September 2004 pp 219-224. Commentary: Epigenetics of heterochromatin · Subhash C Lakhotia · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 32 Issue 3 April 2007 pp 429-431. Foreword · Subhash C ...

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Michel Morange. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 29 Issue 4 December 2004 pp 378-380. Commentary: The death of Francis Crick: the end of a golden age in biology · Michel Morange · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 30 Issue 3 June 2005 pp 313-316 Series.

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. MONIDIPA GHOSH. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 3 September 2017 pp 427-438 Article. Cholesterol-lowering drug, in combination with chromium chloride, induces early apoptotic signals in intracellular L. donovani amastigotes, leading to death.

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. John Bernet. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 28 Issue 3 April 2003 pp 249-264 Articles. Viral mimicry of the complement system · John Bernet Jayati Mullick Akhilesh K Singh Arvind Sahu · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The complement system is a potent ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. SADHANA SINGH. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 40 Issue 2 June 2015 pp 355-364 Articles. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study · Sadhana Singh Shilpi Modi Satnam Goyal ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. MOSAMI GALVANKAR. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 2 June 2017 pp 251-263 Article. Estrogen is essential but not sufficient to induce endometriosis · MOSAMI GALVANKAR NEHA SINGH MODI DEEPAK · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Baby P S Chakrapani. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 33 Issue 2 June 2008 pp 269-277 Articles. Development and evaluation of an in vivo assay in Caenorhabditis elegans for screening of compounds for their effect on cytochrome P450 expression · Baby P S ...

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. M Balasubramanyam. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 26 Issue 3 September 2001 pp 383-390 Review Article. Orally active insulin mimics: where do we stand now? M Balasubramanyam V Mohan · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The war against diabetes ...

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Leelavinothan Pari. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 31 Issue 5 December 2006 pp 581-587 Articles. Effect of a novel insulinotropic agent, succinic acid monoethyl ester, on lipids and lipoproteins levels in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamideinduced type 2 diabetes.

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Naveen Kumar. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 32 Issue 5 August 2007 pp 937-945 Articles. ARC: Automated Resource Classifier for agglomerative functional classification of prokaryotic proteins using annotation texts · Muthiah Gnanamani Naveen Kumar ...

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. JIANPING SI. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 41 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 727-742 ARTICLE. Functional analyses of Populus euphratica brassinosteroid biosynthesis enzyme genes DWF4 (PeDWF4) and CPD (PeCPD) in the regulation of growth and ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. AA SULTAN. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 531-535 Brief communication. Antifolate drug resistance: Novel mutations and haplotype distribution in dhps and dhfr from Northeast India · NP SARMAH K SARMA DR BHATTACHARYYA ...

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Satya Keerthi Kota. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 30 Issue 3 June 2005 pp 329-337 Articles. Cloning and characterization of mouse cullin4B/E3 ubiquitin ligase · Rachana Tripathi K Seetharama Satya Keerthi Kota Usha K Srinivas · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. BETANIA B COTA. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 657-664 Article. In vitro leishmanicidal, antibacterial and antitumour potential of anhydrocochlioquinone A obtained from the fungus Cochliobolus sp. FERNANDA F CAMPOS JONAS ...

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Anshu Aggarwal. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 27 Issue 4 July 2002 pp 339-346 Articles. Place prioritization for biodiversity content · Sahotra Sarkar Anshu Aggarwal Justin Garson Chris R Margules Juliane Zeidler · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. LI-MIN FENG. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 547-554 Article. Thymoquinone induces cytotoxicity and reprogramming of EMT in gastric cancer cells by targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway · LI-MIN FENG XUE-FENG WANG QING-XIAN ...

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. P Chauhan. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 34 Issue 5 November 2009 pp 729-747 Articles. India at the cross-roads of human evolution · R Patnaik P Chauhan · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The Indian palaeoanthropological record, although patchy at the ...

  10. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Franck Molina. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 32 Issue 1 January 2007 pp 145-155 Articles. Formal TCA cycle description based on elementary actions · Pierre Mazière Nicolas Parisey Marie Beurton-Aimar Franck Molina · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. P Dayanandan. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 28 Issue 4 June 2003 pp 455-469 Articles. Structural and histochemical studies on grain-filling in the caryopsis of rice (Oryza sativa L.) S Krishnan P Dayanandan · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The endosperm ...

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Faezeh Mohammad-Hashem. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 1 March 2012 pp 85-90 Articles. Differential expression of ZFX gene in gastric cancer · Parvaneh Nikpour Modjtaba Emadi-Baygi Faezeh Mohammad-Hashem Mohamad Reza Maracy ...

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. QING-XIAN HUANG. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 547-554 Article. Thymoquinone induces cytotoxicity and reprogramming of EMT in gastric cancer cells by targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway · LI-MIN FENG XUE-FENG WANG ...

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Shobha Rao. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 26 Issue 4 November 2001 pp 481-489. Nutritional status of the Indian population · Shobha Rao · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. High prevalence of low birth weight, high morbidity and mortality in children and poor ...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Isaac Salazar-Ciudad. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 34 Issue 4 October 2009 pp 573-587 Articles. Looking at the origin of phenotypic variation from pattern formation gene networks · Isaac Salazar-Ciudad · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. This article critically ...

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. VINOD KUMAR. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 40 Issue 2 June 2015 pp 399-406 Articles. Mammalian gastrointestinal parasites in rainforest remnants of Anamalai Hills, Western Ghats, India · Debapriyo Chakraborty Shaik Hussain D Mahendar Reddy Sachin ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Gregor Durstewitz. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 5 November 2012 pp 821-828 Articles. Large SNP arrays for genotyping in crop plants · Martin W Ganal Andreas Polley Eva-Maria Graner Joerg Plieske Ralf Wieseke Hartmut Luerssen Gregor Durstewitz.

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Piyali Ganguli. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 40 Issue 4 October 2015 pp 769-789 Articles. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling cascade during T-cell activation: A computational study · Piyali Ganguli Saikat Chowdhury Rupa Bhowmick ...

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Anuradha Aritakula. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 33 Issue 5 December 2008 pp 731-742 Articles. Drosophila-based in vivo assay for the validation of inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor/Ras pathway · Anuradha Aritakula Annadurai Ramasamy.

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. LOCHNER. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 59-74 Article. Thalassiosira mala italic> (Bacillariophyta), a potentially harmful, marine diatom from Chilka Lake and other coastal localities of Odisha, India: Nomenclature, frustule morphology ...

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. P T V Praveen Kumar. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 38 Issue 5 December 2013 pp 887-892 Articles. Maternal hormonal interventions as a risk factor for Autism Spectrum Disorder: An epidemiological assessment from India · Madhu Poornima Mamidala Anupama ...

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Niranjan Mishra. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 35 Issue 1 March 2010 pp 79-86. Evidence of a humoral immune response against the prokaryotic expressed N-terminal autoprotease (N) protein of bovine viral diarrhoea virus · Niranjan Mishra Katherukamem ...

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Sindhu Radhakrishna. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 36 Issue 5 December 2011 pp 749-753. Commentary: Less than wild? Commensal primates and wildlife conservation · Sindhu Radhakrishna Anindya Sinha · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 43 Issue 1 ...

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Murlidhar J Mendki. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 38 Issue 2 June 2013 pp 301-309 Articles. Transcriptome analysis of Anopheles stephensi embryo using expressed sequence tags · Kaustubh Gokhale Deepak P Patil Dhiraj P Dhotre Rajnikant Dixit Murlidhar J ...

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Antoinette Molinié. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 38 Issue 2 June 2013 pp 189-199. Commentary: On toxic effects of scientific journals · Antoinette Molinié Geoffrey Bodenhausen · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. The advent of online publishing greatly ...

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. G Keller. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 34 Issue 5 November 2009 pp 709-728 Articles. Deccan volcanism, the KT mass extinction and dinosaurs · G Keller A Sahni S Bajpai · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Recent advances in Deccan volcanic studies indicate ...

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Hsinyu Lee. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 1 March 2012 pp 157-165 Review. Autophagy: A double-edged sword in Alzheimer's disease · Ying-Tsen Tung Bo-Jeng Wang Ming-Kuan Hu Wen-Ming Hsu Hsinyu Lee Wei-Pang Huang Yung-Feng Liao.

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. SUDHANSHU GAUTAM. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 613-621 Article. Small phosphatidate phosphatase ( TtPAH2 ) of Tetrahymena complements respiratory function and not membrane biogenesis function of yeast PAH1.

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Anasuya Majumdar. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 30 Issue 4 September 2005 pp 469-474 Articles. Structural organization of the transfer RNA operon I of Vibrio cholerae: Differences between classical and El Tor strains · Atreyi Ghatak Anasuya Majumdar Ranajit ...

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Lei He. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 39 Issue 1 March 2014 pp 63-74 Articles. Screening of cellular proteins that interact with the classical swine fever virus non-structural protein 5A by yeast two-hybrid analysis · Chengcheng Zhang Lei He Kai Kang Heng Chen ...

  12. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Suman Jain. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 38 Issue 3 September 2013 pp 605-614 Reviews. Role of sound stimulation in reprogramming brain connectivity · Sraboni Chaudhury Tapas C Nag Suman Jain Shashi Wadhwa · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Alok Sharma. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 32 Issue 6 September 2007 pp 1089-1110 Articles. Multiplicity of carbohydrate-binding sites in -prism fold lectins: occurrence and possible evolutionary implications · Alok Sharma Divya Chandran Desh D Singh M ...

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

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    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. David L Beveridge. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 3 July 2012 pp 379-397 Articles. The ABCs of molecular dynamics simulations on B-DNA, circa 2012 · David L Beveridge Thomas E Cheatham III Mihaly Mezei · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. PRIYANKA BEDI. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 105-115 Article. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata · RASIKA M POTDUKHE PRIYANKA BEDI BIJAYA K SARANGI RAM A PANDEY ...

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. S A Kulasooriya. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 31 Issue 5 December 2006 pp 645-650 Reviews. Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: effects and potentials · W M M S Bandara Gamini Seneviratne S A Kulasooriya · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. A Adaikala Koteswari. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 28 Issue 6 December 2003 pp 715-721 Articles. Curcumin-induced inhibition of cellular reactive oxygen species generation: Novel therapeutic implications · M Balasubramanyam A Adaikala Koteswari R ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. M T Tanuja. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 26 Issue 1 March 2001 pp 71-76 Articles. Incipient sexual isolation in the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila: No-choice experiments · M T Tanuja N B Ramachandra H A Ranganath · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Triptish Bhatia. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 27 Issue 1 February 2002 pp 35-52. Molecular genetics of schizophrenia: past, present and future · Suman Prasad Prachi Semwal Smita Deshpande Triptish Bhatia V L Nimgaonkar B K Thelma · More Details Abstract ...

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Amar J S Klar. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 35 Issue 1 March 2010 pp 11-15 Perspectives. A proposal for re-defining the way the aetiology of schizophrenia and bipolar human psychiatric diseases is investigated · Amar J S Klar · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. SUMITRA NAIN. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 3 September 2017 pp 481-490 Article. Promoter polymorphism MMP-1 (-1607 2G/1G) and MMP-3 (-1612 5A/6A) in development of HAND and modulation of pathogenesis of HAND · HARI OM SINGH ...

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Shree Kumar Apte. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 29 Issue 2 June 2004 pp 153-161 Articles. A novel potassium deficiency-induced stimulon in Anabaena torulosa · Anuradha Alahari Shree Kumar Apte · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Potassium deficiency ...

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. SONG XUE. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 41 Issue 2 June 2016 pp 229-236 Article. Silencing of HMGA2 promotes apoptosis and inhibits migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells · Zhan Shi Ding Wu Run Tang Xiang Li Renfu Chen Song Xue Chengjing ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. JAMUNA R SUBRAMANIAM. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 41 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 689-695 ARTICLE. Reserpine requires the D2-type receptor, dop-3 , and the exoribonuclease, eri-1 , to extend the lifespan in C. elegans · KOPAL SAHARIA RANJEET ...

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Mihaly Mezei. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 3 July 2012 pp 379-397 Articles. The ABCs of molecular dynamics simulations on B-DNA, circa 2012 · David L Beveridge Thomas E Cheatham III Mihaly Mezei · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. This article ...

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Jaeok Lee. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 36 Issue 2 June 2011 pp 341-354 Articles. Inhibitory activity of the peptides derived from buffalo prolactin on angiogenesis · Jaeok Lee Syamantak Majumder Suvro Chatterjee Kambadur Muralidhar · More Details Abstract ...

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Durai Sundar. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 3 July 2012 pp 483-491 Articles. Prediction of DNA-binding specificity in zinc finger proteins · Sumedha Roy Shayoni Dutta Kanika Khanna Shruti Singla Durai Sundar · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Milena Radakovic. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 38 Issue 1 March 2013 pp 53-62 Articles. Evaluation of the DNA damaging effects of amitraz on human lymphocytes in the Comet assay · Milena Radakovic Jevrosima Stevanovic Ninoslav Djelic Nada Lakic Jelena ...

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Ana M soto. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 30 Issue 1 February 2005 pp 103-118. Emergentism as a default: Cancer as a problem of tissue organization · Ana M soto Carlos Sonnenschein · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. During the last fifty years the dominant ...

  10. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. NARAHARI P GRAMAPUROHIT. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 3 September 2017 pp 459-468 Article. Can embryonic skipper frogs ( Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis ) learn to recognise kairomones in the absence of a nervous system? SWAPNIL C SUPEKAR ...

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. VIDYANAND NANJUNDIAH. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 25 Issue 1 March 2000 pp 9-10. Commentary: The smallest form of life yet? Vidyanand Nanjundiah · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 28 Issue 6 December 2003 pp 697-707 Articles. Calcium regulates ...

  12. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. AMOTZ ZAHAVI. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 49-58 Article. An individual-level selection model for the apparent altruism exhibited by cellular slime moulds · AMOTZ ZAHAVI KEITH D HARRIS VIDYANAND NANJUNDIAH · More Details ...

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Carlos Sonnenschein. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 30 Issue 1 February 2005 pp 103-118. Emergentism as a default: Cancer as a problem of tissue organization · Ana M soto Carlos Sonnenschein · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. During the last fifty years the ...

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Angelo Martino. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 32 Issue 6 September 2007 pp 1207-1212 Review. Sphingosine 1-phosphate as a novel immune regulator of dendritic cells · Angelo Martino · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Although originally described as an ...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. AGASTHYA SURESH. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 75-83 Article. PAX6 can substitute for LHX2 and override NFIA-induced astrogliogenesis in developing hippocampus in vivo · VEENA KINARE ASHWIN S SHETTY AGASTHYA ...

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Marta Linde-Medina. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 36 Issue 4 September 2011 pp 575-585 Brief communication. Adaptation or exaptation? The case of the human hand · Marta Linde-Medina · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. A controversy of relevance to the ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Sangappa. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 30 Issue 2 March 2005 pp 259-268 Articles. Crystal structure of raw pure Mysore silk fibre based on (Ala-Gly)2-Ser-Gly peptide sequence using Linked-Atom-Least-Squares method · Sangappa S S Mahesh R Somashekar.

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. JASWANDI UJWAL DANDEKAR. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 585-601 Article. Fermentative metabolism impedes p53-dependent apoptosis in a Crabtree-positive but not in Crabtree-negative yeast · ABHAY KUMAR JASWANDI ...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Anurag Kumar Mishra. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 27 Issue 3 June 2002 pp 251-259 Articles. Cloning and sequencing of complete -crystallin cDNA from embryonic lens of Crocodylus palustris · Raman Agrawal Reena Chandrashekhar Anurag Kumar Mishra ...

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. ASHIS KUMAR NANDI. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 38 Issue 3 September 2013 pp 583-592 Articles. Down-regulation of OsSAG12-1 results in enhanced senescence and pathogen-induced cell death in transgenic rice plants · Subaran Singh Mrunmay Kumar ...

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Indranil Dasgupta. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 4 September 2012 pp 791-806 Review. Begomovirus research in India: A critical appraisal and the way ahead · Basanta K Borah Indranil Dasgupta · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Begomoviruses are ...

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Rajiv D Kalraiya. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 38 Issue 5 December 2013 pp 867-876 Articles. 2,6 Sialylation associated with increased 1,6-branched -oligosaccharides influences cellular adhesion and invasion · Amit Ranjan Rajiv D Kalraiya · More Details ...

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Julio Reyes Leyva. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 6 December 2012 pp 999-1004 Articles. Sialyl Lewis x expression in cervical scrapes of premalignant lesions · Noé Velázquez-Márquez Gerardo Santos López Lucio Jiménez Aranda Julio Reyes Leyva ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. R S Sharma. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 26 Issue 4 November 2001 pp 391-405. Current status of fertility control methods in India · R S Sharma M Rajalakshmi D Antony Jeyaraj · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Approximately 48.2% of couples of 15 to 49 ...

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. SHUGUANG HAN. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 671-681 Article. MiR-876-5p suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer by directly down-regulating bone morphogenetic protein 4 · LIANG BAO LEI LV JINPING ...

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Jesper G Sørensen. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 29 Issue 4 December 2004 pp 503-511. Ecologically relevant stress resistance: from microarrays and quantitative trait loci to candidate genes – A research plan and preliminary results using Drosophila as a ...

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Scott F Gilbert. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 26 Issue 3 September 2001 pp 293-298. Commentary: New vistas for developmental biology · Scott F Gilbert Rocky S Tuan · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 27 Issue 5 September 2002 pp 445-446. Commentary: ...

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Partha P Majumder. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 26 Issue 4 November 2001 pp 390a-390a. Preface · Partha P Majumder A Jagannadha Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 26 Issue 4 November 2001 pp 533-545. Ethnic populations of India as seen from ...

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. XINHUA WANG. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 671-681 Article. MiR-876-5p suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer by directly down-regulating bone morphogenetic protein 4 · LIANG BAO LEI LV JINPING ...

  10. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Amrita Banerjee. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 3 July 2012 pp 475-481 Articles. A revisit of the mode of interaction of small transcription inhibitors with genomic DNA · Dipak Dasgupta Parijat Majumder Amrita Banerjee · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Neeti Sharma. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 35 Issue 2 June 2010 pp 187-202 Articles. Spectrum of CREBBP mutations in Indian patients with Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome · Neeti Sharma Avinash M Mali Sharmila A Bapat · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  12. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Adrian Surmacki. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 36 Issue 4 September 2011 pp 691-699 Articles. Differences in predatory pressure on terrestrial snails by birds and mammals · Zuzanna M Rosin Paulina Olborska Adrian Surmacki Piotr Tryjanowski · More Details ...

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. G V R Prasad. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 34 Issue 5 November 2009 pp 649-659 Articles. Divergence time estimates of mammals from molecular clocks and fossils: Relevance of new fossil finds from India · G V R Prasad · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. MUNIASAMY NEERATHILINGAM. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 41 Issue 3 September 2016 pp 535-561 Review. Application of aptamers in diagnostics, drug-delivery and imaging · CHETAN CHANDOLA SHEETAL KALME MARCO G CASTELEIJN ARTO URTTI ...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Q M I Haq. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 36 Issue 2 June 2011 pp 329-340 Articles. Mutagenesis in ORF AV2 affects viral replication in Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus · A Rouhibakhsh Q M I Haq V G Malathi · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Mungbean ...

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. JEDY JOSE. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 3 September 2017 pp 363-371 Brief communication. Amalaki Rasayana improved memory and neuronal metabolic activity in AβPP-PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease · VIVEK TIWARI KAMAL SABA ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Girish J Kotwal. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 28 Issue 3 April 2003 pp 265-271 Articles. Vaccinia complement control protein: Multi-functional protein and a potential wonder drug · Purushottam Jha Girish J Kotwal · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Vaccinia ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Saqib Mahmood. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 40 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 521-530 Articles. Role of leptin G-2548A polymorphism in age- and gender-specific development of obesity · Adeela Shahid Sobia Rana Saqib Mahmood Shahid Saeed · More Details ...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. SHUKLA SUSHMITA. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 613-621 Article. Small phosphatidate phosphatase ( TtPAH2 ) of Tetrahymena complements respiratory function and not membrane biogenesis function of yeast PAH1.

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Sinha Sinha. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 39 Issue 3 June 2014 pp 525-536 Reviews. Conservation of PHO pathway in ascomycetes and the role of Pho84 · Parul Tomar Sinha Sinha · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces ...

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. ANANT B PATEL. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 3 September 2017 pp 363-371 Brief communication. Amalaki Rasayana improved memory and neuronal metabolic activity in AβPP-PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease · VIVEK TIWARI KAMAL SABA ...

  2. East Midlands healthcare and bioscience sector strategy

    OpenAIRE

    East Midlands Development Agency

    2007-01-01

    The healthcare and bioscience sector is one of four priority sectors identified in the regional economic strategy, A Flourishing Region. This document sets out a strategy for maximising the contribution of the healthcare and biosciences sector to the economic development of the East Midlands.

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. T Naga Sowjanya. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 35 Issue 4 December 2010 pp 539-546 Articles. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications in Neurospora can disrupt genes and create novel open reading frames · Parmit K Singh ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. NILOFER NAQVI. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 127-138 Article. Blocking dephosphorylation at Serine 120 residue in t-SNARE SNAP-23 leads to massive inhibition in exocytosis from mast cells · NASKAR PIEU NILOFER NAQVI NITI ...

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. SHRUTI D MARATHE. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 3 September 2017 pp 481-490 Article. Promoter polymorphism MMP-1 (-1607 2G/1G) and MMP-3 (-1612 5A/6A) in development of HAND and modulation of pathogenesis of HAND · HARI OM SINGH ...

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. JASMINE M SHAH. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 173-187 Review. Plant reference genes for development and stress response studies · JOYOUS T JOSEPH NAJYA JABEEN POOLAKKALODY JASMINE M SHAH · More Details Abstract ...

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Pushpa Mittra Bhargava. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 34 Issue 2 June 2009 pp 167-168. Commentary: Insufficient regulatory supervision prior to release of genetically modified crops for commercial cultivation in India · Pushpa Mittra Bhargava · More Details ...

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. PRABHJOT KAUR. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 40 Issue 2 June 2015 pp 355-364 Articles. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study · Sadhana Singh Shilpi Modi Satnam Goyal ...

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Madhuri Thakar. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 33 Issue 4 November 2008 pp 515-525. HIV infection in India: Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis. Samir Lakhashe Madhuri Thakar Sheela Godbole Srikanth Tripathy Ramesh Paranjape.

  10. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. JAMES A NIENOW. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 59-74 Article. Thalassiosira mala italic> (Bacillariophyta), a potentially harmful, marine diatom from Chilka Lake and other coastal localities of Odisha, India: Nomenclature, frustule ...

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. D BANSAL. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 531-535 Brief communication. Antifolate drug resistance: Novel mutations and haplotype distribution in dhps and dhfr from Northeast India · NP SARMAH K SARMA DR BHATTACHARYYA ...

  12. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. SHEETAL S NARVEKAR. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 647-656 Article. IGF1 stimulates differentiation of primary follicles and their growth in ovarian explants of zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) cultured in vitro · PANCHARATNA A KATTI ...

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Antonio G Valdecasas. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 34 Issue 6 December 2009 pp 835-843 Perspectives. Understanding complex systems: lessons from Auzoux's and von Hagens's anatomical models · Antonio G Valdecasas Ana M Correas Carmen R Guerrero ...

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. B N Singh. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 34 Issue 2 June 2009 pp 263-274 Articles. Variations in morphological and life-history traits under extreme temperatures in Drosophila ananassae · Seema Sisodia B N Singh · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Rahul Gaur. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 32 Issue 4 June 2007 pp 747-754 Articles. Diet-dependent depletion of queuosine in tRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans does not lead to a developmental block · Rahul Gaur Glenn R Björk Simon Tuck Umesh Varshney.

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Smita Deshpande. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 27 Issue 1 February 2002 pp 35-52. Molecular genetics of schizophrenia: past, present and future · Suman Prasad Prachi Semwal Smita Deshpande Triptish Bhatia V L Nimgaonkar B K Thelma · More Details ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. S Ignacimuthu. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 31 Issue 3 September 2006 pp 339-345 Articles. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea with -amylase inhibitor gene for insect resistance · S Ignacimuthu S Prakash · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Vindhya Mohindra. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 38 Issue 2 June 2013 pp 373-383 Articles. Physiological responses to acute experimental hypoxia in the air-breathing Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) · Ratnesh Kumar Tripathi Vindhya Mohindra ...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Will D Penny. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 32 Issue 1 January 2007 pp 129-144 Articles. Dynamic causal models of neural system dynamics: current state and future extensions · Klaas E Stephan Lee M Harrison Stefan J Kiebel Olivier David Will D Penny Karl J ...

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. STHITAPRANJYA PATI. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 43 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 85-95 Article. Acute pharmacogenetic activation of medial prefrontal cortex excitatory neurons regulates anxiety-like behaviour · STHITAPRANJYA PATI ANKIT SOOD SOURISH ...

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Shikha Srivastava. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 1 March 2012 pp 63-72 Articles. High prevalence of oncogenic HPV-16 in cervical smears of asymptomatic women of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India: A population-based study · Shikha Srivastava Sadhana ...

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Rajkumar S. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 29 Issue 1 March 2004 pp 105-110 Articles. Factors influencing offspring traits in the oviparous multi-clutched lizard, Calotes versicolor (Agamidae) · Rajkumar S Radder Bhagyashri A Shanbhag · More Details Abstract ...

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Gavan Holloway. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 28 Issue 3 April 2003 pp 323-335 Articles. HIV-1 Nef control of cell signalling molecules: multiple strategies to promote virus replication · Alison L Greenway Gavan Holloway Dale A McPhee Phoebe Ellis Alyssa ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. K B Saxena. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 5 November 2012 pp 811-820 Articles. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops of semi-arid tropics using next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies.

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Vibha Tandon. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 3 July 2012 pp 493-502 Articles. Inhibition of HIV-1 Integrase gene expression by 10-23 DNAzyme · Nirpendra Singh Atul Ranjan Souvik Sur Ramesh Chandra Vibha Tandon · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

  6. [Nursing students' point of view on biosecurity and patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cararro, Telma Elisa; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; Sebold, Luciara Fabiane; Kempfer, Silvana Silveira; Zapelini, Maria Christina; Waterkemper, Roberta

    2012-09-01

    This study is aimed at identifying the knowledge of nursing students about the subject area of patient safety and its relationship with the teaching of biosecurity. Exploratory qualitative study conducted at the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Federal University of Santa Catarina), with 17 students in the third phase of the Undergraduate Nursing Program. Three categories emerged after an exhaustive reading of the responses caring for self and others; biosecurity and care for the environment; biosecurity: health education and continuing education in health services. The following issues were identified, students' concern about risk prevention, care and self care as prerogatives for patient's safety; and education as a proposal for the minimization of risks. The study of biosecurity is considered important in undergraduate studies, minimizing losses and mistakes in the undergraduate students' conduct.

  7. Environmental Biosciences Program Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2009-01-30

    Current research projects have focused Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP) talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene, low-dose ionizing radiation (gamma and neutron) and alpha radiation from plutonium. Trichloroethylene research has been conducted as a joint collaborative effort with the University of Georgia. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Laboratory work has been completed on several trichloroethylene risk assessment projects, and these projects have been brought to a close. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the remaining trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A comprehensive manuscript on the scientific basis of trichloroethylene risk assessment is in preparation. Work on the low-dose radiation risk assessment projects is also progressing at a slowed rate as a result of funding uncertainties. It has been necessary to restructure the proponency and performance schedule of these projects, with the project on Low-Dose Radiation: Epidemiology Risk Models transferred to DOE Office of Science proponency under a separate funding instrument. Research on this project will continue under the provisions of the DOE Office of Science funding instrument, with progress reported in accordance with the requirements of that funding instrument. Progress on that project will no longer be reported in quarterly reports for DE-FC09-02CH11109. Following a meeting at the Savannah River Site on May 8, 2008, a plan was submitted for development of an epidemiological cohort study and prospective medical surveillance system for the assessment of disease rates among workers at the Savannah River

  8. Maximum Credible Event Analysis Methods-Tools and Applications in Biosecurity Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.

    2007-01-01

    Maximum Credible Event (MCE) analyses are analogous to worst-case scenarios involving a likely mishap scenario in biotechnology bioprocessing operations, biological products testing laboratories, and biological specimen repository facilities, leading to release of particulate/aerosolized etiologic agents into the environment. The purpose of MCE analyses is to estimate the effectiveness of existing safeguards such as the engineering controls, administrative procedures and the attributes of facility design that, in combination, prevent the probability of release of potentially pathogenic or toxic material from the test facility to external environment. As part of our support to the United States Chemical Biological Defense Program, we have developed a unique set og realistic MCE worst-case scenarios for all laboratory and industrial aspects of a biological product development process. Although MCE analysis is a part of an overall facility biosafety assessment, our approach considered biosecurity related issues such as facility vulnerability, employment procedures and workers background investigations, exercise and drills involving local law enforcement and emergency response community, records and audits process, and facility biosafety and biosecurity oversight and governance issues. our standard operating procedure for tracking biological material transfer agreements and operating procedures for materials transfer, together with an integrated checklist of biosafety/biosecurity facility inspection and evaluation was to ensure compliance with all biosafety and biosecurity guidelines.The results of MCE analysis, described in terms of potential hazard of exposure for workers and immediate environment to etiologic agents from the manufacturing process, is a quasi-quantitative estimate of the nature and extent of adverse impact on the health and immediate environment at the vicinity. Etiologic agent exposure concentrations are estimated based on a Gaussian air depression

  9. Advanced NMR technology for bioscience and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammel, P.C.; Hernandez, G.; Trewhella, J.; Unkefer, C.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Boumenthal, D.K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (US); Kennedy, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US); Moore, G.J. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (US)

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). NMR plays critical roles in bioscience and biotechnology in both imaging and structure determination. NMR is limited, however, by the inherent low sensitivity of the NMR experiment and the demands for spectral resolution required to study biomolecules. The authors addressed both of these issues by working on the development of NMR force microscopy for molecular imaging, and high field NMR with isotope labeling to overcome limitations in the size of biomolecules that can be studied using NMR. A novel rf coil design for NMR force microscopy was developed that increases the limits of sensitivity in magnetic resonance detection for imaging, and the authors demonstrated sub-surface spatial imaging capabilities. The authors also made advances in the miniaturization of two critical NMR force microscope components. They completed high field NMR and isotope labeling studies of a muscle protein complex which is responsible for regulating muscle contraction and is too large for study using conventional NMR approaches.

  10. The Programs for Strengthening Biosafety and Biosecurity in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutateladze, M.

    2007-01-01

    The difficulties connected with the political changes due to the breakdown of Soviet system caused serious problems in biosafety and security in Georgia. During last 10-12 years, lack of state financing caused destruction of the systems of biosafety in the relevant Institutions - the system became formal and completely damaged. The program for prevention of biological weapons (BW) proliferation operates in Georgia since 2002. The agreement between United States and Georgia covers several issues, including prevention the proliferation of biological weapons technology, pathogenic strains and their expertise at the source. Department of Defense of the USA supports the country to consolidate especially dangerous pathogens (EDPs) into safe and secure central reference laboratories, improve our capabilities to detect and respond to disease outbreaks caused by the EDP, integrate Georgian scientists into the international scientific community and eliminate BW infrastructure and technology. Elimination of BW infrastructure includes dismantle and elimination of biological threat agent materials, dual-use equipment and associated infrastructure. Biosecurity and Biosafety involve implementation of technical enhancements to meet and maintain US standards, create a personal reliability program to reduce the release of pathogens and secure a safer working environment for personnel. Currently, two projects are funded through the Cooperative Biological Research (CBR) in Georgia - to study the ecology, biodiversity, genetic clustering and virulence of Yersinia pestis and Vibrio spp. These projects are performed at the National Center for Disease Control and Medical statistics (NCDC) and G. Eliava Institute of Bacteriophages, Microbiology and Virology. These projects are carried out due to the fruitful collaboration between Georgian and American scientists. Threat Agent Detection and Response (TADR) system provides enhanced reporting, detection and response for human and animal EDPs

  11. Advances in molecular-based diagnostics in meeting crop biosecurity and phytosanitary issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaad, Norman W; Frederick, Reid D; Shaw, Joe; Schneider, William L; Hickson, Robert; Petrillo, Michael D; Luster, Douglas G

    2003-01-01

    Awareness of crop biosecurity and phytosanitation has been heightened since 9/11 and the unresolved anthrax releases in October 2001. Crops are highly vulnerable to accidental or deliberate introductions of crop pathogens from outside U.S. borders. Strategic thinking about protection against deliberate or accidental release of a plant pathogen is an urgent priority. Rapid detection will be the key to success. This review summarizes recent progress in the development of rapid real-time PCR protocols and evaluates their effectiveness in a proposed nationwide network of diagnostic laboratories that will facilitate rapid diagnostics and improved communication.

  12. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 5 ... Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon ... Faculty of Applied Marine Science, Cheju National University, Jeju 690-756, Republic ...

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 1 ... an overview of the implications of such a phenomenon for basic and applied research. ... Department of Crop Biology, Section of Plant Physiology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy ...

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 38; Issue 4 ... Department of Plant Physiology, UPSC, Umeå University, S-90187 Umea, Sweden; Ecologie ... Lyon, France; Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of Botany, University of Sri ...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 4 ... of stochastic differential equation; spectral density; Tchebycheff's inequality ... Estimation of maximum harvesting effort has a great impact on the economics of fisheries and other ...

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A model for cell type localization in the migrating slug of Dictyostelium discoideum based on differential ... a progressive maturation of chemotactic properties during the transdifferentiation of slug cell types. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 2 ... The nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical structure of the brain reward circuit, is implicated in ... Reduction in the conductance of KIR channels evokes facilitatory effects on EPSPs ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 30; Issue 2 ... From about 6000 brain sub-oesophageal ganglion complexes, the neuropeptide was isolated; and purified ... Radiochemical bioassay confirmed the pheromonotropic effect of the ...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 33; Issue 1. A songbird forebrain area potentially involved in auditory discrimination and memory formation ... a set of interconnected ascending and descending auditory brain pathways that ...

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats ... whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apoptosis; bee; brain; cell division; nervous system ... have a distinct morphology, physiology and behaviour that correlate with their roles in the society and are characterized by some brain polymorphisms. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc finger protein 521 is highly expressed in brain, neural stem cells and early ... Fndc5, a precursor of Irisin has inducing effects on the expression level of brain derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampus. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brain; differential proteomics; ICAT; LCM; neuron; tandem mass spectrometry ... but also for gaining valuable understanding into brain function and deciphering proteomics from the workbench to the bedside. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Role of sound stimulation in reprogramming brain connectivity. Sraboni Chaudhury Tapas C Nag Suman Jain Shashi Wadhwa ... Keywords. Auditory pathway; avian; brain; sound stimulation; synaptic plasticity ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amelioration of altered antioxidant status and membrane linked functions by vanadium and Trigonella in alloxan diabetic rat brains ... determined in different fractions of whole brain after 21 days of treatment. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HPLC analysis reveals the presence of beta amyloid in the OVX and HCL mice brain. Congo red staining analysis revealed the extent of amyloid deposition in OVX and hypercholesterolemia mice brain. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and early-life stress: Multifaceted interplay. NATALYA P ... Abstract. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key regulator of neural development and plasticity. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. ... alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Insights into brain development and disease from neurogenetic analyses in Drosophila melanogaster ... operate in neural stem cells during normal brain development and during abnormal brain tumorigenesis. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  10. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Information for Authors ... Submission of a manuscript will be held to imply that the work reported in it is original, that .... when essential should be numbered consecutively and typed on a separate sheet.

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 4 ... the clusters obtained by a clustering algorithm applied on cancer gene expression data. ... In this context, we have used biochemical pathways, -value statistics of GO attributes, ...

  12. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 30; Issue 5 ... A genomic library was generated using HindIII and the positive clones were sequenced and ... People's Republic of China; School of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suzhou ...

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 2 ... (peptides A, B, C, and D) were selected using a phage display 12-mer peptide library. ... School of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, ...

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 4 ... Plant Biotechnology Research Center, School of Agriculture and Biology, ... D Center, School of Life Sciences, Morgan-Tan International Center for Life Sciences, Fudan University ...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 32; Issue 2 ... School of Life Sciences, Morgan-Tan International Center for Life Sciences, Fudan University, ... of China; Plant Biotechnology Research Center, School of Agriculture and Biology, ...

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 33; Issue 2 ... R & D Center, Morgan-Tan International Center for Life Sciences, Fudan University, ... School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 1 ... and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore 560 065, India; Biometrics and Bioinformatics Unit, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 39; Issue 3 ... International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502 ... Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 027, India; RAK College of Agriculture, ...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 2 ... School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, ... D Center, Morgan-Tan International Center for Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai ...

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 2 ... Department of Horticulture, Agriculture Faculty, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran; Plant Molecular Biology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New ...

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-10-26

    Oct 26, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 5 ... the Early Pleistocene of East Africa, Western Asia and Southeast Asia, thus indirectly ... Centre of Advanced Studies in Geology, Panjab University, Chandigarh ...

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-06-28

    Jun 28, 2007 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 32; Issue 5 ... These methods suffer from disadvantages such as the lack of availability of ... In this work, we have constructed a library of local conformation classes purely ...

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 35; Issue 1 ... profiling combined with physiological analysis at two time points for soybean seedlings in ... waterlogging through the management of carbohydrate consumption and by regulating ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-07

    Aug 7, 2011 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 3 ... pathways in animal models of human disease and in patients to provide insights ... progression of metastasis, immune cell trafficking, stem cell therapy, transgenic ...

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-08-10

    Aug 10, 2009 ... A ubiquitous cue eliciting these plastic phenotypic responses is ... Among the conclusions that emerge from this exploration is the perspective that the plant cell is phenotypically plastic. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 41; Issue 3 ... Asthma is a chronic disease due to inflammation of the airways of lungs that is clinically ... ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, rs4646994, in asthma in Pakistani patients.

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 2 ... whole animal was studied after adaptation to low and high concentrations of riboflavin. ... India; Department of Molecular Microbiology, School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj ...

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Branka I Ognjanović. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 39 Issue 5 December 2014 pp 859-866 Articles. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in erythrocytes of rats · Marko D Prokić Milica G Paunović Miloš M Matić Nataša Z Djordjević ...

  9. East Midlands healthcare and bioscience sector strategy appendix 1: healthcare and bioscience res implementation plan

    OpenAIRE

    East Midlands Development Agency

    2007-01-01

    The healthcare and bioscience sector is one of four priority sectors identified in the regional economic strategy, A Flourishing Region. This document sets out the implementation plan for maximising the contribution of the healthcare and biosciences sector to the economic development of the East Midlands.

  10. Bio-Security Proficiencies Project for Beginning Producers in 4-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Borba, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Improving bio-security practices among 4-H members who raise and show project animals is important. Bio-security measures can reduce the risk of disease spread and mitigate potential health and economic risks of disease outbreaks involving animal and zoonotic pathogens. Survey data provided statistical evidence that the Bio-Security Proficiencies…

  11. Farmers' Awareness of Marek's Disease and Biosecurity Practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' Awareness of Marek's Disease and Biosecurity Practices in Poultry Production in Selected States of Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how ...

  12. Determinants of adoption of biosecurity principles by poultry farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of adoption of biosecurity principles by poultry farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... with 100% adoption however, were provision of adequate ventilation, removal of dead birds, offering of good quality feed and water, vaccination and provision of ...

  13. Environmental Biosciences Program Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2006-10-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making. Questions, comments or requests for further information concerning the activities under this cooperative agreement can be forwarded to Dr. Lawrence C. Mohr in the EBP office of the Medical University of South Carolina at (843) 792-1532.

  14. Environmental Biosciences First Quarter Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2003-09-30

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risk issues. These initiatives are consistent with the Medical University's role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable the Medical University to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBP's success in convening worldwide scientific expertise is due in part to the inherent credibility the Medical University brings to the process of addressing these complex issues. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.

  15. Environmental Biosciences Program Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2007-07-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene and low-dose ionizing radiation. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the DOE. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making. Questions, comments or requests for further information concerning the activities under this

  16. Environmental Biosciences Program Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2008-01-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene and low-dose ionizing radiation. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the DOE. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-08-19

    Aug 19, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 3. What history tells us XVIII. When functional biologists propose mechanisms of evolution. Michel Morange. Series Volume 34 Issue 3 September 2009 pp 373-376. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 5. Comparative sequence analyses of genome and transcriptome reveal novel transcripts and variants in the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. Puli Chandramouli Reddy Ishani Sinha Ashwin Kelkar Farhat Habib Saurabh J Pradhan Raman Sukumar Sanjeev ...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 3. A rapidly progressing, deadly disease of Actias selene (Indianmoonmoth) larvae associated with a mixed bacterial and baculoviral infection. Marta A Skowron Beata Guzow-Krzemińska Sylwia Barańska Paulina Jędrak Grzegorz Węgrzyn. Articles Volume 40 ...

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 5. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 40, Issue 5. December 2015, pages 829-968. pp 829-832 Series. What history tells us XXXIX. CRISPR-Cas : From a prokaryotic immune system to a universal genome editing tool · Michel Morange · More Details Fulltext PDF.

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 35; Issue 2. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 35, Issue 2. June 2010, pages 163-325. pp 163-165. Clipboard: Heat shock protein 90: a capacitor or a mutator? Ritwick Sawarkar Renato Paro · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 167-169. Clipboard: The small subunit of geranyl ...

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 43; Issue 2 ... The ErbB signalling pathway has been studied extensively owing to its role in normal physiology ... When applied to drug studies, the efficacy of a drug can be investigated in silico ...

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 4 ... areas, so the data used to make such comparisons should be comparable in quality and quantity. ... data include museums, herbariums and natural resource management agencies. Issues of data precision, accuracy and sampling bias in data sets from such ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 41; Issue 3 .... HUWE1 (the HECT, UBA, and WWE domain-containing protein 1) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase which plays .... pp 487-496 Review ... Galectin-9: From cell biology to complex disease dynamics ... Application of aptamers in diagnostics, drug-delivery and imaging.

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 41; Issue 2. Effects of quercetin on predator stress-related hematological and behavioral alterations in pregnant rats and their offspring. Mohamed ... Keywords. Prenatal stress; Anxiety-like behavior; Memory performance; Hematological analysis; Periadolescence; Quercetin ...

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 33; Issue 2. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 33, Issue 2. June 2008, pages 157-307. pp 157-158. Clipboard: Recovery from amblyopia in adults via decreased visual cortical inhibition caused by experience in an enriched environment · Liisa A Tremere Raphael Pinaud.

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-02-09

    Feb 9, 2007 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 32; Issue 2. What history tells us VIII. The progressive construction of a mechanism for prion diseases. Michel Morange. Series Volume 32 Issue 2 March 2007 pp 223-227. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-09-04

    Sep 4, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 4. Helicobacter urease: Niche construction at the single molecule level ... Departments of Lifesciences and # Computer Science, School of Science and Engineering, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore 54792, Punjab, Pakistan ...

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-09

    Dec 9, 2008 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 4. Phenotypic plasticity ... Articles Volume 34 Issue 4 October 2009 pp 605-611 ... Stem cell immortality, vascular autonomy, and epicormic branching are some important features of the phenotypic plasticity of plants that contribute to their longevity.

  10. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, CP 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, RS, Brazil; Faculty of Biosciences and Aquaculture, Bodø University College, NO-8049 Bodø, Norway; Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, CP 474, ...

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 1. What history tells us XLII. A 'new' view of proteins. MICHEL MORANGE. Series Volume 42 Issue 1 March 2017 pp 11-14. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/042/01/0011-0014. Keywords. Allostery ...

  12. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-10-15

    Oct 15, 2008 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 33; Issue 4. Combating emerging infectious diseases in India: Orchestrating a symphony. Lalit Kant. Volume 33 Issue 4 November 2008 pp 425-427. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 1. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 27, Issue 1. February 2002, pages a-70. Genome Analysis. pp a-a. Preface · Alok Bhattacharya · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 1-6. SWORDS: A statistical tool for analysing large DNA sequences · Probal Chaudhuri Sandip Das.

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here two very different kinds of organisms are considered: the volvocine algae that become ... that there is a perfect correlation with size: the forms with two cell types are significantly larger than those with one. ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 3 ... miR-200a-3p have been reported in the brains of Alzheimer'sdisease (AD) patients in recent researches. ... Knockdown of SIRT1 decreased theinhibitory effect of Ab25-35 on cell ...

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 37; Issue 4. Commentary: Monotremes and marsupials: Comparative models to better understand the function of milk. Sanjana Kuruppath Swathi Bisana Julie A Sharp Christophe Lefevre Satish Kumar Kevin R Nicholas. Volume 37 Issue 4 September 2012 pp 581-588 ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 37; Issue 4. Changes in membrane lipids and carotenoids during light acclimation in a marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Olimpio Montero Alberto Sánchez-Guijo Luis M Lubián Gonzalo Martínez-Rodríguez. Articles Volume 37 Issue 4 September 2012 pp 635-645 ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok Bhattacharya1. School of Life Sciences and Information Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 007, India. Journal of Biosciences. Current Issue : Vol. 43, Issue 1 · Current Issue Volume 43 | Issue 1. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Gallery of Cover Art ...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 41; Issue 2. Toward the 'new century' of handedness in biology: In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the birth of Francis Crick. Koji Tamura. Clipboard Volume 41 Issue 2 June 2016 pp 169-170 ...

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Search ... part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and Current Science, has changed from 'ias.ernet.in' (or 'academy.ias.ernet.in') to 'ias.ac.in'.

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 2. Genetic transformation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using cotyledonary node as explant and a promoterless gus::nptII fusion gene based vector. T Swathi Anuradha S K Jami R S Datla P B Kirti. Articles Volume 31 Issue 2 June 2006 pp 235-246 ...

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 26; Issue 4. Is there a role for contraceptive vaccines in fertility control? A Jagannadha Rao. Volume 26 Issue 4 November 2001 pp 425-427. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/026/04/0425-0427. Keywords. Fertility ...

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 6. A skeletochronological study of growth, longevity, and age at sexual maturity in a population of Rana latastei (Amphibia, Anura). Fabio M Guarino Silvia Lunardi Michela Carlomagno Stefano Mazzotti. Articles Volume 28 Issue 6 December 2003 pp 775-782 ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 1. Clipboard: New paradigm for ATP synthesis and consumption. C Channakeshava. Volume 36 Issue 1 March 2011 pp 3-4. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/036/01/0003-0004 ...

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 3. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 28, Issue 3. April 2003, pages 248-358. Viral Evasion of Host Responses. pp 248-248. Preface · Shahid Jameel · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 249-264 Articles. Viral mimicry of the complement system · John Bernet Jayati ...

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 6. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 27, Issue 6. November 2002, pages 552-627. Special Issue on Suppl. 3: The Biology of Entamoeba histolytica. pp 552-552a. Preface · Anuradha Lohia · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 553-557 Articles.

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-12-09

    Dec 9, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 6 ... and suitable teaching methods have been of great importance in the progress of knowledge. ... And what is valid for the learning of anatomy can be generalized to ...

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 32; Issue 4. Molecular cloning and expression of the C-terminus of spider flagelliform silk protein from Araneus ventricosus. Kwang Sik Lee Bo Yeon Kim Yeon Ho Je Soo Dong Woo Hung Dae Sohn Byung Rae Jin. Articles Volume 32 Issue 4 June 2007 pp 705-712 ...

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 6. Identification and ... Alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that GbAGL2 shared high homology with AG-subfamily genes and belonged to a C-class gene family. DNA gel blot analysis showed that GbAGL2 belonged to a low-copy gene family. Reverse ...

  10. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 1. P1 peptidase – a mysterious protein of family Potyviridae. Jana Rohožková Milan Navrátil ... The coding region for P1 peptidase is located at the very beginning of the viral genome of the family Potyviridae. Until recently P1 was thought of as serine peptidase with ...

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 4. RET gene mutations and ... Articles Volume 36 Issue 4 September 2011 pp 603-611 ... Further, 39 family members of seven index cases were analysed, wherein four of the seven index cases showed identical mutations, in 13 of 25 family members. We also ...

  12. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 2. Splicing ... Articles Volume 36 Issue 2 June 2011 pp 281-287 ... One proband had mutation at the canonical splice site at +5 position of IVS22, and analysis of the transcripts in this family revealed skipping of exon 22 in three members of this family. In one proband ...

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 2 ... Review Volume 34 Issue 2 June 2009 pp 313-320 ... Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc (Zn)-dependent endopeptidases that are collectively capable of cleaving virtually all extracellular matrix (ECM) substrates and play an important role in ...

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 1. Diverse roles of WDR5-RbBP5-ASH2L-DPY30 (WRAD) complex in the functions of the SET1 histone methyltransferase family. AAMIR ALI SHWETA TYAGI. Mini-Review Volume 42 Issue 1 ... Keywords. Cell cycle regulation; SET1 family; transcription; WRAD ...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 39; Issue 5. Evolution and expression analysis of the soybean glutamate decarboxylase gene family ... Although plant GAD plays important roles in GABA biosynthesis, our knowledge concerning GAD gene family members and their evolutionary relationship remains limited.

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-02-24

    Feb 24, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 1. Classical embryology to molecular biology: a personal view of amphibian embryonic development. Horst Grunz. Perspectives Volume 34 Issue 1 March 2009 pp 5-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 4. Hypervariable spacer regions are good sites for developing specific PCR-RFLP markers and PCR primers for screening actinorhizal symbionts. Rajani Varghese Vineeta S Chauhan Arvind K Misra. Articles Volume 28 Issue 4 June 2003 pp 437-442 ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 33; Issue 1 ... In the present investigation, we evaluated the level of platelet aggregation and ... cirrhosis found in our study is of clinical importance, and the underlying mechanism of such ... Department of Surgical Gastroenterology and Proctology, Stanley Medical College ...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 26; Issue 4. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 26, Issue 4. November 2001, pages 390a-545. Population of India. pp 390a-390a. Preface · Partha P Majumder A Jagannadha Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 391-405. Current status of fertility control methods in India.

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 2 .... mapping, expression analysis and polymorphism survey of resistance gene analogues ... However, due to inconsistency in the results of empirical studies, the relationship between FA and ... MMP-1 polymorphism and its relationship to pathological processes.

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 2. Clipboard: Snakes and ladders: the ups and downs of animal segmentation. Ramray Bhat Stuart A Newman. Volume 34 Issue 2 June 2009 pp 163-166. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 5. Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol bacterium on rice growth and disease resistance. Haiying Ren Ganyu Gu Juying Long Qian Yin Tingquan Wu Tao Song Shujian Zhang Zhiyi Chen Hansong Dong. Reviews Volume 31 Issue 5 ...

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 4. Eu-Detect: An algorithm for detecting eukaryotic sequences in metagenomic data sets. Monzoorul Haque Mohammed Sudha Chadaram Dinakar Dinakar Komanduri Tarini Shankar Ghosh Sharmila S Mande. Articles Volume 36 Issue 4 September 2011 pp 709- ...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 4. Volume 28, Issue 4. June 2003, pages 359-528. pp 359-360. Clipboard: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): an old virus jumping into a new host or a new creation? M S Shaila · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 361-362. Clipboard: Blueprint of a red mould: ...

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 26; Issue 2. The roots of ancient medicine: an historical outline. B V Subbarayappa. Perspectives Volume 26 Issue 2 June 2001 pp 135-143. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/026/02/0135-0143. Author Affiliations.

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 5. Cytomixis impairs meiosis and influences reproductive success in Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb) Jacq. – an additional strategy and possible implications. S K Lattoo S Khan S Bamotra A K Dhar. Reviews Volume 31 Issue 5 December 2006 pp 629-637 ...

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 42; Issue 1. Overexpression of hsa-miR-939 follows by NGFR down-regulation and apoptosis reduction. FAHIMEH HOSSEINI AGHDAEI BAHRAM M SOLTANI SADAT DOKANEHIIFARD SEYED JAVAD MOWLA MASOUD SOLEIMANI. Article Volume 42 Issue 1 March 2017 ...

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 1. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 31, Issue 1. March 2006, pages 1-176e. pp 1-2. Clipboard: Ancient Indian roots? Denise R Carvalho-Silva Tatiana Zerjal Chris Tyler-Smith · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 3-4. Commentary: Magic with moulds: Meiotic and ...

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 1. What impact, if any, has feminism had on science? Evelyn Fox Keller. Perspectives Volume 29 Issue 1 March 2004 pp 7-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/029/01/0007-0013. Author Affiliations.

  10. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 35; Issue 1. Transgene transmission in South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen) larvae by sperm-mediated gene transfer. Tiago Collares Vinicius Farias Campos Fabiana Kömmling Seixas Paulo V Cavalcanti Odir A Dellagostin Heden Luiz M Moreira João Carlos Deschamps.

  11. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-11-09

    Nov 9, 2010 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 35; Issue 4. What history tells us XXII. The French neo-Lamarckians. Michel Morange. Series Volume 35 Issue 4 December 2010 pp 515-517. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/035/04/0515-0517 ...

  12. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-05-06

    May 6, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 2. Kenneth Raper, Elisha Mitchell and Dictyostelium. Eugene R Katz. Perspectives Volume 31 Issue 2 June 2006 pp 195-200. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/031/02/0195-0200 ...

  13. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-01-31

    Jan 31, 2008 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 33; Issue 1. Biological time is fractal: Early events reverberate over a life time. David Lloyd. Perspectives Volume 33 Issue 1 March 2008 pp 9-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/033/01/0009- ...

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anandasankar Ray1 2 Wynand Van Der Goes Van Naters2 3 John R Carlson2. Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA; Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK ...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-02-10

    Feb 10, 2010 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 35; Issue 1. What history tells us XX. Felix Haurowitz (1896–1987) – A difficult journey in the political and scientific upheavals of the 20th century. Michel Morange. Series Volume 35 Issue 1 March 2010 pp 17-20 ...

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-11-15

    Nov 15, 2005 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 30; Issue 5. What history tells us III. André Lwoff: From protozoology to molecular definition of viruses. Michel Morange. Series Volume 30 Issue 5 December 2005 pp 591-594. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-11-23

    Nov 23, 2005 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 30; Issue 5. Commentary: Neuronal survival in epilepsy: to die or not to die? Subramaniam Ganesh Shweta Singh. Volume 30 Issue 5 December 2005 pp 561-566. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 6 ... of R. solani (35 colony-forming units/g dry soil) was relatively high in the soil we studied, and ... School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, ...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 2. Integrative microbiology – the third Golden Age. Moselio Schaechter. Perspectives Volume 28 Issue 2 March 2003 pp 149-154 ...

  20. Breaking the chain of zoonoses through biosecurity in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Daniel S; Choudhary, Anupma; Bean, Andrew G D

    2017-10-20

    Increases in global travel, trade and urbanisation are leading to greater incidence of zoonotic disease, and livestock are often a key link in the spread of disease to humans. As such, livestock vaccination strategies, as a part of broader biosecurity solutions, are critical to both animal and human health. Importantly, approaches that restrict infectious agents in livestock, not only protects their economic value but should reduce the potential for spill over infections in humans. Biosecurity solutions to livestock health can take a number of different forms and are generally heavily weighted towards prevention of infection rather than treatment. Therefore, vaccination can provide an effective component of a strategic approach, particularly as production economics dictate the use of cost effective solutions. Furthermore, in an evolving global environment there is a need for vaccines that accommodate for lower socioeconomic and rapidly emerging zoonotics. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MPACT OF GENETIC BIOTECHNOLOGIES ON BIOSECURITY AND FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICA-BADEA DELIA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosecurity is a relatively new area global, being promoted by the significant results, particularly in the last 20 years, fundamental and applied research. Biotechnology is a collection of techniques that can be used in the agro-food, medical and industrial. The paper examines the potential impact of transgenic biotechnology, vulnerabilities, implications, benefits and risks, quality of life and health. Introduction into the environment, cross-border trade and use of GMOs resulting from modern biotechnology can untoward effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, food security and safety. It is openly acknowledged that modern biotechnology has great potential to promote human welfare, in particular, to overcome the critical needs in food, agriculture and human health. Establish appropriate safety measures when using genetically modified organisms (biosecurity policy, regulatory regime, scientific and technical measures is a highly sensitive process, aiming both to maximize the benefits of modern biotechnology and to minimize potential risk

  2. Signals come and go: syndromic surveillance and styles of biosecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Lyle Fearnley

    2008-01-01

    This paper follows the development of a novel biosecurity technology known as ‘syndromic surveillance’. By monitoring new sources of nondiagnostic health information (911 calls, ER triage logs, pharmaceutical sales), syndromic surveillance produces new ‘territories of intelligibility’. But the implemention of syndromic systems—and the opening up of these new territories—poses a problem of interpretation. What is significant in nondiagnostic data flows? In fact, the development of a national s...

  3. Bioattribution Needs a Coherent International Approach to Improve Global Biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Steven Murch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The forensic investigation of hoax, suspected or actual biological weapons attacks and bioproliferation activities is recognized by biosecurity-advanced nations as an important pillar in a national biosecurity program. Some nations have taken this seriously; most others have not or are not aware of the potential. When law enforcement and forensic science investigations are performed in a coordinated manner, decisions assigning attribution are informed and accountability is supported through legal and policy decisions and actions. Incorporating public health investigative and tailored scientific assets makes the system even more effective, dynamic and robust. Perpetrators and enablers must be held at risk of being brought to justice, or through a policy decision resulting in direct action being taken or sanctions imposed. This paper provides a foundation and path forward to establish substantially expanded capability founded on establishing and leveraging national and regional programs and international agreement that attribution is an important component of biosecurity. Specific forward-looking initiatives will be recommended and discussed.

  4. Criminal Genomic Pragmatism: Prisoners' Representations of DNA Technology and Biosecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Helena; Silva, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Background. Within the context of the use of DNA technology in crime investigation, biosecurity is perceived by different stakeholders according to their particular rationalities and interests. Very little is known about prisoners' perceptions and assessments of the uses of DNA technology in solving crime. Aim. To propose a conceptual model that serves to analyse and interpret prisoners' representations of DNA technology and biosecurity. Methods. A qualitative study using an interpretative approach based on 31 semi-structured tape-recorded interviews was carried out between May and September 2009, involving male inmates in three prisons located in the north of Portugal. The content analysis focused on the following topics: the meanings attributed to DNA and assessments of the risks and benefits of the uses of DNA technology and databasing in forensic applications. Results. DNA was described as a record of identity, an exceptional material, and a powerful biometric identifier. The interviewees believed that DNA can be planted to incriminate suspects. Convicted offenders argued for the need to extend the criteria for the inclusion of DNA profiles in forensic databases and to restrict the removal of profiles. Conclusions. The conceptual model entitled criminal genomic pragmatism allows for an understanding of the views of prison inmates regarding DNA technology and biosecurity. PMID:22791960

  5. Criminal Genomic Pragmatism: Prisoners' Representations of DNA Technology and Biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Within the context of the use of DNA technology in crime investigation, biosecurity is perceived by different stakeholders according to their particular rationalities and interests. Very little is known about prisoners’ perceptions and assessments of the uses of DNA technology in solving crime. Aim. To propose a conceptual model that serves to analyse and interpret prisoners’ representations of DNA technology and biosecurity. Methods. A qualitative study using an interpretative approach based on 31 semi-structured tape-recorded interviews was carried out between May and September 2009, involving male inmates in three prisons located in the north of Portugal. The content analysis focused on the following topics: the meanings attributed to DNA and assessments of the risks and benefits of the uses of DNA technology and databasing in forensic applications. Results. DNA was described as a record of identity, an exceptional material, and a powerful biometric identifier. The interviewees believed that DNA can be planted to incriminate suspects. Convicted offenders argued for the need to extend the criteria for the inclusion of DNA profiles in forensic databases and to restrict the removal of profiles. Conclusions. The conceptual model entitled criminal genomic pragmatism allows for an understanding of the views of prison inmates regarding DNA technology and biosecurity.

  6. Criminal genomic pragmatism: prisoners' representations of DNA technology and biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Helena; Silva, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of the use of DNA technology in crime investigation, biosecurity is perceived by different stakeholders according to their particular rationalities and interests. Very little is known about prisoners' perceptions and assessments of the uses of DNA technology in solving crime. To propose a conceptual model that serves to analyse and interpret prisoners' representations of DNA technology and biosecurity. A qualitative study using an interpretative approach based on 31 semi-structured tape-recorded interviews was carried out between May and September 2009, involving male inmates in three prisons located in the north of Portugal. The content analysis focused on the following topics: the meanings attributed to DNA and assessments of the risks and benefits of the uses of DNA technology and databasing in forensic applications. DNA was described as a record of identity, an exceptional material, and a powerful biometric identifier. The interviewees believed that DNA can be planted to incriminate suspects. Convicted offenders argued for the need to extend the criteria for the inclusion of DNA profiles in forensic databases and to restrict the removal of profiles. The conceptual model entitled criminal genomic pragmatism allows for an understanding of the views of prison inmates regarding DNA technology and biosecurity.

  7. Biosecurity Conditions in Small Commercial Chicken Farms, Bangladesh 2011-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimi, N A; Sultana, R; Muhsina, M

    2017-01-01

    In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 is endemic in poultry. This study aimed to understand the biosecurity conditions and farmers' perception of avian influenza biosecurity in Bangladeshi small commercial chicken farms. During 2011-2012, we conducted observations, in-depth interv......In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 is endemic in poultry. This study aimed to understand the biosecurity conditions and farmers' perception of avian influenza biosecurity in Bangladeshi small commercial chicken farms. During 2011-2012, we conducted observations, in...

  8. Object-oriented programming for the biosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechert, W; Joksch, B; Wittig, R; Hartbrich, A; Höner, T; Möllney, M

    1995-10-01

    The development of software systems for the biosciences is always closely connected to experimental practice. Programs must be able to handle the inherent complexity and heterogeneous structure of biological systems in combination with the measuring equipment. Moreover, a high degree of flexibility is required to treat rapidly changing experimental conditions. Object-oriented methodology seems to be well suited for this purpose. It enables an evolutionary approach to software development that still maintains a high degree of modularity. This paper presents experience with object-oriented technology gathered during several years of programming in the fields of bioprocess development and metabolic engineering. It concentrates on the aspects of experimental support, data analysis, interaction and visualization. Several examples are presented and discussed in the general context of the experimental cycle of knowledge acquisition, thus pointing out the benefits and problems of object-oriented technology in the specific application field of the biosciences. Finally, some strategies for future development are described.

  9. Nitrogen-15 reference book: medicine and biosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.

    1983-04-01

    A comprehensive bibliography on the application of the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N in medicine, animal nutrition and physiology, biosciences, and related disciplines is presented. The literature pertaining to this paper covers the period from 1977 to 1981. The references are completed by an index of all authors and a subject index with special emphasis to the used organisms, labelled compounds, and tracer techniques, respectively. (author)

  10. Has bioscience reconciled mind and body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Carmel; Redmond, Catherine; Toole, Sinead O; Coughlan, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this discursive paper is to explore the question 'has biological science reconciled mind and body?'. This paper has been inspired by the recognition that bioscience has a historical reputation for privileging the body over the mind. The disregard for the mind (emotions and behaviour) cast bioscience within a 'mind-body problem' paradigm. It has also led to inherent limitations in its capacity to contribute to understanding the complex nature of health. This is a discursive paper. Literature from the history and sociology of science and psychoneuroimmunology (1975-2015) inform the arguments in this paper. The historical and sociological literature provides the basis for a socio-cultural debate on mind-body considerations in science since the 1970s. The psychoneuroimmunology literature draws on mind-body bioscientific theory as a way to demonstrate how science is reconciling mind and body and advancing its understanding of the interconnections between emotions, behaviour and health. Using sociological and biological evidence, this paper demonstrates how bioscience is embracing and advancing its understanding of mind-body interconnectedness. It does this by demonstrating the emotional and behavioural alterations that are caused by two common phenomena; prolonged, chronic peripheral inflammation and prolonged psychological stress. The evidence and arguments provided has global currency that advances understanding of the inter-relationship between emotions, behaviour and health. This paper shows how bioscience has reconciled mind and body. In doing so, it has advanced an understanding of science's contribution to the inter-relationship between emotions, behaviour and health. The biological evidence supporting mind-body science has relevance to clinical practice for nurses and other healthcare professions. This paper discusses how this evidence can inform and enhance clinical practice directly and through research, education and policy. © 2015 John Wiley

  11. Developing Research Capabilities in Energy Biosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Donald D.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists founded the Life Sciences Research Foundation (LSRF) in 1983 as a non-profit pass through foundation that awards post doctoral fellowships in all areas of the life sciences. LSRF scientists review hundreds of applications each year from PhDs seeking support. For example this year, our 26th, we received 800 applications and our peer review committee will choose about 50 finalists who are eligible for these awards. We have no endowment so we solicit sponsors each year. The fellowships are sponsored by research oriented companies, foundations, philanthropists, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and other organizations who believe in the value of awarding fellowships to the best and the brightest young scientists. Our web site has a complete listing of all details about LSRF (http://www.lsrf.org/). In the late 1980s the Division of Bioscience in the Office of Basic Energy Science, a granting agency of the Department of Energy, joined this partnership. Bioscience's mandate was to support non-medical microbiology and plant sciences. LSRF received a series of 5 year grants from DOE to award fellowships to our top applicants in these fields of research. We began to support DOE-Energy Bioscience post doctoral fellows in 1989. From 1989 through 2004 when DOE funding ended our partnership awarded 41 DOE-Energy Bioscience Fellows of the Life Sciences Research Foundation. Each of these was a three year fellowship. DOE-Energy Biosciences was well matched with LSRF. Our extensive peer review screened applicants in all areas of the life sciences. Most LSRF sponsors are interested in supporting fellows who work on diseases. At the time that we began our partnership with DOE we had no sponsors willing to support plant biology and non medical microbiology. For 15 years DOE played a major role in the training of the very best young scientists in these important fields of research simply through its support of LSRF post doctoral fellows. Young scientists interested in

  12. Limits of use of social media for monitoring biosecurity events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Welvaert

    Full Text Available Compared to applications that trigger massive information streams, like earthquakes and human disease epidemics, the data input for agricultural and environmental biosecurity events (ie. the introduction of unwanted exotic pests and pathogens, is expected to be sparse and less frequent. To investigate if Twitter data can be useful for the detection and monitoring of biosecurity events, we adopted a three-step process. First, we confirmed that sightings of two migratory species, the Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa and the Common Koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus are reported on Twitter. Second, we developed search queries to extract the relevant tweets for these species. The queries were based on either the taxonomic name, common name or keywords that are frequently used to describe the species (symptomatic or syndromic. Third, we validated the results using ground truth data. Our results indicate that the common name queries provided a reasonable number of tweets that were related to the ground truth data. The taxonomic query resulted in too small datasets, while the symptomatic queries resulted in large datasets, but with highly variable signal-to-noise ratios. No clear relationship was observed between the tweets from the symptomatic queries and the ground truth data. Comparing the results for the two species showed that the level of familiarity with the species plays a major role. The more familiar the species, the more stable and reliable the Twitter data. This clearly presents a problem for using social media to detect the arrival of an exotic organism of biosecurity concern for which public is unfamiliar.

  13. Negative impact of laws regarding biosecurity and bioterrorism on real diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, N; Grobusch, M P; Raoult, D

    2014-06-01

    Research on highly pathogenic microorganisms in biosafety level 3 and 4 laboratories is very important for human public health, as it provides opportunities for the development of vaccines and novel therapeutics as well as diagnostic methods to prevent epidemics. However, in recent years, after the anthrax and World Trade Center attacks in 2001 in the USA, the threat of bioterrorism has grown for both the public and the authorities. As a result, technical and physical containment measures and biosafety and biosecurity practices have been implemented in laboratories handling these dangerous pathogens. Working with selected biological agents and toxins is now highly regulated, owing to their potential to pose a threat to public health and safety, despite the fact that the anthrax attack was found to be the result of a lack of security at a US Army laboratory. Thus, these added regulations have been associated with a large amount of fruitless investment. Herein, we describe the limitations of research in these facilities, and the multiple consequences of the increased regulations. These limitations have seriously negatively impacted on the number of collaborations, the size of research projects, and, more generally, scientific research on microbial pathogens. Clearly, the actual number of known victims and fatalities caused by the intentional use of microorganisms has been negligible as compared with those caused by naturally acquired human infections. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  14. Introducing bioinformatics, the biosciences' genomic revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Zanella, Paolo

    1999-01-01

    The general audience for these lectures is mainly physicists, computer scientists, engineers or the general public wanting to know more about what’s going on in the biosciences. What’s bioinformatics and why is all this fuss being made about it ? What’s this revolution triggered by the human genome project ? Are there any results yet ? What are the problems ? What new avenues of research have been opened up ? What about the technology ? These new developments will be compared with what happened at CERN earlier in its evolution, and it is hoped that the similiraties and contrasts will stimulate new curiosity and provoke new thoughts.

  15. Biosecurity Measures Applied in the United Arab Emirates - a Comparative Study Between Livestock and Wildlife Sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaber, A L; Saegerman, C

    2017-08-01

    In 2013, the livestock population in the UAE exceeded 4.3 million heads with sheep and goats accounting for 90% of this. The overall number of captive wild ungulates (gazelle types) is difficult to assess as there is no registration system in place or enforced in the UAE with regard to the possession of wildlife. Those animal collections, mainly owned by high-ranking families, are therefore not registered and kept far from public viewing. Nonetheless, some collections are housing more than 30 000 ungulates in one location. The primary objective of this study was to describe the biosecurity measures currently applied in UAE ungulate facilities for different wildlife and livestock sectors. A secondary objective was to use the output from this biosecurity survey to investigate which sector could be categorized into risk groups for disease introduction and spread. Between October 2014 and May 2015, biosecurity questionnaire data were collected in the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah, Fujeirah, Ajman, Umm al Quwain and Sharjah from 14 wildlife collections, 30 livestock farms and 15 mixed (wildlife and livestock farms). These investigations through questionnaires allowed us to quantify and assess statistically biosecurity practices and levels for both livestock and wildlife sectors. In both sectors, biosecurity measures could be improved and only a few facilities had high biosecurity scores. The group of small unregistered farms (Ezba) represented the highest risk of disease transmission to other animals due to their lack of biosecurity awareness. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Mini-review: Assessing the drivers of ship biofouling management--aligning industry and biosecurity goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian; Scianni, Christopher; Hewitt, Chad; Everett, Richard; Holm, Eric; Tamburri, Mario; Ruiz, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling exerts a frictional and cost penalty on ships and is a direct cause of invasion by marine species. These negative consequences provide a unifying purpose for the maritime industry and biosecurity managers to prevent biofouling accumulation and transfer, but important gaps exist between these sectors. This mini-review examines the approach to assessments of ship biofouling among sectors (industry, biosecurity and marine science) and the implications for existing and emerging management of biofouling. The primary distinctions between industry and biosecurity in assessment of vessels biofouling revolve around the resolution of biological information collected and the specific wetted surface areas of primary concern to each sector. The morphological characteristics of biofouling and their effects on propulsion dynamics are of primary concern to industry, with an almost exclusive focus on the vertical sides and flat bottom of hulls and an emphasis on antifouling and operational performance. In contrast, the identity, biogeography, and ecology of translocated organisms is of highest concern to invasion researchers and biosecurity managers and policymakers, especially as it relates to species with known histories of invasion elsewhere. Current management practices often provide adequate, although not complete, provision for hull surfaces, but niche areas are well known to enhance biosecurity risk. As regulations to prevent invasions emerge in this arena, there is a growing opportunity for industry, biosecurity and academic stakeholders to collaborate and harmonize efforts to assess and manage biofouling of ships that should lead to more comprehensive biofouling solutions that promote industry goals while reducing biosecurity risk and greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of Insecticidal Activities of Some Botanicals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    IJAAAR 11 (1&2): 172-182, 2015 International Journal of Applied Agricultural and Apicultural Research. © Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, 2015. Laboratory ...... gratissimum L. Bioscience Discovery. 3(1):20-24.

  18. Challenges and Practices in Building and Implementing Biosafety and Biosecurity Programs to Enable Basic and Translational Research with Select Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Colleen B; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Roy, Chad J; Perlin, David S; Byrne, Gerald

    2013-04-29

    Select agent research in the United States must meet federally-mandated biological surety guidelines and rules which are comprised of two main components: biosecurity and biosafety. Biosecurity is the process employed for ensuring biological agents are properly safeguarded against theft, loss, diversion, unauthorized access or use/release. Biosafety is those processes that ensure that operations with such agents are conducted in a safe, secure and reliable manner. As such, a biological surety program is generally concerned with biological agents that present high risk for adverse medical and/or agricultural consequences upon release outside of proper containment. The U.S. Regional and National Biocontainment Laboratories (RBL, NBL) represent expertise in this type of research, and are actively engaged in the development of programs to address these critical needs and federal requirements. While this comprises an ongoing activity for the RBLs, NBLs and other facilities that handle select agents as new guidelines and regulations are implemented, the present article is written with the goal of presenting a simplified yet comprehensive review of these requirements. Herein, we discuss the requirements and the various activities that the RBL/NBL programs have implemented to achieve these metrics set forth by various agencies within the U.S. Federal government.

  19. THE IMPORTANCE OF APPLIED TO BIO-SECURITY PROFESSIONAL RADIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Trevisan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the importance of biosecurity in the work of technicians and technologists in Radiology. As a means of motivation research, it was observed that despite the investment of the hospitals and clinics for the improvement of radiological techniques, little has been done to prevent the spread of diseases among the professionals in radiology. To do so, held the same direction by quantitatively and qualitatively, using the analytical method and a questionnaire as the technique of analysis, with the sample of 29 professionals located in public hospitals, the School LS and in private practice. The results demonstrated that there is knowledge of biosafety among radiology professionals, but there is no understanding of the relevance of the subject by some a good portion of them.

  20. Biosecurity and Health Monitoring at the Zebrafish International Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Katrina N; Varga, Zoltán M; Kent, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    The Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) is a repository and distribution center for mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish. In recent years annual imports of new zebrafish lines to ZIRC have increased tremendously. In addition, after 15 years of research, we have identified some of the most virulent pathogens affecting zebrafish that should be avoided in large production facilities, such as ZIRC. Therefore, while importing a high volume of new lines we prioritize safeguarding the health of our in-house fish colony. Here, we describe the biosecurity and health-monitoring program implemented at ZIRC. This strategy was designed to prevent introduction of new zebrafish pathogens, minimize pathogens already present in the facility, and ensure a healthy zebrafish colony for in-house uses and shipment to customers.

  1. 77 FR 16846 - National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity Meeting; Office of Biotechnology Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity Meeting; Office of Biotechnology Activities, Office of Science Policy, Office of.... Contact Person: Ronna Hill, NSABB Program Assistant, NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities, 6705...

  2. Social representations of biosecurity in nursing: occupational health and preventive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Álvaro Francisco Lopes de; Queiroz, Artur Acelino Francisco Luz Nunes; Oliveira, Layze Braz de; Moura, Maria Eliete Batista; Batista, Odinéa Maria Amorim; Andrade, Denise de

    2016-01-01

    to understand the biosecurity social representations by primary care nursing professionals and analyze how they articulate with quality of care. exploratory and qualitative research based on social representation theory. The study participants were 36 nursing workers from primary health care in a state capital in the Northeast region of Brazil. The data were analyzed by descending hierarchical classification. five classes were obtained: occupational accidents suffered by professionals; occupational exposure to biological agents; biosecurity management in primary health care; the importance of personal protective equipment; and infection control and biosecurity. the different positions taken by the professionals seem to be based on a field of social representations related to the concept of biosecurity, namely exposure to accidents and risks to which they are exposed. However, occupational accidents are reported as inherent to the practice.

  3. Bio-Security Measures Employed by Poultry Farmers in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    In spite of this, food security, improved livelihood and attainment of self- ..... experience in farm business management enables farmers to set realistic time and ... had no significant effect on biosecurity practices of poultry farmers is inconsistent.

  4. Improving Smallholder Farmer Biosecurity in the Mekong Region Through Change Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J R; Evans-Kocinski, S; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2015-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases including foot-and-mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia remain a major constraint for improving smallholder large ruminant productivity in the Mekong region, producing negative impacts on rural livelihoods and compromising efforts to reduce poverty and food insecurity. The traditional husbandry practices of smallholders largely exclude preventive health measures, increasing risks of disease transmission. Although significant efforts have been made to understand the social aspects of change development in agricultural production, attention to improving the adoption of biosecurity has been limited. This study reviews smallholder biosecurity risk factors identified in the peer-reviewed literature and from field research observations conducted in Cambodia and Laos during 2006-2013, considering these in the context of a change management perspective aimed at improving adoption of biosecurity measures. Motivation for change, resistance to change, knowledge management, cultural dimensions, systems theory and leadership are discussed. Due to geographical, physical and resource variability, the implementation of biosecurity interventions suitable for smallholders is not a 'one size fits all'. Smallholders should be educated in biosecurity principles and empowered to make personal decisions rather than adopt prescribed pre-defined interventions. Biosecurity interventions should be aligned with smallholder farmer motivations, preferably offering clear short-term risk management benefits that elicit interest from smallholders. Linking biosecurity and disease control with improved livestock productivity provides opportunities for sustainable improvements in livelihoods. Participatory research and extension that improves farmer knowledge and practices offers a pathway to elicit sustainable broad-scale social change. However, examples of successes need to be communicated both at the 'evidence-based level' to influence regional policy

  5. State-of-the-Art in Biosafety and Biosecurity in European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bielecka, Anna; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The terms biosafety and biosecurity are widely used in different concepts and refer not only to protection of human beings and their surrounding environment against hazardous biological agent, but also to global disarmament of weapons of mass destruction. As a result, the biosafety and biosecurity issues should be considered interdisciplinary based on multilateral agreements against proliferation of biological weapons, public health and environmental protection. This publication presents info...

  6. Code of Conduct on Biosecurity for Biological Resource Centres: procedural implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Christine; Smith, David; Martin, Dunja; Fritze, Dagmar; Stalpers, Joost

    2013-07-01

    A globally applicable code of conduct specifically dedicated to biosecurity has been developed together with guidance for its procedural implementation. This is to address the regulations governing potential dual-use of biological materials, associated information and technologies, and reduce the potential for their malicious use. Scientists researching and exchanging micro-organisms have a responsibility to prevent misuse of the inherently dangerous ones, that is, those possessing characters such as pathogenicity or toxin production. The code of conduct presented here is based on best practice principles for scientists and their institutions working with biological resources with a specific focus on micro-organisms. It aims to raise awareness of regulatory needs and to protect researchers, their facilities and stakeholders. It reflects global activities in this area in response to legislation such as that in the USA, the PATRIOT Act of 2001, Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001; the Anti-Terrorism Crime and Security Act 2001 and subsequent amendments in the UK; the EU Dual-Use Regulation; and the recommendations of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), under their Biological Resource Centre (BRC) Initiative at the beginning of the millennium (OECD, 2001). Two project consortia with international partners came together with experts in the field to draw up a Code of Conduct on Biosecurity for BRCs to ensure that culture collections and microbiologists in general worked in a way that met the requirements of such legislation. A BRC is the modern day culture collection that adds value to its holdings and implements common best practice in the collection and supply of strains for research and development. This code of conduct specifically addresses the work of public service culture collections and describes the issues of importance and the controls or

  7. Indonesian perceptions on the implementation of the chemical weapons convention in relation with biosecurity and biosafety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isroil, S.

    2009-01-01

    April 29, 2007 was marked the 10 year anniversary of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) entry into force and the creation of the OPCW. Many nations throughout the last year were celebrated its commemoration. Compared to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) which is now entering the 33rd year of its entry into force, the progress of CWC is running far beyond that convention because CWC is considered the most complete convention which is equipped with a comprehensive verification system. In contrast, up till now there is no formal verification regime to monitor compliance of the BWC. So the national legislation as well as biosafety and biosecurity procedures will be the best regime to prohibit the misuse of biological agents. To some extent, the strategy and method on implementing the provision of CWC are coincident with biosecurity and biosafety procedure due to their dual use characteristics. Concerning CWC, Indonesia which was ratified it in 30 September 1998 has always active in any multilateral meeting and as well as national activities on prohibiting the misuse of chemical weapons. Several courses have also been done in cooperation with OPCW such as Development of Response System Against Chemical Weapons, Basic Training Course for Response Team, National Industry Awareness Workshop, Advance Training for Response Team, National Emergency Response Workshop, as well as setting up 20 sets of individual protective equipment. There have already 7 inspections done by OPCW in Indonesia during 2004-2007 which proved that there were no indications of misuse of chemical processes and its facilities for hostile purposes. However, it does not mean that there is no threat from the possible misuse of chemical and biological agents due to its dual use characteristics. Learnt from Indonesian experiences, there are several constraints on implementing the CWC as well as biosafety and biosecurity. First is the different perception on the biological and chemical threats. For

  8. Multimedia interactive eBooks in laboratory science education

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, NP; Lambe, J

    2017-01-01

    Bioscience students in the UK higher education system are making increasing use of technology to support their learning within taught classes and during private study. This experimental study was designed to assess the role for multimedia interactive eBooks in bioscience laboratory classes, delivered using a blended learning approach. Thirty-nine second-year students on a Biomedical Science undergraduate course in a UK university were grouped using an experimental design into alternating tria...

  9. Measuring the costs of biosecurity on poultry farms: a case study in broiler production in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekkinen Kirsi-Maarit

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Farm-level biosecurity provides the foundation for biosecurity along the entire production chain. Many risk management practices are constantly in place, regardless of whether there is a disease outbreak or not. Nonetheless, the farm-level costs of preventive biosecurity have rarely been assessed. We examined the costs incurred by preventive biosecurity for Finnish poultry farms. Methods We used a semi-structured phone interview and obtained results from 17 broiler producers and from 5 hatching egg producers, corresponding to about 10% of all producers in Finland. Results Our results indicate that the average cost of biosecurity is some 3.55 eurocent per bird for broiler producers (0.10 eurocent per bird per rearing day and 75.7 eurocent per bird for hatching egg producers (0.27 eurocent per bird per rearing day. For a batch of 75,000 broilers, the total cost would be €2,700. The total costs per bird are dependent on the annual number of birds: the higher the number of birds, the lower the cost per bird. This impact is primarily due to decreasing labour costs rather than direct monetary costs. Larger farms seem to utilise less labour per bird for biosecurity actions. There are also differences relating to the processor with which the producer is associated, as well as to the gender of the producer, with female producers investing more in biosecurity. Bird density was found to be positively related to the labour costs of biosecurity. This suggests that when the bird density is higher, greater labour resources need to be invested in their health and welfare and hence disease prevention. The use of coccidiostats as a preventive measure to control coccidiosis was found to have the largest cost variance between the producers, contributing to the direct costs. Conclusions The redesign of cost-sharing in animal diseases is currently ongoing in the European Union. Before we can assert how the risk should be shared or resort to the

  10. The (Mathematical) Modeling Process in Biosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Nestor V; Santos, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In this communication, we introduce a general framework and discussion on the role of models and the modeling process in the field of biosciences. The objective is to sum up the common procedures during the formalization and analysis of a biological problem from the perspective of Systems Biology, which approaches the study of biological systems as a whole. We begin by presenting the definitions of (biological) system and model. Particular attention is given to the meaning of mathematical model within the context of biology. Then, we present the process of modeling and analysis of biological systems. Three stages are described in detail: conceptualization of the biological system into a model, mathematical formalization of the previous conceptual model and optimization and system management derived from the analysis of the mathematical model. All along this work the main features and shortcomings of the process are analyzed and a set of rules that could help in the task of modeling any biological system are presented. Special regard is given to the formative requirements and the interdisciplinary nature of this approach. We conclude with some general considerations on the challenges that modeling is posing to current biology.

  11. Conference scene: Select Biosciences Epigenetics Europe 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Enal S

    2011-02-01

    The field of epigenetics is now on a geometric rise, driven in a large part by the realization that modifiers of chromatin are key regulators of biological processes in vivo. The three major classes of epigenetic effectors are DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications (such as acetylation, methylation or phosphorylation) and small noncoding RNAs (most notably microRNAs). In this article, I report from Select Biosciences Epigenetics Europe 2010 industry conference held on 14-15 September 2010 at The Burlington Hotel, Dublin, Ireland. This industry conference was extremely well attended with a global pool of delegates representing the academic research community, biotechnology companies and pharmaceutical companies, as well as the technology/tool developers. This conference represented the current state of the epigenetics community with cancer/oncology as a key driver. In fact, it has been estimated that approximately 45% of epigenetic researchers today identify cancer/oncology as their main area of focus vis-à-vis their epigenetic research efforts.

  12. Environmental Biosciences Quarterly Report, September - December, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2006-01-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.

  13. Environmental Biosciences Program Report for Year Three

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2006-07-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.

  14. Environmental Biosciences Program Report for Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2005-10-15

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.

  15. Environmental Biosciences Program Third Quarter Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2003-01-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risk issues. These initiatives are consistent with the Medical University's role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable the Medical University to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBP's success in convening worldwide scientific expertise is due in part to the inherent credibility the Medical University brings to the process of addressing these complex issues.

  16. Environmental Biosciences Program Fourth Quarter Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.d.

    2003-04-30

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risk issues. These initiatives are consistent with the Medical University's role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable the Medical University to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBP's success in convening worldwide scientific expertise is due in part to the inherent credibility the Medical University brings to the process of addressing these complex issues.

  17. Environmental Biosciences Program Second Quarter Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2003-12-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.

  18. Second Quarter Report Environmental Biosciences Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2002-10-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risk issues. These initiatives are consistent with the Medical University's role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable the Medical University to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBP's success in convening worldwide scientific expertise is due in part to the inherent credibility the Medical University brings to the process of addressing these complex issues.

  19. Environmental Biosciences Program Fourth Quarter Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2004-06-30

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.

  20. Environmental Biosciences Program Third Quarter Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2004-03-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.

  1. Assessment of Collaboration and Interoperability in an Information Management System to Support Bioscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L.

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical researchers often have to work on massive, detailed, and heterogeneous datasets that raise new challenges of information management. This study reports an investigation into the nature of the problems faced by the researchers in two bioscience test laboratories when dealing with their data management applications. Data were collected using ethnographic observations, questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. The major problems identified in working with these systems were related to data organization, publications, and collaboration. The interoperability standards were analyzed using a C4I framework at the level of connection, communication, consolidation, and collaboration. Such an analysis was found to be useful in judging the capabilities of data management systems at different levels of technological competency. While collaboration and system interoperability are the “must have” attributes of these biomedical scientific laboratory information management applications, usability and human interoperability are the other design concerns that must also be addressed for easy use and implementation. PMID:20351900

  2. Assessing the Need for an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    4-H livestock projects present disease transmission risks that can be reduced by the use of bio-security practices. The responsibility of teaching bio-security to youth belongs primarily to volunteer leaders, who may not be aware of the importance of these practices. A needs assessment for an online educational module about bio-security revealed…

  3. Biosecurity practices on Australian commercial layer and meat chicken farms: Performance and perceptions of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela Bullanday; Singh, Mini; Groves, Peter; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Barnes, Belinda; Glass, Kathryn; Moloney, Barbara; Black, Amanda; Toribio, Jenny-Ann

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the level of adoption of biosecurity practices performed on Australian commercial chicken meat and layer farms and farmer-perceived importance of these practices. On-farm interviews were conducted on 25 free range layer farms, nine cage layer farms, nine barn layer farms, six free range meat chicken farms and 15 barn meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin bioregion and South East Queensland. There was a high level of treatment of drinking water across all farm types; town water was the most common source. In general, meat chicken farms had a higher level of adoption of biosecurity practices than layer farms. Cage layer farms had the shortest median distance between sheds (7.75m) and between sheds and waterbodies (30m). Equipment sharing between sheds was performed on 43% of free range meat chicken farms compared to 92% of free range layer farms. There was little disinfection of this shared equipment across all farm types. Footbaths and visitor recording books were used by the majority of farms for all farm types except cage layer farms (25%). Wild birds in sheds were most commonly reported in free range meat chicken farms (73%). Dogs and cats were kept across all farm types, from 56% of barn layer farms to 89% of cage layer farms, and they had access to the sheds in the majority (67%) of cage layer farms and on the range in some free range layer farms (44%). Most biosecurity practices were rated on average as 'very important' by farmers. A logistic regression analysis revealed that for most biosecurity practices, performing a practice was significantly associated with higher perceived farmer importance of that biosecurity practice. These findings help identify farm types and certain biosecurity practices with low adoption levels. This information can aid decision-making on efforts used to improve adoption levels.

  4. Medical Tourism, Medical Migration, and Global Justice: Implications for Biosecurity in a Globalized World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I Glenn

    2017-05-01

    We live in the age of globalization. In medicine, that globalization has brought many benefits such as the diffusion of technology and the spread of health care training, but it has also brought threats to biosecurity. This article examines how medical tourism and medical migration pose risks to biosecurity. It also argues that designing legal responses to these risks requires not only technical competence but also a theory of global justice to guide that design. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [Biosecurity and clinical care nursing: contributions for the promotion of worker's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Samanta Rauber; Fontana, Rosane Teresinha

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative study that aimed at investigating concepts and practices of nursing technicians on biosecurity and its interface with biological hazards, with 20 workers developed a clinical care unit of a hospital in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul. Data were collected through interviews and systematic observation. Thematic analysis was the methodology used for data processing. The negligence of its employees on the use of individual protection equipment and work overload are risk factors for accidents with biological material. Suggested that partnerships between the actors involved in caring for the construction of healthy environments and accountability for negligence on biosecurity.

  6. Associations between biosecurity practices and bovine digital dermatitis in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Victor Henrique Silva de; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Thomsen, Peter T.

    2017-01-01

    as negative or positive for DD at the hind legs during milking in the milking parlor. Information about biosecurity was obtained through questionnaires addressed to farmers, on-farm observations, and information from the Danish Cattle Database (www.seges.dk). These assessment tools covered potential infection...... among cows and herds were 24 and 97%, respectively; the within-herd DD prevalence ranged from 0 to 56%. Poor external biosecurity measures associated with higher prevalence of DD were recent animal purchase, access to pasture, lack of boots available for visitors, farm staff working at other dairy farms...

  7. Environmental Biosciences Program Report for Year 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2007-04-30

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene and low-dose ionizing radiation. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the DOE. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making. Questions, comments or requests for further information concerning the activities under this

  8. Environmental Biosciences Program Fourth Quarter Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2005-06-30

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation s need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs), and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making. Questions, comments or requests for further information concerning the activities under this cooperative agreement can be forwarded to Dr. Lawrence C. Mohr in the EBP office of the Medical University of South Carolina at (843) 792-1532.

  9. Environmental Biosciences Program Second Quarter Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2004-12-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making. Questions, comments or requests for further information concerning the activities under this cooperative agreement can be forwarded to Dr. Lawrence C. Mohr in the EBP office of the Medical University of South Carolina at (843) 792-1532.

  10. Environmental Biosciences Report for Year 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2007-10-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene and low-dose ionizing radiation. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the DOE. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk based decision-making. Questions, comments or requests for further information concerning the activities under this

  11. Erratum Journal of Biosciences Volume 34, Number 2, November ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    (1) Page 709, Introduction, 4th line from top: 3500 m to be read as 500 m. (2) Page 710, Figure 2 caption, line 1: 3500 m to be read as 500 m. The above corrections require to be made in the printed version of the article. The article that appear on the Journal of. Biosciences Web site will contain these corrections.

  12. Challenges in Understanding Photosynthesis in a University Introductory Biosciences Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södervik, Ilona; Virtanen, Viivi; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2015-01-01

    University students' understanding of photosynthesis was examined in a large introductory biosciences class. The focus of this study was to first examine the conceptions of photosynthesis among students in class and then to investigate how a certain type of text could enhance students' understanding of photosynthesis. The study was based on pre-…

  13. Integrating anticipated nutrigenomics bioscience applications with ethical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levesque, L.; Ozdemir, V.; Gremmen, B.; Godard, B.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrigenomics is a subspecialty of nutrition science which aims to understand how gene-diet interactions influence individuals' response to food, disease susceptibility, and population health. Yet ethical enquiry into this field is being outpaced by nutrigenomics bioscience. The ethical issues

  14. Biosecurity and yield improvement technologies are strategic complements in the fight against food insecurity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Cook

    Full Text Available The delivery of food security via continued crop yield improvement alone is not an effective food security strategy, and must be supported by pre- and post-border biosecurity policies to guard against perverse outcomes. In the wake of the green revolution, yield gains have been in steady decline, while post-harvest crop losses have increased as a result of insufficiently resourced and uncoordinated efforts to control spoilage throughout global transport and storage networks. This paper focuses on the role that biosecurity is set to play in future food security by preventing both pre- and post-harvest losses, thereby protecting crop yield. We model biosecurity as a food security technology that may complement conventional yield improvement policies if the gains in global farm profits are sufficient to offset the costs of implementation and maintenance. Using phytosanitary measures that slow global spread of the Ug99 strain of wheat stem rust as an example of pre-border biosecurity risk mitigation and combining it with post-border surveillance and invasive alien species control efforts, we estimate global farm profitability may be improved by over US$4.5 billion per annum.

  15. Towards a global barcode library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) tussock moths of biosecurity concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy R. deWaard; Andrew Mitchell; Melody A. Keena; David Gopurenko; Laura M. Boykin; Karen F. Armstrong; Michael G. Pogue; Joao Lima; Robin Floyd; Robert H. Hanner; Leland M. Humble

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates the efficacy of DNA barcodes for diagnosing species of Lymantria and reinforces the view that the approach is an under-utilized resource with substantial potential for biosecurity and surveillance. Biomonitoring agencies currently employing the NB restriction digest system would gather more information by transitioning to the...

  16. Biosecurity and bird movement practices in upland game bird facilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Katharine E; Hill, Ashley E; Keefe, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2011-06-01

    Since 1996, the emergence of Asian-origin highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 has spurred great concern for the global poultry industry. In the United States, there is concern over the potential of a foreign avian disease incursion into the country. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as upland game bird facilities in the United States, may serve as a potential source of avian disease introduction to other bird populations including the commercial poultry industry, backyard flocks, or wildlife. In order to evaluate how to prevent disease transmission from these facilities to other populations, we examined biosecurity practices and bird movement within the upland game bird industry in the United States. Persons that held a current permit to keep, breed, or release upland game birds were surveyed for information on biosecurity practices, flock and release environments, and bird movement parameters. Biosecurity practices vary greatly among permit holders. Many facilities allow for interaction between wild birds and pen-reared birds, and there is regular long-distance movement of live adult birds among facilities. Results suggest that upland game bird facilities should be targeted for biosecurity education and disease surveillance efforts.

  17. Creating a framework for the prioritization of biosecurity risks to the New Zealand dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, P; Hodges, D; Ahlstrom, C; Newman, M; Davidson, R; Pfeiffer, D; Marshall, J; Morley, C

    2018-03-25

    The New Zealand dairy sector relies on robust biosecurity measures to control and mitigate a wide range of threats to the industry. To optimize the prioritization of organisms and manage the risk they pose to the sector in a transparent and credible way, the Dairy Biosecurity Risk Evaluation Framework (D-BRiEF) was developed. This comprehensive framework was specifically designed for decision support, using a standardized approach to address the full spectrum of biosecurity threats to the sector, including exotic and endemic animal disease organisms, pest plants and insects. D-BRiEF is underpinned by three main processes, namely (i) hazard identification; (ii) multicriteria risk assessment; and (iii) communication for risk management. Expert knowledge and empirical data, including associated uncertainty, are harnessed in a standardized format. Results feed into a probability-impact model that was developed in close collaboration with dairy sector economists to provide overall comparative 10-year quantitative economic impact estimates for each assessed risk organism. A description of the overarching framework, which applies to diverse organism groups, is presented with detailed methodology on both endemic and exotic animal disease risk organisms. Examples of visual outputs are included, although actual ranking results are not reported due to industry confidentiality. D-BRiEF can provide a decision advantage to DairyNZ biosecurity risk managers and sector stakeholders by creating a transparent process that can be interrogated and updated at multiple levels to fully understand the layers of risk posed by different organisms. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. On-farm characteristics and biosecurity protocols for small-scale swine producers in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, N; Hernandez-Jover, M; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are considered high risk for the introduction and spread of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Australia. Facilities where animals from different origins are commingled, such as saleyards, pose a high risk for disease spread. Sound on-farm management practices and biosecurity protocols are the first line of defence against a potential on-farm disease outbreak. This study evaluated the practices of 104 producers (vendors who sold pigs and purchasers of live pigs for grow-out) who traded pigs at 6 peri-urban and rural saleyards in eastern Australia. Specifically, management and on-farm biosecurity practices were assessed using an in-depth questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate (1) producer associations: producer type, State, motivation to keep pigs, farm type, gender, years having owned pigs, and the acquisition of formal livestock qualifications; and (2) pig associations: herd size, housing, management (husbandry and feeding) practices and biosecurity (including pig movement) practices. Backyard operations (Motivation for keeping pigs was significantly associated with a number of biosecurity practices. Producers who kept pigs for primary income were more likely to provide footwear precautions (P=0.007) and ask visitors about prior pig contacts (P=0.004). Approximately 40% of backyard and small-scale producers reported not having any quarantine practices in place for incoming pigs, compared to only 9.1% among larger producers. The main reasons cited for not adopting on-farm biosecurity practices in this study included having no need on their property (43.1%) and a lack of information and support (by the industry and/or authorities; 18.5%). Up to three-quarters of all producers maintained an open breeding herd, regularly introducing new pigs to the main herd. Saleyards are an important source of income for backyard and small-scale producers as well as an important risk factor for the introduction and

  19. Digitizing and Securing Archived Laboratory Notebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporizzo, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    The Information Group at Millipore has been successfully using a digital rights management tool to secure the email distribution of archived laboratory notebooks. Millipore is a life science leader providing cutting-edge technologies, tools, and services for bioscience research and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Consisting of four full-time…

  20. On-farm biosecurity practices and causes of preweaning mortality in Canadian commercial mink kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compo, Nicole; Pearl, David L; Tapscott, Brian; Storer, Amanda; Hammermueller, Jutta; Brash, Marina; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-09-08

    Mink are an important animal commodity group in Canada and excessive kit mortality represents a significant loss to production. National biosecurity standards have been developed for Canadian mink farms, but it is unclear how well these standards have been implemented as there are no studies correlating management practices of mink producers with causes of death in mink kits. To that end, we surveyed Ontario mink producers on their biosecurity and management practices and conducted almost 5660 post mortem examinations on found-dead, preweaned kits to characterize mink farm biosecurity practices and causes of death in preweaned kits. We found that very few biosecurity and management practices were uniformly used by producers, despite good awareness of appropriate practices. Use of personal protective equipment was implemented by fewer than 50% of respondents, while control of mink shed access, disinfection of feed containers after use, and use of a rodent control program were the only practices implemented by greater than 70% of respondents. Only 18% of producers reported regular use of antimicrobials in feed or water, although 91% stated they used antimicrobials for treatment of bacterial diseases on a regular basis. On post mortem examination, no gross abnormalities were noted in 71% of the kits, 45% were thought to be stillborn or aborted, 27% had some form of abnormal fluid distribution in the body, and 2% had a congenital malformation. A subset of 69 gastrointestinal tract samples was submitted for bacterial culture, of which 45 samples yielded sufficient growth. Most interesting was the identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in 11% of samples. The results of this study will provide a benchmark for Canadian mink producers and their veterinarians, defining the areas to which greater attention should be given to ensure more rigorous biosecurity practices are in place. Ultimately, these improvements in practices may contribute to increased mink

  1. A preliminary exploration of Advanced Molecular Bio-Sciences Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yutaka; Yanai, Takanori; Onodera, Jun'ichi; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Sakata, Hiroshi; Sota, Masahiro; Takemura, Tatsuo; Koyama, Kenji; Sato, Fumiaki

    2000-01-01

    Low-dose and low-dose-rate radiation effects on life-span, pathological changes, hemopoiesis and cytokine production in experimental animals have been investigated in our laboratory. In the intermediate period of the investigation, an expert committee on radiation biology, which was composed of two task groups, was organized. The purposes of the committee were to assess of previous studies and plan future research for Advanced Molecular Bio-Sciences Research Center (AMBIC). In its report, the committee emphasized the necessity of molecular research in radiation biology and ecology, and proposed six subjects for the research: 1) Molecular carcinogenesis of low-dose radiation; 2) Radiation effects on the immune system and hemopoietic system; 3) Molecular mechanisms of hereditary effect; 4) Non cancer effect of low-dose radiation; 5) Gene targeting for ion transport system in plants; 6) Bioremediation with transgenic plant and bacteria. Exploration of the AMBIC project will continue under the committee's direction. (author)

  2. A preliminary exploration of the advanced molecular bio-sciences research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Takanori; Yamada, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kimio; Yamagami, Mutsumi; Sota, Masahiro; Takemura, Tatsuo; Koyama, Kenji; Sato, Fumiaki

    2001-01-01

    Low dose and low dose rate radiation effects on lifespan, pathological changes, hemopoiesis and cytokine production in mice have been investigated in our laboratory. In the intermediate period of the investigation, an expert committee on radiation biology was organized. The purposes of the committee were to assess previous studies and advise on a future research plan for the Advanced Molecular Bio-Sciences Research Center (AMBIC). The committee emphasized the necessity of molecular research in radiation biology, and proposed the following five subjects: 1) molecular carcinogenesis by low dose radiation; 2) radiation effects on the immune and hemopoietic systems; 3) molecular mechanisms of hereditary effect; 4) noncancer diseases of low dose radiation, and 5) cellular mechanisms by low dose radiation. (author)

  3. Biosecurity and Biodefense: Lessons from Ebola Virus Outbreak

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lebea, Phiyani J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available , should a contagious outbreak be suspected. Such a policy would be adopted by regional member states since diseases such as Ebola respect no national boundaries. Secondly, research infrastructure including BSL 4 laboratories that address research on animal...

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artemisia desertorum Spreng; drought tolerance; mRNA differential display; RING zinc ... Semi-quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction ... College of Life Sciences, National Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant ...

  5. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    UV-B induces intensity and time dependent inhibition of photosynthetic O evolution ... synthesis of D1 protein is not the only component involved in the recovery process. ... Stress Physiology Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute, ...

  6. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Animals often evaluate the degree of risk posed by a predator and respond ... lizards (Psammophilus dorsalis) can perceive these two indicators of predation risk by ... GKVK Campus, Bellary Road, Bangalore 560 065, India; Key Laboratory of ...

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Pontoscolex corethrurus, Polypheretima elongata and Drawida nepalensis and decreased in the epigeic worms, Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii, within a temperature range between 28–32°C under laboratory conditions.

  8. Can biosecurity and local network properties predict pathogen species richness in the salmonid industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Simon J.; Geoghegan, Fiona; McManus, Catherine; Hill, Ashley E.; Martínez-López, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Salmonid farming in Ireland is mostly organic, which implies limited disease treatment options. This highlights the importance of biosecurity for preventing the introduction and spread of infectious agents. Similarly, the effect of local network properties on infection spread processes has rarely been evaluated. In this paper, we characterized the biosecurity of salmonid farms in Ireland using a survey, and then developed a score for benchmarking the disease risk of salmonid farms. The usefulness and validity of this score, together with farm indegree (dichotomized as ≤ 1 or > 1), were assessed through generalized Poisson regression models, in which the modeled outcome was pathogen richness, defined here as the number of different diseases affecting a farm during a year. Seawater salmon (SW salmon) farms had the highest biosecurity scores with a median (interquartile range) of 82.3 (5.4), followed by freshwater salmon (FW salmon) with 75.2 (8.2), and freshwater trout (FW trout) farms with 74.8 (4.5). For FW salmon and trout farms, the top ranked model (in terms of leave-one-out information criteria, looic) was the null model (looic = 46.1). For SW salmon farms, the best ranking model was the full model with both predictors and their interaction (looic = 33.3). Farms with a higher biosecurity score were associated with lower pathogen richness, and farms with indegree > 1 (i.e. more than one fish supplier) were associated with increased pathogen richness. The effect of the interaction between these variables was also important, showing an antagonistic effect. This would indicate that biosecurity effectiveness is achieved through a broader perspective on the subject, which includes a minimization in the number of suppliers and hence in the possibilities for infection to enter a farm. The work presented here could be used to elaborate indicators of a farm’s disease risk based on its biosecurity score and indegree, to inform risk-based disease surveillance and

  9. Can biosecurity and local network properties predict pathogen species richness in the salmonid industry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadaishi Yatabe

    Full Text Available Salmonid farming in Ireland is mostly organic, which implies limited disease treatment options. This highlights the importance of biosecurity for preventing the introduction and spread of infectious agents. Similarly, the effect of local network properties on infection spread processes has rarely been evaluated. In this paper, we characterized the biosecurity of salmonid farms in Ireland using a survey, and then developed a score for benchmarking the disease risk of salmonid farms. The usefulness and validity of this score, together with farm indegree (dichotomized as ≤ 1 or > 1, were assessed through generalized Poisson regression models, in which the modeled outcome was pathogen richness, defined here as the number of different diseases affecting a farm during a year. Seawater salmon (SW salmon farms had the highest biosecurity scores with a median (interquartile range of 82.3 (5.4, followed by freshwater salmon (FW salmon with 75.2 (8.2, and freshwater trout (FW trout farms with 74.8 (4.5. For FW salmon and trout farms, the top ranked model (in terms of leave-one-out information criteria, looic was the null model (looic = 46.1. For SW salmon farms, the best ranking model was the full model with both predictors and their interaction (looic = 33.3. Farms with a higher biosecurity score were associated with lower pathogen richness, and farms with indegree > 1 (i.e. more than one fish supplier were associated with increased pathogen richness. The effect of the interaction between these variables was also important, showing an antagonistic effect. This would indicate that biosecurity effectiveness is achieved through a broader perspective on the subject, which includes a minimization in the number of suppliers and hence in the possibilities for infection to enter a farm. The work presented here could be used to elaborate indicators of a farm's disease risk based on its biosecurity score and indegree, to inform risk-based disease surveillance and

  10. Exploring the role of small-scale livestock keepers for national biosecurity-The pig case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Gomes, Carla; Henry, Madeleine K; Auty, Harriet K; Gunn, George J

    2017-09-15

    Small-scale keepers are less likely to engage with production organisations and may therefore be less aware of legislation, rules and biosecurity practices which are implemented in the livestock sector. Their role in the transmission of endemic and exotic diseases is not well studied, but is believed to be important. The authors use small-scale pig keepers in Scotland as an example of how important small-scale livestock keepers might be for national biosecurity. In Scotland more than two thirds of pig producers report that they keep less than 10 pigs, meaning that biosecurity practices and pig health status on a substantial number of holdings are largely unknown; it is considered important to fill this knowledge gap. A questionnaire was designed and implemented in order to gather some of this information. The questionnaire comprised a total of 37 questions divided into seven sections (location of the enterprise, interest in pigs, details about the pig enterprise, marketing of pigs, transport of pigs, pig husbandry, and pig health/biosecurity). Over 610 questionnaires were sent through the post and the questionnaire was also available online. The questionnaire was implemented from June to October 2013 and 135 questionnaires were returned by target respondents. The responses for each question are discussed in detail in this paper. Overall, our results suggest that the level of disease identified by small-scale pig keepers is low but the majority of the small-scale pig keepers are mixed farms, with associated increased risk for disease transmission between species. Almost all respondents implemented at least one biosecurity measure, although the measures taken were not comprehensive in the majority of cases. Overall as interaction between small-scale keepers and commercial producers exists in Scotland the former can pose a risk for commercial production. This investigation fills gaps in knowledge which will allow industry stakeholders and policy makers to adapt their

  11. Avian influenza transmission risks: analysis of biosecurity measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssematimba, A; Hagenaars, T J; de Wit, J J; Ruiterkamp, F; Fabri, T H; Stegeman, J A; de Jong, M C M

    2013-04-01

    In the 2003 epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Dutch poultry, between-farm virus transmission continued for considerable time despite control measures. Gaining more insight into the mechanisms of this spread is necessary for the possible development of better control strategies. We carried out an in-depth interview study aiming to systematically explore all the poultry production activities to identify the activities that could potentially be related to virus introduction and transmission. One of the between-farm contact risks that were identified is the movement of birds between farms during thinning with violations of on-farm biosecurity protocols. In addition, several other risky management practices, risky visitor behaviours and biosecurity breaches were identified. They include human and fomite contacts that occurred without observing biosecurity protocols, poor waste management practices, presence of other animal species on poultry farms, and poor biosecurity against risks from farm neighbourhood activities. Among the detailed practices identified, taking cell phones and jewellery into poultry houses, not observing shower-in protocols and the exchange of unclean farm equipment were common. Also, sometimes certain protocols or biosecurity facilities were lacking. We also asked the interviewed farmers about their perception of transmission risks and found that they had divergent opinions about the visitor- and neighbourhood-associated risks. We performed a qualitative assessment of contact risks (as transmission pathways) based on contact type, corresponding biosecurity practices, and contact frequency. This assessment suggests that the most risky contact types are bird movements during thinning and restocking, most human movements accessing poultry houses and proximity to other poultry farms. The overall risk posed by persons and equipment accessing storage rooms and the premises-only contacts was considered to be medium. Most of the exposure

  12. Bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry an engineering and molecular approach

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amore, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry stands at the intersection of the power and generality of classical and quantum physics with the minute molecular complexity of chemistry and biology. This book provides an application of physical principles in explaining and rationalizing chemical and biological phenomena. It does not stick to the classical topics that are conventionally considered as part of physical chemistry; instead it presents principles deciphered from a modern point of view, which is the strength of this book.

  13. From biodefence to biosecurity: the Obama administration's strategy for countering biological threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblentz, Gregory D

    2012-01-01

    The Seventh Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), the first international treaty to outlaw an entire class of weapons, was held in Geneva in December 2011. On 7 December, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton became the highest-ranking US government official to address a BWC meeting. Secretary Clinton told the assembled delegation that ‘we view the risk of bioweapons attack as both a serious national security challenge and a foreign policy priority’. At the same time, she warned that a large-scale disease outbreak ‘could cripple an already fragile global economy’. Secretary Clinton's speech reflected a new understanding that the range of biological threats to international security has expanded from state-sponsored biological warfare programmes to include biological terrorism, dual-use research and naturally occurring infectious diseases such as pandemics. Recognizing these changes, President Barack Obama released a new national strategy for countering biological threats in 2009. This strategy represents a shift in thinking away from the George W. Bush administration's focus on biodefence, which emphasized preparing for and responding to biological weapon attacks, to the concept of biosecurity, which includes measures to prevent, prepare for and respond to naturally occurring and man-made biological threats. The Obama administration's biosecurity strategy seeks to reduce the global risk of naturally occurring and deliberate disease outbreaks through prevention, international cooperation, and maximizing synergies between health and security. The biosecurity strategy is closely aligned with the Obama administration's broader approach to foreign policy, which emphasizes the pragmatic use of smart power, multilateralism and engagement to further the national interest. This article describes the Obama administration's biosecurity strategy; highlights elements of continuity and change from the policies of the Bush administration; discusses

  14. Bio-security measures employed by poultry farmers in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major bio-security measures used by farmers include: inspection of flock daily to pick mortalities (x̄ =3.7), isolation and quarantine of sick birds (x̄ =3.7), vaccination of birds (x̄ =3.6), as well as adequate cleaning of feeding and drinking troughs (x̄ =3.6). The standardized coefficients for age (0.327), farming experience ...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The poxvirus, myxoma virus, encodes within its genome at least eleven different proteins that compromise, skew, or disable the innate and adaptive responses of its hosts. In the laboratory rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, these effects result in myxomatosis, a fatal condition characterized by skin lesions and systemic ...

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABCA1 C69T gene polymorphism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Saudi ... Decreased serum levels of HDL-C have often been observed in T2DM cases, and ... Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila nasuta albomicans are cross-fertile races of Drosophila. Hybridization between these races in the laboratory has given rise to new races (Cytoraces), among which karyotypic composition differs from one another and also from those of the parental races. In this study, we search for ...

  18. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that chromosome segment duplications (Dps) longer than ∼300 kbp can dominantly suppress RIP, presumably by titration of the RIP machinery, and that although Dps < 200 kbp did not individually suppress RIP, they could do so in homozygous and multiply heterozygous ...

  19. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Study of inter-specific variation in the FTs of plants aids in classifying species into plant functional types (PFTs) and provides insights into fundamental patterns and ... Ecosystems Analysis Laboratory, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India; Institute of Environment and Sustainable ...

  20. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biochemical characterization of plant antifreeze activity, as determined by the high ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activities and low thermal hysteresis (TH) of AFPs, showed that their main function is ... Molecular Plant Physiology and Proteomics Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India ...

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report here that far from being inert molecules, circulating nucleic acids have significant biological activities of their own that are deleterious to healthy cells of ... Integrated Cancer Genomics Laboratory; Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer,Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai ...

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Ruoxue Liu1 Beibei Lü1 Xiaomeng Wang1 Chunling Zhang1 Shuping Zhang1 Jun Qian1 Lei Chen1 Haojie Shi1 Hansong Dong1. State Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Crop Pathogens and Insect Pests, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China ...

  3. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Anjali Verma1 Nikhil Kumar2 S A Ranade1. Plant Molecular Biology, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001, India; Betelvine Laboratories, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226 001, India ...

  4. 75 FR 64733 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...] Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal AGENCY: Food... announcing that Arcadia Biosciences, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations..., Davis, CA 95618. The petition proposes to amend the food additive regulations in part 573 Food Additives...

  5. Associations between biosecurity and outbreaks of canine distemper on Danish mink farms in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregers-Jensen, Louise; Agger, Jens Frederik; Hammer, Anne Sofie Vedsted; Andresen, Lars; Chrièl, Mariann; Hagberg, Emma; Jensen, Mette Kragh; Hansen, Mette Sif; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Struve, Tina

    2015-09-30

    During 8 months from July 2012 to February 2013, a major outbreak of canine distemper involving 64 mink farms occurred on the Danish peninsula of Jutland. The canine distemper outbreak was associated with exposure of farmed mink to infected wild carnivores and could represent a deficit in biosecurity on the mink farms. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and association of specific biosecurity measures with the outbreak. The study was carried out in an epidemiological case-control design. The case group consisted of the 61 farms, which had a confirmed outbreak of canine distemper from July 2012 to February 2013. The control group included 54 farms without an outbreak of canine distemper in 2012 or 2013, selected as the closest geographical neighbour to a case farm. The results showed that significantly more control than case farms had vaccinated their mink against canine distemper virus. Mortality was only assessed on the case farms, and there was a non-significantly lower mortality on vaccinated farms than on the non-vaccinated farms. Furthermore, the proportion of farms with observations of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inside the farm enclosures were larger for case farms, indicating that the control farms had a better biosecurity or were not equally exposed to canine distemper virus. Generally, all farms had very few specific precautions at the gate entrance in respect to human visitors as well as animals. The use of biosecurity measures was very variable in both case and control farms. Not using plastic boot covers, presence of dogs and cats, presence of demarcated area for changing clothes when entering and leaving the farm area and presence of hand washing facilities significantly lowered the odds of the farm having a canine distemper virus outbreak. The results of the study indicate that consistent use of correct vaccination strategies, implementation of biosecurity measures and limiting human and animal access to the mink farm can be

  6. Invertebrate biosecurity challenges in high productivity grassland: the New Zealand example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Latham Goldson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To protect productive grasslands from pests and diseases, effective pre- and at-border planning and interventions are necessary. Biosecurity failure inevitably requires particularly expensive and difficult eradication, or long term and often quite ineffective management strategies. Early intervention is more likely for sectors where there is public and political interest in plants of immediate economic and/or social value and where associated pests are typically located above-ground on host plantings of limited distribution. Here, biosecurity surveillance and responses can be readily designed. In contrast, pastures comprising plants of low inherent unit value that create little, if any, aesthetic interest. Yet, given the vast extent of pasture in New Zealand and the value of the associated industries, these plants are of immense economic importance. Compounding this is the invasibility of New Zealand’s pastoral’s ecosystems through a lack of biotic resistance to incursion and invasion. Further, given the sheer area of pasture, intervention options are limited because of costs per unit area and the potential for pollution if pesticides are used. Biosecurity risk for pastoral products differs from, say, fruit imports where at least part of an invasive pathway can be recognised and risks assessed. The ability to do this via pastoral sector pathways is much reduced, since risk organisms more frequently arrive via hitchhiker pathways which are diffuse and varied. Further, pasture pests within grassland ecosystems are typically cryptic, often with subterranean larval stages. Such characteristics make detection and response particularly difficult. The consequences of this threatens to add to the already-increasing stressors of production intensification and climate change.This review explores the unique challenges for pasture biosecurity, and what may be done to confront existing difficulties. While there is no silver bullet, opportunities for

  7. The De Novo Synthesis of Horsepox Virus: Implications for Biosecurity and Recommendations for Preventing the Reemergence of Smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblentz, Gregory D

    In March 2017, the American biotech company Tonix announced that a Canadian scientist had synthesized horsepox virus as part of a project to develop a safer vaccine against smallpox. The first de novo synthesis of an orthopoxvirus, a closely related group of viruses that includes horsepox and the variola virus that causes smallpox, crosses an important Rubicon in the field of biosecurity. The synthesis of horsepox virus takes the world one step closer to the reemergence of smallpox as a threat to global health security. That threat has been held at bay for the past 40 years by the extreme difficulty of obtaining variola virus and the availability of effective medical countermeasures. The techniques demonstrated by the synthesis of horsepox have the potential to erase both of these barriers. The primary risk posed by this research is that it will open the door to the routine and widespread synthesis of other orthopoxviruses, such as vaccinia, for use in research, public health, and medicine. The normalization and globalization of orthopoxvirus synthesis for these beneficial applications will create a cadre of laboratories and scientists that will also have the capability and expertise to create infectious variola virus from synthetic DNA. Unless the safeguards against the synthesis of variola virus are strengthened, the capability to reintroduce smallpox into the human population will be globally distributed and either loosely or completely unregulated, providing the foundation for a disgruntled or radicalized scientist, sophisticated terrorist group, unscrupulous company, or rogue state to recreate one of humanity's most feared microbial enemies. The reemergence of smallpox-because of a laboratory accident or an intentional release-would be a global health disaster. International organizations, national governments, the DNA synthesis industry, and the synthetic biology community all have a role to play in devising new approaches to preventing the reemergence of

  8. Full text and figure display improves bioscience literature search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divoli, Anna; Wooldridge, Michael A; Hearst, Marti A

    2010-04-14

    When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine, a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface.

  9. Full text and figure display improves bioscience literature search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Divoli

    Full Text Available When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine, a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface.

  10. Course-based undergraduate research experiences in molecular biosciences-patterns, trends, and faculty support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jack T H

    2017-08-15

    Inquiry-driven learning, research internships and course-based undergraduate research experiences all represent mechanisms through which educators can engage undergraduate students in scientific research. In life sciences education, the benefits of undergraduate research have been thoroughly evaluated, but limitations in infrastructure and training can prevent widespread uptake of these practices. It is not clear how faculty members can integrate complex laboratory techniques and equipment into their unique context, while finding the time and resources to implement undergraduate research according to best practice guidelines. This review will go through the trends and patterns in inquiry-based undergraduate life science projects with particular emphasis on molecular biosciences-the research-aligned disciplines of biochemistry, molecular cell biology, microbiology, and genomics and bioinformatics. This will provide instructors with an overview of the model organisms, laboratory techniques and research questions that are adaptable for semester-long projects, and serve as starting guidelines for course-based undergraduate research. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. SBBN 2010: 7. Congress of the Brazilian Society of Nuclear Biosciences. Radiations in biosciences: advances and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Advance and new perspectives related to the use of ionizing and no ionizing radiations in nuclear biosciences are presented. Multidisciplinary approach, including radiopharmacy, radioprotection and dosimetry, cytogenetic, biosafety, radioecology, environmental toxicology are studied. Topics of Nuclear medicine, radiotherapy and image diagnosis, such as computerized tomography, PET scan, phantoms, biomedical radiography, are reported. Use of radioisotopes, evaluation of radiation dose rates, radiation dose distribution, radiation monitoring is considered. Environmental impact of radiation are also in human beings, animals and for several purposes are analyzed. (MAC)

  12. One-health approach as counter-measure against "autoimmune" responses in biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsaers, Inge

    2015-03-01

    This Swine flu pandemic of 2009 and the potential Avian flu threat of 2011-2012 have revived a most challenging debate on protection against infectious diseases. The response to the Swine flu pandemic has been ambivalent, both on the societal (political) and the scientific level. While some scientists warned against potential massive loss of human lives and urged for immediate and large-scale vaccination, others accused them of unnecessary scaremongering, arguing that the pandemic would not be that severe. The lab-created virulent Avian flu virus - which has been created in order to 'fight' a potential Avian flu pandemic - sparked a fierce debate on the dual-use risks of such a pre-emptive strategy. This article involves an analysis of the medical-political response to these recent viral threats using Peter Sloterdijk's immunological framework as diagnostic tool. In his trilogy Spheres Sloterdijk uses immunological concepts to analyse and assess the contemporary biopolitical situation. It shows how drawing a parallel between the functioning of the biological immune system and "immune responses" on socio-political level enables to assess and reconceptualise biosecurity. It demonstrates that ideas such as "nature is the biggest terrorist" - as advanced by many virologists - sometimes result in exaggerated "immunisation responses". This strong defensive attitude sometimes brings about collateral damage. In other words, fierce biosecurity measures sometimes risk developing into "autoimmune" responses that actually destruct the body politic they are meant to protect. By drawing on recent insights in the functioning of the biological immune system it is shown how a One-Health approach that incorporates a broader and nuanced "immunological" repertoire could act as counter-measure against "autoimmune" responses in biosecurity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SurF: an innovative framework in biosecurity and animal health surveillance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, Petra; Watts, Jonathan; Bingham, Paul; Bullians, Mark; Gould, Brendan; Pande, Anjali; Riding, Tim; Stevens, Paul; Vink, Daan; Stärk, Katharina Dc

    2018-05-16

    Surveillance for biosecurity hazards is being conducted by the New Zealand Competent Authority, the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) to support New Zealand's biosecurity system. Surveillance evaluation should be an integral part of the surveillance life cycle, as it provides a means to identify and correct problems and to sustain and enhance the existing strengths of a surveillance system. The surveillance evaluation Framework (SurF) presented here was developed to provide a generic framework within which the MPI biosecurity surveillance portfolio, and all of its components, can be consistently assessed. SurF is an innovative, cross-sectoral effort that aims to provide a common umbrella for surveillance evaluation in the animal, plant, environment and aquatic sectors. It supports the conduct of the following four distinct components of an evaluation project: (i) motivation for the evaluation, (ii) scope of the evaluation, (iii) evaluation design and implementation and (iv) reporting and communication of evaluation outputs. Case studies, prepared by MPI subject matter experts, are included in the framework to guide users in their assessment. Three case studies were used in the development of SurF in order to assure practical utility and to confirm usability of SurF across all included sectors. It is anticipated that the structured approach and information provided by SurF will not only be of benefit to MPI but also to other New Zealand stakeholders. Although SurF was developed for internal use by MPI, it could be applied to any surveillance system in New Zealand or elsewhere. © 2018 2018 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Epidemiology of avian influenza in wild aquatic birds in a biosecurity hotspot, North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Burgess, Graham William; Cheam, Ai Lee; Skerratt, Lee Francis

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds may introduce highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza from Southeast Asia into Australia via North Queensland, a key stopover along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, with severe consequences for trade and human health. A 3-year repeated cross sectional study on the epidemiology of avian influenza in Australian nomadic wild aquatic birds was conducted in this potential biosecurity hotspot using molecular and serological techniques. Avian influenza virus subtypes H6 and H9 were commonly present in the studied population. It is likely that one of the H6 viruses was newly introduced through migratory birds confirming the perceived biosecurity risk. The matrix gene of another H6 virus was similar to the Australian H7 subtypes, which suggests the reassortment of a previously introduced H6 and local viruses. Similarly, a H9 subtype had a matrix gene similar to that found in Asian H9 viruses suggesting reassortment of viruses originated from Australia and Asia. Whilst H5N1 was not found, the serological study demonstrated a constant circulation of the H5 subtype in the sampled birds. The odds of being reactive for avian influenza viral antibodies were 13.1(95% CI: 5.9-28.9) for Pacific Black Ducks over Plumed Whistling Ducks, highlighting that some species of waterfowl pose a greater biosecurity risk. Antibody titres were slightly higher during warm wet compared with warm dry weather. Routine surveillance programmes should be established to monitor the introduction of avian influenza viruses from Asia and the interactions of the introduced viruses with resident viruses in order to better detect emerging pathogens in aquatic birds of North Queensland. Surveillance should be targeted towards highly susceptible species such as the Pacific Black Duck and carried out during favourable environmental conditions for viral transmission such as the wet season in northern Australia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Laboratory directed research and development. FY 1995 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Prono, J. [comps.

    1996-03-01

    This document presents an overview of Laboratory Directed Research and Development Programs at Los Alamos. The nine technical disciplines in which research is described include materials, engineering and base technologies, plasma, fluids, and particle beams, chemistry, mathematics and computational science, atmic and molecular physics, geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, nuclear and particle physics, and biosciences. Brief descriptions are provided in the above programs.

  16. Establishing a national biological laboratory safety and security monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, James W

    2012-12-01

    The growing concern over the potential use of biological agents as weapons and the continuing work of the Biological Weapons Convention has promoted an interest in establishing national biological laboratory biosafety and biosecurity monitoring programs. The challenges and issues that should be considered by governments, or organizations, embarking on the creation of a biological laboratory biosafety and biosecurity monitoring program are discussed in this article. The discussion focuses on the following questions: Is there critical infrastructure support available? What should be the program focus? Who should be monitored? Who should do the monitoring? How extensive should the monitoring be? What standards and requirements should be used? What are the consequences if a laboratory does not meet the requirements or is not willing to comply? Would the program achieve the results intended? What are the program costs? The success of a monitoring program can depend on how the government, or organization, responds to these questions.

  17. Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippitzi, M E; Brinch Kruse, A; Postma, M; Sarrazin, S; Maes, D; Alban, L; Nielsen, L R; Dewulf, J

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to review the transmission routes of important infectious pig diseases and to translate these into biosecurity measures preventing or reducing the transmission between and within pig herds. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the level of implementation of these measures in different European countries and discuss the observed variations to identify potentials for improvement. First, a literature review was performed to show which direct and indirect transmission routes of 24 infectious pig diseases can be prevented through different biosecurity measures. Second, a quantitative analysis was performed using the Biocheck.UGent™, a risk-based scoring system to evaluate biosecurity in pig herds, to obtain an insight into the implementation of these biosecurity measures. The database contained farm-specific biosecurity data from 574 pig farms in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, entered between January 2014 and January 2016. Third, a qualitative analysis based on a review of literature and other relevant information resources was performed for every subcategory of internal and external biosecurity in the Biocheck.UGent™ questionnaire. The quantitative analysis indicated that at the level of internal, external and overall biosecurity, Denmark had a significantly distinct profile with higher external biosecurity scores and less variation than the rest of the countries. This is likely due to a widely used specific pathogen-free (SPF) system with extensive focus on biosecurity since 1971 in Denmark. However, the observed pattern may also be attributed to differences in data collection methods. The qualitative analysis identified differences in applied policies, legislation, disease status, pig farm density, farming culture and habits between countries that can be used for shaping country-specific biosecurity advice to attain improved prevention and control of important pig diseases in European pig farms. © 2017 Blackwell

  18. Biosecurity implications of new technology and discovery in plant virus research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin MacDiarmid

    Full Text Available Human activity is causing new encounters between viruses and plants. Anthropogenic interventions include changing land use, decreasing biodiversity, trade, the introduction of new plant and vector species to native landscapes, and changing atmospheric and climatic conditions. The discovery of thousands of new viruses, especially those associated with healthy-appearing native plants, is shifting the paradigm for their role within the ecosystem from foe to friend. The cost of new plant virus incursions can be high and result in the loss of trade and/or production for short or extended periods. We present and justify three recommendations for plant biosecurity to improve communication about plant viruses, assist with the identification of viruses and their impacts, and protect the high economic, social, environmental, and cultural value of our respective nations' unique flora: 1 As part of the burden of proof, countries and jurisdictions should identify what pests already exist in, and which pests pose a risk to, their native flora; 2 Plant virus sequences not associated with a recognized virus infection are designated as "uncultured virus" and tentatively named using the host plant species of greatest known prevalence, the word "virus," a general location identifier, and a serial number; and 3 Invest in basic research to determine the ecology of known and new viruses with existing and potential new plant hosts and vectors and develop host-virus pathogenicity prediction tools. These recommendations have implications for researchers, risk analysts, biosecurity authorities, and policy makers at both a national and an international level.

  19. Backyard chicken keeping in the Greater London Urban Area: welfare status, biosecurity and disease control issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabozhilova, I; Wieland, B; Alonso, S; Salonen, L; Häsler, B

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to collect baseline data on welfare, biosecurity and diseases of backyard chickens kept in the Greater London Urban Area (GLUA), United Kingdom (UK). 2. A total of 65 backyard chicken flock-keepers were recruited from May to July 2010 through adverts on websites, at City farms, veterinary practices and pet feed stores and surveyed by means of a questionnaire. A total of 30 responses were suitable for analysis. 3. Information on keepers' and flocks' characteristics, housing and husbandry practices and owners' knowledge of health problems in chickens and zoonotic diseases was collected. A welfare assessment protocol was developed and the flocks assessed accordingly. 4. Results showed that chickens were generally provided with living conditions that allowed them to perform their natural behaviours. 5. Most of the flock owners did not comply with the regulations of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on the feeding of catering waste. 6. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination and biosecurity, including limiting the access of human visitors, wild birds and rodents to the flocks were rare. 7. A lack of avian and zoonotic disease knowledge and awareness among the owners has implications for disease control and highlights the need for improved communication between owners, authorities and veterinarians.

  20. Laboratory-directed research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; Caughran, A.B.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes progress from the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program during fiscal year 1991. In addition to a programmatic and financial overview, the report includes progress reports from 230 individual R ampersand D projects in 9 scientific categories: atomic and molecular physics; biosciences; chemistry; engineering and base technologies; geosciences; space sciences, and astrophysics; materials sciences; mathematics and computational sciences; nuclear and particle physics; and plasmas, fluids, and particle beams

  1. Performance of a plastic-wrapped composting system for biosecure emergency disposal of disease-related swine mortalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Thomas D; Ahn, Heekwon; Akdeniz, Neslihan; Crawford, Benjamin P; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-02-01

    A passively-ventilated plastic-wrapped composting system initially developed for biosecure disposal of poultry mortalities caused by avian influenza was adapted and tested to assess its potential as an emergency disposal option for disease-related swine mortalities. Fresh air was supplied through perforated plastic tubing routed through the base of the compost pile. The combined air inlet and top vent area is ⩽∼1% of the gas exchange surface of a conventional uncovered windrow. Parameters evaluated included: (1) spatial and temporal variations in matrix moisture content (m.c.), leachate production, and matrix O2 concentrations; (2) extent of soft tissue decomposition; and (3) internal temperature and the success rate in achieving USEPA time/temperature (T) criteria for pathogen reduction. Six envelope materials (wood shavings, corn silage, ground cornstalks, ground oat straw, ground soybean straw, or ground alfalfa hay) and two initial m.c.'s (15-30% w.b. for materials stored indoors, and 45-65% w.b. to simulate materials exposed to precipitation) were tested to determine their effect on performance parameters (1-3). Results of triple-replicated field trials showed that the composting system did not accumulate moisture despite the 150kg carcass water load (65% of 225kg total carcass mass) released during decomposition. Mean compost m.c. in the carcass layer declined by ∼7 percentage points during 8-week trials, and a leachate accumulation was rare. Matrix O2 concentrations for all materials other than silage were ⩾10% using the equivalent of 2m inlet/vent spacing. In silage O2 dropped below 5% in some cases even when 0.5m inlet/vent spacing was used. Eight week soft tissue decomposition ranged from 87% in cornstalks to 72% in silage. Success rates for achievement of USEPA Class B time/temperature criteria ranged from 91% for silage to 33-57% for other materials. Companion laboratory biodegradation studies suggest that Class B success rates can be improved

  2. Applications of computational tools in biosciences and medical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2015-01-01

     This book presents the latest developments and applications of computational tools related to the biosciences and medical engineering. It also reports the findings of different multi-disciplinary research projects, for example, from the areas of scaffolds and synthetic bones, implants and medical devices, and medical materials. It is also shown that the application of computational tools often requires mathematical and experimental methods. Computational tools such as the finite element methods, computer-aided design and optimization as well as visualization techniques such as computed axial tomography open up completely new research fields that combine the fields of engineering and bio/medical. Nevertheless, there are still hurdles since both directions are based on quite different ways of education. Often even the “language” can vary from discipline to discipline.

  3. Division of Agro technology and Biosciences: Past, Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2012-01-01

    In presenter speech, he outlined several topics regarding development of Agro technology and Biosciences Division from 31 years ago. This division started with Unit Sains Hidupan Liar under PUSPATI in 1981 and change their names to Program Isotop dan Sinaran dalam Biologi dan Pertanian under Nuclear Technology Unit (UTN) (1983). In 1990 their premise change to MINT-Tech Park. This program responsible for conducting research in agro technology using nuclear technology. Several achievements achieved by this division since established. They also succeed in mutating banana namely Novaria banana (1994), Tongkat Ali rice (1990), ground nut (2003), orchids, organic fertilizer and foliage in 2000. The vision of this division are to promote and enhance innovation and applications in nuclear technology to achieve security in food productivity, safety and quality and ecological awareness for economics competitiveness and vibrancy in agrobioindustry and community development. (author)

  4. It takes a combination of biosecurity, testing, and vaccination to keep bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) under control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the third installment of a 3 part series on bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), written for a lay publication whose core audience in dairy producers. Control of BVD in any dairy operation must rely on the implementation of an organized strategy combining biosecurity, surveillance and increased herd...

  5. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kuster

    Full Text Available Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively. Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest to 5 (highest. Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT, Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD, Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR. Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF, Enzootic Pneumonia (EP, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS, as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers

  6. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  7. Live pig markets in eastern Indonesia: Trader characteristics, biosecurity and implications for disease spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever has been negatively impacting pig production in Nusa Tenggara Timur province in eastern Indonesia since its introduction in the 1990s, with live market trade contributing to disease spread. To understand market trader knowledge and practices regarding pig management, biosecurity, pig movements and pig health (specifically CSF), a repeated survey was conducted with pig sellers and pig buyers at 9 market sites across West Timor and the islands of Flores and Sumba. A total of 292 sellers and 281 buyers were interviewed in 2009 during two periods (rounds), a high-demand month (September) and a low-demand month (November). Information was collected via questionnaire. The majority of traders were male (sellers: 89%; buyers: 87%) with the highest level of completed education being primary school (sellers: 48%; buyers: 41%). The primary occupation of most respondents was farming: 90% of sellers and 87% of buyers were smallholder pig farmers and tended to sell their own home-raised pigs at market (52%). Pigs were sold for monetary gain either for primary (52%) or extra income (44%). Markets tended to be selected based on a good reputation (62%), a location close to residence (62%) and having the desired pig type (59%). Pig sales through markets were reported to be highest from August to October with 31% of sellers trading pigs at two or more markets. Prices at market were significantly higher on Sumba compared to West Timor and cross-bred pigs were significantly more expensive than indigenous pigs. Understanding of CSF and biosecurity was limited: 85% of sellers and 83% of buyers had no prior knowledge of CSF. Fifty-four percent of sellers reported no use of any biosecurity practices at market. Most respondents (88%) were able to recognise at least one clinical sign of a sick pig. Informal pig movements were also identified: 18% of pig buyers purchased pigs directly from other farmers. This study has provided baseline information on market trader

  8. Use of stakeholder analysis to inform risk communication and extension strategies for improved biosecurity amongst small-scale pig producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jover, M; Gilmour, J; Schembri, N; Sysak, T; Holyoake, P K; Beilin, R; Toribio, J-A L M L

    2012-05-01

    Extension and communication needs amongst small-scale pig producers, described as pig producers with less than 100 sows, have been previously identified. These producers, who are believed to pose a biosecurity risk to commercial livestock industries, are characterized by a lack of formal networks, mistrust of authorities, poor disease reporting behaviour and motivational diversity, and reliance on other producers, veterinarians and family for pig health and production advice. This paper applies stakeholder identification and analysis tools to determine stakeholders' influence and interest on pig producers' practices. Findings can inform a risk communication process and the development of an extension framework to increase producers' engagement with industry and their compliance with biosecurity standards and legislation in Australia. The process included identification of stakeholders, their issues of concerns regarding small-scale pig producers and biosecurity and their influence and interest in each of these issues. This exercise identified the capacity of different stakeholders to influence the outcomes for each issue and assessed their success or failure to do so. The disconnection identified between the level of interest and influence suggests that government and industry need to work with the small-scale pig producers and with those who have the capacity to influence them. Successful biosecurity risk management will depend on shared responsibility and building trust amongst stakeholders. Flow-on effects may include legitimating the importance of reporting and compliance systems and the co-management of risk. Compliance of small-scale pig producers with biosecurity industry standards and legislation will reduce the risks of entry and spread of exotic diseases in Australia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Strengthening biosecurity in Iraq: Development of a national biorisk management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Koblentz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2004, the Republic of Iraq has undertaken a concerted effort to comply with all of its international obligations to prevent the proliferation of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN weapons. A centerpiece of this effort is Iraq’s development of a national biorisk management system to prevent, prepare for, and respond to naturally occurring and deliberate biological threats. The Iraqi National Monitoring Authority (INMA, which is responsible for CBRN security and nonproliferation in Iraq, has played a key role in establishing this system. This article provides an overview of Iraq’s international nonproliferation commitments, describes the legal and organizational steps it has taken to implement these commitments, and examines current initiatives to strengthen Iraq’s biosecurity.

  10. Barcoding and border biosecurity: identifying cyprinid fishes in the aquarium trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert A Collins

    Full Text Available Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1 expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2 assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method; and (3 providing supplementary information to identify difficult species.We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold. DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90-99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold. Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp. resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii.We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamental fishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to

  11. Biosecurity and animal disease management in organic and conventional Swedish dairy herds: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelson, Ulf; Sjöström, Karin; Fall, Nils

    2018-04-12

    Good animal health is a notion that is germane to organic dairy production, and it is expected that such herds would pay significant attention on the health of their animals. However, it is not known if the applied animal disease management is actually more adequate in organic dairy cattle herds than in conventional dairy herds. A questionnaire study on biosecurity and animal disease management activities was therefore conducted among Swedish farmers with organic and conventional dairy cattle herds. A total of 192 useable questionnaires were returned; response rates of 30.3 and 20.2% for organic and conventional farmers, respectively. Herd characteristics of the two herd types were very similar, except that pipeline/tie-stall systems were less common in organic farms and that organic farmers had a higher education level than their conventional counterparts. Also, very few systematic differences in general or specific disease management activities were observed between the two types of farms. The main exceptions being how milk from cows during antibiotic treatment was used, views on policy actions in relation to antibiotic use, and attitudes towards calling for veterinary support. Using milk from cows during antibiotic treatment was more common in conventional herds, although it was mainly given to bull calves. Farmers of organic herds were more positive to policy actions to reduce the use and need for antibiotics, and they reported waiting longer before contacting a veterinarian for calves with diarrhoea and cows with subclinical mastitis. The stated biosecurity and animal disease management was relatively equal in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds. Our results thus indicate that animal health is as important in conventionally managed dairy herds in Sweden as in organically managed herds.

  12. Is LabTutor a helpful component of the blended learning approach to biosciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Amelia; Efstathiou, Nikolaos; Lameu, Paula

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the use of LabTutor (a physiological data capture and e-learning package) in bioscience education for student nurses. Knowledge of biosciences is important for nurses the world over, who have to monitor and assess their patient's clinical condition, and interpret that information to determine the most appropriate course of action. Nursing students have long been known to find acquiring useable bioscience knowledge challenging. Blended learning strategies are common in bioscience teaching to address the difficulties students have. Student nurses have a preference for hands-on learning, small group sessions and are helped by close juxtaposition of theory and practice. An evaluation of a new teaching method using in-classroom voluntary questionnaire. A structured survey instrument including statements and visual analogue response format and open questions was given to students who participated in Labtutor sessions. The students provided feedback in about the equipment, the learning and the session itself. First year (n = 93) and third year (n = 36) students completed the evaluation forms. The majority of students were confident about the equipment and using it to learn although a few felt anxious about computer-based learning. They all found the equipment helpful as part of their bioscience education and they all enjoyed the sessions. This equipment provides a helpful way to encourage guided independent learning through practice and discovery and because each session is case study based and the relationship of the data to the patient is made clear. Our students helped to evaluate our initial use of LabTutor and found the sessions enjoyable and helpful. LabTutor provides an effective learning tool as part of a blended learning strategy for biosciences teaching. Improving bioscience knowledge will lead to a greater understanding of pathophysiology, treatments and interventions and monitoring. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogliani, Harold O [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-19

    The purpose of the briefing is to describe general laboratory technical capabilities to be used for various groups such as military cadets or university faculty/students and post docs to recruit into a variety of Los Alamos programs. Discussed are: (1) development and application of high leverage science to enable effeictive, predictable and reliability outcomes; (2) deter, detect, characterize, reverse and prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their use by adversaries and terrorists; (3) modeling and simulation to define complex processes, predict outcomes, and develop effective prevention, response, and remediation strategies; (4) energetic materials and hydrodynamic testing to develop materials for precise delivery of focused energy; (5) materials cience focused on fundamental understanding of materials behaviors, their quantum-molecular properties, and their dynamic responses, and (6) bio-science to rapidly detect and characterize pathogens, to develop vaccines and prophylactic remedies, and to develop attribution forensics.

  14. Reflective Writing as a Tool for Assessing Teamwork in Bioscience: Insights into Student Performance and Understanding of Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    To ensure a modern bioscience curriculum that responds to the current needs of stakeholders, there is a need to embed a range of generic capabilities that enables graduates to succeed in and contribute to a rapidly changing world, as well as building strong bioscience skills and knowledge. The curriculum must also prepare students for a rapidly…

  15. Foods: Where Innovation, Agriculture, Molecular Biosciences and Human Nutrition Meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Brennan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is one commodity the world over that unites mankind—food. In 2011 the United Nations claimed that the world’s population had reached the seven billion mark, a number which is set to increase dramatically in the decades to come. Food security, supply and sustainability are of paramount concern to the future economic and social progress of humanity. It is the responsibility of the food industry, together with food scientists and technologists, to shoulder the burden of ensuring an adequate supply of nutritious, safe and sensorially acceptable foods for a range of demanding consumers. In responding to this challenge, we need to understand the link between agriculture, engineering, food processing, molecular biosciences, human nutrition, commercialisation and innovation. Access to information concerning the composition and quality of foods has never been so easy for consumers and technologists alike. A plethora of research publications are made available each month to scientists and associated interested parties. The outcomes of these research manuscripts are often distilled and disseminated into messages available to everyone through bulletin boards, forums and the popular press. Newspapers and new agencies constantly report on the latest pharma-medical finding, or news regarding food safety and security concerns. We live in an age where information is so readily available to everyone that the task of finding credible and reputable data can be difficult at times. Providing sound evidenced based research is where a peer-reviewed journal can provide clarity. [...

  16. Foods: Where Innovation, Agriculture, Molecular Biosciences and Human Nutrition Meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Charles

    2012-11-21

    There is one commodity the world over that unites mankind-food. In 2011 the United Nations claimed that the world's population had reached the seven billion mark, a number which is set to increase dramatically in the decades to come. Food security, supply and sustainability are of paramount concern to the future economic and social progress of humanity. It is the responsibility of the food industry, together with food scientists and technologists, to shoulder the burden of ensuring an adequate supply of nutritious, safe and sensorially acceptable foods for a range of demanding consumers. In responding to this challenge, we need to understand the link between agriculture, engineering, food processing, molecular biosciences, human nutrition, commercialisation and innovation. Access to information concerning the composition and quality of foods has never been so easy for consumers and technologists alike. A plethora of research publications are made available each month to scientists and associated interested parties. The outcomes of these research manuscripts are often distilled and disseminated into messages available to everyone through bulletin boards, forums and the popular press. Newspapers and new agencies constantly report on the latest pharma-medical finding, or news regarding food safety and security concerns. We live in an age where information is so readily available to everyone that the task of finding credible and reputable data can be difficult at times. Providing sound evidenced based research is where a peer-reviewed journal can provide clarity. [...].

  17. Environmental Biosciences Program Quarterly Report for Year 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2006-04-30

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.

  18. MUSC Environmental Biosciences Program First Quarter Report May - June, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr

    2002-07-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risk issues. These initiatives are consistent with the Medical University's role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable the Medical University to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBP's success in convening worldwide scientific expertise is due in part to the inherent credibility the Medical University brings to the process of addressing these complex issues.

  19. Environmental Biosciences Program Third Quarter Report, Year 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2005-03-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene (TCE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and low-dose ionizing radiation. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making.

  20. National biosecurity approaches, plans and programmes in response to diseases in farmed aquatic animals: evolution, effectiveness and the way forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håstein, T.; Binde, M.; Hine, M.

    2008-01-01

    The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code...... and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as an excellent framework. Using examples from a few countries and selected diseases, this paper provides a general overview of the development of approaches to implementing biosecurity strategies, including those emerging in the national legislation...... and eradication are also discussed. Important to the effectiveness of such strategies are provision of financial, personnel and other resources to implement them, including incentives such as indemnification or compensation in eradication programmes, and practical linkage to regulatory or government policy...

  1. Biosecurity Assessment and Seroprevalence of Respiratory Diseases in Backyard Poultry Flocks Located Close to and Far from Commercial Premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, T; Lampron, R; Hauck, R; Pitesky, M; Gallardo, R A

    2018-03-01

    Raising backyard chickens is an ever-growing hobby in the United States. These flocks can be a substrate for respiratory disease amplification and transmission to commercial facilities. Five hundred fifty-four chickens from 41 backyard flocks were sampled in this study. ELISA kits were used to detect antibodies against avian influenza (AI), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). All visited flock owners answered a biosecurity questionnaire that assessed biosecurity measures. The questionnaire revealed that backyard poultry owners lack simple biosecurity measures such as use of dedicated shoes, their chicken sources are unreliable, and few of them benefit from veterinary oversight. Only one flock had a clear vaccination history against ND and IB. ORT, ND, IB, MS, MG, and ILT were the most seroprevalent in backyard poultry flocks with 97% (41/42), 77.5% (31/40), 75% (30/40), 73% (31/42), 69% (29/42), and 45% (19/42), respectively. The vaccinated flock was not considered in these calculations. When examining the distance between backyard flocks and the nearest commercial poultry facility, ND and MG were significantly more likely to be found in backyard flocks close to (4 miles) commercial poultry. Birds purchased directly from National Poultry Improvement Plan hatcheries showed a reduced ND, MG, and MS antibody prevalence. Wearing dedicated shoes decreased MS antibody-positive birds. Finally, history of wild bird contact had a clear effect on an increased seroprevalence of NDV and MG. Serological results suggest that backyard poultry flocks have the potential to serve as a reservoir or amplifier for poultry respiratory diseases. The information generated in this project should direct extension efforts toward emphasizing the importance of small flock biosecurity and chick acquisition sources.

  2. Investigation of smallholder farmer biosecurity and implications for sustainable foot-and-mouth disease control in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J R; Suon, S; Olmo, L; Bun, C; Hok, C; Ashley, K; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A

    2017-12-01

    In Cambodia, the majority of the population is rural and reliant on subsistence agriculture, with cattle raised by smallholder farmers using traditional practices, resulting in low productivity and vulnerability to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). As FMD causes deleterious impacts on rural livelihoods, known FMD risk factors were reviewed, using knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) surveys of smallholders (n = 240) from four regions. The study aimed to understand current biosecurity threats to smallholder livelihoods and investigate the hypothesis that smallholder farmers practising FMD risk management should be associated with higher incomes from cattle. Descriptive data were examined to demonstrate trends in KAP and a multivariable linear regression model developed to identify cattle income predictors. Results showed that baseline mean knowledge scores were low at 28.4% across all regions and basic biosecurity practices, including quarantine of new cattle, isolation of sick cattle and FMD vaccination, were lacking. As farmers purchase and sell cattle from and to various administration levels (including export), there is high risk of FMD transmission into and from smallholder communities. The final multivariable linear regression model identified significant explanatory parameters for annual cattle income, including region, number of calves born, forage plot size (ha), vaccination of cattle and the number of cattle purchased (F pr. livestock development programmes implement a systems approach to enhance farmer KAP in biosecurity, nutrition, reproduction and marketing of cattle. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Defining the biosecurity risk posed by transported soil: Effects of storage time and environmental exposure on survival of soil biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. McNeill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil frequently occurs as a contaminant on numerous sea, land and air transport pathways. It can carry unwanted invasive species, is widely recognized as a biosecurity risk, and is usually strictly regulated by biosecurity authorities. However, little is known about relative risk levels between pathways, thus authorities have limited capability to identify and target the riskiest soil pathways for management. We conducted a an experiment to test the hypotheses that biosecurity risks from soil organisms will increase both with declining transport duration and with increasing protection from environmental extremes. Soil was collected from two sites, a native forest remnant and an orchard, and stored on, in and under sea containers, or in cupboards, and assayed after 0, 3, 6 and 12 months for bacteria, fungi, nematodes and seeds. Results showed that viability of Pseudomonas spp., bacteria, nematodes and plants declined over 12 months, irrespective of soil source. Also, mortality of most biota was higher when exposed to sunlight, moisture and desiccation than when protected. However, bacterial and fungal numbers were higher in exposed environments, possibly due to ongoing colonization of exposed soil by airborne propagules. The results were consistent with our observations of organisms in soil intercepted from airports and sea ports, and indicated there is potential to rank risks from transported soils based partly on transport duration and environmental exposure. This would help authorities to optimally allocate management resources according to pathway-specific risks.

  4. Radiotracer laboratory for agricultural research at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Misman Sumin; Maizatul Akmam Mhd Nasir

    2007-01-01

    Radiotracer Laboratory for agricultural research at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency was established since 1990. It accommodates three laboratories, three chemical temporary storage compartments plus one compartment for storage of pressurized gas. This facility is situated in ground floor of Block 44, Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Dengkil Complex. Currently it houses a liquid scintillation counter, sample oxidizer, gas liquid chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and auxiliary equipments. A road map for this laboratory will be discussed in relation with present scenario i.e. R and D service, training and consultancy provided by this laboratory; and future requirements and direction. (Author)

  5. Crying wolf? Biosecurity and metacommunication in the context of the 2009 swine flu pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, Brigitte; Koteyko, Nelya

    2012-07-01

    This article explores how the 2009 pandemic of swine flu (H1N1) intersected with issues of biosecurity in the context of an increasing entanglement between the spread of disease and the spread of information. Drawing on research into metacommunication, the article studies the rise of communication about ways in which swine flu was communicated, both globally and locally, during the pandemic. It examines and compares two corpora of texts, namely UK newspaper articles and blogs, written between 28 March and 11 June 2009, that is, the period from the start of the outbreak till the WHO announcement of the pandemic. Findings show that the interaction between traditional and digital media as well as the interaction between warnings about swine flu and previous warnings about other epidemics contributed to a heightened discourse of blame and counter-blame but also, more surprisingly, self-blame and reflections about the role the media in pandemic communication. The consequences of this increase in metacommunication for research into crisis communication are explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An "in silico" Bioinformatics Laboratory Manual for Bioscience Departments: "Prediction of Glycosylation Sites in Phosphoethanolamine Transferases"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyuruk, Hakan; Cavas, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and proteomics projects have produced a huge amount of raw biological data including DNA and protein sequences. Although these data have been stored in data banks, their evaluation is strictly dependent on bioinformatics tools. These tools have been developed by multidisciplinary experts for fast and robust analysis of biological data.…

  7. Demand for Interdisciplinary Laboratories for Physiology Research by Undergraduate Students in Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clase, Kari L.; Hein, Patrick W.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Physiology as a discipline is uniquely positioned to engage undergraduate students in interdisciplinary research in response to the 2006-2011 National Science Foundation Strategic Plan call for innovative transformational research, which emphasizes multidisciplinary projects. To prepare undergraduates for careers that cross disciplinary…

  8. 3 CFR 13486 - Executive Order 13486 of January 9, 2009. Strengthening Laboratory Biosecurity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Director of National Intelligence; (xii) the Director of the National Science Foundation; and (xiii) the... toxins, of the following: (i) existing laws, regulations, and guidance with respect to physical, facility... manner that seeks their individual advice and does not involve collective judgment or consensus advice or...

  9. The challenge of the Biosciences in Nurse Education: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kari Toverud; Knutstad, Unni; Fawcett, Tonks N

    2018-03-25

    To review relevant literature that address the challenges of the biosciences in nurse education. More precisely the review aims to explore the literature, concerning students' learning, learning contexts and methodological issues and identify any significant gaps. Knowledge of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry are essential for the understanding of human beings and for full appreciation of the concepts of illness and disease. The current status would seem to be that the required competencies within bioscience subjects are difficult to acquire and students have high rates of failure. Integrative review. The research were performed on Cinahl, ERIC, Medline and British Nursing Index databases in a period from 2013 until 2017. Descriptive analytical methods were used for the initial research trawl. The search strategy resulted in 23 papers. The results of this review shed light on certain deficiencies in the research field looking at the biosciences in nurse education. There is a distinct lack of intervention studies, and thereby knowledge of how best to support students' learning in effective ways. Of note is that there are no field study approaches identified in the review sample. Many of the papers are single studies and course evaluations which may be seen as too narrow and inadequate a perspective. Students appear satisfied with the courses in the biosciences but there seems to be no correlation between satisfaction and achievement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of an Integrated Team Project as Bachelor Thesis in Bioscience Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Marie-Christine; Londers, Elsje; Van der Hoeven, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    Following the decision at the KU Leuven to implement the educational concept of guided independent learning and to encourage students to participate in scientific research, the Faculty of Bioscience Engineering decided to introduce a bachelor thesis. Competencies, such as communication, scientific research and teamwork, need to be present in the…

  11. Youtube for millennial nursing students; using internet technology to support student engagement with bioscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Amy Nb; Barton, Matthew J; Williams-Pritchard, Grant A; Todorovic, Michael

    2018-06-09

    Undergraduate nursing programs typically include students with limited 'on-campus' time who need learning resources that are flexible, technologically appropriate, remotely-accessible (mobile smart devices), and above all, engaging. This has presented academics with challenges surrounding institutional security firewalls, password-access requirements, intellectual property/ownership and staff/student privacy. To overcome these challenges a collection of evidence-based YouTube videos, posted on the Biological Sciences YouTube Channel, supported by the Biosciences in Nurse Education, and underpinned by Benner's pedagogical framework, were developed with the intention of moving students from novice to competent clinical bioscience users. The videos are highly successful; with over 310,000 views, 1.5 million minutes of viewing and more than 5000 subscribers since its inception (YouTube videos was enhanced by their familiarity with the presenter and the breadth of information available in small portions, creating a solid basis for the development of bioscience-competent nursing graduates. Moreover, these open source videos provide a free resource for continual revision and professional development informed by an international minimum bioscience standard for nurses post registration. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors of academic performance in the discipline-specific bioscience paper: a retrospective qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khareedi, R

    2018-05-01

    The cohort of students enrolled in the discipline-specific bioscience paper reflects a structural diversity in that it includes students of multiple ethnicities, varied age groups, differing scholastic and life experiences. These divergent identities of students are known to influence academic performance. The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to determine the ability of a set of variables such as age, gender, ethnicity, level of prior education, the place from which prior education was obtained, work experience and prior academic achievement to predict academic performance in the discipline-specific bioscience paper. The sample for this study was a purposive sample of all oral health students who had enrolled in the paper at the Auckland University of Technology from 2011 to 2014. The desensitised empirical data of 116 students from the University's database were subject to multivariable regression analysis. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. Prior academic achievement was a statistically significant predictor variable (P academic performance in the discipline-specific bioscience paper and was also positively correlated (r = 0.641, P academic achievement was the only variable that was demonstrated to be correlated to and predictive of the academic performance in the discipline-specific bioscience paper. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 77 FR 56175 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 [Docket No. FDA-2012-F-0949] Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food... 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide for...

  14. Automatic categorization of diverse experimental information in the bioscience literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Curation of information from bioscience literature into biological knowledge databases is a crucial way of capturing experimental information in a computable form. During the biocuration process, a critical first step is to identify from all published literature the papers that contain results for a specific data type the curator is interested in annotating. This step normally requires curators to manually examine many papers to ascertain which few contain information of interest and thus, is usually time consuming. We developed an automatic method for identifying papers containing these curation data types among a large pool of published scientific papers based on the machine learning method Support Vector Machine (SVM). This classification system is completely automatic and can be readily applied to diverse experimental data types. It has been in use in production for automatic categorization of 10 different experimental datatypes in the biocuration process at WormBase for the past two years and it is in the process of being adopted in the biocuration process at FlyBase and the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). We anticipate that this method can be readily adopted by various databases in the biocuration community and thereby greatly reducing time spent on an otherwise laborious and demanding task. We also developed a simple, readily automated procedure to utilize training papers of similar data types from different bodies of literature such as C. elegans and D. melanogaster to identify papers with any of these data types for a single database. This approach has great significance because for some data types, especially those of low occurrence, a single corpus often does not have enough training papers to achieve satisfactory performance. Results We successfully tested the method on ten data types from WormBase, fifteen data types from FlyBase and three data types from Mouse Genomics Informatics (MGI). It is being used in the curation work flow at

  15. Automatic categorization of diverse experimental information in the bioscience literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ruihua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curation of information from bioscience literature into biological knowledge databases is a crucial way of capturing experimental information in a computable form. During the biocuration process, a critical first step is to identify from all published literature the papers that contain results for a specific data type the curator is interested in annotating. This step normally requires curators to manually examine many papers to ascertain which few contain information of interest and thus, is usually time consuming. We developed an automatic method for identifying papers containing these curation data types among a large pool of published scientific papers based on the machine learning method Support Vector Machine (SVM. This classification system is completely automatic and can be readily applied to diverse experimental data types. It has been in use in production for automatic categorization of 10 different experimental datatypes in the biocuration process at WormBase for the past two years and it is in the process of being adopted in the biocuration process at FlyBase and the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD. We anticipate that this method can be readily adopted by various databases in the biocuration community and thereby greatly reducing time spent on an otherwise laborious and demanding task. We also developed a simple, readily automated procedure to utilize training papers of similar data types from different bodies of literature such as C. elegans and D. melanogaster to identify papers with any of these data types for a single database. This approach has great significance because for some data types, especially those of low occurrence, a single corpus often does not have enough training papers to achieve satisfactory performance. Results We successfully tested the method on ten data types from WormBase, fifteen data types from FlyBase and three data types from Mouse Genomics Informatics (MGI. It is being used in

  16. Automatic categorization of diverse experimental information in the bioscience literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ruihua; Schindelman, Gary; Van Auken, Kimberly; Fernandes, Jolene; Chen, Wen; Wang, Xiaodong; Davis, Paul; Tuli, Mary Ann; Marygold, Steven J; Millburn, Gillian; Matthews, Beverley; Zhang, Haiyan; Brown, Nick; Gelbart, William M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2012-01-26

    Curation of information from bioscience literature into biological knowledge databases is a crucial way of capturing experimental information in a computable form. During the biocuration process, a critical first step is to identify from all published literature the papers that contain results for a specific data type the curator is interested in annotating. This step normally requires curators to manually examine many papers to ascertain which few contain information of interest and thus, is usually time consuming. We developed an automatic method for identifying papers containing these curation data types among a large pool of published scientific papers based on the machine learning method Support Vector Machine (SVM). This classification system is completely automatic and can be readily applied to diverse experimental data types. It has been in use in production for automatic categorization of 10 different experimental datatypes in the biocuration process at WormBase for the past two years and it is in the process of being adopted in the biocuration process at FlyBase and the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). We anticipate that this method can be readily adopted by various databases in the biocuration community and thereby greatly reducing time spent on an otherwise laborious and demanding task. We also developed a simple, readily automated procedure to utilize training papers of similar data types from different bodies of literature such as C. elegans and D. melanogaster to identify papers with any of these data types for a single database. This approach has great significance because for some data types, especially those of low occurrence, a single corpus often does not have enough training papers to achieve satisfactory performance. We successfully tested the method on ten data types from WormBase, fifteen data types from FlyBase and three data types from Mouse Genomics Informatics (MGI). It is being used in the curation work flow at WormBase for

  17. Effectiveness of biosecurity measures in preventing badger visits to farm buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; "Control", "Feed Storage", "Cattle Housing" and "Both", whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.

  18. Effectiveness of biosecurity measures in preventing badger visits to farm buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Judge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. METHODOLOGY: Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; "Control", "Feed Storage", "Cattle Housing" and "Both", whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. RESULTS: Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.

  19. Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippitzi, M. E.; Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Postma, M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to review the transmission routes of important infectious pig diseases and to translate these into biosecurity measures preventing or reducing the transmission between and within pig herds. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the level of implementation of these measures in different...... European countries and discuss the observed variations to identify potentials for improvement. First, a literature review was performed to show which direct and indirect transmission routes of 24 infectious pig diseases can be prevented through different biosecurity measures. Second, a quantitative...... on biosecurity since 1971 in Denmark. However, the observed pattern may also be attributed to differences in data collection methods. The qualitative analysis identified differences in applied policies, legislation, disease status, pig farm density, farming culture and habits between countries that can be used...

  20. Nanotechnology in global medicine and human biosecurity: private interests, policy dilemmas, and the calibration of public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers how best to approach dilemmas posed to global health and biosecurity policy by increasing advances in practical applications of nanotechnology. The type of nano-technology policy dilemmas discussed include: (1) expenditure of public funds, (2) public-funded research priorities, (3) public confidence in government and science and, finally, (4) public safety. The article examines the value in this context of a legal obligation that the development of relevant public health law be calibrated against less corporate-influenced norms issuing from bioethics and international human rights.

  1. What is provided and what the registered nurse needs--bioscience learning through the pre-registration curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Geraldine M

    2010-11-01

    Registered nurses undertaking programmes of study to become non-medical prescribers appear to have limited biological science knowledge. A case study was undertaken to determine whether the nurses entering Prescriber programmes considered studies in bioscience in their pre-registration nursing courses had been sufficient, linked to practice, and had prepared them for their roles as registered nurses. The literature identifies a continuing trend amongst nursing students describing a lack of sufficient bioscience in initial nurse education; there is limited literature on the views of experienced registered nurses. The participants in this study were 42 registered nurses from adult and mental health nursing, community and inpatient services. The results obtained from questionnaires and interviews are described. Questionnaire analysis identified that 57.1% of participants indicated bioscience in their pre-registration nursing programme had been limited and 40.5% stated the bioscience content had not prepared them for their roles on registration. Those reporting extensive coverage of bioscience were all aged over 41 years and had qualified before 1995. Greatest coverage of bioscience in pre-registration programmes was reported in relation to anatomy and physiology, with relatively limited coverage of microbiology, pharmacology or biochemistry. Respondents considered all five topics to be important. Interviews supported the questionnaire findings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biosecurity and Circulation of Influenza A (H5N1) Virus in Live-Bird Markets in Bangladesh, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, P K; Giasuddin, M; Nath, B K; Islam, M Z; Debnath, N C; Yamage, M

    2017-06-01

    Bangladesh has been considered as one of the five countries endemic with highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtype H5N1 (HPAI H5N1). Live-bird markets (LBMs) in south Asian countries are believed to play important roles in the transmission of HPAI H5N1 and others due to its central location as a hub of the poultry trading. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been promoting improved biosecurity in LBMs in Bangladesh. In 2012, by enrolling 32 large LBMs: 10 with FAO interventions and 22 without assistance, we assessed the virus circulation in the selected LBMs by applying standard procedures to investigate market floors, poultry stall floors, poultry-holding cases and slaughter areas and the overall biosecurity using a questionnaire-based survey. Relative risk (RR) was examined to compare the prevalence of HPAI H5N1 in the intervened and non-intervened LBMs. The measures practised in significantly more of the FAO-intervened LBMs included keeping of slaughter remnants in a closed container; decontamination of poultry vehicles at market place; prevention of crows' access to LBM, market/floor cleaning by market committee; wet cleaning; disinfection of floor/poultry stall after cleaning; and good supply of clean water at market (P Bangladesh regardless of interventions, albeit at lower levels than in other endemic countries. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Diseases of livestock in the Pacific Islands region: setting priorities for food animal biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Warner, Jeffrey; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Most Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) have developing economies and face a critical shortage of veterinarians with limited financial resources allocated to their animal disease surveillance programmes. Thus, animal health authorities have to set priorities for better focusing their scarce resources. The main objective of this study was to identify animal diseases perceived to be of importance by decision makers within selected PICTs, at the regional and national levels, to ensure better targeting of animal health resources. A second objective was to investigate whether the targeted surveillance programmes resulting from this rationalized approach would also benefit the local communities engaged in livestock production. A multi-criteria prioritization process was developed, involving local experts, to score and rank 132 animal diseases based on their priority at the regional and national levels for four PICTs: Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu, which form part of a regional Food Animal Biosecurity Network. In parallel interviews with farmers and field animal health and production workers were conducted to assess their perception of animal diseases. The list of the top-twenty ranked diseases for the Pacific Islands region shows a mix of endemic zoonotic diseases (such as leptospirosis ranked first; brucellosis third; tuberculosis sixth; and endoparasites and ectoparasites, respectively eleventh and thirteenth) with exotic diseases (such as HPAI ranked second, FMD fifth, and rabies ninth). There were different disease ranking lists for each of the four targeted PICTs, confirming different strategies of disease prevention and control may be required for each country, rather than a regional approach. Interviewed animal health and production workers were unfamiliar with most of the prioritized diseases and a majority acknowledged that they would not be able to recognize clinical signs if outbreaks were to occur in their area

  4. Preface for the special issue of Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, BIOCOMP 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, Aniello; Di Crescenzo, Antonio; Hastings, Alan

    2014-04-01

    The International Conference "BIOCOMP2012 - Mathematical Modeling and Computational Topics in Biosciences'', was held in Vietri sul Mare (Italy), June 4-8, 2012. It was dedicated to the Memory of Professor Luigi M. Ricciardi (1942-2011), who was a visionary and tireless promoter of the 3 previous editions of the BIOCOMP conference series. We thought that the best way to honor his memory was to continue the BIOCOMP program. Over the years, this conference promoted scientific activities related to his wide interests and scientific expertise, which ranged in various areas of applications of mathematics, probability and statistics to biosciences and cybernetics, also with emphasis on computational problems. We are pleased that many of his friends and colleagues, as well as many other scientists, were attracted by the goals of this recent event and offered to contribute to its success.

  5. Division of energy biosciences: Annual report and summaries of FY 1995 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The mission of the Division of Energy Biosciences is to support research that advances the fundamental knowledge necessary for the future development of biotechnologies related to the Department of Energy`s mission. The departmental civilian objectives include effective and efficient energy production, energy conservation, environmental restoration, and waste management. The Energy Biosciences program emphasizes research in the microbiological and plant sciences, as these understudied areas offer numerous scientific opportunities to dramatically influence environmentally sensible energy production and conservation. The research supported is focused on the basic mechanisms affecting plant productivity, conversion of biomass and other organic materials into fuels and chemicals by microbial systems, and the ability of biological systems to replace energy-intensive or pollutant-producing processes. The Division also addresses the increasing number of new opportunities arising at the interface of biology with other basic energy-related sciences such as biosynthesis of novel materials and the influence of soil organisms on geological processes.

  6. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 4: Appendix, costs, and data management requirements of the dedicated 30-day laboratory. [carry-on laboratory for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The results of the updated 30-day life sciences dedicated laboratory scheduling and costing activities are documented, and the 'low cost' methodology used to establish individual equipment item costs is explained in terms of its allowances for equipment that is commerical off-the-shelf, modified commercial, and laboratory prototype; a method which significantly lowers program costs. The costs generated include estimates for non-recurring development, recurring production, and recurring operations costs. A cost for a biomedical emphasis laboratory and a Delta cost to provide a bioscience and technology laboratory were also generated. All cost reported are commensurate with the design and schedule definitions available.

  7. 1999 LDRD Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rita Spencer; Kyle Wheeler

    2000-06-01

    This is the FY 1999 Progress Report for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It gives an overview of the LDRD Program, summarizes work done on individual research projects, relates the projects to major Laboratory program sponsors, and provides an index to the principal investigators. Project summaries are grouped by their LDRD component: Competency Development, Program Development, and Individual Projects. Within each component, they are further grouped into nine technical categories: (1) materials science, (2) chemistry, (3) mathematics and computational science, (4) atomic, molecular, optical, and plasma physics, fluids, and particle beams, (5) engineering science, (6) instrumentation and diagnostics, (7) geoscience, space science, and astrophysics, (8) nuclear and particle physics, and (9) bioscience.

  8. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    An on-line module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  9. Can active learning principles be applied to the bioscience assessments of nursing students? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakon, Shannon; Craft, Judy; Christensen, Martin; Wirihana, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    To explore if active learning principles be applied to nursing bioscience assessments and will this influence student perception of confidence in applying theory to practice? A review of the literature utilising searches of various databases including CINAHL, PUBMED, Google Scholar and Mosby's Journal Index. The literature search identified research from twenty-six original articles, two electronic books, one published book and one conference proceedings paper. Bioscience has been identified as an area that nurses struggle to learn in tertiary institutions and then apply to clinical practice. A number of problems have been identified and explored that may contribute to this poor understanding and retention. University academics need to be knowledgeable of innovative teaching and assessing modalities that focus on enhancing student learning and address the integration issues associated with the theory practice gap. Increased bioscience education is associated with improved patient outcomes therefore by addressing this "bioscience problem" and improving the integration of bioscience in clinical practice there will subsequently be an improvement in health care outcomes. From the literature several themes were identified. First there are many problems with teaching nursing students bioscience education. These include class sizes, motivation, concentration, delivery mode, lecturer perspectives, student's previous knowledge, anxiety, and a lack of confidence. Among these influences the type of assessment employed by the educator has not been explored or identified as a contributor to student learning specifically in nursing bioscience instruction. Second that educating could be achieved more effectively if active learning principles were applied and the needs and expectations of the student were met. Lastly, assessment influences student retention and the student experience and as such assessment should be congruent with the subject content, align with the learning

  10. Going paperless: implementing an electronic laboratory notebook in a bioanalytical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Brian; Pisek, April; White, Jessica; Grever, Timothy; Engel, Brian; Pugh, Michael; Schneider, Michael; Carel, Barbara; Branstrator, Laurel; Shoup, Ronald

    2011-07-01

    AIT Bioscience, a bioanalytical CRO, implemented a highly configurable, Oracle-based electronic laboratory notebook (ELN) from IDBS called E-WorkBook Suite (EWBS). This ELN provides a high degree of connectivity with other databases, including Watson LIMS. Significant planning and training, along with considerable design effort and template validation for dozens of laboratory workflows were required prior to EWBS being viable for either R&D or regulated work. Once implemented, EWBS greatly reduced the need for traditional quality review upon experiment completion. Numerous real-time error checks occur automatically when conducting EWBS experiments, preventing the majority of laboratory errors by pointing them out while there is still time to correct any issues. Auditing and reviewing EWBS data are very efficient, because all data are forever securely (and even remotely) accessible, provided a reviewer has appropriate credentials. Use of EWBS significantly increases both data quality and laboratory efficiency.

  11. Linking Supply Chain Governance and Biosecurity in the Context of HPAI Control in Western Java: A Value Chain Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikky Indrawan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive efforts to control the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI, it remains endemic in Western Java, Indonesia. To understand the limited effectiveness of HPAI control measures, it is important to map the complex structure of the poultry sector. The governance of the poultry value chain in particular, could play a pivotal role, yet there is limited information on the different chain governance structures and their impacts on HPAI control. This article uses value chain analysis (VCA, focusing on an in-depth assessment of governance structures as well as transaction cost economics and quantitative estimates of the market power of different chain actors, to establish a theoretical framework to examine biosecurity and HPAI control in the Western Java poultry chain. During the research, semi-structured interviews were conducted with key value-chain stakeholders, and the economic performance of identified actors was estimated. Results indicated the co-existence of four different poultry value chains in West Java: the integrator chain, the semi-automated slaughterhouse chain, the controlled slaughter-point chain, and the private slaughter-point chain. The integrator chain was characterized by the highest levels of coordination and a tight, hierarchical governance. In contrast, the other three types of value chains were less coordinated. The market power of the different actors within the four value chains also differed. In more integrated chains, slaughterhouses held considerable market power, while in more informal value chains, market power was in the hands of traders. The economic effects of HPAI and biosecurity measures also varied for the identified actors in the different value chains. Implementation of biosecurity and HPAI control measures was strongly related to the governance structure of the chain, with interactions between different chains and governance structures accentuating the risk of HPAI. Our findings highlight that a

  12. Linking Supply Chain Governance and Biosecurity in the Context of HPAI Control in Western Java: A Value Chain Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawan, Dikky; Rich, Karl M.; van Horne, Peter; Daryanto, Arief; Hogeveen, Henk

    2018-01-01

    Despite extensive efforts to control the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), it remains endemic in Western Java, Indonesia. To understand the limited effectiveness of HPAI control measures, it is important to map the complex structure of the poultry sector. The governance of the poultry value chain in particular, could play a pivotal role, yet there is limited information on the different chain governance structures and their impacts on HPAI control. This article uses value chain analysis (VCA), focusing on an in-depth assessment of governance structures as well as transaction cost economics and quantitative estimates of the market power of different chain actors, to establish a theoretical framework to examine biosecurity and HPAI control in the Western Java poultry chain. During the research, semi-structured interviews were conducted with key value-chain stakeholders, and the economic performance of identified actors was estimated. Results indicated the co-existence of four different poultry value chains in West Java: the integrator chain, the semi-automated slaughterhouse chain, the controlled slaughter-point chain, and the private slaughter-point chain. The integrator chain was characterized by the highest levels of coordination and a tight, hierarchical governance. In contrast, the other three types of value chains were less coordinated. The market power of the different actors within the four value chains also differed. In more integrated chains, slaughterhouses held considerable market power, while in more informal value chains, market power was in the hands of traders. The economic effects of HPAI and biosecurity measures also varied for the identified actors in the different value chains. Implementation of biosecurity and HPAI control measures was strongly related to the governance structure of the chain, with interactions between different chains and governance structures accentuating the risk of HPAI. Our findings highlight that a proper

  13. Improvement in smallholder farmer knowledge of cattle production, health and biosecurity in Southern Cambodia between 2008 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, S; Suon, S; Rast, L; Windsor, P A

    2012-04-01

    Farmer knowledge surveys were conducted in 2008 and 2010 in Cambodia to evaluate the impact of a research project studying interventions that can improve cattle production and health, including biosecurity and practices relating to risks of transmission of transboundary diseases. The project hypothesis is that by increasing the value of smallholder-owned large ruminants through nutritional interventions and improved marketing, knowledge-based interventions including risk management for infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) can be implemented into a more sustainable pathway for rural development. Between 2008 and 2010, significant improvements in farmer knowledge and attitudes were recorded in three villages in three provinces of southern Cambodia. This was achieved through participatory 'applied field research', 'on the job' training plus 'formal' training programmes. No cases of FMD were recorded during the study period in the 'high-intervention' (HI) villages despite the common occurrence of the disease in a nearby 'low-intervention' and many other villages in the three provinces. Whilst it is likely that protection of these villages from FMD infection was from increasing the herd immunity by vaccination, it could also have been partly because of a decrease in risk behaviours by farmers as a result of their increasing knowledge of biosecurity. The research indicates that smallholder farmers are motivated by nutritional interventions that improve the value of their cattle 'bank' and offer better marketing opportunities. This provides a more receptive environment for introduction of disease risk management for infectious and other production limiting diseases, best implemented for smallholder farmers in Cambodia by intensive training programmes. In lieu of a widespread public awareness programme to deliver mass education of smallholder farmers in disease prevention and biosecurity, livestock development projects in South-East Asia should be

  14. Linking Supply Chain Governance and Biosecurity in the Context of HPAI Control in Western Java: A Value Chain Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawan, Dikky; Rich, Karl M; van Horne, Peter; Daryanto, Arief; Hogeveen, Henk

    2018-01-01

    Despite extensive efforts to control the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), it remains endemic in Western Java, Indonesia. To understand the limited effectiveness of HPAI control measures, it is important to map the complex structure of the poultry sector. The governance of the poultry value chain in particular, could play a pivotal role, yet there is limited information on the different chain governance structures and their impacts on HPAI control. This article uses value chain analysis (VCA), focusing on an in-depth assessment of governance structures as well as transaction cost economics and quantitative estimates of the market power of different chain actors, to establish a theoretical framework to examine biosecurity and HPAI control in the Western Java poultry chain. During the research, semi-structured interviews were conducted with key value-chain stakeholders, and the economic performance of identified actors was estimated. Results indicated the co-existence of four different poultry value chains in West Java: the integrator chain, the semi-automated slaughterhouse chain, the controlled slaughter-point chain, and the private slaughter-point chain. The integrator chain was characterized by the highest levels of coordination and a tight, hierarchical governance. In contrast, the other three types of value chains were less coordinated. The market power of the different actors within the four value chains also differed. In more integrated chains, slaughterhouses held considerable market power, while in more informal value chains, market power was in the hands of traders. The economic effects of HPAI and biosecurity measures also varied for the identified actors in the different value chains. Implementation of biosecurity and HPAI control measures was strongly related to the governance structure of the chain, with interactions between different chains and governance structures accentuating the risk of HPAI. Our findings highlight that a proper

  15. Informal value chain actors' knowledge and perceptions about zoonotic diseases and biosecurity in Kenya and the importance for food safety and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyokabi, Simon; Birner, Regina; Bett, Bernard; Isuyi, Linda; Grace, Delia; Güttler, Denise; Lindahl, Johanna

    2018-03-01

    Zoonotic diseases, transmitted from animals to humans, are a public health challenge in developing countries. Livestock value chain actors have an important role to play as the first line of defence in safeguarding public health. However, although the livelihood and economic impacts of zoonoses are widely known, adoption of biosecurity measures aimed at preventing zoonoses is low, particularly among actors in informal livestock value chains in low and middle-income countries. The main objective of this study was to investigate knowledge of zoonoses and adoption of biosecurity measures by livestock and milk value chain actors in Bura, Tana River County, in Kenya, where cattle, camels, sheep and goats are the main livestock kept. The study utilised a mixed methods approach, with a questionnaire survey administered to 154 value chain actors. Additional information was elicited through key informant interviews and participatory methods with relevant stakeholders outside the value chain. Our results found low levels of knowledge of zoonoses and low levels of adherence to food safety standards, with only 37% of milk traders knowing about brucellosis, in spite of a sero-prevalence of 9% in the small ruminants tested in this study, and no slaughterhouse worker knew about Q fever. Actors had little formal education (between 0 and 10%) and lacked training in food safety and biosecurity measures. Adoption of biosecurity measures by value chain actors was very low or non-existent, with only 11% of butchers wearing gloves. There was a gendered dimension, evidenced by markedly different participation in value chains and lower adoption rates and knowledge levels among female actors. Finally, cultural and religious practices were shown to play an important role in exposure and transmission of diseases, influencing perceptions and attitudes to risks and adoption of biosecurity measures.

  16. The capacity of diagnostic laboratories in Kenya for detecting infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotved, H-C; Yatich, Kennedy K; Sam, Shem Otoi; Ndhine, Edwardina Otieno

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present data of the diagnostic capacity of Kenyan laboratories to diagnose a number of human pathogens. The study is based on the data obtained from a biosecurity survey conducted in Kenya in 2014/2015 and data from the Statistical Abstract of Kenya for 2015. The biosecurity survey has previously been published; however, the survey also included information on laboratory capacity to handle a number of pathogens, which have not been published. Data were retrieved from the survey on 86 laboratory facilities. The data include information from relevant categories such as training laboratories, human diagnostic laboratories, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and research laboratories. The disease incidence in Kenya ranges widely from malaria and diarrhea with an incidence rate of around 10.000 per year to diseases such as cholera and yellow fever with an incidence rate of 1 per year or less for all age groups. The data showed that diseases with the highest number of diagnostic facilities were mainly malaria-, HIV-, tuberculosis-, and diarrhea-related infectious diseases. The study generally shows that the laboratory facilities have the capacity of detecting the infectious diseases with the highest incidence rates. Furthermore, it seems that the number of facilities able to detect a particular disease is related to the incidence rate of the disease.

  17. The Relationship of Microorganism Classification by US Government Guidelines to the Design pof Laboratory Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.

    2007-01-01

    When the first edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, (BMBL) series was published approximately 40 years ago its purpose was to provide a code of practice, guidelines and standards for the prevention of laboratory acquired infections to the laboratorian working in an infectious disease laboratory. The BMBL is based on the microorganism being worked on and is a set of recommendations, which are advisory. While this is true, many agencies in the US government have incorporated all or parts of the BMBL in their regulations. This has led to the BMBL being accepted as the de facto US standard for the design and operation of infectious disease laboratories. The concept of biosecurity has evolved as a result of concerns related o access to microorganisms by terrorists following the anthrax letters of October 2001. While related to biosafety the specific requirements vary from those related to biosafety and are based on laws passed by the US Congress. The Select Agent Program of the US Centres for Disease Control has been given the responsibility for codifying and enforcing these regulations. Both biosafety and biosecurity need to be considered in the design of a laboratory facility. The occasionally conflicting regulatory requirements can be best resolved by conducting a Risk Assessment, which takes into account the microorganisms and the manipulations planned for the laboratory. This is an essential step for both laboratory design and subsequent laboratory operation. (author)

  18. Assessment of farmer knowledge of large ruminant health and production in developing village-level biosecurity in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, S; Rast, L; Khounsy, S; Windsor, P A

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine baseline knowledge and identify knowledge gaps of farmers on biosecurity, risk of transmission of transboundary diseases and large ruminant health and production in three provinces of northern Laos, Hua Phan (HP), Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK). The survey was conducted in six villages that are project sites for an Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) project, with two villages located in each of the three provinces. A census survey was conducted by interview with all 238 farmers participating in the ACIAR project, using a structured questionnaire. The interviews were conducted in Lao language and took 1-2 h per farmer. The answers were recorded in Lao and the survey data were translated into English and transcribed into Microsoft Excel, and a linear mixed model in the Genstat statistical analysis package was used to compare quantitative traits between the target provinces. The results showed that the prediction mean of farmer knowledge scores on parasitic disorders, infectious disease, reproduction and nutrition management were significantly different between the target provinces. The prediction mean of farmer knowledge scores on infectious disease questions ranged between 5.11 in HP to 8.54 in XK of 24 marks (P < 0.001). The prediction mean of total knowledge scores was 13.48 in LPB and 19.29 in XK of 42 marks (P < 0.001). The results indicate both the need for and scope required to attain improvements in farmer knowledge of large ruminant health and production. It was concluded that a participatory research and extension programme to address village-level biosecurity and reduce disease risks, plus enhance large ruminant production capabilities of smallholder producers, is a valid and potentially important strategy to address transboundary disease risk and rural poverty in northern Laos. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. The impact of biosecurity and partial depopulation on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broiler flocks with differing levels of hygiene and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union (EU, and poultry meat is the primary route for transmission to humans. Material and methods: This study examined the impact of partial depopulation (thinning, season, and farm performance (economic, hygiene, and biosecurity on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broilers over a 13-month period. Ten caecal samples were taken per flock, for a total of 211 flocks from 23 farms during the duration of the study. Campylobacter was isolated and enumerated according to modified published ISO methods for veterinary samples. Biosecurity was evaluated through a questionnaire based on risk factors for Campylobacter identified in previous studies. Hygiene compliance was assessed from audit records taken over the course of 1 year. All information relating to biosecurity and hygiene was obtained directly from the processing company. This was done to ensure farmers were unaware they were being monitored for Campylobacter prevalence and prevent changes to their behaviour. Results and discussion: Farms with high performance were found to have significantly lower Campylobacter prevalence at first depopulation compared with low-performance farms across all seasons (P≤0.01. Peak Campylobacter levels were observed during the summer season at first thin in both the high- and low-performance groups. Campylobacter prevalence was found to increase to ≥85% in both high- and low-performance farms across all seasons at final depopulation, suggesting that Campylobacter was introduced during the first depopulation. On low-performance farms, four biosecurity interventions were found to significantly reduce the odds of a flock being Campylobacter positive (physical step-over barrier OR=0.17, house-specific footwear OR=0.13, absence of water body within 0.5 km OR=0.13, two or more broiler houses on a farm OR=0.16, compared with farms without these interventions. For high

  20. The impact of biosecurity and partial depopulation on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broiler flocks with differing levels of hygiene and economic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shaun; Messam, Locksley L McV; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union (EU), and poultry meat is the primary route for transmission to humans. This study examined the impact of partial depopulation (thinning), season, and farm performance (economic, hygiene, and biosecurity) on Campylobacter prevalence in Irish broilers over a 13-month period. Ten caecal samples were taken per flock, for a total of 211 flocks from 23 farms during the duration of the study. Campylobacter was isolated and enumerated according to modified published ISO methods for veterinary samples. Biosecurity was evaluated through a questionnaire based on risk factors for Campylobacter identified in previous studies. Hygiene compliance was assessed from audit records taken over the course of 1 year. All information relating to biosecurity and hygiene was obtained directly from the processing company. This was done to ensure farmers were unaware they were being monitored for Campylobacter prevalence and prevent changes to their behaviour. Farms with high performance were found to have significantly lower Campylobacter prevalence at first depopulation compared with low-performance farms across all seasons (P≤0.01). Peak Campylobacter levels were observed during the summer season at first thin in both the high- and low-performance groups. Campylobacter prevalence was found to increase to ≥85% in both high- and low-performance farms across all seasons at final depopulation, suggesting that Campylobacter was introduced during the first depopulation. On low-performance farms, four biosecurity interventions were found to significantly reduce the odds of a flock being Campylobacter positive (physical step-over barrier OR=0.17, house-specific footwear OR=0.13, absence of water body within 0.5 km OR=0.13, two or more broiler houses on a farm OR=0.16), compared with farms without these interventions. For high-performance farms, no single biosecurity intervention was identified as