Sample records for biosafety education relevant

  1. Biosafety Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce W.


    Work with or potential exposure to biological materials in the course of performing research or other work activities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) must be conducted in a safe, ethical, environmentally sound, and compliant manner. Work must be conducted in accordance with established biosafety standards, the principles and functions of Integrated Safety Management (ISM), this Biosafety Manual, Chapter 26 (Biosafety) of the Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000), and applicable standards and LBNL policies. The purpose of the Biosafety Program is to protect workers, the public, agriculture, and the environment from exposure to biological agents or materials that may cause disease or other detrimental effects in humans, animals, or plants. This manual provides workers; line management; Environment, Health, and Safety (EH&S) Division staff; Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) members; and others with a comprehensive overview of biosafety principles, requirements from biosafety standards, and measures needed to control biological risks in work activities and facilities at LBNL.

  2. Biosafety, biosecurity and internationally mandated regulatory regimes: compliance mechanisms for education and global health security (United States)

    Sture, Judi; Whitby, Simon; Perkins, Dana


    This paper highlights the biosafety and biosecurity training obligations that three international regulatory regimes place upon states parties. The duty to report upon the existence of such provisions as evidence of compliance is discussed in relation to each regime. We argue that such mechanisms can be regarded as building blocks for the development and delivery of complementary biosafety and biosecurity teaching and training materials. We show that such building blocks represent foundations upon which life and associated scientists – through greater awareness of biosecurity concerns – can better fulfil their responsibilities to guard their work from misuse in the future. PMID:24494580

  3. The Need for Culturally Relevant Dance Education (United States)

    McCarthy-Brown, Nyama


    There is a need for culturally relevant teaching in dance education. Many dance teachers have heard the buzz words "culturally relevant teaching methods." Yet these dance educators acknowledge that the "dance culture" is not always synonymous with "culturally relevant." This paper examines the issue of culturally relevant teaching methods in dance…

  4. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)


    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  5. The Relevance of Cosmopolitanism for Moral Education (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.


    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that cosmopolitan ideals can inspire moral educators to awaken…

  6. Is Enterprise Education Relevant to Social Enterprise? (United States)

    Bridge, Simon


    Purpose: Both enterprise education and social enterprise have become fashionable but what, if any, should be the connections between them? The purpose of this paper is to explore those connections and to reflect on what relevance the two concepts might have for each other. Design/methodology/approach: Both enterprise education and social…

  7. How well is Environmental Biosafety Research supporting the scientific debate on the biosafety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)? (United States)

    Craig, Wendy; Lewandowski, Remigiusz; Degrassi, Giuliano; Ripandelli, Decio


    One of the most direct routes to informing scientific debates is through the timely publication of relevant research results. By making a comparison of the number and type of articles published by Environmental Biosafety Research (EBR) with those from other journals active in the arena of GMO biosafety, it is possible to shed light on the answer to the question posed in the title. To do this, we have used a unique open access online tool, the Biosafety Bibliographic Database (BBD) that has been provided by ICGEB since 1990. As of June 2007, the BBD contained 6694 records pertaining to scientific publications (full references and abstracts), and appearing in international and national scientific periodicals and books. Based on the records in the BBD, biosafety research activity over the past 16-17 years can be summarized by analyzing basic statistics. The BBD should prove to be a useful starting point for diverse bibliometric studies of publications in this area.

  8. Citizenship education and its relevance to Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sibanda


    Full Text Available Informal education systems in the traditional African systems were aimed at, among other things, passing on cultural values, norms and knowledge skills from one generation to the next.  In addition, the youth were taught to preserve their cultural identity. Owing to fundamental shifts in classical family systems and educational practices in Africa, countries such as Zimbabwe have come to recognise the need for including societal values and norms, ethics, morals and responsibilities in thewhole school curricula in order to inculcate value systems and maintain the national legacy and cultural heritage. One strategy for achieving the desired cultural ethos is implementing a deliberate Citizenship Education programme which should be incorporated into the formal education system. Citizenship Education could also be inculcated through extra curricula activities such as sport.Besides the transmission of the cultural norms and values, Citizenship Education should incorporate humanitarian issues such as inclusion of people with disabilities in social processes. In the same vein, the Citizenship Education programme should be flexible to cater for the needs of learners with special needs. This paper explores the relevance of Citizenship Education to the prevailing Zimbabwean situation. In the long term, Citizenship Education has the capacity to improve the socio-political and economic advancement of a country.  The paper concludes that Citizenship Education is relevant to the Zimbabwean situation, despite that it has been heavily politicised and has, in some cases, lost its original intention. In the long term, the programme has a propensity to improve the socio-political and economic conditions of the country. De-politicisation of Citizenship Education could be the first step towards re-aligning it to the intended national ethos and ideals. This should be policy driven.The programme should endeavour to inculcate values and norms that facilitate nation

  9. Culturally Relevant Education: Extending the Conversation to Religious Diversity (United States)

    Aronson, Brittany; Amatullah, Tasneem; Laughter, Judson


    Culturally relevant education represents a wide collection of pedagogies of opposition to social injustice and holds a commitment to collective empowerment and social justice. By using culturally relevant education as a framework, we make the case to include religious diversity as a part of culturally relevant education intentionally. We believe…

  10. Educação em biossegurança e bioética: articulação necessária em biotecnologia Education on biosafety and bioethics: necessary articulation in biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos De Bonis


    Full Text Available A educação científica tem sido debatida em alguns segmentos da sociedade e organizações internacionais têm estimulado as nações a investirem nessa área tão estratégica. Nesse contexto, a educação em biossegurança e bioética explora um conteúdo rico em prevenção, normas e princípios éticos, que servem para nortear os caminhos trilhados pela biotecnologia. A valorização da biossegurança e da bioética como parte de uma política educacional científica, efetiva e consistente, pode estimular a formação de indivíduos com uma consciência científica e cidadã, em condições de participar das questões de natureza ética e tecnológica produzidas pela biotecnologia.Science education has been discussed in some segments of the society and, international organizations have encouraged nations to invest in this strategic area. In this context, education in bioethics and biosafety explores a rich content on prevention, standards and ethical principles which serve to guide the paths track by biotechnology. The recovery of bioethics and biosafety, as part of an educational policy scientific, effective and consistent, can stimulate the formation of individuals with a scientific and citizen awareness, in a position to participate on ethical and technological issues produced by biotechnology.

  11. Providing Educationally Relevant Occupational and Physical Therapy Services (United States)

    Laverdure, Patricia A.; Rose, Deborah S.


    As defined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, occupational and physical therapists provide services to support students to access, participate, and progress in their educational program within the least restrictive educational environment. Educationally relevant occupational and physical therapy services in school…

  12. Tagore's Vision of International Education: Relevance and Implications for Today (United States)

    Samuel, Francis A.


    In this information age, the world is fast becoming a global village. In this context, it is relevant to look at the educational vision of Rabindranath Tagore. He tried to realize his educational vision in his schools and Visva-Bharati University where the world makes its home in a single nest. Tagore's vision of international education can help…

  13. Why Art Education Lacks Social Relevance: A Contextual Analysis. (United States)

    Bersson, Robert


    This article examines why both the individual-centered and discipline-centered approaches to art education lack social relevance. Maintains that the lack of a social orientation in these two approaches is due to our social context and our capitalistic system. Proposes that democratic principles serve as the basis of a socially relevant,…

  14. Exploring the Relevance of Holocaust Education for Human Rights Education (United States)

    Eckmann, Monique


    Can Holocaust education be considered a tool for human rights education? If so, to what extent? These questions elicit discussions among a wide range of educators, and interest among politicians, educational planners, and ministries in charge of memorials. At first glance the obvious answer seems to be yes; both educators and students have strong…

  15. A Question of Relevance: Beyond the Domestication of Educational Definition. (United States)

    Hill, Debbie


    A first-year philosophy of education course encouraged students to challenge definitions of education as "schooling" and of relevant learning as that with an institutional or vocational focus. Critical analysis of the individual's social learning was the first step toward personal growth and social transformation. (SK)

  16. Evaluation of designer crops for biosafety--a scientist's perspective. (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shweta; Goyal, Vinod


    With the advent of transgenic technology, it has become possible to mobilize and express foreign genes into plants and to design crop varieties with better agronomic attributes and adaptability to challenging environmental conditions. Recent advances in transgenic technology have led to concerns about safety of transgenic crops to human and animal health and environment. Biosafety focuses on preventing, minimizing and eliminating risks associated with the research, production, and use of transgenic crops. Food biosafety involves studies of substantial equivalence related to compositional analysis, toxicity and allergenicity. Environmental biosafety involves glasshouse and field trials and study of unintended effects on non-target organisms. Transgenics are characterized at phenotypic and molecular levels for understanding the location of transgene insertion site, ploidy level, copy number, integrated vector sequences, protein expression and stability of the transgene. Various techniques employed for transgene characterization include flow cytometry, southern, northern and western analyses, real-time (qRT) PCR, competitive PCR, FISH, fiber-FISH, DNA micro-arrays, mRNA profiling, 2DE-MS, iTRAQ, FT-MS, NMR, GC-MS, CE-MS and biosensor-based approaches. Evaluation of transgene expression involves the application of integrated phenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics approaches. However, the relevance and application of these approaches may vary in different cases. The elaborate analysis of transgenic crops will facilitate the safety assessment and commercialization of transgenics and lead to global food security for the future.

  17. Popularity and Relevance of Science Education and Scientific Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Wolfgang; Blonder, Ron; Bolte, Claus;


    A consortium of researchers from 8 European nations has successfully applied to the EU commission for funding the PARSEL (Popularity and Relevance in Science Education for Scientific Literacy) project, which aims at raising the popularity and relevance of science teaching and enhancing students...... of a range of personal and social skills (including cognitive skills associated with investigatory scientific problem solving and socio-scientific decision making) and clarify the relevancy of science education for the 21st century. This symposium will introduce and discuss the project PARSEL ideas within......' scientific and technological literacy, through identification of suitable teaching-learning materials based on relevant context-based educational approaches. These approaches, identifiable within the teaching-learning materials, are expected to focus on socio-scientific issues, promote the acquisition...

  18. Biosafety data as confidential business information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare M Nielsen

    Full Text Available Removal of confidentiality claims on biosafety data is necessary to adhere to standard scientific procedures of quality assurance, to increase transparency, to minimize impacts of conflicts of interests, and ultimately to improve public confidence in GMOs.

  19. Culturally relevant physical education in urban schools: reflecting cultural knowledge. (United States)

    Flory, Sara B; McCaughtry, Nate


    Using a three-part theoretical framework, the cultural relevance cycle-which consists of (a) knowing community dynamics, (b) knowing how community dynamics influence educational processes, and (c) implementing strategies that reflect cultural knowledge of the community--we examined teachers' and students' perspectives on culturally relevant physical education in urban settings. We observed and interviewed 53 physical education teachers and 183 students in urban districts over 4 years. We identified themes of care, respect, language and communication, and curricular content that explained how these teachers enacted the cultural relevance cycle. Within these themes, teachers and students specified global and discipline-specific components of care, the rflattening of social hierarchies among students and between students and teachers, accommodation of English as a second language and urban communication, and relevant curricular content as necessary for achieving cultural relevance. Enacting the cycle of cultural relevance resulted in respectful learning environments in which students were highly engaged; however very few teachers enacted all three steps of the cycle.

  20. Culturally Relevant Management Education: Insights from Experience in Nunavut (United States)

    Wihak, Christine


    The author's experience with a Nunavut business management education program illustrates how to develop culturally relevant organizational behavior curriculum. The process initially involved interviews with Inuit Elders about culturally appropriate responses to scenarios of cultural conflicts in the workplace identified by Inuit managers. The…

  1. Antonio Gramsci and His Relevance for the Education of Adults (United States)

    Mayo, Peter


    This paper, drawing on original sources, provides an overview of and a discussion on those writings and ideas, in Antonio Gramsci's huge corpus of work, that are relevant to the education of adults. This should provide a fitting tribute to this major social theorist of the 20th century on the 70th anniversary of his death. Among the topics…

  2. Re-Thinking the Relevance of Philosophy of Education for Educational Policy Making (United States)

    Griffiths, Morwenna


    The overall question addressed in this article is,"What kind of philosophy of education is relevant to educational policy makers?" The article focuses on the following four themes: The meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by philosophers themselves; the meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by policy…

  3. Laboratory biorisk management biosafety and biosecurity

    CERN Document Server

    Salerno, Reynolds M


    Over the past two decades bioscience facilities worldwide have experienced multiple safety and security incidents, including many notable incidents at so-called ""sophisticated facilities"" in North America and Western Europe. This demonstrates that a system based solely on biosafety levels and security regulations may not be sufficient.Setting the stage for a substantively different approach for managing the risks of working with biological agents in laboratories, Laboratory Biorisk Management: Biosafety and Biosecurity introduces the concept of biorisk management-a new paradigm that encompas

  4. Heat transfer education : Keeping it relevant and vibrant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khounsary, A. M.


    The motivation for a fresh look at heat transfer education, both in content and in methodology, is generated by a number of trends in engineering practice. These include the increasing demand for engineers with interdisciplinary skills, rapid integration of technology, emergence of computerized and interactive problem-solving tools, shortening time of concept-to-market, availability of new technologies, and an increasing number of new or redesigned products and processes in which heat transfer plays a part. Examination of heat transfer education in this context can be aided by considering the changes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in the student, educator, and researcher populations, employment opportunities, in the needs of corporations, government, industry, and universities, and in the relevant technical problems and issues of the day. Such an overview provides the necessary background for charting a response to the difficult question of how to maintain excellence and continuity in heat transfer education in the face of rapid, widespread, and complex changes. The present paper addresses how to make heat transfer education more relevant and stimulating. This paper represents a written summary of a 1996 panel discussion at the 1996 International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exhibition (IMECE) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in Atlanta, Georgia, on ''Heat Transfer Education: Keeping it Relevant and Vibrant,'' with significant expansion and amplification by the authors and the panelists in the 1997-98 period. The consensus of the participants is that the steps necessary to ensure the desired outcome in heat transfer education should include: (1) a better understanding of the interaction between the student, course content, and market needs; (2) an appreciation of the need in multidisciplinary industrial environments for engineers trained with a broad background: (3) a revision of the introductory heat

  5. National Standard on Laboratory Biosafety Officially Promulgated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ On May 28, a press conference on national standards of the General Requirements on Laboratory Biosafety, which was sponsored by the Standardization Administration of China (SAC) and the Certification and Accreditation Administration of the People's Republic of China (CNCA) and undertaken by China National Accreditation Board for Laboratories, was held in Beijing.

  6. Biosafety challenges for use of lentiviral vectors in gene therapy. (United States)

    Rothe, Michael; Modlich, Ute; Schambach, Axel


    Lentiviral vectors are promising tools for the genetic modification of cells in biomedical research and gene therapy. Their use in recent clinical trials for the treatment of adrenoleukodystrophy, β-thalassemia, Wiskott-Aldrich- Syndrome and metachromatic leukodystrophy underlined their efficacy for therapies especially in case of hereditary diseases. In comparison to gammaretroviral LTR-driven vectors, which were employed in the first clinical trials, lentiviral vectors present with some favorable features like the ability to transduce also non-dividing cells and a potentially safer insertion profile. However, genetic modification with viral vectors in general and stable integration of the therapeutic gene into the host cell genome bear concerns with respect to different levels of personal or environmental safety. Among them, insertional mutagenesis by enhancer mediated dysregulation of neighboring genes or aberrant splicing is still the biggest concern. However, also risks like immunogenicity of vector particles, the phenotoxicity of the transgene and potential vertical or horizontal transmission by replication competent retroviruses need to be taken into account. This review will give an overview on biosafety aspects that are relevant to the use of lentiviral vectors for genetic modification and gene therapy. Furthermore, assay systems aiming at evaluating biosafety in preclinical settings and recent promising clinical trials including efforts of monitoring of patients after gene therapy will be discussed.

  7. How Relevant Is R. S. Peters' Conception of Education to Science Education? (United States)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Stamatis, Panagiotis


    This paper discusses R. S. Peters' concept of education, particularly his notion of cognitive perspective and its relevance to school science education. In light of the problems inherent in any attempt to define the notion of scientific literacy, it is argued that the development of cognitive perspective can be considered an important, if not the…

  8. [Health services waste management: a biosafety issue]. (United States)

    Garcia, Leila Posenato; Zanetti-Ramos, Betina Giehl


    The subject of "health services waste" is controversial and widely discussed. Biosafety, the principles of which include safeguarding occupational health, community health, and environmental safety, is directly involved in the issue of medical waste management. There are controversies as to the risks posed by medical waste, as evidenced by diverging opinions among authors: some advocate severe approaches on the basis that medical waste is hazardous, while others contend that the potential for infection from medical waste is nonexistent. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has published resolution RDC 33/2003 to standardize medical waste management nationwide. There is an evident need to implement biosafety procedures in this area, including heath care workers' training and provision of information to the general population.

  9. Integrating couple relationship education in antenatal education - a study of perceived relevance among expectant Danish parents. (United States)

    Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Due, Pernille; Koushede, Vibeke


    Little is known about which elements antenatal education should encompass to meet the needs of parents today. Psycho-social aspects relating to couple- and parenthood have generally not been covered in Danish antenatal education, although studies suggest that parents need this information. The aim of this study was to examine perceived relevance of couple relationship topics integrated in an antenatal programme among intervention participants in the NEWBORN trial. Our study shows that 84% of the participants found it relevant to learn about communication skills and changes in the relationship during and after pregnancy.

  10. Integrating couple relationship education in antenatal education - A study of perceived relevance among expectant Danish parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Due, Pernille;


    Little is known about which elements antenatal education should encompass to meet the needs of parents today. Psycho-social aspects relating to couple- and parenthood have generally not been covered in Danish antenatal education, although studies suggest that parents need this information. The aim...... of this study was to examine perceived relevance of couple relationship topics integrated in an antenatal programme among intervention participants in the NEWBORN trial. Our study shows that 84% of the participants found it relevant to learn about communication skills and changes in the relationship during...

  11. Guidelines for biosafety laboratory competency: CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories. (United States)

    Delany, Judy R; Pentella, Michael A; Rodriguez, Joyce A; Shah, Kajari V; Baxley, Karen P; Holmes, David E


    These guidelines for biosafety laboratory competency outline the essential skills, knowledge, and abilities required for working with biologic agents at the three highest biosafety levels (BSLs) (levels 2, 3, and 4). The competencies are tiered to a worker's experience at three levels: entry level, midlevel (experienced), and senior level (supervisory or managerial positions). These guidelines were developed on behalf of CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) by an expert panel comprising 27 experts representing state and federal public health laboratories, private sector clinical and research laboratories, and academic centers. They were then reviewed by approximately 300 practitioners representing the relevant fields. The guidelines are intended for laboratorians working with hazardous biologic agents, obtained from either samples or specimens that are maintained and manipulated in clinical, environmental, public health, academic, and research laboratories.

  12. Mencius' Educational Philosophy and Its Contemporary Relevance (United States)

    Huang, Chun-chieh


    This article argues that Mencius' education is "holistic education" that aims at igniting the "silent revolution" from within one's inner mind-heart to be unfolded in society, state, and the world. Mencius' educational philosophy is based on his theory of human nature and his theory of self-cultivation. Mencius…

  13. Development of agribiotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess safety of genetically modified crops in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Nasiruddin, Khondoker M; Nasim, Anwar


    Bangladesh is on the verge of adopting genetically modified (GM) crops for commercial cultivation and consumption as feed and food. Most of the laboratories are engaged in tissue culture and molecular characterization on plants, whereas some have started living modified organism research with shortages of trained manpower, infrastructure, and funding. Nutritionally improved Golden Rice, biotech brinjal, and late blight-resistant potato are in contained trials in a greenhouse, and potato ring spot virus-resistant papaya is in the process of approval for a field trial. The government has taken some initiative in support of GM organism research, which include the formation of a Biotechnology Department in all institutes and the formation of the apex body, the National Task Force Committee on Biotechnology of Bangladesh under the chairpersonship of the Prime Minister. Biosafety policy guidelines and related aspects of biotechnology issues have been approved, and the laws are in the process of being promulgated. Being a party to the Cartagena Protocol, proper biosafety measures are regulated by the appropriate authority as stated. Although there are no laws made yet directly for biosafety of GM crops/foods, the relevant laws on agriculture, medicine, food, import, trade, environment, etc. may suffice and explain the situation.

  14. Malaysian Teacher Trainees' Practices on Science and the Relevance of Science Education for Sustainability (United States)

    Nair, Subadrah Madhawa; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Marimuthu, Nagamah


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practice of teacher trainees on science and the relevance of science education. The study focuses on teacher trainees' practice on science teaching and its relevance to understanding science education. Design/methodology/approach: The study employed a survey method using questionnaires. The…

  15. Respectability and Relevance: Reflections on Richard Peters and Analytic Philosophy of Education (United States)

    Snook, Ivan


    I argue that, after Dewey, Peters was the first modern philosopher of education to write material (in English) that was both philosophically respectable and relevant to the day-to-day concerns of teachers. Since then, some philosophers of education have remained (more or less) relevant but not really respectable while others have "taken off into…

  16. Being Maori: Culturally Relevant Assessment in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Rameka, Lesley Kay


    Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…

  17. Re-Educating Jet-Engine-Researchers to Stay Relevant (United States)

    Gal-Or, Benjamin


    To stay relevantly supported, jet-engine researchers, designers and operators should follow changing uses of small and large jet engines, especially those anticipated to be used by/in the next generation, JET-ENGINE-STEERED ("JES") fleets of jet drones but fewer, JES-Stealth-Fighter/Strike Aircraft. In addition, some diminishing returns from isolated, non-integrating, jet-engine component studies, vs. relevant, supersonic, shock waves control in fluidic-JES-side-effects on compressor stall dynamics within Integrated Propulsion Flight Control ("IPFC"), and/or mechanical JES, constitute key relevant methods that currently move to China, India, South Korea and Japan. The central roles of the jet engine as primary or backup flight controller also constitute key relevant issues, especially under post stall conditions involving induced engine-stress while participating in crash prevention or minimal path-time maneuvers to target. And when proper instructors are absent, self-study of the JES-STVS REVOLUTION is an updating must, where STVS stands for wing-engine-airframe-integrated, embedded stealthy-jet-engine-inlets, restructured engines inside Stealth, Tailless, canard-less, Thrust Vectoring IFPC Systems. Anti-terror and Airliners Super-Flight-Safety are anticipated to overcome US legislation red-tape that obstructs JES-add-on-emergency-kits-use.

  18. Biosafety initiatives in BMENA region: identification of gaps and advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum eKhan


    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The objectives of this study were to identify and assess the impact of capacity-building biosafety initiatives and programs that have taken place in the broader Middle East and north Africa (BMENA region between 2001-13, to highlight gaps that require further development, and to suggest sustainable ways to build cooperative regional biosafety opportunities. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted with two aspects 1 thorough desktop review of literature for all biosafety / biosecurity related activities in the study countries such as seminars, conferences, workshops, policy documents, technology transfer, sustained scientific endeavours between countries etc.; and 2 an online survey of scientists in countries in the region to get first-hand information about biosafety and biosecurity initiatives and gaps in their country. Results: A total of 1832 initiatives of biosafety / biosecurity were recorded from 97 web-links,70.68% (n=1295 initiatives were focused on raising general awareness among the scientific community about biosafety/biosecurity/biocontainment. The most frequent areas of interest were biorisk management in biomedical and biotechnology laboratories 13% (n=239, followed by Living Modified Organisms (LMO’s 9.17% (n=168. Hands-on training accounted for 2.67% (n=49 of initiatives. On line survey results confirmed desktop review findings, however the response rate was 11%.

  19. The Need for a Culturally Relevant Approach to Gifted Education: The Case of Cyprus (United States)

    Ieridou, Alexandra N.


    This article presents an overview of the status of gifted education in Cyprus and argues for the need for a culturally relevant approach. First, the history of education in Cyprus is briefly reviewed. Then, past unsuccessful efforts to provide education for academically advanced students in the public elementary schools are critically examined.…

  20. Cross-curricular goals and raising the relevance of science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belova, Nadja; Dittmar, Johanna; Hansson, Lena


    focuses on a set of such cross-curricular goals from a chemistry education perspective, namely education for sustainability, critical media literacy, innovation competence, vocational orientation, and employability. It relates them to the idea of relevant chemistry and science education. Directions...

  1. Relevance of Educational Factors in the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Silviu VERZEA


    Full Text Available Introduction: radical pancreatic resections are the only chance to cure a pancreatic cancer, if the tumor is in an early stage of development. The results of the surgical teams have constantly improved in time, in terms of survival and a good quality of life. Unfortunately, only a small part of the patients benefit from surgical interventions. The causes of this phenomenon are complex, educational factors playing an important role. Material and Methods: 44 patients with pancreatoduodenectomy, operated between 2005 and 2008 were divided in 2 groups. Several parameters were recorded, including age, sex, level of education and place of origin, associated diabetes mellitus, these being studied in relation with the postoperative morbidity and mortality. Results: the morbidity after operation was 65,90%, and the mortality – 6,81%. The level of education, age, socioeconomic status, the presence of diabetes mellitus did not significantly influence the morbidity and the mortality after pancreatoduodenectomy. Conclusions: the postoperative morbidity and mortality are more incidental in small medical centers, but their values are acceptable, if compared with the data from the literature. Excluding the potential patients candidates for radical surgery because they are old or they have poor economic status is not a justified attitude. Education of the patients, medical stuff and surgeons is very important and it can raise the number of healed cases and could change the perception on pancreatic cancer.

  2. Ethnolinguistically Relevant Pedagogy: Empowering English Language Learners in Physical Education (United States)

    Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Columna, Luis; Hodge, Samuel R.; Mansilla, Patricia Martinez de la Vega


    People from diverse cultures interpret languages and gestures differently (Columna & Lieberman, 2011). It is not surprising, therefore, that communication differences may have negative implications for teachers and English language learners in K-12 physical education environments. To address this issue, we advocate preparing physical education…

  3. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly


    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  4. Brain-Based Education: Its Pedagogical Implications and Research Relevance (United States)

    Laxman, Kumar; Chin, Yap Kueh


    The brain, being the organ of learning, must be understood if classrooms are to be places of meaningful learning. Understanding the brain has the potential to alter the foundation of education, transform traditional classrooms to interactive learning environments and promote better instructional approaches amongst teachers. Brain-based education…

  5. Intercultural Interpretations: Making Public Relations Education Culturally Relevant (United States)

    Chia, Joy


    Public relations educators delivering courses to international students find that each cohort of students interprets and understands public relations theory and its application to practice according to their respective cultures. The premise of this paper is to reflect on some of the interpretations and expectations of public relations students…

  6. Designing an educational experience of relevance to real world situations


    Guille, Jackie; Abraham, Nandita; Patel, Usha


    This refereed paper examines the value and impact of the experiential learning developed within the DfID funded Development Partnerships in Higher Education (DeLPHE) project ‘Sustainability and Equitable Development: Interventions in India’s Rural Craft Industry’ in partnership with the Pearl Academy of Fashion, Delhi and Dastkar Kendra Ranthambore, Rajasthan. It explores the multidisciplinary and inter-sectoral initiatives undertaken to support the development of indigenous crafts enterprise...

  7. Is ‘friendship’ educationally relevant in doctoral pedagogy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    to the Faculty of English, the Faculty of Music, the Department of Philosophy, the Department of Art History, and the Department of Education. Each interview lasted between 45-60 minutes and was performed at the individual doctoral supervisor’s office in college or in the department. I designed and conducted...... the personal (private) and professional sides of the supervisor-student relationship. This group of supervisors find an emotional bond between supervisors and students to be potentially dangerous and threatening the sober and Socratic academic relation in the supervision process. The second category contains...

  8. African Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Relevance of Higher Education in South Africa (United States)

    Kaya, Hassan O.; Seleti, Yonah N.


    The higher education system in Africa and South Africa in particular, is still too academic and distant from the developmental challenges of African local communities. The integration of African indigenous knowledge systems (AIKS) into the higher educational system could improve its relevance. This is due to the holistic, community-based nature…

  9. Relevance of the Flexner Report to contemporary medical education in South Asia. (United States)

    Amin, Zubair; Burdick, William P; Supe, Avinash; Singh, Tejinder


    A century after the publication of Medical Education in the United States and Canada: A Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (the Flexner Report), the quality of medical education in much of Asia is threatened by weak regulation, inadequate public funding, and explosive growth of private medical schools. Competition for students' fees and an ineffectual accreditation process have resulted in questionable admission practices, stagnant curricula, antiquated learning methods, and dubious assessment practices. The authors' purpose is to explore the relevance of Flexner's observations, as detailed in his report, to contemporary medical education in South Asia, to analyze the consequences of growth, and to recommend pragmatic changes. Major drivers for growth are the supply-demand mismatch for medical school positions, weak governmental regulation, private sector participation, and corruption. The consequences are urban-centric growth, shortage of qualified faculty, commercialization of postgraduate education, untenable assessment practices, emphasis on rote learning, and inadequate clinical exposure. Recommendations include strengthening accreditation standards and processes possibly by introducing regional or national student assessment, developing defensible student assessment systems, recognizing health profession education as a field of scholarship, and creating a tiered approach to faculty development in education. The relevance of Flexner's recommendations to the current status of medical education in South Asia is striking, in terms of both the progressive nature of his thinking in 1910 and the need to improve medical education in Asia today. In a highly connected world, the improvement of Asian medical education will have a global impact.

  10. Assessing the Practicality and Relevance of Adventist Educational Philosophy in a Contemporary Education Paradigm (United States)

    Jackman, W. Marc


    This article examines the key tenets of contemporary education philosophy and compares it to the principles of the Adventist educational philosophy. The intent is to determine whether Adventist educational philosophy aligns with the demands of contemporary education. In this vein, 10 key principles of contemporary education are first described.…

  11. Morality and Educational Change: The Current Relevance of the Contemporary Educational Philosopher. (United States)

    Helwig, Carl

    In a declining role, the educational philosopher might be able to revive his own role through the current call for educational reform amidst America's latest "educational crisis." The educational issues raised by Illich, Silberman, Skinner and Muller are analyzed in detail for they provide the basis for such a revived role. Particularly,…

  12. Education for Sustainable Development: Current Discourses and Practices and Their Relevance to Technology Education (United States)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Manolas, Evangelos; Pace, Paul


    Technology education is a well-established field of knowledge whose applications have many ramifications. For example, technology education may be used as a tool in meeting the challenges of sustainable development. However, the usefulness of technology education to the sustainability debate as a whole and to education for sustainable development…

  13. Perceived Relevance of Special Education Performance Indicators: Teacher Excellence and Support System (United States)

    Mrla, Tiffany


    A study was conducted to investigate the perceived relevance of using a teacher evaluation rubric with performance indicators specific to special education services in place of the standard rubric for teachers used in the State of Arkansas Teacher Excellence Support System (TESS). Through a multi-method approach, the perceptions of special…

  14. Exploring Ethnohistory and Indigenous Scholarship: What Is the Relevance to Educational Historians? (United States)

    McGregor, Heather E.


    For educational historians involved in the representation of Indigenous contexts and peoples, what is the relevance of ethnohistory as a discipline or methodology, and what is lost or gained in using it? This article reviews ethnohistorical literature, and brings it in conversation with literature by Indigenous scholars on research methodologies,…

  15. A System for Providing Relevant Metrics Education for Vocational Teachers in Kentucky. Final Report. (United States)

    Crosby, Richard K.

    A project conducted in four vocational regions of Kentucky developed a system for providing vocational teachers with relevant metrics education and developed and identified materials to support and enhance the system. Ten occupational training areas selected as a focus of the project were air conditioning, auto body, auto mechanics, diesel…

  16. The Relevance of Emotional Intelligence for Leadership in a Higher Education Context (United States)

    Parrish, Dominique Rene


    This paper reports on a case-study research investigation that sought to identify the relevance of emotional intelligence for effective higher education academic leadership. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, pre and post a leadership capacity development intervention, to gather broad data on participants' experiences, insights, and…

  17. Learning From Rudolf Steiner: The Relevance of Waldorf Education for Urban Public School Reform (United States)

    Oberman, Ida


    The author of this paper investigates the relevance of Waldorf education for public urban school reform. Based on analysis of survey data from over 500 graduates of private U.S. Waldorf schools, review of documents from the Gates Foundation, and staff-interview and student-achievement data from four public Waldorf-methods schools, she develops…

  18. The Relevance of Hans-Georg Gadamer's Concept of Tradition to the Philosophy of Education (United States)

    Leiviskä, Anniina


    In this article, Anniina Leiviskä argues that the educational relevance of Hans-Georg Gadamer's concept of tradition has remained unacknowledged because of the conservatism that has been associated with Gadamer's hermeneutics, particularly his notion of tradition. Therefore, Leiviskä seeks to reveal the reflective, nonconservative nature of…

  19. Dance Education Matters: Rebuilding Postsecondary Dance Education for Twenty-First Century Relevance and Resonance (United States)

    Risner, Doug


    Postsecondary dance education is at a crucial juncture in its history in academe. Emerging from women's physical education programs in the 1930s, the profession's realignment with the arts broadly and arts-based education specifically has been characterized by ambitious goals and steady growth through the 1990s. However, a number of critical…

  20. [Dimensional analysis of the concept of biosafety due to bioterrorism]. (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Shaha, Maya


    In recent years with the strengthening of the discourse surrounding the biological risk of bioterrorist nature, the concept of biosafety emerged gradually. A dimensional analysis was used to contextualize the concept. Initially, biosafety was essentially a technical term related to the risks of contamination in laboratories or food industry and then be used to protect biodiversity against the spread of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment. Now, it is increasingly used in reference to the prevention and infections control, even though its use remains marginal. However, biosecurity may be defined as the security of life and therefore affect the safety devices participating in the government of bodies and power over life. A more critical approach including social and political dimensions within a Foucauldian perspective is needed to expand the scope of the biosecurity concept up to biological hazards constructs.

  1. Establishing protocols for tick containment at Biosafety Level 4



    Tick borne diseases continue to emerge and have a great impact on public health and agriculture. In addition, many of the tick borne diseases agents, which are classified as Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) viruses, have the potential to be used as biothreat agents. In spite of the known importance of these pathogens, there is an acute shortage of facilities and trained personnel to study the pathogenesis of tick-borne diseases and to assess vaccine as well as other therapeutic interventions against...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Riyadi


    Full Text Available This articel was conducted based on the consideration that the current emotional intelligence is still indispensable in shaping the behavior of students. With specifying on the subjects of Islamic education. This article tried to connect the emotional intelligence of high school students on Islamic Education. This article examines to determine how Islamic religious education policies that have been implemented in high school and to determine the relevance of emotional intelligence of high school students against the teachings of Islam. To get a complete this article. libarary research approach.  Data was collected through literature study includes studying, studying and citing theories or concepts from a number of literature. Books, journals, magazines and others. It can be applied to educate children who are emotionally intelligent with the ability to recognize self-managing emotions productively utilize emotions, empathy, and the ability to build social relationships.

  3. The Educational Relevance of Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and Mahatma Gandhi in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Sharma


    Full Text Available Contextualisation These research notes are based on my PhD study, which I am partway through. The study looks at the educational ideas of the Japanese educator Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944 and those of Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948 of India. In particular the study deals with the views of the above educators on ‘values’ in education and their role in opposing both the totalitarian values of National Shinto in Japan during World War II and the communal values that were being invoked during the same period by Hindu and Muslim political parties in India. The study then questions the relevance of the two dissident philosophers in the present-day context of the ongoing controversies that exist in history textbooks in both Japan and India, with respect to the representation of World War II in Japanese textbooks and the influence of Hindutva values in Indian textbooks.

  4. Framework for leadership and training of Biosafety Level 4 laboratory workers. (United States)

    Le Duc, James W; Anderson, Kevin; Bloom, Marshall E; Estep, James E; Feldmann, Heinz; Geisbert, Joan B; Geisbert, Thomas W; Hensley, Lisa; Holbrook, Michael; Jahrling, Peter B; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Korch, George; Patterson, Jean; Skvorak, John P; Weingartl, Hana


    Construction of several new Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories and expansion of existing operations have created an increased international demand for well-trained staff and facility leaders. Directors of most North American BSL-4 laboratories met and agreed upon a framework for leadership and training of biocontainment research and operations staff. They agreed on essential preparation and training that includes theoretical consideration of biocontainment principles, practical hands-on training, and mentored on-the-job experiences relevant to positional responsibilities as essential preparation before a person's independent access to a BSL-4 facility. They also agreed that the BSL-4 laboratory director is the key person most responsible for ensuring that staff members are appropriately prepared for BSL-4 operations. Although standardized certification of training does not formally exist, the directors agreed that facility-specific, time-limited documentation to recognize specific skills and experiences of trained persons is needed.

  5. Culturally Relevant Teaching: Hip-Hop Pedagogy in Urban Schools. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 396 (United States)

    Prier, Darius D.


    "Culturally Relevant Teaching" centers hip-hop culture as a culturally relevant form of critical pedagogy in urban pre-service teacher education programs. In this important book, Darius D. Prier explores how hip-hop artists construct a sense of democratic education and pedagogy with transformative possibilities in their schools and communities. In…

  6. Biosafety Considerations of Mammalian-Transmissible H5N1 Influenza



    Abstract The ability to produce an H5N1 influenza virus that can be transmitted from human to human raises both biosecurity and biosafety concerns. After analyzing the biosafety risks of such a virus, we propose that it be handled at biosafety level 4 (BSL4) containment until and unless it becomes clear that the risks to humans and other mammals can be mitigated.

  7. Academically Ambitious and Relevant Higher Education Research: The Legacy of the Consortium of Higher Education Researchers (United States)

    Teichler, Ulrich


    The Consortium of Higher Education Researchers (CHER) was founded in 1988 to stimulate international communication and collaboration of higher education researchers. A need was felt to offset the isolation of the small numbers of scholars in this area of expertise in many countries, as well as the isolation of individual disciplines addressing…

  8. Research Courses in Education Leadership Programs: Relevance in an Era of Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Bustamante


    Full Text Available Master’s degree research course offerings of 72 university education leadership programs were examined to explore how relevant the courses were to the inquiry needs of practicing school leaders. Research course titles and descriptions were analyzed using content analysis. Findings revealed considerable variation in research course requirements, course titles, and course descriptions. Analysis of course descriptions indicated minimal emphasis on the research skills required for school improvement. Results also suggested a lack of consensus on the importance of developing research skills for school leaders across university education leadership programs. Implications for education leadership preparation programs are discussed with an emphasis on the need for further studies on the research skills required by practicing school leaders.

  9. Team-based learning: a relevant strategy in health professionals' education. (United States)

    Parmelee, Dean X; Hudes, Patricia


    For about a decade, team-based learning (TBL), as an educational strategy, has been growing in use in the US and in several other international medical schools. It is a learner-centered, small group instructional strategy with good academic outcomes and considerable potential to address many of the professional competencies that are critical for the practice of medicine. For it to be successful in a course or curriculum, its essential components must be used properly. This article explains the importance and relevance of TBL in healthcare education, supports its inclusion as an effective learning strategy, and encourages the reader to explore additional resources, including the recently published AMEE Guide in Medical Education related to the topic (Parmelee et al, 2012).

  10. 国际马术比赛场馆生物安全控制体系建设%Establishment of Biosafety Control Systems for International Equestrian Competition Venues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永红; 鄢志强; 邱索平; 林志雄; 周仲芳; 王彭军; 游洪


    广东出入境检验检疫局依照国内法律法规的要求,参考国内相关标准,从环境要求、场馆检疫设施、生物安全控制对象和要求、防疫程序、无害化处理程序等方面建立了一套完整的国际马术比赛场馆生物安全控制体系。%A complete biosafety control system was established for international equestrian competition venues according to domestic legal and regulatory,in reference to relevant national standards and in combination with environmental requirements,quarantine facilities,objects and requirements of biosafety control,and prevention and biosafety disposal programs,thus providing reference to related parties.

  11. Interprofessional education for first year psychology students: career plans, perceived relevance and attitudes. (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D; Forman, Dawn


    Undergraduate psychology students have been largely excluded from interprofessional education (IPE) initiatives. In contrast to many health professions, undergraduate psychology students do not engage in work placements as part of their degree, and many enter careers outside the health care context. However, the collaborative skills gained through an IPE experience may well be beneficial to students who work in this wider context. This research examines whether undergraduate psychology students' views of IPE vary according to their planned career directions, and if so, whether the perceived relevance of IPE mediates the relationships. A sample of 188 Australian university undergraduate psychology students completed an online questionnaire following completion of a first-year IPE health sciences program. Path analysis indicated that psychology students' attitudes towards IPE are associated with both professional identification and practitioner orientation, fully mediated through the perceived relevance of IPE to future career and study plans. Stronger professional identification and practitioner orientation were associated with greater perceived relevance and more positive and less negative attitudes towards IPE. Placing a stronger emphasis on the generalizability of IP skills taught may increase students' awareness of the relevance outside of the health context, reducing disengagement of students planning alternative careers.

  12. Fifteen years of forest tree biosafety research in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoenicka H


    Full Text Available Since beginning of 1990, several projects on biosafety research were initiated in Germany with genetically modified plants. Germany was also one of the first countries active on biosafety research with genetically modified trees (GMTs. An EU-funded project coordinated by the Institute of Forest Genetics (Johann Heinrich von Thuenen Institute, Grosshansdorf, from 1994 to 1997, was the first project of this kind in Germany. In the frame of this project, transgene stability was studied under greenhouse conditions in different transgenic aspen clones. A high degree of transgene expression stability was found in transgenic lines, however, gene silencing was detected in some transgenic plants. In Germany, the jump of the GMTs from the greenhouse to the field was initiated in 1996 by the Institute of Forest Genetics (Grosshansdorf, when the first field trial with genetically modified (GM poplar was approved for five years. In the year 2000 and in cooperation with the University of Tuebingen, the same institute established a second field trial with GM poplar to study possible horizontal gene transfer (HGT from the transgenic poplar into mycorrhizal fungi. No HGT was detected in those studies. Two further national funded projects on phytoremediation and status of mycorrhizal fungi in GMTs under field conditions were run by the University of Freiburg on 2002 - 2004 and 2003 - 2005. Topics of national funded biosafety research projects on GMTs released to the field but as well on greenhouse grown plants were transgene stability, genetic containment, transgene influence on mycorrhizal and phytopathogenic fungi, generative and vegetative propagation capacity, and horizontal gene transfer.

  13. Culturally Relevant Educational Games in the Ocean, Earth and Planetary Sciences (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.


    Educational games can be a fun, challenging way of engaging students. Teachers can use games to teach content (students learn as they play), or to assess previously acquired knowledge. I will present a board game that is culturally relevant to Hawaii (available by eamiling Originally developed for 6-8th graders studying Mars, it can be readily exported to a variety of grade levels and content areas in the ocean, earth and planetary sciences. This project began with a NASA Education and Public Outreach grant to develop standards-based, hands-on Mars science curricula that are culturally relevant to Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders. We both developed new curricula and tailored existing curricula to make the content and teaching methodologies culturally relevant. Our main curriculum product is an eight-lesson unit entitled Life in Hawaii, Life on Mars, developed in partnership with teachers and currently being field-tested in Hawaii schools. The final lesson in the unit is an educational board game entitled Hawaii to Mars: A Voyage of Discovery. Like many board games, players advance along a set path by rolling a die. Landing on certain squares requires students to answer questions on Hawaiian culture and Mars science; landing on others requires students to do a variety of activities (drawing, acting, unscrambling words) on relevant topics. Correct answers allow players to roll again. Although incorrect answers require they skip a turn, correct answers are provided and a limited number of questions ensures a second opportunity to answer the question correctly. We are currently developing a microbial oceanography version of the game in partnership with scientists at the Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE), as part of C-MORE's efforts to increase diversity in the ocean sciences. We also plan to develop a generic version of the game board, so simply changing the content and difficulty of the question cards will allow

  14. Second Generation Youth in Canada, Their Mobilities and Identifications: Relevance to Citizenship Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrunnisa Ali


    Full Text Available Based on narrative data recently collected from youth’s in three Canadian cities, our paper focuses on second generation perceptions of youth’s identifications in a society increasingly influenced by the forces of globalization and how these perceptions may or may not be reflected in programs of study dealing with citizenship education. We utilize a framework consisting of a continuum of mobilities of mind, body, and boundaries to situate their sense of self. The façade of globalisation is examined in terms of its impact on identity formation and these youths’ impressions of diversity and multiculturalism. Finally, we consider the relevance of the findings for citizenship education in Ontario, Manitoba, and Alberta.

  15. Reframing conceptual physics: Improving relevance to elementary education and sonography majors (United States)

    LaFazia, David Gregory

    This study outlines the steps taken to reframe the Waves and Periodicity unit within a conceptual physics course. Beyond this unit reframing process, this paper explores the activities that made up the reframed unit and how each was developed and revised. The unit was reframed to improve relevance of the activities to the Elementary Education and Diagnostic Medical Sonography majors who make up the bulk of the course roster. The unit was reframed around ten design principles that were built on best practices from the literature, survey responses, and focused interviews. These principles support the selection of a biology-integrated themed approach to teaching physics. This is done through active and highly kinesthetic learning across three realms of human experience: physical, social, and cognitive. The unit materials were designed around making connections to students' future careers while requiring students to take progressively more responsibility in activities and assessments. Several support strategies are employed across these activities and assessments, including an energy-first, guided-inquiry approach to concept scaffolding and accommodations for diverse learners. Survey responses were solicited from physics instructors experienced with this population, Elementary Education and Sonography program advisors, and curriculum design, learning strategies, and educational technology experts. The reframed unit was reviewed by doctoral-level science education experts and revised to further improve the depth and transparency with which the design principles reframe the unit activities. The reframed unit contains a full unit plan, lesson plans, and full unit materials. These include classroom and online activities, assessments, and templates for future unit and lesson planning. Additional supplemental materials are provided to support Elementary Education and Sonography students and program advisors and also further promote the reframed unit materials and design

  16. On Education and Social Power: The Educational Theories of W.E.B. Du Bois and Their Relevance to African-Centered Education (United States)

    Rashid, Kamau


    W.E.B. Du Bois offered an educational theory that sought to contextualize the role of schools and their relevance to social justice. Responding to the social-historical malaise of African American subordination, he proposed that schools could provide the impetus towards cultural, economic, and political empowerment. Moreover, his theory of…

  17. Development of agricultural biotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess the safety of genetically modified crops in Iran. (United States)

    Mousavi, Amir; Malboobi, Mohammad A; Esmailzadeh, Nasrin S


    Rapid progress in the application of biotechnological methodologies and development of genetically modified crops in Iran necessitated intensive efforts to establish proper organizations and prepare required rules and regulations at the national level to ensure safe application of biotechnology in all pertinent aspects. Practically, preparation of a national biotechnology strategic plan in the country coincided with development of a national biosafety framework that was the basis for the drafted biosafety law. Although biosafety measures were observed by researchers voluntarily, the establishment of national biosafety organizations since the year 2000 built a great capacity to deal with biosafety issues in the present and future time, particularly with respect to food and agricultural biotechnology.

  18. Investigating Students' Perceived Discipline Relevance Subsequent to Playing Educational Computer Games: A Personal Interest and Self-Determination Theory Approach (United States)

    Sorebo, Oystein; Haehre, Reidar


    The purpose of this study is to explain students' perceived relevance of playing an educational game as a means for development of discipline competence. Based on self-determination theory and the concept of personal interest, we propose that: Satisfying students' basic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness when playing educational games…

  19. Social Studies Pedagogy for Latino/a Newcomer Youth: Toward a Theory of Culturally and Linguistically Relevant Citizenship Education (United States)

    Jaffee, Ashley Taylor


    This study examines how teachers in 4 urban newcomer high schools conceptualized and implemented social studies education for Latino/a newcomer youth through an emerging framework of culturally and linguistically relevant citizenship education. Through a multi-site, collective case study design, the perspectives and decision making of social…

  20. Establishing protocols for tick containment at Biosafety Level 4. (United States)

    Thangamani, Saravanan; Bente, Dennis


    Tick-borne diseases continue to emerge and have a great impact on public health and agriculture. In addition, many of the agents of tick-borne diseases, which are classified as Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) viruses, have the potential to be used as biothreat agents. In spite of the known importance of these pathogens, there is an acute shortage of facilities and trained personnel to study the pathogenesis of tick-borne diseases and to assess vaccine as well as other therapeutic interventions against tick-borne diseases as they are transmitted in nature. We, at the Galveston National Laboratory, have developed facilities and protocols to safely work with BSL4 virus-infected ticks. This capability adds tremendous value to the Nation's training and research endeavors. In this report we describe the procedures and protocols to establish tick work in a BSL4 laboratory.

  1. Practical biosafety in the tuberculosis laboratory: containment at the source is what truly counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soolingen, D.; Wisselink, H.J.; Lumb, R.; Anthony, R.; Zanden, van der A.; Gilpin, C.


    In industrialised countries, sufficient resources for establishing and maintaining fully equipped biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories according to international standards are generally available. BSL-3 laboratories are designed to provide several layers of containment to protect the laboratory wo

  2. Re-Engineering Biosafety Regulations In India: Towards a Critique of Policy, Law and Prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Damodaran


    Full Text Available This article surveys the structure and essence of India’s biosafety regulations from an evolutionary perspective. After detailing the processes associated with the biosafety law and guidelines in the country, this article looks critically at recent efforts to re-engineer the regulations. It is argued that India’s biosafety regulations should move towards a more inclusive approach, which will facilitate transparent and informed decision-making, based on stakeholder-convergence. It is also suggested that the entire spectrum of laws and regulations that have a direct or indirect bearing on biosafety in India, need to be explored so that greater coherence could be secured in the management of biotechnology products that are sensitive to the environment. Drawing from the experience of the Bt cotton case, the article advocates a greater role for civil society and grassroots organizations.

  3. Importance of Practical Relevance and Design Modules in Electrical Circuits Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpathy Sundaram


    Full Text Available The interactive technical electronic book, TechEBook, currently under development at the University of Central Florida (UCF, provides a useful tool for engineers and scientists through unique features compared to the most used traditional electrical circuit textbooks available in the market. TechEBook has comprised the two worlds of classical circuit books and an interactive operating platform such as iPads, laptops and desktops utilizing Java Virtual Machine operator. The TechEBook provides an interactive applets screen that holds many modules, in which each had a specific application in the self learning process. This paper describes two of the interactive techniques in the TechEBook known as, Practical Relevance Modules (PRM and Design Modules (DM. The Practical Relevance Module will assist the readers to learn electrical circuit analysis and to understand the practical application of the electrical network theory through solving real world examples and problems. The Design Module will help students design real-life problems. These modules will be displayed after each section in the TechEBook for the user to relate his/her understanding with the outside world, which introduces the term me-applying and me-designing, as a comprehensive full experience for self or individualized education. The main emphasis of this paper is the PRM while the DM will be discussed in brief. A practical example of applying the PRM and DM features is discussed as part of a basic electrical engineering course currently given at UCF and results show improved student performances in learning materials in Electrical Circuits. In the future, such modules can be redesigned to become highly interactive with illustrated animations.

  4. A Security plan for LMOs - concentrated on environmental policy of Biosafety Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ha [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)


    Biotechnology industry in Korea is raised by the national support. Also, Korea imports 70% of entire agricultural products. Considering the present situation in Korea, signing a Biosafety Protocol is necessary to prevent harm by LMOs and to protect associated biotechnological industry. Therefore, the problems on signing Biosafety Protocol were analyzed and the environmental policy to be pursued was proposed. This study result will be a cornerstone to prepare a definite environmental policy by government. 54 refs., 7 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Toward a workable biosafety system for regulating genetically modified organisms in Ethiopia: balancing conservation and competitiveness. (United States)

    Abraham, Adane


    On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors.

  6. Social Studies: Application Units. Course II, Teachers. Computer-Oriented Curriculum. REACT (Relevant Educational Applications of Computer Technology). (United States)

    Tecnica Education Corp., San Carlos, CA.

    This book is one of a series in Course II of the Relevant Educational Applications of Computer Technology (REACT) Project. It is designed to point out to teachers two of the major applications of computers in the social sciences: simulation and data analysis. The first section contains a variety of simulation units organized under the following…

  7. What Is the Relevance of the GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment for Management Education? A Critical Analysis, Part I. (United States)

    Rogers, Priscilla S.; Rymer, Jone


    Comments on the Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA), a new component of the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT). Examines the AWA's historical significance and addresses questions regarding the relevance of the writing test for management education. Finds that the AWA is of limited value as a writing assessment and will meet only some of…

  8. Indigenous Knowledge and Language: Decolonizing Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in a Mapuche Intercultural Bilingual Education Program in Chile (United States)

    Ortiz, Patricio R.


    This article illustrates how Mapuche Indigenous knowledge (Kimun) and language (Mapudungun) incorporated into an Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) program of a school within a Mapuche context in Chile creates decolonizing counter-hegemonic narratives as forms of culturally relevant pedagogy. Based on a six-month school ethnography, this…

  9. Biosafety evaluations of well-dispersed mesoporous silica nanoparticles: towards in vivo-relevant conditions (United States)

    Liu, Tsang-Pai; Wu, Si-Han; Chen, Yi-Ping; Chou, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chien-Tsu


    This study aimed to investigate how mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), especially focussing on their surface functional groups, interacted with Raw 264.7 macrophages, as well as with zebrafish embryos. Upon introducing nanoparticles into a biological milieu, adsorption of proteins and biomolecules onto the nanoparticle surface usually progresses rapidly. Nanoparticles bound with proteins can result in physiological and pathological changes, but the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In order to evaluate how protein corona affected MSNs and the subsequent cellular immune responses, we experimented in both serum and serum-deprived conditions. Our findings indicated that the level of p-p38 was significantly elevated by the positively charged MSNs, whereas negatively charged MSNs resulted in marked ROS production. Most significantly, our experiments demonstrated that the presence of protein efficiently mitigated the potential nano-hazard. On the other hand, strongly positively charged MSNs caused 94% of the zebrafish embryos to die. In that case, the toxicity caused by the quaternary ammonium ligands on the surface of those nanoparticles was exerted in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, these fundamental studies here provide valuable insights into the design of better biocompatible nanomaterials in the future.This study aimed to investigate how mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), especially focussing on their surface functional groups, interacted with Raw 264.7 macrophages, as well as with zebrafish embryos. Upon introducing nanoparticles into a biological milieu, adsorption of proteins and biomolecules onto the nanoparticle surface usually progresses rapidly. Nanoparticles bound with proteins can result in physiological and pathological changes, but the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In order to evaluate how protein corona affected MSNs and the subsequent cellular immune responses, we experimented in both serum and serum-deprived conditions. Our findings indicated that the level of p-p38 was significantly elevated by the positively charged MSNs, whereas negatively charged MSNs resulted in marked ROS production. Most significantly, our experiments demonstrated that the presence of protein efficiently mitigated the potential nano-hazard. On the other hand, strongly positively charged MSNs caused 94% of the zebrafish embryos to die. In that case, the toxicity caused by the quaternary ammonium ligands on the surface of those nanoparticles was exerted in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, these fundamental studies here provide valuable insights into the design of better biocompatible nanomaterials in the future. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM image, size distribution histogram of as-synthesized wn-R-MSN@PEG. TGA measurements. Cellular uptake efficiency. WST-1 analysis. Western blot assays. Confocal images and zebrafish mortality. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07421a

  10. Biosafety of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors. (United States)

    Dismuke, David J; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Samulski, R Jude


    It is hoped that the use of gene transfer technology to treat both monogenetic and acquired diseases may soon become a common therapy option in medicine. For gene therapy to achieve this objective, any gene delivery method will have to meet several criteria, including ease of manufacturing, efficient gene transfer to target tissue, long-term gene expression to alleviate the disease, and most importantly safety in patients. Viral vectors are an attractive choice for use in gene therapy protocols due to their relative efficiency in gene delivery. Since there is inherent risk in using viruses, investigators in the gene therapy community have devoted extensive efforts toward reengineering viral vectors for enhance safety. Here we review the approaches and technologies that are being evaluated for the use of recombinant vectors based upon adeno-associated virus (AAV) in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. AAV is currently the only known human DNA virus that is non-pathogenic and AAV-based vectors are classified as Risk Group 1 agents for all laboratory and animal studies carried out in the US. Although its apparent safety in natural infection and animals appears well documented, we examine the accumulated knowledge on the biology and vectorology of AAV, lessons learned from gene therapy clinical trials, and how this information is impacting current vector design and manufacturing with an overall emphasis on biosafety.

  11. Scope, Relevance and Challenges of Financing Higher Education: The Case of Tunisia (United States)

    Abdessalem, Tahar


    Like other developing countries, Tunisia has allocated increasing levels of resources to education, particularly higher education, over the past few decades, mainly through public funding. From 2005 to 2008, public expenditure on education amounted to around 7.4% of GDP, with 2% allocated to higher education. Recently, however, budgetary…

  12. Spaceflight-relevant stem education and outreach: Social goals and priorities (United States)

    Caldwell, Barrett S.


    This paper is based on a presentation and conference proceedings paper given at the 65th International Astronautical Congress. The paper addresses concerns in education and public outreach (EPO) in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The author serves as a Director of a US statewide NASA-funded Space Grant Consortium, with responsibilities to coordinate funding for undergraduate scholarships, graduate fellowships, and program awards. Space Grant is a national NASA network of STEM EPO programs including over 1000 higher education, outreach center, science museum, local government, and corporate partners. As a Space Grant Director, the author interacts with a variety of levels of STEM literacy and sophistication among members of the public. A number of interactions highlight the need for STEM EPO leaders to speak directly to a variety of social goals and priorities. Spaceflight is largely seen as an appealing and potentially desirable STEM application. However, members of the public are often unclear and ill-informed regarding relative expense, relative benefit, and relative breadth of domains of expertise that are relevant to the spaceflight enterprise. In response (and resulting in further disconnects between STEM specialists and the public), focused STEM professionals frequently over-emphasize their own technical specialty and its priority in general because of its importance to that professional. These potential divides in the attempt to share and connect STEM related goals and priorities are discussed as an elaboration of invitations to discuss spacefaring in "futures forum" contexts. Spaceflight can be seen as addressing a combination of "actualization" and "aspirational" goals at social and societal levels. Maslow's hierarchy of needs distinguishes between "basic needs" and "actualization" as a higher-order need. Another aspect of spaceflight is aspirational-it speaks to hopes and desires for levels of flexibility and capability at the

  13. Education of a child neurologist: developmental neuroscience relevant to child neurology. (United States)

    Johnston, Michael V


    Developmental neuroscience is increasingly relevant to clinical child neurology, and study of advances in neurobiology, neurochemistry and neurogenetics should be part of the curriculum of residency training. The profile of synaptic development is especially relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, Fragile X syndrome, and early epileptic encephalopathies. This knowledge is increasingly being translated into therapies for previously untreatable disorders.

  14. The Dilemma of Philosophy of Education: "Relevance" or Critique? Part Two. (United States)

    Burbules, Nicholas C.


    Comments on several responses to Arcilla's article, "Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to One Another?" asserting that Arcilla is correct and that there must be conversation between philosophy and education. The article recommends situated philosophy and concludes that demonstrating the viability of philosophy of education as a field,…

  15. The Dilemma of Philosophy of Education: "Relevance" or Critique? Part One. (United States)

    Burbules, Nicholas C.


    Introduces eight essays inspired by Rene Arcilla's essay, "Why Aren't Philosophers and Educators Speaking to One Another?" The essays focus on the decreased visibility and influence of philosophy of education on the community of educators. Some essays agree that the problem exists but disagree about its causes and remedy, while others deny that…

  16. Labour Market Relevance of European University Education. From Enrolment to Professional Employment in 12 Countries (United States)

    Kivinen, Osmo; Nurmi, Jouni


    In accordance with the education policy which puts human capital at its heart, higher education is expected to produce marketable competent professionals in response to the needs of an expansive knowledge-based economy. In one reading, to support competitive knowledge-based economy, higher education students should graduate as young and fast as…

  17. Mahatma Gandhi and Character Education in Non-Violence: Its Relevance in Religious Studies Today (United States)

    Damm, Alex


    This essay presents educational principles of Mahatma Gandhi, specifically principles of character education, as a model for strengthening non-violence in students. Its major concern is to show that Gandhi's ideal of non-violent character education is important for university teaching in disciplines including religious studies, and that Gandhi…

  18. Relevant and Effective Theological Education in the Context of Twenty-First Century South Asia (United States)

    Raja, Joshva; Rajkumar, Peniel Jesudason Rufus


    This essay considers Christian theological education in South Asia highlighting pertinent issues in pedagogical content, form, method, and praxis. Debunking the notion of students as "empty bottles" to be filled, and criticizing the top-down model of education, the paper argues that theological education is an ongoing and interactive…

  19. Relevance Of Utility Maximization In Student University Choice – A Consumption-Based Model For Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. SCHWARTZ


    Full Text Available This paper applies a model of utility-maximization to better understand the university choice process. Student decision-making for university choice is conceptualized as a purchase decision process through which students weigh the costs of colleges or universities they choose against their perceived benefits of attending these institutions. The key issues are the impact of consumer’s preferences, income, tuition, and costs in college decision-making. From this perspective, the paper describes the relationship between utility maximization and educational demand, effects of tuition increases, tuition discounting, and financial aid subsidies on university choice. A decision-making scheme for educational consumption is used in order to identify the stages of the university choice process and to predict the behavior of consumers in the higher education marketplace. The analysis points to the need to better inform students about the cost of postsecondary education which is a highly relevant aspect in the university choice process.

  20. Activity theory as a tool to address the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary school chemical education (United States)

    van Aalsvoort, Joke

    In a previous article, the problem of chemistry's lack of relevance in secondary chemical education was analysed using logical positivism as a tool. This article starts with the hypothesis that the problem can be addressed by means of activity theory, one of the important theories within the sociocultural school. The reason for this expectation is that, while logical positivism creates a divide between science and society, activity theory offers a model of society in which science and society are related. With the use of this model, a new course for grade nine has been constructed. This results in a confirmation of the hypothesis, at least at a theoretical level. A comparison with the Salters' approach is made in order to demonstrate the relative merits of a mediated way of dealing with the problem of the lack of relevance of chemistry in chemical education.

  1. MSW student perceptions of sexual health as relevant to the profession: Do social work educational experiences matter? (United States)

    Winter, Virginia Ramseyer; O'Neill, Elizabeth; Begun, Stephanie; Kattari, Shanna K; McKay, Kimberly


    Many social work clients are at an increased risk for negative outcomes related to sexual behavior, including unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, there is a dearth of literature on social work student experiences with these topics in social work classrooms and their perceptions about the topic's relevance to their practice. The purpose of this study is to explore relationships between experiences with STIs and contraception as topics in social work education and practica experiences on student perceptions toward sexual health as a relevant topic for social work. Among a national sample of MSW students (N = 443), experiences with STIs and contraception as topics in practica was significantly related to perceptions toward sexual health's relevance to social work. Findings and implications are discussed.

  2. Mexican Americans and the Push for Culturally Relevant Education: The Bilingual Education Movement in Tucson, 1958-1969 (United States)

    De La Trinidad, Maritza


    This essay traces the bilingual education movement that began in Tucson through the efforts of local teachers, university faculty and educational leaders. It is argued that Mexican Americans and their allies played a crucial role in promoting the merits of bilingual education at the local, state and national levels. Their advocacy of…

  3. Vital Business Educators' Perceptions about the Usefulness of Business Education Periodicals: Making the Relevant Literature More Accessible (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert; Blaszczynski, Carol; Green, Diana J.; Fagerheim, Britt Anna


    Problem: The business education literature isn't accessible. Research Questions: Which business education periodicals do vital business educators perceive to be more useful? In which databases and/or indices are they found? How much literature is fugitive? What strategies might increase literature accessibility? Research Method: Delphi technique.…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaggelia KALERANTE


    Full Text Available The political situation formed across Europe on a political level with the rise of far right and the adoption of attitudes and behaviours representative of the broader acceptance of far right ideologies on a social level is the focal point of this paper. This issue should also be a consideration in terms of education so that an educational model reinforcing democracy and humanism is formed. Concentration is placed on the Greek educational policy aiming at suggesting interventions in the curriculum and the educational school reality, too. This is a period when an increasing number of individuals educate themselves for long years. Therefore, formal education encompassing Primary and Secondary education as well as lifelong education should be emphasized. As regards schools, democracy and humanism should be aligned to the school environment and the formulated juvenile culture. As regards lifelong education, the topics and content offered through seminars should be enriched with theoretical principles which are reinforcing to the association of learners with the democratic operation of society.

  5. Critical Postcolonial Dance Pedagogy: The Relevance of West African Dance Education in the United States (United States)

    Cruz Banks, Ojeya


    This dance ethnography examines work conducted by the Dambe Project--a nonprofit organization that specializes in African performing arts education and mentorship. The study focuses on the implications of the organization's dance pedagogy in light of its postcolonial context and the importance of West African dance education in the United States.…

  6. Philosophical Education and Cultural Relevance: Discipline-Affirmation in the Context of the Knowledge Economy (United States)

    Rose, David Edward


    The following paper proposes a discipline-affirming response to the challenge facing higher education in the context of the knowledge economy. It resists the drive to reduce the value of a humanities based education to the mere production of skills and instead affirms the substantial body of knowledge of specific disciplines. It uses as its model…

  7. Online Continuing Education for Health Professionals: Does Sticky Design Promote Practice-Relevance? (United States)

    Zaghab, Roxanne Ward; Maldonado, Carlos; Whitehead, Dongsook; Bartlett, Felicia; de Bittner, Magaly Rodriguez


    Online continuing education (CE) holds promise as an effective method for rapid dissemination of emerging evidence-based practices in health care. Yet, the field of CE continues to develop and delivery is predominately face-to-face programs. Practice-oriented online educational methods and e-learning platforms are not fully utilized. Educational…

  8. Evaluating the Relevance of Educational Videos Using BKT and Big Data (United States)

    MacHardy, Zachary; Pardos, Zachary A.


    Along with the advent of MOOCs and other online learning platforms such as Khan Academy, the role of online education has continued to grow in relation to that of traditional on-campus instruction. Rather than tackle the problem of evaluating large educational units such as entire online courses, this paper approaches a smaller problem: exploring…

  9. Reading Economics, Thinking Education: The Relevance--and Irrelevance--of Economic Theory for Curriculum Research (United States)

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Langfeldt, Gjert


    This paper aims to better understand economists' increasingly influential voice to the conversation of schooling and education. It draws on curriculum theory to develop a framework for analysis of current economic research in education. The framework consists of the following tri-partition: the political, the practical, and the programmatical.…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Family life education is a comprehensive program to educate the growing children, regarding the various aspects of living in a society and interacting with other individuals at different levels and in different ways along with imparting age appropriate knowledge of biological and sexual development. Lack of awareness, ignorance, or inappropriate knowledge among youth made us take up this study. Sexual knowledge is sought from peers and magazines, menstrual hygiene, masturbation issues are never dealt by health authorities, educators or parents. Risk taking behavior, substance abuse, violence are very common in teens these problems are to highlighted. And interactive sessions are needed to enhance the learning experience.

  11. Adult Education and the Politics of Knowledge: The Relevance of Malta's Dun Gorg Preca. (United States)

    Sultana, Ronald G.


    Explores the contributions of Gorg Preca, a Maltese priest, to adult education in Malta. Highlights his commitment to democratization of knowledge, outreach to communities, and conviction that knowledge should not be the preserve of an elite. (SK)

  12. Using Culturally Relevant Teaching in a Co-Educational Mathematics Class of a Patriarchal Community (United States)

    Mogari, David


    The paper reports on the use of culturally relevant teaching in a class located in a patriarchal community. The paper is conceptualised around the notion that learners' familiar context provided by the socio-cultural activities can facilitate mathematics learning and make it fun to learn. Data were derived from a lesson activity using…

  13. Low-Educated Immigrants and the Social Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Research (United States)

    Young-Scholten, Martha


    Since the 1980s' decoupling of the formal study of second language acquisition from pedagogical concerns, the social relevance of such research has been of little concern. Early studies, in the 1970s, of uninstructed adult learners' acquisition of morphosyntax pointed to social implications: these working class immigrants had varying…

  14. Transversal Traits in Science Education Research Relevant for Teaching and Research: A Meta-Interpretative Study (United States)

    Lopes, J. Bernardino; Silva, Antonio Alberto; Cravino, Jose P.; Costa, Nilza; Marques, Luis; Campos, Carlos


    This study is a meta-interpretative analysis that focuses on research conducted and published by other researchers. Concepts central to this study include global practical relevance, curriculum design, and formative situation. We analyzed 35 studies selected from 374 published studies in the years 2000 and 2001 in three journals referenced in the…

  15. Low-Educated Immigrants and the Social Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Research (United States)

    Young-Scholten, Martha


    Since the 1980s' decoupling of the formal study of second language acquisition from pedagogical concerns, the social relevance of such research has been of little concern. Early studies, in the 1970s, of uninstructed adult learners' acquisition of morphosyntax pointed to social implications: these working class immigrants had varying levels of…

  16. Introspective Inquiry: Self-Study and Its Relevance in Teacher Education


    Neil Croy


    As teachers inevitably model their teaching on their ownexperiences, those who educate teachers must remainconscious of their own actions in the classroom, lestunwelcome behaviors or ineffective methods resurfacein their students’ future teaching. Therefore, self-studyof one’s professional practice is an invaluable tool forevaluating efficacy in the classroom. This study evaluatedthe teaching practices of Professor Melanie Shoffner(English education) in ENGL 49200, an undergraduatemethods cou...

  17. A Critically Conscious Examination of Special Education within FSL and Its Relevance to FSL Teacher Education Programs (United States)

    Arnett, Katy; Mady, Callie


    Using the lens of critical theory, this article explores the tenuous relationship between special education and French Second Language (FSL) education, particularly as it manifests in the issue of including students with language-based learning disabilities/difficulties within the French immersion context. Drawing on considerations of these issues…

  18. A critically conscious examination of special education within FSL and its relevance to FSL teacher education programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Arnett


    Full Text Available Using the lens of critical theory, this article explores the tenuous relationship between special education and French Second Language (FSL education, particularly as it manifests in the issue of including students with language-based learning disabilities/difficulties within the French immersion context. Drawing on considerations of these issues within empirical, theoretical, and popular literature, the authors point out that the current tensions are borne of conflicting ideals about what should comprise the requisite educational experience of students who learn in atypical ways in an age where learner difference is fully expected to be accommodated. Through this analysis, the authors consider how FSL teacher education programs could become sites for reconciling these tensions and potentially enabling greater inclusion within FSL programs, even though their current structures could explain some of the tensions that exist between the fields of special and FSL education.

  19. 输血科工作人员生物安全防护现状分析%The status of biosafety and biosecurity protection on blood transfusion staff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾春媛; 马淑君; 孙学兰


    Objective To study the status of biosafety and biosecurity protection on blood transfusion staff and explore how to standardize the management in the transfusion laboratories. Methods Blood transfusion staff were investigated involving in knowledge of biosafety by questionnaires. Results The majority(91. 0% ~ 99. 0% )of blood transfusion staff were clear to the concept of hospital infection,proper treatment after occupational exposure,disinfection and sterilization techniques,proper dis-posal of medical waste. But they had lower awareness(17. 5% ~ 62. 0% )on biosafety and biosecurity protection,aerosol opera-tion and the use of biosafe cabinet and clean workbench. Conclusion Relevant laws and regulations should be strictly imple-mented in transfusion department to enhance the awareness of infection prevention,strengthen the biosecurity management and ensure the biosafety on blood transfusion.%目的:了解输血科工作人员生物安全防护情况,探讨临床输血科规范化管理。方法对输血科工作人员进行生物安全防护知识问卷调查。结果输血科工作人员对医院感染概念、职业暴露后的正确处理、消毒与灭菌技术、医疗废物的正确处理等认知率较高(91.0%~99.0%)。但对生物安全防护、生物安全柜和超净工作台中执行的操作、产生气溶胶的操作等知晓率较低(17.5%~62.0%)。结论医院必须严格执行生物安全的相关法律法规,增强输血工作人员感染防范意识,加强生物安全管理,加大人员培训力度,确保输血科生物安全。

  20. The influence of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: Comparing Mexico, China and South Africa..

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Falkner, R.


    This paper analyzes how the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, a global regime governing trade in genetically modified organisms (GMOs), is influencing agricultural biotechnology policy choices in developing countries/emerging economies. Through empirical analysis of Mexico, China and South Africa, we

  1. Call for Papers-GMO Biosafety Research(ISSN 1925-1955)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    GMO Biosafety Research (ISSN 1925-1955) is a new launched, open access and peer-reviewed journal that dedicates to publish the release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), GMO safety, GMOs and public health, as well as the risk assessment of GMOs and

  2. Call for Papers--GMO Biosafety Research (ISSN 1925-1955)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    GMO Biosafety Research (ISSN 1925-1955) is a new launched, open access and peer-reviewed journal that dedicates to publish the release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), GMO safety, GMOs and public health, as well as the risk assessment of GMOs and the regulatory strategy for GMOs.

  3. 42 CFR 9.10 - Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHSP) and biosafety requirements. (United States)


    ... with current veterinary medical practices and the guidelines and standards found in the Guide... biosafety are essential. Complete records of both clinical and experimental agent exposure must accompany... condition of the arriving chimpanzee. The records may be created and retained in electronic form....

  4. Designing at Scale: Lessons in Relevance, Quality, and Equity from ChangeScale, a Bay Area environmental education collaborative (United States)

    Babcock, E.


    The best environmental education equips people with the know-how and drive to create healthy communities and a healthy planet. While there are many wonderful organizations providing environmental learning, ensuring quality, cultural relevance and equity of access remains an elusive goal--especially if environmental education organizations work in isolation. Organizations across 12 counties in the Bay Area have come together to create a different model. They have founded ChangeScale, a regional collaborative dedicated to providing high quality environmental education to hundreds of thousands of youth---by working together. ChangeScale's work involves setting up school district-level partnerships, providing technical assistance to local environmental education networks, and training environmental educators across the region. In this talk, the presenter, who is a founding member and steering committee chair for ChangeScale, will outline the challenges of working at a regional scale with dozens of organizations. She will share the processes ChangeScale has used to develop a business plan and build membership. She will conclude by sharing the short term and long term potential impacts of working collectively for environmental literacy in the Bay Area.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Yu. Bykov


    Full Text Available In the article theoretical and methodological principles of digital humanistic pedagogy – the science about the laws of creating a positive integrated educational reality as a result of the convergence of physical and virtual (created using ICT training spaces (environments are determined. Based on the use of modern ICT learning activity (formal, nonformal and informal is at the intersection of two worlds: the real and the virtual. Methodology and research methods of classical pedagogy require review and improvement in the context of current realities of the educational process, needs and interests of all its subjects. The development of digital humanities in the international educational space is analyzed; the content of the new field of pedagogical knowledge as part of digital humanistic is outlined; research methods and directions of current scientific research are defined.

  6. Service-learning in higher education relevant to the promotion of physical activity, healthful eating, and prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Rosenkranz


    Full Text Available Service-learning is a type of experiential teaching and learning strategy combining classroom instruction and meaningful community service and guided activities for reflection. This educational approach has been used frequently in higher education settings, including an array of disciplines such as medicine, theology, public health, physical education, nutrition, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. The purpose of the present review paper was to provide guidance on the use of service-learning within higher education, relevant to the preventive medicine and public health topics of healthful eating, physical activity, and obesity prevention. In service-learning, coursework is structured to address community needs, and to benefit students through the real-world application of knowledge. The benefits for students include positive impacts on social skills, empathy, awareness, understanding, and concern regarding community issues, plus greater confidence and skills to work with diverse populations, increased awareness of community resources, improved motivation, and enhanced knowledge. Educational institutions may also benefit through improved "town and gown" relations, as strong ties, partnerships, and mutually beneficial activities take place. The present literature review describes several service-learning applications such as nutrition education for kids, dietary improvement for seniors, foodservice recipe modification on a college campus, an intergenerational physical activity program for nursing home residents, motor skill development in kindergarteners, organized elementary school recess physical activities, health education, and obesity prevention in children. From this review, service-learning appears to have great potential as a flexible component of academic coursework in the areas of preventive medicine and public health.

  7. The Continued Relevance of "Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom" (United States)

    Bullen, Pauline E.


    In 1994, bell hooks' work, Teaching to Transgress--Education as the Practice of Freedom was first published and this work re-examines it for its intent to counter the devaluation of teaching and on the basis that it addresses the urgent need for changes in teaching practices. Because of the intransience of racism and the various "isms" that are…

  8. Six Key Non-Controversial Concepts Which Can Make Population Education More Personally Relevant. (United States)

    Sikes, O. J.; Kerr, Beverly


    Suggests a need to change traditional content sources of population education to include population-related concepts in the area of human sexuality. Identifies the following focuses: respecting others, developing self-esteem, postponing the first pregnancy, understanding that it is possible to plan, fostering responsibility for behavior and…

  9. Directions in E-Learning Tools and Technologies and Their Relevance to Online Distance Language Education (United States)

    Rogerson-Revell, Pamela


    This paper attempts to draw together current developments in e-learning tools and technologies with a view to extending distance language educators' (teachers, materials developers, programme leaders) awareness of the technical possibilities at their disposal for developing online distance learning resources. The paper briefly outlines the…

  10. A Critical View of Static Stretching and Its Relevance in Physical Education (United States)

    Parrott, James Allen; Zhu, Xihe


    Stretching before activity has been a customary part of most physical education classes (PE), with static stretching typically the preferred method due to its ease of implementation. Historical and implicit support for its continued use is due in part to the sit-and-reach test and flexibility as one of the components of health-related fitness.…

  11. Exploring the Relevance of Qualitative Research Synthesis to Higher Education Research and Practice (United States)

    Major, Claire; Savin-Baden, Maggi


    This paper proposes the importance of qualitative research synthesis to the field of higher education. It examines seven key texts that undertake synthesis in this field and compares essential features and elements across studies. The authors indicate strengths of the approaches and highlight ways forward for using qualitative research synthesis…

  12. Revisiting Fixed- and Random-Effects Models: Some Considerations for Policy-Relevant Education Research (United States)

    Clarke, Paul; Crawford, Claire; Steele, Fiona; Vignoles, Anna


    The use of fixed (FE) and random effects (RE) in two-level hierarchical linear regression is discussed in the context of education research. We compare the robustness of FE models with the modelling flexibility and potential efficiency of those from RE models. We argue that the two should be seen as complementary approaches. We then compare both…

  13. (Re)igniting a Sociological Imagination in Adult Education: The Continuing Relevance of Classical Theory (United States)

    Lange, Elizabeth


    This article argues that sociology has been a foundational discipline for the field of adult education, but it has been largely implicit, until recently. This article contextualizes classical theories of sociology within contemporary critiques, reviews the historical roots of sociology and then briefly introduces the classical theories…

  14. The Interface between Research and Policy--A Note with Potential Relevance for Higher Education (United States)

    Gornitzka, Åse


    The nexus between research and policy in higher education as in other sectors of society is multimodal and not adequately captured by the notion of a cultural gap between the world of practice and the world of research. Neither can the relationship be seen as unidirectional. This paper sketches out the range of uses of research in policy-making,…

  15. Quality Evaluation of the Brazilian Higher Education System: Relevance, Diversity, Equity and Effectiveness (United States)

    Bertolin, Julio; Leite, Denise


    Over the past few years, marketisation-focused public policies have significantly transformed higher education systems worldwide. In developing countries that do not have public universities, there has been a reduction of public financing and the expansion of private institutions. In Brazil, one of the main developing countries in the world…

  16. Decolonising Knowledge Production: The Pedagogic Relevance of Gandhian Satyagraha to Schooling and Education in Ghana (United States)

    Adjei, Paul Banahene


    In this article, I examine how Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of non-violent resistance (Satyagraha) can be applied to decolonize schooling and education practices in Ghana. Satyagraha consists of three fundamental elements: appeal to the oppressor, non-cooperation, and civil disobedience. Part of an anti-racist and anti-colonial discourse,…

  17. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for Hispanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montellano, B.O. de


    This report describes later stages of a program to develop culturally relevant science and math programs for Hispanic students. Part of this effort was follow-up with 17 teachers who participated in early stages of the program. Response was not very good. Included with the report is a first draft effort for curriculum materials which could be used as is in such a teaching effort. Several of the participating teachers were invited to a writing workshop, where lesson plans were drafted, and critiqued and following rework are listed in this publication. Further work needs to be completed and is ongoing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Camacho Gonzalez


    Full Text Available A historiographical study of Jane Marcet’s role in spreading chemistry knowledge to a wider audience in the 19th century is presented here. Her efforts to spread scientific knowledge were crucial to sharing the most important theories of chemistry among different audiences, particularly women and young people. Through her book, “Conversations on Chemistry,” which was published in several editions from 1806 to 1853, she contributed significantly to chemistry education. Despite controversy over the large number of editions, this text is a strong witness to the active participation of women in science. Her scientific rigor and contribution to narrative strategies in chemistry pedagogy have given Jane Marcet consideration not only as an important woman in the scientific community of England during the first half of the 19th century but also as a central figure in the early development of chemistry diffusion and education.

  19. Second Generation Youth in Canada, Their Mobilities and Identifications: Relevance to Citizenship Education


    Mehrunnisa Ali; Lori Wilkinson; Yvonne Hébert


    Based on narrative data recently collected from youth’s in three Canadian cities, our paper focuses on second generation perceptions of youth’s identifications in a society increasingly influenced by the forces of globalization and how these perceptions may or may not be reflected in programs of study dealing with citizenship education. We utilize a framework consisting of a continuum of mobilities of mind, body, and boundaries to situate their sense of self. The façade of ...

  20. Culturally Relevant Education and Skill-Based Education for Sustainability: Moving towards an Integrated Theoretical and Methodological Framework (United States)

    Echeverria, Elizabeth


    This study considers how educators can cultivate the skills that prepare students from all cultural backgrounds for an active role in creating a sustainable global future. These skills include systems thinking skills, collaborative skills, creative and critical thinking skills, self-directed inquiry skills, and skills for active citizenship.…

  1. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for hispanics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montellano, B.O. de


    This progress report summarizes results of a teacher workshop. A letter sent to 17 teachers who had participated in the workshop requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed. Only nine responses were received, and not all of them demonstrated a satisfactory level of activity. Teachers who submitted materials showing the most promise were invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. A partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual was written which provides a rationale for culturally relevant science and presents the cultural and scientific background needed. The outline of the book is presented in Appendix 1. Appendix 2 is a sample chapter from the book.

  2. The maximum power efficiency 1-√τ: Research, education, and bibliometric relevance (United States)

    Calvo Hernández, A.; Roco, J. M. M.; Medina, A.; Velasco, S.; Guzmán-Vargas, L.


    The well-known efficiency at maximum power for a cyclic system working between hot T h and low T c temperatures given by the equation 1-√ τ( τ= T c /T h), has become a landmark result with regards to the thermodynamic optimization of a great variety of energy converters. Its wide applicability and sole dependence on the external heat bath temperatures (as the Carnot efficiency does) allows for an easy comparison with experimental efficiencies leading to a striking fair agreement. Reversible, finite-time, and linear-irreversible derivations are analyzed in order to show a broader perspective about its meaning from both researching and pedagogical point of views. Its scientific relevance and historical development are also analyzed in this work by means of some bibliometric data. This article is supplemented with comments by Hong Qian and a final reply by the authors.

  3. Breast cancer education for Navajo women: a pilot study evaluating a culturally relevant video. (United States)

    Sanderson, Priscilla R; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Baldwin, Julie A; Sandoval, Nellie; Robinson, Frances


    This pilot study evaluated a culturally specific video designed to teach Navajo women about breast cancer treatment options. Fourteen Navajo women diagnosed with breast cancer and 26 healthcare providers participated in a mixed-method evaluation that documented their perceptions immediately and 6 months after viewing the video. After initial viewing, women reported reduced anxiety about treatment and interest in support groups. Six months later, women said the video prompted them to seek more information from printed sources and their provider. Younger Navajo women who were 44 to 51 years old were more likely to attend support groups than women who were 55-67 years. Providers corroborated the positive effects of the video. The providers believed the video encouraged patients to seek information about breast cancer and to ask questions about treatment plans and side effects. A culturally relevant video for Navajo women can be an effective teaching tool and can enhance patient-provider communication.

  4. Culturally relevant science: An approach to math science education for Hispanics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz de Montellano, B.


    As planned a letter was sent out to 17 teachers who had participated in a Summer 1994 workshop on ``Culturally Relevant Science for Hispanics`` at Michigan State. These teachers were supposed to have spent the intervening time developing lesson plans and curricula. The letter requested a report of any activities undertaken and copies of lesson plans and materials developed by February 1996 with a stipend of $400 for satisfactory reports. It was a disappointment to only get 9 responses and not all of them demonstrating a satisfactory level of activity. Diana Marinez, Dean of Science at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi, who is the other developer of this curriculum and the author reviewed the submitted materials and chose those showing the most promise to be invited to participate in the Summer Writing Workshop. Spring of 1996 and particularly in May--June, the author wrote a partial first draft of a companion volume for the teacher`s manual which would provide a rationale for doing culturally relevant science, present the cultural and the scientific background that teachers would need in order to be able to teach. One of the goals of this curriculum is that it should be off-the-shelf ready to teach and that teachers would not have to do extra research to encourage its adoption. The outline of the book is appendix 1. The Writing Workshop was held at Texas A and M University, Corpus Christi from July 14 to July 27, 1996. Participating teachers chose topics that they were interested in developing and wrote first drafts. These were distributed to all participants and critiqued by the workshop directors before being rewritten. Some teachers were more productive than others depending on their science background. In total an impressive number of lesson plans were written. These lesson plans are listed in Appendix 3. Appendix 4 is a sample lesson. Work still needs to be done on both the source book and the teachers` manual.

  5. The Effect of Academic Advising and Demographic Variables on the Perceived Relevance of Graduate Education for Agriculturalists from Tanzania and Malawi. (United States)

    Aagard, Steven D.

    The effect of academic advising on perceptions of relevance by students from two developing countries in East Africa (Tanzania and Malawi) was studied through a survey. The dependent variable was relevance of education to career goals and to national agricultural development goals. The presence and/or adequacy of academic advising was the…

  6. Residential Mobility and Turnout: The Relevance of Social Costs, Timing and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard


    costs by studying the effect of moving and reassignment to a new polling station in an automatic registration context and using a register-based panel dataset with validated turnout for 2.1 million citizens. The negative effect of moving on turnout does not differ substantially depending on the distance...... settling down. This illustrates that large events in citizens’ everyday life close to Election Day can distract them from going to the polling station. Finally, residential mobility mostly affects the turnout of less educated citizens. Consequentially, residential mobility increases inequalities in voter...

  7. Residential Mobility and Turnout: The Relevance of Social Costs, Timing and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard


    moved from the old neighborhood and it does not matter if citizens change municipality. Thus, the disruption of social ties is the main explanation for the negative effect of moving on turnout. Furthermore, the timing of residential mobility is important as the effect on turnout declines quickly after...... settling down. This illustrates that large events in citizens’ everyday life close to Election Day can distract them from going to the polling station. Finally, residential mobility mostly affects the turnout of less educated citizens. Consequentially, residential mobility increases inequalities in voter...

  8. Adult education and the State: Gramsci, the historical materialist tradition and relevant others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leona M. English


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relationship between adult education and the State within the context of hegemonic globalization and the all pervasive neoliberal ideology. It draws from a variety of sources and provides an overview of discussions concerning the State giving pride of place to the Historical Materialist tradition in the area. Using a Gramscian perspective, it argues that contrary to the widespread mantra that the state has receded into the background in this era of globalization, we argue that the State remains ever so present in this context and, if anything, remains central to the Neoliberal project.

  9. Introspective Inquiry: Self-Study and Its Relevance in Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Croy


    Full Text Available As teachers inevitably model their teaching on their ownexperiences, those who educate teachers must remainconscious of their own actions in the classroom, lestunwelcome behaviors or ineffective methods resurfacein their students’ future teaching. Therefore, self-studyof one’s professional practice is an invaluable tool forevaluating efficacy in the classroom. This study evaluatedthe teaching practices of Professor Melanie Shoffner(English education in ENGL 49200, an undergraduatemethods course. The study examined the specificmethods, strategies, and interactions Shoffner uses in herteaching in order to consider how her instruction does—or does not—support the development of her students.Data for the study consisted of my observational notesfrom multiple classes and my review of literature on selfstudyand relational teaching. During each observation, Iused an observational framework of my own design thatrecorded students’ participation and determined the levelof their engagement in classroom discussion, in additionto noting specific interactions between student andinstructor. By analyzing repetitions and common themesfrom my observations, spanning an entire semester, Iconcluded that student engagement in the classroom wasdependent on a variety of classroom activities, such asdiscussion, group work, and lectures. In addition, I foundthat students’ willingness to participate hinged on theprofessor’s use of positive reinforcement, communicatedthrough facial and verbal interaction. These findingssuggest that professors must be conscious of theirchoices in the classroom: seemingly insignificant acts ofinstruction and interaction can greatly influence students’development as future teachers.

  10. Supporting international development through the integration of relevant 'soft-skills' into geoscience education (United States)

    Gill, Joel C.


    Geologists have an important role to play in international development, improving disaster risk reduction and access to clean water, sanitation, infrastructure, and natural resources. That geologists can contribute to international development is well established. Less so, however, is an understanding of the 'soft' skills required to do this effectively. The fight against global poverty requires an integrated and interdisciplinary approach, demanding a host of skills other than technical geology. Factors such as cultural understanding, cross disciplinary communication, diplomacy, community mobilisation and participation are all aspects that, if lacking, may result in a project failing to have maximum impact. Whilst project success may be highly dependent on these skills and aspects of knowledge, opportunities to develop them throughout a geologist's education are not common. Through a discussion of two case studies (based on water and hazards work), this study seeks to demonstrate the value of an integrated approach and the skills that geologists should invest in at an early stage of their career. It proceeds to examine a range of practical ways by which geology students can develop these skills during and after their education. A number of these opportunities are currently being utilised by Geology for Global Development (GfGD), a not-for-profit organisation working in the UK to support young geoscientists to make a long-term and effective contribution to international development.

  11. Metacomprehension for educationally relevant materials: dramatic effects of encoding-retrieval interactions. (United States)

    Thomas, Ayanna K; McDaniel, Mark A


    As the metacomprehension literature has grown, important discoveries pertinent to education havebeen made. For example, as students are better able to assess their knowledge and implement appropriate study strategies, presumably their acquisition and retention of course material improves. Accordingly, we consider the metacomprehension literature with an emphasis on factors that impact metacomprehension accuracy. Several studies have demonstrated that metacomprehension prediction accuracy will improve to the extent that people engage in enriched-encoding activities. More recently, research by Thomas and McDaniel (in press) has suggested that enriched-encoding manipulations interact with retrieval to impact both retention and metacomprehension and, in turn, the effectiveness of controlling subsequent study. Thus, matching enriched-encoding activities with the criterial test plays a critical role in metacomprehension accuracy and control of studying.

  12. Progress and Challenges for Implementation of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Policy on Biotechnology and Biosafety (United States)

    Waithaka, Michael; Belay, Getachew; Kyotalimye, Miriam; Karembu, Margaret


    In 2001, the Meeting of the COMESA Ministers of Agriculture raised concerns that proliferation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) could impact significantly on trade and food security in the region. This triggered studies on a regional approach to biotechnology and biosafety policy in Eastern and Southern Africa. The studies and stakeholder consultations revealed that farm incomes would increase if they switched from conventional varieties of cotton and maize to genetically modified (GM) counterparts. Commercial risks associated with exports to GM sensitive destinations, e.g., EU were negligible. Intra-regional trade would be affected since exports of GM sensitive commodities, such as maize, cotton, and soya bean, mainly go to other African countries. These findings justified the need to consider a regional approach to biosafety and led to the drafting of a regional policy in 2009. The draft policies were discussed in regional and national workshops between 2010 and 2012 for wider ownership. The workshops involved key stakeholders including ministries of agriculture, trade, environment, national biosafety focal points, biosafety competent authorities, academia, seed traders, millers, the media, food relief agencies, the industry, civil society, competent authorities, and political opinion leaders. The COMESA Council of Ministers in February 2014 adopted the COMESA policy on biotechnology and biosafety that takes into account the sovereign right of each member state. Key provisions of the policy include recognition of the benefits and risks associated with GMOs; establishment of a regional-level biosafety risk-assessment system; national-level final decision, and capacity building assistance to member states. The policies are the first regional effort in Africa to develop a coordinated mechanism for handling biosafety issues related to GMO use. A regional approach to biotechnology and biosafety is expected to foster inter-country cooperation through the


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A survey examined health beliefs and intentions among 690 16-18 year-olds in Dundee. Respondents in the younger cohort (n = 363) were classified according to their educational situation (at school vs left) and self-reports of having received AIDS/HIV-relevant health education. Both remaining in scho

  14. A Response to Scott's Concerns about the Relevance of Environmental Education Research: Applying Social-Ecological Systems Thinking and Consilience to Defining Research Goals (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.


    In William Scott's plenary address at the World Environmental Education Conference, he expressed concerns about the relevance of environmental education research in a world facing global environmental and demographic change. In responding to Scott's concerns, I argue that addressing challenges related to development and the environment requires…

  15. Public submissions on the Uganda national biotechnology and biosafety bill, 2012 reveal consensus for Uganda legislators to pass the bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clet Wandui Masiga


    Full Text Available The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an internationally binding instrument addressing issues of biosafety. Biosafety refers to the need to protect human health and the environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of modern biotechnology. Accordingly all countries to the convention are required to put in place regulatory mechanisms to enhance the safety of biotechnology in the context of the Convention’s overall goal of reducing all potential threats to biological diversity, while taking into account the risks to human health. Therefore each country party to the convention has its own procedures to enact laws to guide the safe use of biotechnology. In Uganda the process involves the drafting of the bill by the first parliamentary counsel, approval by cabinet, first reading at the parliament, committal to the responsible parliamentary sessional committee, tabling of the bill for public hearing, consultations, and final approval. In Uganda, the Committee on Science and Technology is responsible for the Biosafety Bill. In March 2013, the Committee tabled the bill for public hearing and submissions from public institutions. There were comments supporting the passage of the Bill and comments in objection.The reasons for objection are mainly due to precaution, speculation, lack of knowledge about biotechnology and biosafety, and alleged influence from biosafety entrepreneurs. This article reviews these public views, revealing controversy and possible consensus to pass the bill.

  16. A survey of Asian life scientists :the state of biosciences, laboratory biosecurity, and biosafety in Asia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie


    Over 300 Asian life scientists were surveyed to provide insight into work with infectious agents. This report provides the reader with a more complete understanding of the current practices employed to study infectious agents by laboratories located in Asian countries--segmented by level of biotechnology sophistication. The respondents have a variety of research objectives and study over 60 different pathogens and toxins. Many of the respondents indicated that their work was hampered by lack of adequate resources and the difficulty of accessing critical resources. The survey results also demonstrate that there appears to be better awareness of laboratory biosafety issues compared to laboratory biosecurity. Perhaps not surprisingly, many of these researchers work with pathogens and toxins under less stringent laboratory biosafety and biosecurity conditions than would be typical for laboratories in the West.

  17. Game-Based Learning in Science Education: A Review of Relevant Research (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chaun; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    The purpose of this study is to review empirical research articles regarding game-based science learning (GBSL) published from 2000 to 2011. Thirty-one articles were identified through the Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. A qualitative content analysis technique was adopted to analyze the research purposes and designs, game design and implementation, theoretical backgrounds and learning foci of these reviewed studies. The theories and models employed by these studies were classified into four theoretical foundations including cognitivism, constructivism, the socio-cultural perspective, and enactivism. The results indicate that cognitivism and constructivism were the major theoretical foundations employed by the GBSL researchers and that the socio-cultural perspective and enactivism are two emerging theoretical paradigms that have started to draw attention from GBSL researchers in recent years. The analysis of the learning foci showed that most of the digital games were utilized to promote scientific knowledge/concept learning, while less than one-third were implemented to facilitate the students' problem-solving skills. Only a few studies explored the GBSL outcomes from the aspects of scientific processes, affect, engagement, and socio-contextual learning. Suggestions are made to extend the current GBSL research to address the affective and socio-contextual aspects of science learning. The roles of digital games as tutor, tool, and tutee for science education are discussed, while the potentials of digital games to bridge science learning between real and virtual worlds, to promote collaborative problem-solving, to provide affective learning environments, and to facilitate science learning for younger students are also addressed.

  18. Dentists' knowledge and opinions of oral-systemic disease relationships: relevance to patient care and education. (United States)

    Paquette, David W; Bell, Kathryn P; Phillips, Ceib; Offenbacher, Steven; Wilder, Rebecca S


    Population studies consistently support associations between poor oral (periodontal) health and systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of dentists and document their opinions regarding the evidence on oral-systemic disease relationships. A survey consisting of 39 items was developed and mailed to 1,350 licensed dentists in North Carolina. After three mailings, 667 dentists (49%) meeting inclusion criteria responded. The respondents were predominantly male (76.3%), in solo practice (59.5%), and in non-rural settings (74%). More than 75% of these dentists correctly identified risk factors like diet, genetics, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity for CVD and diabetes. The majority rated the evidence linking periodontal disease with CVD and diabetes as strong (71% and 67%, respectively). These dentists were most comfortable inquiring about patients' tobacco habits (93%), treating patients with diabetes (89%) or CVD (84%) and concurrent periodontal disease, and discussing diabetes-periodontal disease risks with patients (88%). Fewer respondents were comfortable asking patients about alcohol consumption (54%) or providing alcohol counseling (49%). Most agreed that dentists should be trained to identify risk factors (96%) or actively manage systemically diseased patients (74%). Over 90% agreed that medical and dental professionals should be taught to practice more collaboratively. These data indicate that these dentists were knowledgeable about oral-systemic health associations, had mixed comfort levels translating the evidence into clinical practice, but expressed support for interprofessional education to improve their readiness to actively participate in their patients' overall health management.

  19. Influence of Reducing Agents on Biosafety and Biocompatibility of Gold Nanoparticles


    Xia, Dong-Lin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Bao, Ning; He, Hong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Yan-Pei; Gu, Hai-Ying


    Extensive biomedical applications of nanoparticles are mainly determined by their safety and compatibility in biological systems. The aim of this study was to compare the biosafety and biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) prepared with HEPES buffer, which is popular for cell culture, and sodium citrate, a frequent reducing agent. From experimental results on the body weight and organ coefficients of acute oral toxicity tests, it could be observed that HEPES-prepared GNPs are biologic...

  20. A Computerized Data-Capture System for Animal Biosafety Level 4 Laboratories


    Bente, Dennis A; Friesen, Jeremy; White, Kyle; Koll, Jordan; Gary P Kobinger


    The restrictive nature of an Animal Biosafety Level 4 (ABSL4) laboratory complicates even simple clinical evaluation including data capture. Typically, clinical data are recorded on paper during procedures, faxed out of the ABSL4, and subsequently manually entered into a computer. This system has many disadvantages including transcriptional errors. Here, we describe the development of a highly customizable, tablet-PC-based computerized data-capture system, allowing reliable collection of obse...

  1. Framework for Leadership and Training of Biosafety Level 4 Laboratory Workers



    Construction of several new Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories and expansion of existing operations have created an increased international demand for well-trained staff and facility leaders. Directors of most North American BSL-4 laboratories met and agreed upon a framework for leadership and training of biocontainment research and operations staff. They agreed on essential preparation and training that includes theoretical consideration of biocontainment principles, practical hands-on t...

  2. State-of-the-art in biosafety and biosecurity in European countries. (United States)

    Bielecka, Anna; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar


    The terms biosafety and biosecurity are widely used in different concepts and refer not only to protection of human beings and their surrounding environment against hazardous biological agent, but also to global disarmament of weapons of mass destruction. As a result, the biosafety and biosecurity issues should be considered interdisciplinary based on multilateral agreements against proliferation of biological weapons, public health and environmental protection. This publication presents information on both, international and national biosafety and biosecurity legislation. Status of national implementation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, penalization issues and measures to account for and secure production, use, storage of particularly dangerous pathogens or activities involving humans, plants and animals where infection may pose a risk have been analyzed. Safety and security measures in laboratories have been studied. Moreover, dual-use technology and measures of secure transport of biohazard materials have been also taken into account. In addition, genetic engineering regulations, biosecurity activities in laboratories and code of conducts have been investigated, as well.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Objective: Biosafety defines a set of rules that should be followed for the "containment" of biological agents, to protect the individual lab worker and the environment from its potential hazard.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, exploratory kind of study to assess the level of awareness among the undergraduate and postgraduate students of an academic institute in Islamabad and to see whether they differed in this awareness on the basis of their maturity and lab work experience. A total of 136 subjects were selected on the basis convenience sampling.Results: In most of the individual aspects, we could not detect a significant difference in knowledge about biosafety precautions in our two groups, but in overall awareness levels, we found out that postgraduate candidates were significantly better, which can be attributed to their higher percentage having present or past lab experience.Conclusion: The study highlights the need to have awareness sessions for all batches and for compulsory biosafety courses as early as possible in their course works to make their lab experience safe.

  4. Biosafety in Ex Vivo Gene Therapy and Conditional Ablation of Lentivirally Transduced Hepatocytes in Nonhuman Primates (United States)

    Menzel, Olivier; Birraux, Jacques; Wildhaber, Barbara E; Jond, Caty; Lasne, Françoise; Habre, Walid; Trono, Didier; Nguyen, Tuan H; Chardot, Christophe


    Ex vivo gene therapy is an interesting alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for treating metabolic liver diseases. In this study, we investigated its efficacy and biosafety in nonhuman primates. Hepatocytes isolated from liver lobectomy were transduced in suspension with a bicistronic liver-specific lentiviral vector and immediately autotransplanted (SLIT) into three cynomolgus monkeys. The vector encoded cynomolgus erythropoietin (EPO) and the conditional suicide gene herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-TK). Survival of transduced hepatocytes and vector dissemination were evaluated by detecting transgene expression and vector DNA. SLIT was safely performed within a day in all three subjects. Serum EPO and hematocrit rapidly increased post-SLIT and their values returned to baseline within about 1 month. Isoforms of EPO detected in monkeys' sera differed from the physiological renal EPO. In liver biopsies at months 8 and 15, we detected EPO protein, vector mRNA and DNA, demonstrating long-term survival and functionality of transplanted lentivirally transduced hepatocytes. Valganciclovir administration resulted in complete ablation of the transduced hepatocytes. We demonstrated the feasibility and biosafety of SLIT, and the long term (>1 year) functionality of lentivirally transduced hepatocytes in nonhuman primates. The HSV-TK/valganciclovir suicide strategy can increase the biosafety of liver gene therapy protocols by safely and completely ablating transduced hepatocytes on demand. PMID:19568222

  5. Biosafety of biotechnologically important microalgae: intrinsic suicide switch implementation in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. (United States)

    Čelešnik, Helena; Tanšek, Anja; Tahirović, Aneja; Vižintin, Angelika; Mustar, Jernej; Vidmar, Vita; Dolinar, Marko


    In recent years, photosynthetic autotrophic cyanobacteria have attracted interest for biotechnological applications for sustainable production of valuable metabolites. Although biosafety issues can have a great impact on public acceptance of cyanobacterial biotechnology, biosafety of genetically modified cyanobacteria has remained largely unexplored. We set out to incorporate biocontainment systems in the model cyanobacteriumSynechocystissp. PCC 6803. Plasmid-encoded safeguards were constructed using the nonspecific nuclease NucA fromAnabaenacombined with different metal-ion inducible promoters. In this manner, conditional lethality was dependent on intracellular DNA degradation for regulated autokilling as well as preclusion of horizontal gene transfer. In cells carrying the suicide switch comprising thenucAgene fused to a variant of thecopMpromoter, efficient inducible autokilling was elicited. Parallel to nuclease-based safeguards, cyanobacterial toxin/antitoxin (TA) modules were examined in biosafety switches. Rewiring ofSynechocystisTA pairsssr1114/slr0664andslr6101/slr6100for conditional lethality using metal-ion responsive promoters resulted in reduced growth, rather than cell killing, suggesting cells could cope with elevated toxin levels. Overall, promoter properties and translation efficiency influenced the efficacy of biocontainment systems. Several metal-ion promoters were tested in the context of safeguards, and selected promoters, including anrsBvariant, were characterized by beta-galactosidase reporter assay.

  6. Comparison and analysis of biological agent category lists based on biosafety and biodefense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiao Tian

    Full Text Available Biological agents pose a serious threat to human health, economic development, social stability and even national security. The classification of biological agents is a basic requirement for both biosafety and biodefense. We compared and analyzed the Biological Agent Laboratory Biosafety Category list and the defining criteria according to the World Health Organization (WHO, the National Institutes of Health (NIH, the European Union (EU and China. We also compared and analyzed the Biological Agent Biodefense Category list and the defining criteria according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC of the United States, the EU and Russia. The results show some inconsistencies among or between the two types of category lists and criteria. We suggest that the classification of biological agents based on laboratory biosafety should reduce the number of inconsistencies and contradictions. Developing countries should also produce lists of biological agents to direct their development of biodefense capabilities.To develop a suitable biological agent list should also strengthen international collaboration and cooperation.

  7. The impact of a novel educational curriculum for first-time DUI offenders on intermediate outcomes relevant to DUI recidivism. (United States)

    Rider, Raamses; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B; Murphy, Bernard; McKnight, A James; Levings, Charles


    The Preventing Alcohol-Related Convictions (PARC) program is a novel educational curriculum for first-time DUI offenders, with the ultimate goal of reducing DUI recidivism. It differs from traditional DUI education and prevention programs in that it does not suggest to DUI offenders that they must abstain from alcohol entirely or control their drinking to prevent a future DUI; rather, it teaches students to prevent a future DUI by not driving their cars to drinking events. Thus, the emphasis of the curriculum is on controlling driving rather than controlling drinking to avoid future DUI convictions. The implementation of the program is ongoing throughout the state of Florida. The current randomized study focused on intermediate outcomes relevant for DUI recidivism; specifically, individuals' readiness for change regarding drinking and driving, and their endorsement of a PARC planning and action approach (controlling driving) versus a traditional approach (controlling drinking). The current research demonstrated that the PARC program is effective in moving participants toward more readiness for change and toward a strategy of planning ahead to avoid driving to any venue in which drinking may occur. Future research will assess the ultimate effect on DUI recidivism.

  8. Teaching earth science in the field: GPS-based educational trails as a practically relevant, empirical verified approach (United States)

    Kisser, Thomas


    , typical vegetation) are provided just as well as the impressive special form of the impact tectonics. The learning success of the 441 probands is evaluated through an anonym, unheralded test in both grades, which prompt the cognitive competence three weeks after the treatment. The learning success of the GPS-based educational trail groups is compared to groups that completed the particular topics in a carousel activity in a "normal" class. Both treatments, the carousal activity and the GPS-educational-trail are similar, because the students work at one Geopoint / learning-station after another and the amount of time given in the same. It can be said, that the GPS-based educational trails evoke a better learning success than normal classes do, because the test results differ with partially (highly) significant differences and high effect sizes. As the feedback given by the included teachers suggests, the new concept of GPS-based educational trail is practically relevant and realizable in every-day life. So did teachers and trainees in several trainings. In the future, the concept could be enhanced through smartphones and tablets. Whether or not this could be a realistic option, will also be discussed.

  9. Symposium 3 - Science Education “Leopoldo de Meis”: The Relevance of Neuroscience in Evaluation of Students in Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo O. Souza


    Full Text Available Symposium 3 - Science Education “Leopoldo de Meis” Chair: Wagner Seixas da Silva, Universidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroAbstract:In this talk we will discuss the relevance of the brain neurobiology in the student learning/formal evaluation processes in the classroom. It is important to emphasize that the students “are alive” before and after each class. It means that their brains are receiving a massive amount of environmental stimuli, which are processed by the complex cerebral circuitry involved in learning and memory processes. These stimuli interact with previous memories, which adapt to the new stimuli and are adjusted by them. These constant new interactions induce brain plasticity, changing the behavior in such way that a student that leaves the class is not exactly the same that will enter in the next class. At the same time, when students are in the class, what they are learning is not only (even nor the most relevant what the teacher is trying to teach. These “anonymous” experiences may impact the brain stronger than the teacher’s information. The neurobiological bases of all these interactions are nowadays being more and more revealed; unfortunately this new scientific knowledge is still not integrated in most of the class activities. The idea of this talk is to contribute for the discussion on how important is to incorporate this new scientific information to the current evaluation methods. Importantly, the aim here is not to transform all teachers in neuroscientists, but only motivate the school community for accepting that we learn with the brain and, consequently, the neurobiology of learning and memory should be valorized in formal evaluation of learning. Finally, it is important in terms of evaluation not consider strictly the answers to the question raised in an exam, but what happened within the time between a previous classroom and the time in which the exam is applied.

  10. Is Bologna Working? Employer and Graduate Reflections of the Quality, Value and Relevance of Business and Management Education in Four European Union Countries (United States)

    Andrews, Jane; Higson, Helen


    This article focuses on the relevance of undergraduate business and management higher education from the perspectives of recent graduates and graduate employers in four European countries. Drawing upon the findings of an empirical qualitative study in which data was collated and analysed using grounded theory research techniques, the paper draws…

  11. Blueprint or Blue Remembered Hills? The Relevance of the Robbins Report to the Present Reforms of Higher Education. (United States)

    Scott, Peter


    Presents opposing interpretations of the Robbins Report, stating that British higher education is still guided by its principles. Examines the report's influence on the size and shape of the higher education system, the character of higher education regarding teaching and research, and higher education's place in modern society. (GEA)

  12. Biosafety Practices and Emergency Response at the Idaho National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank F. Roberto; Dina M. Matz


    Strict federal regulations govern the possession, use, and transfer of pathogens and toxins with potential to cause harm to the public, either through accidental or deliberate means. Laboratories registered through either the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), or both, must prepare biosafety, security, and incident response plans, conduct drills or exercises on an annual basis, and update plans accordingly. At the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), biosafety, laboratory, and emergency management staff have been working together for 2 years to satisfy federal and DOE/NNSA requirements. This has been done through the establishment of plans, training, tabletop and walk-through exercises and drills, and coordination with local and regional emergency response personnel. Responding to the release of infectious agents or toxins is challenging, but through familiarization with the nature of the hazardous biological substances or organisms, and integration with laboratory-wide emergency response procedures, credible scenarios are being used to evaluate our ability to protect workers, the public, and the environment from agents we must work with to provide for national biodefense.

  13. Ethics and Biosafety in Dental Care for Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ibis Betancourt García


    Full Text Available Background: the only way of contracting human immunodeficiency virus during dental treatment is through contact with the blood of an HIV-positive patient with non-intact skin or mucosa of the professional. This requires biosecurity measures to reduce the risk of crossed infection and ensure compliance of bioethical aspects to be considered when treating these patients. Objective: To determine knowledge levels of dentists on biosafety and bioethical principle of justice in the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Methods: A cross sectional and descriptive study was conducted involving 45 professionals who worked in Stomatological clinics of three parishes in Caracas, Venezuela, from January to December 2010. The following were analyzed: knowledge on biosafety (mechanisms of disease transmission, control measures and flowchart sterilization measures before an accident and the justice bioethical principle (time and place of treatment, instruments used and time to devote to patient. Results: The knowledge level according to the bioethical principle of justice was assessed: 40% for good, 37.7% for average and 22.2% for bad. For biosecurity measures it was obtained: 26.6% good, 24.4% average and 48.8% bad. Conclusions: knowledge level on the bioethical principle of justice and biosecurity measures to treat patients living with human immunodeficiency virus is unsatisfactory in more than half of the dentists surveyed.

  14. Biosafety considerations of RNAi-mediated virus resistance in fruit-tree cultivars and in rootstock. (United States)

    Lemgo, Godwin Nana Yaw; Sabbadini, Silvia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Mezzetti, Bruno


    A major application of RNA interference (RNAi) is envisaged for the production of virus-resistant transgenic plants. For fruit trees, this remains the most, if not the only, viable option for the control of plant viral disease outbreaks in cultivated orchards, due to the difficulties associated with the use of traditional and conventional disease-control measures. The use of RNAi might provide an additional benefit for woody crops if silenced rootstock can efficiently transmit the silencing signal to non-transformed scions, as has already been demonstrated in herbaceous plants. This would provide a great opportunity to produce non-transgenic fruit from transgenic rootstock. In this review, we scrutinise some of the concerns that might arise with the use of RNAi for engineering virus-resistant plants, and we speculate that this virus resistance has fewer biosafety concerns. This is mainly because RNAi-eliciting constructs only express small RNA molecules rather than proteins, and because this technology can be applied using plant rootstock that can confer virus resistance to the scion, leaving the scion untransformed. We discuss the main biosafety concerns related to the release of new types of virus-resistant plants and the risk assessment approaches in the application of existing regulatory systems (in particular, those of the European Union, the USA, and Canada) for the evaluation and approval of RNAi-mediated virus-resistant plants, either as transgenic varieties or as plant virus resistance induced by transgenic rootstock.

  15. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries. (United States)

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie


    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of

  16. Biotechnology: Role of Institutional Biosafety Committees. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Committee on Science, Space and Technology, House of Representatives. (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    This report was developed to address institutional biosafety committees' implementation of federal guidelines applicable to the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms. These committees are from universities, companies, and other organizations that are using recombinant DNA technology in their laboratories. The committees are…

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Biosafety Level 2 Opportunistic Pathogens Isolated from the Environmental Surfaces of the International Space Station. (United States)

    Checinska Sielaff, Aleksandra; Singh, Nitin K; Allen, Jonathan E; Thissen, James; Jaing, Crystal; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri


    The draft genome sequences of 20 biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) opportunistic pathogens isolated from the environmental surfaces of the International Space Station (ISS) were presented. These genomic sequences will help in understanding the influence of microgravity on the pathogenicity and virulence of these strains when compared with Earth strains.

  18. Research of the Information Literacy Education on Relevance theory MOOC%关联主义MOOC的信息素养教育探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By trying to In-depth analysis and research of the characteristics of relevance theory MOOC, This article constructs the content frame about information literacy that relevance theory MOOC learner should have and explored the education model for information literacy education that the MOOC platform carried on.%文章试图通过对关联主义MOOC的学习特点进行深入分析与研究,构建出关联主义MOOC学习者应具备的信息素养内容框架,并对MOOC平台开展信息素养的教育模式进行了探究。

  19. New concepts of science and medicine in science and technology studies and their relevance to science education. (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Yun; Stocker, Joel F; Fu, Daiwie


    Science education often adopts a narrow view of science that assumes the lay public is ignorant, which seemingly justifies a science education limited to a promotional narrative of progress in the form of scientific knowledge void of meaningful social context. We propose that to prepare students as future concerned citizens of a technoscientific society, science education should be informed by science, technology, and society (STS) perspectives. An STS-informed science education, in our view, will include the following curricular elements: science controversy education, gender issues, historical perspective, and a move away from a Eurocentric view by looking into the distinctive patterns of other regional (in this case of Taiwan, East Asian) approaches to science, technology, and medicine. This article outlines the significance of some major STS studies as a means of illustrating the ways in which STS perspectives can, if incorporated into science education, enhance our understanding of science and technology and their relationships with society.

  20. "Beyond “Doom and Gloom” and “Saving the World”: On the Relevance of Sociology in Civic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjeran Katunaric´


    Full Text Available In this article some tenets of classical and contemporary sociology are examined with reference to social problems that are also topical in civic education. The social problems are: social inequality, inter-communal conflicts, and democratic participation. A major obstacle in adopting sociological interpretations of the social problems to contemporary civic education lies in sociological reservations toward liberal democracy as a remedy to the social problems. More properly, some utopian (from radical to conservative ramifications of the sociological analysis cannot actually be adopted in civic education. As a consequence, sociology is often distanced toward normative order and dominant forms of social power and practice of the actually existing societies, including liberal democracies. Thus, one can argue that sociology educates “young skeptics”, rather than “young citizens” as postulated in some national curricula of civic education. Still, sociology may serve in civic education as an abundant source of knowledge for unraveling prejudices and false forms of democracy in the contemporary society, and also for questioning some national solutions to pressing social problems. Also, as long as civic education has a tendency to idealize the actually existing forms of (liberal democracy and thus avoiding major criticism of the social order, teaching sociology in secondary education in concurrence with CE would be necessary for the sake of establishing a comprehensive education on the contemporary society and citizenship.

  1. Novel GMO-Based Vaccines against Tuberculosis: State of the Art and Biosafety Considerations. (United States)

    Leunda, Amaya; Baldo, Aline; Goossens, Martine; Huygen, Kris; Herman, Philippe; Romano, Marta


    Novel efficient vaccines are needed to control tuberculosis (TB), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Several TB vaccine candidates are currently in clinical and preclinical development. They fall into two categories, the one of candidates designed as a replacement of the Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) to be administered to infants and the one of sub-unit vaccines designed as booster vaccines. The latter are designed as vaccines that will be administered to individuals already vaccinated with BCG (or in the future with a BCG replacement vaccine). In this review we provide up to date information on novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccines in development focusing on the risk assessment of candidates composed of genetically modified organisms (GMO) which are currently evaluated in clinical trials. Indeed, these vaccines administered to volunteers raise biosafety concerns with respect to human health and the environment that need to be assessed and managed.

  2. Potential impact of a 2-person security rule on BioSafety Level 4 laboratory workers. (United States)

    LeDuc, James W; Anderson, Kevin; Bloom, Marshall E; Carrion, Ricardo; Feldmann, Heinz; Fitch, J Patrick; Geisbert, Joan B; Geisbert, Thomas W; Holbrook, Michael R; Jahrling, Peter B; Ksiazek, Thomas G


    Directors of all major BioSafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories in the United States met in 2008 to review the current status of biocontainment laboratory operations and to discuss the potential impact of a proposed 2-person security rule on maximum-containment laboratory operations. Special attention was paid to the value and risks that would result from a requirement that 2 persons be physically present in the laboratory at all times. A consensus emerged indicating that a video monitoring system represents a more efficient, economical standard; provides greater assurance that pathogens are properly manipulated; and offers an increased margin of employee safety and institutional security. The 2-person security rule (1 to work and 1 to observe) may decrease compliance with dual responsibilities of safety and security by placing undue pressure on the person being observed to quickly finish the work, and by placing the observer in the containment environment unnecessarily.

  3. Evaluation on biosafety in long-term administration, teratogenicity and local toxicity of developed product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Chun; Kim, Se-Ra; Lee, Hae-Jun; Lee, Jin-Hee [Chonnam Nat. Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    We performed this study to determine biosafety of developed product in long-term administration and teratogenicity and local toxicity (skin and eye) of developed product (HemoHIM and HemoTonic). It is suggested that long-term administration with the developed products may not exert considerable side effects. It is concluded that the administration of HemoHIM or HemoTonic does not inflict any adverse effect on fetuses of pregnant mice. HemoHIM and HemoTonic could be considered as a no irritating materials to the skin and eye of the test animals. These results indicated that HemoHIM and HemoTonic might be a useful functional food, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product.

  4. Survey of laboratory-acquired infections around the world in biosafety level 3 and 4 laboratories. (United States)

    Wurtz, N; Papa, A; Hukic, M; Di Caro, A; Leparc-Goffart, I; Leroy, E; Landini, M P; Sekeyova, Z; Dumler, J S; Bădescu, D; Busquets, N; Calistri, A; Parolin, C; Palù, G; Christova, I; Maurin, M; La Scola, B; Raoult, D


    Laboratory-acquired infections due to a variety of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi have been described over the last century, and laboratory workers are at risk of exposure to these infectious agents. However, reporting laboratory-associated infections has been largely voluntary, and there is no way to determine the real number of people involved or to know the precise risks for workers. In this study, an international survey based on volunteering was conducted in biosafety level 3 and 4 laboratories to determine the number of laboratory-acquired infections and the possible underlying causes of these contaminations. The analysis of the survey reveals that laboratory-acquired infections have been infrequent and even rare in recent years, and human errors represent a very high percentage of the cases. Today, most risks from biological hazards can be reduced through the use of appropriate procedures and techniques, containment devices and facilities, and the training of personnel.

  5. Green conversion of graphene oxide to graphene nanosheets and its biosafety study (United States)

    Dasgupta, Adhiraj; Sarkar, Joy; Ghosh, Manosij; Bhattacharya, Amartya; Mukherjee, Anita; Chattopadhyay, Dipankar


    Chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to graphene employs the use of toxic and environmentally harmful reducing agents, hindering mass production of graphene which is of tremendous technological importance. In this study we report a green approach to the synthesis of graphene, bio-reduced by crude polysaccharide. The polysaccharide reduces exfoliated GO to graphene at room temperature in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy image provides clear evidence for the formation of few layer graphene. Characterization of the resulting polysaccharide reduced GO by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirms reduction of GO to graphene. We also investigated the degree of biosafety of the reduced GO and found it to be safe under 100 μg/ml. PMID:28158272

  6. International Guidelines on Sexuality Education and Their Relevance to a Contemporary Curriculum for Children Aged 5-8 Years (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.


    This paper evaluates UNESCO's recommended sexuality educational framework for junior school students aged 5-8 years. It also compares it to an existing state-designed Health and Physical Education curriculum that includes sexual and reproductive health for the same cohort. Based on the universal values of respect and human rights, UNESCO's"…

  7. The Relevance of Media Education in Primary Schools in Hong Kong in the Age of New Media: A Case Study (United States)

    Cheung, C. K.


    In this age of new media, children are exposed to media messages at an early age. What can we do when the mass media exert such a great influence on children? One proposal has been for the introduction of a new school subject: media education. Though media education has not been part of the official curriculum in Hong Kong, some schools, both…

  8. Relevance of Education and Intelligence for the Political Development of Nations: Democracy, Rule of Law and Political Liberty (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner


    Political theory has described a positive linkage between education, cognitive ability and democracy. This assumption is confirmed by positive correlations between education, cognitive ability, and positively valued political conditions (N = 183 - 130). Longitudinal studies at the country level (N = 94 - 16) allow the analysis of causal…

  9. Relevance of Education and Intelligence at the National Level for Health: The Case of HIV and AIDS (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Meisenberg, Gerhard


    Studies at the individual level have shown a negative effect of education and intelligence on risky behavior. The same has been demonstrated for risky sexual behavior and for HIV-infection rates in sub-Saharan Africa. In path analyses at the country data level, cognitive abilities (seen as depending on education) show a strong negative effect on…

  10. Logical Positivism as a Tool to Analyse the Problem of Chemistry's Lack of Relevance in Secondary School Chemical Education (United States)

    Van Aalsvoort, Joke


    Secondary school chemical education has a problem: namely, the seeming irrelevance to the pupils of chemistry. Chemical education prepares pupils for participation in society. Therefore, it must imply a model of society, of chemistry, and of the relation between them. In this article it is hypothesized that logical positivism currently offers this…

  11. Rethinking Relevance in Art Education: Paradigm Shifts and Policy Problematics in the Wake of the Information Age (United States)

    Rolling, James Haywood, Jr.


    This article addresses the advocacy of organizations like the National Art Education Association who seek greater legislative support, funding and time allocations to be devoted to arts instruction and the development of arts practices in the arena of public education. The author argues the timeliness of a reconceived paradigm for understanding…

  12. H.C.Ørsted, Science and "Dannelse" in the early 19th century. - Relevant for educational thinking today?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebæk, Jens Jakob


    A research into the introduction of the concept "Almendannelse" (Litteracy/Education/Culture) in the Danish discourse about reforming the educational system in the early 19th Century, reveals a time in Danish history where the world famous scientist H.C. Ørsted was working together with central...

  13. Biosafety management and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China. (United States)

    Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa; Hallerman, Eric M; Wu, Kongming


    As a developing country with relatively limited arable land, China is making great efforts for development and use of genetically modified (GM) crops to boost agricultural productivity. Many GM crop varieties have been developed in China in recent years; in particular, China is playing a leading role in development of insect-resistant GM rice lines. To ensure the safe use of GM crops, biosafety risk assessments are required as an important part of the regulatory oversight of such products. With over 20 years of nationwide promotion of agricultural biotechnology, a relatively well-developed regulatory system for risk assessment and management of GM plants has been developed that establishes a firm basis for safe use of GM crops. So far, a total of seven GM crops involving ten events have been approved for commercial planting, and 5 GM crops with a total of 37 events have been approved for import as processing material in China. However, currently only insect-resistant Bt cotton and disease-resistant papaya have been commercially planted on a large scale. The planting of Bt cotton and disease-resistant papaya have provided efficient protection against cotton bollworms and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), respectively. As a consequence, chemical application to these crops has been significantly reduced, enhancing farm income while reducing human and non-target organism exposure to toxic chemicals. This article provides useful information for the colleagues, in particular for them whose mother tongue is not Chinese, to clearly understand the biosafety regulation and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China.

  14. Recent advances in development of marker-free transgenic plants: Regulation and biosafety concern

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Narendra Tuteja; Shiv Verma; Ranjan Kumar Sahoo; Sebastian Raveendar; In Bheema Lingeshwara Reddy


    During the efficient genetic transformation of plants with the gene of interest, some selectable marker genes are also used in order to identify the transgenic plant cells or tissues. Usually, antibiotic- or herbicide-selective agents and their corresponding resistance genes are used to introduce economically valuable genes into crop plants. From the biosafety authority and consumer viewpoints, the presence of selectable marker genes in released transgenic crops may be transferred to weeds or pathogenic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract or soil, making them resistant to treatment with herbicides or antibiotics, respectively. Sexual crossing also raises the problem of transgene expression because redundancy of transgenes in the genome may trigger homology-dependent gene silencing. The future potential of transgenic technologies for crop improvement depends greatly on our abilities to engineer stable expression of multiple transgenic traits in a predictable fashion and to prevent the transfer of undesirable transgenic material to non-transgenic crops and related species. Therefore, it is now essential to develop an efficient marker-free transgenic system. These considerations underline the development of various approaches designed to facilitate timely elimination of transgenes when their function is no longer needed. Due to the limiting number of available selectable marker genes, in future the stacking of transgenes will be increasingly desirable. The production of marker-free transgenic plants is now a critical requisite for their commercial deployment and also for engineering multiple and complex trait. Here we describe the current technologies to eliminate the selectablemarker genes (SMG) in order to develop marker-free transgenic plants and also discuss the regulation and biosafety concern of genetically modified (GM) crops.

  15. Biosafety level-2 laboratory diagnosis of Zaire Ebola virus disease imported from Liberia to Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa B. Salu


    Full Text Available Introduction: Global travel is an efficient route of transmission for highly infectious pathogens and increases the chances of such pathogens moving from high disease-endemic areas to new regions. We describe the rapid and safe identification of the first imported case of Ebola virus disease in a traveler to Lagos, Nigeria, using conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in a biosafety level (BSL-2 facility.Case presentation: On 20 July 2014, a traveler arrived from Liberia at Lagos International Airport and was admitted to a private hospital in Lagos, with clinical suspicion of Ebola virus disease.Methodology and Outcome: Blood and urine specimens were collected, transported to the Virology Unit Laboratory at the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, and processed under stringent biosafety conditions for viral RNA extraction. RT-PCR was set-up to query the Ebola, Lassa and Dengue fever viruses. Amplicons for pan-filoviruses were detected as 300 bp bands on a 1.5% agarose gel image; there were no detectable bands for Lassa and Dengue viral RNA. Nucleotide BLAST and phylogenetic analysis of sequence data of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L gene confirmed the sequence to be Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV/Hsap/ NGA/2014/LIB-NIG 01072014; Genbank: KM251803.1.Conclusion: Our BSL-2 facility in Lagos, Nigeria, was able to safely detect Ebola virus disease using molecular techniques, supporting the reliability of molecular detection of highly infectious viral pathogens under stringent safety guidelines in BSL-2 laboratories. This is a significant lesson for the many under-facilitated laboratories in resource-limited settings, as is predominantly found in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Oral Histories of Education and the Relevance of Theory: Claiming New Spaces in a Post-Revisionist Era (United States)

    Eick, Caroline


    The essential nature of oral historical inquiry "naturally" and "relentlessly" brings an oral historian to theory. In this essay, the author argues for the relevance of theory in oral historical research that explores generational transformations in the relational experiences of youth attending desegregated schools in the…

  17. The Domestication of Critique: Problems of Justifying the Critical in the Context of Educationally Relevant Thought and Action (United States)

    Heid, Helmut


    Critique means the questioning judgement of human actions, particularly with reference to a criterion of judgement that is inseparable from the judged state of affairs but is dependent on a decision of the person judging. Informative judgements of a state of affairs contain two relevant components, one concerned with recognition of the objects of…

  18. Progress and Challenges for the Implementation of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA Policy on Biotechnology and Biosafety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eWaithaka


    Full Text Available In 2001, the Meeting of the COMESA Ministers of Agriculture raised concerns that proliferation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs could impact significantly on trade and food security in the region. This triggered studies on a regional approach to biotechnology and biosafety policy in Eastern and Southern Africa. The studies and stakeholder consultations revealed that farm incomes would increase if they switched from conventional varieties of cotton and maize to GM counterparts. Commercial risks associated with exports to GM sensitive destinations e.g., EU were negligible. Intra-regional trade would be affected since exports of GM sensitive commodities such as maize, cotton and soya bean mainly go to other African countries. These findings justified the need to consider a regional approach to biosafety and led to the drafting of a regional policy in 2009. The draft policies were discussed in regional and national workshops between 2010 and 2012 for wider ownership. The workshops involved key stakeholders including ministries of agriculture, trade, environment, national biosafety focal points, biosafety competent authorities, academia, seed traders, millers, the media, food relief agencies, the industry, civil society, competent authorities and political opinion leaders. The COMESA Council of Ministers in February 2014 adopted the COMESA policy on biotechnology and biosafety that takes into account the sovereign right of each member state. Key provisions of the policy include: recognition both to the benefits and risks associated with GMOs; establishment of regional-level biosafety risk assessment system; national level final decision, and capacity building assistance to member states. The policies are the first regional effort in Africa to develop a coordinated mechanism for handling biosafety issues related to GMO use. Regional approach to biosafety is expected to foster inter-country cooperation through the sharing of knowledge, expertise


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuma H. Mamedova


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of human resources development and IT-staff training. The authors put a special emphasis on bringing the IT-staff training system in line with the labor market demands both in quantitative and qualitative terms. Based on the object-oriented approach, the authors explore the reasons behind the existing imbalance between the markets of IT-education services and IT-specialists in Azerbaijan, the challenges facing the IT education and specificity of the IT-specialists market being described.For overcoming the above gap between the IT labor market supply and demand, the authors put forward a model of professional competences, reflecting the real-life requirements for a specialist’s quality. Additionally, the paper outlines the recommended trends of IT-sector development in Azerbaijan, which include organization of innovative research and education centers for specialists’ training and retraining, legislative and institutional coordination of the IT industry and education, development of new educational standards, increase in the number of IT-profile students.

  20. Biosafety and Biosecurity in U.S.Biology Laboratories,and Suggestions to Biosafety in China%美国实验室生物安全管理与安保措施及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宏涛; 郭晓燕


    Through the investigation of biological laboratory safety management standards and operating manuals from several research institutes and universities in the U. S. A. , the U. S. Biological laboratory safety management programs and biosecurity measures were introduced, including the basic concepts of laboratory management, laboratory biosafety and laboratory biosecurity, and laboratory biorisk evaluation criteria. Taking the BSL3-level biology laboratory as an example,the specific implementation plan was discribed. Finally,several suggestions for biosafety management in China were presented based on the laboratory bisafety management experience gained in the U. S. A and the laboratory biosafety situation in China.%通过调研美国几个研究院所、大学生物实验室的安全管理规范和操作手册,对美国生物实验室的安全管理方案与生物安保措施作了系统介绍,包括实验室管理、实验室生物安全( Biosafety)和实验室生物安保(Biosecurity)的基本概念、实验室生物风险(Biorisk)的评估标准,并以BSL3级生物实验室为例介绍了具体的实施方案.最后,结合国内的生物实验室安全管理的实际情况提出了一些建议.

  1. Harmonized biosafety regulations are key to trust building in regional agbiotech partnerships: the case of the Bt cotton project in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton public-private partnership (PPP project in East Africa was designed to gather baseline data on the effect of Bt cotton on biodiversity and the possibility of gene flow to wild cotton varieties. The results of the project are intended to be useful for Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania when applying for biosafety approvals. Using the backdrop of the different biosafety regulations in the three countries, we investigate the role of trust in the Bt cotton partnership in East Africa. Methods Data were collected by reviewing relevant project documents and peer-reviewed articles on Bt cotton in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda; conducting face-to-face interviews with key informants of the project; and conducting direct observations of the project. Data were analyzed based on recurring and emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We identified three factors that posed challenges to building trust in the Bt cotton project in East Africa: different regulatory regimes among the three countries; structural and management differences among the three partner institutions; and poor public awareness of GM crops and negative perceptions of the private sector. The structural and management differences were said to be addressed through joint planning, harmonization of research protocols, and management practices, while poor public awareness of GM crops and negative perceptions of the private sector were said to be addressed through open communication, sharing of resources, direct stakeholder engagement and awareness creation. The regulatory differences remained outside the scope of the project. Conclusions To improve the effectiveness of agbiotech PPPs, there is first a need for a regulatory regime that is acceptable to both the public and private sector partners. Second, early and continuous joint planning; sharing of

  2. Students' Reflections on the Relevance and Quality of Highly Ranked Doctoral Programs in Educational Administration: Beacons of Leadership Preparation? (United States)

    Hoyle, John R.; Torres, Mario S., Jr.


    The manner by which colleges and universities prepare school leaders in doctoral programs is being called into question. One report is stirring much controversy for its unflattering portrayal of administrator preparation programs. In a 2005 report entitled "Educating School Leaders," former Columbia University president Art Levine characterizes…

  3. TQM Principles and Their Relevance to Higher Education: The Question of Tenure and Post-Tenure Review. (United States)

    Helms, Marilyn M.; Williams, Ashley B.; Nixon, Judy C.


    Reviews the history of tenure and post-tenure review, the theory of total quality management (TQM), the role of TQM in higher education, and finally how TQM can be implemented and even supported by tenure and post-tenure programs. Suggests institutional changes so that tenure, post-tenure review, and TQM can work compatibly together. (EV)

  4. Developing "Teaching-Specific" Spanish Competencies in Bilingual Teacher Education: Toward a Culturally, Linguistically, and Professionally Relevant Approach (United States)

    Aquino-Sterling, Cristian R.; Rodríguez-Valls, Fernando


    The emergence of K-12 bilingual/dual-language schools in the United States requires bilingual teacher education programs across the nation to continue to "build on the language strengths" of bilingual teacher candidates and provide them with ample opportunities to acquire the language competencies needed for teaching content-area…

  5. The relevance of personal characteristics in allocating health care resources-controversial preferences of laypersons with different educational backgrounds. (United States)

    Winkelhage, Jeannette; Diederich, Adele


    In all industrial countries publicly funded health care systems are confronted with budget constraints. Therefore, priority setting in resource allocation seems inevitable. This paper examines whether personal characteristics could be taken into consideration when allocating health services in Germany, and whether attitudes towards prioritizing health care vary among individuals with different levels of education. Using a conjoint analysis approach, hypothetical patients described in terms of 'lifestyle', 'age', 'severity of illness', 'type of illness', 'improvement in health', and 'treatment costs' were constructed, and the importance weights for these personal characteristics were elicited from 120 members of the general public. Participants were selected according to a sampling guide including educational background, age, chronic illness and gender. Results are reported for groups with different levels of education (low, middle, high) only. The findings show that the patients' age is the most important criterion for the allocation of health care resources, followed by 'severity of illness' and 'improvement in health'. Preferences vary among participants with different educational backgrounds, which refer to different attitudes towards distributive justice and might represent different socialization experiences.

  6. Arugula, Pine Nuts, and Hegemony: Seven Women's Choreopoetic Reflection on the Absence of Cultural Relevance in Educational Discourse (United States)

    William-White, Lisa; Sagir, Aneela; Flores, Nancy; Jung, Gretchen; Ramirez, Angela; Osalbo, Jennifer; Doan, Hong-An


    Choreopoetic narrative storytelling is presented here, where discourse centered on the intersections of race, class, identity, and critical consciousness is performed in a multi-perspectival interpretation of the hegemonic discourses dominating the educational domain as a result of No Child Left Behind. This interpretative and reflective piece…

  7. Customized, Outcome-Based, Relevant Evaluation (CORE) at Lipscomb University: A Competency-Based Education Case Study (United States)

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca; Olson, Rick


    In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in competency-based degree programs at the postsecondary level. These programs are promising for the future of higher education because they establish clear expectations for what graduates must know and be able to do, and many models have been designed to allow students to learn and earn a degree…

  8. The Relevance of Multilingualism for Teachers and Immigrant Parents in Early Childhood Education and Care in Germany and in France (United States)

    Thomauske, Nathalie


    This paper deals with the initial findings from an international research project called "Children Crossing Borders." This study focused on discovering how early childhood education and care (ECEC) systems in five countries (the UK, France, Germany, Italy, and the USA) serve the children of recent immigrants and what parents with diverse…

  9. Is adherence a relevant issue in the self-management education of diabetes? A mixed narrative review

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    Debussche X


    Full Text Available Xavier Debussche Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nutrition, CHU Félix Guyon, Saint-Denis, Réunion, France Abstract: While therapeutic patient education is now recognized as essential for optimizing the control of chronic diseases and patient well-being, adherence to treatment and medical recommendations is still a matter of debate. In type 2 diabetes, the nonadherence to therapy, estimated at more than 40%, is perceived as a barrier for improving the prognosis despite recent therapeutic advances. Interventional studies have barely begun to demonstrate the effectiveness of technical and behavioral actions. The aim of this review is to question the concept of adherence in terms of therapeutic education based on quantitative and qualitative data. The research on therapeutic education has shown the effectiveness of structured actions in type 2 diabetes, but adherence is rarely an end point in randomized trials. A positive but inconsistent or moderate effect of education actions on adherence has been shown in heterogeneous studies of varying quality. Program types, outlines, theoretical bases, and curricula to set up for action effectiveness are still being discussed. Qualitative studies, including sociological studies, provide a useful and constructive focus on this perspective. Adherence is a soft and flexible tool available to the patient in his/her singular chronic disease trajectory, and as such, integrates into individual therapeutic strategies, including socio-cultural interactions, beyond the medical explanation of the disease and the patient. Four key elements for the development of structured therapeutic education are discussed: 1 the access to health literacy, 2 the contextualization of education activities, 3 the long-term chronic dimension of self-management, and 4 the organizational aspects of health and care. Rather than focusing the objective on behavioral changes, structured therapeutic education actions should attempt to provide

  10. Experimental Animals and Biosafety in Universities%高校实验动物与生物安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永斌; 郭学军


    Laboratory animals are important subjects and tools for teaching and research in colleges and universities, which is the necessary link of translational medicine. With the innovative development of science and technology, the species and strains of experimental animals used in colleges and universities have been remarkably increased. The emergence of biosafety incidents caused by inappropriate management of laboratory animals has become increasingly frequent,which poses a serious threat to human health and ecological environment. We pointed out the potential biosafety hazard brought by experimental animals in colleges and universities, analyzed the problems existing in biosafety control of experiment animals, and proposed some measures and advices on copping with biosafety hidden danger of laboratory animals.%实验动物是高校教学科研工作中的重要实验对象和工具,也是转化医学的必要环节。随着科技创新发展,高校使用的实验动物和实验用动物的品种、品系越来越多,出现的生物安全事件也日趋频繁,已严重威胁人类健康和生态环境。分析了高校实验动物潜在生物安全危害,探讨了实验动物生物安全管理方面存在的问题,并就应对实验动物生物安全隐患问题提出了建议。

  11. Biossegurança em fonoaudiologia Biosafety in Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences

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    Marcela do Amaral de Albuquerque


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: pesquisar, entre um grupo de fonoaudiólogos, o grau de conhecimento e utilização das normas de biossegurança na rotina clínica. MÉTODO: foi realizada pesquisa por meio de um questionário respondido por cem profissionais de diferentes áreas de atuação (Audiologia Clínica, Audiologia Ocupacional, Voz, Neonatologia, Linguagem, Motricidade Orofacial e que atuam em mais de uma área. Cada item, respondido de forma positiva, correspondia a 1 ou 2 pontos, sendo a máxima pontuação (100% correspondendo a 80 pontos. As respostas obtidas foram analisadas e as pontuações encontradas, padronizadas, ou seja, transformadas em índices percentuais indicando seu desempenho. O valor da percentagem de cada questionário poderia variar de 0 a 100%, sendo que quanto maior a percentagem obtida, maior o conhecimento e aplicabilidade das normas de biossegurança pelo profissional na rotina clínica. Foram adotadas as faixas de (0-25%, (26-50%, (51-75% e (76-100% para distinguir o nível de conhecimento e aplicação das medidas de precaução pelos participantes. RESULTADOS: dos cem fonoaudiólogos avaliados por meio dos questionários (100%, 1% obteve a percentagem na faixa de (0 a 25%, 45% em (26 a 50%, 50% entre (51 a 75% e 4% (76 a 100%. CONCLUSÃO: a maioria dos profissionais que participaram conhece e aplica as medidas de biossegurança.PURPOSE: research, among a group of speech pathologists, the degree of knowledge and use of standards of biosafety in clinical routine. METHOD: a survey was conducted through a questionnaire answered by one hundred professionals from different areas (Clinical Audiology, Occupational Audiology, Voice, Neonatology, Language, Orofacial Motricity and more than one performing area. Each item, responded in a positive way, corresponding to 1 or 2 points and the maximum score (100% corresponding to 80 points. The responses were analyzed and the found scores were standardized, or converted into percentage index

  12. The ethics of biosafety considerations in gain-of-function research resulting in the creation of potential pandemic pathogens. (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas Greig; Lipsitch, Marc; Levinson, Meira


    This paper proposes an ethical framework for evaluating biosafety risks of gain-of-function (GOF) experiments that create novel strains of influenza expected to be virulent and transmissible in humans, so-called potential pandemic pathogens (PPPs). Such research raises ethical concerns because of the risk that accidental release from a laboratory could lead to extensive or even global spread of a virulent pathogen. Biomedical research ethics has focused largely on human subjects research, while biosafety concerns about accidental infections, seen largely as a problem of occupational health, have been ignored. GOF/PPP research is an example of a small but important class of research where biosafety risks threaten public health, well beyond the small number of persons conducting the research.We argue that bioethical principles that ordinarily apply only to human subjects research should also apply to research that threatens public health, even if, as in GOF/PPP studies, the research involves no human subjects. Specifically we highlight the Nuremberg Code's requirements of 'fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods', and proportionality of risk and humanitarian benefit, as broad ethical principles that recur in later documents on research ethics and should also apply to certain types of research not involving human subjects. We address several potential objections to this view, and conclude with recommendations for bringing these ethical considerations into policy development.

  13. A importância da abordagem contextual no ensino de biossegurança The importance of the contextual approach in the teaching of biosafety

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    Maria Eveline de Castro Pereira


    Full Text Available A biossegurança é um campo do conhecimento que insere questões voltadas para organismos geneticamente modificados e relacionadas à proteção social e ocupacional do trabalhador. O seu processo educativo visa à formação de um agente participativo-transformador e, portanto, deve ultrapassar a simples ideia da normalização. Dessa forma, é importante contextualizar a biossegurança dentro de uma estratégia de ensino construtivista com a identificação dos seus conceitos estruturantes - risco, perigo e acidente - que permitam ao indivíduo compreender como o risco é percebido na sociedade e enfocado na academia para, em seguida, agregar múltiplas competências e enfrentá-lo. Conhecer como as relações de trabalho-saúde, suas implicações e impactos vem sendo construídas ao longo do tempo, pode formar um cidadão mais crítico e preparado para participar das decisões de ordem político-social que podem influenciar o seu futuro.Biosafety is a field of knowledge that raises questions geared to genetically modified organisms that are linked to social and job-related employee protection. The educational process involves seeking to create a participative and transforming agent and must therefore transcend the simple concept of teaching. Thus, it is important to contextualize biosafety within a constructive teaching strategy by identification of its core concepts - risk, hazard and accident - which allows each individual to understand how risk is perceived within society and dealt with in academia in order to add multiple skills to tackle the situation. Understanding how the relationship between work and health and its consequences and effects are constructed over the course of time, makes it possible to train more critical and well prepared citizens to participate in decisions of a political and social nature that can influence their future.

  14. Assessing the Moral Relevance of Peace Education Contents in the Basic Education Social Studies Curricula for Effective Citizenship Participation in Nigeria (United States)

    Nwaubani, Okechukwu O,; Okafor, Ogochukwu Stella


    Social studies is a core subject at the basic education level in Nigeria which has the potentials of inculcating functional knowledge and desirable morals into pupils for effective citizenship participation through peaceful coexistence. However, despite this positive trend, the moral significance of peace education contents of the subject seem not…

  15. The relevance of the alliance for CME competencies for planning, organizing, and sustaining an interorganizational educational collaborative. (United States)

    Balmer, Jann T; Bellande, Bruce J; Addleton, Robert L; Havens, Carol S


    The heightened demand for accountability, access, and quality performance from health care professionals has resulted in linkages between continuing education (CE), performance improvement (PI), and outcomes. CE health professionals must also expand their skills and abilities to design, implement, and measure CE activities consistent with these new expectations. In addition to administrative and meeting-planning activities, new competencies associated with educational consultation and performance coaching are needed. This article utilizes the Alliance competencies as the framework for discussion of the competencies of CE professionals and applies it to the unique setting of a collaborative. The CS2day initiative serves as an example of the application of these competencies in this environment. The framework of the Alliance competencies can serve as a guide and a tool for self-assessment, work design, and professional development at individual, organization, and systems levels. Continual reassessment of the Alliance competencies for CE in the health professions will be critical to the continued effectiveness of CE that is linked to performance improvement and outcomes for the CE professional and the health care professionals we serve. A collaborative can provide one option for meeting these new expectations for professional development for CE professionals and the creation of effective educational initiatives.

  16. Negotiating the relevance of laboratory work: Safety, procedures and accuracy brought to the fore in science education

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    Mattias Lundin


    Full Text Available This text addresses the problem of the discrepancy between teachers’ and students’ positions in negotiations about the authenticity and legitimacy of school science activities. The study focuses on the apparent conflicts concerning legitimacy and authenticity when teachers and students bring attention to safety, authenticity and accuracy during issues laboratory activities. The analysed data are excerpts made from video observations in two science classes. Analysis was made using epistemological moves describing how teachers and students make their activities relevant. The result indicates that in the classroom conversation about laboratory practice, teachers sometimes draw the attention to safety, procedures and accuracy to legitimize the activity and how they try to control it. Negotiations concerning the legitimacy and authenticity of activities seem inevitable. Unless understandable agreements are reached, the negotiations jeopardize a successful understanding of the Nature of Science (NOS. Misunderstanding of the authenticity of activities contributes to a reduction of their legitimacy, and undermining teaching of context independent knowledge.

  17. [Biosafety of working in cold storage units: from the profit margin to the safety margin]. (United States)

    Marra, Gabriela Chaves; de Souza, Luciana Hugue; Cardoso, Telma Abdalla de Oliveira


    The cold storage unit and meat production industry has made Brazil one of the leading suppliers and exporters of products of animal origin. The rapid expansion of the market has led to a rise in competitiveness from a capitalist standpoint, and in this respect corporate profit often leads to the need to adapt human actions to new functions in order to reduce costs and maximize production. These routine activities involve repetitive work, multi-tasking, long hours and operating machines with the use of sharp cutting tools, which is why the work is conducted wearing protective gear. Among the main hazards present, biological risks are the most important due to direct exposure to internal organs, blood, fecal matter, urine and placental or fetal fluids from slaughtered animals that may be infected with pathogens of zoonotic origin. This paper discusses the risks to which slaughterhouse-cold storage unit professionals are exposed, conducting a thorough bibliographical review of the literature that takes into consideration the conceptual framework of Biosafety, which contributes to improve the safety and health conditions of these workers.

  18. The biosafety of X-ray in bed; A biosseguranca dos raios-X no leito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.S.; Vinco, Y.C.; Machado, C.P., E-mail: [Unigrancapital, Cidade Grande, MS (Brazil)


    This work aims to raise awareness on biosafety that the professional radiology needs to develop, for their own protection as well as the patient in bed during the examination of the X-ray. Assess why the use of many artifacts and discuss their safe use, the conditions necessary for operating activities that employ radioactive and radiological techniques are adopted for the benefit of society. Taking also into account the protection of workers, the public, and the patient environment. This study aims to evaluate the knowledge of technical professionals working in the field-performing x -rays in bed, currently academic course in radiology technologist. The results obtained show that 67 % of technicians, technologists’ future, use the personal protective equipment, and 25 % sometimes and never use 8 %, 92 %. Answered that in the period that is being performed on X -ray examination bed, but there are others bedridden in the same environment, with 88 % of patients in bed in bed not receive personal protective equipment nor collective protection equipment. Thus, we conclude that most technicians have cognition existing risks, so the individual protection measures are being carried out, but not by all. What still leaves to be desired is the protection of the patient in bed. These professionals need to be encouraged to study, so that we have trained professionals and holders of knowledge, enabling the improvement in labor and protection of professional and patient. (author)

  19. Physiological Interactions of Nanoparticles in Energy Metabolism, Immune Function and Their Biosafety: A Review. (United States)

    Gomes, Antony; Sengupta, Jayeeta; Datta, Poulami; Ghosh, Sourav; Gomes, Aparna


    Nanoparticles owing to their unique physico-chemical properties have found its application in various biological processes, including metabolic pathways taking place within the body. This review tried to focus the involvement of nanoparticles in metabolic pathways and its influence in the energy metabolism, a fundamental criteria for the survival and physiological activity of living beings. The human body utilizes energy derived from food resources through a series of biochemical reactions involving several enzymes, co-factors (metals, non-metals, vitamins etc.) through the metabolic pathways (glycolysis, tri carboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport chain, etc.) in cellular system. Energy metabolism is also involved in the immune networking of the body for self defence and against pathophysiology. The immune system comprises of different cells and tissues, bioactive molecules for self defence and to fight against diseases. In the recent times, it has been reported through in vivo and in vitro studies that nanoparticles have direct influence on body's immune functions, and can modulate immunity by either suppressing or enhancing it. A comprehensive overview of nanoparticles and its involvement in immune function of the body in normal and pathophysiological conditions has been discussed. Considering these perspectives on nanoparticle interaction another important area which has been highlighted is the biosafety issues which are necessary before therapeutic applications. It is expected that development of physiologically compatible nanoparticles controlling energy metabolic processes, immune functions may show new dimension in the pathophysiology linked with energy and immunity.

  20. Evaluation of Virus Inactivation by Formaldehyde to Enhance Biosafety of Diagnostic Electron Microscopy

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    Lars Möller


    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA fixation of infectious samples is a well-established protocol in diagnostic electron microscopy of viruses. However, published experimental data that demonstrate virus inactivation by these fixation procedures are lacking. Usually, fixation is performed immediately before the sample preparation for microscopy. The fixation procedure should transform viruses in a non–infectious but nonetheless structurally intact form in order to allow a proper diagnosis based on morphology. FA provides an essential advantage in comparison to other disinfectants, because it preserves the ultrastructure of biological material without interfering significantly with the preparation (i.e., the negative staining and the detection of viruses. To examine the efficiency of FA inactivation, we used Vaccinia virus, Human adenovirus and Murine norovirus as models and treated them with FA under various conditions. Critical parameters for the inactivation efficiency were the temperature, the duration of the FA treatment, and the resistance of the virus in question. Our results show that FA inactivation at low temperature (4 °C bears a high risk of incomplete inactivation. Higher temperatures (25 °C are more efficient, although they still require rather long incubation times to fully inactivate a complex and highly robust virus like Vaccinia. A protocol, which applied 2% buffered FA for 60 min and a temperature–shift from 25 to 37 °C after 30 min was efficient for the complete inactivation of all test viruses, and therefore has the potential to improve both biosafety and speed of diagnostic electron microscopy.

  1. Next generation inactivated polio vaccine manufacturing to support post polio-eradication biosafety goals.

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    Yvonne E Thomassen

    Full Text Available Worldwide efforts to eradicate polio caused a tipping point in polio vaccination strategies. A switch from the oral polio vaccine, which can cause circulating and virulent vaccine derived polioviruses, to inactivated polio vaccines (IPV is scheduled. Moreover, a manufacturing process, using attenuated virus strains instead of wild-type polioviruses, is demanded to enhance worldwide production of IPV, especially in low- and middle income countries. Therefore, development of an IPV from attenuated (Sabin poliovirus strains (sIPV was pursued. Starting from the current IPV production process based on wild type Salk strains, adaptations, such as lower virus cultivation temperature, were implemented. sIPV was produced at industrial scale followed by formulation of both plain and aluminium adjuvanted sIPV. The final products met the quality criteria, were immunogenic in rats, showed no toxicity in rabbits and could be released for testing in the clinic. Concluding, sIPV was developed to manufacturing scale. The technology can be transferred worldwide to support post polio-eradication biosafety goals.

  2. Preparedness for ebolavirus disease outbreak in Japan: Necessity of Biosafety level-4 facility. (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki; Morita, Kouichi


    Although a globe box-type highly contained laboratory with the internationally-recognized biosafety level-4 standards has been constructed in the Murayama Annex, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan (NIID) in 1981, the laboratory has never been operated as BSL-4 laboratory since its construction. Furthermore, there are no other BSL-4 laboratories in operation in Japan. The evidence indicates that infectious BSL-4 pathogens such as Ebola and Marburg viruses cannot be manipulated in Japan, making it impossible to study the BSL-4 pathogens using the infectious viruses. A large-scale outbreak of ebolavirus disease (EVD) has occurred in the western Africa such as Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Furthermore, the highly pathogenic pathogens' infectious diseases outbreaks such as SARS, Nipah encephalitis, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) have emerged in the world. However, BSL-4 laboratories are not present in Japan, making it difficult to study these pathogens and infectious diseases. Because these emerging virus infections are caused by the zoonotic pathogens, the eradiation and the elimination of these infectious diseases are impossible. We need to develop the diagnostics, therapeutics, and preventive measures based on the studies of the highly pathogenic pathogens more in detail using the infectious microbes. Therefore, BSL-4 in operation in Japan is required to minimize the risk of and combat these emerging highly pathogenic pathogens' infectious diseases.

  3. Princípios de biossegurança aplicados aos laboratórios de ensino universitário de microbiologia e parasitologia Principles of biosafety applied to microbiology and parasitology laboratories in universities

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    Luis Antônio Sangioni


    Full Text Available Os laboratórios de ensino de microbiologia e parasitologia nas universidades brasileiras são ambientes em que as atividades integradas, envolvendo ensino, pesquisa e extensão, demandam a convivência de pessoas, agentes e amostras biológicas, equipamentos, reagentes e resíduos num mesmo espaço, sendo inevitável a exposição das pessoas aos diferentes riscos. As atividades realizadas nesses laboratórios necessitam empregar as normas de segurança; pois, uma vez que o fator humano é susceptível aos acidentes, os programas de educação em biossegurança são imprescindíveis. Entretanto, para que esses programas sejam efetivos, é necessário que os usuários estejam devidamente informados acerca dos princípios de biossegurança, bem como aptos a colocá-los em prática de maneira correta, a fim de garantir a segurança dos profissionais, acadêmicos e do meio ambiente. Esta revisão compila os principais aspectos da biossegurança relacionados aos princípios e à classificação dos riscos, dos agentes biológicos e dos níveis de contenção laboratorial, bem como aborda as boas práticas laboratoriais nos laboratórios de ensino, pesquisa e extensão em microbiologia e parasitologia.The teaching laboratories of microbiology and parasitology in Brazilian universities are places where the integrated activities of teaching, research and extension are performed and require the coexistence in the same space, persons, biological agents and samples, equipment, reagents and waste, and where is inevitable the exposure of people to the different risks. The laboratorial activities practiced in Brazilian universities require the need for safety standards, since the human factor is likely the causes of accidents in laboratories, educational programs in biosafety become indispensable to the prevention of risks. However, for an education program become effective is necessary that the users are fully informed about the biosafety principles, as

  4. [Some notes on the history of the experimental surgery laboratory. Reflections on its relevance in education and surgical research]. (United States)

    de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel Sofía; Padilla-Sánchez, Luis; de la Garza-Aguilar, Javier; Neri-Vela, Rolando


    The progress of medicine has largely been due to research, and for surgery, in particular, the experimental surgical laboratory has been considered fundamental to the surgeon's education. In this study, a general view of experimental surgery is given in animal models based on bioethical norms as well as to design, create and apply different surgical procedures before performing in humans. Experimental surgery also facilitates surgical teaching and promotes the surgeon's scientific reasoning. Methods. This is a retrospective and descriptive study. Data were collected from direct and indirect sources of available publications on the historical, bioethical and educational aspects of medicine, focusing on surgery. The important facts corresponding to the field of experimental surgery and applicable in Mexico were selected. Concepts of experimental surgical models and of the experimental surgery laboratory were described. Bioethical considerations are emphasized for care of experimental animals. Finally, this work focuses on the importance of surgical experimentation in current and future development of the surgical researcher. Conclusions. Experimentation with animal models in a surgical laboratory is essential for surgical teaching and promotes development of the scientific thought in the surgeon. It is necessary for surgical research and is fundamental for making progress in surgery, treatment and medicine as science.

  5. Consumer-led demand side financing in health and education and its relevance for low and middle income countries. (United States)

    Ensor, Tim


    There is increasing awareness that supply subsidies for health and education services often fail to benefit those that are most vulnerable in a community. This recognition has led to a growing interest in and experimentation with, consumer-led demand side financing systems (CL-DSF). These mechanisms place purchasing power in the hands of consumers to spend on specific services at accredited facilities. International evidence in education and health sectors suggest a limited success of CL-DSF in raising the consumption of key services amongst priority groups. There is also some evidence that vouchers can be used to improve targeting of vulnerable groups. There is very little positive evidence on the effect of CL-DSF on service quality as a consequence of greater competition. Location of services relative to population means that areas with more provider choice, particularly in the private sector, tend to be dominated by higher and middle-income households. Extending CL-DSF in low-income countries requires the development of capacity in administering these financing schemes and also accrediting providers. Schemes could focus primarily on fixed packages of key services aimed at easily identifiable groups. Piloting and robust evaluation is required to fill the evidence gap on the impact of these mechanisms. Extending demand financing to less predictable services, such as hospital coverage for the population, is likely to require the development of a voucher scheme to purchase insurance. This suggests an already developed insurance market and is unlikely to be appropriate in most low-income countries for some time.

  6. The Relevance and Educational Value of Social Network Sites for Classroom Literacy Learning. A discussion based on empirical work with Norwegian students and teachers.

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    Håvard Skaar


    Full Text Available Web 2.0 allows young people to engage in new kinds of online participation, e.g. on social network sites. When young people produce digital texts to communicate with their friends or connect with them, they engage and integrate their literacy in their everyday lives. Social network sites are thus examples of how digital media open up spaces where literacy becomes part of young people’s social and cultural practices in new and unprecedented ways. Is this development relevant to school-based literacy learning? If so, how should it be met in the classroom? In the paper these questions are addressed against the backdrop of empirical work with Norwegian students and teachers. This material particularly reveals how students and teachers experience the relationship between educational and commercial aspects of young people’s cultural and social lives online. The analyses of the empirical material draw on work contained in New Literacy Studies and Media Education Research. In the discussion section it is argued that the relationship between the educational and commercial aspects of young people’s use of social network sites must be more closely examined in the light of how these activities actually relate to literacy learning in the classroom.

  7. A distinção entre conhecer e pensar em Hannah Arendt e sua relevância para a educação The distinction between knowing and thinking in Hannah Arendt and its relevance to education

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    Vanessa Sievers de Almeida


    Full Text Available A educação, preocupada principalmente com a aquisição de competências e/ou a transmissão de conhecimentos, tem dado pouca atenção para a compreensão do mundo - isto é, um modo de pensar que não tem como objetivo primeiro a resolução de problemas. Para entender melhor a relevância dessa questão, recorremos à distinção que Hannah Arendt traça entre o pensar e o conhecer. A abordagem da autora sobre essas atividades do espírito foi desencadeada pelo processo de Eichmann em Jerusalém. Na ocasião, ela observa que o réu foi capaz de coordenar a deportação dos judeus para os campos de concentração, mas era incapaz de refletir sobre o significado de seus atos. Depois, em sua obra A vida do espírito, ela veio a constatar que conhecimento e pensamento são duas faculdades distintas. O conhecer diz respeito à busca da verdade. Os conhecimentos possuem uma validade geral e uma utilidade. A atividade cognitiva, no entanto, mostra-se limitada por ser incapaz de atribuir um significado à nossa relação com o mundo. A busca de sentido é específica do pensamento, a reflexão sobre as experiências, cujos "resultados", porém, são "fugidios" e, muitas vezes, julgados inúteis. Este artigo, contudo, sustenta que o pensar, enquanto busca de sentido, é essencial para uma educação que, além de possibilitar um saber e um saber fazer, pretende contribuir para que os jovens estabeleçam uma relação de sentido e de pertença com o mundo humano.Education, chiefly concerned with the acquisition of competences and/or with the transmission of knowledge, has paid little attention to understanding the world - that is to say, to a mode of thinking that does not have as its primary objective the solution of problems. To better understand the relevance of this issue, we look into the distinction established by Hannah Arendt between thinking and knowing. Her approach to these activities of the human spirit was born out of the Eichmann

  8. 生物安全实验室效率检漏型高效空气过滤装置的研制%Development of HEPA Filter Unit with Efficiency Leak Detection for Bio-safety Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗兴; 赵明; 衣颖; 祁建城


    目的:研制一种可安装在生物安全实验室内的效率检漏型排风高效过滤装置,可实现对高效空气过滤器的原位检漏和消毒.方法:依据高效空气过滤器效率法检测和气体消毒要求,进行高效空气过滤装置的结构设计.结果:该高效空气过滤装置,可采用效率法对高效过滤器进行原位检漏,并可对过滤器进行原位气体消毒及验证消毒效果,满足相关标准要求.结论:该装置适用于生物安全实验室的污染空气排放处置,可满足我国生物安全实验室建设的需要.%Objective To develop an exhaust HEPA filter unit installed in the laboratory that has the functions of in-situ leak detection and sterilization of HEPA filter.Methods The structure composition of the unit was designed according to the requirement of efficiency test and gas sterilization of HEPA filter.Results The HEPA filter unit which met relevant standard requirements had the functions of in-situ leak detection using efficiency test,sterilization and validating the effect of sterilization of HEPA filter.Conclusion The unit which is applicable to decontamination of contaminated air emissions of bio-safety laboratory can meet the needs of construction of bio-safety laboratory in China.

  9. Biosafety considerations for in vivo work with risk group 3 pathogens in large animals and wildlife in North America. (United States)

    Olsen, S C


    Regulations in the United States require animal biosafety level 3 (ABSL-3) or biosafety level 3 agriculture (BSL-3-Ag) containment for many endemic zoonotic pathogens and etiologic agents of foreign animal diseases. In an effort to protect public health, billions of dollars were invested in regulatory programs over many years to reduce the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens such as Brucella and Mycobacterium bovis in domestic livestock. In addition to research needs in domestic livestock hosts, the establishment of brucellosis and tuberculosis in wildlife in the United States has created a need for research studies addressing these zoonotic diseases. As guidelines in the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL, 2009) for BSL-3 and BSL-3-Ag facilities are primarily directed toward laboratory or vivarium facilities, additional issues should be considered in designing large animal containment facilities for domestic livestock and/or wildlife. Flight distance, herd orientation, social needs, aggressiveness, and predictability are all factors we considered on a species by species basis for designing our containment facilities and for work practices with large ruminants. Although safety risk cannot be completely eliminated when working with large animals, studies in natural hosts are critical for advancing vaccine and diagnostic development, and providing basic knowledge of disease pathogenesis in natural hosts. Data gathered in these types of studies are vital for state and national regulatory personnel in their efforts to design strategies to control or eradicate diseases such as brucellosis and tuberculosis in their natural hosts, whether it is domestic livestock or wildlife. It is likely that failure to address the prevalence of disease in wildlife reservoirs will lead to re-emergence in domestic livestock. The overall benefit of these studies is to protect public health, provide economic benefits to producers, and protect the economic investment

  10. Good and bad examples of siting and building biosafety level 4 laboratories: a study of Winnipeg, Galveston and Etobicoke. (United States)

    Löfstedt, Ragnar


    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate successful and unsuccessful examples of siting and building biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) facilities in North America. The paper shows that well thought-out risk communication strategies, that are proactive in nature, are needed to counteract both public trust and negative media amplification. The paper suggests that such strategies, which combine communication tools including media briefings, public fora, focus groups, tours of the proposed facility, open and frequent communication with the public as much as possible do work.

  11. An evaluation of the role and effectiveness of institutional biosafety committees in providing oversight and security at biocontainment laboratories. (United States)

    Race, Margaret S; Hammond, Edward


    Institutional biosafety committees (IBCs) have been charged with the oversight and review of biosafety at thousands of biocontainment labs nationwide, hundreds of which are high-level BSL-3 and BSL-4 labs. In light of the recent rapid proliferation of BSL-3 and BSL-4 facilities and the increases in research in the areas of biodefense, select agents, recombinant DNA, and synthetic biology and dual-use research, questions have been raised about whether IBCs are fulfilling their oversight responsibilities. This article reviews information on the responsibilities and expectations of IBCs as currently constituted and provides an analysis of IBC performance from survey data of hundreds of research institutions over the past several years. The findings highlight serious ongoing problems with IBCs' adherence to NIH Guidelines. This raises questions about the current voluntary governance framework as an effective system to monitor and oversee U.S. research facilities, including high-containment facilities, and their research activities. The findings strongly suggest the need for immediate improvement or replacement of the IBC system.

  12. Comparative bio-safety and in vivo evaluation of native or modified locust bean gum-PVA IPN microspheres. (United States)

    Kaity, Santanu; Ghosh, Animesh


    Strategically developed natural polymer-based controlled release multiparticulate drug delivery systems have gained special interest for “spatial placement” and “temporal delivery” of drug molecules. In our earlier study, locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (LBG-PVA IPN), carboxymethylated locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (CMLBG-PVA IPN) and acrylamide grafted locust bean gum-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (Am-g-LBG-PVA IPN) were prepared and characterized. The present study deals with accelerating stability testing, comparative bio-safety and single dose in vivo pharmacokinetic study of all three IPN microspheres for controlled oral delivery of buflomedil hydrochloride (BH). From the stability study, it was observed that the particles were stable throughout the study period. From toxicity and biodegradability study it was proved that the microspheres were safe for internal use and complied with bio-safety criterion. From the in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits, it was observed that the CMLBG-PVA IPN microspheres possessed almost similar Tmax value with BH oral suspension. However, in comparison between the LBG-PVA and Am-g-LBG-PVA IPN microspheres, the later showed well controlled release property than the first in biological condition. Thus, this type of delivery system might be useful to achieve the lofty goals of the controlled release drug delivery.

  13. Avian influenza surveillance with FTA cards: field methods, biosafety, and transportation issues solved. (United States)

    Kraus, Robert H S; van Hooft, Pim; Waldenström, Jonas; Latorre-Margalef, Neus; Ydenberg, Ronald C; Prins, Herbert H T


    Avian Influenza Viruses (AIVs) infect many mammals, including humans(1). These AIVs are diverse in their natural hosts, harboring almost all possible viral subtypes(2). Human pandemics of flu originally stem from AIVs(3). Many fatal human cases during the H5N1 outbreaks in recent years were reported. Lately, a new AIV related strain swept through the human population, causing the 'swine flu epidemic'(4). Although human trading and transportation activity seems to be responsible for the spread of highly pathogenic strains(5), dispersal can also partly be attributed to wild birds(6, 7). However, the actual reservoir of all AIV strains is wild birds. In reaction to this and in face of severe commercial losses in the poultry industry, large surveillance programs have been implemented globally to collect information on the ecology of AIVs, and to install early warning systems to detect certain highly pathogenic strains(8-12). Traditional virological methods require viruses to be intact and cultivated before analysis. This necessitates strict cold chains with deep freezers and heavy biosafety procedures to be in place during transport. Long-term surveillance is therefore usually restricted to a few field stations close to well equipped laboratories. Remote areas cannot be sampled unless logistically cumbersome procedures are implemented. These problems have been recognised(13, 14) and the use of alternative storage and transport strategies investigated (alcohols or guanidine)(15-17). Recently, Kraus et al.(18) introduced a method to collect, store and transport AIV samples, based on a special filter paper. FTA cards(19) preserve RNA on a dry storage basis(20) and render pathogens inactive upon contact(21). This study showed that FTA cards can be used to detect AIV RNA in reverse-transcription PCR and that the resulting cDNA could be sequenced and virus genes and determined. In the study of Kraus et al.(18) a laboratory isolate of AIV was used, and samples were handled

  14. Genetically Modified Organism Trade Route and Biosafety-Is It a Failing Synthesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debdatta Dobe


    harmful agricultural crops are undefined. Before NAFTA, corporations are challenging these as “barriers to trade” while Environmentalists are advocating the “precautionary principle”. Conclusion/Recommendations: The current climate of controversy in such key aspects across the world complicates the possibility of synthesis of trade and bio safety of GM food. Furthermore, the concept of food aid ensures that GM trade remains prevalent and unchecked. Thus, the answer to the projected environmental damage through such passage and the co-existence of trade laws alongside bio-safety demands an alteration in national as well as WTO legislations. This article attempts to evaluate the possibilities of a legislative make-over and the nuances of environmental safeguards against the proposed problems.

  15. The Effectiveness of a Program Based on the Combination of Relevance and Confidence Motivational Strategies in Developing EFL Argumentative Writing Skills and Overcoming Writing Apprehension among Students Teachers at Faculty of Education (United States)

    Ahmed Helwa, Hasnaa Sabry Abdel-Hamid


    The aim of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of a program based on the combination of relevance and confidence motivational strategies in developing EFL argumentative writing skills and overcoming writing apprehension among students teachers at Faculty of Education. The design of the research is a mixed research methodology. It…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆龙喜; 林军明; 陆烨; 许激


    Objective To explore the present situation of biosafety laboratory level Ⅱ in different medical organisms to provide technical parameter.Methods Integrated performance of BSL-2 of part unit in Zhejiang province was monitored according to architectural and technical code for biosafety laboratories and the required methods of interrelated standard.Results There were differences in eligible rate between medical,CDC,entry-exit inspection and quality testing unit.The integrated performance of biosafety laboratory level Ⅱ in CDC was significantly better than that in medical,entry-exit inspection and quality testing unit.Conclusion The performance of biosafety laboratory level Ⅱ is not very satisfactory,so there is hidden trouble in biosafety.%目的 了解不同医疗卫生机构生物安全二级实验室(简称BSL-2)的使用运行情况,为进一步加强和规范生物安全实验室管理提供技术参数.方法 参照生物安全实验室建筑技术规范及相关标准规定的方法,对浙江省部分医疗卫生机构二级生物安全实验室性能进行监测.结果 医疗、疾控、检疫、质检各系统之间的生物安全二级实验室运行情况尚有一定差距,疾控机构的生物安全二级实验室整体状况优于医疗、检疫和质检机构.结论 生物安全二级实验室整体性能检测合格率较低,存在生物安全隐患.

  17. ABSL-4 Aerobiology Biosafety and Technology at the NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Lackemeyer


    Full Text Available The overall threat of a viral pathogen to human populations is largely determined by the modus operandi and velocity of the pathogen that is transmitted among humans. Microorganisms that can spread by aerosol are considered a more challenging enemy than those that require direct body-to-body contact for transmission, due to the potential for infection of numerous people rather than a single individual. Additionally, disease containment is much more difficult to achieve for aerosolized viral pathogens than for pathogens that spread solely via direct person-to-person contact. Thus, aerobiology has become an increasingly necessary component for studying viral pathogens that are naturally or intentionally transmitted by aerosol. The goal of studying aerosol viral pathogens is to improve public health preparedness and medical countermeasure development. Here, we provide a brief overview of the animal biosafety level 4 Aerobiology Core at the NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.

  18. Establishment of Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3 laboratory: Important criteria to consider while designing, constructing, commissioning & operating the facility in Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra T Mourya


    This article describes the major steps involved in the process of construction of a BSL-3 laboratory in Indian settings, from freezing the concept of proposal to operationalization phase. The key to success of this kind of project is strong institutional commitment to biosafety norms, adequate fund availability, careful planning and designing, hiring good construction agency, monitoring by experienced consultancy agency and involvement of scientific and engineering personnel with biocontainment experience in the process.

  19. Preparing a Community Hospital to Manage Work-related Exposures to Infectious Agents in BioSafety Level 3 and 4 Laboratories


    Risi, George F.; Bloom, Marshall E.; Hoe, Nancy P.; Arminio, Thomas; Carlson, Paul; Powers, Tamara; Feldmann, Heinz; Wilson, Deborah


    Construction of new BioSafety Level (BSL) 3 and 4 laboratories has raised concerns regarding provision of care to exposed workers because of healthcare worker (HCW) unfamiliarity with precautions required. When the National Institutes of Health began construction of a new BSL-4 laboratory in Hamilton, Montana, USA, in 2005, they contracted with St. Patrick Hospital in Missoula, Montana, for care of those exposed. A care and isolation unit is described. We developed a training program for HCWs...

  20. Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures



    Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) suit laboratories are specifically designed to study high-consequence pathogens for which neither infection prophylaxes nor treatment options exist. The hallmarks of these laboratories are: custom-designed airtight doors, dedicated supply and exhaust airflow systems, a negative-pressure environment, and mandatory use of positive-pressure (“space”) suits. The risk for laboratory specialists working with highly pathogenic agents is minimized through rigorous training a...

  1. Establishment of Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) laboratory: important criteria to consider while designing, constructing, commissioning & operating the facility in Indian setting. (United States)

    Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Majumdar, Triparna Dutta; Chauhan, Devendra S; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan


    Since the enactment of Environmental Protection Act in 1989 and Department of Biotechnology (DBT) guidelines to deal with genetically modified organisms, India has embarked on establishing various levels of biosafety laboratories to deal with highly infectious and pathogenic organisms. Occurrence of outbreaks due to rapidly spreading respiratory and haemorrhagic fever causing viruses has caused an urgency to create a safe laboratory environment. This has thus become a mandate, not only to protect laboratory workers, but also to protect the environment and community. In India, technology and science are progressing rapidly. Several BSL-3 [=high containment] laboratories are in the planning or execution phase, to tackle biosafety issues involved in handling highly infectious disease agents required for basic research and diagnosis. In most of the developing countries, the awareness about biocontainment has increased but planning, designing, constructing and operating BSL-3 laboratories need regular updates about the design and construction of facilities and clear definition of risk groups and their handling which should be in harmony with the latest international practices. This article describes the major steps involved in the process of construction of a BSL-3 laboratory in Indian settings, from freezing the concept of proposal to operationalization phase. The key to success of this kind of project is strong institutional commitment to biosafety norms, adequate fund availability, careful planning and designing, hiring good construction agency, monitoring by experienced consultancy agency and involvement of scientific and engineering personnel with biocontainment experience in the process.

  2. Biosafety of the Novel Vancomycin-loaded Bone-like Hydroxyapatite/Poly-amino Acid Bony Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Dong Cao


    Full Text Available Background: Recently, local sustained-release antibiotics systems have been developed because they can increase local foci of concentrated antibiotics without increasing the plasma concentration, and thereby effectively decrease any systemic toxicity and side effects. A vancomycin-loaded bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid (V-BHA/PAA bony scaffold was successfully fabricated with vancomycin-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres and BHA/PAA, which was demonstrated to exhibit both porosity and perfect biodegradability. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the biosafety of this novel scaffold by conducting toxicity tests in vitro and in vivo. Methods: According to the ISO rules for medical implant biosafety, for in vitro tests, the scaffold was incubated with L929 fibroblasts or rabbit noncoagulant blood, with simultaneous creation of positive control and negative control groups. The growth condition of L929 cells and hemolytic ratio were respectively evaluated after various incubation periods. For in vivo tests, a chronic osteomyelitis model involving the right proximal tibia of New Zealand white rabbits was established. After bacterial identification, the drug-loaded scaffold, drug-unloaded BHA/PAA, and poly (methyl methacrylate were implanted, and a blank control group was also set up. Subsequently, the in vivo blood drug concentrations were measured, and the kidney and liver functions were evaluated. Results: In the in vitro tests, the cytotoxicity grades of V-BHA/PAA and BHA/PAA-based on the relative growth rate were all below 1. The hemolysis ratios of V-BHA/PAA and BHA/PAA were 2.27% and 1.42%, respectively, both below 5%. In the in vivo tests, the blood concentration of vancomycin after implantation of V-BHA/PAA was measured at far below its toxic concentration (60 mg/L, and the function and histomorphology of the liver and kidney were all normal. Conclusion: According to ISO standards, the V-BHA/PAA scaffold

  3. Biosafety of the Novel Vancomycin-loaded Bone-like Hydroxyapatite/Poly-amino Acid Bony Scaffold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Dong Cao; Dian-Ming Jiang; Ling Yan; Jun Wu


    Background:Recently,local sustained-release antibiotics systems have been developed because they can increase local foci of concentrated antibiotics without increasing the plasma concentration,and thereby effectively decrease any systemic toxicity and side effects.A vancomycin-loaded bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly-amino acid (V-BHA/PAA) bony scaffold was successfully fabricated with vancomycin-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres and BHA/PAA,which was demonstrated to exhibit both porosity and perfect biodegradability.The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the biosafety of this novel scaffold by conducting toxicity tests in vitro and in vivo.Methods:According to the ISO rules for medical implant biosafety,for in vitro tests,the scaffold was incubated with L929 fibroblasts or rabbit noncoagulant blood,with simultaneous creation of positive control and negative control groups.The growth condition ofL929 cells and hemolytic ratio were respectively evaluated after various incubation periods.For in vivo tests,a chronic osteomyelitis model involving the right proximal tibia of New Zealand white rabbits was established.After bacterial identification,the drug-loaded scaffold,drug-unloaded BHA/PAA,and poly (methyl methacrylate) were implanted,and a blank control group was also set up.Subsequently,the in vivo blood drug concentrations were measured,and the kidney and liver functions were evaluated.Results:In the in vitro tests,the cytotoxicity grades of V-BHA/PAA and BHA/PAA-based on the relative growth rate were all below 1.The hemolysis ratios of V-BHA/PAA and BHA/PAA were 2.27% and 1.42%,respectively,both below 5%.In the in vivo tests,the blood concentration of vancomycin after implantation of V-BHA/PAA was measured at far below its toxic concentration (60 mg/L),and the function and histomorphology of the liver and kidney were all normal.Conclusion:According to ISO standards,the V-BHA/PAA scaffold is considered to have sufficient safety for

  4. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven


    , socio-cognitive and affective relevance. It then shows, at the hand of examples, why relevance is important from a user perspective in the extra-lexicographical pre- and post-consultation phases and in the intra-lexicographical consultation phase. It defines an additional type of subjective relevance...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  5. The Experience of a Highly Skilled Student during Handball Lessons in Physical Education: A Relevant Pointer to the Gap between School and Sports Contexts of Practice (United States)

    Crance, Marie-Cecile; Trohel, Jean; Saury, Jacques


    Introduction: This study investigated the experience of a highly skilled student during a handball physical education unit in a French high school. More specifically, the analysis describes the nature of his involvement during two lessons that follow a pedagogical model close to the principles of Sport Education. The present case study of a…

  6. Yes, We Are Still Talking about Diversity: Diversity Education as a Catalyst for Transformative, Culturally Relevant, and Reflective Preservice Teacher Practices (United States)

    Miller Dyce, Cherrel; Owusu-Ansah, Angela


    Using data from preservice teachers enrolled in a diversity course in a predominantly White teacher education program, researchers uncovered that diversity education was indeed a catalyst for preservice teachers to increase knowledge of diversity and their understanding of the process of critically reflecting on their teaching and learning…

  7. Ensino de Biossegurança na Graduação em Enfermagem: uma revisão da literatura Enseñanza de Bioseguridad en la Graduación de Enfermería: una revisión de la literatura The teaching of Biosafety in Nursing Undergraduation: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia de Carvalho Andrade


    undergraduation. It was analyzed the journal articles found consulting LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, BDENF, DEDALUS and PERIENF databases, identifying 26 articles. The results found provided the creation and discussion of these categories: "Ideological and theoretical bases", "Historic approach of biosafety", "Occupational risks and AIDS" and "Biosafety education in graduation". It was concluded that the number of articles is small, mainly the ones focusing on biosafety teaching, but there was an evolution of this content in the last years.

  8. On the Contemporary Relevance of Greek παιδεία to the Concept of a Balanced Education: Aristotle, Nietzsche, Camus, H. Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan


    Full Text Available Contemporary education systems are in a constant process of restructuring, thus requiring philosophy to reconsider the basic assumptions of education. The phenomenon of education can only be defined and clarified historically, i.e. with reference to the ancient Greek paideia. The Greek culture created a comprehensive system of both education and pedagogy as a theory of education, teaching, and knowledge (Dilthey.  (1 A phenomenological approach to Aristotle's pedagogy. Aristotle's theory of physical, moral, and political education (Nicomachean Ethics and Politics is founded upon the notion of the natural development of every being. In addition, Aristotle creates the concept of philosophical pedagogy. A philosophically educated person (ho pepaideumenos has the competence to treat problems emerging with the formation of particular sciences, and to reflect on the method of each scientific discipline. This philosophical culture is also connected with dialectic, rhetoric, and politics.  (2 Nietzsche's ideas on education and culture are presented in two of his early works: On the Future of Our Educational Institutions and We Philologists. In his criticism of the German education system of his time, he explains his basic historical assumption that the real homeland of education is the Hellenic world. A restructuring of the education system cannot be carried out without the Greek and Roman antiquity as the embodied categorical imperative of all culture. A general education which disregards antiquity is considered barbaric. However, Nietzsche's philosophy of education remains unfinished, giving no definite conclusions.  (3 Camus’ philosophy describes the modern West European culture as nihilistic. The essence of nihilism is a systematic ignorance of the limits of human nature, which can lead to historical crimes and to destroying the conditions for the human existence in the world. The formation of a world that will not be subdued by the

  9. Performance of Hybrids between Weedy Rice and Insect-resistant Transgenic Rice under Field Experiments: Implication for Environmental Biosafety Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-Jin Cao; Hui Xia; Xiao Yang; Bao-Rong Lu


    Transgene escape from genetically modified (GM) rice Into weedy rice via gene flow may cause undesired environmental consequences. Estimating the field performance of crop-weed hybrids will facilitate our understanding of potential introgression of crop genes (including transgenes) into weedy rice populations, allowing for effective biosafety assessment. Comparative studies of three weedy rice strains and their hybrids with two GM rice lines containing different insect-resistance transgenes (CpTl or BtlCpTI) indicated an enhanced relative performance of the crop-weed hybrids, with taller plants, more tillers, panicles, and spikelets per plant, as well as higher 1000-seed weight, compared with the weedy rice parents, although the hybrids produced less filled seeds per plant than their weedy parents. Seeds from the F1 hybrids had higher germination rates and produced more seedlings than the weedy parents, which correlated positively with 1000-seed weight. The crop-weed hybrids demonstrated a generally enhanced relative performance than their weedy rice parents in our field experiments. These findings indicate that transgenes from GM rice can persist to and introgress into weedy rice populations through recurrent crop-to-weed gene flow with the aid of slightly increased relative fitness in F1 hybrids.

  10. Genome-wide siRNA Screening at Biosafety Level 4 Reveals a Crucial Role for Fibrillarin in Henipavirus Infection (United States)

    Foo, Chwan Hong; Rootes, Christina L.; Gould, Cathryn M.; Grusovin, Julian; Monaghan, Paul; Lo, Michael K.; Tompkins, S. Mark; Adams, Timothy E.; Lowenthal, John W.; Simpson, Kaylene J.; Stewart, Cameron R.; Bean, Andrew G. D.; Wang, Lin-Fa


    Hendra and Nipah viruses (genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae) are highly pathogenic bat-borne viruses. The need for high biocontainment when studying henipaviruses has hindered the development of therapeutics and knowledge of the viral infection cycle. We have performed a genome-wide siRNA screen at biosafety level 4 that identified 585 human proteins required for henipavirus infection. The host protein with the largest impact was fibrillarin, a nucleolar methyltransferase that was also required by measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial viruses for infection. While not required for cell entry, henipavirus RNA and protein syntheses were greatly impaired in cells lacking fibrillarin, indicating a crucial role in the RNA replication phase of infection. During infection, the Hendra virus matrix protein co-localized with fibrillarin in cell nucleoli, and co-associated as a complex in pulldown studies, while its nuclear import was unaffected in fibrillarin-depleted cells. Mutagenesis studies showed that the methyltransferase activity of fibrillarin was required for henipavirus infection, suggesting that this enzyme could be targeted therapeutically to combat henipavirus infections. PMID:27010548

  11. Genome-wide siRNA Screening at Biosafety Level 4 Reveals a Crucial Role for Fibrillarin in Henipavirus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Deffrasnes


    Full Text Available Hendra and Nipah viruses (genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae are highly pathogenic bat-borne viruses. The need for high biocontainment when studying henipaviruses has hindered the development of therapeutics and knowledge of the viral infection cycle. We have performed a genome-wide siRNA screen at biosafety level 4 that identified 585 human proteins required for henipavirus infection. The host protein with the largest impact was fibrillarin, a nucleolar methyltransferase that was also required by measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial viruses for infection. While not required for cell entry, henipavirus RNA and protein syntheses were greatly impaired in cells lacking fibrillarin, indicating a crucial role in the RNA replication phase of infection. During infection, the Hendra virus matrix protein co-localized with fibrillarin in cell nucleoli, and co-associated as a complex in pulldown studies, while its nuclear import was unaffected in fibrillarin-depleted cells. Mutagenesis studies showed that the methyltransferase activity of fibrillarin was required for henipavirus infection, suggesting that this enzyme could be targeted therapeutically to combat henipavirus infections.

  12. "It's A Girl Thing!" Do Boys Engage in Relational Aggression? Exploration of Whether Strategies to Educate Young People about Relational Aggression Are Relevant for Boys (United States)

    James, Deborah; Lawlor, Maria; Murphy, Niamh; Flynn, Ann


    Relational aggression is often perceived as a female issue. Less is known about relational aggression in adolescent boys. This study examines whether the issues associated with relational aggression in girls are similar for boys to determine whether an intervention designed for girls would be relevant for boys. Focus group discussions illustrate…

  13. Teachers' Source Evaluation Self-Efficacy Predicts Their Use of Relevant Source Features When Evaluating the Trustworthiness of Web Sources on Special Education (United States)

    Andreassen, Rune; Bråten, Ivar


    Building on prior research and theory concerning source evaluation and the role of self-efficacy in the context of online learning, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about their capability to evaluate the trustworthiness of sources and their reliance on relevant source features when judging the trustworthiness…

  14. Strategies for biosafety and minimizing the risk of health problems in laboratories of a university center


    Kirchner, Rosane Maria; Loebens,Luíza; Scherer, Mônica Elisa; Ochôa, Priscila Ozelame; Chaves, Magda Antunes de; Silinske, Jaqueline; Soares, Adriana Ribas

    2013-01-01 project provided to study environmental risks triggering of aggravating health problems in Teaching and Research laboratories in a university center and to aware workers from these places in order to develop procedures to minimize the risk of personal accidents and environmental contamination. There were lectures, interviews, distribution of educational material and preparation of risk maps, which are displayed in each of the laboratories involved. ...

  15. Moving beyond a destructive past to a decolonised and inclusive future: The role of ubuntu-style education in providing culturally relevant pedagogy for Namibia (United States)

    Biraimah, Karen L.


    Namibia has one of the most dehumanising and destructive colonial pasts of any nation in Africa, or, for that matter, the world. Before colonisation, the area now known as Namibia was home to diverse cultural groups. The successive colonial regimes of Germany and South Africa inflicted genocide, brutality and apartheid on the region. Namibia finally fought for and won its independence in 1990 - over three decades after Ghana became the first independent sub-Saharan nation in 1957. Today, Namibia strives to leave behind its troubled past and harness the power of education to provide greater equality of opportunity and quality of life for all of its citizens. The concept of ubuntu, with its emphasis on inclusiveness, equity and equality, is central to Namibia's pursuit of this goal. Significant challenges stand in its way, including extreme poverty, an emerging economy struggling with drought and a competitive world market, and a populace with multiple mother tongues and cultural traditions. After a brief summary of Namibia's colonial past, this study examines these challenges, noting that the same factors that provide Namibia with a rich and diverse cultural tapestry also pose great difficulties for educators determined to provide equitable education for all. Current inequities in Namibian education are assessed, with a particular focus on the divide between urban and rural Namibia and between the four major ethnic and cultural groupings: the White Afrikaans speakers, the Black African majority, the Coloured population, and the Basters. The study concludes by suggesting multiple ways in which education could be brought closer into line with ubuntu values. The author argues that the very same factors that currently pose challenges to the quality and equity of Namibian education (ethnicity, urban/rural location, gender and socioeconomic class) might, if seen from a new perspective, become the basis for educational transformation.

  16. A Historical Analysis of Desegregation and Racism in a Racially Polarized Region: Implications for the Historical Construct, a Diversity Problem, and Transforming Teacher Education toward Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (United States)

    Hill, K. Dara


    This study chronicles the historical divisions of race and class between Detroit and its suburban neighbor as an explanation for current tensions in the communities and schools. This analysis poses implications for educational apartheid and stark disparities between urban and suburban boundaries and consequent discomfort among practitioners when…

  17. Decorative Integration or Relevant Learning? A Literature Review of Studio Arts-Based Management Education with Recommendations for Teaching and Research (United States)

    Katz-Buonincontro, Jen


    This review presents a synthesis of the state of arts-based management education scholarship, with teaching and research recommendations. To begin, the lack of creativity and empathy development in management students is presented. Next, literature-based descriptions of arts-based management exercises focus on how to use improvisational theatre,…

  18. Making the Connection: Moore's Theory of Transactional Distance and Its Relevance to the Use of a Virtual Classroom in Postgraduate Online Teacher Education (United States)

    Falloon, Garry


    This study explored the use of the Web-based virtual environment, Adobe Connect Pro, in a postgraduate online teacher education programme at the University of Waikato. It applied the tenets of Moore's Theory of Transactional Distance (Moore, 1997) in examining the efficacy of using the virtual classroom to promote quality dialogue and explored how…

  19. The influence of risk perception on biosafety level-2 laboratory workers' hand-to-face contact behaviors. (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Eggett, Dennis; Johnson, Michele J; Reading, James C


    Pathogen transmission in the laboratory is thought to occur primarily through inhalation of infectious aerosols or by direct contact with mucous membranes on the face. While significant research has focused on controlling inhalation exposures, little has been written about hand contamination and subsequent hand-to-face contact (HFC) transmission. HFC may present a significant risk to workers in biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratories where there is typically no barrier between the workers' hands and face. The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency and location of HFC among BSL-2 workers, and to identify psychosocial factors that influence the behavior. Research workers (N = 93) from 21 BSL-2 laboratories consented to participate in the study. Two study personnel measured workers' HFC behaviors by direct observation during activities related to cell culture maintenance, cell infection, virus harvesting, reagent and media preparation, and tissue processing. Following observations, a survey measuring 11 psychosocial predictors of HFC was administered to participants. Study personnel recorded 396 touches to the face over the course of the study (mean = 2.6 HFCs/hr). Of the 93 subjects, 67 (72%) touched their face at least once, ranging from 0.2-16.0 HFCs/hr. Among those who touched their face, contact with the nose was most common (44.9%), followed by contact with the forehead (36.9%), cheek/chin (12.5%), mouth (4.0%), and eye (1.7%). HFC rates were significantly different across laboratories F(20, 72) = 1.85, p = 0.03. Perceived severity of infection predicted lower rates of HFC (p = 0.03). For every one-point increase in the severity scale, workers had 0.41 fewer HFCs/hr (r = -.27, P protection should be considered as part of the BSL-2 PPE ensemble to prevent HFC.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, R; O' brien, J; Owens, T; Salvo, V; Sassone, D; Tuholski, S J; Tsan, S


    A Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Management Pre-Start Review (MPR) Team was formed to independently verify the operational readiness of Building 368 (B368) Biosafety Level III (BSL-3) Facility to conduct research with biological pathogens and toxins including those considered Select Agents. Review objectives and criteria were developed from the DOE/NNSA and LLNL requirements. These were provided in the Implementation Plan for the Biosafety Level III (BSL-3) Facility Management Pre-Start Review (BSL-3 MPR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that was reviewed and approved by DOE/NNSA-LSO. The formal part of the LLNL MPR for the BSL-3 Facility was begun in August of 2005 but work on the MPR was stopped in October of 2005 due to the need for LLNL to reassess organizational and operational controls and respond to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention inquiries related to a shipping incident involving select agents. The MPR was restarted in mid-June of 2006. Preliminary facility tours and familiarization with project documents took place in June of 2005. The Independent Management Review Team consists of seven members led by a Team Leader with expertise in management, operations, and safety basis experience with biosafety laboratories. Other team members have expertise in electrical engineering, security, environmental/waste management/regulatory compliance, biosafety/industrial hygiene/medical, structural engineering, and mechanical engineering. The MPR Team reviewed various documents, including authorization basis, safety, emergency preparedness, and various operations, configuration, and management plans. They also reviewed building plans, equipment repair/maintenance documents, training records, and many standard operating procedures. The MPR resulted in three Pre-Start Findings, one Post-Start/Critical Finding, and four observations which are shown on Tables 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Based upon this review the Team feels that the B368

  1. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper


    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared......What if Information Retrieval (IR) systems did not just retrieve relevant information that is stored in their indices, but could also "understand" it and synthesise it into a single document? We present a preliminary study that makes a first step towards answering this question. Given a query, we...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  2. Dialogue on sustainable development as part of engineering education: the relevance of the Finnish case : commentary on "a national collaboration process: Finnish engineering education for the benefit of people and environment". (United States)

    Geerts, Robert


    Society invests in the education of engineers because it is expected that the works of engineers will bring good results for society. Because the work of engineers is not value free or neutral, it is important that engineers are educated in the important principles of the social sciences and humanities. This education is essential for the awareness and understanding of what is good for society. Therefore the concept of sustainable development should be part of an education in engineering but only when the social sciences are also a part of it.

  3. Fuzziness and Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grace Qiao Zhang


    This paper investigates how the phenomenon of fuzzy language, such as `many' in `Mary has many friends', can be explained by Relevance Theory. It is concluded that fuzzy language use conforms with optimal relevance in that it can achieve the greatest positive effect with the least processing effort. It is the communicators themselves who decide whether or not optimal relevance is achieved, rather than the language form (fuzzy or non-fuzzy) used. People can skillfully adjust the deployment of different language forms or choose appropriate interpretations to suit different situations and communication needs. However, there are two challenges to RT: a. to extend its theory from individual relevance to group relevance; b. to embrace cultural considerations (because when relevance principles and cultural protocols are in conflict, the latter tends to prevail).

  4. Perceptions of document relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eBruza


    Full Text Available This article presents a study of how humans perceive the relevance of documents.Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc., however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact.We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine.The order of the judgement was controlled.For those judgements exhibiting an order effect, a q-test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives.Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance.

  5. Relevance Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Jun; Jiang Min


    In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

  6. Making Science Relevant (United States)

    Eick, Charles; Deutsch, Bill; Fuller, Jennifer; Scott, Fletcher


    Science teachers are always looking for ways to demonstrate the relevance of science to students. By connecting science learning to important societal issues, teachers can motivate students to both enjoy and engage in relevant science (Bennet, Lubben, and Hogarth 2007). To develop that connection, teachers can help students take an active role in…

  7. A estruturação do Programa de Capacitação Profissional de Biossegurança no contexto do Projeto de Modernização da Gestão Científica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Development of a Biosafety Training Program aligned with the Scientific Management Modernization Project of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eveline de Castro Pereira


    Scientific Management Modernization Project of IOC. The program, including the "Biosafety Course in Biomedical Research Laboratory", was structured according to the planning-development-evaluation cycle. Initially, for the diagnosis cycle, the IOC laboratories representatives answered a questionnaire that showed that both professional categories (middle and higher levels were interested in participating in BTP and mentioned, as preferential themes, biosafety and good laboratory practices. In the planning phase it was defined that BTP would be divided into two projects (Good Laboratory Practices in Public Health for middle level professionals and Biosafety Course in Biomedical Research Laboratories for higher level professionals. During the development phase of the Biosafety Course, the following modules were chosen: introduction, chemical, physical and biological risks, quality management and animal experimentation. Thus, in the period from 2006 to 2008, 315 professionals were trained and the respective evaluations were performed according to David Kirkpatrick's model. The first level of evaluation, called reaction, showed that 54.03% of the professionals said that the course was excellent, 39.59% classified the course as good and 6.38% as regular or did not express any opinion. For learning evaluation, pre and post-tests were carried out in each module. All the modules showed an increase in the grades of the post-test when compared to the pre-test. The results pointed to strategies that should be followed in order to improve this biosafety continuing education model.

  8. Criticisms of Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚静; 孟晔; 焦丽芳


    This paper briefly introduces first the notion of Sperber and Wilson's Relevance Theory. Then, the motivation of S & W putting forward their RT is also mentioned. Secondly, the paper gives some details about the methodology of RT, in which ostensive-inferential communication, context and optimal relevance are highlighted. Thirdly, the paper focuses on the criticisms of RT from different areas of research on human language and communication. Finally, the paper draws a conclusion on the great importance of RT in pragmatics.

  9. 合成生物学生物安全风险评价与管理%Assessment and management of biosafety in synthetic biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关正君; 裴蕾; 马库斯·施密特; 魏伟


    While having developed into one of the most dynamic fields of the life sciences, synthetic biology may pose potential risks to the environment and human health. Based on current national and international risk assessment methods and current regulation of synthetic biology, we reviewed risk assessment in relation to synthetic biology's research subfields (such as DNA-based biocircuits, minimal genome, protocells and chemical synthetic biology), its relation with biosafety engineering, its effect on ELSI (Ethics, Legal and Social Implications) and recent biosecurity challenges, such as biopunk (or biohackery), garage biology, do-it-yourself biology and bioterrorism. Additionally, we investigated existing strategies for management of synthetic biology research, focusing on self-regulatory or technology-focused methods and using the 5P (the principal investigator, the project, the premises, the provider of genetic material and its purchaser) strategy focusing in five different policy intervention points. Furthermore, we reviewed the current research and development of synthetic biology and its current biosafety regulations in China. Finally, we recommended management strategies to guide future research in synthetic biology with necessary amendments, including the establishment of regulations with a core of safety assessment, synthetic biology-specific good laboratory practice guidelines, and arguments for the reinforcement of internal regulation at the institution level and more active public outreach efforts for biosafety.%合成生物学(synthetic biology)已迅速发展为生命科学最具发展潜力的分支学科之一,但它同时也会给生态环境和人类健康带来潜在的风险.结合国内外合成生物学发展现状,本文综述了基因回路(DNA-based biocircuits)、最小基因组(minimal genome)、原型细胞(protocells)、化学合成生物学(chemical synthetic biology)等涉及的风险评价、合成生物学与生物安全工程(biosafety

  10. Use of the Filter-Sandwich carriers in continuous effectiveness monitoring of slurry treatment methods as an element improving biosafety in agriculture. (United States)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Piotr; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga; Bauza-Kaszewska, Justyna


    Slurry, due to high microbiological contamination, requires hygienization before spreading. The agricultural usage of treated slurry has to guarantee biosafety. Therefore, constant monitoring of the slurry treatment process should be conducted. The use of Filter-Sandwich carriers seems to be a prospective solution. The aim of the research was to test whether Filter-Sandwich carriers influence the survivability of microorganisms during the slurry hygienization process and hence, whether they are safe for the environment. Raw cattle and swine slurry with different dry matter content was the research material. Salmonella Senftenberg W775 rods were introduced directly into the slurry and into the carriers placed in the liquid excrements stored at 4 and 20ºC, and underwent anaerobic digestion at 35ºC. The number of tested bacteria obtained from the slurry and carriers was determined using the MPN method with proper microbiological media. The values of physicochemical parameters of the raw and treated slurry were determined, both for the carriers and for slurry only. Biosafety control was also conducted for the carriers in slurry containers. The differences in the theoretical survivability between Salmonella Senftenberg W775 re-isolated from the slurry and the carriers, and in the values of the selected physicochemical parameters obtained at the end of the process, were not statistically significant. The re-contamination of the sterile slurry caused by the bacteria in the carrier was not observed after placement of the carrier with inoculated material. The conducted research proves the usefulness of Filter-Sandwich carriers for continuous hygienization monitoring of the slurry treatment process. This refers not only to the semi-technical scale, but also to the full-scale process.

  11. The Limits to Relevance (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.


    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  12. How much GK is in the NKLM? A comparison between the catalogues of exam-relevant topics (GK and the German National Competence-based Learning Objectives Catalogue for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritze, Olaf


    Full Text Available Background: The German National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM being adopted in 2015 is designed to contribute to improve the quality of teaching and learning in medicine with respect to competence orientation. For departments, the coherence between teaching, assessment and the content of the catalogues of exam-relevant topics (GK is a crucial factor. Before making use of the NKLM seriously in curricular development, many faculties demand more transparency regarding the representation in the NKLM of GK topics and in what aspects the NKLM exceeds the GK. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assign the NKLM competencies and objectives to the systematic GK terms, to reveal gaps in their congruence and to determine the percentage of agreement between GK and NKLM. Additionally, the distribution among the NKLM chapters (chap., of GK content and further competencies relevant for medical practice were analysed. Methods: The textual comparison of GK and NKLM was done by advanced students that were familiar with the NKLM from previous analyses. The comparison was done independently (keyword search, face validity, afterwards consented and matched with independent ratings of GK-2 and chapter 21 done by experts as well as with cross-references to the GK indicated in chapter 12, 13 and 15 of the NKLM. Detailed data is available online: . Results: The degree of correspondence of the GK’s six preclinical parts with the NKLM ranges between 94% and 98%, with the clinical GK the degree of correspondence ranging between 84% and 88%. This demonstrates a consistently very high congruence of content. Only 6-16% of the content per GK part could not be assigned to NKLM equivalents. Regarding the distribution of GK content among NKLM chapters, the chapters with classic medical expertise (chapters 12, 13, 16, 17 as well as 20 and 21 show the highest correspondences. Practical medical skills (chapter 14b can be found in

  13. How much GK is in the NKLM? A comparison between the catalogues of exam-relevant topics (GK) and the German National Competence-based Learning Objectives Catalogue for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM). (United States)

    Fritze, Olaf; Griewatz, Jan; Narciß, Elisabeth; Shiozawa, Thomas; Wosnik, Annette; Zipfel, Stephan; Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria


    Background: The German National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) being adopted in 2015 is designed to contribute to improve the quality of teaching and learning in medicine with respect to competence orientation. For departments, the coherence between teaching, assessment and the content of the catalogues of exam-relevant topics (GK) is a crucial factor. Before making use of the NKLM seriously in curricular development, many faculties demand more transparency regarding the representation in the NKLM of GK topics and in what aspects the NKLM exceeds the GK. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assign the NKLM competencies and objectives to the systematic GK terms, to reveal gaps in their congruence and to determine the percentage of agreement between GK and NKLM. Additionally, the distribution among the NKLM chapters (chap.), of GK content and further competencies relevant for medical practice were analysed. Methods: The textual comparison of GK and NKLM was done by advanced students that were familiar with the NKLM from previous analyses. The comparison was done independently (keyword search, face validity), afterwards consented and matched with independent ratings of GK-2 and chapter 21 done by experts as well as with cross-references to the GK indicated in chapter 12, 13 and 15 of the NKLM. Detailed data is available online: Results: The degree of correspondence of the GK's six preclinical parts with the NKLM ranges between 94% and 98%, with the clinical GK the degree of correspondence ranging between 84% and 88%. This demonstrates a consistently very high congruence of content. Only 6-16% of the content per GK part could not be assigned to NKLM equivalents. Regarding the distribution of GK content among NKLM chapters, the chapters with classic medical expertise (chapters 12, 13, 16, 17 as well as 20 and 21) show the highest correspondences. Practical medical skills (chapter

  14. How much GK is in the NKLM? A comparison between the catalogues of exam-relevant topics (GK) and the German National Competence-based Learning Objectives Catalogue for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) (United States)

    Fritze, Olaf; Griewatz, Jan; Narciß, Elisabeth; Shiozawa, Thomas; Wosnik, Annette; Zipfel, Stephan; Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria


    Background: The German National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) being adopted in 2015 is designed to contribute to improve the quality of teaching and learning in medicine with respect to competence orientation. For departments, the coherence between teaching, assessment and the content of the catalogues of exam-relevant topics (GK) is a crucial factor. Before making use of the NKLM seriously in curricular development, many faculties demand more transparency regarding the representation in the NKLM of GK topics and in what aspects the NKLM exceeds the GK. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assign the NKLM competencies and objectives to the systematic GK terms, to reveal gaps in their congruence and to determine the percentage of agreement between GK and NKLM. Additionally, the distribution among the NKLM chapters (chap.), of GK content and further competencies relevant for medical practice were analysed. Methods: The textual comparison of GK and NKLM was done by advanced students that were familiar with the NKLM from previous analyses. The comparison was done independently (keyword search, face validity), afterwards consented and matched with independent ratings of GK-2 and chapter 21 done by experts as well as with cross-references to the GK indicated in chapter 12, 13 and 15 of the NKLM. Detailed data is available online: Results: The degree of correspondence of the GK’s six preclinical parts with the NKLM ranges between 94% and 98%, with the clinical GK the degree of correspondence ranging between 84% and 88%. This demonstrates a consistently very high congruence of content. Only 6-16% of the content per GK part could not be assigned to NKLM equivalents. Regarding the distribution of GK content among NKLM chapters, the chapters with classic medical expertise (chapters 12, 13, 16, 17 as well as 20 and 21) show the highest correspondences. Practical medical skills

  15. Is Information Still Relevant? (United States)

    Ma, Lia


    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  16. The Relevance of Literature. (United States)

    Dunham, L. L.


    The "legacy" of the humanities is discussed in terms of relevance, involvement, and other philosophical considerations. Reasons for studying foreign literature in language classes are developed in the article. Comment is also made on attitudes and ideas culled from the writings of Clifton Fadiman, Jean Paul Sartre, and James Baldwin. (RL)

  17. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan;


    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace c...

  18. Informational Competence: A Relevant Conception to Take into Consideration in Higher Education La competencia informacional: concepción relevante a considerar en la Educación Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Molina Gómez


    Full Text Available Competence is today a relevant conception to take into consideration. It implies more integration between strategy, study system, work and organizational culture, along with information management and knowledge. It offers potential to people and their development. The management of roles by competences is focused in development; it looks for what people are capable of doing in the future. Present day scenarios demand for a new educative arquitecture following learning for life, what implies: teaching to learn and, overall, to use information in an adequate manner. In this work we lay stress on the topic as an essential element to consider in Higher Medical Education, given the constant changes in medicine and the need for knowledge and skills for an adequate practice.
    La competencia informacional es hoy una concepción relevante a considerar; implica mayor integración entre estrategia, sistema de estudio, trabajo y cultura organizacional; junto al manejo de la información y el conocimiento proporciona potencialidad en las personas y su desarrollo. La gestión del desempeño por competencias se enfoca en esencia hacia el desarrollo, busca lo que las personas sean capaces de hacer en el futuro. Los escenarios actuales demandan una nueva arquitectura educativa que apunte al aprendizaje de por vida, lo que implica: enseñar a aprender y sobre todo utilizar adecuadamente la información. En este trabajo se enfatiza en el tema como elemento indispensable a considerar en la Educación Médica Superior, dado a los cambios constantes de la medicina y la necesidad de conocimientos y habilidades para una adecuada práctica.

  19. Education (United States)


    method for the delivery of educational services. Social Support Parental involvement in the education process is critical for improving...student performance as parental involvement in their children’s education.” 28

  20. Korrek, volledig, relevant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus


    as detrimental to the status of a dictionary as a container of linguistic knowledge. This paper shows that, from a lexicographic perspective, such a distinction is not relevant. What is important is that definitions should contain information that is relevant to and needed by the target users of that specific......In explanatory dictionaries, both general language dictionaries and dictionaries dealing with languages for special purposes, the lexicographic definition is an important item to present the meaning of a given lemma. Due to a strong linguistic bias, resulting from an approach prevalent in the early...... phases of the development of theoretical lexicography, a distinction is often made between encyclopaedic information and semantic information in dictionary definitions, and dictionaries had often been criticized when their definitions were dominated by an encyclopaedic approach. This used to be seen...

  1. Information Needs/Relevance


    Wildemuth, Barbara M.


    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  2. Triangulated IEP Transition Goals: Developing Relevant and Genuine Annual Goals (United States)

    Peterson, Lori Y.; Burden, Jon Paul; Sedaghat, Jennifer M.; Gothberg, June E.; Kohler, Paula D.; Coyle, Jennifer L.


    Special education professionals are charged to develop relevant, compliant, and legally defensible IEPs for transition-age students with disabilities. This charge is intensified as educators strive to provide plans that will genuinely prepare students for postsecondary education, employment, and independent living. This manuscript demonstrates how…

  3. 糖尿病建档教育管理模式的运用分析%Analysis on applying model of educating diabetics in health knowledge and filinging relevant data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小兰; 赵锡丽; 徐蔚蔚; 张丽; 蒋国萍


    目的:探讨糖尿病建档教育管理模式对糖尿病患者的运用效果。方法将该院收治的1000例2型糖尿病患者随机分为实验组和对照组。两组患者均行健康教育,实验组在此基础上给以建档教育。对两组患者教育前和教育后1、3、6个月均进行遵医行为、一般代谢指标以及并发症发生情况比较。结果实验组患者在接受建档教育后一般代谢指标均优于对照组(P<0.05);患者在接受建档教育后遵医行为明显改善(P<0.05);随访中实验组患者出现并发症的例数明显低于对照组(P<0.05);两组患者教育后1、6个月生活质量均显著提高,实验组提高更为明显( P<0.05);教育后6个月实验组满意度为91.6%(458/500),对照组为68.2%(341/500),实验组满意度显著高于对照组( P<0.05)。结论对2型糖尿病患者实施建档教育管理模式,有助于改善患者代谢水平,降低并发症的发生,改善患者预后。%Objective To explore the effect of applying the management model of educating diabetics in health knowledge and filinging relevant data .Methods 1 000 patients with type 2 diabetes in hospital were randomly assigned into the experimental group and the control group ,and all of them received health education .In addition ,relevant data were filed in the experimental group ,then the compliance behavior ,general metabolic indicators and occurrences of complications were compared before and after the education in 1 ,3 and 6 months between these two groups .Results The general metabolic indicators in experimental group were better than the control group(P<0 .05);and the compliance behavior of the experimental group patients were improved obviously (P<0 .05);and the cases of the patients with complications from random visit were also obviously lower in the experimental group (P<0 .05) . After 1 month or 6 months ,the two groups of patients

  4. Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, H.; Crul, M.; Crul, M.; Heering, L.


    Education is of crucial importance in the lives of young adults. Attending school is not only a major part of everyday life, but education is a decisive factor for the future. In literature, educational attainment has been tied to a host of outcomes in adult life. Education is perceived as the key f

  5. 汽化过氧化氢灭菌器及其在生物安全实验室的应用%Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilizer and Applications in Biosafety Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓓; 赵四清


    汽化过氧化氢生物消毒技术在很多科学研究机构和行业中得到认可。本文详细介绍了汽化过氧化氢灭菌器的工作原理,综述了两种灭菌器的差异,根据生物安全实验室的消毒需要,分析了灭菌器在生物安全实验室的应用情况。%Vapor hydrogen peroxide disinfection technology was accredited in many science design agencies and fields.Operational principle of vapor hydrogen peroxide sterilizer was introduced.Dif erences between two kinds of sterilizers were summarized.According to the disinfection demands of biosafety laboratory,applications of the vapor hydrogen peroxide sterilizer in biosafety laboratory were analyzed.

  6. 高等级生物安全实验室隔离系统的建立%Construction of Isolate System in High-level Biosafety Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘欣; 陈龙; 张彦国; 李屹; 龙明; 陈晓; 梁灏; 曾光辉; 蔡家麟; 吴鉴今


    Objective To establish an isolate system in high-level biosafety laboratory. Methods The isolate system, including its related transfer chain and disinfection chain, was designed and realized according to the experimental process for detection and identification high-risk pathogen in high-level biosafety laboratory. Results The technology performance parameters of isolator system were empirical analyzed. The double port transfer exchange system was used to transfer experimental materials, laboratory animals in containment micro environment among different types of isolators without any leaking. The open-front negative pressure cabinet was used as transfer station to master the materials flow safety among the isolators and other related security equipments. Peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide were applied in different sterilizers to decontaminate the different types of isolators and maintain the performance of equipments internal isolator. The successful technology system provided pathogen morphological assay, immunofluorescent microscopy assay, laboratory animal breeding and immunity and challenge and toxicity assay for rapid detection and identification of pathogens from the sample lethal infection, pathogenicity, biological characteristics of isolated pathogen. Conclusion The isolate system offers the best contaminating security and efficient detection in high-level biosafety laboratory. It is a safety protection hardware support system for infected animalexperiments.%目的:建立高等级生物安全实验室隔离体系.方法:根据高等级生物安全实验室承担的高危病原体侦检工作的实际实验流程设计并实现整个隔离系统及其相关的传递链、消毒链.结果:建立并实现了隔离器技术性能指标,利用双门转移切换装置实现了不同类型隔离器之间物品的无泄露传递链,通过负压排风橱,实现了隔离器与其他生物安全功能设备之间物品的中转传递.利用过氧乙酸、过氧

  7. Ignorance, Environmental Education Research and Design Education (United States)

    Barron, Deirdre; Jackson, Simon; Anderson, Lyndon


    In the relatively new discipline of design education we have the opportunity to frame the way that design education is formulated. The relative lack of theorists in the field of design education studies leaves unquestioned the relevance of conventional practices of design education that are premised on only tangentially relevant Art, Science and…

  8. Agar Plates Made from Common Supermarket Substances and Bacillus subtilis Natto as an Inexpensive Approach to Microbiology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz-Josef Scharfenberg


    Full Text Available To address the possible limitations that financial restrictions may have on students’ independent experimentation at school, we developed and implemented an inexpensive approach for basic microbiology education. We describe four nutrient agars consisting only of everyday substances available from the supermarket or online that we developed to replace standard agars and specific agars. Additionally, we selected Bacillus subtilis natto as an example of a pure-culture species. Our tip first reports the four supermarket-substance agar variants; second, it suggests utilizing them to introduce basic microbiological techniques; and third, it introduces B. subtilis natto in the context of the antibacterial effects of antibiotics as well as of supermarket products which students can bring to class from home. We implemented our approach in microbiology education at school as well as in pre-service teacher education and in in-service teacher professional development courses at our university. Finally, our paper provides worksheets for all the experiments. Editor's Note:The ASM advocates that students must successfully demonstrate the ability to explain and practice safe laboratory techniques. For more information, read the laboratory safety section of the ASM Curriculum Recommendations: Introductory Course in Microbiology and the Guidelines for Biosafety in Teaching Laboratories, available at The Editors of JMBE recommend that adopters of the protocols included in this article follow a minimum of Biosafety Level 1 practices. If the soil plates described in the activity are opened, a minimum of Biosafety Level 2 is required.

  9. Chronobiology: relevance for tuberculosis. (United States)

    Santos, Lígia Gabrielle; Pires, Gabriel Natan; Azeredo Bittencourt, Lia Rita; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy


    Despite the knowledge concerning the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, this disease remains one of the most important causes of mortality worldwide. Several risk factors are well-known, such poverty, HIV infection, and poor nutrition, among others. However, some issues that may influence tuberculosis warrant further investigation. In particular, the chronobiological aspects related to tuberculosis have garnered limited attention. In general, the interface between tuberculosis and chronobiology is manifested in four ways: variations in vitamin D bioavailability, winter conditions, associated infections, and circannual oscillations of lymphocytes activity. Moreover, tuberculosis is related to the following chronobiological factors: seasonality, latitude, photoperiod and radiation. Despite the relevance of these topics, the relationship between them has been weakly reviewed. This review aims to synthesize the studies regarding the association between tuberculosis and chronobiology, as well as urge critical discussion and highlight its applicability to health policies for tuberculosis.

  10. 转基因作物安全研究进展及南繁转基因生物安全管理对策%Advances and Mana gement of Crop Winter Multiplication on Biosafety of Genetically Modified Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丰; 孔祥义; 袁经天; 李劲松; 郭安平


    Advances on biosafety were introduced from biodiversity, ecosystem and safety of human beings and livestock. The principles and methods of biosafety assessment of genetically modified crops were introduced. Regulation for safety management of genetically modified crops in china were aslo introduced. It showed that genetically modified crops had potential biosafety risks. Biosafety management system of genetically modified crops is constructing all over the world. Environmental security was analyzed in crop winter multiplication of genetically modified crops. The areas which planted winter multiplication of genetically modified crops may have the potential risks as a dye vat. Some suggestions to prevent diffusion in gene drift in areas which planted winter multiplication of genetically modified crops were presented as sone references. It is very essential to construct biosafety management System from which legislation, plant quarantine, Infrastructure and scientific research on crop winter multiplication of genetically modified crops.%本文从生物多样性、生态系统和人畜安全三方面概述了转基因作物生物安全研究进展,并介绍了全世界转基因生物安全评价原则与方法和我国转基因作物安全管理法规.表明转基因作物存在潜在的生物安全风险,全世界正在积极构建转基因生物安全管理体系.通过对我国南繁转基因环境安全问题和情况进行分析,认为南繁地区有成为染缸的潜在威胁.为保护南繁地区的生态环境和生物安全,防止南繁特定地区转基因作物基因漂移扩散提出了一些建议.从立法、检疫、南繁基础设施建设、科研等方面构建南繁转基因生物安全管理体系是十分必要的.

  11. Disabled People as Culturally Relevant Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Pritchard


    Full Text Available This paper contends that disabled teachers are in such short supply as to be invisible even amongst minority teachers from already vastly marginalised populations. This is not simply because discriminatory practices are embedded within employment policies of educational systems, but deeply held socio-cultural attitudes also prevent disabled people accessing and attaining basic and later, higher levels of academic achievement. The central argument here is a simple one; disabled people as teachers offer a unique knowledge standpoint, challenge the animosity of dominant cultural beliefs around disability as analogous with passivity or non-achieving, and provide a source of resistance, solace and resolution for students they teach. Disabled people as educators enact exemplary pedagogic justice and socially inclusive practice. The aim of this paper is to explore the benefits to students and places of higher education alike of embracing both the person and the role of the teacher with disability as culturally relevant educators. Keywords: minority teachers, marginality, disability, cultural relevance, higher education

  12. Screening the bio-safety of wheat produced from pretreated grains to enhance tolerance against drought using physiological and spectroscopic methods. (United States)

    Abdelkader, Amal Fadl; Hassanein, Raifa Ahmed; Abo-Aly, Mohamed Mahmoud; Attia, Mohamed Said; Bakir, Esam Mohamed


    Drought is a serious abiotic stress, causes worldwide intensive reduction in crop growth and productivity. Plants in contrast to other organisms, do not enjoy the luxury of being able to change their environment or seeking shelters. In this investigation, wheat grains were pre-soaked for 12h in salicylic acid (SA) and/or thiourea (ThU) prior they were left to grow in dry land (40% field water capacity) until harvest. The bio-safety of the harvested wheat was deduced using technical physiological and spectral methods. The pretreatment using SA up to ( approximately 1.5mmol) viewed homologous protein profile and less flag leaf proline in comparison to the non-stressed wheat. In addition, SA-pretreatment has maintained 70% of the emission intensity of yielded grain. The spectra of FTIR were more or less similar in yielded grain and flag leaf in SA-pretreatment. On the other hand, ThU pretreatment induced varied protein profile, higher proline than normal, reduced the fluorescence emission intensity by 52%, and induced varied FTIR spectra. Pretreatment of SA not only has enhanced wheat productivity but also increased yield and straw productions even above the non-treated-non-stressed wheat plant. In contrast to ThU SA was considered safe for drought-stress alleviation in crop plant agriculture.

  13. Teaching experimental animal biosafety management practice and exploration%教学实验用动物生物安全管理的实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠参军; 查光明; 吴文峰; 焦显芹; 杨国宇


    In college teaching animal experiments there is the danger of biosafety, which must be prevented from the following three aspects of the teaching experiment: in accordance with the animal management procedures of"looking, touching, examining,isolating, protecting raising and using" to provide safe learning experiments with animals; focus on laboratory disinfection and sterilization; to strengthen the security of the laboratory. The implementation of the protection measures can ensure the safety of the university teaching animal studies lesson.%高校教学用动物实验存在着生物安全的危险,必须从3个教学实验环节加以防范.一是按照“一看、二摸、三查、四隔、五防、六养、七用”的动物管理程序提供安全的教学实验用动物;二是注重实验室消毒与灭菌;三是加强实验室的安全防护.推行“三防四制”防护措施,以确保高校教学用动物实验课的安全.

  14. Implementation of a personnel reliability program as a facilitator of biosafety and biosecurity culture in BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories. (United States)

    Higgins, Jacki J; Weaver, Patrick; Fitch, J Patrick; Johnson, Barbara; Pearl, R Marene


    In late 2010, the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) implemented a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) with the goal of enabling active participation by its staff to drive and improve the biosafety and biosecurity culture at the organization. A philosophical keystone for accomplishment of NBACC's scientific mission is simultaneous excellence in operations and outreach. Its personnel reliability program builds on this approach to: (1) enable and support a culture of responsibility based on human performance principles, (2) maintain compliance with regulations, and (3) address the risk associated with the insider threat. Recently, the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) governing use and possession of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) was amended to require a pre-access suitability assessment and ongoing evaluation for staff accessing Tier 1 BSAT. These 2 new requirements are in addition to the already required Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Security Risk Assessment (SRA). Two years prior to the release of these guidelines, NBACC developed its PRP to supplement the SRA requirement as a means to empower personnel and foster an operational environment where any and all work with BSAT is conducted in a safe, secure, and reliable manner.

  15. Preparing a community hospital to manage work-related exposures to infectious agents in BioSafety level 3 and 4 laboratories. (United States)

    Risi, George F; Bloom, Marshall E; Hoe, Nancy P; Arminio, Thomas; Carlson, Paul; Powers, Tamara; Feldmann, Heinz; Wilson, Deborah


    Construction of new BioSafety Level (BSL) 3 and 4 laboratories has raised concerns regarding provision of care to exposed workers because of healthcare worker (HCW) unfamiliarity with precautions required. When the National Institutes of Health began construction of a new BSL-4 laboratory in Hamilton, Montana, USA, in 2005, they contracted with St. Patrick Hospital in Missoula, Montana, for care of those exposed. A care and isolation unit is described. We developed a training program for HCWs that emphasized the optimal use of barrier precautions and used pathogen-specific modules and simulations with mannequins and fluorescent liquids that represented infectious body fluids. The facility and training led to increased willingness among HCWs to care for patients with all types of communicable diseases. This model may be useful for other hospitals, whether they support a BSL-4 facility, are in the proximity of a BSL-3 facility, or are interested in upgrading their facilities to prepare for exotic and novel infectious diseases.

  16. Rethinking "relevance": South African psychology in context. (United States)

    Long, Wahbie


    This article examines the phenomenon known as the "relevance debate" in South African psychology. It begins with a historical overview of the contours of the discipline in that country before describing the controversy's international dimensions, namely, the revolutionary politics of 1960s higher education and the subsequent emergence of cognate versions of the debate in American, European, and "Third World" psychology. The article then details how South Africa's "relevance" project enjoyed a special affinity with an assortment of ethnic-cultural, national, and continental myths and metaphors, all of which served the interests of the political formations of the day. It discusses how, in present-day South Africa, the intelligentsia has become an important catalyst for the so-called African Renaissance, which seeks to provide "relevant" solutions for the regeneration of African society. However, the global hegemony of what began in the 1970s as a "second academic revolution," aided by the lifting of the academic boycott of South Africa, has blunted the once critical edge of "relevance" discourse. A new mode of knowledge production now holds sway, the outcome of a dramatic reformulation of the capitalist manifesto in which the values of the "May 68" generation have been hijacked by a managerialist rationality. In light of the capitalization of the knowledge-production enterprise, it is concluded that the idiom of "relevance" has outlived its usefulness.

  17. Education (United States)


    Master Plan for California Public Education, March 2000, 1; available at < masterplan / access.html>. 43 Ravitch, Left Back, 19. 44...Access and Equity for All Students.” A Master Plan for California Public Education, March 2000. Available at < masterplan

  18. Examining Different Regions of Relevance: From Highly Relevant to Not Relevant. (United States)

    Spink, Amanda; Greisdorf, Howard; Bateman, Judy


    Proposes a useful concept of relevance as a relationship and an effect on the movement of a user through the iterative stages of their information seeking process, and that users' relevance judgments can be plotted on a Three-Dimensional Spatial Model of Relevance Level, Degree and Time. Discusses implications for the development of information…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帖金凤; 张文福; 王长德; 陈金龙; 王贵杰; 刘心刚; 张学文; 武雪冰; 蒋莉; 杨楚威


    目的 观察过氧化氢蒸汽对生物安全实验室内表面、台面以及室内空气的灭菌效果.方法 采用载体定性杀菌试验法,观察不同过氧化氢蒸汽发生剂量、作用时间、应用空间的灭菌效果.结果 用BIOQUELL灭菌器将含量为346.5 g/L的过氧化氢溶液按12 ml/m3用量进行汽化熏蒸处理,作用60 min,对室内不同位置表面放置的染菌布片上的枯草杆菌黑色变种芽孢均可达到完全杀灭.结论 过氧化氢蒸汽对生物安全实验室表面熏蒸可以将污染在载体上的细菌芽孢达到完全杀灭.%Objective To observe the sterilization efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapor on hard surface and air in biosafety laboratory. Methods Spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger was used as indicating microorganism, and the sterilization efficacy was observed in different hydrogen peroxide dosage, killing time, and space by carrier quality biocide test. Results BIOQUELL sterilizer continuously sprayed 346.5 g/L hydrogen peroxide vapor by 12 ml/m3 for 60 min, all of the carrier with B. subtilis var. niger spores which were put at different positions in the biosafety laboratory were killed completely. Conclusion Hydrogen peroxide vapor has very good sterilization efficacy on the biosafety laboratory.

  20. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.


    matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...... relevant, and not-relevant judgments, and that most criteria can have either a positive or negative contribution to the relevance of a document. The criteria most frequently mentioned by study participants were content, followed by criteria characterizing the full text document. These findings may have...... implications for relevance feedback in information retrieval systems, suggesting that systems accept and utilize multiple positive and negative relevance criteria from users. Systems designers may want to focus on supporting content criteria followed by full text criteria as these may provide the greatest cost...

  1. Relevance-driven Pragmatic Inferences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Relevance theory, an inferential approach to pragmatics, claims that the hearer is expected to pick out the input of op-timal relevance from a mass of alternative inputs produced by the speaker in order to interpret the speaker ’s intentions. The de-gree of the relevance of an input can be assessed in terms of cognitive effects and the processing effort. The input of optimal rele-vance is the one yielding the greatest positive cognitive effect and requiring the least processing effort. This paper attempts to as-sess the degrees of the relevance of a mass of alternative inputs produced by an imaginary speaker from the perspective of her cor-responding hearer in terms of cognitive effects and the processing effort with a view to justifying the feasibility of the principle of relevance in pragmatic inferences.

  2. The CanMEDS framework: Relevant but not quite the whole story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, N. van der; Fokkema, J.P.; Westerman, M.; Driessen, E.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Scheele, F.


    Background: Despite acknowledgement that the Canadian Medical Educational Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) framework covers the relevant competencies of physicians, many educators and medical professionals struggle to translate the CanMEDS roles into comprehensive training programmes for specifi


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Basora Gómez


    Full Text Available Higher education has become the resource that fundamentally changes the structure of society, creates a new dynamic social, economic, political and forces us to create a new education according to the needs and social demands. The change in the institutions of higher education cannot be made exclusively from understanding their inner nature, today as never think about transforming the mission of universities requires the understanding that such changes are conceived in a way that is possible to design policies guidance of professional skills. Train professionals who are characterized by handling analytical and symbolic skills, with ability to discover, appreciate, understand, investigate, work in teams, communicate and reach consensus is the great challenge of higher education in pursuit of a culture that allows the development of certain skills needed and demanded by today's society.

  4. Education (United States)

    Lundja, J. O.; Decrosta, J. T.; Lechuga, P.


    Government schools in Congo kinshasa are not providing quality education to the masses since many years, and this phenomenon has not escaped the eyes of experts, activists, and policy makers. However, there seems to be a general perception that the main, and sometimes even the sole, source of this problem are the low levels of government expenditure of education. And to prove their case supports of this view cite educational expenditure to GDP ratios in Congo kinshasa in comparison with that of some other nations. Though there may be reasonable arguments to increase the level of government expenditure on education, such hijacking of public debate to focus on - the level of expenditure - often overlooks more important issues. Contrary to common perception the level of per student expenditure on government schools in Delhi is reasonable, ranging from Fc.6000 to Fc.12000 p.a. There are a number of organisational deficiencies which do not create checks and balances for appropriate utilization of fund. Moreover, the division of these funds among social groups and for different purposes is also questionable. Though, female literacy lags significantly behind male literacy, about 15% points, extra resources provided for female education are insignificant. And in some schemes such as the one run for 'street children' and 'child labourers', large amounts are budgeted year after year without a single French congolese being spent. Also government schools catering to richer regions of Kinshasa seem to be spending more per child as compared to the poorer counterparts. The paper also proposes an education voucher model, which may have the potential to address some of the issues raised in the paper. Trends in expenditure under some schemes have been studied in relation to the purpose of expenditure. The issue of government expenditure on education is a complex one, and public space should be utilized to discuss them as they are, rather than reducing discussion to dogmatic wars

  5. Socially Relevant Knowledge Based Telemedicine (United States)


    competencies to students like rehabilitation medicine, nutrition, physical education...Development and proof of concept research on an electronic, weighted checklist specific for monitoring competency and skills in ACLS. educators in Education Centers in the United States can train non‐collocated soldiers and medics in remote global deployments, midwives

  6. Research Progress on Biosafety of Transgenic Bt Cotton%转 Bt 基因抗虫棉的生物安全性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立国; 李菲; 刘勤红; 柳展基; 刘任重


    作为一种生物技术产品,转Bt基因抗虫棉的生物安全性一直是人们关注和争论的焦点。世界上许多棉花主产国通过严格的试验从基因漂移、靶标害虫对Bt蛋白的抗性产生及治理对策、抗虫棉种植对非靶标昆虫及土壤生态系统的影响以及转Bt基因抗虫棉产品的食品安全性等方面进行了大量研究。迄今为止,尚未发现有关生物安全方面的问题。由于对棉铃虫等鳞翅目害虫的有效控制及其所产生的经济和生态效益,转Bt基因抗虫棉已经为越来越多的人们所接受,对维持世界棉花的可持续发展产生了不可替代的作用。%As a biotech product , the biosafety of transgenic Bt cotton is always the focus of attention and controversy .The leading cotton producing countries in the world have conducted extensive researches from the aspects of gene flow , resistance of target insects to Bt protein and its countermeasures , the impacts of Bt cotton on non-target insects and soil ecosystem , as well as the food safety of Bt cotton products.So far, there was no potential hazard .As a result of its effective control of Lepidopteran insects and the economic and ecological benefits, the transgenic Bt cotton have been widely accepted ,and it has been playing an irreplaceable role in maintaining the sustainable development of global cotton production .

  7. Fire Blight Control: The Struggle Goes On. A Comparison of Different Fire Blight Control Methods in Switzerland with Respect to Biosafety, Efficacy and Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Gusberti


    Full Text Available Fire blight (FB, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most important pome fruit pathogens worldwide. To control this devastating disease, various chemical and biological treatments are commonly applied in Switzerland, but they fail to keep the infection at an acceptable level in years of heavy disease pressure. The Swiss authorities therefore currently allow the controlled use of the antibiotic streptomycin against FB in years that are predicted to have heavy infection periods, but only one treatment per season is permitted. Another strategy for controlling Erwinia is to breed resistant/tolerant apple cultivars. One way of accelerating the breeding process is to obtain resistant cultivars by inserting one or several major resistance genes, using genetic engineering. To date, no study summarizing the impact of different FB control measures on the environment and on human health has been performed. This study consequently aims to compare different disease-control measures (biological control, chemical control, control by antibiotics and by resistant/tolerant apple cultivars obtained through conventional or molecular breeding applied against E. amylovora, considering different protection goals (protection of human health, environment, agricultural diversity and economic interest, with special emphasis on biosafety aspects. Information on each FB control measure in relation to the specified protection goal was assessed by literature searches and by interviews with experts. Based on our results it can be concluded that the FB control measures currently applied in Switzerland are safe for consumers, workers and the environment. However, there are several gaps in our knowledge of the human health and environmental impacts analyzed: data are missing (1 on long term studies on the efficacy of most of the analyzed FB control measures; (2 on the safety of operators handling streptomycin; (3 on residue analyses of Equisetum plant extract, the copper

  8. 劳务工预防乙肝相关知识知晓情况及健康教育需求的调查分析%Survey on awareness of hepatitis B relevant knowledge and health education needs among migrant workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁鸿; 李水明; 林琳; 刘渠


    目的 了解龙岗区劳务工对预防乙型病毒性肝炎(简称乙肝)相关知识的掌握情况,为今后开展有针对性的预防乙肝健康教育提供科学依据.方法 自行设计调查问卷,随机选取深圳市龙岗区某工厂412名工人为调查对象,进行一般情况、乙肝防治知识、乙肝预防措施、乙肝相关知识和相关知识需求方式的调查.结果 该工厂工人乙肝防治知识知晓水平较低.在乙肝传播途径方面,如“与得了乙肝的人很近地说话”能否传染,认为不能传染的只占25.2%;“与得了乙肝的人共用澡盆”能否传染,认为不能传染的只占24.5%;认为“蚊虫叮咬”不能传染乙肝的只占10.7%,认为能传染的则占80.6%.总体而言,乙肝防治知识的接受和掌握情况在性别、年龄、文化程度间存在差异.就宣传资料需求而言,92.2%的劳务工人想得到一些预防乙肝宣传资料,其中最想得到的宣传材料依次是音像制品(55.4%)、文字材料(52.4%)和以图画为主的宣传材料(32.0%).结论 劳务工乙肝防治知识水平较低,应加大劳务工人乙肝传播途径方面知识的健康教育.%Objective To assess the awareness of hepatitis B relevant knowledge and health education needs among migrant workers in Longgang District, so as to provide the scientific basis of health education and promotion on public in the future. Methods 412 migrant workers were randomly selected from a factory, a self-made questionnaire was used to collect the general information, prevention, treatment relevant knowledge of hepatitis B and health education needs. Results The awareness of hepatitis B relevant knowledge was low. Such as "talking with hepatitis B patients closely" can be transmitted, only 25.2% thought that could not be transmitted; "sharing bathtub with hepatitis B patients" can be transmitted, only 24.5% thought that could not be transmitted; that "mosquito bites" transmission of

  9. 大学生社会主义核心价值观认同感和高校教育现状调查%Investigation on University Students' Recognition on Core Socialist Values and the Current Situation of the Relevant Education in Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丹; 郝艳君


    当前,社会主义核心价值观是高校思想政治教育的热点和重点。因此,探讨大学生社会主义核心价值观认同感和教育的现状,具有重要的理论和实践意义,为高校实现大学生社会主义核心价值观教育提供参考。本文通过“大学生社会主义核心价值观认同感和高校社会主义核心价值观教育现状”问卷调查,了解学生社会主义核心价值观认同感及教育现状,从而分析出目前高校社会主义核心价值观教育存在的问题。%Currently, core socialist values is a hot and key point of university ideological and political education. Therefore, it is of important theoretical and practical significance to explore univer-sity students' recognition on core socialist values and the current situation of the relevant education, as it can provide a reference for the education of core socialist values on university students. Through a questionnaire survey entitled "university students' recognition on core socialist values and the current situation of the relevant education in universities", this paper intends to learn about its current situation and find the problems existing in the current education of core socialist values.

  10. 教育公正与个体发展相互融合的可能性及其实现途径%The Possibility to Integration of Education Justice and Individual Development and Relevant Implementing Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟震颖; 余沁芳


    Education justice is the important branch in social justice system and the important founda-tion to create an atmosphere of social justice,to achieve a more comprehensive and extensive social jus-tice.In the process of pursuing education justice,individual personalized development is related to it. Solving the problems between the two is helpful to achieve the goals of education justice and individual development.According to the study,important measures to realize the integration of education justice and individual development can be taken by adjusting public policy to promote the policy justice and e-qual opportunity,respecting the individual's right to education,upholding diversity education idea and so on.%教育公正既是社会公正体系中的重要分支与延伸,又是营造社会公正氛围,实现更全面、更广泛社会公正的重要基础。在追求教育公正的过程中,个体的个性化发展需求与教育公正存在相关关系,努力解决两者之间存在的问题,有助于教育公正和个体发展双重目标的实现。研究得出,调整公共政策,促进政策公正和机会均等;尊重个体的受教育权利;秉持差异性发展教育理念等,是实现教育公正和个体发展相互融合的重要保障措施。

  11. Parental Participation in the Assessment of Special Educational Needs in England and Relevant Enlightenment%英国特殊教育需要评估中家长参与及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The assessment of special education needs runs through the whole education process of the placement and teaching of special children. Parents’participation is critical for their children to receive proper education. England has developed a comparatively complete system ensuring parental participation in the assessment of special education needs. Parents play an important role in providing evaluators with information, participating in formulating and revising individualized education program, requesting and participating statutory assessment and so on. This article introduces briefly the content and characteristics of parental participation in England and proposes some suggestions on the parental participation in the assessment of special educational needs in China.%特殊教育需要评估贯穿特殊儿童教育安置和教育教学的全过程。家长参与评估对保证儿童接受合适的教育具有重要作用。英国在特殊教育需要评估方面形成了较为完整的保障家长参与的体系。家长在向专业评估人员提供信息,参与制定和修改个别化教育计划,请求并参与法定评估等方面发挥着重要作用。通过对英国特殊教育需要评估中家长参与的内容和特点做简单介绍,对我国家长参与特殊教育评估提出了一些建议。

  12. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition. (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J


    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication.

  13. Relevance theory and pragmatic impairment. (United States)

    Leinonen, E; Kerbel, D


    This paper summarizes aspects of relevance theory that are useful for exploring impairment of pragmatic comprehension in children. It explores data from three children with pragmatic language difficulties within this framework. Relevance theory is seen to provide a means of explaining why, in a given context, a particular utterance is problematic. It thus enables one to move on from mere description of problematic behaviours towards their explanation. The theory provides a clearer delineation between the explicit and the implicit, and hence between semantics and pragmatics. This enables one to place certain difficulties more firmly within semantics and others within pragmatics. Relevance, and its maximization in communication, are squarely placed within human cognition, which suggests a close connection between pragmatic and cognitive (dis)functioning. Relevance theory thus emerges as a powerful tool in the exploration and understanding of pragmatic language difficulties in children and offers therapeutically valuable insight into the nature of interactions involving individuals with such impairments.

  14. Education (United States)


    Frank Sosa, Dept. of the Air Force Col Juan Urbano , Peruvian Army Dr. Francis A’Hearn, Faculty Prof. William Mayall, Faculty COL Mark McGuire...Germany House of Commons, Parliamentary Undersecretary State for Education, England Ministry of Science, Research, and Art , Stuttgart, Fifty percent of the elementary market is composed of reading and language arts . Mathematics and a combination social sciences/science and

  15. The Biosafety Files, a new link in biosafety information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Wagenaar, J.


    Risk assessment by a competent authority should precede the release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment and food chain. Capacity building to ensure comprehensive risk assessment is a major challenge for governments especially those in developing countries. Access to scienti

  16. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M


    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  17. Identifying Characteristics of Science Teaching/Learning Materials Promoting Students' Intrinsic Relevance (United States)

    Kotkas, Tormi; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia


    This article focuses on concerns related to a lack of students' perception of relevance in school science seen as differing from educators' perception of relevance. In order to determine how relevance is portrayed in teaching and learning materials (TLMs), the titles and introductory texts (scenarios) from 77 TLMs, aiming to induce students'…

  18. Recent advances in synthetic biosafety (United States)

    Simon, Anna J.; Ellington, Andrew D.


    Synthetically engineered organisms hold promise for a broad range of medical, environmental, and industrial applications. Organisms can potentially be designed, for example, for the inexpensive and environmentally benign synthesis of pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals, for the cleanup of environmental pollutants, and potentially even for biomedical applications such as the targeting of specific diseases or tissues. However, the use of synthetically engineered organisms comes with several reasonable safety concerns, one of which is that the organisms or their genes could escape their intended habitats and cause environmental disruption. Here we review key recent developments in this emerging field of synthetic biocontainment and discuss further developments that might be necessary for the widespread use of synthetic organisms. Specifically, we discuss the history and modern development of three strategies for the containment of synthetic microbes: addiction to an exogenously supplied ligand; self-killing outside of a designated environment; and self-destroying encoded DNA circuitry outside of a designated environment. PMID:27635235

  19. [Viral biosafety, biosecurity, and bioterrorism]. (United States)

    Garin, D


    Intentional release of infectious agents has always been considered as a possible weapon. Today this risk has expanded from use for wartime mass destruction to small-scale terrorist acts. Viruses, some of tropical origin, constitute a special biological hazard for several reasons: great infectious potential, adaptability to the host, difficulty for diagnosis in the hospital, and absence of specific treatment for the main agents involved. Handling of the dangerous biological agents requires special biocontainment laboratories equipped and classified according to increasing risk up to level 4. This article discusses the modalities of classification.

  20. Osteoporosis Knowledge of Students in Relevant Healthcare Academic Programs


    Nguyen, Vu H; Ze Wang


    For healthcare professionals who treat individuals with osteoporosis, it is vital that they receive adequate education on osteoporosis to ensure sufficient knowledge of osteoporosis to properly treat individuals with the disease. To test for adequate osteoporosis education, a study was conducted to measure osteoporosis knowledge in 206 students in relevant healthcare academic programs, such as nursing, pharmacy, physical therapy, and dietetics. The study showed that differences existed in ost...

  1. Vtelená kognícia, jej filozofické východiská a potenciálny význam pre pedagogiku. / Embodied cognition, its philosophical basis and its potential relevance for educational sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Obertová


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the theory of embodied cognition, embed it in broader philosophical framework, and induct its potential contribution to educational sciences. Text progresses from clarifying the concept of embodiment, its origins in phenomenology (M. Merleau-Ponty and use in cultural anthropology (T. J. Csordas. In the next section, we elaborate on the philosophical framework which had an impact on the theory of embodied cognition and suppression of the dualistic view of mind and body; we clarify aspects of embodiment complementing the image ofembodiment. As part of the description of the contribution of the embodied cognition to educational sciences we focus on two areas: language and mathematics, which are considered to be largely cognitive and abstract concepts separate from the body. Ithas been shown that the theory of embodied cognition does not sufficiently explain what the body actually is, and what kind of body is discussed here. It follows from this that in both of the areas (language and mathematics a particularly importantaspect for the process of understanding abstract systems and learning is the research on and the importance of gestures and physical experience. We found that the asset of embodied cognition for educational sciences lies in the orientation towardbodily action, activity and impact of physical environment and bodily experience on cognition, which facilitate the learning process.

  2. Powering education


    Hassan, Fadi; Lucchino, Paolo


    More than 1.3 billion people worldwide have no access to electricity and this has first-order effects on several development dimensions. In this paper we focus on the link between access to light and education. We randomly distribute solar lamps to 7th grade pupils in rural Kenya and monitor their educational outcomes throughout the year at quarterly frequency. We find that access to lights through solar lamps is a relevant and effective input to education. Our identification strategy account...

  3. Os limites do poder das empresas multinacionais: o caso do Protocolo de Cartagena The limits of power of multinational companies: the Cartagena protocol on biosafety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sarfati


    internationalization tend - nationally and transnationally - to oppose the political actions of the MNCs. The second part of the work shows the role of MNCs in the negotiations of the Cartagena Protocol of Biosafety, a complementary instrument of the Biodiversity Convention (CBD, which regulates the genetically modified organisms (GMOs. An important conclusion of this work is to explain under which circumstances the MNCs are able to act as negotiators using their influence as well as their structural and soft powers, by trying to form transnational coalitions and by helping to build coalitions among national governments in order to defend their interests in intergovernmental negotiation processes.

  4. Aspectos relevantes sobre la formación docente en I y II ciclos en los temas probabilidad y estadística / Relevant Aspects on Teaching Probability and Statistics in Basic General Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Víquez Ortiz


    Full Text Available Desde 1995 se incluyen en los programas de estudio del Ministerio de Educación Pública (MEP los temas de estadística y probabilidad en I y II Ciclos de la Educación General Básica. Como parte del análisis de la realidad de la enseñanza de dichos temas se realizó una investigación en dos regiones educativas del país, a saber: Heredia y Pérez Zeledón. Se indagó acerca de la formación universitaria que los docentes, en ejercicio en esas regiones, han tenido en dichas temáticas para enfrentar su enseñanza en las aulas, así como en los procesos de capacitación y actualización que han recibido. Al final de la investigación se evidenció la escasa formación universitaria en estos temas y la insatisfacción de los docentes al respecto, además del poco acompañamiento que han tenido durante el ejercicio de su profesión por parte de entes capacitadores.Probability and Statistics were included in the Basic General Education curricula by the Ministry of Public Education (Costa Rica, since 1995. To analyze the teaching reality in these fields, a research was conducted in two educational regions of the country: Heredia and Pérez Zeledón. The survey included university training and updating processes of teachers teaching Statistics and Probability in the schools. The research demonstrated the limited university training in these fields, the dissatisfaction of teachers about it, and the poor support of training institutions to their professional exercise. Recibido 14 de marzo de 2012 •  Corregido 01 de junio de 2012 • Aceptado 28 de junio de 2012

  5. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael


    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can displa

  6. Graduate Employability and Communication Competence: Are Undergraduates Taught Relevant Skills? (United States)

    Clokie, Trish L.; Fourie, Elna


    This research establishes the role of communication education in employability by determining how employers of graduates view communication, identifying communication skills that employers view as relevant, and establishing whether these skills are included in communication courses. To achieve these aims, local businesses were surveyed, and the…

  7. Knowledge Utility: From Social Relevance to Knowledge Mobilization (United States)

    Naidorf, Judith


    In recent years, a more sophisticated vocabulary has emerged in the field of higher education. Categories such as" socially relevant research"; "knowledge mobilization"; "research impact"; "innovation"; and "university priorities" have appeared. At first glance, these words may appear neutral,…

  8. Operations Management Teaching: Establishing Content and Relevance to Practitioners (United States)

    Doran, Desmond; Hill, Alex; Brown, Steve; Aktas, Emel; Kuula, Markku


    This paper explores the relevance to industry's needs of operations management (OM) teaching in higher education, by researching the content of OM modules delivered by UK academics and comparing the results of this research with the views of business practitioners having had first-hand experience of OM teaching on MBA programmes. To determine…

  9. Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Education Program of IPEN aims to develop human resources through scientific training programs and to provide and disseminate scientific information in nuclear and correlated areas. IPEN is responsible for the graduate program in the nuclear area at University of Sao Paulo: the Nuclear Technology Program IPEN/USP. Since its creation, in 1976, the Program was evaluated with grade A by the Federal Government Evaluation (CAPES), the highest in this classification. In 2003 CAPES changed the evaluation criteria; since then, it has been considered a program of Excellence, with grade 6. Levels 6 and 7 are granted only to those programs having internationally recognized expertise. Level 6 was maintained in the last evaluation considering the period 2010-2012. Along its 37 years the Nuclear Technology Program awarded 2,217 titles: 1,511 masters and 706 doctoral degrees. The institution is also responsible for the Professional Master Degree - Lasers in Dentistry, in partnership with the School of Dentistry from University of Sao Paulo. IPEN has a Scientific Initiation Program for undergraduate students aiming to stimulate young people to enter the scientific research career. This program allows the student to have the opportunity to develop a specially assigned study under the guidance of a supervisor. CNEN and CNPq are the main funding agencies supporting this Program. The institute also offers, since 2000, undergraduate disciplines for students of University of Sao Paulo. A total of 33 disciplines have been approved by the University. In the period considered over 1,000 students attended the courses. There is also a Scholarship Program for graduate students, funded by CNPq, CAPES and IPEN. Scholarships funded by FAPESP and CNEN are also available on demand, according to the conditions set forth in the respective notices. Concerning scientific information support, there is available a central specialized library, which offers, beyond traditional collections and services

  10. 三级生物安全实验室感染性废弃物处理相关问题的探讨%Discussion on issues related to the disposal of infectious waste in biosafety level 3 laboratories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志平; 韩文东; 丁悦娜; 瞿涤


    Disposal of infectious waste is a pivotal step in biosafety management in laboratories. The Chinese government has issued constitutional laws and statutes on disposal of infectious waste for averting pollution.During our 3 years management of a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratory, we encountered some contradictions in the disposal of infectious waste, including the package of solid infectious waste for sterilization and disposal, damage to the autoclave by disinfectant used in treating the waste, and disposal methods for liquid infectiom waste. Additional experiences from our management of a BSL-3 laboratory are discussed.%在生物安全管理的各环节中,感染性废弃物的处理是控制实验室生物安全的关键环节.为此,我国制定了关于感染性废弃物处理的法律、法规,以避免污染实验室或环境.本三级生物安全实验室运行的3年中,在处理感染性废弃物时遇到了若干需要认真对待的细节,如固体感染性废弃物处理过程中的灭菌环节、消毒剂使用对压力蒸汽灭菌器的损伤、液体感染性废弃物的灭菌模式等,并提出了解决措施和建议.

  11. Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 52 (United States)

    Beineke, John A.


    "Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance" is an exploration of research, ideas, trends, and practices for educators who teach American history to adolescents from the middle grades through high school. Higher education faculty in history and professional education will also find the book germane to their work. Topics within the…

  12. Brief Review on the Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚腾龙; 阿勒腾


    Relevance theory has had an impact on the study in various disciplines including linguistics,literature and so on. This paper gives a brief review of the relevance theory and two principles of relevance.

  13. Relevance in the science classroom: A multidimensional analysis (United States)

    Hartwell, Matthew F.

    groups. The findings combine to support a multidimensional perspective of relevance in the 9th grade biology classroom; offering researchers a useful model for future investigation and educators with insights into the students' classroom experience.

  14. Evaluating societal relevance of research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbertz, Johannes


    Scientific research is performed to elucidate how the world around us is functioning. One dimension of the acquired knowledge is that it can be used to develop various sectors of society such as industry, education, governmental practices, the health system or social cohesion. A main characteristic

  15. Situating relevance: exploring individual relevance assessments in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Dirndorfer Anderson


    Full Text Available This paper discusses some of the challenges encountered whilst researching and writing a thesis that explores individual understandings of relevance and topic. It is based upon a discussion paper and presentation prepared as part of the Doctoral Workshop held during the ISIC 2000 Conference in Borås, Sweden. The focus of this paper is the doing of qualitative research. To provide a framework for this discussion, the key assumptions that have shaped the author's thesis are presented in the first section of this paper. The paper then focuses on some of the dilemmas of qualitative research encountered during the research and writing of this thesis, giving particular attention to the notion of context and the writing of qualitative research. Forthcoming results from the thesis are mentioned in the closing section. A Thesis Summary is also provided at the end of this paper.

  16. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept? (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  17. Relevant videnskabsteori - Fagets videnskabsteori i kuhniansk perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Nedenskov Petersen


    Full Text Available Mens der er krav om, at fagets eller fagområdets videnskabsteori skal indgå i bacheloruddannelserne på de danske universiteter, er det lagt ud til de ansvarlige for de enkelte uddannelser at fastlægge fagets konkrete indhold. På grundlag af Thomas Kuhns beskrivelse af naturvidenskaben kan man dog fremføre gode grunde til, at undervisning i almene videnskabsteoretiske begreber og spørgsmål bør være en del af faget på de naturvidenskabelige uddannelser, da de studerende ellers vil mangle det teoretiske grundlag for at reflektere kritisk over deres egne fags metoder og forstå andre fags videnskabelige tilgange. Samtidig er undervisning i almen videnskabsteori på disse uddannelser imidlertid forbundet med den udfordring, at de studerende vil have en tendens til ikke at betragte den som relevant for deres videnskabelige profession. Hvis de studerende skal opnå det videnskabsteoretiske grundlag for tværfaglig forståelse og kritisk faglig refleksion, er det derfor afgørende, at undervisningen i almen videnskabsteori sigter efter at forbinde de abstrakte, overordnede diskussioner fra videnskabsteorien med spørgsmål fra konkret videnskabelig praksis. While every bachelor education in the natural sciences at a Danish university must include a course in the philosophy of science of the subject area, it is left to those responsible for each individual bachelor education to determine the specific contents of these courses. Based on Thomas Kuhn’s description of the natural sciences, however, there are good reasons to include general philosophy of science in the curricula for all bachelor courses in the sciences. In particular, to ensure that students have the theoretical resources they need to reflect on their own scientific methods and to understand how scientific investigation is approached in other subject areas. But teaching such general philosophy of science courses to science students comes with a challenge: Many students feel that

  18. 世博期间实验室生物安全风险评估及对策%Risk Assessment and Countermeasures of Laboratory Biosafety during EXPO 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范惠莹; 李颐; 蔡明毅; 朱红梅; 胡佳青


    目的 对世博期间上海市静安区疾控实验室生物安全进行风险评估并提出对策.方法 采用澳大利亚和新西兰的风险管理标准和专家评估法,对实验室生物安全进行风险评估.结果 火灾为极高风险生物安全事件;生物样本和茵毒种丢失,茵毒种感染,地震为高风险生物安全事件;水灾,实验室人员刺伤、切割伤或擦伤为中风险生物安全事件;实验室人员皮肤、粘膜污染,生物安全柜外环境重度污染等为低风险生物安全事件.结论 针对风险水平分级采取应对和处置措施,极高和高水平风险应优先考虑,积极应对;中等水平风险则采取常态应对措施;中等和低水平风险应加强监测,一旦发现风险水平升级,则应提高应对措施和策略水平.%Objective The risk assessment and countermeasures of laboratory biosafety during EXPO 2010 in Jingan District of Shanghai. Method By using the standard of risk management of Australia and New Zealand, and the expert evaluating method, risk assessment of laboratory biosafety was made during Expo 2010 in Jingan district. Result Fire is the highest risk biosecurity event; loss of biological sample and poisonous species of bacteria, infection of toxic species, and earthquake is high -risk biosecurity event; floods, laboratory personnel stabbed, cuts or abrasions is the middle bio - security risk event; laboratory personnel skin and mucous membrane contamination, biological safety cabinets and other outside the heavily polluted environment is low biosecurity risk event. Conclusion The prevention and controlling risk of biosecurity event should be improved step by step under rules including prevention as primary, prevention and emergency treatment as equal attention, improvement of urgent management.

  19. Treatment of waste water with active virus in bio-safety laboratories%生物安全实验室活毒废水处理工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠军; 严春炎; 武国梁; 陈咏


    目的 在借鉴吸收国外生物安全实验室(BSL)活毒废水处理工艺技术的基础上,结合我国国情,研究开发节能、环保、安全型成套处理技术工艺和设备,实现关键技术和产品国产化.方法 处理系统采用序批式工艺,通过高温高压方式消毒灭菌.结果该处理工艺的技术指标:灭菌温度100~150℃(可调),加热时间≤30 min,灭菌时间30~120 min(可调);处理后排放指标:活微生物为0,温度≤40℃,pH=6~9.结论 该处理工艺整体设计简便灵活,符合BSL设计越简单越安全的理念,适合我国国情,可用于生物安全三级、四级实验室(BSL-3,-4)活毒废水处理.%Objective To develop a whole set of energy-conserving, environmentally friendly and safe technology in order to localize key techniques and products by learning from the foreign technologies for handling waste water with active virus in bio-safety laboratories. Methods This treatment system adopted the sequencing batch technology and was sterilized through high temperature and high pressure. Results The technical requirement of treatment was a sterilization temperature of 100-1501 ( adjustable ), heating time ≤30 min, and sterilization time 30-120 min ( adjustable ). The effluent index after treatment was: no microbe, temperature ≤40℃ , and pH = 6 -9. Conclusion The design of the treatment technology is simple, user-friendly,flexible, and in line with the bio-safety laboratory( BSL ) design concept that the simpler, the safer. It also conforms to the situation in China and can be applied to handling waste water with active virus in the level three or four national BSL( BSL-3 ,-4 ).

  20. Application and biosafety of transgenic antiviral crops based on RNA interference%基于RNA干扰原理抗病毒转基因作物的应用及安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新朵; 李莉; 王锡锋


    Gene silencing is an ancient commonly-occurring phenomenon and a mechanism of self-protection in defending abnormal intruder of living organisms. RNA interference (RNAi), a recently discovered natural biological process, is an important gene silencing technology. RNAi has been widely used in the transgenic breeding for improving crops with viral resistance, including rice, barley, soybean, corn, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, papaya, pumpkin, plum, tobacco and so on. While the attractive prospects loom large as more and more transgenic crops for viral resistance have been developed, the biosafety problem of transgenic crops was also attracted much greater attention. In this paper, the mechanism of RNAi in plants and the application of RNAi technology to the transgenic breeding for viral resistance were reviewed. The biosafety of transgenic antiviral crops mediated by RNAi in foods and environment was also discussed.%基因沉默是广泛存在于各种生物中的一种古老现象,是生物抵抗外来入侵者的保护机制.RNA干扰(RNAinterference,RNAi)则是近年来发现的一种重要基因沉默现象.此策略已在植物抗病毒育种等研究中应用,如对水稻、大麦、大豆、玉米、马铃薯、番茄、辣椒、木瓜、南瓜、李、烟草等的抗病毒研究.在转基因抗病毒展现出诱人的前景时,对转基因抗病毒植物释放的安全性问题的关注也越来越多.本文介绍了RNAi的作用机制,在转基因抗病毒育种中的应用,并探讨了以RNAi为基础的转基因抗病毒作物的食用安全性和环境安全性等问题.

  1. Historical microbiology, is it relevant in the 21st century? (United States)

    Robertson, Lesley A


    Facsimile microscopes have been used to examine the possibilities of van Leeuwenhoek microscopes with a range of magnifications, particularly to confirm that bacteria can be seen if the microscope is strong enough. The relevance of historical microbiology in education is also illustrated by adapting versions of van Leeuwenhoek's pepper water experiment and Beijerinck's use of bioluminescent bacteria as oxygen probes. These experiments can demonstrate fundamentals such as enrichment and isolation cultures, physiology and experimental planning as well as critical reading of published material.

  2. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance. (United States)

    Hyman, Ludmila


    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis.

  3. Marketing in Higher Education. (United States)

    Hockenberger, Susan J.

    Educational institutions must seek new approaches to institutional planning because of such factors as shrinking traditional college age populations, eroding grants, governmental and judicial incursion, the tightening economic belt, and concern over the relevance of education to modern day needs. The concept of marketing higher education is…

  4. Does relevance matter in academic policy research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne


    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars.......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars....

  5. Science and the struggle for relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, L.K.


    This thesis deals with struggles for relevance of university researchers, their efforts to make their work correspond with ruling standards of relevance and to influence these standards. Its general research question is: How to understand changes in the struggle for relevance of Dutch academic resea

  6. Relevance Measures Using Geographic Scopes and Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andogah, Geoffrey; Bouma, Gosse; Peters, C; Jikoun,; Mandl, T; Muller, H; Oard, DW; Penas, A; Petras,; Santos, D


    This paper proposes two kinds of relevance measures to rank documents by geographic restriction: scope-based and type-based. The non-geographic and geographic relevance scores are combined using a weighted harmonic mean. The proposed relevance measures and weighting schemes are evaluated on GeoCLEF

  7. The Development of Relevance in Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang


    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the notion of relevance in information retrieval. It discusses various definitions for relevance from historical viewpoints and the characteristics of relevance judgments. Also, it introduces empirical results of important related researches.[Article content in Chinese

  8. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies. (United States)

    VanSickle, Ronald L.


    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  9. Education and Outreach in the Life Sciences: Qualitative Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, Roberta L.; John, Lisa; Mahy, Heidi A.; Rose, Shyanika W.; Weller, Richard E.; Nelson-Wally, Anjanette


    The DOE's National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to consider the role of individual scientists in upholding safety and security. The views of scientists were identified as being a critical component of this policy process. Therefore, scientists, managers, and representatives of Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBCs) at the national labs were invited to participate in a brief survey and a set of focus groups. In addition, three focus groups were conducted with scientists, managers, and IBC representatives to discuss some of the questions related to education, outreach, and codes of conduct in further detail and gather additional input on biosecurity and dual-use awareness at the laboratories. The overall purpose of this process was to identify concerns related to these topics and to gather suggestions for creating an environment where both the scientific enterprise and national security are enhanced.

  10. 纳米材料在体育工程中的应用及其生物安全性研究%Study of Application and Biosafety of Nanomaterials in Sports Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春艳; 刘星亮; 肖艳芬


    Nanomaterials have widely been applied in sports engineering,such as sports stadiums,field turf,tracks,sports-wears,equipments and supplements.Inevitably,nanomaterials may cause some potential adverse effects on the cells,lung,liver,kidney,and brain,respectively.Nanmaterials have been fully used in sports fields,and its biosafety should also be focused.%纳米材料已广泛应用于体育场馆、运动草坪、田径跑道、运动服装、体育器材及运动补剂等方面,同时纳米材料进入机体也可能对细胞、肺组织、肝肾组织、脑组织带来负面影响,存在一定的生物安全隐患。在充分利用纳米材料对体育工程发展积极效应的同时,应该重视和加强对纳米材料的生物性研究。

  11. 《卡塔赫纳生物安全议定书》与WTO规则冲突研究%Study on Conflicts between the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and WTO Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the late thirty years biotechnology, with transgenic technology as its core,has been developed rapidly and applied in fields such as agriculture and medicine with great achievements, which has caused profound impacts on society and economy, However because of scientific uncertainties of influences of transgenrc technology and derived products on human, plant and animal life and health as well as the environment,biosafety。i.e management of biotechnology so as to minimize its potential risks to the environment and human health, has become an issue with increasing concern of the internatronal community,In this context, negotiation of an international treaty was initiated in 1996 and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety was adopted in January 2000 and came into effect in September 2003 ,As the first international treaty containing direct stipulations on living modified organisms (LMOs) trade, the Protocol encountered divergence and controversy in the negotiation process, After adoption of the Protocol, compatibility of its provisions with those set in the WTO agreements has turned into a hot issue for dispute in the international forum。

  12. Australian Higher Education and the Relevance of Newman. (United States)

    Coady, Tony; Miller, Seumas


    John Henry Newman's conception of the university as a teaching institution in which the guiding concept is transmission of liberal knowledge is examined as it applies to the Australian context. The theory is seen as a useful starting point for developing a theory of the modern Australian university. (MSE)

  13. Is the Hidden Curriculum a Relevant Issue in Educational Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patarroyo Esther


    Full Text Available This paper explores some ideas about the hidden curriculum as an amount of ideas and beliefs which are implicit in an indirect way into the scholar life. Those ideas are regarding to gender equality, social status and racial difference, among others. We consider teachers are able to integrate the hidden curriculum as a pedagogical strategy in the classroom. Examples of integration include activities such as observation techniques, role-plays, peer modeling and particularly, the portfolio as a useful tool for reflection which reveals the hidden curriculum. Key words: Hidden Curriculum, Pedagogical Strategy, Portfolio, ELT Processes, Stereotypes Este documento explora algunas ideas acerca del currículo oculto como una suma de ideas y creencias que están implícitos de una forma indirecta dentro de la vida escolar. Estas ideas están relacionadas con la equidad de género, diferencias sociales y raciales, entre otros. Consideramos que es posible para los docentes integrar el currículo como estrategia pedagógica en el aula. Ejemplos de esta integración incluyen técnicas de observación, juegos de roles, modelamiento en parejas y particularmente, el portafolio como herramienta de reflexión que permita hacer evidente el currículo oculto. Palabras claves: Currículo Oculto, Estrategia Pedagógica, Estereotipos, Enseñanza de Inglés, Portafolio

  14. Relevance of a Managerial Decision-Model to Educational Administration. (United States)

    Lundin, Edward.; Welty, Gordon

    The rational model of classical economic theory assumes that the decision maker has complete information on alternatives and consequences, and that he chooses the alternative that maximizes expected utility. This model does not allow for constraints placed on the decision maker resulting from lack of information, organizational pressures,…

  15. Adolescent attitudes and relevance to family life education programs. (United States)

    Unni, Jeeson C


    The study was conducted in seven private coeducational English-medium schools in Cochin to understand adolescent attitudes in this part of the country. Queries submitted by students (n=10,660) and responses to separate pretested questionnaires for boys (n=886 received) and girls (n=589 received) were analysed. The study showed a lacuna of knowledge among adolescents with the most frequently asked queries being on masturbation, and sex and sexuality. More than 50% of adolescents received information on sex and sexuality from peers; boys had started masturbating by 12 yr age and 93% were doing so by 15 yr age. Although 73% of girls were told about menstruation by their parents, 32% were not aware, at menarche, that such an event would occur and only 8% were aware of all aspects of maintaining menstrual hygiene. 19% of boys succumbed to peer pressure into reading/viewing pornography; more than 50% of adolescents admitted to having had an infatuation around 13 yrs of age or after. 13% of boys admitted to having been initiated into smoking by friends; mostly between 14-16 yrs age; 6.5% boys had consumed alcohol with peers or at family functions, starting between ages of 15 to 17 yrs. Though >70% of adolescents were aware about AIDS, adequate knowledge about its spread and prevention was lacking.

  16. Kant's Contribution to Moral Education: The Relevance of Catechistics (United States)

    Surprenant, Chris W.


    Kant's deontological ethics, along with Aristotle's virtue ethics and Mill's utilitarian ethics, is often identified as one of the three primary moral options between which individuals can choose. Given the importance of Kant's moral philosophy, it is surprising and disappointing how little has been written on his important contributions to moral…

  17. Culturally Relevant Teaching and the Concept of Education (United States)

    Beckett, Kelvin


    In this article, the author addresses a problem that first occurred to him almost 40 years ago. Having finally arrived at a possible solution, he would like to share it with others. The issue was raised by John Dewey and taken up again by Richard Peters and Paulo Freire. It was not their main concern, however; nor has it been a major concern of…

  18. Developing Researching Managers and Relevant Research--The "Executive Research Programme" (United States)

    Werr, Andreas; Strannegård, Lars


    The current paper argues for bridging the "relevance gap" in management research and education by creating educational programmes that bring together experienced managers and management researchers. In the "Executive Research Programme" discussed in this paper, managers were paired up with researchers to conduct a collaborative…

  19. Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Leadership for School-Community Culture (United States)

    Fraise, Nicole Jaenee; Brooks, Jeffrey S.


    The purpose of this article is to explore concepts related to culturally relevant pedagogy and connect them to nascent theoretical work in the field of educational leadership. The article begins with a review of literature on educational leadership and culture and then suggests shortcomings in the way these concepts are currently conceptualized.…

  20. "Gastric cytoprotection" is still relevant. (United States)

    Szabo, Sandor


    rapid vascular changes (e.g. increased VP and blood flow), followed by cellular events (e.g. infiltration by acute and chronic inflammatory cells). Thus, PG and histamine, by increasing VP create a perivascular edema that dilutes and delays toxic agents reaching the subepithelial capillaries. Otherwise, damaging chemicals may induce severe early vascular injury resulting in blood flow stasis, hypoxia, and necrosis of surrounding epithelial and mesenchymal cells. In this complex response, increased mucus and/or bicarbonate secretion seem to cause luminal dilution of gastrotoxic chemicals that is further reinforced by a perivascular, histodilutional component. This mechanistic explanation would encompass the protective actions of diverse agents as PG, small doses of histamine, motility stimulants, and dilute irritants (i.e. "adaptive cytoprotection"). Thus, although markedly increased VP is pathologic, slight increase in VP seems to be protective, that is, a key element in the complex pathophysiologic response during acute gastroprotection. Over the years, "gastroprotection" was also applied to accelerated healing of chronic gastroduodenal ulcers without reduction of acid secretion. The likely main mechanism here is the binding of angiogenic growth factors (e.g. basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor) to the heparin-like structures of sucralfate and sofalcone. Thus, despite intensive research of the last 30 years, gastroprotection is incompletely understood, and we are still far away from effectively treating Helicobacter pylori-negative ulcers and preventing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-caused erosions and ulcers in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract; hence "gastric cytoprotection" research is still relevant.

  1. Inclusive Education in South Korea (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wook


    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  2. Jung in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas


    This article is a review of the influence of analytical psychology within the field of education. The influence of analytical psychology on the mainstream of educational thought and practice has never been great. However, Jung himself gave a number of lectures on education and post-Jungians have......-Jungian inspiration are identified: Mytho-historical education, holistic education, archetypal pedagogy, educating imagination, educating different personality types, and transformative education. Finally it is suggested, that while analytical psychology may never occupy a place in the mainstream of educational...... further explored the relevance of analytical thought in education. The article first outlines Jung’s own thoughts about education and their reception in primarily North-America and England. The second half of the article discusses the post-Jungian contributions. Six different strands of post...

  3. Jung in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas


    This article is a review of the influence of analytical psychology within the field of education. The influence of analytical psychology on the mainstream of educational thought and practice has never been great. However, Jung himself gave a number of lectures on education and post-Jungians have...... further explored the relevance of analytical thought in education. The article first outlines Jung’s own thoughts about education and their reception in primarily North-America and England. The second half of the article discusses the post-Jungian contributions. Six different strands of post......-Jungian inspiration are identified: Mytho-historical education, holistic education, archetypal pedagogy, educating imagination, educating different personality types, and transformative education. Finally it is suggested, that while analytical psychology may never occupy a place in the mainstream of educational...

  4. Agricultural Education Teacher Education Preservice Program. (United States)

    Ricketts, Samuel Clifton

    Intended to introduce a model, relevant preservice program for agricultural education teachers, this paper porposes a curriculum which for the most part meets the standards of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. Divided into seven sections, it covers the following topics: (1) the role of the teacher; (2) an agricultural…

  5. Application of Relevance theory to translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Within the framework of relevance theory, translation is regarded as a relevance-seeking communication. It involves three participant relationships:the source speaker, the translator and the target hearers. The translator is supposed to create a context that the target hearer can infer the intention of the source speaker. Comparing translation theories which fail to pay attention to the relevance between the source speakers and the target hearers, Relevance Theory is a relatively overall account of translation. For one thing, some points concerning the Relevance Theory are capable of facilitating the researches to the present translation field. For another, the information of the original text will be understood and comprehended accurately and promptly on the basis of the relevant theory.

  6. Lessons of Educational Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Repetto


    Full Text Available Reception of the book "Lessons of Educational Technology." The book contains materials work in certain aspects relevant to the formation of a teacher who is able to meet the challenges of society 'knowledge.

  7. Implications of Relevance Theory to English Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Reading is a style of communication between reader and writer while relevance theory is a new approach to communi⁃cation. Based on relevance theory, we can paraphrase reading as followings: reading comprehension is a process of communica⁃tion between reader and writer; a process of making inference from the ostensive-inference communication; a process of seeking optimal relevance on the part of the reader.

  8. Activation of biologically relevant levels of reactive oxygen species by Au/g-C3N4 hybrid nanozyme for bacteria killing and wound disinfection. (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Dong, Kai; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Zhaowei; Sun, Hanjun; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang


    As common reactive oxygen species, H2O2 is widely used for bacterial inactivation and wound disinfection. However, the concentrations used are always higher than physiological levels, which frequently result in potential toxicity to healthy tissue and even delay wound healing. Here we report highly efficient nanozyme hybrids that are capable of activating biologically relevant concentrations of H2O2 for defending bacterial infections. The integration of AuNPs with ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) provides excellent peroxidase-activity, which can catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to OH radicals much more efficiently, allowing the use of bio-safety levels of H2O2 for the first time. Furthermore, our system not only exhibits striking bactericidal performance against both DR Gram-negative and DR Gram-positive bacteria, but also shows high efficiency in breaking down the existing DR-biofilms and prevented formation of new biofilms in vitro. More importantly, in vivo experiments indicate that our system could significantly prevent bacterial infections and accelerate the healing rate of wounds.

  9. Biossegurança e democracia: entre um espaço dialógico e novos fundamentalismos Biosafety and democracy: among a dialogistic space and new fundamentalisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Amaro da Silveira


    Full Text Available A problemática envolvendo as biotecnologias e as políticas de biossegurança se apresenta bastante controversa. Por um lado, indícios de um fato consumado: a soja geneticamente modificada espalha-se a cada ano, fazendo pouco caso do congestionamento da questão nas instâncias até então legitimadas como decisórias. De outro, a evolução das discussões acerca da temática, de modo que a balança, antes de atingir um ponto de equilíbrio, o desejável consenso democrático, oscila entre posturas extremas. Mas esta situação de "prós" e "contras" os OGMs não cobre a complexidade da polêmica. Propõe-se que uma tal realidade seja interpretada à luz de um processo de transformação das sociedades, bem como da própria democracia, o qual, ao corroer de dentro para fora o modus operandi do Estado moderno, desperta nos indivíduos e suas organizações a necessidade de uma renovação institucional. Mas, afinal, quais as causas destas mudanças e de que modo sinalizam para uma alteração dos sistemas democráticos existentes? Como as inovações biotecnológicas e as políticas de biossegurança se inserem neste novo contexto de solidariedade social? E, particularmente, no caso brasileiro, quais os limites e possibilidades que as disputas envolvendo as sementes modificadas e as biotecnologias em geral colocam a este modelo de democracia proposto? Conclui-se que a atual polêmica em torno da biotecnologia no Brasil tem cristalizado formas fundamentalistas do agir político, provocado congestionamentos e acentuado as desigualdades de poderes e condições materiais na sociedade.The problematic involving the biotechnologies and the biosafety politics comes to a contested way. Observing one side, there are indications of an accomplished fact: the soybean genetically modified disperses every year, paying little attention to the "congestionamento" of the subject in the legitimated instances. In the other, the evolution of the discussions

  10. Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard


    the music based on its relevance and importance. The fusion is controlled by a single parameter, which can be intuitively tuned by the user. The notion of authoritative music among relevant music is introduced, and social media mined from the Web is used in an innovative manner to determine both...

  11. CMIC@TREC-2009: Relevance Feedback Track (United States)


    Carbonell and Goldstein [2] suggested the so-called Maximal Marginal Relevance (MMR) which attempts to reduce redundancy while maintaining relevance...Search and Data Mining, (Barcelona, Spain: ACM, 2009), pp. 5-14. 2. Carbonell , J. and Goldstein, J. The use of MMR, diversity-based reranking for

  12. Alligning vertical collection relevance with user intent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Ke; Demeester, Thomas; Nguyen, Dong; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Dolf


    Selecting and aggregating different types of content from multiple vertical search engines is becoming popular in web search. The user vertical intent, the verticals the user expects to be relevant for a particular information need, might not correspond to the vertical collection relevance, the vert

  13. 49 CFR 1150.13 - Relevant dates. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relevant dates. 1150.13 Section 1150.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Designated Operators § 1150.13 Relevant dates. The exact dates of the period of operation which have...

  14. Relevance ranking for vertical search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi


    In plain, uncomplicated language, and using detailed examples to explain the key concepts, models, and algorithms in vertical search ranking, Relevance Ranking for Vertical Search Engines teaches readers how to manipulate ranking algorithms to achieve better results in real-world applications. This reference book for professionals covers concepts and theories from the fundamental to the advanced, such as relevance, query intention, location-based relevance ranking, and cross-property ranking. It covers the most recent developments in vertical search ranking applications, such as freshness-based relevance theory for new search applications, location-based relevance theory for local search applications, and cross-property ranking theory for applications involving multiple verticals. It introduces ranking algorithms and teaches readers how to manipulate ranking algorithms for the best results. It covers concepts and theories from the fundamental to the advanced. It discusses the state of the art: development of ...

  15. 安徽省部分城市在校学生生物安全及传染病知信行状况调查%Survey on biosafety and knowledge,attitude and practice of infectious disease among students in Anhui Prov-ince

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道俊; 王效国; 荣青秀; 王丽雅; 武乐; 崔宁


    Objective To understand biosafety and knowledge,attitude and practice (KAP) of infectious dis-ease among students,and provide reference for infectious disease prevention in school.Methods 1139 students from 8 schools in Anhui Province were selected by stratified cluster sampling and a questionnaire survey was conducted.Results The knowledge level of biosafety among students was not enough,only 41.7% of them had heard of biosafety.The attention on flu A /H1N1 was higher.89.5% of them knew that there were patients who had been infected with A /H1N1 flu virus in China at present.But most of them were lack of knowledge about sexually transmitted disease (STD)and the awareness rate of AIDS transmission route was only 15.5%.Most were lack of right attitude and practice about the infectious disease.Con-clusion The students ’ cognition of biosafety and infectious disease is inadequate, which needs to be further improved.Specific,accessible and sustained health programs should be carried out according to students’characters.%目的:了解大、中学生对生物安全及传染病的知信行现状,为学校传染病预防工作提供参考。方法采用分层整群抽样方法,对安徽省部分城市的8所学校共1139名学生进行问卷调查。结果学生对生物安全的认识不够,仅41.7%的学生听说过生物安全。对甲流的关注度较高,89.5%的学生知道我国目前有甲流病人。对性传播疾病的知识较为匮乏,艾滋病传播途径的知晓率仅为15.5%。对传染病相关问题的正确态度和行为拥有率较低。结论学生对生物安全和传染病的认识还存在不足,有待进一步提高。学校可以根据大、中学生各自特点,制定具有针对性和可及性的持续的健康教育。

  16. Has Financial Statement Information become Less Relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper

    This paper presents insights into the question of whether accounting information based on the EU’s Accounting Directives has become less value-relevant to investors over time. The study is based on a research design first used by Francis and Schipper (1999), where value-relevance is measured......? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period....... The results provide some indication of a decline in the value-relevance of earnings information in the 1984-2001 period, and mixed, but not statistically reliable, evidence for accounting measures where book value information and asset values are also extracted from financial statements. The results seem...

  17. Interactions of Pellet with Reactor Relevant Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGLilin; DENGBaiquan; YANJiancheng


    Extended algorithm has been developed for ablation rate calculations of Li, Be, B impurity pellets and five combinations of solid isotopic hydrogenic H2, HD, D2, DT, T2 pellets. Numerical calculations have been performed for reactor relevant plasma.

  18. Relevant Perturbation of Entanglement Entropy and Stationarity

    CERN Document Server

    Nishioka, Tatsuma


    A relevant perturbation of the entanglement entropy of a sphere is examined holographically near the UV fixed point. Varying the conformal dimension of the relevant operator, we obtain three different sectors: 1) the entanglement entropy is stationary and the perturbative expansion is well-defined with respect to the relevant coupling, 2) the entropy is stationary, but the perturbation fails, 3) the entropy is neither stationary nor perturbative. We compare our holographic results with the numerical calculation for a free massive scalar field in three-dimensions, and find a qualitative agreement between them. We argue that these statements hold for any relevant perturbation in any quantum field theory invariant under the Poincare symmetry.

  19. The foundation of the concept of relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger


    be termed “the epistemological view”). The concept of relevance, like other basic concepts, is influenced by overall approaches to information science, such as the cognitive view and the domain-analytic view. There is today a trend toward a social paradigm for information science. This paper offers...... that what was regarded as the most fundamental view by Saracevic in 1975 has not since been considered (with very few exceptions). Other views, which are based on less fruitful assumptions, have dominated the discourse on relevance in information retrieval and information science. Many authors have...... reexamined the concept of relevance in information science, but have neglected the subject knowledge view, hence basic theoretical assumptions seem not to have been properly addressed. It is as urgent now as it was in 1975 seriously to consider “the subject knowledge view” of relevance (which may also...

  20. Population Education Discussed at World Conference on Education for All. (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter and Forum, 1990


    Reviewed are the roundtable discussions concerning the issues and strategies relevant to the connections between the implementation of programs for population education and the coordinated effort to support "Education for All" among the Asian countries participating in the World Conference on Education for All, organized by UNESCO during March…

  1. The Implications of Nyerere's Theory of Education to Contemporary Education in Kenya (United States)

    Nasongo, Joseph W.; Musungu, Lydiah L.


    The question of relevance regarding education in human society is perennial. In the developing countries, education is considered to be a panacea for development. In Kenya, various efforts at curricular review and reform have time and again been undertaken to address the relevance of education. This paper attempts to analyze Nyerere's theory of…

  2. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education. (United States)

    Waks, Shlomo


    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  3. Antonio Gramsci, Education and Science (United States)

    Balampekou, Matina; Floriotis, Georgis


    This paper explores how the ideas of a great political thinker and philosopher Antonio Gramsci, are relevant to education and science and to critical science education. One of the main points in Gramsci's analysis is the social value and impact of certain aspects of the superstructure. He understands that education is a means which can be used for…

  4. In the Dark: Young Men's Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.


    A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…

  5. 高等级生物安全实验室废水风险控制及评估研究%Environmental risk control and assessment studies of wastewater from high-level bio-safety laboratories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆改; 李时蓓; 丁峰; 赵晓宏; 李飒; 罗山; 任雅娟


    Objective To carry out studies on wastewater risk control and environmental risk assessment of high-level biosafety laboratories( BSL ). Methods Through retrieval and research of findings at home and abroad, the kind, infectivi-ty, and disposal processes of wastewater were analyzed, the risk incident nodes and ways of pollution transmission were analyzed systematically, and the infectivity of pathogenic microorganisms, severity of the risk, controllability, scope of influence , and infected populations were studied. Results A method of wastewater risk control was developed. A classification method, preventive measures and management methods of environmental risk assessment were proposed. Conclusion Environmental risk accidents caused by wastewater from a high-level BSL can be effectively prevented and dealt with by the methods proposed by this article.%目的 开展高等级生物安全实验室(BSL)的废水风险控制以及废水的环境风险评估研究,为高等级BSL废水的环境风险控制与管理服务.方法 通过检索国内外相关研究成果,系统分析了高等级BSL产生的废水种类、感染性及其处置流程,分析了可能产生环境风险事故的节点及污染传播途径,研究了病原微生物的感染性、风险严重程度、可控性、影响范围和感染人群等因素.结果 制定了高等级BSL废水风险控制的方法,提出了环境风险评估分级的方法以及高等级BSL风险防范措施.结论 通过本研究提出的高等级BSL废水风险控制的方法以及环境风险评估分级和管理的方法,可有效预防和处理高等级BSL废水引起的环境风险事故.

  6. Study on relevant factors influencing self-management of diabetic patients and the effects on whole course health education and nursing%影响糖尿病患者自我管理相关因素及全程健康教育护理效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹莹; 王琼琼; 吴鸿珠


    Objective To explore relevant factors influencing self-management of diabetic patients and the effects on whole course health education and nursing. Methods Clinical data of 248 diabetic patients who were admitted to Peo-ple's Hospital of Xinchang County from May 2012 to January 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. They were assigned to two groups according to their nursing methods. Control rate of blood sugar, master rate of knowledge on diabetes,self-management rate and satisfaction of patients were compared between both groups. Results Scores of knowledge on diabetes, self-efficacy, social support, age and cultural background were independent influencing factors for self-management of diabetic patients. Control rate of blood sugar, master rate of knowledge on diabetes, self-management rate and satisfaction of patients in the observation group were all higher than those in the control group, and the dif-ferences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients' age,cultural background,knowledge on diabetes,self-efficacy and social support are main influencing factors for self-management of diabetes. In clinical settings,whole course health education and nursing can be carried out, so as to improve patients' master rate of knowledge on diabetes,and optimize self-management levels.%目的:探讨影响糖尿病患者自我管理相关因素及全程健康教育护理效果。方法对2012年5月~2014年1月新昌县人民医院收治的248例糖尿病患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,根据护理方式分为两组,并比较两组血糖控制率、糖尿病知识掌握率、自我管理率、患者满意度。结果糖尿病知识得分、自我效能、社会支持、年龄、文化程度是糖尿病患者自我管理的独立影响因素。观察组血糖控制率、糖尿病知识掌握率、自我管理率、患者满意度均高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论患者的年龄、文化程度、糖尿病认知

  7. Professional Relevance in a Multilingual World (United States)

    Silver, Rita


    In renewing her TESOL membership for 2008, the author noted that the membership letter stated that TESOL is a "global professional organization for English language educators." This was of particular interest as she prepared for TESOL's Bilingual Education Interest Section (BEIS) 2008 session titled "Imagining Multilingual TESOL," because on a…

  8. 以科学知识和事实增进公众对转基因生物及其安全性的了解%Increase Public Understanding on Genetically Modified Organisms and Biosafety Issues Based on Scientific Knowledge and Facts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The rapid development of transgenic biotechnology and significantly increased global cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has aroused great concerns over the biosafety issues by public worldwide.Public has limited knowledge on biotechnology/transgenic products and biosafety in particular,resulted in suspicion and unnecessary fear.Owning to the challenge of world food security and the deterioration of global environment,it becomes unchangeable trends to apply new technologies,including biotechnology,to solve the problem of food security.In addition,the huge economic benefits brought by biotechnology products will also become one of the completive focal points for the countries with strong biotechnological capacity.As a member of the international community and an economic-emerging country,China cannot afford to lose the great opportunities to develop the technology.To increase public understanding on biotechnology,GM plants,and biosafety,this article introduced the concept and concerned areas particularly in biosafety,and discussed the benefits and potential impact associated with the technology,based on common knowledge and facts obtained from scientific research.The objective is to help public view biotechnology and biosafety in a more reasonable and scientific way.%转基因生物技术的飞速发展和全球转基因植物的大规模种植,引发了世界范围内的生物安全顾虑.大多数民众对生物技术、转基因产品以及生物安全的内容并不了解,因此产生了对生物技术及产品盲目的怀疑、甚至不必要的恐慌.由于全球的粮食安全问题和环境日益恶化,利用包括转基因生物技术在内的新技术来解决这些问题已成为世界的发展趋势,转基因技术产品带来的利益也已成为强手如林国际市场激烈竞争的焦点.中国作为新兴的发展中国家,不可坐失发展转基因生物技术,并占有世界市场一席之地的良机.为了增加民众对转基因生

  9. Studies on Relevance, Ranking and Results Display

    CERN Document Server

    Gelernter, Judith; Carbonell, Jaime


    This study considers the extent to which users with the same query agree as to what is relevant, and how what is considered relevant may translate into a retrieval algorithm and results display. To combine user perceptions of relevance with algorithm rank and to present results, we created a prototype digital library of scholarly literature. We confine studies to one population of scientists (paleontologists), one domain of scholarly scientific articles (paleo-related), and a prototype system (PaleoLit) that we built for the purpose. Based on the principle that users do not pre-suppose answers to a given query but that they will recognize what they want when they see it, our system uses a rules-based algorithm to cluster results into fuzzy categories with three relevance levels. Our system matches at least 1/3 of our participants' relevancy ratings 87% of the time. Our subsequent usability study found that participants trusted our uncertainty labels but did not value our color-coded horizontal results layout ...

  10. Osteoporosis Knowledge of Students in Relevant Healthcare Academic Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu H. Nguyen


    Full Text Available For healthcare professionals who treat individuals with osteoporosis, it is vital that they receive adequate education on osteoporosis to ensure sufficient knowledge of osteoporosis to properly treat individuals with the disease. To test for adequate osteoporosis education, a study was conducted to measure osteoporosis knowledge in 206 students in relevant healthcare academic programs, such as nursing, pharmacy, physical therapy, and dietetics. The study showed that differences existed in osteoporosis knowledge in general between the programs and between different years of students in the same programs. There were also discrepancies in specific areas of osteoporosis knowledge between the classes of students, and the average scores of correctly answered items were only as high as 24.40 (76.3% out of 32 items on osteoporosis knowledge. This study shows that students have osteoporosis knowledge and that it is not completely inadequate; however, osteoporosis knowledge could still be more sufficient, and results demonstrate the need to increase osteoporosis education in the curriculum for these healthcare academic programs to increase osteoporosis knowledge and better prepare graduates and professionals to treat individuals with the disease.

  11. Is relevance theory applicable to proverbs’ translation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegulescu Anca-Mariana


    Full Text Available Translation, viewed as a multi-faceted task, can arise different types of difficulties. Proverbs have been considered special patterns, displaying sometimes hidden meanings or suggesting morals issuing from a particular example. These paremic units - the proverbs - conveyed feelings, states of mind, behaviours or ‘metaphorical descriptions of certain situations’(Krikmann. Starting from Savory’s list of pair-wise contradictory translation principles, I intend to prove that the link between different ‘forms’ and their ‘contents’ lies in the principle of relevance when referring to proverbs. Even if relevance theory is not a theory of linguistic structure - and many translation problems imply structural mismatches - relevance theory offers insights about contextual information. Proverbs are seen as texts in themselves. My analysis will target the ethnofields of ‘to buy’ and ‘to sell’ in English proverbs and their Romanian corresponding versions.

  12. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Ophir


    Full Text Available Abstract We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus.

  13. Probing for Relevance: Information Theories and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dejica


    Full Text Available Recent studies claim that the more translators know about the structure and the dynamics of discourse, the more readily and accurately they can translate both the content and the spirit of a text. Similarly, international research projects highlight directions of research which aim at helping translators make reasonable and consistent decisions as to the relevance and reliability of source text features in the target text. Other recent studies stress the importance of developing information structure theories for translation. In line with such current research desiderata, the aim of this article is to test the relevance of information theories for translation. In the first part, information theories are presented from different linguistic perspectives. In the second part, their relevance for translation is tested on a series of texts by examining how they have been or can be applied to translation. The last part presents the conclusions of the analysis.

  14. Relevance of Search Engines for Modern Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trilok Gupta


    Full Text Available Web search engines have major impact in people‟s everyday life . It is of great i m p o r t a n c e to test the retrieval effectiveness of search e n g i n e s. However, it is labour-intensive to judge the relevance of search results for a large number of queries, and these relevance judgments may not be reusable since the Web data change all the time. Experiments on major search engines show that our approach mines many high- confidence rules that help understand search engines and detect suspicious search results.

  15. On synthesis of relevance and rigor



    This paper presents a critique of Freek Vermeulen’s synthesis of rigor and relevance in management research, and argues (1) at the first glance, Vermeulen’s papers are very appealing; (2) but with a closer scrutiny, we can unveil the weak and shaky foundations of his argument; (3) as a consequence, his solution of ‘adding a second loop’ to make management research meet dual needs of rigor and relevance is illusory and merely an applied science fiction; (4) and finally, there ar...

  16. Improved Relevance Ranking in WebGather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Ming; WANG Jianyong; CHEN Baojue; LI Xiaoming


    The amount of information on the web is growing rapidly, and search engines that rely on keyword matching usually return too many low quality matches. To improve search results, a challenging task for search engines is how to effectively calculate a relevance ranking for each web page. This paper discusses in what order a search engine should return the URLs it has produced in response to a user's query, so as to show more relevant pages first.Emphasis is given on the ranking functions adopted by WebGather that take link structure and user popularity factors into account. Experimental results are also presented to evaluate the proposed strategy.

  17. A Life with the Sociology of Education (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff


    In this article, the author talks about a life with the sociology of education. He begins by describing the "old" and "new" sociologies of education. Then, he discusses the sociology of education policy and the relevance of Basil Bernstein, who remained the dominant presence within the sociology of education in the UK until his…

  18. A Life with the Sociology of Education (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff


    In this article, the author talks about a life with the sociology of education. He begins by describing the "old" and "new" sociologies of education. Then, he discusses the sociology of education policy and the relevance of Basil Bernstein, who remained the dominant presence within the sociology of education in the UK until his death in 2000 and…

  19. Pairwise Document Classification for Relevance Feedback (United States)


    Pairwise Document Classification for Relevance Feedback Jonathan L. Elsas, Pinar Donmez, Jamie Callan, Jaime G. Carbonell Language Technologies...Collins-Thompson and J. Callan. Query expansion using random walk models. In CIKM ’05, page 711. ACM, 2005. [5] P. Donmez and J. Carbonell . Paired

  20. Relevance, Pertinence and Information System Development (United States)

    Kemp, D. A.


    The difference between pertinence and relevance is discussed. Other pairs of terms and the differences between their members are examined, and the suggestion is made that such studies could increase our understanding of the theory of information systems, and thence lead to practical improvements. (Author)

  1. 28 CFR 51.57 - Relevant factors. (United States)


    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Determinations by the Attorney General § 51.57 Relevant... afforded members of racial and language minority groups an opportunity to participate in the decision to... language minority groups into account in making the change....

  2. Why ritual plant use has ethnopharmacological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiroz, Diana; Sosef, Marc; Andel, Van Tinde


    Ethnopharmacological relevance Although ritual plant use is now recognised both for its socio-cultural importance and for its contribution to nature conservation, its potential pharmacological effects remain overlooked. Aim of the study Our objective was to see whether ritual plant use could have

  3. The Relevance of Anthropology to Language Teaching (United States)

    McLeod, Beverly


    The relevance of anthropological theory, methodology, and literature to language teaching is discussed. It is argued that culture should be taught explicitly in the language classroom, and that the anthropological theory of cultural relativity is useful in creating a judgment-free atmosphere. (Author/RM)

  4. Pragmatic inferences and self-relevant judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puente-Diaz, Rogelio; Cavazos Arroyo, Judith; Brem, Alexander


    Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cogni- tion. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1 with a representa...

  5. Developing and Enacting Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Voices of New Teachers of Color (United States)

    Borrero, Noah E.; Flores, Esther; de la Cruz, Gabriel


    A group of preservice and first year teachers share their experiences as new teachers of Color entering the profession in urban public schools. Specifically, these novice teachers discuss the transition from an urban education teacher preparation program into the classroom and their successes and challenges enacting culturally relevant pedagogy.…

  6. Drawing students' attention to relevant assessment criteria: effects on self-assessment skills and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen


    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., Sluijsmans, D., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012). Drawing students’ attention to relevant assessment criteria: effects on self-assessment skills and performance. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 64(2), 185-198. doi:10.1080/13636820.2011.630537

  7. Making Economics Relevant: A Project for Measuring Price Discrimination in Supermarkets (United States)

    Steel, William F.


    This note describes a supermarket discrimination study which involves students in a controversial question of concern to them and their community, requiring the application of economic principles to achieve a basic understanding of the meaning and implications of the problem and thus providing students with "relevant" economics education. (JH)

  8. Relevance of Student Teaching Skills and Activities from the Perspective of the Student Teacher (United States)

    Smalley, Scott W.; Retallick, Michael S.; Paulsen, Thomas H.


    The purpose of this descriptive survey study was to determine the extent to which student teachers deem traditional student teaching skills and activities relevant as part of the capstone student teaching experience. The study population consisted of all (N = 140) fall 2012 and spring 2013 agricultural education student teachers in the North…

  9. The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience for the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert


    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscientific concepts into TEL research. We caution…

  10. The Practical Relevance of Accountability Systems for School Improvement: A Descriptive Analysis of California Schools (United States)

    Mintrop, Heinrich; Trujillo, Tina


    In search for the practical relevance of accountability systems for school improvement, the authors ask whether practitioners traveling between the worlds of system-designated high- and low-performing schools would detect tangible differences in educational quality and organizational effectiveness. In comparing nine exceptionally high and low…

  11. Improving Strategic Planning and Implementation in Universities through Competitive Intelligence Tools: A Means to Gaining Relevance (United States)

    Hughes, Stephanie; White, Rebecca J.


    Institutions of higher education can use competitive intelligence (CI) techniques to become more relevant to their communities. In Stepping Forward as Stewards of Place the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) provides a model for public engagement that emphasizes internal strategic planning, implementation, and…

  12. A Spot of Our Own: The Cultural Relevancy, Anti-Bias Resource Room. (United States)

    Gann, Cory


    Describes the Cultural Relevancy, Anti-Bias Resource Room at conference of the Washington State Association for the Education of Young Children. Discusses how the exhibit was structured and evaluated; suggests ways to organize a similar resource. Maintains that providing hands-on materials is key to the exhibit's effectiveness and that the exhibit…

  13. The Relevance of Workplace Learning in Guiding Student and Curriculum Development (United States)

    Nduna, N. J.


    In an attempt to demonstrate the relevance of workplace learning (previously known as "cooperative education") in guiding student and curriculum development, this article presents findings from a research project on the current practice of workplace learning, drawn from an analysis of evaluation reports in a university of technology.…

  14. A 10-Year Mechatronics Curriculum Development Initiative: Relevance, Content, and Results--Part I (United States)

    Das, S.; Yost, S. A.; Krishnan, M.


    This paper describes the first phase of a Mechatronics Curriculum Development effort--the design of an "Introduction to Mechatronics" course, the infusion of mechatronics activities throughout the curriculum and in outreach activities, and assessment results. In addition, the relevance and impact of such a curriculum on the education of engineers…

  15. Leading for Democracy in Urban Schools: Toward a Culturally Relevant Progressivism (United States)

    Seher, Rachel


    The article examines the enactment of culturally relevant progressivism on the part of the principal of the Social Justice School, a small urban public high school explicitly committed to democratic education. Drawing upon extensive interviews and field observations conducted over the course of an academic year by a teacher-researcher within the…

  16. The bioethics and biosafety of gene transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine H.; Sandøe, Peter


    things, indirect and long-term environmental effects are now included. Other major socio-economic concerns — e.g. lack of demonstrated usefulness to society, and the consumer’s right to choose non-GM food products — have been debated. This debate has led to regulations designed to permit the co...... universally adopted principles on which risk assessments are based. Despite this focus on risk prevention, genetically modified (GM) crops have given rise to controversies over the last 10–15 years. It is argued that one reason for this is that the early regulatory frameworks did not adequately address...... the concerns that seem to underlie public resistance to GM crops. Some of these concerns are about risks which lie beyond the issues addressed by the authorities who approve GM crops. Awareness of these concerns has led to a tightening of the regulatory requirements in the European Union where, among other...

  17. Assessing biosafety of GM plants containing lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Pedersen, Jan W.


    of the lectins that are potentially useful for insect resistance will pose no health risk in genetically modified (GM) plants. Since some lectins are known for their toxicity to humans, the insertion of lectin genes in food crop plants will have to be assessed carefully. It is expected that in some cases...... there will be a need to perform animal tests of such GM plants in order to eliminate any uncertainties about potential safety issues for these plants. A 90-day study designed and optimized for this purpose is suggested as one way to cope with these uncertainties....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belem Diosdado-Ramos


    Full Text Available This paper presents the progress of ongoing research we do for the Master of Education for Peace and Coexistence of Indigenous Autonomous University of Mexico School. Which has as its central thesis conviviality at school is built through an ethical and dialogical relationship between individual subjects who interact in high school as a space of multiculturalism. Interest in relationships and structures emanating from horizontality and the community is exposed. Additional argues the relevance of the documentation of the voices emanating from these practices to raise a profound reflection on the educational processes towards the formation of a different regulation stipulated by the curricular speech or educational organization.

  19. Education, education, education

    CERN Multimedia


    Education is a recurring theme of our 60th anniversary year, as I was reminded last week when we had a visit from the winners of the Spanish schools competition launched with the Prince of Asturias Award prize money (see here).   Young people are always remarkable in their curiosity and inventiveness, and this was very clear in all the submissions for the competition. I was most impressed with the six winners, but have to give a special mention to the youngest, Sofía Isabella Villamizar Villegas, who at just seven years of age made a lovely video explaining the Higgs mechanism by analogy to moving a balloon with and without static charge through a field of suspended strips of paper. It was not only charming, but also very effective as analogies go. The Spanish visit came in the middle of judging to find a winner of the Beamline for Schools competition, which closed at the end of March having received almost 300 proposals for experiments from schools all over the world. These vary ...

  20. Making Geoscience Data Relevant for Students, Teachers, and the Public (United States)

    Taber, M.; Ledley, T. S.; Prakash, A.; Domenico, B.


    The scientific data collected by government funded research belongs to the public. As such, the scientific and technical communities are responsible to make scientific data accessible and usable by the educational community. However, much geoscience data are difficult for educators and students to find and use. Such data are generally described by metadata that are narrowly focused and contain scientific language. Thus, data access presents a challenge to educators in determining if a particular dataset is relevant to their needs, and to effectively access and use the data. The AccessData project (EAR-0623136, EAR-0305058) has developed a model for bridging the scientific and educational communities to develop robust inquiry-based activities using scientific datasets in the form of Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET, chapters. EET chapters provide step-by-step instructions for accessing specific data and analyzing it with a software analysis tool to explore issues or concepts in science, technology, and mathematics. The AccessData model involves working directly with small teams made up of data providers from scientific data archives or research teams, data analysis tool specialists, scientists, curriculum developers, and educators (AccessData, The process involves a number of steps including 1) building of the team; 2) pre-workshop facilitation; 3) face-to-face 2.5 day workshop; 4) post-workshop follow-up; 5) completion and review of the EET chapter. The AccessData model has been evolved over a series of six annual workshops hosting ~10 teams each. This model has been expanded to other venues to explore expanding its scope and sustainable mechanisms. These venues include 1) workshops focused on the data collected by a large research program (RIDGE, EarthScope); 2) a workshop focused on developing a citizen scientist guide to conducting research; and 3) facilitating a team on an annual basis

  1. Analysis of the Relevant Factors of Retaining Women in Judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Sindik


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the latent dimensions of all relevant factors about engagement of women in judo, to determine the intercorrelations among these latent dimensions, as well as the correlations with three relevant variables. Final goal was to determine the differences in revealed latent dimensions, in relation to several independent variables: educational level, marital status, impulses to engage in judo, then depending are the women athletes (competitors or not, members of the Board or not, trainers or not. A total of 50 female judokas from a larger number of Croatian clubs were examined, by specially composed the survey. The results showed that all seven questionnaires showed medium to high satisfactory reliability, together with good con¬struct validity, in 15 latent dimensions that are revealed. It can be noticed that relatively older women have more obligations and more barriers that oppose to their engagement in judo. Only small number of differences are found among women engaged in judo, mainly among participants who are members of the Board in the club or Croatian Judo Federation, as compared with those who are not. Small number of statistically significant differences (as well as the correlations can be also observed as the fact that all women partially share similar problems, while the media strategies are perceived as the most powerful to increase women’s persistence in judo, in any type of engagement.

  2. GMO Biosafety Management, Suggestions and Biotech Public Acceptance in China%我国转基因作物安全管理体系介绍、发展建议及生物技术舆论导向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康乐; 陈明


    17年间,转基因作物在全球的种植面积逐渐扩大了100倍,截止2012年已经达到1.7亿公顷,产生了巨大的经济效益、社会效益和生态效益.我国转基因作物发展迅速,目前已有7种转基因植物获得生产应用安全证书,转基因棉花占全国棉花种植面积的80%.为保障转基因生物安全,我国已建立了完整的转基因生物安全管理体系,包括安全管理机构、政策、法规,转基因生物及其产品如环境安全评价、食品安全性评价及成份测定的技术标准.另一方面,我国转基因作物安全管理及安全评价体系仍然需要完善,本文针对现阶段存在的问题提出了改进及完善的建议.同时,本文分析了我国转基因作物舆情,列举了近来国内外所谓的转基因作物安全事件并揭示了事件的真实情况,提倡理性看待转基因作物的发展,为我国转基因研发与产业化营造积极的舆论氛围.%GM crops have been commercialized for 17 years all over the world,and brought great economic,social and ecological benefits to growers and the world.China has approved 7 GM crops for planting,among which Bt cotton accounts for 80% of cotton planting area.In this article,we reviewed development and application of GM crop internationally and domestically.The policy on GM crops in China including regulations,guidelines,food and environmental safety assessment are also briefly introduced.Some existing problems and suggestions on China's biosafety management and regulator process are also described in this review.Finally,the authors advocate rational understanding of GM crops to create a positive atmosphere for public acceptance,which will benefit research,development and commercialization of GM crops in China.

  3. Relevance of Dynamic Clustering to Biological Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, K


    Abstract Network of nonlinear dynamical elements often show clustering of synchronization by chaotic instability. Relevance of the clustering to ecological, immune, neural, and cellular networks is discussed, with the emphasis of partially ordered states with chaotic itinerancy. First, clustering with bit structures in a hypercubic lattice is studied. Spontaneous formation and destruction of relevant bits are found, which give self-organizing, and chaotic genetic algorithms. When spontaneous changes of effective couplings are introduced, chaotic itinerancy of clusterings is widely seen through a feedback mechanism, which supports dynamic stability allowing for complexity and diversity, known as homeochaos. Second, synaptic dynamics of couplings is studied in relation with neural dynamics. The clustering structure is formed with a balance between external inputs and internal dynamics. Last, an extension allowing for the growth of the number of elements is given, in connection with cell differentiation. Effecti...

  4. A nonparametric approach for relevance determination

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbaba, Babak


    The problem of evaluating a large number of factors in terms of their relevance to an outcome of interest arises in many research areas such as genetics, image processing, astrophysics, and neuroscience. In this paper, we argue that treating such problems as large-scale hypothesis testing does not reflect the usual motivation behind these studies, which is to select a subset of promising factors for further investigation. and leads investigators to rely on arbitrary selection mechanisms (e.g., setting the false discovery rate at 0.05) or unrealistic loss functions. Moreover, while we might be able to justify simplifying assumptions (e.g., parametric distributional forms for test statistics under the null and alternative hypotheses) for classic hypothesis testing situations (i.e., one hypothesis at a time), generalizing such assumptions to large-scale studies is restrictive and unnecessary. In accordance with the objective of such studies, we propose to treat them as relevance determination problems. This way,...

  5. Tomographic diagnosis and relevant aspects of otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Moreira, Wanderval; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: [Hospital Mater Dei-Mater Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    A literature review and pictorial essay were developed to discuss the importance of knowing the main findings and locations of otosclerosis at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of otosclerosis diagnosed in their institution by means of high resolution multidetector computed tomography. Otosclerosis corresponds to otic capsule dysplasia characterized by metabolic derangement of its endochondral layer. Such condition constitutes a relevant cause of sensorineural hearing loss, affecting about 7% to 10% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but imaging methods play a significant role in the anatomical detailing, differential diagnosis, surgical planning and evaluation of postoperative complications. Among such methods, the relevance of MDCT is highlighted. Radiologists should be familiar with the MDCT findings of otosclerosis, as well as with the temporal bone anatomy to assist in the appropriate clinical management of this disease. (author)

  6. La vigència de la Bauhaus en els ensenyaments artístics actuals The Relevance of the Bauhaus in the Present Arts Education La vigencia de la Bauhaus en la educación artística actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begonya Samit Cid


    époque de la Bauhaus, et si l’on peut trouver des influences de la Bauhaus dans les enseignements artistiques actuels. En tenant compte de l’importance de ces deux aspects, nous avons orienté notre domaine d’étude dans deux directions : la couleur et la composition. _____________________________________________This article addresses arts education and sets out to explore the relationship between aspects of the Bauhaus approach to teaching (1919-1933 and present-day teaching practices in Barcelona. One of the key focuses of the piece is to show the differing interests at work in the two cases. An extensive bibliography is offered on the Bauhaus and on the modernity and/or contemporaneity of its approach. This has led us to a consideration of questions concerning the relevance of the Bauhaus today. In establishing how the two historical contexts are related, we focus on the work of students. We examine whether there are exercises today that have remained unchanged since the time of the Bauhaus and whether we can find Bauhaus influences in present-day arts education. Keeping the breadth of the two aspects in mind, we have limited the study to two disciplines: colour and composition.El presente artículo se inscribe en el ámbito de la educación artística y pretende poner en relación aspectos de la pedagogía de la Bauhaus (1919-1933 con la educación artística actual en Barcelona. Han confluido diferentes intereses en la propuesta de esta relación. Destacaremos la amplia bibliografía que se ha producido sobre la Bauhaus y la modernidad y/o contemporaneidad de algunas de las propuestas de la escuela. Esto nos ha llevado a plantearnos cuestiones referentes a la vigencia de la Bauhaus en la actualidad. Para establecer la relación entre los dos contextos históricos, tomaremos el trabajo de los alumnos como hilo conductor y fijaremos la atención en si hoy en día hay ejercicios que se mantienen invariables desde los tiempos de la Bauhaus, y si podemos encontrar

  7. [Clinical relevance of cardiopulmonary reflexes in anesthesiology]. (United States)

    Guerri-Guttenberg, R A; Siaba-Serrate, F; Cacheiro, F J


    The baroreflex, chemoreflex, pulmonary reflexes, Bezold-Jarisch and Bainbridge reflexes and their interaction with local mechanisms, are a demonstration of the richness of cardiovascular responses that occur in human beings. As well as these, the anesthesiologist must contend with other variables that interact by attenuating or accentuating cardiopulmonary reflexes such as, anesthetic drugs, surgical manipulation, and patient positioning. In the present article we review these reflexes and their clinical relevance in anesthesiology.

  8. Functional dyspepsia: Are psychosocial factors of relevance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Barry; Timothy G Dinan


    The pathogenesis of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) remains unclear, appears diverse and is thus inadequately understood. Akin to other functional gastrointestinal disorders, research has demonstrated an association between this common diagnosis and psychosocial factors and psychiatric morbidity. Conceptualising the relevance of these factors within the syndrome of FD requires application of the biopsychosocial model of disease.Using this paradigm, dysregulation of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the gut is central to symptom generation, interpretation and exacerbation.Appreciation and understanding of the neurobiological correlates of various psychological states is also relevant.The view that psychosocial factors exert their influence in FD predominantly through motivation of health care seeking also persists. This appears too one-dimensional an assertion in light of the evidence available supporting a more intrinsic aetiological link. Evolving understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and the heterogeneous nature of the syndrome will facilitate effective management.Co-morbid psychiatric illness warrants treatment with conventional therapies. Acknowledging the relevance of psychosocial variables in FD, the degree of which is subject to variation, has implications for assessment and management. Available evidence suggests psychological therapies may benefit FD patients particularly those with chronic symptoms. The rationale for use of psychotropic medications in FD is apparent but the evidence base to support the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date limited.

  9. Feature subset selection based on relevance (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Bell, David; Murtagh, Fionn

    In this paper an axiomatic characterisation of feature subset selection is presented. Two axioms are presented: sufficiency axiom—preservation of learning information, and necessity axiom—minimising encoding length. The sufficiency axiom concerns the existing dataset and is derived based on the following understanding: any selected feature subset should be able to describe the training dataset without losing information, i.e. it is consistent with the training dataset. The necessity axiom concerns the predictability and is derived from Occam's razor, which states that the simplest among different alternatives is preferred for prediction. The two axioms are then restated in terms of relevance in a concise form: maximising both the r( X; Y) and r( Y; X) relevance. Based on the relevance characterisation, four feature subset selection algorithms are presented and analysed: one is exhaustive and the remaining three are heuristic. Experimentation is also presented and the results are encouraging. Comparison is also made with some well-known feature subset selection algorithms, in particular, with the built-in feature selection mechanism in C4.5.

  10. Valerian: No Evidence for Clinically Relevant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Kelber


    Full Text Available In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients.

  11. Multiple Enactments of Educational Research (United States)

    Landri, Paolo


    The article addresses the widespread claim to make educational research more relevant for practitioners, policy makers, potential users and stakeholders, and proposes a problematisation of the notion of "useful knowledge". The article illustrates the conceptual, instrumental and legitimative relevance of knowledge and highlights empirically the…

  12. Contextual Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish


    Full Text Available When the knowledge gained over centuries has to be presented to students through a 12-15 year study, it has to be abridged and organized elaborately. This process of encapsulating all knowledge into an educational course often results in fragmentation of knowledge and a mental divorce from life. Life knowledge that is reduced to objective principles may be intelligible to the intellect, but is incomprehensible to the imagination, creativity and emotional intelligence, all of which are important to the full development of personality. A study of Economics without the human and social dimensions, industrialization detached from ecology, or science devoid of moral accountability results in problems. Education of each part must be in the context of the whole. Knowing the whole context helps one get the right perspective to address the issue effectively. In the education of the future, the gap between abstract concept and social relevance must be bridged. The following article explores the need for contextual education and the ways in which it can be implemented.

  13. User's Relevance of PIR System Based on Cloud Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Hai-yan; FAN Xiao-zhong


    A new method to evaluate fuzzily user's relevance on the basis of cloud models has been proposed.All factors of personalized information retrieval system are taken into account in this method. So using this method for personalized information retrieval (PIR) system can efficiently judge multi-value relevance, such as quite relevant, comparatively relevant, commonly relevant, basically relevant and completely non-relevant,and realize a kind of transform of qualitative concepts and quantity and improve accuracy of relevance judgements in PIR system. Experimental data showed that the method is practical and valid. Evaluation results are more accurate and approach to the fact better.

  14. Environmental biosafety of transgenic plants:research and assessment of transgene escape and its potential ecological impacts%转基因植物的环境生物安全:转基因逃逸及其潜在生态风险的研究和评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢宝荣; 夏辉


    转基因作物的商品化生产和大规模环境释放在带来巨大利益的同时,也引起了全球对其生物安全问题的广泛关注和争议,其中转基因通过花粉介导的基因漂移逃逸到非转基因作物及其野生近缘种,进而导致的潜在环境和生态风险就是备受争议的生物安全问题之一.转基因植物的环境生物安全涉及两方面关键问题:如何科学评价转基因植物商品化种植以后带来的环境和生态影响;如何利用环境生物安全的研究成果来制定科学有效的风险监测和管理措施.对转基因逃逸及其潜在生态风险的科学评价应包括三个重要环节:(1)检测转基因的逃逸的频率;(2)检测转基因逃逸后的表达和遗传规律;(3)确定逃逸后的转基因对野生近缘种群体适合度的影响及其进化潜力.本文将围绕对转基因逃逸及其潜在环境风险的科学评价,以转基因水稻为案例来对转基因逃逸带来生态影响的研究好评价的进展进行简要介绍,并对目前依据风险评价研究成果制定的各种管理策略进行了讨论.只有提高对转基因生物环境安全研究和评价的水平,并制定有效的风险监测和管理措施,才能为我国转基因技术的发展和转基因产品的商品化应用保驾护航.%The commercialization and extensive environmental release of transgenic crops have not only brought huge economic and social benefits, but also aroused worldwide concerns and debates over the biosafety issues.Among these, transgene escape via gene flow and its potential environmental risks is the most debated issue. There are two important aspects concerning environmental biosafety of transgenic plants: how to effectively assess environmental impacts brought by transgenic plants after extensive commercial cultivation; and how to strategically utilize scientific results obtained from research and assessment to effectively mitigate and manage the potential ecological

  15. Aligning Capabilities of Interactive Educational Tools to Learner Goals (United States)

    Lauwers, Tom


    This thesis is about a design process for creating "educationally relevant" tools. I submit that the key to creating tools that are educationally relevant is to focus on ensuring a high degree of alignment between the designed tool and the broader educational context into which the tool will be integrated. The thesis presents methods and processes…

  16. Vocational and Academic Education and Political Engagement: The Importance of the Educational Institutional Structure (United States)

    van de Werfhorst, Herman G.


    It is hardly disputed that educational institutions carry responsibility for the education of democratic citizens through the enhancement of civic and political engagement. Despite the wealth of studies on civic and citizenship education, scholars have not yet examined the relevance of national educational institutional factors. This study…

  17. Beyond Relevance: In Praise of Useless Knowledge (United States)

    Ikpe, I. B.


    The influence of positivism in education has been on the increase in the recent past, with academic departments increasingly being asked to justify the money spent on them and show some level of cost effectiveness. There is no other cluster of academic disciplines that is adversely affected by new wave of positivism as the Humanities which is…

  18. Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries (United States)

    Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.


    (ISRO) is already a part of the International initiative called Satellite Aided Search and Rescue System. The programme to set up satellite-based Village Resource Centres (VRCs) across India, for providing a variety of services relevant to the rural communities, is also a unique societal application of space technology. The VRCs are envisaged as single window delivery mechanism for a variety of space-based products and services, such as tele-education; telemedicine; information on natural resources for planning and development at local level; interactive advisories on agriculture, fisheries, land and water resources management, livestock management, etc.; interactive vocational training towards alternative livelihood; e-governance; weather information; etc. This paper describes the various possibilities and potentials of Satcom and Remote Sensing technologies for societal applications. The initiatives taken by Indian Space Research Organisation in this direction are highlighted.

  19. Educational Thinking and the Conservation of the Revolutionary (United States)

    Duarte, Eduardo Manuel


    Background/Context: Prior work on Hannah Arendt and education has focused on democratic education, multicultural education, and conservatism in education. Most of these studies have concentrated on her essay, "The Crisis in Education." While this study extends that work, it does so by taking up the lesser studied but equally relevant piece,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. COLLINS


    Full Text Available Online professional development (oPD for teachers should focus on designing web-based learning opportunities that help practicing educators solve the tough problems of practice when working in their schools. Technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge can be integrated in the design of online professional development modules to enhance task relevance for maximum learning and transformation. The purpose of this study was to learn which tasks in an online professional development module were ranked by in-service educators as relevant to their work with English language learners (ELLs. Using Q methodology, the researcher asked participants to rank the relevancy of 36 online tasks from an online professional development module designed and developed at an American university. Participants used a -5 to 5 forced distribution to rank online activities from “Least relevant to my work with ELLs” to “Most relevant to my work with ELLs” followed by a semi-structured interview to explain their decisions. After data analysis, two factors emerged, indicating that participants’ perceptions on task relevance differed by professional roles and educational settings. The participants also favored didactic online tasks over interactive tasks. The findings from the oPD participants’ responses have the potential to serve as the basis for future online professional development design and for planning other relevant activities to be applied to the e-learning environment.

  1. Science education through informal education (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Dopico, Eduardo


    To develop the pedagogic efficiency of informal education in science teaching, promoting a close cooperation between institutions is suggested by Monteiro, Janerine, de Carvalho, and Martins. In their article, they point out effective examples of how teachers and educators work together to develop programs and activities at informal education places such as science museums. Their study explored and discussed the viability and relevancy of school visits to museums and possibilities to enhance the connection between students' visits in informal contexts and their learning in schools. Given that students learn science by crossing the boundaries of formal and informal learning contexts, it is critical to examine ways of integrated and collaborative approach to develop scientific literacy to help students think, act and communicate as members of problem solving communities. In this forum, we suggest the importance of students' lifeworld contexts in informal learning places as continuum of Monteiro, Janerine, de Carvalho, and Martins' discussion on enhancing the effectiveness of informal learning places in science education.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian-Dan COSTEA


    Full Text Available The research in accounting with specific application on capital markets represents a special resort of accounting research. The development of such studies was favored by the evolution and strong growth of capital markets in our daily contemporary life and by the extention of base accounting concepts to international level. In such circumstances, studies regarding the evolution of concepts like value relevance, efficient markets, accounting information and its dissemination, fair value, are welcomed on the field of accounting research with applicability to the capital markets. This study comes to outline some positions regarding this topic of accounting research.

  3. Women with epilepsy: clinically relevant issues. (United States)

    Bangar, S; Shastri, Abhishek; El-Sayeh, Hany; Cavanna, Andrea E


    Women with epilepsy (WWE) face specific challenges throughout their lifespan due to the effects of seizures and antiepileptic drugs on hormonal function, potentially affecting both sexual and reproductive health. This review article addresses the most common issues of practical relevance to clinicians treating WWE: epidemiology and clinical presentations (including catamenial epilepsy), contraception, reproductive and sexual dysfunction, pregnancy, lactation, menopause-related issues (including bone health), and mental health aspects. Awareness of these gender-specific issues and implementation/adaptation of effective interventions for WWE results in significantly improved health-related quality of life in this patient population.

  4. Happiness: origins, forms, and technical relevance. (United States)

    Akhtar, Salman


    By critically reviewing Freud's views on happiness, and also those of Helene Deutsch, Bertram Lewin, Melanie Klein, and Heinz Kohut, the author evolves a complex and multilayered perspective on the phenomenon. He categorizes happiness into four related and occasionally overlapping varieties: pleasure-based happiness (elation), assertion-based happiness (joy), merger-based happiness (ecstasy), and fulfillment-based happiness (contentment). After entering some caveats and drawing from his clinical experience, the author then demonstrates the relevance of these ideas to the conduct of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic, Z.


    Full Text Available A basic ingredient of any market selection program is the availability of market information. As a general observation, the sources of international market and product information can be characterized as overwhelming, the problem being to identify the relevant data when needed. For international marketers this identification problem can be partly solved through the establishment of computerized databases, which must be continually screened and updated. For selecting new markets, and to support ongoing decisions, marketing decision support systems have been developed to simplify the whole process.

  6. Profiles of Educational Assessment Systems Worldwide: Educational Assessment in Portugal (United States)

    Fernandes, Domingos


    This article outlines and discusses the fundamental parts of the current "Portuguese Assessment System" for both basic mandatory education (Grades 1-9) and secondary education (Grades 10-12). It provides a brief description of some of the most relevant current curriculum development trends such as: (1) the emphasis on vocational…

  7. Educação instrumental e formação cidadã: observações críticas sobre a pertinência social da universidade Instrumental civic education and critical training: remarks on the university of social relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Goergen


    Full Text Available O ensaio examina a relação entre universidade e sociedade desde a perspectiva dos conceitos de educação instrumental e educação cidadã. Argumenta que a pertinência social da universidade deve responder ao critério de justiça social e democracia que suas contribuições visam incrementar. Restrito ao aspecto do ensino, sob o recorte conceitual da educação instrumental e educação cidadã, o texto sugere que não cabe à universidade promover uma educação instrumental focada apenas na adaptação dos estudantes à realidade socioeconômica, mas também, formar cidadãos autônomos, críticos e reflexivos, socialmente competentes.The paper examines the relationship between university and society from an approach based on instrumental education and civic education. It is argued that the university's social pertinence must address the criteria that its contributions seek to foster, such as social justice and democracy. Restricted to the aspect of teaching, under the conceptual framework of instrumental education and citizen education, the text suggests that it is not up to the university to promote an instrumental education focused on student's adaptation to the social and economic reality, but to shape autonomous, critical and reflexive citizens who are socially competent.

  8. Relevancy Ranking of Satellite Dataset Search Results (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Quinn, Patrick; Norton, James


    As the Variety of Earth science datasets increases, science researchers find it more challenging to discover and select the datasets that best fit their needs. The most common way of search providers to address this problem is to rank the datasets returned for a query by their likely relevance to the user. Large web page search engines typically use text matching supplemented with reverse link counts, semantic annotations and user intent modeling. However, this produces uneven results when applied to dataset metadata records simply externalized as a web page. Fortunately, data and search provides have decades of experience in serving data user communities, allowing them to form heuristics that leverage the structure in the metadata together with knowledge about the user community. Some of these heuristics include specific ways of matching the user input to the essential measurements in the dataset and determining overlaps of time range and spatial areas. Heuristics based on the novelty of the datasets can prioritize later, better versions of data over similar predecessors. And knowledge of how different user types and communities use data can be brought to bear in cases where characteristics of the user (discipline, expertise) or their intent (applications, research) can be divined. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System has begun implementing some of these heuristics in the relevancy algorithm of its Common Metadata Repository search engine.

  9. Culturally Relevant Texts and Reading Assessment for English Language Learners (United States)

    Ebe, Ann E.


    This article reports on a study that explored the relationship between reading proficiency and cultural relevance of text for third-grade English Language Learners (ELLs). The author presents the Cultural Relevance Rubric that helps define and determine cultural relevance of texts. Participants used the rubric to rate the cultural relevance of two…

  10. A Tentative Study on the Relevance of Progressivism to ELT:Perspective of Learner-centredness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    For the sake of its inseparability to the science of language, English language teaching (ELT) tends to be researched, despite diverse voices within its domain, from the perspective of linguistics. It is noticeable, however, that ELT in this research conducted is literally referred to as an educational conception, though pertinent linguistics knowledge is to be inevitably in-volved. Given this situation, ELT is categorised as an intra-discipline of education, establishing the basic ground of the academic enquiries throughout the context. Relevant issues are to be further examined concerning to what extent learner-centredness mani-fests its definition within modern pedagogical approaches and methods of ELT, so as to indicate the philosophical significance of education in language teaching. A critical insight is to be given into the limitations of learner-centredness in ELT practice through two case studies thereafter, which is expected to benefit the development of ELT professionalism in the changing prac-tice of language education.

  11. Responding to a Relevance Imperative in School Science and Mathematics: Humanising the Curriculum Through Story (United States)

    Darby-Hobbs, Linda


    There has been a recent push to reframe curriculum and pedagogy in ways that make school more meaningful and relevant to students' lives and perceived needs. This `relevance imperative' is evident in contemporary rhetoric surrounding quality education, and particularly in relation to the junior secondary years where student disengagement with schooling continues to abate. This paper explores how teachers translate this imperative into their mathematics and science teaching. Interview data and critical incidents from classroom practice are used to explore how six teachers attempted to make the subject matter meaningful for their students. Four `Categories of Meaning Making' emerged, highlighting key differences in how the nature of science and mathematics content constrained or enabled linkages between content and students' lifeworlds. While the teachers demonstrated a commitment to humanising the subject at some level, this analysis has shown that expecting teachers to make the curriculum relevant is not unproblematic because the meaning of relevance as a construct is complex, subject-specific, and embedded in understanding the human dimensions of learning, using, and identifying with, content. Through an examination of the construct of relevance and a humanistic turn in mathematics and science literature I argue for an expanded notion of relevance.

  12. Sleep supports selective retention of associative memories based on relevance for future utilization. (United States)

    van Dongen, Eelco V; Thielen, Jan-Willem; Takashima, Atsuko; Barth, Markus; Fernández, Guillén


    An outstanding question is whether memory consolidation occurs passively or involves active processes that selectively stabilize memories based on future utility. Here, we differentially modulated the expected future relevance of two sets of picture-location associations after learning. Participants first studied two sets of picture-location associations. After a baseline memory test, they were instructed that only one set of associations would be retested after a 14-hour delay. For half of the participants, this test-retest delay contained a night of sleep; for the other half the delay included a normal working day. At retest, participants were re-instructed and against their expectations tested on both sets of associations. Our results show that post-learning instruction about subsequent relevance selectively improves memory retention for specific associative memories. This effect was sleep-dependent; it was present only in the group of subjects for which the test-retest delay contained sleep. Moreover, time spent asleep for participants in this sleep group correlated with retention of relevant but not irrelevant associations; participants who slept longer forgot fewer associations from the relevant category. In contrast, participants that did not sleep forgot more relevant than irrelevant associations across the test-retest delay. In summary, our results indicate that it is possible to modulate the retention of selected memories after learning with simple verbal instructions on their future relevance. The finding that this effect depends on sleep demonstrates this state's active role in memory consolidation and may have utility for educational settings.

  13. Secondary Education in Afghanistan: a portray of postconflict education reconstrution


    Juan Manuel Moreno Olmedilla


    This article presents a preliminary account of the status of secondary education in Afghanistan. No previous references can be found which include reliable and detailed statistical information or policy analysis of any kind regarding the secondary education sub-sector in Afghanistan. Thus, more than accurate data collection and analysis, this paper can only attempt to open up the political dialogue about secondary education in the country by identifying the relevant policy issues and putting ...

  14. Biologically Relevant Glycopeptides: Synthesis and Applications (United States)

    Bennett, Clay S.; Payne, Richard J.; Koeller, Kathryn M.; Wong, Chi-Huey

    Over the past two decades interest in glycopeptides and glycoproteins has intensified, due in part to the development of new and efficient methods for the synthesis of these compounds. This includes a number of chemical and enzymatic techniques for incorporating glycosylation onto the peptide backbone as well as the introduction of powerful peptide ligation methods for the construction of glycoproteins. This review discusses these methods with a special emphasis on biologically relevant glycopeptides and glycoproteins. This includes the development of a number of antigens which hold promise as potential vaccines for HIV, cancer, or a host of other clinically important diseases. In addition the development of new antibiotics aimed at overcoming the problem of resistance will be discussed. Finally, chemical and enzymatic methods for the construction of glycopeptide mimetics will be described.

  15. Is Witsenhausen's counterexample a relevant toy?

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Pulkit


    This paper answers a question raised by Doyle on the relevance of the Witsenhausen counterexample as a toy decentralized control problem. The question has two sides, the first of which focuses on the lack of an external channel in the counterexample. Using existing results, we argue that the core difficulty in the counterexample is retained even in the presence of such a channel. The second side questions the LQG formulation of the counterexample. We consider alternative formulations and show that the understanding developed for the LQG case guides the investigation for these other cases as well. Specifically, we consider 1) a variation on the original counterexample with general, but bounded, noise distributions, and 2) an adversarial extension with bounded disturbance and quadratic costs. For each of these formulations, we show that quantization-based nonlinear strategies outperform linear strategies by an arbitrarily large factor. Further, these nonlinear strategies also perform within a constant factor of...

  16. Mirror neurons and their clinical relevance. (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi


    One of the most exciting events in neurosciences over the past few years has been the discovery of a mechanism that unifies action perception and action execution. The essence of this 'mirror' mechanism is as follows: whenever individuals observe an action being done by someone else, a set of neurons that code for that action is activated in the observers' motor system. Since the observers are aware of the outcome of their motor acts, they also understand what the other individual is doing without the need for intermediate cognitive mediation. In this Review, after discussing the most pertinent data concerning the mirror mechanism, we examine the clinical relevance of this mechanism. We first discuss the relationship between mirror mechanism impairment and some core symptoms of autism. We then outline the theoretical principles of neurorehabilitation strategies based on the mirror mechanism. We conclude by examining the relationship between the mirror mechanism and some features of the environmental dependency syndromes.

  17. Inferring Biologically Relevant Models: Nested Canalyzing Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkelmann, Franziska


    Inferring dynamic biochemical networks is one of the main challenges in systems biology. Given experimental data, the objective is to identify the rules of interaction among the different entities of the network. However, the number of possible models fitting the available data is huge and identifying a biologically relevant model is of great interest. Nested canalyzing functions, where variables in a given order dominate the function, have recently been proposed as a framework for modeling gene regulatory networks. Previously we described this class of functions as an algebraic toric variety. In this paper, we present an algorithm that identifies all nested canalyzing models that fit the given data. We demonstrate our methods using a well-known Boolean model of the cell cycle in budding yeast.

  18. Carryover negligibility and relevance in bioequivalence studies. (United States)

    Ocaña, Jordi; Sanchez O, Maria P; Carrasco, Josep L


    The carryover effect is a recurring issue in the pharmaceutical field. It may strongly influence the final outcome of an average bioequivalence study. Testing a null hypothesis of zero carryover is useless: not rejecting it does not guarantee the non-existence of carryover, and rejecting it is not informative of the true degree of carryover and its influence on the validity of the final outcome of the bioequivalence study. We propose a more consistent approach: even if some carryover is present, is it enough to seriously distort the study conclusions or is it negligible? This is the central aim of this paper, which focuses on average bioequivalence studies based on 2 × 2 crossover designs and on the main problem associated with carryover: type I error inflation. We propose an equivalence testing approach to these questions and suggest reasonable negligibility or relevance limits for carryover. Finally, we illustrate this approach on some real datasets.

  19. Image Semantic Automatic Annotation by Relevance Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tong-zhen; SHEN Rui-min


    A large semantic gap exists between content based index retrieval (CBIR) and high-level semantic, additional semantic information should be attached to the images, it refers in three respects including semantic representation model, semantic information building and semantic retrieval techniques. In this paper, we introduce an associated semantic network and an automatic semantic annotation system. In the system, a semantic network model is employed as the semantic representation model, it uses semantic keywords, linguistic ontology and low-level features in semantic similarity calculating. Through several times of users' relevance feedback, semantic network is enriched automatically. To speed up the growth of semantic network and get a balance annotation, semantic seeds and semantic loners are employed especially.

  20. Placebo response: relevance to the rheumatic diseases. (United States)

    Pollo, Antonella; Benedetti, Fabrizio


    Recent interest in the neurobiology of the placebo effect has brought about a new awareness of its potential exploitation for patient benefit, framing it as a positive context effect with the power to influence therapy outcome. Among the different placebo effects described in clinical conditions and experimental settings, placebo analgesia is of particular relevance to the rheumatologist. Placebo analgesia is the field that has most contributed to our understanding of the multiple mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The possible clinical applications of placebo studies range from the design of clinical trials incorporating specific recommendations and minimizing the use of placebo arms to the optimization of the context surrounding the patient so that the placebo component in any treatment is maximized.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA


    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  2. Review of relevant studies of isolated systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Lundsager, P.


    The report presents the results of a review of studies relating to integration of wind energy in isolated power supply systems, based on a systematic literature survey. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology consisting of a set of guidelinesfor wind energy projects in isolated energy...... systems and a set of tools and models that are operational on an engineering level. The review is based on a literature search in the ETDE Energy Database with a main search covering the period 7/88 to 6/97 andsupplemented by partial update periods. A few newer references have been included in the review......, most notably the IEC/PAS 62111 specification. The amount of wind energy literature related to the subject is excessively large, and a complete review inwhich every relevant abstract is identified and examined is not feasible within the framework of this (or probably any other) study. The review results...

  3. Clinical relevance of intestinal peptide uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh; James; Freeman


    AIM: To determine available information on an independent peptide transporter 1(Pep T1) and its potential relevance to treatment, this evaluation was completed.METHODS: Fully published English language literature articles sourced through Pub Med related to protein digestion and absorption, specifically human peptide and amino acid transport, were accessed and reviewed.Papers from 1970 to the present, with particular emphasis on the past decade, were examined. In addition,abstracted information translated to English in Pub Med was also included. Finally, studies and reviews relevant to nutrient or drug uptake, particularly in human intestine were included for evaluation. This work represents a summary of all of these studies with particular reference to peptide transporter mediated assimilation of nutrients and pharmacologically active medications.RESULTS: Assimilation of dietary protein in humans involves gastric and pancreatic enzyme hydrolysis to luminal oligopeptides and free amino acids. During the ensuing intestinal phase, these hydrolytic products are transported into the epithelial cell and, eventually, the portal vein. A critical component of this process is the uptake of intact di-peptides and tri-peptides by an independent Pep T1. A number of "peptide-mimetic" pharmaceutical agents may also be transported through this carrier, important for uptake of different antibiotics, antiviral agents and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. In addition, specific peptide products of intestinal bacteria may also be transported by Pep T1, with initiation and persistence of an immune response including increased cytokine production and associated intestinal inflammatory changes. Interestingly, these inflammatory changes may also be attenuated with orallyadministered anti-inflammatory tripeptides administered as site-specific nanoparticles and taken up by this Pep T1 transport protein. CONCLUSION: Further evaluation of the role of this transporter in treatment of

  4. Moodling English Language Education (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah; Arslan, Abdullah


    This paper aims to emphasize the importance of using Moodle in foreign language learning and teaching by reviewing relevant literature and introducing a Moodle-based environment aiming to help English learners to practice their English by themselves. Firstly, the use of Moodle in education and more specifically in English Language Teaching is…

  5. The Sublime and Education (United States)

    Carson, Jamin


    The sublime is a theory of aesthetics that reached its highest popularity in British literature during the Romantic period (c. 1785-1832). This article (1) explicates philosophers' different meanings of the sublime; (2) show how the sublime is relevant to education; and (3) show how the sublime "works" in literature by analyzing William Blake's…

  6. School as Education Indicator (United States)

    Murati, Rabije


    School is an organized and specialized educational institutions, basic activity of which is teaching, joint work of students and teaching personnel, the purpose of which is for the student by means, forms and methods of instruction, guided by the teacher to acquire knowledge, skills and habits of certain relevant curricula and to develop their…

  7. On the reality and relevance of traits. (United States)

    Stagner, R


    A review of published research on traits of personality is focused on the controversy over situationism vs. trait theory. Extreme emphasis on situationism is interpreted as a return to the atomistic psychologies of Wundt, Titchener, Watson, and Weiss. Available data are interpreted to indicate that "trait" can be defined operationally, that existing measures are adequately reliable, and that stability over long periods of time contradicts the situationist thesis. Trait measures predict behavior in the laboratory, in education, and industry. The trait construct should be retained in the vocabulary of scientific psychology.

  8. Engel's biopsychosocial model is still relevant today. (United States)

    Adler, Rolf H


    In 1977, Engel published the seminal paper, "The Need for a New Medical Model: A Challenge for Biomedicine" [Science 196 (1977) 129-136]. He featured a biopsychosocial (BPS) model based on systems theory and on the hierarchical organization of organisms. In this essay, the model is extended by the introduction of semiotics and constructivism. Semiotics provides the language which allows to describe the relationships between the individual and his environment. Constructivism explains how an organism perceives his environment. The impact of the BPS model on research, medical education, and application in the practice of medicine is discussed.

  9. M. Lipman: Thinking in Education


    BLÁHOVÁ, Klára


    The thesis presents the critical analysis of the work Thinking in Education by M. Lipman It deals with the problemc of fostering thinking through education. It explains the reasons of the relevance of the dialoque ability, critical thinking and also use of the creative and caring thinking. Also it explains that the thinking skills should be the effect of the education not only as a preparation for a life in the democratic society. The thesis summarize the views of it's critics.

  10. Strategic Planning and Accountability in Irish Education (United States)

    Gleeson, Jim; O Donnabhain, Diarmaid


    This article considers the impact of the New Public Management culture on Irish education and calls for a debate in relation to the prevailing bureaucratic model of accountability. The influence of the Lisbon Agenda (2000) on education planning is identified and the 2005/7 Education Strategy Statement is analysed using the relevant OECD framework.…

  11. Technology Teacher Education through a Constructivist Approach (United States)

    Fox-Turnbull, Wendy; Snape, Paul


    This paper reviews literature on constructivist learning theories relevant to and evident in teacher education in a New Zealand university. These theories are illustrated within an authentic technology education context which involves students from a primary teacher-education degree programme. It investigates how a practical activity, based on…

  12. Sexuality Education--What Is It? (United States)

    Sex Education: Sexuality, Society and Learning, 2016


    This policy brief developed by the European Expert Group on Sexuality Education provides an overview of key issues in sexuality education. It focuses primarily on sexuality education in Europe and Central Asia but is also relevant to countries outside of these regions.

  13. Attainable and Relevant Moral Exemplars Are More Effective than Extraordinary Exemplars in Promoting Voluntary Service Engagement (United States)

    Han, Hyemin; Kim, Jeongmin; Jeong, Changwoo; Cohen, Geoffrey L.


    The present study aimed to develop effective moral educational interventions based on social psychology by using stories of moral exemplars. We tested whether motivation to engage in voluntary service as a form of moral behavior was better promoted by attainable and relevant exemplars or by unattainable and irrelevant exemplars. First, experiment 1, conducted in a lab, showed that stories of attainable exemplars more effectively promoted voluntary service activity engagement among undergraduate students compared with stories of unattainable exemplars and non-moral stories. Second, experiment 2, a middle school classroom-level experiment with a quasi-experimental design, demonstrated that peer exemplars, who are perceived to be attainable and relevant to students, better promoted service engagement compared with historic figures in moral education classes. PMID:28326045

  14. The relevance of music information representation metadata from the perspective of expert users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monteiro de Barros

    Full Text Available The general goal of this research was to verify which metadata elements of music information representation are relevant for its retrieval from the perspective of expert music users. Based on a bibliographical research, a comprehensive metadata set of music information representation was developed and transformed into a questionnaire for data collection, which was applied to students and professors of the Graduate Program in Music at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The results show that the most relevant information for expert music users is related to identification and authorship responsibilities. The respondents from Composition and Interpretative Practice areas agree with these results, while the respondents from Musicology/Ethnomusicology and Music Education areas also consider the metadata related to the historical context of composition relevant.

  15. Reclaim “Education” in environmental and sustainability education research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Per; Lysgaard, Jonas Greve


    Without contextualization and explicit links to centuries of relevant educational theories, research presentations at conferences risk appearing disconnected from teaching method development or evaluation. Environmental and Sustainability Education (ESE), is a highly vibrant research area, benefi...

  16. Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nagendra K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6% of which functions were determined in silico. High level of

  17. 教育公共服务理论研究溯源:SSCI相关文献的学术渗透图景%The Trace of Research on Theories of Educational Public Service:Based on Academic Interpenetrating View of the Relevant Literatures from SSCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春; 庞国彬; 陈莉欣


    教育公共服务理论研究源流可以概括为两个,即近代的公共教育理论、公共行政和公共管理理论。选择SSC I以“公共服务供给能力”为主题的相关文献,利用C itespaceⅢ呈现文献之间因学术共识而呈现的理论渗透的知识图景,探索发现教育公共服务理论从新公共管理理论、公共选择理论、创新扩散理论、协同治理理论、吸收能力理论等理论中获得了富有启示的理论滋养和决策支持。%The trace of the theory researches of educational public services can be classified into two aspects:one is the theories of modern public education;the other is the theories of public administration and public management. According to the academic consensus,selected the related literatures which the topic on“supply capacity of public service”from SSCI to present knowledge interpenetrating view by CitespaceIII to explore illuminating theories:New Public Management Theory,Public Choice Theory,Diffusion of Innovation Theory,Collaborative Governance Theory, and Absorptive Capacity Theory that would provide nourishment and decision support of theories of educational public services. Educational public service should improve the efficiency and change ides of management,lay stress on open and transparent information in the process of implementation,enhance democratic participation,and focus on individ-ual consciousness of the citizens.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Oberemko


    Full Text Available This review presents a generalized definition of vesicles as bilayer extracellular organelles of all celular forms of life: not only eu-, but also prokaryotic. The structure and composition of extracellular vesicles, history of research, nomenclature, their impact on life processes in health and disease are discussed. Moreover, vesicles may be useful as clinical instruments for biomarkers, and they are promising as biotechnological drug. However, many questions in this area are still unresolved and need to be addressed in the future. The most interesting from the point of view of practical health care represents a direction to study the effect of exosomes and microvesicles in the development and progression of a particular disease, the possibility of adjusting the pathological process by means of extracellular vesicles of a particular type, acting as an active ingredient. Relevant is the further elucidation of the role and importance of exosomes to the surrounding cells, tissues and organs at the molecular level, the prospects for the use of non-cellular vesicles as biomarkers of disease.

  19. Relevance of extracellular DNA in rhizosphere (United States)

    Pietramellara, Giacomo; Ascher, Judith; Baraniya, Divyashri; Arfaioli, Paola; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Hawes, Martha


    One of the most promising areas for future development is the manipulation of the rhizosphere to produce sustainable and efficient agriculture production systems. Using Omics approaches, to define the distinctive features of eDNA systems and structures, will facilitate progress in rhizo-enforcement and biocontrol studies. The relevance of these studies results clear when we consider the plethora of ecological functions in which eDNA is involved. This fraction can be actively extruded by living cells or discharged during cellular lysis and may exert a key role in the stability and variability of the soil bacterial genome, resulting also a source of nitrogen and phosphorus for plants due to the root's capacity to directly uptake short DNA fragments. The adhesive properties of the DNA molecule confer to eDNA the capacity to inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria by cation limitation induction, and to facilitate formation of biofilm and extracellular traps (ETs), that may protect microorganisms inhabiting biofilm and plant roots against pathogens and allelopathic substances. The ETs are actively extruded by root border cells when they are dispersed in the rhizosphere, conferring to plants the capacity to extend an endogenous pathogen defence system outside the organism. Moreover, eDNA could be involved in rhizoremediation in heavy metal polluted soil acting as a bioflotation reagent.

  20. Accreditation - Its relevance for laboratories measuring radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Iceland)


    Accreditation is an internationally recognised way for laboratories to demonstrate their competence. Obtaining and maintaining accreditation is, however, a costly and time-consuming procedure. The benefits of accreditation also depend on the role of the laboratory. Accreditation may be of limited relevance for a research laboratory, but essential for a laboratory associated with a national authority and e.g. issuing certificates. This report describes work done within the NKSBOK-1.1 sub-project on introducing accreditation to Nordic laboratories measuring radionuclides. Initially the focus was on the new standard ISO/IEC 17025, which was just in a draft form at the time, but which provides now a new framework for accreditation of laboratories. Later the focus was widened to include a general introduction to accreditation and providing through seminars a forum for exchanging views on the experience laboratories have had in this field. Copies of overheads from the last such seminar are included in the appendix to this report. (au)

  1. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Padhy


    Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  2. Locating conical intersections relevant to photochemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, Bernhard [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Regensburg, D 93040 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail:; Haas, Yehuda; Zilberg, Shmuel [Department of Physical Chemistry and the Farkas Center for Light-induced Processes, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)


    A new computerized method for locating conical intersections of interest in photochemistry is presented. The search is based on the Longuet-Higgins phase change theorem (Berry phase) which provides the subspace required for the initial search. The subspace is approximated as a plane containing three stable structures lying on a Longuet-Higgins loop. The search is conducted for a minimum of {delta}E, the energy difference between two electronic states. It is started using up to three points within the circle defined by the three structures; symmetry, if relevant, is helpful but not essential. Since a two-dimensional subspace of the large 3N - 6 space is used, the search that uses either Cartesian or internal coordinates is efficient and yields a degeneracy after a few iterations. Given that not all degrees of freedom are included in the search, usually a high lying part of the conical intersection is initially located. The system is subsequently optimized along all coordinates keeping {delta}E as close to zero as desired. The method is demonstrated for the symmetric H{sub 3} system and also for the butadiene-cyclobutene-bicyclobutane system in which the three stable structures are not equivalent. The method is general and can be extended to any photochemical system.

  3. Symptoms Relevant to Surveillance for Ovarian Cancer. (United States)

    Ore, Robert M; Baldwin, Lauren; Woolum, Dylan; Elliott, Erika; Wijers, Christiaan; Chen, Chieh-Yu; Miller, Rachel W; DeSimone, Christopher P; Ueland, Frederick R; Kryscio, Richard J; Nagell, John R van; Pavlik, Edward J


    To examine how frequently and confidently healthy women report symptoms during surveillance for ovarian cancer. A symptoms questionnaire was administered to 24,526 women over multiple visits accounting for 70,734 reports. A query of reported confidence was included as a confidence score (CS). Chi square, McNemars test, ANOVA and multivariate analyses were performed. 17,623 women completed the symptoms questionnaire more than one time and >9500 women completed it more than one four times for >43,000 serially completed questionnaires. Reporting ovarian cancer symptoms was ~245 higher than ovarian cancer incidence. The positive predictive value (0.073%) for identifying ovarian cancer based on symptoms alone would predict one malignancy for 1368 cases taken to surgery due to reported symptoms. Confidence on the first questionnaire (83.3%) decreased to 74% when more than five questionnaires were completed. Age-related decreases in confidence were significant (p replacement therapy or abnormal ultrasound findings (p = 0.30 and 0.89). The frequency of symptoms relevant to ovarian cancer was much higher than the occurrence of ovarian cancer. Approximately 80.1% of women expressed confidence in what they reported.

  4. Symptoms Relevant to Surveillance for Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Ore


    Full Text Available To examine how frequently and confidently healthy women report symptoms during surveillance for ovarian cancer. A symptoms questionnaire was administered to 24,526 women over multiple visits accounting for 70,734 reports. A query of reported confidence was included as a confidence score (CS. Chi square, McNemars test, ANOVA and multivariate analyses were performed. 17,623 women completed the symptoms questionnaire more than one time and >9500 women completed it more than one four times for >43,000 serially completed questionnaires. Reporting ovarian cancer symptoms was ~245 higher than ovarian cancer incidence. The positive predictive value (0.073% for identifying ovarian cancer based on symptoms alone would predict one malignancy for 1368 cases taken to surgery due to reported symptoms. Confidence on the first questionnaire (83.3% decreased to 74% when more than five questionnaires were completed. Age-related decreases in confidence were significant (p < 0.0001. Women reporting at least one symptom expressed more confidence (41,984/52,379 = 80.2% than women reporting no symptoms (11,882/18,355 = 64.7%, p < 0.0001. Confidence was unrelated to history of hormone replacement therapy or abnormal ultrasound findings (p = 0.30 and 0.89. The frequency of symptoms relevant to ovarian cancer was much higher than the occurrence of ovarian cancer. Approximately 80.1% of women expressed confidence in what they reported.

  5. Snow physics as relevant to snow photochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Domine


    Full Text Available Snow on the ground is a complex multiphase photochemical reactor that dramatically modifies the chemical composition of the overlying atmosphere. A quantitative description of the emissions of reactive gases by snow requires the knowledge of snow physical properties. This overview details our current understanding of how those physical properties relevant to snow photochemistry vary during snow metamorphism. Properties discussed are density, specific surface area, optical properties, thermal conductivity, permeability and gas diffusivity. Inasmuch as possible, equations to parameterize these properties as a function of climatic variables are proposed, based on field measurements, laboratory experiments and theory. The potential of remote sensing methods to obtain information on some snow physical variables such as grain size, liquid water content and snow depth are discussed. The possibilities for and difficulties of building a snow photochemistry model by adapting current snow physics models are explored. Elaborate snow physics models already exist, and including variables of particular interest to snow photochemistry such as light fluxes and specific surface area appears possible. On the other hand, understanding the nature and location of reactive molecules in snow seems to be the greatest difficulty modelers will have to face for lack of experimental data, and progress on this aspect will require the detailed study of natural snow samples.

  6. Is Lamarckian evolution relevant to medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handel Adam E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background 200 years have now passed since Darwin was born and scientists around the world are celebrating this important anniversary of the birth of an evolutionary visionary. However, the theories of his colleague Lamarck are treated with considerably less acclaim. These theories centre on the tendency for complexity to increase in organisms over time and the direct transmission of phenotypic traits from parents to offspring. Discussion Lamarckian concepts, long thought of no relevance to modern evolutionary theory, are enjoying a quiet resurgence with the increasing complexity of epigenetic theories of inheritance. There is evidence that epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, are transmitted transgenerationally, thus providing a potential mechanism for environmental influences to be passed from parents to offspring: Lamarckian evolution. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating that epigenetics plays an important role in many common medical conditions. Summary Epigenetics allows the peaceful co-existence of Darwinian and Lamarckian evolution. Further efforts should be exerted on studying the mechanisms by which this occurs so that public health measures can be undertaken to reverse or prevent epigenetic changes important in disease susceptibility. Perhaps in 2059 we will be celebrating the anniversary of both Darwin and Lamarck.

  7. Plasmonic optical trapping in biologically relevant media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Roxworthy

    Full Text Available We present plasmonic optical trapping of micron-sized particles in biologically relevant buffer media with varying ionic strength. The media consist of 3 cell-growth solutions and 2 buffers and are specifically chosen due to their widespread use and applicability to breast-cancer and angiogenesis studies. High-precision rheological measurements on the buffer media reveal that, in all cases excluding the 8.0 pH Stain medium, the fluids exhibit Newtonian behavior, thereby enabling straightforward measurements of optical trap stiffness from power-spectral particle displacement data. Using stiffness as a trapping performance metric, we find that for all media under consideration the plasmonic nanotweezers generate optical forces 3-4x a conventional optical trap. Further, plasmonic trap stiffness values are comparable to those of an identical water-only system, indicating that the performance of a plasmonic nanotweezer is not degraded by the biological media. These results pave the way for future biological applications utilizing plasmonic optical traps.

  8. Anatomy and Surgical Relevance of Rouviere's Sulcus (United States)

    Morjane, Abdelwaheb


    Rouviere's sulcus (RS) (i.e., incisura hepatis dextra, Gans incisura) represents an important anatomical landmark. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of the RS, its description, its location, its relations to the right portal pedicle and to the plane of the common bile duct, and the evaluation of the surgical relevance of the obtained data. Forty macroscopically healthy and undamaged livers were removed during autopsies from cadavers of both sexes. The RS was present in 82% of the cases and in these the open RS was identified in 70% of the livers. The fused type was observed in 12% of the cases; 18% of the livers had no sulcus. The mean length of the open type RS was 28 ± 2 mm (range 24–32 mm) and its mean depth was 6 ± 2 mm (range 4–8 mm). The right posterior sectional pedicle was found in the RS in 70% of the cases. In 5% of the livers, we also dissected a branch of the anterior sectional pedicle. Inside 25% of the RS, we found the vein of segment 6. The RS identification may avoid bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and enables elective vascular control during the right liver resection. PMID:24319350

  9. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Danbo [Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Yu, Lei, E-mail: [Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, 501 Via Del Monte, Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States); Van, Sang [Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, 501 Via Del Monte, Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States)


    The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(l-γ-glutamylglutamine)-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX). PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic.

  10. Putative adverse outcome pathways relevant to neurotoxicity (United States)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M.; Sachana, Magdalini; Shafer, Timothy J.; Behl, Mamta; Forsby, Anna; Hargreaves, Alan; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lein, Pamela J.; Louisse, Jochem; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Paini, Alicia; Rolaki, Alexandra; Schrattenholz, André; Suñol, Cristina; van Thriel, Christoph; Whelan, Maurice; Fritsche, Ellen


    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework provides a template that facilitates understanding of complex biological systems and the pathways of toxicity that result in adverse outcomes (AOs). The AOP starts with an molecular initiating event (MIE) in which a chemical interacts with a biological target(s), followed by a sequential series of KEs, which are cellular, anatomical, and/or functional changes in biological processes, that ultimately result in an AO manifest in individual organisms and populations. It has been developed as a tool for a knowledge-based safety assessment that relies on understanding mechanisms of toxicity, rather than simply observing its adverse outcome. A large number of cellular and molecular processes are known to be crucial to proper development and function of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). However, there are relatively few examples of well-documented pathways that include causally linked MIEs and KEs that result in adverse outcomes in the CNS or PNS. As a first step in applying the AOP framework to adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to exogenous neurotoxic substances, the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) organized a workshop (March 2013, Ispra, Italy) to identify potential AOPs relevant to neurotoxic and developmental neurotoxic outcomes. Although the AOPs outlined during the workshop are not fully described, they could serve as a basis for further, more detailed AOP development and evaluation that could be useful to support human health risk assessment in a variety of ways. PMID:25605028

  11. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danbo Yang


    Full Text Available The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(L-g-glutamylglutamine-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX. PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic.

  12. Position Statement on Motivations, Methodologies, and Practical Implications of Educational Neuroscience Research: fMRI Studies of the Neural Correlates of Creative Intelligence (United States)

    Geake, John


    In this position statement it is argued that educational neuroscience must necessarily be relevant to, and therefore have implications for, both educational theory and practice. Consequently, educational neuroscientific research necessarily must embrace educational research questions in its remit.

  13. Early Hebrew education and its significance for present-day educational theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schoeman


    Full Text Available Early Hebrew education and its significance for present-day educational theory and practice The history of education in antiquity is not without relevance to present-day educational theory and practice. The focus in this article is on the early Hebrews and their education. A study of early Hebrew education may in itself not provide solutions to current educational problems, but it may be useful in offering new perspectives, encouragement and suggestions for a juture South African educational dispensation.

  14. The Relevance Analysis between Reading,Learning,Education Degree and Memory Disorders of Elder Cerebral Infarction Patients%看书学习及学历与老年脑梗死患者记忆障碍关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田觅; 陈长香; 胡平; 杨瑞; 吴安娜


    Objective To investigate the relationship between reading, learning, education degree and memory disorders of older cerebral infarction patients, seeking some methods to reduce the incidence of memory disorders in patients with cerebral infarction, and lessen the severity of the memory disorders. Methods 140 cases diagnosed as cerebral infarction from Hebei United University affiliated hospital were randomly collected. They were tested with Rivermead behavior memory test version 2( RBMT- II ). Then their education degree,learning,reading and other basic information were collected. Results The incidence of memory disorders was 94. 29% , and different reading and learning frequency in patients had different memory disorders, a statistically significant difference( P <0.01 ). Memory disorders rate of patients with junior high school and above education was only 90. 48% , significantly better than that in illiteracy, and primary school education group,a statistically significant difference( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion Higher education degree and reading and learning habits have a protection on the memory function of cerebral infarction patients, so the elder patients should be encouraged todo moderate reading learning.%目的 探讨看书学习情况、学历与脑梗死患者记忆障碍的相关性,寻求减少脑梗死患者记忆障碍的发生率、减轻记忆障碍的严重程度的方法.方法 抽取河北联合大学附属医院就诊的140例确诊为脑梗死的患者,收集其学历、看书学习情况等基本资料,应用Rivermead行为记忆测验第2版(RBMT-Ⅱ)进行记忆功能测评.结果 140例患者的记忆障碍发生率为94.29%,看书学习频率不同的患者的记忆障碍不同,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).初中及以上学历患者记忆障碍发生率仅为90.48%,明显好于文盲及小学学历组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 脑梗死患者学历高、平时看书学习对记忆功能具有保护作用,应鼓励

  15. Relevance of ellipse eccentricity for camera calibration (United States)

    Mordwinzew, W.; Tietz, B.; Boochs, F.; Paulus, D.


    of ellipse eccentricity on image blocks cannot be modeled in a straight forward fashion. Instead, simulations can help make the impact visible, and to distinguish critical or less critical situations. In particular, this might be of importance for calibrations, as undetected influence on the results will affect further projects where the same camera will be used. This paper therefore aims to point out the influence of ellipse eccentricities on camera calibrations, by using two typical calibration bodies: planar and cube shaped calibration. In the first step, their relevance and influence on the image measurements, object- and camera geometry is shown with numeric examples. Differences and similarities between both calibration bodies are identified and discussed. In the second step, practical relevance of a correction is proven in a real calibration. Finally, a conclusion is drawn followed by recommendations to handle ellipse eccentricity in the practice.

  16. Environmental Factors Impacting Bone-Relevant Chemokines (United States)

    Smith, Justin T.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Katchko, Karina M.; Yun, Chawon; Hsu, Erin L.


    Chemokines play an important role in normal bone physiology and the pathophysiology of many bone diseases. The recent increased focus on the individual roles of this class of proteins in the context of bone has shown that members of the two major chemokine subfamilies—CC and CXC—support or promote the formation of new bone and the remodeling of existing bone in response to a myriad of stimuli. These chemotactic molecules are crucial in orchestrating appropriate cellular homing, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis during normal bone repair. Bone healing is a complex cascade of carefully regulated processes, including inflammation, progenitor cell recruitment, differentiation, and remodeling. The extensive role of chemokines in these processes and the known links between environmental contaminants and chemokine expression/activity leaves ample opportunity for disruption of bone healing by environmental factors. However, despite increased clinical awareness, the potential impact of many of these environmental factors on bone-related chemokines is still ill defined. A great deal of focus has been placed on environmental exposure to various endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, phthalate esters, etc.), volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and heavy metals, though mainly in other tissues. Awareness of the impact of other less well-studied bone toxicants, such as fluoride, mold and fungal toxins, asbestos, and chlorine, is also reviewed. In many cases, the literature on these toxins in osteogenic models is lacking. However, research focused on their effects in other tissues and cell lines provides clues for where future resources could be best utilized. This review aims to serve as a current and exhaustive resource detailing the known links between several classes of high-interest environmental pollutants and their interaction with the chemokines relevant to bone healing. PMID:28261155

  17. Pure neuritic leprosy: Current status and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Narasimha Rao


    Full Text Available Pure neuritic leprosy has always been an enigma due to its clinical and management ambiguities. Although only the Indian Association of Leprologist's classification recognizes 'pure neuritic leprosy' as a distinct sub group of leprosy, cases nonetheless are reported from various countries of Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, indicating its global relevance. It is important to maintain pure neuritic leprosy as a subgroup as it constitutes a good percentage of leprosy cases reported from India, which contributes to more than half of global leprosy numbers. Unfortunately, a high proportion of these patients present with Grade 2 disability at the time of initial reporting itself due to the early nerve involvement. Although skin lesions are absent by definition, when skin biopsies were performed from the skin along the distribution of the affected nerve, a proportion of patients demonstrated leprosy pathology, revealing sub-clinical skin involvement. In addition on follow-up, skin lesions are noted to develop in up to 20% of pure neuritic leprosy cases, indicating its progression to manifest cutaneous disease. Over the decades, the confirmation of diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy has been subjective, however, with the arrival and use of high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS for nerve imaging, we have a tool not only to objectively measure and record the nerve thickening but also to assess the morphological alterations in the nerve including echo texture, fascicular pattern and vascularity. Management of pure neuritic leprosy requires multidrug therapy along with appropriate dose of systemic corticosteroids, for both acute and silent neuritis. Measures for pain relief, self-care of limbs and physiotherapy are important to prevent as well as manage disabilities in this group of patients.

  18. Periodontal innate immune mechanisms relevant to obesity. (United States)

    Amar, S; Leeman, S


    Obesity affects over 35% of the adult population of the USA, and obesity-related illnesses have emerged as the leading cause of preventable death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. Obesity's secondary morbidities include increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and cancer, in addition to increased occurrence and severity of infections. Sedentary lifestyle and weight gain caused by consumption of a high-fat diet contribute to the development of obesity, with individuals having a body mass index (BMI) score > 30 being considered obese. Genetic models of obesity (ob/ob mice, db/db mice, and fa/fa rats) have been insufficient to study human obesity because of the overall lack of genetic causes for obesity in human populations. To date, the diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model best serves research studies relevant to human health. Periodontal disease presents with a wide range of clinical variability and severity. Research in the past decade has shed substantial light on both the initiating infectious agents and host immunological responses in periodontal disease. Up to 46% of the general population harbors the microorganism(s) associated with periodontal disease, although many are able to limit the progression of periodontal disease or even clear the organism(s) if infected. In the last decade, several epidemiological studies have found an association between obesity and increased incidence of periodontal disease. This review focuses on exploring the immunological consequences of obesity that exacerbate effects of infection by pathogens, with focus on infection by the periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis as a running example.

  19. Pure neuritic leprosy: Current status and relevance. (United States)

    Rao, P Narasimha; Suneetha, Sujai


    Pure neuritic leprosy has always been an enigma due to its clinical and management ambiguities. Although only the Indian Association of Leprologist's classification recognizes 'pure neuritic leprosy' as a distinct sub group of leprosy, cases nonetheless are reported from various countries of Asia, Africa, South America and Europe, indicating its global relevance. It is important to maintain pure neuritic leprosy as a subgroup as it constitutes a good percentage of leprosy cases reported from India, which contributes to more than half of global leprosy numbers. Unfortunately, a high proportion of these patients present with Grade 2 disability at the time of initial reporting itself due to the early nerve involvement. Although skin lesions are absent by definition, when skin biopsies were performed from the skin along the distribution of the affected nerve, a proportion of patients demonstrated leprosy pathology, revealing sub-clinical skin involvement. In addition on follow-up, skin lesions are noted to develop in up to 20% of pure neuritic leprosy cases, indicating its progression to manifest cutaneous disease. Over the decades, the confirmation of diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy has been subjective, however, with the arrival and use of high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) for nerve imaging, we have a tool not only to objectively measure and record the nerve thickening but also to assess the morphological alterations in the nerve including echo texture, fascicular pattern and vascularity. Management of pure neuritic leprosy requires multidrug therapy along with appropriate dose of systemic corticosteroids, for both acute and silent neuritis. Measures for pain relief, self-care of limbs and physiotherapy are important to prevent as well as manage disabilities in this group of patients.

  20. Conhecimento e adesão às recomendações de biossegurança no Corpo de Bombeiros Militar de Minas Gerais Conocimiento y adhesión a las recomendaciones de bioseguridad en el cuerpo militar de bomberos de Minas Gerais Knowledge and adherence to biosafety recommendations in a military fire brigade in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Oliveira


    bioseguridad, aunque existe la necesidad de enfatizar la importancia de realizar un esquema de vacunación contra la hepatitis B.This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes concerning adherence to biosafety recommendations of the military personnel of Belo Horizonte's Military Fire Brigade in Minas Gerais . A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2011. A structured questionnaire was used, consisting of questions regarding knowledge and attitudes related to biosafety and the factors hindering the use of personal protective equipment. The results showed that the personnel had adequate knowledge of hand hygiene (90.4% and standard precautions (89%, such as the habit of always wearing gloves (95.7%, but lacked knowledge about the antiseptic activity of 70% alcohol (77.5%. The cloak was mentioned as the piece of personal protective equipment that was most difficult to use. However, most of the personnel were unaware of their serological status for hepatitis B (25%. Their knowledge and attitudes were consistent with the biosafety recommendations, but the importance of hepatitis B immunization must be emphasized.