Spectral transformation chains and some new biorthogonal rational functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spiridonov, V.
2000-01-01
A discrete-time chain, associated with the generalized eigenvalue problem for two Jacobi matrices, is derived. Various discrete and continuous symmetries of this integrable equation are revealed. A class of its rational, elementary and elliptic function solutions, appearing from a similarity reduction, are constructed. The latter lead to large families of biorthogonal rational functions based upon the very-well-posed balanced hypergeometric series of three types: the standard hypergeometric series 9 F 8 , basic series 10 φ 9 and its elliptic analogue 10 E 9 . For an important subclass of the elliptic biorthogonal rational functions the weight function and normalization constants are determined explicitly. (orig.)
Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials
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Ayman Shehata
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.
A study of biorthogonal multiple vector-valued wavelets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Jincang; Cheng Zhengxing; Chen Qingjiang
2009-01-01
The notion of vector-valued multiresolution analysis is introduced and the concept of biorthogonal multiple vector-valued wavelets which are wavelets for vector fields, is introduced. It is proved that, like in the scalar and multiwavelet case, the existence of a pair of biorthogonal multiple vector-valued scaling functions guarantees the existence of a pair of biorthogonal multiple vector-valued wavelet functions. An algorithm for constructing a class of compactly supported biorthogonal multiple vector-valued wavelets is presented. Their properties are investigated by means of operator theory and algebra theory and time-frequency analysis method. Several biorthogonality formulas regarding these wavelet packets are obtained.
Construction and decomposition of biorthogonal vector-valued wavelets with compact support
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Qingjiang; Cao Huaixin; Shi Zhi
2009-01-01
In this article, we introduce vector-valued multiresolution analysis and the biorthogonal vector-valued wavelets with four-scale. The existence of a class of biorthogonal vector-valued wavelets with compact support associated with a pair of biorthogonal vector-valued scaling functions with compact support is discussed. A method for designing a class of biorthogonal compactly supported vector-valued wavelets with four-scale is proposed by virtue of multiresolution analysis and matrix theory. The biorthogonality properties concerning vector-valued wavelet packets are characterized with the aid of time-frequency analysis method and operator theory. Three biorthogonality formulas regarding them are presented.
Semantic Barbs and Biorthogonality
Rathke, J.; Sassone, V.; Sobocinski, P.
2007-01-01
We use the framework of biorthogonality to introduce a novel semantic definition of the concept of barb (basic observable) for process calculi. We develop a uniform basic theory of barbs and demonstrate its robustness by showing that it gives rise to the correct observables in specific process calculi which model synchronous, asynchronous and broadcast communication regimes.
Interpolation of rational matrix functions
Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba
1990-01-01
This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...
Research on Bounded Rationality of Fuzzy Choice Functions
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Xinlin Wu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The rationality of a fuzzy choice function is a hot research topic in the study of fuzzy choice functions. In this paper, two common fuzzy sets are studied and analyzed in the framework of the Banerjee choice function. The complete rationality and bounded rationality of fuzzy choice functions are defined based on the two fuzzy sets. An assumption is presented to study the fuzzy choice function, and especially the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality is studied combined with some rationality conditions. Results show that the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality also satisfies some important rationality conditions, but not vice versa. The research gives supplements to the investigation in the framework of the Banerjee choice function.
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Berenguer MI
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with obtaining a numerical method in order to approximate the solution of the nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equation. We define, following a fixed-point approach, a sequence of functions which approximate the solution of this type of equation, due to some properties of certain biorthogonal systems for the Banach spaces and .
On Chebyshev-Markov rational functions over several intervals
Lukashov, AL
1998-01-01
Chebyshev-Markov rational functions are the solutions of the following extremal problem [GRAPHICS] with K being a compact subset of R and omega(n)(x) being a fixed real polynomial of degree less than n, positive on K. A parametric representation of Chebyshev-Markov rational functions is found for K
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Huang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Financial distress prediction plays an important role in the survival of companies. In this paper, a novel biorthogonal wavelet hybrid kernel function is constructed by combining linear kernel function with biorthogonal wavelet kernel function. Besides, a new feature weighted approach is presented based on economic value added (EVA and grey relational analysis (GRA. Considering the imbalance between financially distressed companies and normal ones, the feature weighted one-class support vector machine based on biorthogonal wavelet hybrid kernel (BWH-FWOCSVM is further put forward for financial distress prediction. The empirical study with real data from the listed companies on Growth Enterprise Market (GEM in China shows that the proposed approach has good performance.
Construction ofWachspress type'rational basis functions over ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the present paper, we have constructed rational basis functions of 0 class over rectangular elements with wider choice of denominator function. This construction yields additional number of interior nodes. Hence, extra nodal points and the flexibility of denominator function suggest better approximation.
Rational Density Functional Selection Using Game Theory.
McAnanama-Brereton, Suzanne; Waller, Mark P
2018-01-22
Theoretical chemistry has a paradox of choice due to the availability of a myriad of density functionals and basis sets. Traditionally, a particular density functional is chosen on the basis of the level of user expertise (i.e., subjective experiences). Herein we circumvent the user-centric selection procedure by describing a novel approach for objectively selecting a particular functional for a given application. We achieve this by employing game theory to identify optimal functional/basis set combinations. A three-player (accuracy, complexity, and similarity) game is devised, through which Nash equilibrium solutions can be obtained. This approach has the advantage that results can be systematically improved by enlarging the underlying knowledge base, and the deterministic selection procedure mathematically justifies the density functional and basis set selections.
Wachspress type' rational basis functions over rectangles
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The vertices ai of a closed convex rectangle K in R2 are labeled so that ai and aiЗ1 are consecutive for i И 1Y 2Y 3Y 4X For each subset e of R2Y P├. nЕeЖ is the e-restriction of the vector space of bivariate polynomial functions of degree n in each of the two variables. Let di be the straight line passing through the points ai ...
Spectral Methods Using Rational Basis Functions on an Infinite Interval
Boyd, John P.
1987-03-01
By using the map y = L cot( t) where L is a constant, differential equations on the interval yɛ [- ∞, ∞] can be transformed into tɛ [0, π] and solved by an ordinary Fourier series. In this article, earlier work by Grosch and Orszag ( J. Comput. Phys.25, 273 (1977)), Cain, Ferziger, and Reynolds ( J. Comput. Phys.56, 272 (1984)), and Boyd ( J. Comput. Phys.25, 43 (1982); 57, 454 (1985); SIAM J. Numer. Anal. (1987)) is extended in several ways. First, the series of orthogonal rational functions converge on the exterior of bipolar coordinate surfaces in the complex y-plane. Second, Galerkin's method will convert differential equations with polynomial or rational coefficients into banded matrix problems. Third, with orthogonal rational functions it is possible to obtain exponential convergence even for u( y) that asymptote to a constant although this behavior would wreck alternatives such as Hermite or sinc expansions. Fourth, boundary conditions are usually "natural" rather than "essential" in the sense that the singularities of the differential equation will force the numerical solution to have the correct behavior at infinity even if no constraints are imposed on the basis functions. Fifth, mapping a finite interval to an infinite one and then applying the rational Chebyshev functions gives an exponentially convergent method for functions with bounded endpoint singularities. These concepts are illustrated by five numerical examples.
Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity
Loczi, Lajos
2014-05-19
We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.
On the representation of distributions with rational moment generating functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis
This paper addresses a question concerning the generality of certain parameterisations of distributions which have a multivariate rational moment generating function. It is shown that the class of bilateral matrix-exponential distributions, as introduced in [2], is strictly larger than...
COMPUTATIONAL APPROACHES FOR RATIONAL DESIGN OF PROTEINS WITH NOVEL FUNCTIONALITIES
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Manish Kumar Tiwari
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Proteins are the most multifaceted macromolecules in living systems and have various important functions, including structural, catalytic, sensory, and regulatory functions. Rational design of enzymes is a great challenge to our understanding of protein structure and physical chemistry and has numerous potential applications. Protein design algorithms have been applied to design or engineer proteins that fold, fold faster, catalyze, catalyze faster, signal, and adopt preferred conformational states. The field of de novo protein design, although only a few decades old, is beginning to produce exciting results. Developments in this field are already having a significant impact on biotechnology and chemical biology. The application of powerful computational methods for functional protein designing has recently succeeded at engineering target activities. Here, we review recently reported de novo functional proteins that were developed using various protein design approaches, including rational design, computational optimization, and selection from combinatorial libraries, highlighting recent advances and successes.
Hardware Architectures for the Orthogonal and Biorthogonal Wavelet Transform
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G. Knowles
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this note, optimal hardware architectures for the orthogonal and biorthogonal wavelet transforms are presented. The approach used here is not the standard lifting method, but takes advantage of the symmetries inherent in the coefficients of the transforms and the decimation/interpolation operators. The design is based on a highly optimized datapath, which seamlessly integrates both orthogonal and biorthogonal transforms, data extension at the edges and the forward and inverse transforms. The datapath design could be further optimized for speed or low power. The datapath is controlled by a small fast control unit which is hard programmed according to the wavelet or wavelets required by the application.
Biorthogonal vectors, sesquilinear forms, and some physical operators
Bagarello, F.; Inoue, H.; Trapani, C.
2018-03-01
Continuing the analysis undertaken in previous articles, we discuss some features of non-self-adjoint operators and sesquilinear forms which are defined starting from two biorthogonal families of vectors, like the so-called generalized Riesz systems, enjoying certain properties. In particular, we discuss what happens when they forms two D -quasi-bases.
Rational function systems and electrical networks with multiparameters
Lu, KaiSheng
2012-01-01
To overcome the problems of system theory and network theory over real field, this book uses matrices over the field F(z) of rational functions in multiparameters describing coefficient matrices of systems and networks and makes systems and network description over F(z) and researches their structural properties: reducible condition of a class of matrices over F(z) and their characteristic polynomial; type1 matrix and two basic properties; variable replacement conditions for independent parameters; structural controllability and observability of linear systems over F(z); separability, reducibi
A rational function based scheme for solving advection equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao, Feng [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yabe, Takashi
1995-07-01
A numerical scheme for solving advection equations is presented. The scheme is derived from a rational interpolation function. Some properties of the scheme with respect to convex-concave preserving and monotone preserving are discussed. We find that the scheme is attractive in surpressinging overshoots and undershoots even in the vicinities of discontinuity. The scheme can also be easily swicthed as the CIP (Cubic interpolated Pseudo-Particle) method to get a third-order accuracy in smooth region. Numbers of numerical tests are carried out to show the non-oscillatory and less diffusive nature of the scheme. (author).
Rational design of functional and tunable oscillating enzymatic networks
Semenov, Sergey N.; Wong, Albert S. Y.; van der Made, R. Martijn; Postma, Sjoerd G. J.; Groen, Joost; van Roekel, Hendrik W. H.; de Greef, Tom F. A.; Huck, Wilhelm T. S.
2015-02-01
Life is sustained by complex systems operating far from equilibrium and consisting of a multitude of enzymatic reaction networks. The operating principles of biology's regulatory networks are known, but the in vitro assembly of out-of-equilibrium enzymatic reaction networks has proved challenging, limiting the development of synthetic systems showing autonomous behaviour. Here, we present a strategy for the rational design of programmable functional reaction networks that exhibit dynamic behaviour. We demonstrate that a network built around autoactivation and delayed negative feedback of the enzyme trypsin is capable of producing sustained oscillating concentrations of active trypsin for over 65 h. Other functions, such as amplification, analog-to-digital conversion and periodic control over equilibrium systems, are obtained by linking multiple network modules in microfluidic flow reactors. The methodology developed here provides a general framework to construct dissipative, tunable and robust (bio)chemical reaction networks.
Bounding the number of Fq-rational places in algebraic function fields using Weierstrass semigroups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh
2009-01-01
We present a new bound on the number of Fq -rational places in an algebraic function field. It uses information about the generators of the Weierstrass semigroup related to a rational place. As we demonstrate, the bound has implications to the theory of towers of function fields....
Accurate Analytical Multiple-Access Performance of Time-Hopping Biorthogonal PPM IR-UWB Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SVEDEK, T.
2011-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the characteristic function (CF method is used to derive the symbol error rate (SER expression for time-hopping impulse radio ultra-wideband (TH-IR-UWB systems with a biorthogonal pulse position modulation (BPPM scheme in the presence of a multi-user interference (MUI. The derived expression is validated with the Monte-Carlo simulation and compared with orthogonal PPM. Moreover, the analytical results are compared with the Gaussian approximation (GA of MUI which is shown to be inaccurate for a medium and large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. It is also shown that the BPPM scheme outperforms the PPM scheme for all SNR. At the end, the influence of different system parameters on the BPPM performance is analyzed.
Schreier, Franz; Kohlert, Dieter
2008-10-01
Rational functions are frequently used as efficient yet accurate numerical approximations for real and complex valued special functions. For the complex error function w(x+iy), whose real part is the Voigt function K(x,y), the rational approximation developed by Hui, Armstrong, and Wray [Rapid computation of the Voigt and complex error functions, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19 (1978) 509-516] is investigated. Various optimizations for the algorithm are discussed. In many applications, where these functions have to be calculated for a large x grid with constant y, an implementation using real arithmetic and factorization of invariant terms is especially efficient.
A NEW TOOL FOR IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON CHEBYSHEV RATIONAL FUNCTIONS: CHEF FUNCTIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jimenez-Teja, Y.; Benitez, N., E-mail: yojite@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, Granada E-18008 (Spain)
2012-02-01
We introduce a new approach to the modeling of the light distribution of galaxies, an orthonormal polar basis formed by a combination of Chebyshev rational functions and Fourier polynomials that we call CHEF functions, or CHEFs. We have developed an orthonormalization process to apply this basis to pixelized images, and implemented the method as a Python pipeline. The new basis displays remarkable flexibility, being able to accurately fit all kinds of galaxy shapes, including irregulars, spirals, ellipticals, highly compact, and highly elongated galaxies. It does this while using fewer components than similar methods, as shapelets, and without producing artifacts, due to the efficiency of the rational Chebyshev polynomials to fit quickly decaying functions like galaxy profiles. The method is linear and very stable, and therefore is capable of processing large numbers of galaxies in a fast and automated way. Due to the high quality of the fits in the central parts of the galaxies, and the efficiency of the CHEF basis modeling galaxy profiles up to very large distances, the method provides highly accurate estimates of total galaxy fluxes and ellipticities. Future papers will explore in more detail the application of the method to perform multiband photometry, morphological classification, and weak shear measurements.
Discrete Least-norm Approximation by Nonnegative (Trigonomtric) Polynomials and Rational Functions
Siem, A.Y.D.; de Klerk, E.; den Hertog, D.
2005-01-01
Polynomials, trigonometric polynomials, and rational functions are widely used for the discrete approximation of functions or simulation models.Often, it is known beforehand, that the underlying unknown function has certain properties, e.g. nonnegative or increasing on a certain region.However, the
Optimized implementations of rational approximations for the Voigt and complex error function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schreier, Franz
2011-01-01
Rational functions are frequently used as efficient yet accurate numerical approximations for real and complex valued functions. For the complex error function w(x+iy), whose real part is the Voigt function K(x,y), code optimizations of rational approximations are investigated. An assessment of requirements for atmospheric radiative transfer modeling indicates a y range over many orders of magnitude and accuracy better than 10 -4 . Following a brief survey of complex error function algorithms in general and rational function approximations in particular the problems associated with subdivisions of the x, y plane (i.e., conditional branches in the code) are discussed and practical aspects of Fortran and Python implementations are considered. Benchmark tests of a variety of algorithms demonstrate that programming language, compiler choice, and implementation details influence computational speed and there is no unique ranking of algorithms. A new implementation, based on subdivision of the upper half-plane in only two regions, combining Weideman's rational approximation for small |x|+y<15 and Humlicek's rational approximation otherwise is shown to be efficient and accurate for all x, y.
Hypergeometric series recurrence relations and some new orthogonal functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, J.A.
1978-01-01
A set of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials, a set of biorthogonal rational functions generalizing them, and some new three-term relations for hypergeometric series containing properties of these functions are exhibited. The orthogonal polynomials depend on four free parameters, and their orthogonality relations include as special or limiting cases the orthogonalities for the classical polynomials, the Hahn and dual Hahn polynomials, Pollaczek's polynomials orthogonal on an infinite interval, and the 6-j symbols of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. Their properties include a second-order difference equation and a Rodrigues-type formula involving a divided difference operator
Bond, F W; Dryden, W; Briscoe, R
1999-12-01
This article describes a role playing experiment that examined the sufficiency hypothesis of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT). This proposition states that it is sufficient for rational and irrational beliefs to refer to preferences and musts, respectively, if those beliefs are to affect the functionality of inferences (FI). Consistent with the REBT literature (e.g. Dryden, 1994; Dryden & Ellis, 1988; Palmer, Dryden, Ellis & Yapp, 1995) results from this experiment showed that rational and irrational beliefs, as defined by REBT, do affect FI. Specifically, results showed that people who hold a rational belief form inferences that are significantly more functional than those that are formed by people who hold an irrational belief. Contrary to REBT theory, the sufficiency hypothesis was not supported. Thus, results indicated that it is not sufficient for rational and irrational beliefs to refer to preferences and musts, respectively, if those beliefs are to affect the FI. It appears, then, that preferences and musts are not sufficient mechanisms by which rational and irrational beliefs, respectively, affect the FI. Psychotherapeutic implications of these findings are considered.
Rational quadratic trigonometric Bézier curve based on new basis with exponential functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wu Beibei
2017-06-01
Full Text Available We construct a rational quadratic trigonometric Bézier curve with four shape parameters by introducing two exponential functions into the trigonometric basis functions in this paper. It has the similar properties as the rational quadratic Bézier curve. For given control points, the shape of the curve can be flexibly adjusted by changing the shape parameters and the weight. Some conics can be exactly represented when the control points, the shape parameters and the weight are chosen appropriately. The C0, C1 and C2 continuous conditions for joining two constructed curves are discussed. Some examples are given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, G.; Palmer, T.S.
2005-01-01
In 1975, Wachspress developed basis functions that can be constructed upon very general zone shapes, including convex polygons and polyhedra, as well as certain zone shapes with curved sides and faces. Additionally, Adams has recently shown that weight functions with certain properties will produce solutions with full-resolution. Wachspress rational functions possess those necessary properties. Here we present methods to construct and integrate Wachspress rational functions on quadrilaterals. We also present an asymptotic analysis of a discontinuous finite element discretization on quadrilaterals, and we present 3 numerical results that confirm the predictions of our analysis. In the first test problem, we showed that Wachspress rational functions could give robust solutions for a strongly heterogeneous problem with both orthogonal and skewed meshes. This strongly heterogenous problem contained thick, diffusive regions, and the discretization provided full-resolution solutions. In the second test problem, we confirmed our asymptotic analysis by demonstrating that the transport solution will converge to the diffusion solution as the problem is made increasingly thick and diffusive. In the third test problem, we demonstrated that bilinear discontinuous based transport and Wachspress rational function based transport converge in the one-mesh limit
Analysis of additive generators of fuzzy operations represented by rational functions
Ledeneva, T. M.
2018-03-01
This article presents an approach for determining additive generators of commutative and associative operations. Its applicability for finding generators of triangular norms and conorms is shown. Conditions for the parameters of increasing generators that generate triangular conorms in the class of rational functions are determined.
A note on biorthogonal systems in weakly compactly generated Banach spaces
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fabian, Marián; Gonzáles, A.; Montesinos, V.
2009-01-01
Roč. 34, č. 2 (2009), s. 555-564 ISSN 1239-629X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190610 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : weakly compactly generated (sub)space * projectional resolution * fundamental biorthogonal system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.539, year: 2009
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Askar, S.S.; Alnowibet, K.
2016-01-01
Isoelastic demand function have been used in literature to study the dynamic features of systems constructed based on economic market structure. In this paper, we adopt the so-called Cobb–Douglas production function and study its impact on the steady state of an oligopolistic game that consists of four oligopolistic competitors or firms. Briefly, the paper handles three different scenarios. The first scenario introduces four oligopolistic firms who plays rational against each other in market. The firms use the myopic mechanism (or bounded rational) to update their production in the next time unit. The steady state of the obtained system in this scenario, which is the Nash equilibrium, is unique and its characteristics are investigated. Based on a local monopolistic approximation (LMA) strategy, one competitor prefers to play against the three rational firms and this is illustrated in the second scenario. The last scenario discusses the case when three competitors use the LMA strategy against a rational one. For all scenarios discrete dynamical systems are used to describe the game introduced in all scenarios. The stability analysis of the Nash equilibrium is investigated analytically and some numerical simulations are used to confirm the obtained analytical results.
Galaxy halo expansions: a new biorthogonal family of potential-density pairs
Lilley, Edward J.; Sanders, Jason L.; Wyn Evans, N.; Erkal, Denis
2018-02-01
Efficient expansions of the gravitational field of (dark) haloes have two main uses in the modelling of galaxies: first, they provide a compact representation of numerically-constructed (or real) cosmological haloes, incorporating the effects of triaxiality, lopsidedness or other distortion. Secondly, they provide the basis functions for self-consistent field expansion algorithms used in the evolution of N-body systems. We present a new family of biorthogonal potential-density pairs constructed using the Hankel transform of the Laguerre polynomials. The lowest-order density basis functions are double-power-law profiles cusped like ρ ˜ r-2 + 1/α at small radii with asymptotic density fall-off like ρ ˜ r-3 - 1/(2α). Here, α is a parameter satisfying α ≥ 1/2. The family therefore spans the range of inner density cusps found in numerical simulations, but has much shallower - and hence more realistic - outer slopes than the corresponding members of the only previously-known family deduced by Zhao (1996) and exemplified by Hernquist & Ostriker (1992). When α = 1, the lowest-order density profile has an inner density cusp of ρ ˜ r-1 and an outer density slope of ρ ˜ r-3.5, similar to the famous Navarro, Frenk & White (1997) model. For this reason, we demonstrate that our new expansion provides a more accurate representation of flattened NFW haloes than the competing Hernquist-Ostriker expansion. We utilize our new expansion by analysing a suite of numerically-constructed haloes and providing the distributions of the expansion coefficients.
On an application of conformal maps to inequalities for rational functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubinin, V N
2002-01-01
Using classical properties of conformal maps, we get new exact inequalities for rational functions with prescribed poles. In particular, we prove a new Bernstein-type inequality, an inequality for Blaschke products and a theorem that generalizes the Turan inequality for polynomials. The estimates obtained strengthen some familiar inequalities of Videnskii and Rusak. They are also related to recent results of Borwein, Erdelyi, Li, Mohapatra, Rodriguez, Aziz and others
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhatti, F M [Department of Mathematics, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Sector U, DHA, Lahore (Pakistan); Essam, J W [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Royal Holloway College, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)
2006-06-15
Guttmann and Voege introduced a model of f-friendly walkers and argued that a generating function for the number of n-walker configurations making a total of k left steps is a rational function with denominator (1 - x{sup n}){sup k+1}. They also found that for f = 0, 1 and 2 the sums of the numerator coefficients for watermelon configurations in which each of 3 walkers made w left steps were 3-dimensional Catalan numbers. Here it is shown that for n vicious walker (f = 0) watermelon configurations the m{sup th} coefficient of the numerator is the generalised Naryana number N(w, n, m) of Sulanke which is symmetric under interchange of w and n. The sums, C{sub w,n}, of these coefficients as a sequence indexed by w are n-dimensional Catalan numbers or w-dimensional Catalan numbers if indexed by n. The unexpected symmetry in n and w is seen to follow from duality. Inui and Katori introduced Fermi walk configurations which are non-crossing subsets of the directed random walks between opposite corners of a rectangular l x w grid. They related these to Bose configurations which biject to vicious walker watermelon configurations. Bose configurations include multisets. Here we consider generating functions for the numbers of configurations in which l and w are fixed. It is found that the maximum number of walks in a Fermi configuration is lw + 1 and the number of configurations corresponding to this number of walks is C{sub l,w}. This limit on the number of walks in a Fermi configuration leads to the rationality of the Bose generating function and by duality to the rationality of the generating function of Guttmann and Voege.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhatti, F M; Essam, J W
2006-01-01
Guttmann and Voege introduced a model of f-friendly walkers and argued that a generating function for the number of n-walker configurations making a total of k left steps is a rational function with denominator (1 - x n ) k+1 . They also found that for f = 0, 1 and 2 the sums of the numerator coefficients for watermelon configurations in which each of 3 walkers made w left steps were 3-dimensional Catalan numbers. Here it is shown that for n vicious walker (f = 0) watermelon configurations the m th coefficient of the numerator is the generalised Naryana number N(w, n, m) of Sulanke which is symmetric under interchange of w and n. The sums, C w,n , of these coefficients as a sequence indexed by w are n-dimensional Catalan numbers or w-dimensional Catalan numbers if indexed by n. The unexpected symmetry in n and w is seen to follow from duality. Inui and Katori introduced Fermi walk configurations which are non-crossing subsets of the directed random walks between opposite corners of a rectangular l x w grid. They related these to Bose configurations which biject to vicious walker watermelon configurations. Bose configurations include multisets. Here we consider generating functions for the numbers of configurations in which l and w are fixed. It is found that the maximum number of walks in a Fermi configuration is lw + 1 and the number of configurations corresponding to this number of walks is C l,w . This limit on the number of walks in a Fermi configuration leads to the rationality of the Bose generating function and by duality to the rationality of the generating function of Guttmann and Voege
A Novel Method for Gearbox Fault Detection Based on Biorthogonal B-spline Wavelet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangbin ZHANG
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Localized defects of gearbox tend to result in periodic impulses in the vibration signal, which contain important information for system dynamics analysis. So parameter identification of impulse provides an effective approach for gearbox fault diagnosis. Biorthogonal B-spline wavelet has the properties of compact support, high vanishing moment and symmetry, which are suitable to signal de-noising, fast calculation, and reconstruction. Thus, a novel time frequency distribution method is present for gear fault diagnosis by biorthogonal B-spline wavelet. Simulation study concerning singularity signal shows that this wavelet is effective in identifying the fault feature with coefficients map and coefficients line. Furthermore, an integrated approach consisting of wavelet decomposition, Hilbert transform and power spectrum density is used in applications. The results indicate that this method can extract the gearbox fault characteristics and diagnose the fault patterns effectively.
On rationally supported surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.
2008-01-01
We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions....... In particular it is shown that odd rational support functions correspond to those rational surfaces which can be equipped with a linear field of normal vectors, which were discussed by Sampoli et al. (Sampoli, M.L., Peternell, M., Juttler, B., 2006. Rational surfaces with linear normals and their convolutions...... with rational surfaces. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 23, 179-192). As shown recently, this class of surfaces includes non-developable quadratic triangular Bezier surface patches (Lavicka, M., Bastl, B., 2007. Rational hypersurfaces with rational convolutions. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 24, 410426; Peternell, M...
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M. Tavassoli Kajani
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Rational Chebyshev bases and Galerkin method are used to obtain the approximate solution of a system of high-order integro-differential equations on the interval [0,∞. This method is based on replacement of the unknown functions by their truncated series of rational Chebyshev expansion. Test examples are considered to show the high accuracy, simplicity, and efficiency of this method.
Disk one-point function for a family of non-rational conformal theories
Babaro, Juan Pablo; Giribet, Gaston
2010-09-01
We consider an infinite family of non-rational conformal field theories in the presence of a conformal boundary. These theories, which have been recently proposed in [1], are parameterized by two real numbers ( b, m) in such a way that the corresponding central charges c ( b, m) are given by c ( b, m) = 3 + 6( b + b -1(1 - m))2. For the disk geometry, we explicitly compute the expectation value of a bulk vertex operator in the case m in mathbb{Z} , such that the result reduces to the Liouville one-point function when m = 0. We perform the calculation of the disk one-point function in two different ways, obtaining results in perfect agreement, and giving the details of both the path integral and the free field derivations.
A Study on Rational Function Model Generation for TerraSAR-X Imagery
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Mahdi Motagh
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The Rational Function Model (RFM has been widely used as an alternative to rigorous sensor models of high-resolution optical imagery in photogrammetry and remote sensing geometric processing. However, not much work has been done to evaluate the applicability of the RF model for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR image processing. This paper investigates how to generate a Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC for high-resolution TerraSAR-X imagery using an independent approach. The experimental results demonstrate that the RFM obtained using the independent approach fits the Range-Doppler physical sensor model with an accuracy of greater than 10−3 pixel. Because independent RPCs indicate absolute errors in geolocation, two methods can be used to improve the geometric accuracy of the RFM. In the first method, Ground Control Points (GCPs are used to update SAR sensor orientation parameters, and the RPCs are calculated using the updated parameters. Our experiment demonstrates that by using three control points in the corners of the image, an accuracy of 0.69 pixels in range and 0.88 pixels in the azimuth direction is achieved. For the second method, we tested the use of an affine model for refining RPCs. In this case, by applying four GCPs in the corners of the image, the accuracy reached 0.75 pixels in range and 0.82 pixels in the azimuth direction.
Ahmed, Naveed; Bibi, Sadaf; Khan, Umar; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef
2018-02-01
We have modified the traditional exponential rational function method (ERFM) and have used it to find the exact solutions of two different fractional partial differential equations, one is the time fractional Boussinesq equation and the other is the (2+1)-dimensional time fractional Zoomeron equation. In both the cases it is observed that the modified scheme provides more types of solutions than the traditional one. Moreover, a comparison of the recent solutions is made with some already existing solutions. We can confidently conclude that the modified scheme works better and provides more types of solutions with almost similar computational cost. Our generalized solutions include periodic, soliton-like, singular soliton and kink solutions. A graphical simulation of all types of solutions is provided and the correctness of the solution is verified by direct substitution. The extended version of the solutions is expected to provide more flexibility to scientists working in the relevant field to test their simulation data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalmykov, M.Yu.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2008-07-15
We prove the following theorems: 1) The Laurent expansions in {epsilon} of the Gauss hypergeometric functions {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+(p/q)+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z) and {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+ a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+(p)/(q)+c{epsilon};z), where I{sub 1},I{sub 2},I{sub 3},p,q are arbitrary integers, a,b,c are arbitrary numbers and {epsilon} is an infinitesimal parameter, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 2) The Laurent expansion of the Gauss hypergeometric function {sub 2}F{sub 1}(I{sub 1}+(p)/(q)+a{epsilon},I{sub 2}+b{epsilon};I{sub 3}+c{epsilon};z) is expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms of q-roots of unity times powers of logarithm with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials; 3) The multiple inverse rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1}({gamma}(j))/({gamma}(1+j-(p)/(q))) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1) and the multiple rational sums {sigma}{sup {infinity}}{sub j=1} ({gamma}(j+(p)/(q)))/({gamma}(1+j)) (z{sup j})/(j{sup c}) S{sub a{sub 1}}(j-1).. S{sub a{sub p}}(j-1), where S{sub a}(j)={sigma}{sup j}{sub k=1}(1)/(k{sup a}) is a harmonic series and c is an arbitrary integer, are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms; 4) The generalized hypergeometric functions {sub p}F{sub p.1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon},(p)/(q)+B{sub p-1};z) and {sub p}F{sub p-1}((vector)A+(vector)a{epsilon},(p)/(q)+A{sub p};(vector)B+(vector)b{epsilon};z) are expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms with coefficients that are ratios of polynomials. (orig.)
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Jin Wang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this study, a rationally-designed 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT binding peptide derived from an amino acid sequence of the complementarity-determining region (CDR of an anti-TNT monoclonal antibody was used for TNT detection based on a maleimide-functionalized surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor. By antigen-docking simulation and screening, the TNT binding candidate peptides were obtained as TNTHCDR1 derived from the heavy chain of CDR1, TNTHCDR2 derived from CDR2, and TNTHCDR3 from CDR3 of an anti-TNT antibody. The binding events between candidate peptides and TNT were evaluated using the SPR sensor by direct determination based on the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES surface. The TNT binding peptide was directly immobilized on the maleimide-functionalized sensor chip surface from N-γ-maleimidobutyryl-oxysuccinimide ester (GMBS. The results demonstrated that peptide TNTHCDR3 was identified and selected as a TNT binding peptide among the other two candidate peptides. Five kinds of TNT analogues were also investigated to testify the selectivity of TNT binding peptide TNTHCDR3. Furthermore, the results indicated that the APTES-GMBS-based SPR sensor chip procedure featured a great potential application for the direct detection of TNT.
Alpay, Daniel; Dijksma, Aad; Langer, Heinz; Wanjala, Gerald
2006-01-01
We define and solve a boundary interpolation problem for generalized Schur functions s(z) on the open unit disk D which have preassigned asymptotics when z from D tends nontangentially to a boundary point z1 ∈ T. The solutions are characterized via a fractional linear parametrization formula. We
Dynamics of a family of transcendental meromorphic functions having rational Schwarzian derivative
Sajid, M.; Kapoor, G. P.
2007-02-01
In the present paper, a class of critically finite transcendental meromorphic functions having rational Schwarzian derivative is introduced and the dynamics of functions in one parameter family is investigated. It is found that there exist two parameter values [lambda]*=[phi](0)>0 and , where and is the real root of [phi]'(x)=0, such that the Fatou sets of f[lambda](z) for [lambda]=[lambda]* and [lambda]=[lambda]** contain parabolic domains. A computationally useful characterization of the Julia set of the function f[lambda](z) as the complement of the basin of attraction of an attracting real fixed point of f[lambda](z) is established and applied for the generation of the images of the Julia sets of f[lambda](z). Further, it is observed that the Julia set of explodes to whole complex plane for [lambda]>[lambda]**. Finally, our results found in the present paper are compared with the recent results on dynamics of one parameter families [lambda]tanz, [R.L. Devaney, L. Keen, Dynamics of meromorphic maps: Maps with polynomial Schwarzian derivative, Ann. Sci. Ecole Norm. Sup. 22 (4) (1989) 55-79; L. Keen, J. Kotus, Dynamics of the family [lambda]tan(z), Conform. Geom. Dynam. 1 (1997) 28-57; G.M. Stallard, The Hausdorff dimension of Julia sets of meromorphic functions, J. London Math. Soc. 49 (1994) 281-295] and , [lambda]>0 [G.P. Kapoor, M. Guru Prem Prasad, Dynamics of : The Julia set and bifurcation, Ergodic Theory Dynam. Systems 18 (1998) 1363-1383].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song Lina; Wang Weiguo
2010-01-01
In this Letter, an enhanced Adomian decomposition method which introduces the h-curve of the homotopy analysis method into the standard Adomian decomposition method is proposed. Some examples prove that this method can derive successfully approximate rational Jacobi elliptic function solutions of the fractional differential equations.
A density functional theory insight towards the rational design of ionic liquids for SO2 capture.
García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago
2015-05-28
A systematic density functional theory (DFT) analysis has been carried out to obtain information at the molecular level on the key parameters related to efficient SO2 capture by ionic liquids (ILs). A set of 55 ILs, for which high gas solubility is expected, has been selected. SO2 solubility of ILs was firstly predicted based on the COSMO-RS (Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents) method, which provides a good prediction of gas solubility data in ILs without prior experimental knowledge of the compounds' features. Then, interactions between SO2 and ILs were deeply analyzed through DFT simulations. This work provides valuable information about required factors at the molecular level to provide high SO2 solubility in ILs, which is crucial for further implementation of these materials in the future. In our opinion, systematic research on ILs for SO2 capture increases our knowledge about those factors which could be controlled at the molecular level, providing an approach for the rational design of task-specific ILs.
EVALUATION OF RATIONAL FUNCTION MODEL FOR GEOMETRIC MODELING OF CHANG'E-1 CCD IMAGES
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Y. Liu
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Rational Function Model (RFM is a generic geometric model that has been widely used in geometric processing of high-resolution earth-observation satellite images, due to its generality and excellent capability of fitting complex rigorous sensor models. In this paper, the feasibility and precision of RFM for geometric modeling of China's Chang'E-1 (CE-1 lunar orbiter images is presented. The RFM parameters of forward-, nadir- and backward-looking CE-1 images are generated though least squares solution using virtual control points derived from the rigorous sensor model. The precision of the RFM is evaluated by comparing with the rigorous sensor model in both image space and object space. Experimental results using nine images from three orbits show that RFM can precisely fit the rigorous sensor model of CE-1 CCD images with a RMS residual error of 1/100 pixel level in image space and less than 5 meters in object space. This indicates that it is feasible to use RFM to describe the imaging geometry of CE-1 CCD images and spacecraft position and orientation. RFM will enable planetary data centers to have an option to supply RFM parameters of orbital images while keeping the original orbit trajectory data confidential.
Effects of ration level on immune functions in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)
Alcorn, S.W.; Pascho, R.J.; Murray, A.L.; Shearer, K.D.
2003-01-01
The relationship between nutritional status and disease resistance in cultured salmonids can be affected by dietary manipulations. Careful attention to feeding levels may be important to avoid imbalances in nutrient levels that could ultimately impair a fish's ability to resist infectious microorganisms. In the current study, fish in three feed-level groups were fed an experimental diet either to satiation, 64% of satiation or 40% of satiation. A fourth group of fish were fed a commercial diet at the 64% of satiation level and served as controls. To evaluate certain indices of disease resistance in the test and control fish, a panel of assays was employed to measure humoral and cellular immune functions 30, 39 and 54 weeks after starting the dietary treatments. The panel included measures of blood hematocrit and leucocrit levels, plasma protein concentration and serum lysozyme and complement activity. Cellular analyses included differential blood leucocyte counts, NBT reduction and phagocytosis by pronephros macrophages and myeloperoxidase activity of pronephros neutrophils. No differences were observed in those indices between fish tested from the control-diet group (commercial diet fed at the 64% rate) and fish tested from the 64% feed-level group, except that fish fed the commercial diet had a greater concentration of plasma protein. Leucocrit values and plasma protein concentrations tended to increase among the experimental feed groups as the ration increased from 40% to satiation. More importantly, phagocytic activity by anterior kidney leucocytes was found to be inversely proportional to the feed level. Whereas the results of this study provide evidence that the salmonid immune system may be fairly robust with regard to available metabolic energy, the significant changes observed in phagocytic cell activity suggest that some cellular immune functions may be affected by the feed level.
Matrix biorthogonal polynomials on the unit circle and non-Abelian Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cafasso, Mattia
2009-01-01
Adler and van Moerbeke (2001 Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 54 153-205) described a reduction of the 2D-Toda hierarchy called the Toeplitz lattice. This hierarchy turns out to be equivalent to the one originally described by Ablowitz and Ladik (1975 J. Math. Phys. 16 598-603) using semidiscrete zero- curvature equations. In this paper, we obtain the original semidiscrete zero-curvature equations starting directly from the Toeplitz lattice and we generalize these computations to the matrix case. This generalization leads us to the semidiscrete zero-curvature equations for the non-Abelian (or multicomponent) version of the Ablowitz-Ladik equations (Gerdzhikov and Ivanov 1982 Theor. Math. Phys. 52 676-85). In this way, we extend the link between biorthogonal polynomials on the unit circle and the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy to the matrix case.
On the bi-orthogonality conditions for multi-modal elastic waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Sergey
2013-01-01
The bi-orthogomality conditions in terms of generalised forces and displacements are derived from the reciprocity relations for a hierarchy of elastic waveguides, which support several travelling and evanescent modes (free waves). In the simple cases of waves in a straight beam and axisymmetric...... waves in a thin elastic cylindrical shell, these conditions are formulated as identities in an explicit form via wavenumbers. The forced vibrations of these waveguides under localised excitation are also considered with these identities being employed. The bi-orthogonality conditions in more advanced...... cases, specifically, for non-axisymmetric waves in an elastic cylindrical shell and for waves in an elastic helical spring, are derived, but not presented in an explicit form via wavenumbers. The results obtained for the hierarchy of waveguides are discussed in view of the classical bi...
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J. ZGAJNAR
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the method and tool for optimisation of beef-fattening diets. Changes in policy environment and changes in costs of feed pose challenges for farm efficiency. We construct a spreadsheet from two modules based on mathematical deterministic programming techniques. In order to obtain an estimate of the magnitude of costs that may be incurred, the first module utilizes a linear program for least-cost ration formulation. The resulting value is then targeted as a cost goal in the second module. This is supported by weighted goal programming with a penalty function system. The approach presented here is an example of how a combination of mathematical programming techniques might be applied to prepare a user-friendly tool for optimal ration formulations. We report results that confirm this approach as useful, since one is able to formulate a least-cost ration without risking a decrease in the rations nutritive value or affecting the balance between nutrients.;
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Qi; Chen Yong
2007-01-01
With the aid of symbolic computation, some algorithms are presented for the rational expansion methods, which lead to closed-form solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). The new algorithms are given to find exact rational formal polynomial solutions of PDEs in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions, solutions of the Riccati equation and solutions of the generalized Riccati equation. They can be implemented in symbolic computation system Maple. As applications of the methods, we choose some nonlinear PDEs to illustrate the methods. As a result, we not only can successfully obtain the solutions found by most existing Jacobi elliptic function methods and Tanh-methods, but also find other new and more general solutions at the same time
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Mohamed Ramadan
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a rational Chebyshev collocation method is presented to solve high-order linear Fredholm integro-differential equations with variable coefficients under the mixed conditions in terms of rational Chebyshev functions by two proposed schemes. The proposed method converts the equation and conditions to matrix equations, by means of collocation points on the semi–infinite interval, which corresponding to systems of linear algebraic equations with rational Chebyshev coefficients. Thus, by solving the matrix equation, rational Chebyshev coefficients are obtained and hence the approximate solution is expressed in terms of rational Chebyshev functions. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the validity and applicability of the method. The proposed method is numerically compared with others existing methods as well as the exact solutions where it maintains better accuracy.
Heyden, Andreas; Bell, Alexis T; Keil, Frerich J
2005-12-08
A combination of interpolation methods and local saddle-point search algorithms is probably the most efficient way of finding transition states in chemical reactions. Interpolation methods such as the growing-string method and the nudged-elastic band are able to find an approximation to the minimum-energy pathway and thereby provide a good initial guess for a transition state and imaginary mode connecting both reactant and product states. Since interpolation methods employ usually just a small number of configurations and converge slowly close to the minimum-energy pathway, local methods such as partitioned rational function optimization methods using either exact or approximate Hessians or minimum-mode-following methods such as the dimer or the Lanczos method have to be used to converge to the transition state. A modification to the original dimer method proposed by [Henkelman and Jonnson J. Chem. Phys. 111, 7010 (1999)] is presented, reducing the number of gradient calculations per cycle from six to four gradients or three gradients and one energy, and significantly improves the overall performance of the algorithm on quantum-chemical potential-energy surfaces, where forces are subject to numerical noise. A comparison is made between the dimer methods and the well-established partitioned rational function optimization methods for finding transition states after the use of interpolation methods. Results for 24 different small- to medium-sized chemical reactions covering a wide range of structural types demonstrate that the improved dimer method is an efficient alternative saddle-point search algorithm on medium-sized to large systems and is often even able to find transition states when partitioned rational function optimization methods fail to converge.
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María Paz Gazzola
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This research proposes the teaching of mathematics in the secondary school by means of the Study and Research Paths (SRP. A longitudinal analysis has been carried out during two years with secondary school students (aged 15-17. The results obtained in the last part of the path are presented in the present work, during which the rational functions were studied. The aspects connected to the processes of mesogenesis, topogenesis and cronogenesis are analyzed, according to Chevallard in the Anthropologic Theory of Didactics (ATD.
Accurately bi-orthogonal direct and adjoint lambda modes via two-sided Eigen-solvers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roman, J.E.; Vidal, V.; Verdu, G.
2005-01-01
This work is concerned with the accurate computation of the dominant l-modes (Lambda mode) of the reactor core in order to approximate the solution of the neutron diffusion equation in different situations such as the transient modal analysis. In a previous work, the problem was already addressed by implementing a parallel program based on SLEPc (Scalable Library for Eigenvalue Problem Computations), a public domain software for the solution of eigenvalue problems. Now, the proposed solution is extended by incorporating also the computation of the adjoint l-modes in such a way that the bi-orthogonality condition is enforced very accurately. This feature is very desirable in some types of analyses, and in the proposed scheme it is achieved by making use of two-sided eigenvalue solving software. Current implementations of some of these software, while still susceptible of improvement, show that they can be competitive in terms of response time and accuracy with respect to other types of eigenvalue solving software. The code developed by the authors has parallel capabilities in order to be able to analyze reactors with a great level of detail in a short time. (authors)
Accurately bi-orthogonal direct and adjoint lambda modes via two-sided Eigen-solvers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roman, J.E.; Vidal, V. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, D. Sistemas Informaticos y Computacion (Spain); Verdu, G. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, D. Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear (Spain)
2005-07-01
This work is concerned with the accurate computation of the dominant l-modes (Lambda mode) of the reactor core in order to approximate the solution of the neutron diffusion equation in different situations such as the transient modal analysis. In a previous work, the problem was already addressed by implementing a parallel program based on SLEPc (Scalable Library for Eigenvalue Problem Computations), a public domain software for the solution of eigenvalue problems. Now, the proposed solution is extended by incorporating also the computation of the adjoint l-modes in such a way that the bi-orthogonality condition is enforced very accurately. This feature is very desirable in some types of analyses, and in the proposed scheme it is achieved by making use of two-sided eigenvalue solving software. Current implementations of some of these software, while still susceptible of improvement, show that they can be competitive in terms of response time and accuracy with respect to other types of eigenvalue solving software. The code developed by the authors has parallel capabilities in order to be able to analyze reactors with a great level of detail in a short time. (authors)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...
Manzini, Paola; Mariotti, Marco
2004-01-01
A sequentially rationalizable choice function is a choice function which can be obtained by applying sequentially a fixed set of asymmetric binary relations (rationales). A Rational ShortlistMethod (RSM) is a choice function which is sequentially rationalizable by two rationales. These concepts translate into economic language some human choice heuristics studied in psychology. We provide a full characterization of RSMs and study some properties of sequential rationalizability. These properti...
Ledet, Lasse S.; Sorokin, Sergey V.
2018-03-01
The paper addresses the classical problem of time-harmonic forced vibrations of a fluid-filled cylindrical shell considered as a multi-modal waveguide carrying infinitely many waves. The forced vibration problem is solved using tailored Green's matrices formulated in terms of eigenfunction expansions. The formulation of Green's matrix is based on special (bi-)orthogonality relations between the eigenfunctions, which are derived here for the fluid-filled shell. Further, the relations are generalised to any multi-modal symmetric waveguide. Using the orthogonality relations the transcendental equation system is converted into algebraic modal equations that can be solved analytically. Upon formulation of Green's matrices the solution space is studied in terms of completeness and convergence (uniformity and rate). Special features and findings exposed only through this modal decomposition method are elaborated and the physical interpretation of the bi-orthogonality relation is discussed in relation to the total energy flow which leads to derivation of simplified equations for the energy flow components.
In silico approach to designing rational metagenomic libraries for functional studies.
Kusnezowa, Anna; Leichert, Lars I
2017-05-22
With the development of Next Generation Sequencing technologies, the number of predicted proteins from entire (meta-) genomes has risen exponentially. While for some of these sequences protein functions can be inferred from homology, an experimental characterization is still a requirement for the determination of protein function. However, functional characterization of proteins cannot keep pace with our capabilities to generate more and more sequence data. Here, we present an approach to reduce the number of proteins from entire (meta-) genomes to a reasonably small number for further experimental characterization without loss of important information. About 6.1 million predicted proteins from the Global Ocean Sampling Expedition Metagenome project were distributed into classes based either on homology to existing hidden markov models (HMMs) of known families, or de novo by assessment of pairwise similarity. 5.1 million of these proteins could be classified in this way, yielding 18,437 families. For 4,129 protein families, which did not match existing HMMs from databases, we could create novel HMMs. For each family, we then selected a representative protein, which showed the closest homology to all other proteins in this family. We then selected representatives of four families based on their homology to known and well-characterized lipases. From these four synthesized genes, we could obtain the novel esterase/lipase GOS54, validating our approach. Using an in silico approach, we were able improve the success rate of functional screening and make entire (meta-) genomes amenable for biochemical characterization.
Rational Use of Antibiotics in the Treatment of Functional Bowel Disorders
Di Stefano, Michele; Fasulo, Roberta; Corazza, Gino Roberto
2010-01-01
Functional gastrointestinal symptoms such us bloating, fullness, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation due to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were recently attributed to small bowel bacterial overgrowth, a condition depending on the presence of an increased number of bacteria in the small bowel. However, the methodology used to describe this association may be harshly criticized, since it has already been shown to be quite inaccurate. As a result an inappropriate use of antibiotics was consequently generated. In fact, antibiotics could be effective in the treatment of functional complaints, but only in a limited subgroup of patients, characterized by an increase of fermentation at colonic level. In this review, we have examined the papers suggesting a pathophysiological link between IBS and small bowel bacterial overgrowth, underlining its inappropriateness, and put forth our personal view on the rationale for antibiotic use in IBS. PMID:27713358
Rational Use of Antibiotics in the Treatment of Functional Bowel Disorders
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Roberta Fasulo
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal symptoms such us bloating, fullness, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation due to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were recently attributed to small bowel bacterial overgrowth, a condition depending on the presence of an increased number of bacteria in the small bowel. However, the methodology used to describe this association may be harshly criticized, since it has already been shown to be quite inaccurate. As a result an inappropriate use of antibiotics was consequently generated. In fact, antibiotics could be effective in the treatment of functional complaints, but only in a limited subgroup of patients, characterized by an increase of fermentation at colonic level. In this review, we have examined the papers suggesting a pathophysiological link between IBS and small bowel bacterial overgrowth, underlining its inappropriateness, and put forth our personal view on the rationale for antibiotic use in IBS.
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E. Fathizadeh
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We use a computational method based on rational Haar wavelet for solving nonlinear fractional integro-differential equations. To this end, we apply the operational matrix of fractional integration for rational Haar wavelet. Also, to show the efficiency of the proposed method, we solve particularly population growth model and Abel integral equations and compare the numerical results with the exact solutions.
Towards Rational Design of Functional Fluoride and Oxyfluoride Materials from First Principles
Charles, Nenian
Complex transition metal compounds (TMCs) research has produced functional materials with a range of properties, including ferroelectricity, colossal magnetoresistance, nonlinear optical activity and high-temperature superconductivity. Conventional routes to tune properties in transition metal oxides, for example, have relied primarily on cation chemical substitution and interfacial effects in thin film heterostructures. In heteroanionic TMCs, exhibiting two chemically distinct anions coordinating the same or different cations, engineering of the anion sub-lattice for property control is a promising alternative approach. The presence of multiple anions provides additional design variables, such as anion order, that are absent in homoanionic counterparts. The more complex structural and chemical phase space of heteroanionic materials provides a unique opportunity to realize enhanced or unanticipated electronic, optical, and magnetic responses. Although there is growing interest in heteroanionic materials, and synthetic and characterization advances are occurring for these materials, the crystal-chemistry principles for realizing structural and property control are only slowing emerging. This dissertation employs anion engineering to investigate phenomena in transition metal fluorides and oxyfluorides compounds using first principles density functional theory calculations. Oxyfluorides are particularly intriguing owing their tendency to stabilize highly ordered anion sublattices as well as the potential to combine the advantageous properties of transition metal oxides and fluorides. This work 1) addresses the challenges of studying fluorides and oxyfluorides using first principles calculations; 2) evaluates the feasibility of using external stimuli, such as epitaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure, to control properties of fluorides and oxyfluorides; and 3) formulates a computational workflow based on multiple levels of theory and computation to elucidate structure
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E. H. Doha
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A new Legendre rational pseudospectral scheme is proposed and developed for solving numerically systems of linear and nonlinear multipantograph equations on a semi-infinite interval. A Legendre rational collocation method based on Legendre rational-Gauss quadrature points is utilized to reduce the solution of such systems to systems of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations. In addition, accurate approximations are achieved by selecting few Legendre rational-Gauss collocation points. The numerical results obtained by this method have been compared with various exact solutions in order to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. Indeed, for relatively limited nodes used, the absolute error in our numerical solutions is sufficiently small.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zentner, I. [IMSIA, UMR EDF-ENSTA-CNRS-CEA 9219, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 Boulevard des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Ferré, G., E-mail: gregoire.ferre@ponts.org [CERMICS – Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, 6 et 8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, Champs sur Marne, 77455 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Poirion, F. [Department of Structural Dynamics and Aeroelasticity, ONERA, BP 72, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); Benoit, M. [Institut de Recherche sur les Phénomènes Hors Equilibre (IRPHE), UMR 7342 (CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Ecole Centrale Marseille), 49 rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, BP 146, 13384 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)
2016-06-01
In this paper, a new method for the identification and simulation of non-Gaussian and non-stationary stochastic fields given a database is proposed. It is based on two successive biorthogonal decompositions aiming at representing spatio–temporal stochastic fields. The proposed double expansion allows to build the model even in the case of large-size problems by separating the time, space and random parts of the field. A Gaussian kernel estimator is used to simulate the high dimensional set of random variables appearing in the decomposition. The capability of the method to reproduce the non-stationary and non-Gaussian features of random phenomena is illustrated by applications to earthquakes (seismic ground motion) and sea states (wave heights).
Rationing-Based Price Discrimination
Ruhai Wu; Xianjun Geng; Andrew B. Whinston
2006-01-01
This paper provides a theory of rationing where rationing functions as an effective mechanism for second degree price discrimination by a monopoly seller. When a seller charges multiple prices on homogenous products to all consumers, supply at the lowest price is limited and rationed among consumers. The supply shortage differentiates products sold at the lowest price and those sold at a higher price. When high-valuation consumers identify themselves at the higher price, the seller may extrac...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georg Spielthenner
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Valuations are ubiquitous. We may be for or against genetically modified food; we find some politicians irresponsible; we prefer Beethoven to rock ‘n’ roll or vice versa; some enjoy bird-watching while others find it boring; and we may think that we have to tighten up on green-house gas emissions. Valuing is pervasive and often we are not even aware that we are valuing. However, many of ourvaluations are ill grounded and rationally defective. They are frequently based on misinformation, sloppy thinking, prejudice, and are biased in many ways as psychological research shows. For this reason there is widespread agreement among phi-losophers that we need an account of substantive valuational rationality, both for the theory of practical reasoning and for ethics as well. My main objectin this paper is to outline such an account and to present a principle that allows a non-technical rational criticism of valuations
Binmore, Ken
2008-01-01
It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,
Rationalization: A Bibliography.
Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.
Rationalization was studied by Sigmund Freud and was specifically labeled by Ernest Jones. Rationalization ought to be differentiated from rational, rationality, logical analysis, etc. On the one hand, rationalization is considered a defense mechanism, on the other hand, rationality is not. Haan has done much work with self-report inventories and…
Xia, Mengfan; Zhuo, Caixia; Ma, Xuejuan; Zhang, Xiaohong; Sun, Huaming; Zhai, Quanguo; Zhang, Yaodong
2017-10-12
Different from popular mimics of bimetallic nuclear centers bridged by a hydroxide, a total coordination sphere of the active center of organophosphorus hydrolase was assembled in metal-organic frameworks by rational design and combination of ligands, which resulted in efficient destruction of nerve agent stimulants without a base as a co-catalyst.
Rational inattention or rational overreaction?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Browning, Martin; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Smed, Sinne
We investigate differences in how consumers of fish react to health information in the mass media. We specify a dynamic empirical model that allows for heterogeneity in all basic parameters of consumer behavior as well as in how consumers react to information. We estimate the model using a unique...... houshold panel tracking consumption, prices, news stories and media habits over 24 quarters. We fi nd that the consumers most likely to be ’rationally ignorant’ of health effects react more dramatically to health news than the consumers who most likely are well informed....
Angeles, Jorge
1988-01-01
A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Randall Brown
2007-03-01
Full Text Available One of the most widely used goodness-of-fit tests is the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS family of tests which have been implemented by many computer statistical software packages. To calculate a p value (evaluate the cumulative sampling distribution, these packages use various methods including recursion formulae, limiting distributions, and approximations of unknown accuracy developed over thirty years ago. Based on an extensive literature search for the one-sided one-sample K-S test, this paper identifies two direct formulae and five recursion formulae that can be used to calculate a p value and then develops two additional direct formulae and four iterative versions of the direct formulae for a total of thirteen formulae. To ensure accurate calculation by avoiding catastrophic cancelation and eliminating rounding error, each formula is implemented in rational arithmetic. Linear search is used to calculate the inverse of the cumulative sampling distribution (find the confidence interval bandwidth. Extensive tables of bandwidths are presented for sample sizes up to 2, 000. The results confirm the hypothesis that as the number of digits in the numerator and denominator integers of the rational number test statistic increases, the computation time also increases. In comparing the computational times of the thirteen formulae, the direct formulae are slightly faster than their iterative versions and much faster than all the recursion formulae. Computational times for the fastest formula are given for sample sizes up to fifty thousand.
Multivariate rational data fitting
Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte
1992-12-01
Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.
Kim, E-K; Ha, S-G; Lee, J; Park, Y B; Jung, K-Y
2015-01-26
Efficient unconditionally stable FDTD method is developed for the electromagnetic analysis of dispersive media. Toward this purpose, a quadratic complex rational function (QCRF) dispersion model is applied to the alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (ADI-FDTD) method. The 3-D update equations of QCRF-ADI-FDTD are derived using Maxwell's curl equations and the constitutive relation. The periodic boundary condition of QCRF-ADI-FDTD is discussed in detail. A 3-D numerical example shows that the time-step size can be increased by the proposed QCRF-ADI-FDTD beyond the Courant-Friedrich-Levy (CFL) number, without numerical instability. It is observed that, for refined computational cells, the computational time of QCRF-ADI-FDTD is reduced to 28.08 % of QCRF-FDTD, while the L2 relative error norm of a field distribution is 6.92 %.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
2013-01-01
We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....
Wang, Ping; Gao, Liqian; Lei, Haipeng; Lee, Su Seong; Yao, Shao Q; Sun, Hongyan
2017-01-01
Given its increasing importance in transforming biomedical research in recent years, microarray technology has become highly popular as a powerful screening platform in detecting biomolecule interactions, discovering new inhibitors, and identifying biomarkers as well as diagnosing disease. The success of microarray technology in various biological applications is highly dependent on the accessibility, the functionality, and the density of the surface bound biomolecules. Therefore, compound immobilization represents a critical step for the successful implementation of microarray screening. Herein we describe a fast and site-specific microarray immobilization approach by using trans-cyclooctene-tetrazine ligation. This approach not only ensures fast immobilization and uniform display of biomolecules, but also allows the optimum orientation of biomolecules after immobilization. All these excellent properties facilitate subsequent interactions of the biomolecules and their interacting partners during the screening process. We envision that the immobilization strategy described here can find useful applications in many other microarray related studies.
Walsh, Kieran
2016-03-01
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of rationing in medical education. Medical education is expensive and there is a limit to that which governments, funders or individuals can spend on it. Rationing involves the allocation of resources that are limited. This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different forms of rationing that could be applied. Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may be implicit or explicit or may be based on macro-allocation or micro-allocation decisions. Funding can be distributed equally among learners, or according to the needs of individual learners, or to ensure that overall usefulness is maximised. One final option is to allow the market to operate freely and to decide in that way. These principles of rationing can apply to individual learners or to institutions or departments or learning modes. Rationing is occurring in medical education, even though it might be implicit. It is worth giving consideration to methods of rationing and to make thinking about rationing more explicit.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Teze, David; Visnapuu, Triinu; Kjeldsen, Christian
and the fact that the products are also substrates, thus needing a kinetic control of the reaction. Several approaches have been developed to overcome these, including mechanism modifications (e.g. glycosynthases, chemical rescue), functional screening and data mining to find natural transglycosidases...... been reported. Thus, we turned to discovery and characterization of new GH20s and performing a systematic mutagenesis study. Several new GH20s of bacterial origin were isolated and described by functional screening and data mining, including transglycosidases able to synthesize lacto...
Determinants of Actor Rationality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ellegaard, Chris
Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer......-supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse...... and understand actor rationalities. Finally managerial implications are discussed....
Valenti, Laura E; Smania, Andrea M; De Pauli, Carlos P; Giacomelli, Carla E
2013-12-01
In order to rationally design a bio-functional surface based on the adsorption of a His-tag antigen, three requirements have to be considered: the bio-recognition element, the driving forces for the adsorption process and the detection mode of the bio-recognition event. This work is focused on the study of the adsorption mechanism of the His-tag H49 Chagas antigen on Ni(II) modified substrates. In order to construct the bio-functional surface, the gen of the H49 Chagas antigen was modified to incorporate His6 moiety at the N-terminal (His6-H49). Then, its physical adsorption and bio-affinity interaction with the solid substrate was studied by reflectometry. Besides His-Ni(II) bio-affinity interactions, His6-H49 was also physically adsorbed on Ni(II) modified substrates, leading to randomly oriented antigens. These loosely attached bio-molecules were partially removed using conditions of electrostatic repulsion. On the other hand, bio-affinity interactions, resulting in site-oriented molecules on the substrate, were only removable by specific competitors for Ni(II) surface sites. Finally, the surface bio-activity was determined from the peak separations of voltammetry waves due to the change of the electron transfer kinetics of a redox probe through the bio-functional surface (working electrode). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rational synthesis of AB-type N-substituted core-functionalized naphthalene diimides (cNDIs).
Berezin, Andrey A; Sciutto, Andrea; Demitri, Nicola; Bonifazi, Davide
2015-04-17
Acid-mediated transformation of tetraethyl 2,6-diethoxynaphthalene-1,4,5,8-tetracarboxylate selectively affords the core-substituted naphthalene-anhydride-ester (cNAE) in quantitative yield. This anhydride can be selectively converted into hetero-N-substituted core-functionalized naphthalene diimides (cNDIs) through sequential condensation reactions in the presence of the precursor amine with very high isolated yields over four steps. The approach can be applied to prepare a large variety of heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic heterodiimides.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
M, Veerababu; R, Kothandaraman
2017-01-01
Perylene based dilithium salt of N,N'-bis (glycinyl) perylene diimide (Li 2 -PDI) was synthesized and studied as an electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. The −CH 2 −COOLi functionalization of perylene diimide is a simple strategy to mitigate the dissolution of the monomer in the electrolyte. The Li 2 -PDI electrode exhibits excellent capacity retention behaviour and delivers a stable specific capacity of 101 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 17 mA g −1 , which is 98% of theoretical specific capacity. A remarkably stable capacity of 87 mAh g −1 was observed even after 1000 cycles with 100% coulombic efficiency at a current density of 200 mA g −1 . The reversible electrochemical lithiation/delithiation mechanism of Li 2 -PDI was studied by ex-situ XRD and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques.
Rational approximation of vertical segments
Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte
2007-08-01
In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.
Analytic aspects of rational conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiritsis, E.B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA
1990-01-01
The problem of deriving linear differential equations for correlation functions of Rational Conformal Field Theories is considered. Techniques from the theory of fuchsian differential equations are used to show that knowledge of the central charge, dimensions of primary fields and fusion rules are enough to fix the differential equations for one- and two-point functions on the tours. Any other correlation function can be calculated along similar lines. The results settle the issue of 'exact solution' of rational conformal field theories. (orig.)
Da Silva, Rafael
In nanomaterials there is a strong correlation between structure and properties. Thus, the design and synthesis of nanomaterials with well-defined structures and morphology is essential in order to produce materials with not only unique but also tailorable properties. The unique properties of nanomaterials in turn can be taken advantage of to create materials and nanoscale devices that can help address important societal issues, such as meeting renewable energy sources and efficient therapeutic and diagnostic methods to cure a range of diseases. In this thesis, the different synthetic approaches I have developed to produce functional nanomaterials composed of earth-abundant elements (mainly carbon and silica) at low cost in a very sustainable manner are discussed. In Chapter 1, the fundamental properties of nanomaterials and their properties and potential applications in many areas are introduced. In chapter 2, a novel synthetic method that allows polymerization of polyaniline (PANI), a conducting polymer, inside cylindrical channel pores of nanoporous silica (SBA-15) is discussed. In addition, the properties of the III resulting conducting polymer in the confined nanochannel spaces of SBA-15, and more importantly, experimental demonstration of the use of the resulting hybrid material (PANI/SBA-15 material) as electocatalyst for electrooxidation reactions with good overpotential, close to zero, are detailed. In chapter 3, the synthetic approach discussed in Chapter 2 is further extended to afford nitrogen- and oxygen-doped mesoporous carbons. This is possible by pyrolysis of the PANI/SBA-15 composite materials under inert atmosphere, followed by etching away their silica framework. The high catalytic activity of resulting carbon-based materials towards oxygen reduction reaction despite they do not possess any metal dopants is also included. The potential uses of nanomaterials in areas such as nanomedicine need deep understanding of the biocompatibility/ toxicity of
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of rationing in medical education. Medical education is expensive and there is a limit to that which governments, funders or individuals can spend on it. Rationing involves the allocation of resources that are limited. This paper discussed the pros and cons of the ...
History of Economic Rationalities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This book concentrates upon how economic rationalities have been embedded into particular historical practices, cultures, and moral systems. Through multiple case-studies, situated in different historical contexts of the modern West, the book shows that the development of economic rationalities t...
Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1980-06-01
The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)
Irrational Rationality of Terrorism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Nalbandov
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The present article deals with the ontological problem of applying the rational choice frameworks to the study of terrorism. It testing the application of the rational choice to the “old” (before the end of the Cold War and the “new” (after the end of the Cold War terrorisms. It starts with analyzing the fundamentals of rationality and applies it at two levels: the individual (actors and group (collective via two outlooks: tactical (short-term and strategic (long-term. The main argument of the article is that while the “old” terrorism can be explained by the rational choice theory its “new” version represents a substantial departure from rationality.
Jecker, N S; Schneiderman, L J
1992-02-01
It seems more than coincidental that at a time of great concern over rising health care costs and fears of rampant technology, debates are suddenly taking place about medical futility and health care rationing. This article examines the economic, historical, and demographic factors that have motivated increased attention to both these concepts, explores differences and similarities in the meaning of these terms, and discusses their ethical implications. Specifically, we identify four common sources of current debates on futility and rationing: the rise in health care costs; the development of high-technology medicine; the aging of society; and the effort to limit the scope of patient autonomy. We propose that when rationing criteria refer to medical benefit, the meanings of futility and rationing share certain common features. Futility and rationing differ, however, in important ways. Futility refers to treatment and outcome relationships not in a general population but in a specific patient. Rationing criteria usually are supported by reference to theories of justice, whereas the definition of futility, if achieved, will probably be arrived at by empirical community agreement. Rationing always occurs against a backdrop of resource scarcity, but futility need not. Toward the end of the paper, we clarify how the various connotations and contexts we associate with each term enhance or frustrate ethical debate.
Exploring rationality in schizophrenia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth
2015-01-01
Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality....
Sreenivasan, Ashwin; Heintz, Ron
2016-10-01
Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) are generalist predators in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), and are an important predator on other commercially important species. Efficient management of this species can benefit by knowing how these fish adapt to changing environmental conditions, with a focus on how growth and condition are affected by changes in temperature and diet. We conducted a feeding study to understand the relationship between growth, ration, and temperature, and how these factors interact to affect energy allocation strategies. Since growth and condition of juveniles can determine recruitment into the population, this study focused on growth and consumption of age 1+Pacific cod held over 4 temperature treatments (4 °C, 8 °C, 12 °C, and 16 °C) and 3 ration levels (unlimited ration, medium ration, and low ration). We also compared cellular nucleic acid (RNA/DNA) ratios, an instantaneous growth index, total-body lipid, and proximate composition between fish. At 4 °C, 8 °C, and 12 °C, fish at medium and low rations had higher growth rates relative to fish at high rations. Higher food consumption appears to negatively affect digestive ability, assimilation efficiency, and nutrient utilization. RNA/DNA was clearly correlated with growth rates at 4 °C and 8 °C, but this relationship did not hold at higher temperatures. A secondary growth study was conducted to test the reliability of the growth/consumption models derived from the main growth study. Temperature influenced energy reserves (lipid) while tissue growth (protein) was influenced by ration level. Average lipid values were higher at 4 °C than at 8 °C or 12 °C, suggesting a predisposition to heightened lipid synthesis at colder temperatures. Longer durations of warmer water temperature in the GOA could consequently affect energy allocation strategies, with dietary changes in the field potentially amplifying this effect in cold and warm years. This energy allocation strategy could be detrimental
Crab Rationalization Permit Program
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crab Rationalization Program (Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities. The North Pacific Fishery Management...
Rational maps, monopoles and skyrmions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houghton, C.J.; Manton, N.S.
1998-01-01
We discuss the similarities between BPS monopoles and skyrmions, and point to an underlying connection in terms of rational maps between Riemann spheres. This involves the introduction of a new ansatz for Skyrme fields. We use this to construct good approximations to several known skyrmions, including all the minimal energy configurations up to baryon number nine, and some new solutions such as a baryon number seventeen Skyrme field with the truncated icosahedron structure of a buckyball. The new approach is also used to understand the low-lying vibrational modes of skyrmions, which are required for quantization. Along the way we discover an interesting Morse function on the space of rational maps which may be of use in understanding the Sen forms on the monopole moduli spaces. (orig.)
Rational Models for Inflation-Linked Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dam, Henrik; Macrina, Andrea; Skovmand, David
2018-01-01
We construct models for the pricing and risk management of inflation-linked derivatives. The model is rational in the sense that affine payoffs written on the consumer price index have prices that are rational functions of the state variables. The nominal pricing kernel is constructed in a multip......We construct models for the pricing and risk management of inflation-linked derivatives. The model is rational in the sense that affine payoffs written on the consumer price index have prices that are rational functions of the state variables. The nominal pricing kernel is constructed...... in a multiplicative manner that allows for closed-form pricing of vanilla inflation products suchlike zero-coupon swaps, caps and floors, year-on-year swaps, caps and floors, and the exotic limited price index swap. The model retains the attractive features of a nominal multi-curve interest rate model such as closed...
What Information Theory Says about Bounded Rational Best Response
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
Probability Collectives (PC) provides the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to bounded rational games. Here an explicit solution to the equations giving the bounded rationality equilibrium of a game is presented. Then PC is used to investigate games in which the players use bounded rational best-response strategies. Next it is shown that in the continuum-time limit, bounded rational best response games result in a variant of the replicator dynamics of evolutionary game theory. It is then shown that for team (shared-payoff) games, this variant of replicator dynamics is identical to Newton-Raphson iterative optimization of the shared utility function.
Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan. Contingency gasoline rationing regulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1979-02-01
The Economic Regulatory Administration issues final rules with respect to standby gasoline rationing. The plan is designed for and would be used only in the event of a severe gasoline shortage. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations. DOE will mail government ration checks to the parties named in a national vehicle registration file to be maintained by DOE. Ration recipients may cash these checks for ration coupons at various designated coupon issuance points. Retail outlets and other suppliers will be required to redeem the ration coupons received in exchange for gasoline sold. Supplemental gas will be given to high-priority activities. A ration banking system will be established with two separate and distinct of ration accounts: retail outlets and other suppliers will open redemption accounts for the deposit of redeemed ration rights; and individuals or firms may open ration rights accounts, which will operate in much the same manner as monetary checking accounts. A white market will be permitted for the sale of transfer of ration rights. A percentage of the total ration rights to be issued will be reserved for distribution to the states as a State Ration Reserve, to be used by the states primarily for the relief of hardship. A National Ration Reserave will also be established. All sections of the Standby Gasoline Rationing Regulations are analyzed. (MCW)
Martin, Gaven J.
We investigate when a rational endomorphism of the Riemann sphere overline{C} extends to a mapping of the upper half-space {H3 which is rational with respect to some measurable conformal structure. Such an extension has the property that it and all its iterates have uniformly bounded distortion. Such maps are called uniformly quasiregular. We show that, in the space of rational mappings of degree d , such an extension is possible in the structurally stable component where there is a single (attracting) component of the Fatou set and the Julia set is a Cantor set. We show that generally outside of this set no such extension is possible. In particular, polynomials can never admit such an extension.
Ideal Theory, Real Rationality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flyvbjerg, Bent
Understanding rationality and power are key to understanding actual political and administrative behavior. Political and administrative theory that ignores this fact stand in danger of being at best irrelevant or, at worst part of the problem it whishes to solve. The paper presents Jürgen Habermas...
Consumer rationality in choice
Conlon, B.J.
2001-01-01
The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and
Ockenfels, A.; Raub, W.
2010-01-01
Zusammenfassung: Das „Standardmodell“ des Rational Choices-Ansatzes, das Modell des homo oeconomicus, unterstellt rationales und eigennütziges Verhalten. Das Standardmodell hat manche Vorzüge, aber es gibt auch empirische Regelmäßigkeiten, die diesem Modell widersprechen. Wir behandeln
Universal and Relative Rationality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nathaniel Goldberg
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper I illustrate how a basic kind of universal rationality can be profitably combined with undeniable instances of relativism. I do so by engaging Michael Friedman’s recent response to a challenge from Thomas Kuhn.
Hegel's phenomenology of rationality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huggler, Jørgen
2009-01-01
The aim of this chapter is to elucidate Hegel's conception of rationality in the Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807), and to defend the thesis that he is an author engaged in discussion with a wide variety of sources. He uses sceptical reasoning to form a line of argument with a necessary progression...
Shape preserving rational cubic spline for positive and convex data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malik Zawwar Hussain
2011-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of shape preserving C2 rational cubic spline has been proposed. The shapes of the positive and convex data are under discussion of the proposed spline solutions. A C2 rational cubic function with two families of free parameters has been introduced to attain the C2 positive curves from positive data and C2 convex curves from convex data. Simple data dependent constraints are derived on free parameters in the description of rational cubic function to obtain the desired shape of the data. The rational cubic schemes have unique representations.
VT - Vermont Rational Service Areas
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Data Layer Name: Vermont Rational Service Areas (RSAs)Alternate Name: Vermont RSAsOverview:Rational Service Areas (RSAs), originally developed in 2001 and revised in...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wynne, B.
1982-01-01
The book concerns the Windscale Public Inquiry, held to investigate the application by British Nuclear Fuels to build a 1200 tonne per year thermal oxide reprocessing plant (THORP) for spent nuclear fuels from Britain and overseas. The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (international dimensions; the Windscale Inquiry; conflict resolution and social drama; public debate and the sociology of knowledge); the decision-making legacy; oxide reprocessing - the background; the public inquiry tradition - a comparative perspective; the emergence of THORP from a private to a public issue (local and national planning politics); the process and impact of the Inquiry (opposition groups); judicial rationality, expert conflict, and political authority); the rationality and politics of analysis (proliferation; radiation risks; relative risks; the Ravenglass issue; discharge targets; general radiation protection arrangements); conclusion. (U.K.)
Consumer rationality in choice
Conlon, B.J.
2001-01-01
The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and demonstrated empirically to be incompatible with actual consumer choices. In particular the complexity of the choice situation, and its various components, are found to be major determinants of the ch...
Emotional Theory of Rationality
Garcés, Mario; Finkel, Lucila
2011-01-01
In recent decades, it has been definitely established the existence of a close relationship between the emotional phenomena and rational processes, but we still do not have a unified definition, or effective models to describe any of them well. To advance our understanding of the mechanisms governing the behavior of living beings we must integrate multiple theories, experiments and models from both fields. In this paper we propose a new theoretical framework that allows integrating and unders...
Reputation and Rational Expectations
Andersen, Torben; Risager, Ole
1987-01-01
The paper considers the importance of reputation in relation to disinflationary policies in a continuous time ration expectations model, where the private sector has incomplete information about the true preferences of the government. It is proved that there is a unique equilibrium with the important property that the costs of disinflation arise in the start of the game where the policy has not yet gained credibility. Published in connection with a visit at the IIES.
Geometric Rationalization for Freeform Architecture
Jiang, Caigui
2016-06-20
The emergence of freeform architecture provides interesting geometric challenges with regards to the design and manufacturing of large-scale structures. To design these architectural structures, we have to consider two types of constraints. First, aesthetic constraints are important because the buildings have to be visually impressive. Sec- ond, functional constraints are important for the performance of a building and its e cient construction. This thesis contributes to the area of architectural geometry. Specifically, we are interested in the geometric rationalization of freeform architec- ture with the goal of combining aesthetic and functional constraints and construction requirements. Aesthetic requirements typically come from designers and architects. To obtain visually pleasing structures, they favor smoothness of the building shape, but also smoothness of the visible patterns on the surface. Functional requirements typically come from the engineers involved in the construction process. For exam- ple, covering freeform structures using planar panels is much cheaper than using non-planar ones. Further, constructed buildings have to be stable and should not collapse. In this thesis, we explore the geometric rationalization of freeform archi- tecture using four specific example problems inspired by real life applications. We achieve our results by developing optimization algorithms and a theoretical study of the underlying geometrical structure of the problems. The four example problems are the following: (1) The design of shading and lighting systems which are torsion-free structures with planar beams based on quad meshes. They satisfy the functionality requirements of preventing light from going inside a building as shad- ing systems or reflecting light into a building as lighting systems. (2) The Design of freeform honeycomb structures that are constructed based on hex-dominant meshes with a planar beam mounted along each edge. The beams intersect without
RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY IN TAKOTSUBO CARDIOMYOPATHY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Marchev
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Rational pharmacotherapy in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is based on clinical picture and data of functional and laboratory investigations of concrete patient. In patients with hypotension and moderate-to-severe left ventricle outflow tract obstruction inotropic agents must not to be used because they can worsen the degree of obstruction. In these patients beta blockers can improve hemodynamics by causing resolution of the obstruction. If intraventricular thrombus is detected, anticoagulation for at least 3 months is recommended. The duration of anticoagulant therapy may be modified depending on the extent of cardiac function recovery and thrombus resolution. For patients without thrombus but with severe left ventricular dysfunction, anticoagulation is recommended until the akinesis or dyskinesis has resolved but not more than 3 months.
A rational approximation of the effectiveness factor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wedel, Stig; Luss, Dan
1980-01-01
A fast, approximate method of calculating the effectiveness factor for arbitrary rate expressions is presented. The method does not require any iterative or interpolative calculations. It utilizes the well known asymptotic behavior for small and large Thiele moduli to derive a rational function w...
Gao, Qiang; Yu, Meng; Su, Yajuan; Xie, Meihua; Zhao, Xin; Li, Peng; Ma, Peter X
2017-03-15
Numerous antimicrobial coatings have been developed for biomedical devices/implants, but few can simultaneously fulfill the requirements for antimicrobial and antifouling ability and biocompatibility. In this study, to develop an antimicrobial and antibiofilm surface coating, diblock amphiphilic molecules with antimicrobial and antifouling segments in a single chain were rationally designed and synthesized. Cationic antimicrobial polypeptides (AMP) were first synthesized by N-carboxyanhydride ring-opening polymerization (NCA-ROP). Heterofunctionalized poly(ethylene glycol) with different lengths (methacrylate-PEG n -tosyl, n=10/45/90) was synthesized and site-specifically conjugated with polypeptides to form diblock amphiphiles. Along with increased PEG chain length, hemolytic activity was considerably improved, and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity is retained. Three MA-PEG n -b-AMP copolymers were further grafted onto the surface of silicone rubber (a commonly used catheter material) via plasma/UV-induced surface polymerizations to form a bottlebrush-like coating with excellent antimicrobial activity against several pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus), and effectively prevent biofilm formation. This bottlebrush coating also greatly reduced protein adsorption and platelet adhesion, indicating its excellent antifouling ability. An in vitro cytotoxicity study also demonstrated that this coating is biocompatible with mammalian cells. After subcutaneous implantation of the materials in rats, we demonstrated that the g-PEG 45 -b-AMP bottlebrush coating exhibits significant anti-infective activity in vivo. Thus, this facilely synthesized PEGylated AMP bottlebrush coating is a feasible method to prevent biomedical devices-associated infections. Current antimicrobial coatings are often associated with concerns such as antibiotic resistance, environmental pollution, short-time antimicrobial activity, biofouling
Bounding the number of rational places using Weierstrass semigroups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh
2007-01-01
Let Lambda be a numerical semigroup. Assume there exists an algebraic function field over Fq in one variable which possesses a rational place that has Lambda as its Weierstrass semigroup. We ask the question as to how many rational places such a function field can possibly have and we derive an u...... that Lewittes' bound has important implications to the theory of towers of function fields....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alejandro Buschiazzo
2012-01-01
for TS provides a rational framework for novel strategies in the design of chemotherapeutic compounds.
Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr
2012-06-01
After reviewing recent progress in the area of the development of coupled-cluster (CC) methods for quasi-degenerate electronic states that are characterized by stronger non-dynamical correlation effects, including new generations of single- and multi-reference approaches that can handle bond breaking and excited states dominated by many-electron transitions, and after discussing the key elements of the left-eigenstate completely renormalized (CR) CC and equation-of-motion (EOM) CC methods, and the underlying biorthogonal method of moments of CC (MMCC) equations [P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J. Chem. Phys. 123 (2005) 224105; P. Piecuch, M. Włoch, J.R. Gour, A. Kinal, Chem. Phys. Lett. 418 (2006) 467; M. Włoch, M.D. Lodriguito, P. Piecuch, J.R. Gour, Mol. Phys. 104 (2006) 2149], it is argued that it is beneficial to merge the CR-CC/EOMCC and active-space CC/EOMCC [P. Piecuch, Mol. Phys. 108 (2010) 2987, and references therein] theories into a single formalism. In order to accomplish this goal, the biorthogonal MMCC theory, which provides compact many-body expansions for the differences between the full configuration interaction and CC or, in the case of excited states, EOMCC energies, obtained using conventional truncation schemes in the cluster operator T and excitation operator Rμ, is generalized, so that one can correct the CC/EOMCC energies obtained with arbitrary truncations in T and Rμ for the selected many-electron correlation effects of interest. The resulting moment expansions, defining the new, Flexible MMCC (Flex-MMCC) formalism, and the ensuing CC(P; Q) hierarchy, proposed in the present work, enable one to correct energies obtained in the active-space CC and EOMCC calculations, in which one selects higher many-body components of T and Rμ via active orbitals and which recover much of the relevant non-dynamical and some dynamical electron correlation effects in applications involving potential energy surfaces (PESs) along bond breaking coordinates, for the
Heterogeneity and the (de)stabilizing role of rationality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad; Pireddu, Marina
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We analyze Cournot oligopolies with heterogeneous firms of generic size. • Rational and naive players are considered. • Stability with respect to oligopoly composition is studied. • In some settings, increasing the rational firms fraction introduces instability. - Abstract: In this paper we study oligopolies of generic size consisting of heterogeneous firms, which adopt best response adjustment mechanisms with either perfect foresight (rational firms) or static expectations (naive firms). Assuming an isoelastic demand function and possibly different marginal costs for the two groups of firms, we focus on the local stability of the Nash equilibrium. We show that, with respect to the oligopoly composition, described in terms of the fraction of rational firms, different scenarios are possible. We find that a high rationality degree may not always guarantee stability, in particular when rational firms have sufficiently larger marginal costs. In fact, in this situation, increasing the fraction of rational firms can even introduce instability. Besides the usual scenarios in which replacing some naive firms with rational ones leads to a stabilization of (or at least keeps unchanged) the dynamics, we provide a family of situations, characterized by costs ratio favorable to naive firms, in which equilibrium loses its stability when naive firms are replaced by rational ones. The results we present are both analytical and simulative.
Philosophical Rationalism in Shia Kalam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyed Mohammad Ali Dibaji
2017-12-01
Full Text Available One important question that the emergence of philosophical or rational Kalam has raised is what rationalism in the so-called Kalami (theological schools actually means. This paper investigates the answers to the aforementioned question in Shi’a Kalam. Also, we have a comparative look at the philosophical Kalam and the rational one, concluding the identity of Shi’a Kalam with Shi’a philosophy. In this work, we have referred to three types of rationalism: personal, Vahmi (imaginal, and Hikmi (philosophical rationalism. In short, our answer to the above question would be that, Shi’a Kalam – specially in Khaje Nasir’s works – is based on Hikmah (philosophy, and so, rationalism in this school does not refer but to this approach. This type of rationalism is in contrast to the personal or Vahmi rationalism. As a matter of fact, Those Mutakalims (theologians, who use Hikmi rationalism, don’t try to criticize philosophy or elicit from it; they just try to employ the principles, foundations, and results of Hikmah to explain, justify, and defend their religious beliefs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
In Between Magic and Rationality, Vibeke Steffen, Steffen Jöhncke, and Kirsten Marie Raahauge bring together a diverse range of ethnographies that examine and explore the forms of reflection, action, and interaction that govern the ways different contemporary societies create and challenge...... the limits of reason. The essays here visit an impressive array of settings, including international scientific laboratories, British spiritualist meetings, Chinese villages, Danish rehabilitation centers, and Uzbeki homes, where they encounter a diverse assortment of people whose beliefs and concerns...... exhibit an unusual but central contemporary dichotomy: scientific reason versus spiritual/paranormal belief. Exploring the paradoxical way these modes of thought push against reason's boundaries, they offer a deep look at the complex ways they coexist, contest one another, and are ultimately intertwined....
Rationalizing Promiscuity Cliffs.
Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen
2017-10-11
Compound promiscuity can be viewed in different ways. We distinguish "bad" promiscuity resulting from chemical liabilities, nonspecific binding, or assay artifacts, from "good" promiscuity representing true multitarget activities. Investigating multitarget activities of small molecules is scientifically stimulating and therapeutically relevant. To better understand the molecular basis of multitarget activities, structure-promiscuity relationships (SPRs) are explored. For this purpose, "promiscuity cliffs" (PCs) have been introduced, which can be rationalized as an extension of the activity cliff (AC) concept. A PC is defined as a pair of structural analogues that are active against different numbers of targets (given a difference threshold). As discussed herein PCs frequently capture surprising SPRs and encode many experimentally testable hypotheses. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steve Mackey
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The dominance of a purist, ‘scientistic’ form of reason since the Enlightenment has eclipsed and produced multiple misunderstandings of the nature, role of and importance of the millennia-old art of rhetoric. For centuries the multiple perspectives conveyed by rhetoric were always the counterbalance to hubristic claims of certainty. As such rhetoric was taught as one of the three essential components of the ‘trivium’ – rhetoric, dialectic and grammar; i.e. persuasive communication, logical reasoning and the codification of discourse. These three disciplines were the legs of the three legged stool on which western civilisation still rests despite the perversion and muddling of the first of these three. This essay explains how the evisceration of rhetoric both as practice and as critical theory and the consequent over-reliance on a virtual cult of rationality has impoverished philosophy and has dangerously dimmed understandings of the human condition.
Rational customs clearance technology choice
Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.
2008-01-01
Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.
Rationality problem for algebraic tori
Hoshi, Akinari
2017-01-01
The authors give the complete stably rational classification of algebraic tori of dimensions 4 and 5 over a field k. In particular, the stably rational classification of norm one tori whose Chevalley modules are of rank 4 and 5 is given. The authors show that there exist exactly 487 (resp. 7, resp. 216) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 4, and there exist exactly 3051 (resp. 25, resp. 3003) stably rational (resp. not stably but retract rational, resp. not retract rational) algebraic tori of dimension 5. The authors make a procedure to compute a flabby resolution of a G-lattice effectively by using the computer algebra system GAP. Some algorithms may determine whether the flabby class of a G-lattice is invertible (resp. zero) or not. Using the algorithms, the suthors determine all the flabby and coflabby G-lattices of rank up to 6 and verify that they are stably permutation. The authors also show that the Krull-Schmidt theorem for G-...
Limited rationality and strategic interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fehr, Ernst; Tyran, Jean-Robert
2008-01-01
Much evidence suggests that people are heterogeneous with regard to their abilities to make rational, forward-looking decisions. This raises the question as to when the rational types are decisive for aggregate outcomes and when the boundedly rational types shape aggregate results. We examine...... this question in the context of a long-standing and important economic problem: the adjustment of nominal prices after an anticipated monetary shock. Our experiments suggest that two types of bounded rationality-money illusion and anchoring-are important behavioral forces behind nominal inertia. However......, depending on the strategic environment, bounded rationality has vastly different effects on aggregate price adjustment. If agents' actions are strategic substitutes, adjustment to the new equilibrium is extremely quick, whereas under strategic complementarity, adjustment is both very slow and associated...
Empirical Rationality in the Stock Market
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raahauge, Peter
2003-01-01
Rational expectations models make stringent assumptions on the agent'sknowledge about the true model. This paper introduces a model in which therational agent realizes that using a given model involves approximation errors,and adjusts behavior accordingly. If the researcher accounts for this empi......Rational expectations models make stringent assumptions on the agent'sknowledge about the true model. This paper introduces a model in which therational agent realizes that using a given model involves approximation errors,and adjusts behavior accordingly. If the researcher accounts...... for this empiricalrationality on part of the agent, the resulting empirical model assignslikelihood to the data actually observed, unlike in the unmodified rational expectationscase. A Lucas (1978)-type asset pricing model which incorporatesempirical rationality is constructed and estimated using U.S. stock data....... Theequilibrium asset pricing function is seriously affected by the existence of approximationerrors and the descriptive properties and normative implicationsof the model are significantly improved. This suggests that investors do not| and should not | ignore approximation errors.Keywords: Approximation errors...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
James, P.; Thompson, M.
1989-01-01
Like many social scientists, we attribute public unwillingness to accept certain low probability risks not to 'irrationality' but rather to the everyday application of qualitative as well as quantitative criteria. Just as most people buying a video or hi-fi do not base their decision solely on price or performance data but also consider such intangibles as design and the reputation of the manufacturer, individuals faced with a given risk take into account not merely the probability of harm but also the credibility and trustworthiness of whoever generates the information and manages the safety and other precautions which ensure its accuracy. To analyse these qualitative dimensions we utilise the grid/-group methodology developed by the cultural anthropologist Mary Douglas, and her co-workers. Douglas identifies four basic forms of society and four associated 'thought worlds' which serve to legitimise and reproduce them. Differences in concepts of human cognition, time and many other variables between the different thought worlds are so profound that they can be regarded as different kinds of rationality. The acceptability of risks is partially determined by the extent to which they support or threaten the existence of the different societies. (author)
Poonen, Bjorn
2017-01-01
This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...
Approximation of quadrilaterals by rational quadrilaterals in the plane
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Rational triangles and quadrilaterals; rational approximability of polygons; rational points on quartic curves; elliptic curves; torsion points; rational points on varieties and their density.
Relativism, Rationality, and Science Education.
Siegel, Harvey
1985-01-01
Contemporary philosophy of science is controversial and includes debate about the relativity of scientific knowledge and the rationality of scientific enterprise. Crucial questions and important ramifications for science education are presented through discussion of these philosophical disputes. (DH)
Rational reconstructions of modern physics
Mittelstaedt, Peter
2013-01-01
Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...
Rational-Emotive Staff Development.
Forman, Susan G.; Forman, Bruce D.
1980-01-01
The application of Rational-Emotive Therapy principles and techniques in in-service education for school personnel is discussed. Teacher and counselor participation in a staff development program is described. (Author)
Discrete Choice and Rational Inattention
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fosgerau, Mogens; Melo, Emerson; de Palma, André
2017-01-01
This paper establishes a general equivalence between discrete choice and rational inattention models. Matejka and McKay (2015, AER) showed that when information costs are modelled using the Shannon entropy, the result- ing choice probabilities in the rational inattention model take the multinomial...... logit form. We show that when information costs are modelled using a class of generalized entropies, then the choice probabilities in any rational inattention model are observationally equivalent to some additive random utility discrete choice model and vice versa. This equivalence arises from convex......- analytic properties of the random utility model. Thus any additive random utility model can be given an interpretation in terms of boundedly rational behavior. We provide examples of this equivalence utilizing the nested logit model, an empirically relevant random utility model allowing for flexible...
Economic rationality and ethical behavior
Marc Le Menestrel
2001-01-01
This paper argues that economic rationality and ethical behavior cannot be reduced one to the other, casting doubts on the validity of formulas like 'profit is ethical' or 'ethics pays'. In order to express ethical dilemmas as opposing economic interest with ethical concerns, we propose a model of rational behavior that combines these two irreducible dimensions in an open but not arbitrary manner. Behaviors that are neither ethical nor profitable are considered irrational (non-arbitrariness)....
[Bases of rational nutrition in old age].
Grigorov, Iu G; Kozlovskaia, S G; Medovar, B Ia; Semes'ko, T M; Sineok, L L
1990-01-01
Current theoretical concepts of gerontological dietetics have been analysed. Elaboration of rational nutrition patterns for the old should rest on the age-specific metabolic and functional changes in the organism. A possibility of influencing the acid-base balance of the blood, immunity, and intestinal microflora by means of a goal-oriented diet has been demonstrated. The alimentary factors, which have been revealed during studies of actual nutrition patterns in the regions of high-longevity (Abkhazia and Azerbaidjan) and low-longevity (Ukraine), and which may have some relevance to longevity, are discussed. The necessity of the nutrition rationalization for the old has been grounded, which may be achieved by lowering food caloric protein and fat contents, by increasing carbohydrate and fibre proportions, and by saturating food with the nutrients capable of geroprotective effects, which is possible when milk and vegetable products are predominant in the diet and new food products for the old are included in it.
Data interpolation using rational cubic Ball spline with three parameters
Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul
2016-11-01
Data interpolation is an important task for scientific visualization. This research introduces new rational cubic Ball spline scheme with three parameters. The rational cubic Ball will be used for data interpolation with or without true derivative values. Error estimation show that the proposed scheme works well and is a very good interpolant to approximate the function. All graphical examples are presented by using Mathematica software.
Rational-driver approximation in car-following theory
Lubashevsky, Ihor; Wagner, Peter; Mahnke, Reinhard
2003-11-01
The problem of a car following a lead car driven with constant velocity is considered. To derive the governing equations for the following car dynamics a cost functional is constructed. This functional ranks the outcomes of different driving strategies, which applies to fairly general properties of the driver behavior. Assuming rational-driver behavior, the existence of the Nash equilibrium is proved. Rational driving is defined by supposing that a driver corrects continuously the car motion to follow the optimal path minimizing the cost functional. The corresponding car-following dynamics is described quite generally by a boundary value problem based on the obtained extremal equations. Linearization of these equations around the stationary state results in a generalization of the widely used optimal velocity model. Under certain conditions (the “dense traffic” limit) the rational car dynamics comprises two stages, fast and slow. During the fast stage a driver eliminates the velocity difference between the cars, the subsequent slow stage optimizes the headway. In the dense traffic limit an effective Hamiltonian description is constructed. This allows a more detailed nonlinear analysis. Finally, the differences between rational and bounded rational driver behavior are discussed. The latter, in particular, justifies some basic assumptions used recently by the authors to construct a car-following model lying beyond the frameworks of rationality.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yong; Wang Qi; Li Biao
2005-01-01
Based on a new general ansatz and a general subepuation, a new general algebraic method named elliptic equation rational expansion method is devised for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions in terms of rational special function for nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs). We apply the proposed method to solve Whitham-Broer-Kaup equation and explicitly construct a series of exact solutions which include rational form solitary wave solution, rational form triangular periodic wave solutions and rational wave solutions as special cases. In addition, the links among our proposed method with the method by Fan [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;20:609], are also clarified generally
Rationing medical education | Walsh | African Health Sciences
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may ...
1981-11-01
402. Putnam , Hilary , [1973], "Recursive Functions and Hierarchies", American Mathematical Monthly, Vol.80, pp.6 8-8 6 . Rice, H.G., [1954...point the reader is also referred to Putnam [19731. The following are useful facts (cf. Kleene [1950]) that we will make reference to subsequently. The...Hierarchy (Cf. Putnam [19731, pp.77-80 and Hermes [1965] pp.192-202). The classification is made in terms of the structure of the definitions that
Rationalizing social technologies
V V Scherbina
2016-01-01
The article considers the problem of defining the specifics and types of social technologies (hereinafter ST). The author pursues the following objectives: first, to clarify the specific features of social technologies; second, to identify the grounds for classifying the existing types of social technologies; third, to describe the basic characteristics (functions, tasks, tools, the scope and limits of application, and ideological bases) of social technologies; fourth, to identify the basic f...
Reduction theory for a rational function field
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Classification des groupes de Lie algébriques, Secrétariat mathématique (Paris: 11 rue Pierre Curie). (1958) pp. 16-01 to 16-09. [3] Dedekind R and Weber H, Die theorie der algebraischen funktionen einer veränderlichen,. J. Reine Angew.
Rational Approximations of the Inverse Gaussian Function.
Byars, Jackson A.; Roscoe, John T.
There are at least two situations in which the behavioral scientist wishes to transform uniformly distributed data into normally distributed data: (1) In studies of sampling distributions where uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers are generated by a computer but normally distributed numbers are desired; and (2) In measurement applications…
Reduction theory for a rational function field
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Planck-Institut für Mathematik, Postfach 7280, D-53072 Bonn, Germany. MS received 9 September 2002; revised 16 October 2002. Abstract. Let G be a split reductive group over a finite field Fq . Let F = Fq (t) and let A denote the ad`eles of F. We ...
Rational points on elliptic curves
Silverman, Joseph H
2015-01-01
The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...
Rational choice in field archaelology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cătălin Pavel
2011-11-01
Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.
Rational Reconstructions of Modern Physics
Mittelstaedt, Peter
2011-01-01
Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of modern physics, such as the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of relativity as well as quantum mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results.
Rational extended thermodynamics
Müller, Ingo
1998-01-01
Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...
The reals as rational Cauchy filters
Weiss, Ittay
2015-01-01
We present a detailed and elementary construction of the real numbers from the rational numbers a la Bourbaki. The real numbers are defined to be the set of all minimal Cauchy filters in $\\mathbb{Q}$ (where the Cauchy condition is defined in terms of the absolute value function on $\\mathbb{Q}$) and are proven directly, without employing any of the techniques of uniform spaces, to form a complete ordered field. The construction can be seen as a variant of Bachmann's construction by means of ne...
Rationality in the Cryptographic Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hubacek, Pavel
This thesis presents results in the field of rational cryptography. In the first part we study the use of cryptographic protocols to avoid mediation and binding commitment when implementing game theoretic equilibrium concepts. First, we concentrate on the limits of cryptographic cheap talk to imp...
Rational students and resit exams
Kooreman, P.
2013-01-01
Resit exams–extra opportunities to do an exam in the same academic year–are widely prevalent in European higher education, but uncommon in the US. I present a simple theoretical model to compare rational student behavior in the case of only one exam opportunity versus the case of two exam
Rationalities in trade union work
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke
2011-01-01
these premises restrain and afford their agendas. Thus the overall purpose of the paper is to investigate and describe the dominant logics and rationalities that have shaped the documents and to point to their limits and bounds. This archaeological investigation will be the point of departure for a critical...
Rational Exponentials and Continued Fractions
Denny, J. K.
2012-01-01
Using continued fraction expansions, we can approximate constants, such as pi and e, using an appropriate integer n raised to the power x[superscript 1/x], x a suitable rational. We review continued fractions and give an algorithm for producing these approximations.
Rational Solutions of the Painlevé-II Equation Revisited
Miller, Peter D.; Sheng, Yue
2017-08-01
The rational solutions of the Painlevé-II equation appear in several applications and are known to have many remarkable algebraic and analytic properties. They also have several different representations, useful in different ways for establishing these properties. In particular, Riemann-Hilbert representations have proven to be useful for extracting the asymptotic behavior of the rational solutions in the limit of large degree (equivalently the large-parameter limit). We review the elementary properties of the rational Painlevé-II functions, and then we describe three different Riemann-Hilbert representations of them that have appeared in the literature: a representation by means of the isomonodromy theory of the Flaschka-Newell Lax pair, a second representation by means of the isomonodromy theory of the Jimbo-Miwa Lax pair, and a third representation found by Bertola and Bothner related to pseudo-orthogonal polynomials. We prove that the Flaschka-Newell and Bertola-Bothner Riemann-Hilbert representations of the rational Painlevé-II functions are explicitly connected to each other. Finally, we review recent results describing the asymptotic behavior of the rational Painlevé-II functions obtained from these Riemann-Hilbert representations by means of the steepest descent method.
Rationality, mental causation and social sciences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mladenović Ivan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.
Rational use of diagnostic radiology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.
1992-01-01
The escalating number of radiodiagnostic investigations has, as a consequence, an increase in medical irradiation of patients and of cost of radiological services. Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme in this direction which has issued four technical reports which give practical recommendations on how to rationalize the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations
Electricity rationing and public response
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rocha Souza, Leonardo [United Nations Statistics Division, New York (United States); Jorge Soares, Lacir [CCH/LESCE - Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes (Brazil)
2007-03-15
This paper studies the electricity load demand behavior during the 2001 rationing period, which was implemented because of the Brazilian energy crisis. The hourly data refers to a utility situated in the southeast of the country. We use the model proposed by Soares and Souza [Soares, L.J. and Souza, L.R. (2006), ''Forecasting electricity demand using generalized long memory'', International Journal of Forecasting, 22, 17-28.], making use of generalized long memory to model the seasonal behavior of the load. The rationing period is shown to have imposed a structural break in the series, decreasing the load at about 20%. Even so, the forecast accuracy is decreased only marginally, and the forecasts rapidly readapt to the new situation. The structural break, as well as the forecast errors from this model, also permits verifying the public response to pieces of information released regarding the crisis. (author)
Electricity rationing and public response
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza, Leonardo Rocha [United Nations, Statistics Div., New York, NY (United States); Soares, Lacir Jorge [CCH/LESCE - Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)
2007-03-15
This paper studies the electricity load demand behavior during the 2001 rationing period, which was implemented because of the Brazilian energy crisis. The hourly data refers to a utility situated in the southeast of the country. We use the model proposed by Soares and Souza [Soares, L.J. and Souza, L.R. (2006), 'Forecasting electricity demand using generalized long memory', International Journal of Forecasting, 22, 17-28.], making use of generalized long memory to model the seasonal behavior of the load. The rationing period is shown to have imposed a structural break in the series, decreasing the load at about 20%. Even so, the forecast accuracy is decreased only marginally, and the forecasts rapidly readapt to the new situation. The structural break, as well as the forecast errors from this model, also permits verifying the public response to pieces of information released regarding the crisis. (Author)
Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg
2014-01-01
Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first that con......Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first...... that concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...
Guidelines for Rational Cancer Therapeutics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Byunghee Yoo
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Traditionally, cancer therapy has relied on surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In recent years, these interventions have become increasingly replaced or complemented by more targeted approaches that are informed by a deeper understanding of the underlying biology. Still, the implementation of fully rational patient-specific drug design appears to be years away. Here, we present a vision of rational drug design for cancer that is defined by two major components: modularity and image guidance. We suggest that modularity can be achieved by combining a nanocarrier and an oligonucleotide component into the therapeutic. Image guidance can be incorporated into the nanocarrier component by labeling with a specific imaging reporter, such as a radionuclide or contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. While limited by the need for additional technological advancement in the areas of cancer biology, nanotechnology, and imaging, this vision for the future of cancer therapy can be used as a guide to future research endeavors.
Kant on empiricism and rationalism
Vanzo, Alberto
2013-01-01
This paper aims to correct some widely held misconceptions concerning Kant's role in the formation of a widespread narrative of early modern philosophy. According to this narrative, which dominated the English-speaking world throughout the twentieth century, the early modern period was characterized by the development of two rival schools: René Descartes's, Baruch Spinoza's, and G. W. Leibniz's rationalism; and John Locke's, George Berkeley's, and David Hume's empiricism. Empiricists and rati...
Rational and Recognisable Power Series
Sakarovitch, Jacques
This chapter presents the theory of weighted automata over graded monoids and with weights taken in arbitrary semirings. The first benefit of broadening the scope beyond free monoids is that it makes clearer the distinction between the rational and the recognisable series. As the topological machinery is set anyway, the star of series is defined in a slightly more general setting than cycle-free series. The main subjects covered in the chapter are then: the notion of covering of automata (also called bisimulation by some authors) and its relationship with the conjugacy of automata; the closure of recognisable series by Hadamard and shuffle products; the derivation of weighted rational expressions over a free monoid; the reduction theory of series over a free monoid and with weights in a (skew) field, that leads to a procedure for the decidability of equivalence (with a cubic complexity); and the basics for a theory of weighted rational relations. As a result, this chapter, among other things, lays the bases for the proof of the decidability of the equivalence of deterministic k-tape transducers which is one of the most striking examples of the application of algebra to ‘machine theory’.
Information-Theoretic Bounded Rationality and ε-Optimality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel A. Braun
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Bounded rationality concerns the study of decision makers with limited information processing resources. Previously, the free energy difference functional has been suggested to model bounded rational decision making, as it provides a natural trade-off between an energy or utility function that is to be optimized and information processing costs that are measured by entropic search costs. The main question of this article is how the information-theoretic free energy model relates to simple ε-optimality models of bounded rational decision making, where the decision maker is satisfied with any action in an ε-neighborhood of the optimal utility. We find that the stochastic policies that optimize the free energy trade-off comply with the notion of ε-optimality. Moreover, this optimality criterion even holds when the environment is adversarial. We conclude that the study of bounded rationality based on ε-optimality criteria that abstract away from the particulars of the information processing constraints is compatible with the information-theoretic free energy model of bounded rationality.
C2-rational cubic spline involving tension parameters
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
preferred which preserves some of the characteristics of the function to be interpolated. In order to tackle such ... Shape preserving properties of the rational (cubic/quadratic) spline interpolant have been studied ... tension parameters which is used to interpolate the given monotonic data is described in. [6]. Shape preserving ...
C2-rational cubic spline involving tension parameters
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the present paper, 1-piecewise rational cubic spline function involving tension parameters is considered which produces a monotonic interpolant to a given monotonic data set. It is observed that under certain conditions the interpolant preserves the convexity property of the data set. The existence and uniqueness of a ...
Shape Preserving Interpolation Using C2 Rational Cubic Spline
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the construction of new C2 rational cubic spline interpolant with cubic numerator and quadratic denominator. The idea has been extended to shape preserving interpolation for positive data using the constructed rational cubic spline interpolation. The rational cubic spline has three parameters αi, βi, and γi. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on one parameter γi while the other two parameters αi and βi are free parameters that can be used to change the final shape of the resulting interpolating curves. This will enable the user to produce many varieties of the positive interpolating curves. Cubic spline interpolation with C2 continuity is not able to preserve the shape of the positive data. Notably our scheme is easy to use and does not require knots insertion and C2 continuity can be achieved by solving tridiagonal systems of linear equations for the unknown first derivatives di, i=1,…,n-1. Comparisons with existing schemes also have been done in detail. From all presented numerical results the new C2 rational cubic spline gives very smooth interpolating curves compared to some established rational cubic schemes. An error analysis when the function to be interpolated is ft∈C3t0,tn is also investigated in detail.
Coherent states and rational surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brody, Dorje C; Graefe, Eva-Maria
2010-01-01
The state spaces of generalized coherent states associated with special unitary groups are shown to form rational curves and surfaces in the space of pure states. These curves and surfaces are generated by the various Veronese embeddings of the underlying state space into higher dimensional state spaces. This construction is applied to the parameterization of generalized coherent states, which is useful for practical calculations, and provides an elementary combinatorial approach to the geometry of the coherent state space. The results are extended to Hilbert spaces with indefinite inner products, leading to the introduction of a new kind of generalized coherent states.
Coherent states and rational surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brody, Dorje C; Graefe, Eva-Maria, E-mail: d.brody@imperial.ac.u [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2010-06-25
The state spaces of generalized coherent states associated with special unitary groups are shown to form rational curves and surfaces in the space of pure states. These curves and surfaces are generated by the various Veronese embeddings of the underlying state space into higher dimensional state spaces. This construction is applied to the parameterization of generalized coherent states, which is useful for practical calculations, and provides an elementary combinatorial approach to the geometry of the coherent state space. The results are extended to Hilbert spaces with indefinite inner products, leading to the introduction of a new kind of generalized coherent states.
Howes, Andrew; Lewis, Richard L.; Vera, Alonso
2009-01-01
The authors assume that individuals adapt rationally to a utility function given constraints imposed by their cognitive architecture and the local task environment. This assumption underlies a new approach to modeling and understanding cognition--cognitively bounded rational analysis--that sharpens the predictive acuity of general, integrated…
Rationalities and materialities of light rail scapes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus
2016-01-01
Light rail is a modernisation of old tram systems and a popular tool in urban development strategies throughout many European cities. Light rails continue to be built despite often having poor socio-economic returns — other similar modes could provide the same transport function at a lower cost....... Through a case study, this article explores the main vision and rationalities behind light rail projects in two mid-sized European cities — Bergen and Angers — and considers how this vision has materialised in various ‘light rail scapes’. The article argues that the city shapes the light rail project......, but also that the light rail re-configures and shapes the urban structures, design and planning practices within the city based on its materiality and spatial interaction with it. This means that light rail projects need to be rethought as complex urban development projects instead of just simple ‘pieces...
Volatility estimation using a rational GARCH model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tetsuya Takaishi
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The rational GARCH (RGARCH model has been proposed as an alternative GARCHmodel that captures the asymmetric property of volatility. In addition to the previously proposedRGARCH model, we propose an alternative RGARCH model called the RGARCH-Exp model thatis more stable when dealing with outliers. We measure the performance of the volatility estimationby a loss function calculated using realized volatility as a proxy for true volatility and compare theRGARCH-type models with other asymmetric type models such as the EGARCH and GJR models.We conduct empirical studies of six stocks on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and find that a volatilityestimation using the RGARCH-type models outperforms the GARCH model and is comparable toother asymmetric GARCH models.
Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan R. Magnus
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.
Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence
Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.
2018-01-01
Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449
From rational bubbles to crashes
Sornette, D.; Malevergne, Y.
2001-10-01
We study and generalize in various ways the model of rational expectation (RE) bubbles introduced by Blanchard and Watson in the economic literature. Bubbles are argued to be the equivalent of Goldstone modes of the fundamental rational pricing equation, associated with the symmetry-breaking introduced by non-vanishing dividends. Generalizing bubbles in terms of multiplicative stochastic maps, we summarize the result of Lux and Sornette that the no-arbitrage condition imposes that the tail of the return distribution is hyperbolic with an exponent μbubble model to arbitrary dimensions d: a number d of market time series are made linearly interdependent via d× d stochastic coupling coefficients. We derive the no-arbitrage condition in this context and, with the renewal theory for products of random matrices applied to stochastic recurrence equations, we extend the theorem of Lux and Sornette to demonstrate that the tails of the unconditional distributions associated with such d-dimensional bubble processes follow power laws, with the same asymptotic tail exponent μmodel and the non-stationary growth rate model) of the RE bubble model that provide two ways of reconciliation with the stylized facts of financial data.
Rational error in internal medicine.
Federspil, Giovanni; Vettor, Roberto
2008-03-01
Epistemologists have selected two basic categories: that of errors committed in scientific research, when a researcher devises or accepts an unfounded hypothesis, and that of mistakes committed in the application of scientific knowledge whereby doctors rely on knowledge held to be true at the time in order to understand an individual patient's signs and symptoms. The paper will deal exclusively with the latter, that is to say the mistakes which physicians make while carrying out their day-to-day medical duties. The paper will deal with the mistakes committed in medicine trying also to offer a classification. It will take into account also examples of mistakes in Bayesian reasoning and mistakes of reasoning committed by clinicians regard inductive reasoning. Moreover, many other mistakes are due to fallacies of deductive logic, logic which they use on a day-to-day basis while examining patients in order to envisage the consequences of the various diagnostic or physiopathologic hypotheses. The existence of a different type of mistakes that are part of the psychology of thought will be also pointed out. We conclude that internists often make mistakes because, unknowingly, they fail to reason correctly. These mistakes can occur in two ways: either because he does not observe the laws of formal logic, or because his practical rationality does not match theoretical rationality and so his reasoning becomes influenced by the circumstances in which he finds himself.
Freedom and Rationality : Rousseau on Citizenship
Salvat, Christophe
2008-01-01
This paper deals with Rousseau's idea of freedom in terms of rationality and deliberation. It gives support to Berlin's interpretation of the general will as a rational and objective will but dismisses the idea that Rousseau's theory necessarily leads to authoritarianism. The general will, publicly expressed by the law, may be defined as the rational and self-regarding will agents would have if put in an independent and objective state, i.e. the state of nature. The general and the particular...
Rational Addiction Evidence From Carbonated Soft Drinks
Xiaoou, Liu
2009-01-01
This paper applies the Becker-Murphy (1988) theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks, using a time-varying parameter model and scanner data from 46 U.S. cities. Empirical results provide strong evidence that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive, thus opening the door to taxation and regulation. Taking rational addition into account, estimated demand elasticities are much lower than previous estimates using scanner data.
Deep Rationality: The Evolutionary Economics of Decision Making.
Kenrick, Douglas T; Griskevicius, Vladas; Sundie, Jill M; Li, Norman P; Li, Yexin Jessica; Neuberg, Steven L
2009-10-01
What is a "rational" decision? Economists traditionally viewed rationality as maximizing expected satisfaction. This view has been useful in modeling basic microeconomic concepts, but falls short in accounting for many everyday human decisions. It leaves unanswered why some things reliably make people more satisfied than others, and why people frequently act to make others happy at a cost to themselves. Drawing on an evolutionary perspective, we propose that people make decisions according to a set of principles that may not appear to make sense at the superficial level, but that demonstrate rationality at a deeper evolutionary level. By this, we mean that people use adaptive domain-specific decision-rules that, on average, would have resulted in fitness benefits. Using this framework, we re-examine several economic principles. We suggest that traditional psychological functions governing risk aversion, discounting of future benefits, and budget allocations to multiple goods, for example, vary in predictable ways as a function of the underlying motive of the decision-maker and individual differences linked to evolved life-history strategies. A deep rationality framework not only helps explain why people make the decisions they do, but also inspires multiple directions for future research.
Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents
Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles
Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.
Rational use of diagnostic radiology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Racoveanu, N.T.; Volodin, V.
1992-01-01
Radiologists in USA and UK have since early 1970 questioned the efficacy of various radiological investigations and produced substantial evidence that more rational approaches are necessary. WHO initiated, in 1977, a programme which has issued four technical reports giving practical recommendations on how to rationalise the use of radiological examinations. Three main directions are considered: (1) Abandonment of routine radiological examinations, as procedures with no clinical or epidemiologic significance and which represent a waste of resources and patient dose. (2) Patient selection for various radiological investigations based on clinical criteria (high, intermediate, low yield). Selected patients have an increased prevalence of the given disease and the predictive value of radiological investigation is much higher. (3) Use of diagnostic algorithms with higher cost/efficiency and risk/benefit ratios, improving the outcome of radiological examinations. (author)
Multiresolution analysis of functions on directed networks
Sevi, Harry; Rilling, Gabriel; Borgnat, Pierre
2017-08-01
We introduce a novel design for analyzing and approximating functions defined on the vertices of a directed graph Γ in a multi-scale fashion. The starting point of our construction is the setting-up of a frequency notion through the study of the Dirichlet energy of random walk operator's eigenfunctions. By this alluring frequency interpretation, the set of random walk's eigenfunctions is considered as the Fourier basis for functions over directed graphs. We are thus able to construct a multi-scale frame based on the bi-orthogonal basis of the random walk on directed graphs. This multi-resolution frame paves thus the way to a generalization of the diffusion wavelet framework to the directed scope.
Laurin, Kristin
2018-04-01
People will often rationalize the status quo, reconstruing it in an exaggeratedly positive light. They will even rationalize the status quo they anticipate, emphasizing the upsides and minimizing the downsides of sociopolitical realities they expect to take effect. Drawing on recent findings on the psychological triggers of rationalization, I present results from three field studies, one of which was preregistered, testing the hypothesis that an anticipated reality becoming current triggers an observable boost in people's rationalizations. San Franciscans rationalized a ban on plastic water bottles, Ontarians rationalized a targeted smoking ban, and Americans rationalized the presidency of Donald Trump, more in the days immediately after these realities became current compared with the days immediately before. Additional findings show evidence for a mechanism underlying these behaviors and rule out alternative accounts. These findings carry implications for scholarship on rationalization, for understanding protest behavior, and for policymakers.
Kalberg, Stephen
1980-01-01
Explores rationality in Max Weber's works and identifies four types of rationality which play major roles in his writing--practical, theoretical, substantive, and formal. Implications for society and education are discussed. (DB)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Qiu-Yan; Yuan Xiao; Yu Bo
2017-01-01
The performance analysis of the generalized Carlson iterating process, which can realize the rational approximation of fractional operator with arbitrary order, is presented in this paper. The reasons why the generalized Carlson iterating function possesses more excellent properties such as self-similarity and exponential symmetry are also explained. K-index, P-index, O-index, and complexity index are introduced to contribute to performance analysis. Considering nine different operational orders and choosing an appropriate rational initial impedance for a certain operational order, these rational approximation impedance functions calculated by the iterating function meet computational rationality, positive reality, and operational validity. Then they are capable of having the operational performance of fractional operators and being physical realization. The approximation performance of the impedance function to the ideal fractional operator and the circuit network complexity are also exhibited. (paper)
Empirical Rationality in the Stock Market
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raahauge, Peter
2003-01-01
for this empiricalrationality on part of the agent, the resulting empirical model assignslikelihood to the data actually observed, unlike in the unmodified rational expectationscase. A Lucas (1978)-type asset pricing model which incorporatesempirical rationality is constructed and estimated using U.S. stock data...
Simple market equilibria with rationally inattentive consumers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matějka, Filip; McKay, A.
2012-01-01
Roč. 102, č. 3 (2012), s. 24-29 ISSN 0002-8282 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational choice theory * bounded rationality * consumer research Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2012
Rationing in health systems: A critical review.
Keliddar, Iman; Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad; Jafari-Sirizi, Mehdi
2017-01-01
Background: It is difficult to provide health care services to all those in need of such services due to limited resources and unlimited demands. Thus, priority setting and rationing have to be applied. This study aimed at critically examining the concept of rationing in health sector and identifying its purposes, influencing factors, mechanisms, and outcomes. Methods: The critical interpretive synthesis methodology was used in this study. PubMed, Cochrane, and Proquest databases were searched using the related key words to find related documents published between 1970 and 2015. In total, 161 published reports were reviewed and included in the study. Thematic content analysis was applied for data analysis. Results: Health services rationing means restricting the access of some people to useful or potentially useful health services due to budgetary limitation. The inherent features of the health market and health services, limited resources, and unlimited needs necessitate health services rationing. Rationing can be applied in 4 levels: health care policy- makers, health care managers, health care providers, and patients. Health care rationing can be accomplished through fixed budget, benefit package, payment mechanisms, queuing, copayments, and deductibles. Conclusion: This paper enriched our understanding of health services rationing and its mechanisms at various levels and contributed to the literature by broadly conceptualizing health services rationing.
The Problem of Rational Moral Enlistment
Tillson, John
2017-01-01
How can one bring children to recognize the requirements of morality without resorting only to non-rational means of persuasion (i.e. what rational ground can be offered to children for their moral enlistment)? Michael Hand has recently defended a foundationalist approach to answering this question and John White has responded by (a) criticizing…
Neurophysiology and Rationality in Political Thinking.
Peterson, Steven A.
Research both in cognitive psychology and psychobiology suggests that political behavior is often less rational than individuals believe it to be. Information processing, memory, and decision making are interlinked processes. Studies in cognitive psychology reveal that even though decision making requires rationality, individuals often adopt…
Rationality : a social-epistemology perspective
Wenmackers, Sylvia; Vanpoucke, Danny E. P.; Douven, Igor
2014-01-01
Both in philosophy and in psychology, human rationality has traditionally been studied from an “individualistic” perspective. Recently, social epistemologists have drawn attention to the fact that epistemic interactions among agents also give rise to important questions concerning rationality. In
Generalized NLS hierarchies from rational W algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toppan, F.
1993-11-01
Finite rational W algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. The problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations is studied by showing how to associate to a rational W algebra its corresponding hierarchy. Two examples are worked out, the sl(2)/U(1) coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schroedinger hierarchy, and the U(1) coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky W algebra, leading to a 3-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies. (author). 19 refs
Empirical study of the GARCH model with rational errors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Ting Ting; Takaishi, Tetsuya
2013-01-01
We use the GARCH model with a fat-tailed error distribution described by a rational function and apply it to stock price data on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. To determine the model parameters we perform Bayesian inference to the model. Bayesian inference is implemented by the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm with an adaptive multi-dimensional Student's t-proposal density. In order to compare our model with the GARCH model with the standard normal errors, we calculate the information criteria AIC and DIC, and find that both criteria favor the GARCH model with a rational error distribution. We also calculate the accuracy of the volatility by using the realized volatility and find that a good accuracy is obtained for the GARCH model with a rational error distribution. Thus we conclude that the GARCH model with a rational error distribution is superior to the GARCH model with the normal errors and it can be used as an alternative GARCH model to those with other fat-tailed distributions
Construction of Rational Maps on the Projective Line with Given Dynamical Structure
2016-05-11
Gröbner Basis of the Ideal 35 B Proof of Corollary without Transformation 36 3 C SageMath Construction Function for a Quadratic Rational Map 39 D...f2q3 − f3q3 − pq3 + q4)−1 = p Thus p, q form a two-cycle for f(x). 39 C. SageMath Construction Function for a Quadratic Rational Map def
Rational emotive behavior therapy: applications for working with parents and teachers
Terjesen,Mark D.; Kurasaki,Robyn
2009-01-01
Given the high rates of reported emotional stress among parents and teachers, the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy approach appears to be a useful strategy to promote more effective parent and teacher emotional functioning and increase child positive behaviors and learning. The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy model may be helpful for clinicians who work with the parents and the family by identifying and subsequently changing their unhealthy ideas, enhancing emotional functioning, and incre...
Ethics of rationing of nursing care.
Rooddehghan, Zahra; Yekta, Zohreh Parsa; Nasrabadi, Alireza N
2016-09-21
Rationing of various needed services, for example, nursing care, is inevitable due to unlimited needs and limited resources. Rationing of nursing care is considered an ethical issue since it requires judgment about potential conflicts between personal and professional values. The present research sought to explore aspects of rationing nursing care in Iran. This study applied qualitative content analysis, a method to explore people's perceptions of everyday life phenomena and interpret the subjective content of text data. Data collection was performed through in-depth, unstructured, face-to-face interviews with open-ended questions. The study population included Iranian nurses of all nursing positions, from clinical nurses to nurse managers. Purposive sampling was employed to select 15 female and 3 male nurses (11 clinical nurses, 3 supervisors, 1 matron, 1 nurse, and 2 members of the Nursing Council) working in hospitals of three cities in Iran. The study protocol was approved by Tehran University of Medical Sciences (91D1302870). Written informed consent was also obtained from all participants. According to the participants, rationing of nursing care consisted of two categories, that is, causes of rationing and consequences of rationing. The first category comprised three subcategories, namely, patient needs and demands, routinism, and VIP patients. The three subcategories forming the second category were missed nursing care, patient dissatisfaction, and nurses' feeling of guilt. Levels at which healthcare practices are rationed and clarity of the rationing are important structural considerations in the development of an equal, appropriate, and ethical healthcare system. Moreover, the procedure of rationing is critical as it not only influences people's lives but also reflects the values that dominate in the society. Therefore, in order to minimize the negative consequences of rationing of nursing care, further studies on the ethical dimensions of this phenomenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akemann, Gernot; Checinski, Tomasz; Kieburg, Mario
2016-01-01
We compute the spectral statistics of the sum H of two independent complex Wishart matrices, each of which is correlated with a different covariance matrix. Random matrix theory enjoys many applications including sums and products of random matrices. Typically ensembles with correlations among the matrix elements are much more difficult to solve. Using a combination of supersymmetry, superbosonisation and bi-orthogonal functions we are able to determine all spectral k -point density correlation functions of H for arbitrary matrix size N . In the half-degenerate case, when one of the covariance matrices is proportional to the identity, the recent results by Kumar for the joint eigenvalue distribution of H serve as our starting point. In this case the ensemble has a bi-orthogonal structure and we explicitly determine its kernel, providing its exact solution for finite N . The kernel follows from computing the expectation value of a single characteristic polynomial. In the general non-degenerate case the generating function for the k -point resolvent is determined from a supersymmetric evaluation of the expectation value of k ratios of characteristic polynomials. Numerical simulations illustrate our findings for the spectral density at finite N and we also give indications how to do the asymptotic large- N analysis. (paper)
[RATIONAL ASPECTS OF BACTERIOPHAGES USE].
Vakarina, A A; Kataeva, L V; Karpukhina, N F
2015-01-01
Analysis of existing aspects of bacteriophage use and study features of their lytic activity by using various techniques. Effect of monophages and associated bacteriophages (staphylococci, piopolyvalent and piocombined, intestiphage, pneumonia klebsiella and polyvalent klebsiella produced by "Microgen") was studied with 380 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 279 cultures of Klebsiella pneumoniae in liquid and solid nutrient media. From patients with intestinal disorder, sensitivity was analyzed to 184 strains of Salmonella genus bacteria 18 serological variants to salmonella bacteriophages, 137 strains of Escherichia coli (lactose-negative, hemolytic), as well as some members of OKA groups (21 serovars) to coli-proteic and piopolyvalent bacteriophages. Lytic ability of the piobacteriophage against Klebsiella and Proteus genus bacteria was determined. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to staphylococcus bacteriophage in 71.6% of cases and to piobacteriophage--in 86.15% of cases. A 100% lytic ability of salmonella bacteriophage against Salmonella spp. was established. Sensitivity of E. coli of various serogroups to coli-proteic and piobacteriophage was 66 - 100%. Klebsiella, Proteus genus bacteria were sensitive to piobacteriophage in only 35% and 43.15% of cases, respectively. A more rational use of bacteriophages is necessary: development of a technique, evaluation of sensitivity of bacteria to bacteriophage, introduction of corrections into their production (expansion of bacteriophage spectra, determination and indication of their concentration in accompanying documents).
Rationality, institutions and environmental policy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vatn, Arild [Department of Economics and Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)
2005-11-01
This paper is about how institutions determine choices and the importance of this for environmental policy. The model of individual rational choice from neoclassical economics is compared with the model of socially determined behavior. While in the first case, institutions are either exempted from or understood as mere economizing constraints on behavior, the latter perspective views institutions as basic structures necessary also to enable people to act. The paper develops a way to integrate the individualistic model into the wider perspective of social constructivism by viewing it as a special form of such construction. On the basis of this synthesis three issues with relevance for environmental economics are discussed. First, the role of institutional factors in the process of preference formation is emphasized. Next, the role of institutions for the choice of desired states of the environment is analyzed. Finally, the effect of various policy instruments to motivate people to produce these states is discussed. It is concluded that the core policy issue is to determine which institutional frameworks are most reasonable to apply to which kind of problem. Issues, which from the perspective of neoclassical economics are pure technical, become serious value questions if understood from an institutional perspective.
A meta-analysis of the relationship between rational beliefs and psychological distress.
Oltean, Horea-Radu; David, Daniel Ovidiu
2017-11-23
Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) model of psychological health assumes that rational beliefs cause functional emotions and adaptive behavior, but the presumed role of rational beliefs as protective factor against psychological distress/disorders is still in debate. An important step in validating an evidence-based therapy is to investigate the underling theoretical assumptions. Thus, the aim of the present meta-analysis is to investigate the direction and magnitude of the relationship between rational beliefs and psychological distress. Our search identified 26 studies that met our criteria. We evaluated the effect size using the random-effects model and we tested the moderator role of several variables. The overall results revealed a medium negative association between rational beliefs and psychological distress, r = -0.31. The strongest association was found for unconditional acceptance beliefs (r = -0.41). The results add empirical evidence for the underling theory of REBT and revealed that the strength of the association between rational beliefs and distress is robust for a wide range of emotional problems. Therefore, rational beliefs could be a trans-diagnostic protective factor against distress. Moreover, results emphasized that rational beliefs type is an important factor, suggesting an increased focus in therapy on the developing of unconditional acceptance and self-acceptance beliefs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Computational tools for rational protein engineering of aldolases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Widmann
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In this mini-review we describe the different strategies for rational protein engineering and summarize the computational tools available. Computational tools can either be used to design focused libraries, to predict sequence-function relationships or for structure-based molecular modelling. This also includes de novo design of enzymes. Examples for protein engineering of aldolases and transaldolases are given in the second part of the mini-review.
Towers of algebras in rational conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez, C.; Sierra, G.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on Jones fundamental construction applied to rational conformal field theories. The Jones algebra which emerges in this application is realized in terms of duality operations. The generators of the algebra are an open version of Verlinde's operators. The polynomial equations appear in this context as sufficient conditions for the existence of Jones algebra. The ADE classification of modular invariant partition functions is put in correspondence with Jones classification of subfactors
Analytic T matrices for Coulomb plus rational separable potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
van Haeringen, H.; van Wageningen, R.
1975-01-01
The l=0 partial wave projected Coulomb off-shell T matrix T/subc,l=0/ in momentum representation is obtained in closed form. Problems existing in the literature concerning the half- and on-shell behavior of T/subc/ and T/subc/,/subl/ are discussed and clarified by means of explicit formulas. The remaining derivations in this paper are based on T/subc,l=0/. We consider the class of N-term separable potentials where the form factors are rational functions of p 2 (in momentum representation). We prove that the l=0 T matrix corresponding to the Coulomb potential plus any such so-called rational separable potential has a very simple form, namely, it can be written in terms of rational functions and the (simple) hypergeometric function with parameters (1, iγ; 1+iγ), where γ is the well-known Coulomb parameter. Explicit analytic formulas are derived for a number of simple members of the class, the Yamaguchi potential being one of them. In this particular case the expressions of Zachary and of Bajzer are reproduced which used a method based on the O 4 symmetry
Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.
Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Elqayam, Shira
2017-10-01
Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models. Rationality is typically classified under umbrella of normative (addressing the question how people "should" or "ought to" make their decisions) and descriptive theories of decision-making (which portray how people actually make their decisions). Normative theories of rational thought of relevance to medicine include epistemic theories that direct practice of evidence-based medicine and expected utility theory, which provides the basis for widely used clinical decision analyses. Descriptive theories of rationality of direct relevance to medical decision-making include bounded rationality, argumentative theory of reasoning, adaptive rationality, dual processing model of rationality, regret-based rationality, pragmatic/substantive rationality, and meta-rationality. For the first time, we provide a review of wide range of theories and models of rationality. We showed that what is "rational" behaviour under one rationality theory may be irrational under the other theory. We also showed that context is of paramount importance to rationality and that no one model of rationality can possibly fit all contexts. We suggest that in context-poor situations, such as policy decision-making, normative theories based on expected utility informed by best research evidence may provide the optimal approach to medical decision-making, whereas in the context
Rationalizing meat consumption. The 4Ns.
Piazza, Jared; Ruby, Matthew B; Loughnan, Steve; Luong, Mischel; Kulik, Juliana; Watkins, Hanne M; Seigerman, Mirra
2015-08-01
Recent theorizing suggests that the 4Ns - that is, the belief that eating meat is natural, normal, necessary, and nice - are common rationalizations people use to defend their choice of eating meat. However, such theorizing has yet to be subjected to empirical testing. Six studies were conducted on the 4Ns. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrated that the 4N classification captures the vast majority (83%-91%) of justifications people naturally offer in defense of eating meat. In Study 2, individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tended also to objectify (dementalize) animals and included fewer animals in their circle of moral concern, and this was true independent of social dominance orientation. Subsequent studies (Studies 3-5) showed that individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tend not to be motivated by ethical concerns when making food choices, are less involved in animal-welfare advocacy, less driven to restrict animal products from their diet, less proud of their animal-product decisions, tend to endorse Speciesist attitudes, tend to consume meat and animal products more frequently, and are highly committed to eating meat. Furthermore, omnivores who strongly endorsed the 4Ns tended to experience less guilt about their animal-product decisions, highlighting the guilt-alleviating function of the 4Ns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The neural basis of bounded rational behavior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coricelli, Giorgio
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject’s choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. We found a correlation between levels of strategic reasoning and activity in a neural network related to mentalizing, i.e. the ability to think about other’s thoughts and mental states. Moreover, brain data showed how complex cognitive processes subserve the higher level of reasoning about others. We describe how a cognitive hierarchy model fits both behavioural and brain data.
La racionalidad limitada es un fenómeno observado de manera frecuente tanto en juegos experimentales como en situaciones cotidianas. La Neuroeconomía puede mejorar la comprensión de los procesos mentales que caracterizan la racionalidad limitada; en paralelo nos puede ayudar a comprender comportamientos que violan el equilibrio. Nuestro trabajo presenta resultados recientes sobre la bases neuronales del razonamiento estratégico (y sus límite en juegos competitivos —como el juego del “beauty contest”. Estudiamos las bases neuronales del comportamiento estratégico en juegos con interacción entre sujetos usando resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI. Las decisiones de los participantes se clasifican acorde al grado de razonamiento estratégico: el llamado modelo de Jerarquías Cognitivas. Los resultados muestran una correlación entre niveles de
Rational Multi-Curve Models with Counterparty-Risk Valuation Adjustments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Crepey, Stephane; Macrina, Andrea; Nguyen, Tuyet Mai
2016-01-01
We develop a multi-curve term structure setup in which the modelling ingredients are expressed by rational functionals of Markov processes. We calibrate to LIBOR swaptions data and show that a rational two-factor lognormal multi-curve model is sufficient to match market data with accuracy. We elu...... obligations. In order to compute counterparty-risk valuation adjustments, such as CVA, we show how positive default intensity processes with rational form can be derived. We flesh out our study by applying the results to a basis swap contract....
Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matějka, Filip
158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015
Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matějka, Filip
158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015
Rationally inattentive seller: sales and discrete pricing
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matějka, Filip
2016-01-01
Roč. 83, č. 3 (2016), s. 1125-1155 ISSN 0034-6527 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sticky prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016
Principles of Economic Rationality in Mice.
Rivalan, Marion; Winter, York; Nachev, Vladislav
2017-12-12
Humans and non-human animals frequently violate principles of economic rationality, such as transitivity, independence of irrelevant alternatives, and regularity. The conditions that lead to these violations are not completely understood. Here we report a study on mice tested in automated home-cage setups using rewards of drinking water. Rewards differed in one of two dimensions, volume or probability. Our results suggest that mouse choice conforms to the principles of economic rationality for options that differ along a single reward dimension. A psychometric analysis of mouse choices further revealed that mice responded more strongly to differences in probability than to differences in volume, despite equivalence in return rates. This study also demonstrates the synergistic effect between the principles of economic rationality and psychophysics in making quantitative predictions about choices of healthy laboratory mice. This opens up new possibilities for the analyses of multi-dimensional choice and the use of mice with cognitive impairments that may violate economic rationality.
Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danny Frederick
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.
Many faces of rationality: Implications of the great rationality debate for clinical decision‐making
Elqayam, Shira
2017-01-01
Abstract Given that more than 30% of healthcare costs are wasted on inappropriate care, suboptimal care is increasingly connected to the quality of medical decisions. It has been argued that personal decisions are the leading cause of death, and 80% of healthcare expenditures result from physicians' decisions. Therefore, improving healthcare necessitates improving medical decisions, ie, making decisions (more) rational. Drawing on writings from The Great Rationality Debate from the fields of philosophy, economics, and psychology, we identify core ingredients of rationality commonly encountered across various theoretical models. Rationality is typically classified under umbrella of normative (addressing the question how people “should” or “ought to” make their decisions) and descriptive theories of decision‐making (which portray how people actually make their decisions). Normative theories of rational thought of relevance to medicine include epistemic theories that direct practice of evidence‐based medicine and expected utility theory, which provides the basis for widely used clinical decision analyses. Descriptive theories of rationality of direct relevance to medical decision‐making include bounded rationality, argumentative theory of reasoning, adaptive rationality, dual processing model of rationality, regret‐based rationality, pragmatic/substantive rationality, and meta‐rationality. For the first time, we provide a review of wide range of theories and models of rationality. We showed that what is “rational” behaviour under one rationality theory may be irrational under the other theory. We also showed that context is of paramount importance to rationality and that no one model of rationality can possibly fit all contexts. We suggest that in context‐poor situations, such as policy decision‐making, normative theories based on expected utility informed by best research evidence may provide the optimal approach to medical decision
Comparative politics and quasi-rational markets
McMenamin, Iain; Breen, Michael; Muñoz-Portillo, Juan
2016-01-01
This article synthesises psychology, economics and political science theories that can explain market reaction to elections. In order to test the theories, we conduct event studies of the impact of elections on the interest rates on government bonds for 122 elections in 19 countries. The efficient market hypothesis states that rational markets immediately incorporate all information relevant to asset prices. According to psychology, human decision-making is quasi-rational. Market actors shoul...
Rationality: a social-epistemology perspective
Wenmackers, S; Vanpoucke, Danny; Douven, I
2014-01-01
Both in philosophy and in psychology, human rationality has traditionally been studied from an 'individualistic' perspective. Recently, social epistemologists have drawn attention to the fact that epistemic interactions among agents also give rise to important questions concerning rationality. In previous work, we have used a formal model to assess the risk that a particular type of social-epistemic interactions lead agents with initially consistent belief states into inconsistent belief st...
Rationally Addicted to Drinking and Smoking?
Bask, Mikael; Melkersson, Maria
2001-01-01
When modeling demand for addictive consumption goods, the most widely used framework is the rational addiction model proposed by Becker and Murphy (1988). In the present paper, we extend the rational addiction model to include two addictive consumption goods, alcohol and cigarettes. We estimate the aggregate demand for alcohol and cigarettes in Sweden, using aggregate annual time series on sales volumes for the period 1955-1999. OLS estimates are compared to GMM estimates allowing for possibl...
Proposed standby gasoline rationing plan: public comments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1978-12-01
Under the proposed plan, DOE would allocate ration rights (rights to purchase gasoline) to owners of registered vehicles. All vehicles in a given class would receive the same entitlement. Essential services would receive supplemental allotments of ration rights as pririty firms. Once every 3 months, ration checks would be mailed out to all vehicle registrants, allotting them a certain amount of ration rights. These checks would then be cashed at Coupon Issuance Points, where the bearer would receive ration coupons to be used at gasoline stations. Large users of gasoline could deposit their allotment checks in accounts at ration banks. Coupons or checks would be freely exchangeable in a white market. A certain percentage of the gasoline supply would be set aside in reserve for use in national emergencies. When the plan was published in the Federal Register, public comments were requested. DOE also solicited comments from private citizens, public interest groups, business and industry, state and local governments. A total of 1126 responses were reveived and these are analyzed in this paper. The second part of the report describes how the comments were classified, and gives a statistical breakdown of the major responses. The last section is a discussion and analysis of theissue raised by commenting agencies, firms, associations, and individuals. (MCW)
On the Distribution of Zeros and Poles of Rational Approximants on Intervals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Andrievskii
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The distribution of zeros and poles of best rational approximants is well understood for the functions (=||, >0. If ∈[−1,1] is not holomorphic on [−1,1], the distribution of the zeros of best rational approximants is governed by the equilibrium measure of [−1,1] under the additional assumption that the rational approximants are restricted to a bounded degree of the denominator. This phenomenon was discovered first for polynomial approximation. In this paper, we investigate the asymptotic distribution of zeros, respectively, -values, and poles of best real rational approximants of degree at most to a function ∈[−1,1] that is real-valued, but not holomorphic on [−1,1]. Generalizations to the lower half of the Walsh table are indicated.
Voting Intention and Choices: Are Voters Always Rational and Deliberative?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I-Ching Lee
Full Text Available Human rationality--the ability to behave in order to maximize the achievement of their presumed goals (i.e., their optimal choices--is the foundation for democracy. Research evidence has suggested that voters may not make decisions after exhaustively processing relevant information; instead, our decision-making capacity may be restricted by our own biases and the environment. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which humans in a democratic society can be rational when making decisions in a serious, complex situation-voting in a local political election. We believe examining human rationality in a political election is important, because a well-functioning democracy rests largely upon the rational choices of individual voters. Previous research has shown that explicit political attitudes predict voting intention and choices (i.e., actual votes in democratic societies, indicating that people are able to reason comprehensively when making voting decisions. Other work, though, has demonstrated that the attitudes of which we may not be aware, such as our implicit (e.g., subconscious preferences, can predict voting choices, which may question the well-functioning democracy. In this study, we systematically examined predictors on voting intention and choices in the 2014 mayoral election in Taipei, Taiwan. Results indicate that explicit political party preferences had the largest impact on voting intention and choices. Moreover, implicit political party preferences interacted with explicit political party preferences in accounting for voting intention, and in turn predicted voting choices. Ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others were found to predict voting choices, but not voting intention. In sum, to the comfort of democracy, voters appeared to engage mainly explicit, controlled processes in making their decisions; but findings on ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others may suggest
Hypothesis Testing as an Act of Rationality
Nearing, Grey
2017-04-01
Statistical hypothesis testing is ad hoc in two ways. First, setting probabilistic rejection criteria is, as Neyman (1957) put it, an act of will rather than an act of rationality. Second, physical theories like conservation laws do not inherently admit probabilistic predictions, and so we must use what are called epistemic bridge principles to connect model predictions with the actual methods of hypothesis testing. In practice, these bridge principles are likelihood functions, error functions, or performance metrics. I propose that the reason we are faced with these problems is because we have historically failed to account for a fundamental component of basic logic - namely the portion of logic that explains how epistemic states evolve in the presence of empirical data. This component of Cox' (1946) calculitic logic is called information theory (Knuth, 2005), and adding information theory our hypothetico-deductive account of science yields straightforward solutions to both of the above problems. This also yields a straightforward method for dealing with Popper's (1963) problem of verisimilitude by facilitating a quantitative approach to measuring process isomorphism. In practice, this involves data assimilation. Finally, information theory allows us to reliably bound measures of epistemic uncertainty, thereby avoiding the problem of Bayesian incoherency under misspecified priors (Grünwald, 2006). I therefore propose solutions to four of the fundamental problems inherent in both hypothetico-deductive and/or Bayesian hypothesis testing. - Neyman (1957) Inductive Behavior as a Basic Concept of Philosophy of Science. - Cox (1946) Probability, Frequency and Reasonable Expectation. - Knuth (2005) Lattice Duality: The Origin of Probability and Entropy. - Grünwald (2006). Bayesian Inconsistency under Misspecification. - Popper (1963) Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge.
Rationality and institutions : an inquiry into the normative implications of rational choice theory
Engelen, Bart
2007-01-01
I aim to analyze in this dissertation what a desirable basic institutional structure looks like from the perspective of rationality. While the main topic is thus normative in nature, I start by clarifying in the first part what the notion of rationality exactly entails. I do so by focusing explicitly on the economic conception of rationality, according to which a rational individual is motivated to serve his self-interest on the basis of cost-benefit calculations. Such a Homo Economicus is ch...
Some Bounds for the Logarithmic Function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Topsøe, Flemming
2007-01-01
Development in continued fraction, rational approximations and orthogonal polynomials in relation to the logarithmic function are discussed.......Development in continued fraction, rational approximations and orthogonal polynomials in relation to the logarithmic function are discussed....
Recent advances in rational approaches for enzyme engineering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kerstin Steiner
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Enzymes are an attractive alternative in the asymmetric syntheses of chiral building blocks. To meet the requirements of industrial biotechnology and to introduce new functionalities, the enzymes need to be optimized by protein engineering. This article specifically reviews rational approaches for enzyme engineering and de novo enzyme design involving structure-based approaches developed in recent years for improvement of the enzymes’ performance, broadened substrate range, and creation of novel functionalities to obtain products with high added value for industrial applications.
Boundedness of biorthogonal systems in Banach spaces
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hájek, Petr Pavel; Montesinos, V.
2010-01-01
Roč. 177, č. 1 (2010), s. 145-154 ISSN 0021-2172 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/07/0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : M-basis * Banach spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.630, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11856-010-0041-x
A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). VTT Automation
1999-12-01
Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached
A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wahlstroem, B.
1999-01-01
Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached
Approximation of quadrilaterals by rational quadrilaterals in the plane
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
sets in topological spaces using local product structure and prove the density Theorem 6 in the appendix section. An application of this proves the density of rational points as stated in Theorem 31. Keywords. Rational triangles and quadrilaterals; rational approximability of polygons; rational points on quartic curves; elliptic ...
Economic Rationality in the Ultimatum Game
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Fiala
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Rigorous application of experimental methodology to the interdisciplinary research of economic decision making is the main purpose of our work. In this paper, we introduce the main decisionmaking theories and outline economic rationality. We explain why we find it useful to discriminate between the “irrational” and “non-rational” components of decision making. We offer an oriented interdisciplinary point of view on economic rationality. In the applied section, we describe the main features of the Ultimatum game and summarize the up-to-date theories explaining the non-rational course of the game. We discuss in detail the reported relations between the nominal value of the stakes and the distribution of the offers and responses. We introduce the blinded, randomized Ultimatum game experiment that we conducted in our laboratory. We stress the importance of anonymity of the study subjects and the difference in salience of a factual reward against a hypothetical reward. We present the results of our study, showing that a duly chosen non-monetary reward, directly inconvertible into money, leads to a different offer distribution in the Ultimatum game without the necessity to invest excessive sums of money in the rewards. We compare our results to research published by other authors. According to our theory, the rational, non-rational and irrational components contribute to the decision making in Ultimatum differently depending on the different reward stakes.
[Rationalization and rationing at the bedside. A normative and empirical status quo analysis].
Strech, D
2014-02-01
The topic of bedside rationing is increasingly discussed in Germany. Further need for clarification exists for the question how bedside rationing (e.g., in the area of overcare) can be justified despite coexistent inefficiencies. This paper outlines and analyses the relationship of waste avoidance and rationing from an ethical perspective. Empirical findings regarding the status quo of bedside rationing and rationalization are presented. These normative and empirical explorations will then be further specified regarding opportunities for future physician-driven activities to tackle overuse. The self-government partners in Germany should communicate more explicitly within their communities and to the public how and with which benchmarks they aim to reduce inefficient health care (overuse) in an appropriate manner. Physician-driven activities such as the "Choosing Wisely®" initiative in the USA could provide a first step to raise the awareness for overuse among physicians as well as in the public.
RATIONAL CHOICE INSTITUTIONALISM AND THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
Andrei Cristian Balasan; Andreea Maha
2013-01-01
The aim of this paper is to highlight the main aspects regarding the rational choice theory in neo-institutionalism, and the role the EU Neighbourhood Policy has nowadays. The protagonist of the rational choice theory in the new institutionalism remains homo-economicus. The theory of rational choice institutionalism challenges the perfect rationality of the individual, rather than the principle of rational choice itself. ENP is a framework for consolidating the Union's relations with neighbou...
Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Anders Fjendbo
2016-01-01
Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim to...... and limited processing may occur due to time constraints, low involvement in the decision at hand, relying on habits or the task requiring too high a mental effort....... to maximise some subjective measure. Where other fields, for example within the social sciences and psychology, have made serious efforts to explore alternative models derived from principles of bounded rationality, this direction has begun to take speed within transport applications only recently. Bounded...
Rational speculative bubbles: A critical view
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radonjić Ognjen
2007-01-01
Full Text Available According to the theory of rational bubbles, the bubble is present whenever asset prices progressively diverge from their fundamental value, which occurs because agents expect that asset prices will continue to grow exponentially (self-fulfilling prophecies far in the future and consistently, which promises the realization of ever larger capital gains. In our opinion, the basic shortcoming of this theory refers to the assumption that all market agents are perfectly informed and rational and, accordingly, form homogeneous expectations. The model does not explain decision-making processes or expectation formation, nor does it detect potential psychological and institutional factors that might significantly influence decision making processes and market participants’ reactions to news. Since assumptions of the model critically determine its validity, we conclude that comprehensiveness of the rational bubble model is, to put it mildly, limited.
Testing the rationality of DOE's energy price forecasts under asymmetric loss preferences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamatzakis, E.; Koutsomanoli-Filippaki, A.
2014-01-01
This paper examines the rationality of the price forecasts for energy commodities of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE), departing from the common assumption in the literature that DOE's forecasts are based on a symmetric underlying loss function with respect to positive vs. negative forecast errors. Instead, we opt for the methodology of Elliott et al. (2005) that allows testing the joint hypothesis of an asymmetric loss function and rationality and reveals the underlying preferences of the forecaster. Results indicate the existence of asymmetries in the shape of the loss function for most energy categories with preferences leaning towards optimism. Moreover, we also examine whether there is a structural break in those preferences over the examined period, 1997–2012. - Highlights: • Examine the rationality of DOE energy forecasts. • Departing from a symmetric underlying loss function. • Asymmetries exist in most energy prices. • Preferences lean towards optimism. • Examine structural breaks in those preferences
Rational decisions, random matrices and spin glasses
Galluccio, Stefano; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc
We consider the problem of rational decision making in the presence of nonlinear constraints. By using tools borrowed from spin glass and random matrix theory, we focus on the portfolio optimisation problem. We show that the number of optimal solutions is generally exponentially large, and each of them is fragile: rationality is in this case of limited use. In addition, this problem is related to spin glasses with Lévy-like (long-ranged) couplings, for which we show that the ground state is not exponentially degenerate.
Rationality: a social-epistemology perspective
Vanpoucke, Danny E. P.; Douven, Igor
2014-01-01
Both in philosophy and in psychology, human rationality has traditionally been studied from an “individualistic” perspective. Recently, social epistemologists have drawn attention to the fact that epistemic interactions among agents also give rise to important questions concerning rationality. In previous work, we have used a formal model to assess the risk that a particular type of social-epistemic interactions lead agents with initially consistent belief states into inconsistent belief states. Here, we continue this work by investigating the dynamics to which these interactions may give rise in the population as a whole. PMID:24994987
Rational design of protein kinase inhibitors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yarmoluk S. M.
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Modern methodological approaches to rational design of low molecular weight compounds with specific activity in relation to predetermined biomolecular targets are considered by example of development of high effective protein kinase inhibitors. The application of new computational methods that allow to significantly improve the quality of computational experiments (in, particular, accuracy of low molecular weight compounds activity prediction without increase of computational and time costs are highlighted. The effectiveness of strategy of rational design is demonstrated by examples of several own investigations devoted to development of new inhibitors that are high effective and selective towards protein kinases CK2, FGFR1 and ASK1.
Rational homotopy theory and differential forms
Griffiths, Phillip
2013-01-01
This completely revised and corrected version of the well-known Florence notes circulated by the authors together with E. Friedlander examines basic topology, emphasizing homotopy theory. Included is a discussion of Postnikov towers and rational homotopy theory. This is then followed by an in-depth look at differential forms and de Tham's theorem on simplicial complexes. In addition, Sullivan's results on computing the rational homotopy type from forms is presented. New to the Second Edition: *Fully-revised appendices including an expanded discussion of the Hirsch lemma*Presentation of a natu
Rationality: a social-epistemology perspective.
Wenmackers, Sylvia; Vanpoucke, Danny E P; Douven, Igor
2014-01-01
Both in philosophy and in psychology, human rationality has traditionally been studied from an "individualistic" perspective. Recently, social epistemologists have drawn attention to the fact that epistemic interactions among agents also give rise to important questions concerning rationality. In previous work, we have used a formal model to assess the risk that a particular type of social-epistemic interactions lead agents with initially consistent belief states into inconsistent belief states. Here, we continue this work by investigating the dynamics to which these interactions may give rise in the population as a whole.
Rationalization with ruled surfaces in architecture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak
This thesis addresses the problems of rationalizing and segmenting large scale 3D models, and how to handle difficult production constraints in this area. The design choices when constructing large scale architecture are influenced by the budget. Therefore I strive to minimize the amount of time...... and material needed for production. This makes advanced free form architecture viable for low cost projects, allowing the architects to realize their designs. By pre-cutting building blocks using hot wire robots, the amount of milling necessary can be reduced drastically. I do this by rationalizing...
Towards a formal logic of design rationalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galle, Per
1997-01-01
Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...
Rationing in the presence of baselines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter
2013-01-01
We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...... sector, water distribution in drought periods). We introduce (and characterize) a natural class of allocation methods for this model. Any method within the class is associated with a rule in the standard rationing model, and we show that if the latter obeys some focal properties, the former obeys them...
Rational assembly of nanoparticle superlattices with designed lattice symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gang, Oleg; Lu, Fang; Tagawa, Miho
2017-09-05
A method for lattice design via multivalent linkers (LDML) is disclosed that introduces a rationally designed symmetry of connections between particles in order to achieve control over the morphology of their assembly. The method affords the inclusion of different programmable interactions within one linker that allow an assembly of different types of particles. The designed symmetry of connections is preferably provided utilizing DNA encoding. The linkers may include fabricated "patchy" particles, DNA scaffold constructs and Y-shaped DNA linkers, anisotropic particles, which are preferably functionalized with DNA, multimeric protein-DNA complexes, and particles with finite numbers of DNA linkers.
Fundamental understanding and rational design of high energy structural microbatteries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yuxing; Li, Qiuyan; Cartmell, Samuel; Li, Huidong; Mendoza, Sarah; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Xiao, Jie
2018-01-01
Microbatteries play a critical role in determining the lifetime of downsized sensors, wearable devices and medical applications, etc. More often, structural batteries are required from the perspective of aesthetics and space utilization, which is however rarely explored. Herein, we discuss the fundamental issues associated with the rational design of practically usable high energy microbatteries. The tubular shape of the cell further allows the flexible integration of microelectronics. A functioning acoustic micro-transmitter continuously powered by this tubular battery has been successfully demonstrated. Multiple design features adopted to accommodate large mechanical stress during the rolling process are discussed providing new insights in designing the structural microbatteries for emerging technologies.
C2-rational cubic spline involving tension parameters
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the impact of variation of parameters ri and ti on the shape of the interpolant. Some remarks are given in x 6. 2. The rational spline interpolant. Let P И fxign. iИ1 where a И x1 ` x2 ` ┴┴┴ ` xn И b, be a partition of the interval ЙaY bК, let fi, i И 1Y ... Y n be the function values at the data points. We set hi И xiЗ1 └ xiY ∆i И Е ...
Viagra: : A success story for rationing?
Klein, R.; Sturm, H.
2002-01-01
The 1998 launch of Viagra prompted widespread fears about the budgetary consequences for insurers and governments, all the more so since Viagra was only the first of a new wave of so-called lifestyle drugs. The fears have turned out to be greatly exaggerated. This paper analyzes the rationing
Imitation in Infancy: Rational or Motor Resonance?
Paulus, Markus; Hunnius, Sabine; Vissers, Marlies; Bekkering, Harold
2011-01-01
The present study investigates the contribution of 2 mechanisms to imitation in infancy. The principle of rational action suggests that infants normatively evaluate the efficiency of observed actions. In contrast, it has been proposed that motor resonance (i.e., the mapping of others' actions onto one's own motor repertoire) plays a central role…
Travel time variability and rational inattention
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fosgerau, Mogens; Jiang, Gege
2017-01-01
This paper sets up a rational inattention model for the choice of departure time for a traveler facing random travel time. The traveler chooses how much information to acquire about the travel time out-come before choosing departure time. This reduces the cost of travel time variability compared...
Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.
Rational Voters in a Partisanship Model
O.H. Swank (Otto)
1995-01-01
textabstractThis paper examines a voter model for the US which is interconnected with the partisan theory. In our model, voters are rational and forward-looking. They are perfectly informed about the preferences of political parties and about the state of the economy. The predictions of our voter
Revealed Preference Theory, Rationality, and Neoclassical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The issue is not solved even when decision making is construed within the context of imperfect, that is, 'bounded rationality'. I argue that neoclassical economic theory is best understood as a form of rule utilitarianism. In this regard, neoclassical economics is unavoidably value-laden and should be construed as an aspect of
Towards a formal logic of design rationalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galle, Per
1997-01-01
Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can be for...
The Assessment of Rational Thinking: IQ ? RQ
Stanovich, Keith E.; West, Richard F.
2014-01-01
In this article the authors argue that distinguishing between rationality and intelligence helps explain how people can be, at the same time, intelligent and irrational (Stanovich, 2009). As such, researchers need to study separately the individual differences in cognitive skills that underlie intelligence and the individual differences in…
Rationality, Motivation, Effectiveness: Bureaucracy's Triple Legacy.
Foster, William
1984-01-01
The United States has inherited an ideology concerning politics, culture, and the state that values the democratic distribution by the schools of rationality and of social motivation. Unfortunately, the bureaucratic organization of schools discourages this distribution, and the incentives for changing either the organization or the distribution…
The quantum symmetry of rational field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuchs, J.
1993-12-01
The quantum symmetry of a rational quantum field theory is a finite-dimensional multi-matrix algebra. Its representation category, which determines the fusion rules and braid group representations of superselection sectors, is a braided monoidal C*-category. Various properties of such algebraic structures are described, and some ideas concerning the classification programme are outlined. (orig.)
Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matějka, Filip
2010-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp409.pdf
Orthorhombic rational approximants for decagonal quasicrystals
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
An important exercise in the study of rational approximants is to derive their metric, especially in relation to the corresponding quasicrystal or the underlying clusters. Kuo's model has ..... the smaller diagonal of the fat rhombus in the Penrose tiling. This length scale is obtained by a section along a1 in the Penrose tiling and ...
The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matt Ridley
2012-05-01
Full Text Available There is much debate about the state of the world. Matt Ridley argues in The Rational Optimist that we can solve problems such as economic crashes,population explosions, climate change and terrorism, of poverty, AIDS, depression and obesity. His trust of capitalism and progress is examined and challenged in this book review.
Rationally inattentive seller: sales and discrete pricing
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matějka, Filip
2016-01-01
Roč. 83, č. 3 (2016), s. 1125-1155 ISSN 0034-6527 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP402/11/P236 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sticky prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016
Teachers\\' practical rationality of mathematics teaching and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
mathematics teaching as a practice and the way that teachers learn in such a practice. Conversations during interviews with the teachers in the sample indicate that SchoÈn\\'s notion of reflection-in-action is a key to understanding how teachers use their practical rationality as they try to understand nuanced meanings of the
Multiple Equilibria in Noisy Rational Expectations Economies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pálvölgyi, Dömötör; Venter, Gyuri
This paper studies equilibrium uniqueness in standard noisy rational expectations economies with asymmetric or differential information a la Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) and Hellwig (1980). We show that the standard linear equilibrium of Grossman and Stiglitz (1980) is the unique equilibrium with...
Revealed Preference Theory, Rationality, and Neoclassical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2012-12-17
Dec 17, 2012 ... right and when they are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed the world .... abstract rationalism as the most effective way of understanding and controlling phenomena in the world. .... ideological tool to defend a world of great economic disparities between people. This is the world ...
The Rational-Emotive Approach: A Critique
Morris, G. Barry
1976-01-01
The critique of Rational-Emotive Therapy aims criticism at Ellis' concept of irrationality, analysis of human behavior and therapeutic techniques. Ellis suggests that his critic's claims lack the support of experimental evidence. He further suggests that an "existential" bias pervades which differs from his own brand of…
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Troubled Students.
Zionts, Paul; Zionts, Laura
1997-01-01
Based on the early work of Albert Ellis, seeks to identify and challenge irrational beliefs that underlie behavior problems. Outlines concepts and methods of Rational Emotive Behavior Theory and describes the application both in counseling and as a mental health curriculum for troubled children and youth. Offers classroom techniques. (RJM)
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Humanism in Action.
Hill, Larry K.
1996-01-01
Claims that humanism, in both concept and philosophy, is encased in a literature that is predominantly abstract, making humanism difficult to translate into tangible day-to-day action. Argues that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), however, provides a detailed method for translating humanist concepts into humanist behavior. (RJM)
Rationally inattentive seller: sales and discrete pricing
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matějka, Filip
2010-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 1 (2010), s. 89-146 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity * sales Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp408.pdf
Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues
Warren, Jeffrey M.
2011-01-01
Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…
Nakamura, Yukio; Mizuguchi, Toru; Kawamoto, Masaki; Meguro, Makoto; Harada, Kohei; Ota, Shigenori; Hirata, Koichi
2011-08-01
Cluster analysis is used for dividing many prognostic indicators, including liver function, tumor progression, and operative variables, into specific clusters. The albumin (ALB), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and branched chain amino-acid to tyrosine ratio (BTR) may represent the severity of liver disease and function of the hepatic reserve. We developed the ALB-BTR and HGF-BTR classifications depending on each level to find specific unique subgroups. Our aim was to identify specific subgroups destined for favorable and poor prognoses after initial hepatectomy. Between 2002 and 2008, 165 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Liver function indicators, including BTR, tumor-related factors, and operative variables, were evaluated by cluster analysis with Ward's criterion. The ALB-BTR classification was divided into 4 groups depending on ALB (cutoff value, 4.0 g/dL) and BTR (cutoff value, 6.0). The HGF-BTR classification was also divided into 4 groups depending on HGF (cutoff value, 0.35 ng/mL) and BTR (cutoff value, 6.0). The prognoses of the subgroups were compared by the log-rank test. Cluster analysis divided multiple indicators into 5 different clusters. In each cluster, we further analyzed subgroups using the ALB-BTR and HGF-BTR classification. Mean recurrence-free survival times in ALB-GI (19.1 ± 2.4 months) and HGF-GIII (29.4 ± 3.8 months) were less than their mean overall survival times. Cluster analysis is useful to find similar and different indicators. Even though liver function was well preserved, low BTR could identify early recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after resection. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jamalzadeh, R.; Ardehali, M.M.; Rashidinejad, M.
2008-01-01
The rational buyer auction is based on a simultaneous auction that is the redesigned auction mechanism for ancillary services by the California independent system operator (CAISO). The incentive for the rational buyer auction is CAISO's intent to adopt a common sense rule of substituting higher-quality lower-cost services for lower-quality higher-cost services, when it results in reduced total procurement cost. For the purposes of designing a desirable auction where the minimum cost for the objective function as well as prevention of price reversal are achieved, either the payment cost in marginal pricing auction must be lowered or price reversal in rational buyer auction must be avoided. The objectives of this study are (a) to develop a newly proposed 'modified rational buyer' auction that does not allow price reversal and (b) to propose and validate a solution procedure that is based on participation matrix and discrete programming. The validation of the proposed solution procedure is accomplished through examination of two case studies available in the literature. Based on the first case study data, it is shown that the newly developed modified rational buyer auction avoids price reversal occurrence, while the total payment of ISO is increased by 5.8%, as compared with rational buyer auction. Also in comparison with marginal pricing auction, the ISO payment is lowered by 38.8%, when the newly developed modified rational buyer auction is utilized. For future work, it is recommended that the application of the modified rational buyer auction to joint dispatch of energy and ancillary services is investigated. (author)
Rational points, rational curves, and entire holomorphic curves on projective varieties
Gasbarri, Carlo; Roth, Mike; Tschinkel, Yuri
2015-01-01
This volume contains papers from the Short Thematic Program on Rational Points, Rational Curves, and Entire Holomorphic Curves and Algebraic Varieties, held from June 3-28, 2013, at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. The program was dedicated to the study of subtle interconnections between geometric and arithmetic properties of higher-dimensional algebraic varieties. The main areas of the program were, among others, proving density of rational points in Zariski or analytic topology on special varieties, understanding global geometric properties of rationally connected varieties, as well as connections between geometry and algebraic dynamics exploring new geometric techniques in Diophantine approximation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubrovsky, V.G.; Formusatik, I.B.
2003-01-01
The scheme for calculating via Zakharov-Manakov ∂-macron-dressing method of new rational solutions with constant asymptotic values at infinity of the famous two-dimensional Veselov-Novikov (VN) integrable nonlinear evolution equation and new exact rational potentials of two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger (2DSchr) equation with multiple pole wave functions is developed. As examples new lumps of VN nonlinear equation and new exact rational potentials of 2DSchr equation with multiple pole of order two wave functions are calculated. Among the constructed rational solutions are as nonsingular and also singular
Rational and moral action : a critical survey of rational choice theory
de Jonge, J.P.R.
2009-01-01
This book is about rational choice theory from a different point of view. It is different for three reasons. First, it pays attention to the unintended consequences of intended actions. Second, it employs a non-instrumental approach to moral actions. And third, it argues that choice opportunities matter. These subjects are elaborated in the Parts II, III, and IV of this book. Part I deals with a critical outline of rational choice theory as it is conventionally understood. This book is focuse...
Henriksson, M; Cederberg, C; Swensson, C
2014-08-01
Feed production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy production and demands large arable and pasture acreage. This study analysed how regional conditions influence GHG emissions of dairy feed rations in a life cycle perspective, that is the carbon footprint (CF) and the land area required. Factors assessed included regional climate variations, grass/clover silage nutrient quality, feedstuff availability, crop yield and feed losses. Using the Nordic feed evaluation model NorFor, rations were optimised for different phases of lactation, dry and growing periods for older cows, first calvers and heifers by regional feed advisors and combined to annual herd rations. Feed production data at farm level were based on national statistics and studies. CF estimates followed standards for life cycle assessment and used emissions factors provided by IPCC. The functional unit was 'feed consumption to produce 1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) from a cow with annual milk yield of 9 900 kg ECM including replacement animals and feed losses'. Feed ration CF varied from 417 to 531 g CO2 e/kg ECM. Grass/clover silage contributed more than 50% of total GHG emissions. Use of higher quality silage increased ration CF by up to 5% as a result of an additional cut and increased rates of synthetic N-fertiliser. Domestically produced horse bean (Vicia faba), by-products from the sugar industry and maize silage were included in the rations with the lowest CF, but horse bean significantly increased ration land requirement. Rations required between 1.4 to 2 m2 cropland and 0.1 to 0.2 m2/kg semi-natural grassland per kg ECM and year. Higher yield levels reduced ration total CF. Inclusion of GHG emissions from land use change associated with Brazilian soya feed significantly increased ration CF. Ration CF and land use depended on ration composition, which was highly influenced by the regional availability and production of feedstuffs. The impact of individual
Bovell, Adonis Miguel; Warncke, Kurt
2013-02-26
Ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL) is a 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin-dependent bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of the short-chain vicinal amino alcohols, aminoethanol and (S)- and (R)-2-aminopropanol. The coding sequence for EAL is located within the 17-gene eut operon, which encodes the broad spectrum of proteins that comprise the ethanolamine utilization (eut) metabolosome suborganelle structure. A high-resolution structure of the ∼500 kDa EAL [(EutB-EutC)₂]₃ oligomer from Escherichia coli has been determined by X-ray crystallography, but high-resolution spectroscopic determinations of reactant intermediate-state structures and detailed kinetic and thermodynamic studies of EAL have been conducted for the Salmonella typhimurium enzyme. Therefore, a statistically robust homology model for the S. typhimurium EAL is constructed from the E. coli structure. The model structure is used to describe the hierarchy of EutB and EutC subunit interactions that construct the native EAL oligomer and, specifically, to address the long-standing challenge of reconstitution of the functional oligomer from isolated, purified subunits. Model prediction that the (EutB₂)₃ oligomer assembly will occur from isolated EutB, and that this hexameric structure will template the formation of the complete, native [(EutB-EutC)₂]₃ oligomer, is verified by biochemical methods. Prediction that cysteine residues on the exposed subunit-subunit contact surfaces of isolated EutB and EutC will interfere with assembly by cystine formation is verified by activating effects of disulfide reducing agents. Angstrom-scale congruence of the reconstituted and native EAL in the active site region is shown by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Overall, the hierarchy of subunit interactions and microscopic features of the contact surfaces, which are revealed by the homology model, guide and provide a rationale for a refined genetic and biochemical approach to reconstitution of the
Quartic Rational Said-Ball-Like Basis with Tension Shape Parameters and Its Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuanpeng Zhu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Four new quartic rational Said-Ball-like basis functions, which include the cubic Said-Ball basis functions as a special case, are constructed in this paper. The new basis is applied to generate a class of C1 continuous quartic rational Hermite interpolation splines with local tension shape parameters. The error estimate expression of the proposed interpolant is given and the sufficient conditions are derived for constructing a C1 positivity- or monotonicity- preserving interpolation spline. In addition, we extend the quartic rational Said-Ball-like basis to a triangular domain which has three tension shape parameters and includes the cubic triangular Said-Ball basis as a special case. In order to compute the corresponding patch stably and efficiently, a new de Casteljau-type algorithm is developed. Moreover, the G1 continuous conditions are deduced for the joining of two patches.
F4 quantum integrable, rational and trigonometric models: space-of-orbits view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turbiner, A V; Vieyra, J C Lopez
2014-01-01
Algebraic-rational nature of the four-dimensional, F 4 -invariant integrable quantum Hamiltonians, both rational and trigonometric, is revealed and reviewed. It was shown that being written in F 4 Weyl invariants, polynomial and exponential, respectively, both similarity-transformed Hamiltonians are in algebraic form, they are quite similar the second order differential operators with polynomial coefficients; the flat metric in the Laplace-Beltrami operator has polynomial (in invariants) matrix elements. Their potentials are calculated for the first time: they are meromorphic (rational) functions with singularities at the boundaries of the configuration space. Ground state eigenfunctions are algebraic functions in a form of polynomials in some degrees. Both Hamiltonians preserve the same infinite flag of polynomial spaces with characteristic vector (1, 2, 2, 3), it manifests exact solvability. A particular integral common for both models is derived. The first polynomial eigenfunctions are presented explicitly.
On the rationality of Manx crabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tove Ahlbom
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper accepts the challenge posed by Godfrey Baldacchino in “Islands and despots”, published in Commonwealth & Comparative Politics in February 2012, to acknowledge and investigate the implications of the “expressions of harmony and solidarity” often observed in small island societies. To do so, aspects of the Isle of Man’s political and social life are discussed from the perspectives of popular rule and rationality. This paper argues that a homogeneity in preferences and the political practices of small island states might be a rational way of protecting a vulnerable economy and thus ensuring economic growth and a sufficient allocation to each island resident of the scarce resources required to survive. Such small island homogeneity and consensualism is therefore not necessarily indicating a deficient democratic practice, but might just connote another way of conducting democratic governance, spawned from a particular way of living and a particular range of needs
Principles of ration formulation for ruminants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayasuriya, M.C.N.
2002-01-01
Feeding standards as practiced in developed countries could be misleading when non-conventional feed resources are used in formulating rations for ruminant livestock in developing countries. They tend to reject the poor quality feeds that are available in vast quantities. The non-availability of good quality forage throughout the year and the need to optimise the efficiency of utilisation of locally available feed resources have lead to the application of basic nutritional principles when considering ration formulation. The alternative approach to the use of feeding standards would be to ensure that the production system matches the available resources. The development of feed supplementation strategies based on locally available feed resources require the understanding of the relative roles and nutrient needs of the two-compartment system represented by the micro-organisms in the rumen and the host animal. (author)
Moral Credentialing and the Rationalization of Misconduct
Brown, Ryan P.; Tamborski, Michael; Wang, Xiaoqian; Barnes, Collin D.; Mumford, Michael D.; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D.
2010-01-01
Recent studies lead to the paradoxical conclusion that the act of affirming one’s egalitarian or pro-social values and virtues might subsequently facilitate prejudiced or self-serving behavior, an effect previously referred to as “moral credentialing.” The present study extends this paradox to the domain of academic misconduct and investigates the hypothesis that such an effect might be limited by the extent to which misbehavior is rationalizable. Using a paradigm designed to investigate deliberative and rationalized forms of cheating (von Hippel, Lakin, & Shakarchi, 2005), we found that when participants had credentialed themselves (versus a non-close acquaintance) via a set of hypothetical moral dilemmas, they were more likely to cheat on a subsequent math task, but only if cheating was highly rationalizable. When cheating was difficult to rationalize, moral credentialing had almost no impact on cheating. PMID:21503267
Rational Thinking and Reasonable Thinking in Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isaeva E. A.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle’s principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.
ASP for Minimal Entailment in a Rational Extension of SROEL
Giordano, Laura; Dupré, Daniele Theseider
2016-01-01
In this paper we exploit Answer Set Programming (ASP) for reasoning in a rational extension SROEL-R-T of the low complexity description logic SROEL, which underlies the OWL EL ontology language. In the extended language, a typicality operator T is allowed to define concepts T(C) (typical C's) under a rational semantics. It has been proven that instance checking under rational entailment has a polynomial complexity. To strengthen rational entailment, in this paper we consider a minimal model s...
Rational vs emotional content in mobile advertising
Mas Manchón, Lluis
2014-01-01
Advertising tries to find its place in the new consumer-centered paradigm for media communication. Consumers no longer are a uniform group, passive and powerless. Mobile technology has set some specific conditions that determine this particular sender-receiver relationship. In this context, there is a need for evidence about the effectiveness of traditional advertising strategies in this rather new channel. This study explores the relationship between the relevance of rational or emotional ...
Integrable mappings via rational elliptic surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuda, Teruhisa
2004-01-01
We present a geometric description of the QRT map (which is an integrable mapping introduced by Quispel, Roberts and Thompson) in terms of the addition formula of a rational elliptic surface. By this formulation, we classify all the cases when the QRT map is periodic; and show that its period is 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. A generalization of the QRT map which acts birationally on a pencil of K3 surfaces, or Calabi-Yau manifolds, is also presented
Rational suicide: philosophical perspectives on schizophrenia.
Hewitt, Jeanette
2010-02-01
Suicide prevention is a National Health Service priority in the United Kingdom. People with mental illness are seen to represent one of the most vulnerable groups for suicide and recent British Government policy has focused on prevention and management of perceived risk. This approach to suicide prevention is constructed under a biomedical model of psychiatry, which maintains that suicidal persons suffer from some form of disease or irrational drive towards self-destruction. Many react to the idea of self-inflicted death with instinctive revulsion, which has prevented serious discussion of the concept of rational suicide, particularly in relation to those with schizophrenia. The idea that there may be circumstances in which suicide can be viewed as rational is discussed within the biomedical approach to ethics and wider literature primarily in relation to physical disease, terminal states and chronic pain. It is not deemed a viable choice for those who are considered 'non-autonomous' due to the controlling forces of mental illness. I propose that suicide is not a consequence of mental illness per se, and that it may be seen as a rational response to a realistic perspective on the course and consequences of living with schizophrenia. The denial of dialogue about the validity of suicidal ideation for people with schizophrenia has led to negative consequences for people with serious mental illness in terms of justice and recognition of person-hood.
Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment
Li, Renyuan
2015-08-26
The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly hinge upon the further development of nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes ‘design-for-purpose’ and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress of the rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil/water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid on chemical concepts of the nanomaterial designs throughout the review.
Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment.
Li, Renyuan; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng
2015-11-07
The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits. It is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will hinge upon further developments in nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes on 'design-for-purpose' and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress in rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil-water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid to the chemical concepts related to nanomaterial design throughout the review.
Rational quantitative safety goals: a summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unwin, S.D.; Hayns, M.R.
1984-08-01
We introduce the notion of a Rational Quantitative Safety Goal. Such a goal reflects the imprecision and vagueness inherent in any reasonable notion of adequate safety and permits such vagueness to be incorporated into the formal regulatory decision-making process. A quantitative goal of the form, the parameter x, characterizing the safety level of the nuclear plant, shall not exceed the value x 0 , for example, is of a non-rational nature in that it invokes a strict binary logic in which the parameter space underlying x is cut sharply into two portions: that containing those values of x that comply with the goal and that containing those that do not. Here, we utilize an alternative form of logic which, in accordance with any intuitively reasonable notion of safety, permits a smooth transition of a safety determining parameter between the adequately safe and inadequately safe domains. Fuzzy set theory provides a suitable mathematical basis for the formulation of rational quantitative safety goals. The decision-making process proposed here is compatible with current risk assessment techniques and produces results in a transparent and useful format. Our methodology is illustrated with reference to the NUS Corporation risk assessment of the Limerick Generating Station
Awareness of Rational Medication Use and Antibiotic Self ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate the practice of self-medication and evaluate the knowledge of rational use of antibiotics among ... rational use of antibiotics. Keywords: Antibiotics, Self-medication, Rational use, Undergraduate students, Awareness ..... behavioral factors leading to acquired bacterial resistance to antibiotics in ...
Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy And The African Culture ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Albert Ellis's rational emotive therapy that later metamorphosed into rational emotive behaviour therapy was developed in a non African culture in about 1955. The basic philosophical underpinnings of this psychotherapy model include that human beings are rational and that their belief about things is the critical determinant ...
Design rationalization and the logic of design: a case study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galle, Per
1996-01-01
various ‘sources of credibility’ of premises, items of general background knowledge, and several (abductive and deductive) patterns of inference which suggest a possible ‘logic of design’. Rationalization of decisions is defined, and many decisions are found not to be fully rationalized, despite...... the apparent rationality of the reasoning....
Rationalization and the Role of the School Counselor.
Clark, Arthur J.
1995-01-01
Examines rationalization in counselors' interactions with students, parents, and teachers--provides examples of each kind of interaction. Describes the dynamics of rationalization in the schools and outlines interventions that may be used with students, parents, and teachers. Also explores counselors' use of rationalization and gives examples of…
Rationalizing method of replacement intervals by using Bayesian statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasai, Masao; Notoya, Junichi; Kusakari, Yoshiyuki
2007-01-01
This study represents the formulations for rationalizing the replacement intervals of equipments and/or parts taking into account the probability density functions (PDF) of the parameters of failure distribution functions (FDF) and compares the optimized intervals by our formulations with those by conventional formulations which uses only representative values of the parameters of FDF instead of using these PDFs. The failure data are generated by Monte Carlo simulations since the real failure data can not be available for us. The PDF of PDF parameters are obtained by Bayesian method and the representative values are obtained by likelihood estimation and Bayesian method. We found that the method using PDF by Bayesian method brings longer replacement intervals than one using the representative of the parameters. (author)
Biologically rational ways of bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. S. Avrunin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Aim. Based on own and literature date to define biologically rational elements of complex approach to bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. Nowadays there are two points of view regarding bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. The first favor pharmaceuticals as a basic and physical exercises as additional. According to the second, therapeutic and prophylactic significance of physical exercises in maintenance and development of structural and functional capacities of musculoskeletal system is fundamental. The latter approach correspond to evolutionary formed biological model in that muscles act upon levers - bones that connected by means of joints and provide the movement of the body against gravity. The present work from pathogenethically point of view establish the systemic approach to the bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. It is based on physical exercises while additional pharmacotherapy that should aim for optimization of regulatory function of bone cells, first of all osteocytes providing for adaptational reorganisation of bone structures.
Keys, Daniel J; Schwartz, Barry
2007-06-01
For more than 30 years, decision-making research has documented that people often violate various principles of rationality, some of which are so fundamental that theorists of rationality rarely bother to state them. We take these characteristics of decision making as a given but argue that it is problematic to conclude that they typically represent departures from rationality. The very psychological processes that lead to "irrational" decisions (e.g., framing, mental accounting) continue to exert their influence when one experiences the results of the decisions. That is, psychological processes that affect decisions may be said also to "leak" into one's experience. The implication is that formal principles of rationality do not provide a good enough normative standard against which to assess decision making. Instead, what is needed is a substantive theory of rationality-one that takes subjective experience seriously, considers both direct and indirect consequences of particular decisions, considers how particular decisions fit into life as a whole, and considers the effects of decisions on others. Formal principles may play a role as approximations of the substantive theory that can be used by theorists and decision makers in cases in which the formal principles can capture most of the relevant considerations and leakage into experience is negligible. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.
Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)
2010-11-15
Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)
Progress in rational methods of cryoprotection in macromolecular crystallography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcorn, Thomas; Juers, Douglas H.
2010-01-01
Measurements of the average thermal contractions (294→72 K) of 26 different cryosolutions are presented and discussed in conjunction with other recent advances in the rational design of protocols for cryogenic cooling in macromolecular crystallography. Cryogenic cooling of macromolecular crystals is commonly used for X-ray data collection both to reduce crystal damage from radiation and to gather functional information by cryogenically trapping intermediates. However, the cooling process can damage the crystals. Limiting cooling-induced crystal damage often requires cryoprotection strategies, which can involve substantial screening of solution conditions and cooling protocols. Here, recent developments directed towards rational methods for cryoprotection are described. Crystal damage is described in the context of the temperature response of the crystal as a thermodynamic system. As such, the internal and external parts of the crystal typically have different cryoprotection requirements. A key physical parameter, the thermal contraction, of 26 different cryoprotective solutions was measured between 294 and 72 K. The range of contractions was 2–13%, with the more polar cryosolutions contracting less. The potential uses of these results in the development of cryocooling conditions, as well as recent developments in determining minimum cryosolution soaking times, are discussed
Computation of rectangular source integral by rational parameter polynomial method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prabha, Hem
2001-01-01
Hubbell et al. (J. Res. Nat Bureau Standards 64C, (1960) 121) have obtained a series expansion for the calculation of the radiation field generated by a plane isotropic rectangular source (plaque), in which leading term is the integral H(a,b). In this paper another integral I(a,b), which is related with the integral H(a,b) has been solved by the rational parameter polynomial method. From I(a,b), we compute H(a,b). Using this method the integral I(a,b) is expressed in the form of a polynomial of a rational parameter. Generally, a function f (x) is expressed in terms of x. In this method this is expressed in terms of x/(1+x). In this way, the accuracy of the expression is good over a wide range of x as compared to the earlier approach. The results for I(a,b) and H(a,b) are given for a sixth degree polynomial and are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by numerically integrating the integral. Accuracy could be increased either by increasing the degree of the polynomial or by dividing the range of integration. The results of H(a,b) and I(a,b) are given for values of b and a up to 2.0 and 20.0, respectively
RATIONAL CHOICE INSTITUTIONALISM AND THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreea Maha
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to highlight the main aspects regarding the rational choice theory in neo-institutionalism, and the role the EU Neighbourhood Policy has nowadays. The protagonist of the rational choice theory in the new institutionalism remains homo-economicus. The theory of rational choice institutionalism challenges the perfect rationality of the individual, rather than the principle of rational choice itself. ENP is a framework for consolidating the Union's relations with neighbouring countries and aims therefore intensifying cooperation with them in order to establish a zone of prosperity, good neighbourliness, stability and security.
Technique on rationalization of using electricity and cases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-04-01
This book deals with rationalization of using electric and cases. It is divided into four parts. The first part introduces necessity and of progression rationalization of using electric. The second part describes the technique on rationalization of using electric with management of electric energy. The third part depicts domestic cases of rationalization on using of electric such as substation and motor. The last part also introduces foreign cases of rationalization on using of electric with measure of generator circuit, design of motor, design of lighting and design of other equipment.
On the classification of plane graphs representing structurally stable rational Newton flows
Jongen, H.Th.; Jonker, P.; Twilt, F.
1991-01-01
We study certain plane graphs, called Newton graphs, representing a special class of dynamical systems which are closely related to Newton's iteration method for finding zeros of (rational) functions defined on the complex plane. These Newton graphs are defined in terms of nonvanishing angles
Pistorius, M.; Stolte, J.
2012-01-01
We present a new numerical method to price vanilla options quickly in time-changed Brownian motion models. The method is based on rational function approximations of the Black-Scholes formula. Detailed numerical results are given for a number of widely used models. In particular, we use the
Mirzaali Mazandarani, M.J.; Hedayati, R.; Vena, P; Vergani, L.; Strano, M.; Zadpoor, A.A.
2017-01-01
The elastic properties of mechanical metamaterials are direct functions of their topological designs. Rational design approaches based on computational models could, therefore, be used to devise topological designs that result in the desired properties. It is of particular importance to
Dainora Grundey
2008-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to show peculiarities of traditional and experiential marketing and describe why experiential marketing is better way to understand consumer behaviour. Comparative analysis shows the main characteristics of traditional and experiential marketing. Traditional marketing characteristics are there: product functional characteristics and superiority, narrow determinate product categories, point of view to the consumer as a rational thinker, application analytical, quan...
Multi-loop correlators for rational theories of 2D gravity from the generalized Kontsevich models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristjansen, C.
1994-01-01
functions of the susceptibilities and the eigenvalues of the external field. We furthermore use the moment technique to derive a closed expression for the genus zero multi-loop correlators for $(3,3m-1)$ and $(3,3m-2)$ rational matter fields coupled to gravity. We comment on the relation between the two-matrix...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosalia Beber de Souza
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this article, we analyze organizational communication discourses in order to understand the rationality by which means journalism in a public institution of higher education. Using Critical Discourse Analysis on journalistic texts published by the institution, regarding sustainability, we seek to enlighten, based on Jürgen Habermas´s Theory of Communicative Action, how the arguments used can be placed, considering the concepts of teleological/instrumental rationality and communicative rationality. Therefore, it is possible to verify if the texts allow a critical reflection on the theme within the social environment, focusing on the search for understanding and problematization of the issue debated within the public sphere. The results fit the need for institutional journalism to compromise more intensely with the precepts of public communication, public interest and public welfare. The strategic orientation aimed at the promotion of the institutional image was predominant in news production.
Semigroups of transcendental entire functions and their dynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
DINESH KUMAR
realm of semigroups of rational and transcendental entire functions. The seminal work in this direction was done by Hinkkanen and Martin [10] related to semigroups of rational functions. In their paper, they extended the classical theory of the dynamics associated to the iteration of a rational function of one complex variable ...
Rational-operator-based depth-from-defocus approach to scene reconstruction.
Li, Ang; Staunton, Richard; Tjahjadi, Tardi
2013-09-01
This paper presents a rational-operator-based approach to depth from defocus (DfD) for the reconstruction of three-dimensional scenes from two-dimensional images, which enables fast DfD computation that is independent of scene textures. Two variants of the approach, one using the Gaussian rational operators (ROs) that are based on the Gaussian point spread function (PSF) and the second based on the generalized Gaussian PSF, are considered. A novel DfD correction method is also presented to further improve the performance of the approach. Experimental results are considered for real scenes and show that both approaches outperform existing RO-based methods.
The theories underpinning rational emotive behaviour therapy: where's the supportive evidence?
MacInnes, Douglas
2004-08-01
This paper examines the underlying theoretical philosophy of one of the most widely used cognitive behaviour therapies, rational emotive behaviour therapy. It examines whether two central theoretical principles are supported by research evidence: firstly, that irrational beliefs lead to dysfunctional emotions and inferences and that rational beliefs lead to functional emotions and inferences and, secondly, that demand beliefs are the primary core irrational belief. The established criteria for evaluating the efficacy of the theories are detailed and used to evaluate the strength of evidence supporting these two assumptions. The findings indicate there is limited evidence to support these theories. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.
GA Based Rational cubic B-Spline Representation for Still Image Interpolation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samreen Abbas
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an image interpolation scheme is designed for 2D natural images. A local support rational cubic spline with control parameters, as interpolatory function, is being optimized using Genetic Algorithm (GA. GA is applied to determine the appropriate values of control parameter used in the description of rational cubic spline. Three state-of-the-art Image Quality Assessment (IQA models with traditional one are hired for comparison with existing image interpolation schemes and perceptual quality check of resulting images. The results show that the proposed scheme is better than the existing ones in comparison.
A transformed rational function method for (3+1)-dimensional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the independent variables involved in the potential YTSF equation. It is shown that the transformed .... b(t)y +c(t)z −ω(t) in the t-dependent-coefficient case, where a, b, c and ω are constants; a(t), b(t), c(t) and ω(t) are ... of the independent variables and η satisfies a solvable ODE, for example, a first-order differential equation.
Evaluation of radioactivity in ration items
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohamed, A. S.; Oshana, J. T.; Jameel, A.; Tage, J.; Abd-Majeed, N.; Nasear, M. H.; Abdullah, M. M.
2012-12-01
The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the radioactivity of various ration samples, such as (milk, tea, flour,lentil, food oil, food glee, beans, rice, and sugar) which had been imported by Ministry of Trade ,from January 2008 till December 2010. Gamma Spectroscopy analyzing System were used for measuring and analyzing of these samples, the system consist of high purity Germanium detector with efficiency 40%, resolution 2 keV at 1.332 MeV (6 0C o), Dsa 2000 system which protective barrier made in Canberra Company, the developed Genie 2000 program and using personal computer. The calibration of measuring system with standard source of multi energies was used. The mainliner geometrical shape beaker was used during these measured samples which were selected from the ration items. The result showed the existence of natural(4 0k ) concentration vales which were between (45.6b q/kg and 463 Bq/Kg) and also industrial 1 37C s concentrations were found in milk and tea samples between (0,94 Bq/Kg and 14.6 Bq/Kg), the result also showed the existence of traces of isotopes belong to the Sara's 2 38U , and 2 32T h in the tea samples. The concentration of 2 14B i and 2 12P b were 4.9 Bq/Kg and 2.35 Bq/Kg respectively. These low -level concentrations yield an annual radioactive dose rate of (7x10 - 5 mSv/y), we conclude that these radioactive isotopes concentration in food stuff and ration samples were within the acceptable limits which are internationally recommended and are recently published by IAEA safety reports . We consider these level of concentration were due to the influence of Cs. (Author)
Strategy of Rational Use of Energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-09-01
In the decade of the eighty, especially in order to this decade and so far, the Rational Use of Energy have not constituted a high-priority option and of present time for Colombia. The last politicians were guided, to favor the energy consumption with low prices of the coal, of the electricity, of those derived of the petroleum, growing subsidy to the gasoline and transfer of the productive sector toward the social one. In the recovery of the electric sector, it is contributed alternatives to improve the quality of the service of the electric industries where measured technical and investments in the industrial, commercial sectors and public would allow to reduce short term the consumptions for 5 to 10%, without reducing the production levels or of service. In the construction sector , the efficient designs of buildings could avoid a growth too much express of the energy consumption. The rational use of energy and the handling of the electric demand, should be one of the tools bigger than the State and of the electric industry, as the technical measures of reduction of losses, to respond to the financial crisis of the energy public sector, while the private sector acquires capacity of enough investment. The Colombians companies, experience the necessity to improve their energy efficiency, like one of the important areas of reduction of their costs and of increase of their competitiveness, in front of other countries, especially Latin-American. As consequence of the economic opening, the companies should modernize their processes and administration methods, what means a reduction in the energy consumptions. The reduction of the polluting, specially atmospheric emissions (industries, vehicles), as well as to elimination of having undone dangerous and industrial residuals, it is a priority in Colombia all improvement of the energy efficiency, particularly in the industries, it is accompanied of a proportional reduction of polluting emissions. Then a politics of
Javier García Bernal; Marisa Ramírez Alesón
2007-01-01
This paper analyses the design of optimal incentives in teams both with and without rational altruism. The main contribution of the paper is to study the influence of the incentive function on the altruism parameter chosen by team members. We find that optimal incentive is independent of the presence of rational altruism. Secondly, we compare the welfare loss of equal sharing rules versus second best optimal sharing rules (based on equity). Finally, we distinguish between two sources of ratio...
Starlings uphold principles of economic rationality for delay and probability of reward.
Monteiro, Tiago; Vasconcelos, Marco; Kacelnik, Alex
2013-04-07
Rationality principles are the bedrock of normative theories of decision-making in biology and microeconomics, but whereas in microeconomics, consistent choice underlies the notion of utility; in biology, the assumption of consistent selective pressures justifies modelling decision mechanisms as if they were designed to maximize fitness. In either case, violations of consistency contradict expectations and attract theoretical interest. Reported violations of rationality in non-humans include intransitivity (i.e. circular preferences) and lack of independence of irrelevant alternatives (changes in relative preference between options when embedded in different choice sets), but the extent to which these observations truly represent breaches of rationality is debatable. We tested both principles with starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), training subjects either with five options differing in food delay (exp. 1) or with six options differing in reward probability (exp. 2), before letting them choose repeatedly one option out of several binary and trinary sets of options. The starlings conformed to economic rationality on both tests, showing strong stochastic transitivity and no violation of the independence principle. These results endorse the rational choice and optimality approaches used in behavioural ecology, and highlight the need for functional and mechanistic enquiring when apparent violations of such principles are observed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir Stevanović
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Rationalism in architecture is a European concept which, from Enlightment to postmodern era, advocates values of order, clarity and logic, represented through primary geometrism, functionalism, profitability and absence of ornament. The text connects and analyzes (1 formal-stilistic manifestations of rationalism in architecture: French neoclassicism; Soviet constructivism, German new objectivity, Italian rationalism; postmodern Italian neorationalism in the context of (2 dominant paradigms which directs them: divine nature; technological-utilitarian; autonomus-selfreferent, and (3 social, economic, ideological and cultural activities around which they are organized, such as: French bourgeois revolution; proleterian-communist, socialdemocratic and faschist ideas beteween two World wars; critical procession of populist values in mass consumer society and global capitalist economy at the threshold of postmodern era.
Development and validation of a smoking rationalization scale for male smokers in China.
Huang, Xinyuan; Fu, Wenjie; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Hong; Li, Xiaoxia; Yang, Yong; Wang, Fan; Gao, Junling; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua; Ding, Ding; Chapman, Simon
2017-07-01
The purpose of this study is to develop a smoking rationalization scale for Chinese male smokers. A total of 35 focus groups and 19 one-on-one interviews were conducted to collect items of the scale. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to identify the underlying structure of the scale. Results found a 26-item scale within six dimensions (smoking functional beliefs, risk generalization beliefs, social acceptability beliefs, safe smoking beliefs, self-exempting beliefs, and quitting is harmful beliefs). The scale showed acceptable validity and reliability. Results highlight that smoking rationalization is common among Chinese male smokers, and some beliefs of smoking rationalization seem to be peculiar to China.
Rational Multi-curve Models with Counterparty-risk Valuation Adjustments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Crépey, Stéphane; Macrina, Andrea; Nguyen, Tuyet Mai
2016-01-01
We develop a multi-curve term structure set-up in which the modelling ingredients are expressed by rational functionals of Markov processes. We calibrate to London Interbank Offer Rate swaptions data and show that a rational two-factor log-normal multi-curve model is sufficient to match market da...... with regulatory obligations. In order to compute counterparty-risk valuation adjustments, such as credit valuation adjustment, we show how default intensity processes with rational form can be derived. We flesh out our study by applying the results to a basis swap contract....... with accuracy. We elucidate the relationship between the models developed and calibrated under a risk-neutral measure Q and their consistent equivalence class under the real-world probability measure P. The consistent P-pricing models are applied to compute the risk exposures which may be required to comply...
Obesity, social inequality and economic rationality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dam, Thea; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Kærgård, Niels
2008-01-01
This paper reviews the economic literature related to obesity and consumer decisions, pursuing the overall question, whether the current obesity epidemic and its social bias can be viewed as a result of rational consumption behaviour. We address a number of potential explanations based on consumers......' utility maximisation behaviour, which all may contribute to explain the ongoing rise in obesity prevalence in many western countries. In addition to standard neoclassical explanations of obesity, we discuss moral hazard aspects, the role of network externalities, self-control problems and habitual...
The latent rationality of risky decisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Japp, K.P.
1999-01-01
The general question of rationality has changed from the old-fashioned difference of means and ends to the modern difference of system and environment. Organizations as social systems producing and reproducing decisions translate this difference into the difference of stability and variety. The question then is: In which way can the difference between stability and variety express rationality? - In the temporal dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'present futures' or 'future presences'. These expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open futures, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. projected futures from the background of a known past. - In the material dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'stable flexibility' or 'flexible stability'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicted by open flexibilities, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. flexibility and stability after learning the respective costs of the single options. In the social dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'pragmatic dissent' or 'controversial pragmatism'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open dissent or controversies, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. pragmatic agreements and irresolvable dissent. Again, all three asymmetries represent re-entries. The built-in preferences simply do not work without the subtleties of re-entries, at least when these processes are described by sociologically informed observers. Who else should know that he or she is operating on the basis of something called re-entries? In everyday life communication, no one sees a thing like that since every observation has an in-built bias for one side of a distinction. So rationality will stay latent as the operation of re
Rational decision making in autonomous agents
Simari, Gerardo I.; Parsons, Simon D.
2004-01-01
Making rational decisions is one of the key elements in the design of autonomous agents with successful behavior. Even though there have been many proposals for the support of decision making, most of them can be described either as descriptive or prescriptive. The main goal of our work is to establish the relationship between two of these models, namely bdi and mdps, in order to gain further understanding of how decisions in one model are viewed from the point of view of the other. This goal...
Obesity, social inequality and economic rationality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dam, Thea; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Kærgård, Niels
2008-01-01
This paper reviews the economic literature related to obesity and consumer decisions, pursuing the overall question, whether the current obesity epidemic and its social bias can be viewed as a result of rational consumption behaviour. We address a number of potential explanations based on consumers...... behaviour. We include all of these aspects of the individual weight decision in a unified theoretical framework and present existing empirical evidence for each effect. Based on our analysis, we discuss the different economic explanations and give suggestions for future research....
Ananyeva Rational antibiotic use in rheumatology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boris Sergeyevich Belov
2012-06-01
Full Text Available To control infections and infectious complications is one of the most urgent challenges in medicine under present-day conditions. At the same time, rational therapy with anti-infective drugs occupies a highly importance place. In rheumatology, the necessity of using antibiotics is associated with at least two factors, such as eradication of a pathogen trigger (an infectious agent that triggers the immunopathological mechanisms of inflammation and treatment of comorbid infection. The paper gives information on etiological agents and detailed antimicrobial therapy regimens for the major infections observed in modern rheumatology.
The latent rationality of risky decisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Japp, K.P. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Faculty for Sociology
1999-12-01
The general question of rationality has changed from the old-fashioned difference of means and ends to the modern difference of system and environment. Organizations as social systems producing and reproducing decisions translate this difference into the difference of stability and variety. The question then is: In which way can the difference between stability and variety express rationality? - In the temporal dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'present futures' or 'future presences'. These expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open futures, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. projected futures from the background of a known past. - In the material dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'stable flexibility' or 'flexible stability'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicted by open flexibilities, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. flexibility and stability after learning the respective costs of the single options. In the social dimension of risk-taking, re-entries may be expressed as 'pragmatic dissent' or 'controversial pragmatism'. Again, these expressions indicate both: The irresolvable uncertainty of any risk-taking, indicated by open dissent or controversies, and its boundedness by self-application of distinctions, e.g. pragmatic agreements and irresolvable dissent. Again, all three asymmetries represent re-entries. The built-in preferences simply do not work without the subtleties of re-entries, at least when these processes are described by sociologically informed observers. Who else should know that he or she is operating on the basis of something called re-entries? In everyday life communication, no one sees a thing like that since every observation has an in-built bias for one side of a distinction
Rational interpretation of the postulates in plasticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bohua Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This article is mainly focussed on revisited of the two well-known postulates of plasticity, i.e., the Drucker and the Il’iushin postulate, and it describes their rational interpretation within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics and using exterior calculus. It shows that the Il’iushin and the Drucker postulate is the integral form and local form of the irreversible thermodynamics of plastic deformation, respectively. The Drucker and Il’iushin postulate is equivalent for both soft and hardening materials.
The Impact of Menstrual Cycle Phase on Economic Choice and Rationality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephanie C Lazzaro
Full Text Available It is well known that hormones affect both brain and behavior, but less is known about the extent to which hormones affect economic decision-making. Numerous studies demonstrate gender differences in attitudes to risk and loss in financial decision-making, often finding that women are more loss and risk averse than men. It is unclear what drives these effects and whether cyclically varying hormonal differences between men and women contribute to differences in economic preferences. We focus here on how economic rationality and preferences change as a function of menstrual cycle phase in women. We tested adherence to the Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preference (GARP, the standard test of economic rationality. If choices satisfy GARP then there exists a well-behaved utility function that the subject's decisions maximize. We also examined whether risk attitudes and loss aversion change as a function of cycle phase. We found that, despite large fluctuations in hormone levels, women are as technically rational in their choice behavior as their male counterparts at all phases of the menstrual cycle. However, women are more likely to choose risky options that can lead to potential losses while ovulating; during ovulation women are less loss averse than men and therefore more economically rational than men in this regard. These findings may have market-level implications: ovulating women more effectively maximize expected value than do other groups.
Lipsky, Marc J.; And Others
1980-01-01
Results showed that rational-emotive therapy (RET), with the addition of rational role reversal, produced significantly better results than did relaxation training and support or no contact. This was the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of RET with multisymptomatic applicants to a community mental health center. (Author/BEF)
A note on effects of rational bubble on portfolios
Wang, Chan; Nie, Pu-yan
2018-02-01
In general, demand increases in wealth and decreases in price in microeconomics. We thereby propose a completely different perspective. By establishing expected utility function of investors, this article introduces one rational bubble asset and one bubble free asset in portfolios and focuses on the effects of bubble on investment portfolios from wealth and price perspectives. All conclusions are obtained by theoretical analysis with microeconomics theory. We argue that inferior goods and Giffen behavior can occur for the bubble free asset in microeconomic fields. The results can help investors to recognize bubble assets and bubble free assets more scientifically. Both bubble and bubble free assets can be inferior goods under some conditions, so we cannot to say which asset better than the other one absolutely.
Decision rules and group rationality: cognitive gain or standstill?
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Petru Lucian Curşeu
Full Text Available Recent research in group cognition points towards the existence of collective cognitive competencies that transcend individual group members' cognitive competencies. Since rationality is a key cognitive competence for group decision making, and group cognition emerges from the coordination of individual cognition during social interactions, this study tests the extent to which collaborative and consultative decision rules impact the emergence of group rationality. Using a set of decision tasks adapted from the heuristics and biases literature, we evaluate rationality as the extent to which individual choices are aligned with a normative ideal. We further operationalize group rationality as cognitive synergy (the extent to which collective rationality exceeds average or best individual rationality in the group, and we test the effect of collaborative and consultative decision rules in a sample of 176 groups. Our results show that the collaborative decision rule has superior synergic effects as compared to the consultative decision rule. The ninety one groups working in a collaborative fashion made more rational choices (above and beyond the average rationality of their members than the eighty five groups working in a consultative fashion. Moreover, the groups using a collaborative decision rule were closer to the rationality of their best member than groups using consultative decision rules. Nevertheless, on average groups did not outperformed their best member. Therefore, our results reveal how decision rules prescribing interpersonal interactions impact on the emergence of collective cognitive competencies. They also open potential venues for further research on the emergence of collective rationality in human decision-making groups.
Structure-based, rational design of T cell receptors
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Vincent eZoete
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Adoptive cell transfer using engineered T cells is emerging as a promising treatment for metastatic melanoma. Such an approach allows one to introduce TCR modifications that, while maintaining the specificity for the targeted antigen, can enhance the binding and kinetic parameters for the interaction pMHC. Using the well-characterized 2C TCR/SIYR/H-2K(b structure as a model system, we demonstrated that a binding free energy decomposition based on the MM-GBSA approach provides a detailed and reliable description of the TCR/pMHC interactions at the structural and thermodynamic levels. Starting from this result, we developed a new structure-based approach, to rationally design new TCR sequences, and applied it to the BC1 TCR targeting the HLA-A2 restricted NY-ESO-1157-165 cancer-testis epitope. 54% of the designed sequence replacements exhibited improved pMHC-binding as compared to the native TCR, with up to 150 fold increase in affinity, while preserving specificity. Genetically-engineered CD8+ T cells expressing these modified TCRs showed an improved functional activity compared to those expressing BC1 TCR. We measured maximum levels of activities for TCRs within the upper limit of natural affinity. Beyond the affinity threshold at KD < 1 μM we observed an attenuation in cellular function. We have also developed a homology modeling-based approach, TCRep 3D, to obtain accurate structural models of any TCR-pMHC complexes. We have complemented the approach with a simplified rigid method to predict the TCR orientation over pMHC. These methods potentially extend the use of our TCR engineering method to entire TCR repertoires for which no X-ray structure is available. We have also performed a steered molecular dynamics study of the unbinding of the TCR-pMHC complex to get a better understanding of how TCRs interact with pMHCs. This entire rational TCR design pipeline is now being used to produce rationally optimized TCRs for adoptive cell therapies of
Rational Combinations of Targeted Agents in AML
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Prithviraj Bose
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Despite modest improvements in survival over the last several decades, the treatment of AML continues to present a formidable challenge. Most patients are elderly, and these individuals, as well as those with secondary, therapy-related, or relapsed/refractory AML, are particularly difficult to treat, owing to both aggressive disease biology and the high toxicity of current chemotherapeutic regimens. It has become increasingly apparent in recent years that coordinated interruption of cooperative survival signaling pathways in malignant cells is necessary for optimal therapeutic results. The modest efficacy of monotherapy with both cytotoxic and targeted agents in AML testifies to this. As the complex biology of AML continues to be elucidated, many “synthetic lethal” strategies involving rational combinations of targeted agents have been developed. Unfortunately, relatively few of these have been tested clinically, although there is growing interest in this area. In this article, the preclinical and, where available, clinical data on some of the most promising rational combinations of targeted agents in AML are summarized. While new molecules should continue to be combined with conventional genotoxic drugs of proven efficacy, there is perhaps a need to rethink traditional philosophies of clinical trial development and regulatory approval with a focus on mechanism-based, synergistic strategies.
Schizophrenia, mental capacity, and rational suicide.
Hewitt, Jeanette
2010-02-01
A diagnosis of schizophrenia is often taken to denote a state of global irrationality within the psychiatric paradigm, wherein psychotic phenomena are seen to equate with a lack of mental capacity. However, the little research that has been undertaken on mental capacity in psychiatric patients shows that people with schizophrenia are more likely to experience isolated, rather than constitutive, irrationality and are therefore not necessarily globally incapacitated. Rational suicide has not been accepted as a valid choice for people with schizophrenia due in part to a belief that characteristic irrationality prevents autonomous decision-making. Since people with schizophrenia are often seen to lack insight into the nature of their disorder, both psychiatric and ethical perspectives generally presume that suicidal acts result directly from mental illness itself and not from second-order desires. In this article, I challenge notions of global irrationality conferred by a diagnosis of schizophrenia and argue that, where delusional beliefs are unifocal, schizophrenia does not necessarily lead to a state of mental incapacity. I then attempt to show that people with schizophrenia can sometimes be rational with regard to suicide, where this decision stems from a realistic appraisal of psychological suffering.
Rational Choice Theory and Addiction Behaviour
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miloš Krstić
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the construct of student satisfaction and analyze its relationship with student loyalty in the context of state and private universities. The rational choice theory assumes that, when deciding whether to consume some goods or not, consumers use analysis in order to estimate the values of individual preference indicators. From this point of view, there are risk and time preferences. The former show aversion to a risk and are expressed through the risk aversion coefficient, while the latter measure the degree of preference for present satisfaction in relation to the same satisfaction in the future. The degree of preference for present satisfaction regarding the same satisfaction in the future is expressed by the time preference rate. Smokers with a low time preference rate and high risk aversion coefficient level can be expected to be successful in cessation. The aim of this paper is to study smokers from the perspective of rational choice theory, in order to detect factors influencing their behavior. The study (investigation found that the significant factors for smokers’ behavior are: gender, age, education, risk aversion coefficient, and the time preference rate. Analysis of smokers’ behavior, with appropriate limits and qualifications, is a well-developed and highly effective tool for exploring and interpreting reality.
The art of rationing - the need for a new approach to rationing health ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A key element in dealing with HIV/AIDS in South Africa depends on the resolution of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) paradox: while a universal First-World-style ART programme is unaffordable, a rationed treatment programme that includes ART is not only affordable but also vital for basic human rights reasons, to enhance ...
Kachman, Daniel J.; Mazer, Gilbert E.
1990-01-01
Assessed efficacy of rational emotive education (REE) as mental health program for adolescents. High school juniors and seniors (N=109) were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental subjects received 12 biweekly sessions of REE. Results from pre- and posttesting revealed significant positive changes in use of more adaptive…
Rational and moral action : a critical survey of rational choice theory
de Jonge, J.P.R.
2009-01-01
This book is about rational choice theory from a different point of view. It is different for three reasons. First, it pays attention to the unintended consequences of intended actions. Second, it employs a non-instrumental approach to moral actions. And third, it argues that choice opportunities
Computer-Supported Modelling of Multi modal Transportation Networks Rationalization
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Ratko Zelenika
2007-09-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with issues of shaping and functioning ofcomputer programs in the modelling and solving of multimoda Itransportation network problems. A methodology of an integrateduse of a programming language for mathematical modellingis defined, as well as spreadsheets for the solving of complexmultimodal transportation network problems. The papercontains a comparison of the partial and integral methods ofsolving multimodal transportation networks. The basic hypothesisset forth in this paper is that the integral method results inbetter multimodal transportation network rationalization effects,whereas a multimodal transportation network modelbased on the integral method, once built, can be used as the basisfor all kinds of transportation problems within multimodaltransport. As opposed to linear transport problems, multimodaltransport network can assume very complex shapes. This papercontains a comparison of the partial and integral approach totransp01tation network solving. In the partial approach, astraightforward model of a transp01tation network, which canbe solved through the use of the Solver computer tool within theExcel spreadsheet inteiface, is quite sufficient. In the solving ofa multimodal transportation problem through the integralmethod, it is necessmy to apply sophisticated mathematicalmodelling programming languages which supp01t the use ofcomplex matrix functions and the processing of a vast amountof variables and limitations. The LINGO programming languageis more abstract than the Excel spreadsheet, and it requiresa certain programming knowledge. The definition andpresentation of a problem logic within Excel, in a manner whichis acceptable to computer software, is an ideal basis for modellingin the LINGO programming language, as well as a fasterand more effective implementation of the mathematical model.This paper provides proof for the fact that it is more rational tosolve the problem of multimodal transportation networks by
The Hartshorne-Rao module of curves on rational normal scrolls
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Roberta Di Gennaro
2000-09-01
Full Text Available We study the Hartshorne-Rao module of curves lying on a rational normal scroll S_e of invariant e ≥ 0 in P^{e+3} .We calculate the Rao function, we characterize the aCM curves on S_e .Finally, we give an algorithm to check if a curve is aC M or not and, inthe second case, to calculate the Rao function.
The anchoring bias reflects rational use of cognitive resources.
Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L; M Huys, Quentin J; Goodman, Noah D
2017-05-08
Cognitive biases, such as the anchoring bias, pose a serious challenge to rational accounts of human cognition. We investigate whether rational theories can meet this challenge by taking into account the mind's bounded cognitive resources. We asked what reasoning under uncertainty would look like if people made rational use of their finite time and limited cognitive resources. To answer this question, we applied a mathematical theory of bounded rationality to the problem of numerical estimation. Our analysis led to a rational process model that can be interpreted in terms of anchoring-and-adjustment. This model provided a unifying explanation for ten anchoring phenomena including the differential effect of accuracy motivation on the bias towards provided versus self-generated anchors. Our results illustrate the potential of resource-rational analysis to provide formal theories that can unify a wide range of empirical results and reconcile the impressive capacities of the human mind with its apparently irrational cognitive biases.
Procedural Rationality in the Decision-Making of Internationalizing SMEs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hsieh, Linda; Elbanna, Said; Narooz, Rose
ad hoc internationalization, credit check, distribution adaptation, and decision team size) and their influence on the extent of procedural rationality in SME internationalization decision-making process. The findings from a sample of 176 export-active SMEs show that decision-makers tend to follow...... a more rational decision-making procedure when they perceive a high level of international risk. The evidence also suggest that internationalization performance, planned internationalization, credit check, and decision team size are positively related to procedural rationality....
Study of Denoising in TEOAE Signals Using an Appropriate Mother Wavelet Function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Habib Alizadeh Dizaji
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Matching a mother wavelet to class of signals can be of interest in signal analysis and denoising based on wavelet multiresolution analysis and decomposition. As transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAES are contaminated with noise, the aim of this work was to provide a quantitative approach to the problem of matching a mother wavelet to TEOAE signals by using tuning curves and to use it for analysis and denoising TEOAE signals. Approximated mother wavelet for TEOAE signals was calculated using an algorithm for designing wavelet to match a specified signal.Materials and Methods: In this paper a tuning curve has used as a template for designing a mother wavelet that has maximum matching to the tuning curve. The mother wavelet matching was performed on tuning curves spectrum magnitude and phase independent of one another. The scaling function was calculated from the matched mother wavelet and by using these functions, lowpass and highpass filters were designed for a filter bank and otoacoustic emissions signal analysis and synthesis. After signal analyzing, denoising was performed by time windowing the signal time-frequency component.Results: Aanalysis indicated more signal reconstruction improvement in comparison with coiflets mother wavelet and by using the purposed denoising algorithm it is possible to enhance signal to noise ratio up to dB.Conclusion: The wavelet generated from this algorithm was remarkably similar to the biorthogonal wavelets. Therefore, by matching a biorthogonal wavelet to the tuning curve and using wavelet packet analysis, a high resolution time-frequency analysis for the otoacoustic emission signals is possible.
Production performance of quails given chromium organic in ration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deden Sudrajat
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Egg production of quails depends on quality of ration. Nutrient manipulation by chromiun inclusion in ration is a possible way to improve production. It is known that chromium mineral in form of GTF in blood has a role not only in enhancement of glucose entering cells through improvement of insulin activity but also in metabolism of lipid and synthesis of protein and elimination of heat stress to improve egg production. This study aimed at assessing egg production of quails fed ration containing chromium-yeast. Sixty-four quails aged 40 days were used. A completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replication was applied in this study. Treatment consisted of commercial ration + Cr 0 ppm (R1, commercial ration + Cr 0.5 ppm (R2, commercial ration + Cr 1 ppm (R3, and commercial ration+ Cr 1.5 ppm (R4. Measurements were taken on feed intake, egg weight, egg mass production, hen day, feed conversion rate, egg index, and egg shell thickness. Results showed that A ration containing organic chromium as much as 1,5 ppm did not affect feed intake, egg production, egg weight, and eggshell thickness, however lowered feed conversion rate by up to 32.25% from that of control. Supplementation of 0,5 ppm chromium in the ration lowered the value of eggs index in the fourth week.
Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.
Guilhot, Nicolas
2011-01-01
International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Menopause: developing a rational treatment plan.
Vitiello, Danielle; Naftolin, Frederick; Naftoilin, Frederick; Taylor, Hugh S
2007-12-01
In recent years, growing importance has been afforded to assisting women in coping with the menopausal transition. Menopause is a normal stage of development and a woman's attitude toward this transition embodies biological, psychological and social influences. An enlarging body of conflicting data concerning menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) demands reassessment of established paradigms of disease prevention and menopausal health. Currently, a woman's decision to participate in or abstain from menopausal HT is personal. It involves not only consideration of risk stratification of potential harm and benefit, but also involves her expectations and attitudes toward perceived physical and emotional changes associated with this change. Through the use of extensive patient history, quality-of-life questionnaires and powerful biological profiling, we may be able to develop a rational approach to menopausal HT that safely guides our patients through this transition.
Price Changes, Resource Adjustments and Rational Expectations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmann, Kira
a decrease in prices through managers that anticipated the drop in demand and proactively lower selling prices and cut resources. Moreover, this study provides evidence for the moderating effect of managerial forecast accuracy on the relationship between demand uncertainty and cost elasticity. Findings show......This study investigates the relationship between the accuracy of managerial demand expectations, resource adjustment decisions and selling price changes. In line with rational expectation theory, it is argued that managers adjust resources and selling prices differently in response to expected...... compared to unexpected demand shocks. The association is tested using the empirical concept of cost stickiness. Cost stickiness arises as a consequence of asymmetric resource or price adjustments. Resource and price adjustments are termed asymmetric if the magnitude of change is different for increases...
Echinocandins for candidemia: a rational choice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Menichetti
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Among antifungal drugs, echinocandins (micafungin, caspofungin and anidulafungin represent a rational choice for the first-line therapy of candidemia/invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. Among other properties characterizing echinocandins, it’s important to emphasize the broad spectrum of activity, the fungicidal activity against the majority of Candida spp., and the activity against the biofilm. Furthermore, echinocandins show greater efficacy than conventional amphotericin B and fluconazole, and similar efficacy to liposomal amphotericin B (but they are less toxic. Finally, echinocandins are recommended at the highest level of evidence (AI for the treatment of invasive candidiasis by IDSA and ESCMID guidelines.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i2s.872
Development of rationalized system treating floor drain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Serizawa, Kenichi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Shimizu, Takayuki
1998-01-01
Radioactive liquid wastes generated at BWR plants are collected and treated as required. These days, however, generation of floor drain has deceased and HFF (Hollow Fiber Filter) has experienced a wide applicability to several kinds of liquid wastes. We should consider that the floor drain can be mixed and diluted with equipment drain and be purified by HFF. That enables some of the sumps and long priming pipes to be combined. From this point of view, we have developed a highly rationalized waste liquid system. We have evaluated the applicability of this system after an investigation into the generation and properties of floor drain and equipment drain at the latest BWR'S and an on-site test at a typical BWR. (author)
Rationalization of some genetic anticodonic assignments
Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.
1985-01-01
The hydrophobicity of most amino acids correlates well with that of their anticodon nucleotides, with Trp, Tyr, Ile, and Ser being the exceptions to this rule. Using previous data on hydrophobicity and binding constants, and new data on rates of esterification of polyadenylic acid with several N-acetylaminoacyl imidazolides, several of the anticodon assignments are rationalized. Chemical reasons are shown supporting the idea of the inclusion of the Ile in the catalog of biological amino acids late in the evolution, through a mutation of the existing tRNA and its aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase. It was found that an addition of hexane increases the incorporation of hydrophobic Ac-Phe into poly-A, in support of the Fox (1965) and Oparin (1965) emphasis on the biogenetic importance of phase-separated systems.
Smooth surfaces from rational bilinear patches
Shi, Ling
2014-01-01
Smooth freeform skins from simple panels constitute a challenging topic arising in contemporary architecture. We contribute to this problem area by showing how to approximate a negatively curved surface by smoothly joined rational bilinear patches. The approximation problem is solved with help of a new computational approach to the hyperbolic nets of Huhnen-Venedey and Rörig and optimization algorithms based on it. We also discuss its limits which lie in the topology of the input surface. Finally, freeform deformations based on Darboux transformations are used to generate smooth surfaces from smoothly joined Darboux cyclide patches; in this way we eliminate the restriction to surfaces with negative Gaussian curvature. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Adaptive and Rational Anticipations in Risk Management Systems and Economy
Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.
2010-11-01
The global financial crisis of year 2009 is explained as a result of uncoordinated risk management decisions in business firms and economic organisations. The underlying reason for this can be found in the current financial system. As the financial market has lost much of its direct coupling to the concrete economy it provides misleading information to economic decision makers at all levels. Hence, the financial system has moved from a state of moderate and slow cyclical fluctuations into a state of fast and chaotic ones. Those misleading decisions can further be described, but not explained, by help of adaptive and rational expectations from macroeconomic theory. In this context, AE, the Adaptive Expectations are related to weak passive Exo-anticipation, and RE, the Rational expectations can be related to a strong, active and design oriented anticipation. The shortcomings of conventional cures, which builds on a reactive paradigm, have already been demonstrated in economic literature and are here further underlined by help of Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety", Weaver's distinction between systems of "Disorganized Complexity" and those of "Organized Complexity", and Klir's "Reconstructability Analysis". Anticipatory decision-making is hence here proposed as a replacement to current expectation based and passive risk management. An anticipatory model of the business cycle is presented for supporting that proposition. The model, which is an extension of the Kaldor-Kalecki model, includes both retardation and anticipation. While cybernetics with the feedback process in control system deals with an explicit goal or purpose given to a system, the anticipatory system discussed here deals with a behaviour for which the future state of the system is built by the system itself, without explicit goal. A system with weak anticipation is based on a predictive model of the system, while a system with strong anticipation builds its own future by itself. Numerical simulations on
Rational synthetic combination genetic devices boosting high temperature ethanol fermentation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huan Sun
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The growth and production of yeast in the industrial fermentation are seriously restrained by heat stress and exacerbated by heat induced oxidative stress. In this study, a novel synthetic biology approach was developed to globally boost the viability and production ability of S. cerevisiae at high temperature through rationally designing and combing heat shock protein (HSP and superoxide dismutase (SOD genetic devices to ultimately synergistically alleviate both heat stress and oxidative stress. HSP and SOD from extremophiles were constructed to be different genetic devices and they were preliminary screened by heat resistant experiments and anti-oxidative experiments, respectively. Then in order to customize and further improve thermotolerance of S. cerevisiae, the HSP genetic device and SOD genetic device were rationally combined. The results show the simply assemble of the same function genetic devices to solve heat stress or oxidative stress could not enhance the thermotolerance considerably. Only S. cerevisiae with the combination genetic device (FBA1p-sod-MB4-FBA1p-shsp-HB8 solving both stress showed 250% better thermotolerance than the control and displayed further 55% enhanced cell density compared with the strains with single FBA1p-sod-MB4 or FBA1p-shsp-HB8 at 42 °C. Then the most excellent combination genetic device was introduced into lab S. cerevisiae and industrial S. cerevisiae for ethanol fermentation. The ethanol yields of the two strains were increased by 20.6% and 26.3% compared with the control under high temperature, respectively. These results indicate synergistically defensing both heat stress and oxidative stress is absolutely necessary to enhance the thermotolerance and production of S. cerevisiae.
Rational redesign of the biodegradative enzyme cytochrome P450 cam:
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ornstein, R.; Paulsen, M.; Bass, M.; Arnold, G.
1991-03-01
Cytochromes P450, a superfamily of monooxygenase enzymes present in all kingdoms of living organisms, are very versatile with respect to substrate range and catalytic functionality. Many recalcitrant halogenated hydrocarbons, on DOE sites and throughout the nation, result in serious environmental impact. Cytochromes P450 have been shown to be catalytically capable of, at least partial, dehalogenation of some such compounds. Clearly, however, their active site stereochemistry and related functional components are not well suited for this role because the rates of dehalogenation are generally rather modest. The evolution of modified active site and access channel structures may proceed very slowly if multiple genetic changes are simultaneously required for enzyme adaptation. Since each mutational event is by itself a rare event, a basic premise of our research is that designing multiple changes into an enzyme may be more timely than waiting for them to occur biologically either via natural selection or under laboratory-controlled conditions. Starting with available high-resolution x-ray crystal structures, molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations have been used to probe the basic structure/function principles and conformational fluctuations of the biodegradative enzyme, cytochrome P450cam (camphor hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida) and active site mutants, to provide the fundamental understanding necessary for rational engineering of the enzyme for modified substrate specificity. In the present paper, we review our progress to data, in the area of molecular dynamics simulations and active site redesign of P450cam. 36 refs., 2 figs
Martin James Turner
2016-01-01
In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training (PST) for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and main...
On rationality of logarithmic Q-homology planes - I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pradeep, C.R.
1995-09-01
Normal surfaces over the complex plane are considered that are logarithmic (i.e., all its singularities are of the quotient type) and of which all reduced homology groups with rational coefficients vanish. It is proved that all such planes are rational. 16 refs
Beyond Control and Rationality: Dewey, Aesthetics, Motivation, and Educative Experiences
Wong, David
2007-01-01
Contemporary perspectives in psychology and education characterize ideal students as rational and in control of their thinking and actions. The good student is often described as intentional, cognitive, metacognitive, critical, and reflective. I begin with a brief history of control and rationality to establish how "The Tradition" is deeply rooted…
Testing exact rational expectations in cointegrated vector autoregressive models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders Rygh
1999-01-01
This paper considers the testing of restrictions implied by rational expectations hypotheses in a cointegrated vector autoregressive model for I(1) variables. If the rational expectations involve one-step-ahead observations only and the coefficients are known, an explicit parameterization...
Working Memory Strategies during Rational Number Magnitude Processing
Hurst, Michelle; Cordes, Sara
2017-01-01
Rational number understanding is a critical building block for success in more advanced mathematics; however, how rational number magnitudes are conceptualized is not fully understood. In the current study, we used a dual-task working memory (WM) interference paradigm to investigate the dominant type of strategy (i.e., requiring verbal WM…
Eviscération scrotale: complication rare de la pulpectomie
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Amine Moataz
infection et la douleur [2]. L'éviscération est une complication rare et redoutable. Nous n'avons pas trouvé de cas similaires rap- portés dans la littérature, par contre Diop B et al. ont décrit une éviscération scrotale post traumatique [3] ...
Realization and elimination in rational representations of behaviors
Gottimukkala, Sasanka V.; Trentelman, Hendrikus; Fiaz, Shaik
This article deals with the relationship between rational representations of linear differential systems and their state representations. In particular we study the relationship between rational representations on the one hand, and output nulling and driving variable representations on the other. In
Lending relationships and credit rationing : the impact of securitization
Carbo Valverde, S.; Degryse, H.A.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, F.
2011-01-01
Do lending relationships mitigate credit rationing? Does securitization influence the impact of lending relationships on credit rationing? If so, is its impact differently in normal periods versus crisis periods? This paper combines several unique data sets to address these questions. Employing a
Passionate Rationalism: The Role of Emotion in Decision Making
Lakomski, Gabriele; Evers, Colin W.
2010-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that emotion has a central role to play in rational decision making based on recent research in the neuroanatomy of emotion. As a result, traditional rational decision-making theories, including Herbert Simon's modified model of satisficing that sharply demarcates emotions and values from rationality…
E-Polytopes in Picard Groups of Smooth Rational Surfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jae-Hyouk Lee
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this article, we introduce special divisors (root, line, ruling, exceptional system and rational quartic in smooth rational surfaces and study their correspondences to subpolytopes in Gosset polytopes k 21 . We also show that the sets of rulings and exceptional systems correspond equivariantly to the vertices of 2 k 1 and 1 k 2 via E-type Weyl action.
Rationality, perception, and the all-seeing eye
Felin, Teppo; Koenderink, Jan; Krueger, Joachim I
Seeing-perception and vision-is implicitly the fundamental building block of the literature on rationality and cognition. Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman's arguments against the omniscience of economic agents-and the concept of bounded rationality-depend critically on a particular view of the
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: Origins, Constructs, and Applications.
Watson, Joshua C.
In 1956, Dr. Albert Ellis presented his seminal work on Rational Therapy, subsequently renamed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in 1993. This paper explores the origins, theoretical foundations, applications, and implications of REBT and provides a look at the empirical research available in support of the approach's efficacy. REBT is…
Counseling Children and Adolescents: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Humanism.
Vernon, Ann
1996-01-01
Describes specific parallels between rational emotive behavior therapy and humanism. Places specific emphasis on the application of these principles with children and adolescents. Concepts are illustrated with case studies and a description of the similarities between rational emotive and humanistic, or affective, education. Highlights emotional…
CoPs Facing Rationalization: The Politics of Community Reproduction
Kilskar, Stine Skaufel; Ingvaldsen, Jonas A.; Valle, Nina
2018-01-01
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the relationship between the contemporary forms of manufacturing rationalization and the reproduction of communities of practice (CoPs) centred on tasks and craft. Building on critical literature highlighting the tensions between CoPs and rationalization, this paper aims to develop a nuanced account of how CoPs…
Rational top and its classical r-matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aminov, G; Arthamonov, S; Smirnov, A; Zotov, A
2014-01-01
We construct a rational integrable system (the rational top) on a co-adjoint orbit of SL N Lie group. It is described by the Lax operator with spectral parameter and classical non-dynamical skew-symmetric r-matrix. In the case of the orbit of minimal dimension the model is gauge equivalent to the rational Calogero–Moser (CM) system. To obtain the results we represent the Lax operator of the CM model in two different factorized forms—without spectral parameter (related to the spinless case) and another one with the spectral parameter. The latter gives rise to the rational top while the first one is related to generalized Cremmer–Gervais r-matrices. The gauge transformation relating the rational top and CM model provides the classical rational version of the IRF-Vertex correspondence. From the geometrical point of view it describes the modification of SL(N,C)-bundles over degenerated elliptic curve. In view of the Symplectic Hecke Correspondence the rational top is related to the rational spin CM model. Possible applications and generalizations of the suggested construction are discussed. In particular, the obtained r-matrix defines a class of KZB equations. (paper)
Religion and the Problem of Rationality: Insights from Akan ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
It illustrates how a correct understanding of Traditional Akan Religion renders untrue claims that seek to dismiss religion on the grounds of irrationality. Utilising philosophical reflection, it shows how rational belief in a Traditional African Religion such as the Akan one is. Key Words. Rationality, revelation, logical positivism, ...
Rational use of medicines - Indian perspective!
Mohanta, G P; Manna, P K
2015-01-01
India, the largest democracy in the world, is with a federal structure of 29 states and 7 union territories. With a population of more than 1.2 billion, resource is always a constraint and so is in the health system too. In the federal structure, providing healthcare is largely the responsibility of state governments. Medicines are important component of health care delivery system and quality care is dependent on the availability and proper use of quality medicines. In spite of being known as pharmacy of the third world, poor access to medicines in the country is always a serious concern. Realizing the need of quality use of medicines, several initiatives have been initiated. As early as 1994, seeds of rational use of medicines were sown in the country with two initiatives: establishment of a civil society, Delhi Society for Promoting Rational Use of Drugs (DSPURD) and establishment of government agency in Tamil Nadu, a southern state, called Tamil Medical Services Corporation Limited (TNMSCL). DSPUD was in official association with World Health Organization Country Office for implementing essential medicine programme in the country for two biennia. In addition to organizing sensitising and training programme for healthcare professionals throughout the country, it looked after the procurement and appropriate use of medicines in Delhi government health facilities. TNMSCL has made innovations in medicine management including procurement directly from manufacturers as a part of pooled procurement, establishing warehouses with modern storage facilities and Information Technology enabled management of whole process. TNMSCL Model is now replicated in almost the entire country and even in some small other countries as it is successful in improving access to medicines.The National Government and the State Governments have developed strategies to promote rational use of medicines as a part of improving access and quality care in public health facilities. National
Development of rations for the enhanced survival of salmon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ewing, R.D.; Lagasse, J.P.
1990-12-01
The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and ''fitness'' of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected 1982 through September 1990
Rational first integrals of geodesic equations and generalised hidden symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Arata; Houri, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We discuss novel generalisations of Killing tensors, which are introduced by considering rational first integrals of geodesic equations. We introduce the notion of inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, which cannot be constructed from ordinary Killing tensors. Moreover, we introduce inconstructible rational first integrals, which are constructed from inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, and provide a method for checking the inconstructibility of a rational first integral. Using the method, we show that the rational first integral of the Collinson–O’Donnell solution is not inconstructible. We also provide several examples of metrics admitting an inconstructible rational first integral in two and four-dimensions, by using the Maciejewski–Przybylska system. Furthermore, we attempt to generalise other hidden symmetries such as Killing–Yano tensors. (paper)
Cognitive rationalizations for tanning-bed use: a preliminary exploration.
Banerjee, Smita C; Hay, Jennifer L; Greene, Kathryn
2013-09-01
To examine construct and predictive utility of an adapted cognitive rationalization scale for tanning-bed use. Current/former tanning-bedusing undergraduate students (N = 216; 87.6% females; 78.4% white) at a large northeastern university participated in a survey. A cognitive rationalization for tanning-bed use scale was adapted. Standardized self-report measures of past tanning-bed use, advantages of tanning, perceived vulnerability to photoaging, tanning-bed use dependence, and tanning-bed use intention were also administered. The cognitive rationalization scale exhibited strong construct and predictive validity. Current tanners and tanning-bed-use-dependent participants endorsed rationalizations more strongly than did former tanners and not-tanning-bed-use-dependent participants respectively. Findings indicate that cognitive rationalizations help explain discrepancy between inconsistent cognitions.
Shaftesbury as a Popperian: critical rationalism before its time? Part II
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lydia Amir
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Shaftesbury has assigned humor an unparalleled role within philosophy, which may be encapsulated in the following tenets: (1 ridicule is the test of truth; (2 humor and good humor have a habilitating function with regard to truth; (3 the most effective criticism is humorous; and (4 humor is the mark of rationality. In the present article, I introduce Shaftesbury’s views on ridicule, good humor and humor in order to assess both the originality and viability of Shaftesbury’s contribution. I argue, first, that Shaftesbury’s views on ridicule as a test of truth and on good-humor as habilitating truth are thoroughly original, but cannot be implemented without adhering to his metaphysics and epistemology. Second, Shaftesbury’s views on humor are only partially original, though these can be implemented independently of metaphysical and epistemological assumptions for the greatest benefit of philosophers in general and critical rationalists in particular. I conclude that not only does Shaftesbury anticipate the view that critical thinking is the core of rationality, the main principle of the view known as critical rationalism associated with the renown 20th century philosopher of science and social philosopher, Karl Popper, but he also offers a viable means to enhance criticism as rationality by taking into consideration the psychological resistance to criticism that Popper acknowledges but refuses to address.
Rational solutions of the discrete time Toda lattice and the alternate discrete Painleve II equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Common, Alan K; Hone, Andrew N W
2008-01-01
The Yablonskii-Vorob'ev polynomials y n (t), which are defined by a second-order bilinear differential-difference equation, provide rational solutions of the Toda lattice. They are also polynomial tau-functions for the rational solutions of the second Painleve equation (P II ). Here we define two-variable polynomials Y n (t, h) on a lattice with spacing h, by considering rational solutions of the discrete time Toda lattice as introduced by Suris. These polynomials are shown to have many properties that are analogous to those of the Yablonskii-Vorob'ev polynomials, to which they reduce when h = 0. They also provide rational solutions for a particular discretization of P II , namely the so-called alternate discrete P II , and this connection leads to an expression in terms of the Umemura polynomials for the third Painleve equation (P III ). It is shown that the Baecklund transformation for the alternate discrete Painleve equation is a symplectic map, and the shift in time is also symplectic. Finally we present a Lax pair for the alternate discrete P II , which recovers Jimbo and Miwa's Lax pair for P II in the continuum limit h → 0
Génération Y : much ado about nothing ? Le talent des jeunes
Wilkin, Luc
2015-01-01
Introduction Baby Boomers, Génération X, Génération Y, Génération du Millénaire, Génération Z, Génération Nintendo, Génération Wii, Génération Internet, Génération C, Génération Google, Génération Mobile, Génération Powerpoint, Génération couper/coller, natifs et immigrants digitaux, Homo sapiens digital ou Homo-zappiens, les vocables ne manquent pas pour désigner, séparer, opposer et segmenter les générations. Celles-ci évoluent, dans les discours, au gré des révolutions proclamées qui survi...
The structure of a market containing boundedly rational firms
Ibrahim, Adyda; Zura, Nerda; Saaban, Azizan
2017-11-01
The structure of a market is determined by the number of active firms in it. Over time, this number is affected by the exit of existing firms, called incumbents, and entries of new firms, called entrant. In this paper, we considered a market governed by the Cobb-Douglas utility function such that the demand function is isoelastic. Each firm is assumed to produce a single homogenous product under a constant unit cost. Furthermore, firms are assumed to be boundedly rational in adjusting their outputs at each period. A firm is considered to exit the market if its output is negative. In this paper, the market is assumed to have zero barrier-to-entry. Therefore, the exiting firm can reenter the market if its output is positive again, and new firms can enter the market easily. Based on these assumptions and rules, a mathematical model was developed and numerical simulations were run using Matlab. By setting certain values for the parameters in the model, initial numerical simulations showed that in the long run, the number of firms that manages to survive the market varies between zero to 30. This initial result is consistent with the idea that a zero barrier-to-entry may produce a perfectly competitive market.
Rational development of radiopharmaceuticals for HIV-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lau, Chuen-Yen; Maldarelli, Frank; Eckelman, William C.; Neumann, Ronald D.
2014-01-01
The global battle against HIV-1 would benefit from a sensitive and specific radiopharmaceutical to localize HIV-infected cells. Ideally, this probe would be able to identify latently infected host cells containing replication competent HIV sequences. Clinical and research applications would include assessment of reservoirs, informing clinical management by facilitating assessment of burden of infection in different compartments, monitoring disease progression and monitoring response to therapy. A “rational” development approach could facilitate efficient identification of an appropriate targeted radiopharmaceutical. Rational development starts with understanding characteristics of the disease that can be effectively targeted and then engineering radiopharmaceuticals to hone in on an appropriate target, which in the case of HIV-1 (HIV) might be an HIV-specific product on or in the host cell, a differentially expressed gene product, an integrated DNA sequence specific enzymatic activity, part of the inflammatory response, or a combination of these. This is different from the current approach that starts with a radiopharmaceutical for a target associated with a disease, mostly from autopsy studies, without a strong rationale for the potential to impact patient care. At present, no targeted therapies are available for HIV latency, although a number of approaches are under study. Here we discuss requirements for a radiopharmaceutical useful in strategies targeting persistently infected cells. The radiopharmaceutical for HIV should be developed based on HIV biology, studied in an animal model and then in humans, and ultimately used in clinical and research settings
Rational optimization of reliability and safety policies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melchers, Robert E.
2001-01-01
Optimization of structures for design has a long history, including optimization using numerical methods and optimality criteria. Much of this work has considered a subset of the complete design optimization problem--that of the technical issues alone. The more general problem must consider also non-technical issues and, importantly, the interplay between them and the parameters which influence them. Optimization involves optimal setting of design or acceptance criteria and, separately, optimal design within the criteria. In the modern context of probability based design codes this requires probabilistic acceptance criteria. The determination of such criteria involves more than the nominal code failure probability approach used for design code formulation. A more general view must be taken and a clear distinction must be made between those matters covered by technical reliability and non-technical reliability. The present paper considers this issue and outlines a framework for rational optimization of structural and other systems given the socio-economic and political systems within which optimization must be performed
Rationalizing substituent effects in 1-azathioxanthone photophysics
Junker, Anne Kathrine R.; Just Sørensen, Thomas
2018-01-01
The influence of an electron donating substituent on the photophysical properties of 1-azathioxanthone dyes has been investigated using optical spectroscopy and theoretical models. The motivation behind the study is based on the fact that thioxanthones are efficient triplet sensitizers, and thus promising sensitizers for lanthanide centered emission. By adding an aza group to one of the phenyl ring systems, direct coordination to a lanthanide center becomes possible, which makes azathoixanthones great candidates as antenna chromophores in lanthanide(III) based dyes. Here, three 1-azathioxanthone derivatives have been synthesized targeting efficient triplet formation following absorption in the visible range of the spectrum. This is achieved by adding methoxy groups to the 1-azathioxanthone core. The derivatives were characterized using absorption, emission, and time-gated emission spectroscopy, where fluorescent quantum yields, singlet and triplet excited states lifetimes were determined. The experimentally determined photophysical properties of the three 1-azathioxanthone compounds are contrasted to those of the parent thioxanthone and is rationalized using the Strickler–Berg equation, Hückel MO theory, and Dewar’s rules in combination with computational chemistry. We find that the transition energies follow predictions, but that the overall photophysical properties are determined by the relative energies as well as the nature of the involved states in both the singlet and the triplet excited state manifolds.
Geology and Design: Formal and Rational Connections
Eriksson, S. C.; Brewer, J.
2016-12-01
Geological forms and the manmade environment have always been inextricably linked. From the time that Upper Paleolithic man created drawings in the Lascaux Caves in the southwest of France, geology has provided a critical and dramatic spoil for human creativity. This inspiration has manifested itself in many different ways, and the history of architecture is rife with examples of geologically derived buildings. During the early 20th Century, German Expressionist art and architecture was heavily influenced by the natural and often translucent quality of minerals. Architects like Bruno Taut drew and built crystalline forms that would go on to inspire the more restrained Bauhaus movement. Even within the context of Contemporary architecture, geology has been a fertile source for inspiration. Architectural practices across the globe leverage the rationality and grounding found in geology to inform a process that is otherwise dominated by computer-driven parametric design. The connection between advanced design technology and the beautifully realized geo natural forms insures that geology will be a relevant source of architectural inspiration well into the 21st century. The sometimes hidden relationship of geology to the various sub-disciplines of Design such as Architecture, Interiors, Landscape Architecture, and Historic Preservation is explored in relation to curriculum and the practice of design. Topics such as materials, form, history, the cultural and physical landscape, natural hazards, and global design enrich and inform curriculum across the college. Commonly, these help define place-based education.
Learning rational temporal eye movement strategies.
Hoppe, David; Rothkopf, Constantin A
2016-07-19
During active behavior humans redirect their gaze several times every second within the visual environment. Where we look within static images is highly efficient, as quantified by computational models of human gaze shifts in visual search and face recognition tasks. However, when we shift gaze is mostly unknown despite its fundamental importance for survival in a dynamic world. It has been suggested that during naturalistic visuomotor behavior gaze deployment is coordinated with task-relevant events, often predictive of future events, and studies in sportsmen suggest that timing of eye movements is learned. Here we establish that humans efficiently learn to adjust the timing of eye movements in response to environmental regularities when monitoring locations in the visual scene to detect probabilistically occurring events. To detect the events humans adopt strategies that can be understood through a computational model that includes perceptual and acting uncertainties, a minimal processing time, and, crucially, the intrinsic costs of gaze behavior. Thus, subjects traded off event detection rate with behavioral costs of carrying out eye movements. Remarkably, based on this rational bounded actor model the time course of learning the gaze strategies is fully explained by an optimal Bayesian learner with humans' characteristic uncertainty in time estimation, the well-known scalar law of biological timing. Taken together, these findings establish that the human visual system is highly efficient in learning temporal regularities in the environment and that it can use these regularities to control the timing of eye movements to detect behaviorally relevant events.
Biodiversity, conservation biology, and rational choice.
Frank, David
2014-03-01
This paper critically discusses two areas of Sahotra Sarkar's recent work in environmental philosophy: biodiversity and conservation biology and roles for decision theory in incorporating values explicitly in the environmental policy process. I argue that Sarkar's emphasis on the practices of conservation biologists, and especially the role of social and cultural values in the choice of biodiversity constituents, restricts his conception of biodiversity to particular practical conservation contexts. I argue that life scientists have many reasons to measure many types of diversity, and that biodiversity metrics could be value-free. I argue that Sarkar's emphasis on the limitations of normative decision theory is in tension with his statement that decision theory can "put science and ethics together." I also challenge his claim that multi-criteria decision tools lacking axiomatic foundations in preference and utility theory are "without a rational basis," by presenting a case of a simple "outranking" multi-criteria decision rule that can violate a basic normative requirement of preferences (transitivity) and ask whether there may nevertheless be contexts in which such a procedure might assist decision makers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ecological basis for rational phage therapy.
Letarov, A V; Golomidova, A K; Tarasyan, K K
2010-04-01
Understanding the mutual interactions of bacterial and phage populations in the environment of a human or animal body is essential in any attempt to influence these complex processes, particularly for rational phage therapy. Current knowledge on the impact of naturally occurring bacteriophages on the populations of their host bacteria, and their role in the homeostasis maintenance of a macro host, is still sketchy. The existing data suggest that different mechanisms stabilize phage-bacteria coexistence in different animal species or different body sites. The defining set of parameters governing phage infection includes specific physical, chemical, and biological conditions, such as pH, nutrient densities, host prevalence, relation to mucosa and other surfaces, the presence of phage inhibiting substances, etc. Phage therapy is also an ecological process that always implies three components that form a complex pattern of interactions: populations of the pathogen, the bacteriophages used as antibacterial agents, and the macroorganism. We present a review of contemporary data on natural bacteriophages occuring in human- and animal-body associated microbial communities, and analyze ecological and physiological considerations that determine the success of phage therapy in mammals.
The Rationality of a Social Animal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristian PĂUN
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Different social sciences study human beings. Economics is one of them and it is focused on a specific field of human action and social cooperation. The entire human collaboration is based on significant moral and ethical standards. If we want to understand how people are involved in economic (and other social relationships, we need to understand the human nature. There are many scientists that consider human beings to be closed to animals, often being dominated by impulses and feelings difficult to be controlled. An inter-disciplinary science has been developed – behavioral economics that provide an interpretation to human action from this perspective. The idea to consider human beings closer to animals (social or not is an argument to introduce a third party (the state that should regulate and control the human actions do not become aggressive or disruptive. The state is viewed as panacea to these imperfections associated to the human way of acting and cooperating. Crisis is considered to be determined or enforced by such imperfections. This paper discusses the idea of rationality in human action and argues against this common approach about its nature.
Kang, Zhen; Zhang, Junli; Jin, Peng; Yang, Sen
2015-01-01
Owing to our limited understanding of the relationship between sequence and function and the interaction between intracellular pathways and regulatory systems, the rational design of enzyme-coding genes and de novo assembly of a brand-new artificial genome for a desired functionality or phenotype are difficult to achieve. As an alternative approach, directed evolution has been widely used to engineer genomes and enzyme-coding genes. In particular, significant developments toward DNA synthesis, DNA assembly (in vitro or in vivo), recombination-mediated genetic engineering, and high-throughput screening techniques in the field of synthetic biology have been matured and widely adopted, enabling rapid semi-rational genome engineering to generate variants with desired properties. In this commentary, these novel tools and their corresponding applications in the directed evolution of genomes and enzymes are discussed. Moreover, the strategies for genome engineering and rapid in vitro enzyme evolution are also proposed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexey Fokin
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this article the author deals with the proofs of the existence of God, based on the fact of the presence of rational beings in the world. These proofs can be found in Greek and Roman Classical philosophy and early Patristics, and can be viewed as an analogue of the modern “fine-tuning argument”. The author considers the origins and development of this argument in the Greek and Roman philosophy: in Socrates, Plato, Cicero, Sextus Empiricus, and especially the Stoics, who gave to the argument a logical form, based on the relationship between “the parts and the whole”: if the world as a whole produces and contains rational beings as its parts, it should also be rational or contain a rational principle that generates all its parts and governs them, just as human soul governs human body. The correction of this argument was proposed by Sextus Empiricus, who introduced the concept of "spermatic logoi", or rational principles, to explain the generation of the rational beings by the world, so that if the world contains the spermatic logoi of rational and living beings, then the world as a whole is also rational. The author also investigates the reception of the argument based on the existence of rational beings in the world in Latin Patristics: in Minucius Felix, Tertullian and especially Lactantius, in whom this argument has reached the climax of its development. At the same time it was shown, that the ancient argument has undergone a transformation from the postulation of the rationality of the world as a whole or its equation with God himself to a genuine proof of the existence of the one God who is the Creator both of the world and human beings, superior to the both as the all-powerful and transcendent Mind.
Rational care or rationing care? The case of cervical screening across the United Kingdom.
Flynn, Hannah; Lewis, Philippa
2013-10-01
In 2003, The National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP) in England modified its recommendation by increasing the age at which to begin screening from 20 to 25. This was on the grounds that normal changes in the cervix before the age of 25 are often identified during screening as being abnormal, resulting in many young women receiving unnecessary treatment at both a significant psychological cost to the patient and a financial cost to the service. In 2011, the cervical screening programme in Northern Ireland was also amended followed closely by Scotland in late 2012. Some 10 years later, Wales finally altered cervical screening policy in January 2013 and now invite women for an initial screen at the age of 25, in line with the rest of the United Kingdom (UK). The withdrawal of cervical screening from 20 to 24 years in England was the first occasion globally, where a population cancer screening programme was withdrawn. Although the changes in England were perceived by some as "rational care" - as they encourage utilisation of beneficial services while discouraging use of those that may lead to more harms than benefits, many people also believe them to be "rationing care". In fact, even now, a decade on from the policy alterations in England, people are still vociferously exhibiting their discontent at the decision; exacerbated by national media headlines such as: "Denying young women smear tests is a disgrace". Yet with recent, rather alarming analysis of trends in England suggesting a rise in the incidence of cervical cancer in young women, it seems of great public health interest to consider whether such a rise is attributable to reduced cervical screening activity and reflect on whether the decision to alter cervical screening policy for those under the age of 25 was, in fact, a rational and correct decision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin James Turner
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training (PST for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957, the original cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1 the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2 the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3 the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as
Turner, Martin J
2016-01-01
In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport. REBT holds that it is not events that directly cause emotions and behaviors. Rather, it is one's beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. Further, REBT distinguishes between rational and irrational beliefs, and suggests that in response to failure, maltreatment, and misfortune, people can react with either healthy or unhealthy emotional and behavioral responses. The extant research indicates that irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy negative emotions, a range of pathological conditions, and a host of maladaptive behaviors that undermine mental health. Therefore, REBT proposes a process for the reduction of irrational beliefs and the promotion of rational beliefs. The use of REBT in sport is seldom reported in literature, but research is growing. This review article proposes three important areas of investigation that will aid the understanding of irrational beliefs and the application of REBT within sport. These areas are: (1) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on the mental health of athletes, (2) the influence of irrational beliefs and REBT on athletic performance, (3) the origins and development of irrational beliefs in athletes. Each area is discussed in turn, offering a critical and progressive review of the literature as well as highlighting research
On the Structure of Rationality in the Thought and Invention or Creation of Physical Theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michel Paty
2011-08-01
Full Text Available We want to consider anew the question, which is recurrent along the history of philosophy, of the relationship between rationality and mathematics, by inquiring to which extent the structuration of rationality, which ensures the unity of its function under a variety of forms (and even according to an evolution of these forms, could be considered as homeomorphic with that of mathematical thought, taken in its movement and made concrete in its theories. This idea, which is as old as philosophy itself, although it has not been dominant, has still been present to some degree in the thought of modern science, in Descartes as well as in Kant, Poincaré or Einstein (and a few other scientists and philosophers. It has been often harshly questioned, notably in the contemporaneous period, due to the failure of the logistic programme, as well as to the variety of “empirical” knowledges, and, in a general way, to the character of knowledges that show them as transitory, evolutive and mind-built. However, the analysis of scientific thought through its inventive and creative processes leads to characterize this thought as a type of rational form whose configurations can be detailed rather precisely. In this work we shall propose, first, a quick sketch of some philosophical requirements for such a research programme, among which the need for an harmonization, and even a conciliation, between the notions of rational (or rationality, of intuitive grasp and of creative thought. Then we shall examine some processes of creative scientific thought bearing on the knowledge and the understanding of the world, distinct from mathematics although keeping tight relations with them. Contemporary physical theories are privileged witnesses in this respect, for in them the rational thought of phenomena makes an intrinsic use of mathematical thought, which contributes to the structuration of the formers and to the expression of their concepts (which entails the physical
Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jobes, F.C.
1995-07-01
If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO 2 lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers
CIME-CIRM course Rationality Problems in Algebraic Geometry
Pirola, Gian
2016-01-01
Providing an overview of the state of the art on rationality questions in algebraic geometry, this volume gives an update on the most recent developments. It offers a comprehensive introduction to this fascinating topic, and will certainly become an essential reference for anybody working in the field. Rationality problems are of fundamental importance both in algebra and algebraic geometry. Historically, rationality problems motivated significant developments in the theory of abelian integrals, Riemann surfaces and the Abel–Jacobi map, among other areas, and they have strong links with modern notions such as moduli spaces, Hodge theory, algebraic cycles and derived categories. This text is aimed at researchers and graduate students in algebraic geometry.
2013-12-11
... Rationalization Program; Cost Recovery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... recovery program for the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program, as required by the... affect all trawl rationalization program sectors (Shorebased Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program...
2010-02-05
... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Coast Groundfish, Rationalization Sociocultural Study AGENCY: National... requiring equivalent information. Fisheries rationalization programs have an impact on those individuals... rationalization program for the Pacific Coast Groundfish limited entry trawl fishery in January 2011. This...
2013-02-12
... Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Coast Groundfish Rationalization Sociocultural Study AGENCY: National.... Literature indicates fisheries rationalization programs have an impact on those individuals participating in the affected fishery. The Pacific Fisheries Management Council implemented a new rationalization...
2013-01-17
... Rationalization Program; Emergency Rule Extension AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program (program) regulations. This emergency rule... trawl rationalization program. Background on this rule was provided in the proposed rule, published on...
2010-03-18
... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National... proposed Trawl Rationalization Program. We are interested in feedback concerning proposed regulations to... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has been developing a trawl rationalization program that...
Tailoring recombinant protein quality by rational media design.
Brühlmann, David; Jordan, Martin; Hemberger, Jürgen; Sauer, Markus; Stettler, Matthieu; Broly, Hervé
2015-01-01
Clinical efficacy and safety of recombinant proteins are closely associated with their structural characteristics. The major quality attributes comprise glycosylation, charge variants (oxidation, deamidation, and C- & N-terminal modifications), aggregates, low-molecular-weight species (LMW), and misincorporation of amino acids in the protein backbone. Cell culture media design has a great potential to modulate these quality attributes due to the vital role of medium in mammalian cell culture. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the way both classical cell culture medium components and novel supplements affect the quality attributes of recombinant therapeutic proteins expressed in mammalian hosts, allowing rational and high-throughput optimization of mammalian cell culture media. A selection of specific and/or potent inhibitors and activators of oligosaccharide processing as well as components affecting multiple quality attributes are presented. Extensive research efforts in this field show the feasibility of quality engineering through media design, allowing to significantly modulate the protein function. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Rationally engineered polymeric cisplatin nanoparticles for improved antitumor efficacy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paraskar, Abhimanyu; Soni, Shivani; Basu, Sudipta; Srivats, Shyam; Roy, Rituparna Sinha; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Lupoli, Nicola
2011-01-01
The use of cisplatin, a first line chemotherapy for most cancers, is dose-limited due to nephrotoxicity. While this toxicity can be addressed through nanotechnology, previous attempts at engineering cisplatin nanoparticles have been limited by the impact on the potency of cisplatin. Here we report the rational engineering of a novel cisplatin nanoparticle by harnessing a novel polyethylene glycol-functionalized poly-isobutylene-maleic acid (PEG-PIMA) copolymer, which can complex with cis-platinum (II) through a monocarboxylato and a coordinate bond. We show that this complex self-assembles into a nanoparticle, and exhibits an IC 50 = 0.77 ± 0.11 μM comparable to that of free cisplatin (IC 50 = 0.44 ± 0.09 μM). The nanoparticles are internalized into the endolysosomal compartment of cancer cells, and release cisplatin in a pH-dependent manner. Furthermore, the nanoparticles exhibit significantly improved antitumor efficacy in a 4T1 breast cancer model in vivo, with limited nephrotoxicity, which can be explained by preferential biodistribution in the tumor with reduced kidney concentrations. Our results suggest that the PEG-PIMA-cisplatin nanoparticle can emerge as an attractive solution to the challenges in cisplatin chemotherapy.
Rational, Bureaucratic, Collegial, and Political Views of the Principal's Role.
Sergiovanni, Thomas
1979-01-01
Understanding of four basic organization management models--the rational model, the mechanistic model, the collegial/organic model, and the political theory/bargaining model--can aid school principals in critically assessing their own administrative styles. (LH)
Rational Cubics and Conics Representation: A Practical Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sarfraz
2012-08-01
Full Text Available A rational cubic spline, with one family of shape parameters, has been discussed with the view to its application in Computer Graphics. It incorporates both conic sections and parametric cubic curves as special cases. The parameters (weights, in the description of the spline curve can be used to modify the shape of the curve, locally and globally, at the knot intervals. The rational cubic spline attains parametric smoothness whereas the stitching of the conic segments preserves visually reasonable smoothness at the neighboring knots. The curve scheme is interpolatory and can plot parabolic, hyperbolic, elliptic, and circular splines independently as well as bits and pieces of a rational cubic spline.Key Words: Computer Graphics, Interpolation, Spline, Conic, Rational Cubic
Monotonicity preserving splines using rational cubic Timmer interpolation
Zakaria, Wan Zafira Ezza Wan; Alimin, Nur Safiyah; Ali, Jamaludin Md
2017-08-01
In scientific application and Computer Aided Design (CAD), users usually need to generate a spline passing through a given set of data, which preserves certain shape properties of the data such as positivity, monotonicity or convexity. The required curve has to be a smooth shape-preserving interpolant. In this paper a rational cubic spline in Timmer representation is developed to generate interpolant that preserves monotonicity with visually pleasing curve. To control the shape of the interpolant three parameters are introduced. The shape parameters in the description of the rational cubic interpolant are subjected to monotonicity constrained. The necessary and sufficient conditions of the rational cubic interpolant are derived and visually the proposed rational cubic Timmer interpolant gives very pleasing results.
[Maintenance ration and conversion efficiency of Hyporhamphus sajori].
Guo, X; Tang, Q
2001-04-01
The maintenance ration and conversion efficiency of Japanese halfbeak, Hyporhamphus sajori were tested with enclosures installed in a shrimp raising pond. The results showed that there existed an evident relationship between daily ration(DR) and growth rate(GR) of the fish, GR = 140.37 DR - 24.03. The conversion efficiency was 13.96% in biomass or 16.12% in energy. The maintenance ration was 17.12% and 20.39% of body weight in terms of growth rate and specific growth rate, respectively, indicating that it could be deduced from growth rate quite differently from that from specific growth rate in the same experiment. The abnormal growth rate appeared when daily ration was below 3.30% of body weight, implied that Japanese halfbeak may get other food resources besides supplied net zooplankton.
Context and scale: Distinctions for improving debates about physician "rationing".
Tilburt, Jon C; Sulmasy, Daniel P
2017-08-29
Important discussions about limiting care based on professional judgment often devolve into heated debates over the place of physicians in bedside rationing. Politics, loaded rhetoric, and ideological caricature from both sides of the rationing debate obscure precise points of disagreement and consensus, and hinder critical dialogue around the obligations and boundaries of professional practice. We propose a way forward by reframing the rationing conversation, distinguishing between the scale of the decision (macro vs. micro) and its context (ordinary allocation vs. extraordinary re-allocation) avoiding the word "rationing." We propose to shift the terminology, using specific, descriptive words to defuse conflict and re-focus the debate towards substantive issues. These distinctions can clarify the real ethical differences at stake and facilitate a more constructive conversation about the clinical and social responsibilities of physicians to use resources ethically at the bedside and their role in allocating medical resources at a societal level.
Decision rules and group rationality: cognitive gain or standstill?
Curseu, P.L.; Jansen, R.J.G.; Chappin, M.M.H.
2013-01-01
Recent research in group cognition points towards the existence of collective cognitive competencies that transcend individual group members’ cognitive competencies. Since rationality is a key cognitive competence for group decision making, and group cognition emerges from the coordination of
Hospital capital budgeting: fusion of rationality, politics and ceremony.
Meyer, A D
1985-01-01
Budgetary requests for medical capital equipment give rise to streams of rational, political and ceremonial decision making. As they cascade through hospitals, these processes influence the deployment of organizational assets and the viability of organizational cultures.
Rational Choise and Policy Implementation; Implications for Interorganizational Network Management
O'Toole, Laurence J.
1995-01-01
Research on interorganizational policy implementation continues to be characterized by diverse theoretical approaches. It is perhaps surprising to observe, however, that formal and especially rational-choice approaches have been essentially neglected in the study of policy implementation processes.
Characterizing Solution Concepts in Terms of Common Knowledge of Rationality
Halpern, Joseph Y.; Moses, Yoram
2016-01-01
Characterizations of Nash equilibrium, correlated equilibrium, and rationalizability in terms of common knowledge of rationality are well known. Analogous characterizations of sequential equilibrium, (trembling hand) perfect equilibrium, and quasi-perfect equilibrium using results of Halpern [2009].
The rational expectations equilibrium inventory model theory and applications
1989-01-01
This volume consists of six essays that develop and/or apply "rational expectations equilibrium inventory models" to study the time series behavior of production, sales, prices, and inventories at the industry level. By "rational expectations equilibrium inventory model" I mean the extension of the inventory model of Holt, Modigliani, Muth, and Simon (1960) to account for: (i) discounting, (ii) infinite horizon planning, (iii) observed and unobserved by the "econometrician" stochastic shocks in the production, factor adjustment, storage, and backorders management processes of firms, as well as in the demand they face for their products; and (iv) rational expectations. As is well known according to the Holt et al. model firms hold inventories in order to: (a) smooth production, (b) smooth production changes, and (c) avoid stockouts. Following the work of Zabel (1972), Maccini (1976), Reagan (1982), and Reagan and Weitzman (1982), Blinder (1982) laid the foundations of the rational expectations equilibrium inve...
Cubic Polynomials with Rational Roots and Critical Points
Gupta, Shiv K.; Szymanski, Waclaw
2010-01-01
If you want your students to graph a cubic polynomial, it is best to give them one with rational roots and critical points. In this paper, we describe completely all such cubics and explain how to generate them.
Special polynomials associated with rational solutions of some hierarchies
Kudryashov, Nikolai A.
2009-01-01
New special polynomials associated with rational solutions of the Painleve hierarchies are introduced. The Hirota relations for these special polynomials are found. Differential-difference hierarchies to find special polynomials are presented. These formulae allow us to search special polynomials
Matrix factorisations for rational boundary conditions by defect fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behr, Nicolas; Fredenhagen, Stefan
2015-01-01
A large class of two-dimensional N=(2,2) superconformal field theories can be understood as IR fixed-points of Landau-Ginzburg models. In particular, there are rational conformal field theories that also have a Landau-Ginzburg description. To understand better the relation between the structures in the rational conformal field theory and in the Landau-Ginzburg theory, we investigate how rational B-type boundary conditions are realised as matrix factorisations in the SU(3)/U(2) Grassmannian Kazama-Suzuki model. As a tool to generate the matrix factorisations we make use of a particular interface between the Kazama-Suzuki model and products of minimal models, whose fusion can be realised as a simple functor on ring modules. This allows us to formulate a proposal for all matrix factorisations corresponding to rational boundary conditions in the SU(3)/U(2) model.
Rational and combinatorial engineering of the glucan synthesizing enzyme amylosucrase
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Albenne, C.; Van Der Veen, B.A.; Potocki-Véronèse, G.
2003-01-01
Rational engineering of amylosucrase required detailed investigations of the molecular basis of catalysis. Biochemical characterization of the enzyme coupled to structural analyses enabled the polymerization mechanism to be elucidated. This provided key information for successfully changing amylo...
2013-02-01
... Rationalization Program; Cost Recovery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... would implement a cost recovery program for the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program... 7372
Rational design of nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and photovoltaic applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qin, Haiyan
2011-07-01
and concentration in the growth solution on the quality of the GNRs produced via a seed-mediated method. The aspect ratios of GNRs were found to be linearly depended on the concentration ratio of silver ions and CTAB. The high quality GNRs obtained were adsorbed to COS-7 cell membranes for dark field imaging. We have rationally designed two types of QDs by wave function engineering so as to improve the efficiency of QD-sensitized solar cells. A reversed type-I CdS/CdSe QD confines excitons in the shell region, whereas a type-II ZnSe/CdS QD separates electrons in the shell and holes in the core. Their absorbed photon-to-current efficiencies (APCE) are as high as 40% and 60% respectively. In conclusion, rationally designed nanoparticles are proven a high potential for applications as probes in biomedical labeling, imaging and molecule tracking, and as sensitizers for photovoltaic cells
Deciphering mirror neurons: rational decision versus associative learning.
Khalil, Elias L
2014-04-01
The rational-decision approach is superior to the associative-learning approach of Cook et al. at explaining why mirror neurons fire or do not fire - even when the stimulus is the same. The rational-decision approach is superior because it starts with the analysis of the intention of the organism, that is, with the identification of the specific objective or goal that the organism is trying to maximize.
Rational approximations to linear forms of exponentials and binomials.
Chudnovsky, G V
1983-05-01
Mahler proved the following quantitative result supplementing the Lindemann-Weierstrass theorem: Sigma(i=0) (n)C(i)e(ri) > H(-n-epsilon) for any distinct rational numbers r(0),r(1),..., r(n) and rational integers C(0),C(1),...,C(n) with H = max(0 1 - epsilon. The simplest examples of new numbers with the irrationality exponent "2 + epsilon" are sinh 1 or sin 1.
Special polynomials associated with rational solutions of some hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudryashov, Nikolai A.
2009-01-01
New special polynomials associated with rational solutions of the Painleve hierarchies are introduced. The Hirota relations for these special polynomials are found. Differential-difference hierarchies to find special polynomials are presented. These formulae allow us to search special polynomials associated with the hierarchies. It is shown that rational solutions of the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon, the Kaup-Kupershmidt and the modified hierarchy for these ones can be obtained using new special polynomials.
Rational surfaces having only a finite number of exceptional curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lahyane, M.
2001-10-01
We characterize the rational surfaces X which have a finite number of (-1)-curves under the assumption that - K X is nef (i.e., the intersection number of K X with any effective divisor on X is less than or equal to zero, where K X is a canonical divisor on X) and having self-intersection zero. A (-1)-curve is a smooth rational curve of self-intersection -1. (author)
Modified rational Legendre approach to laminar viscous flow over a semi-infinite flat plate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajvidi, T.; Razzaghi, M.; Dehghan, M.
2008-01-01
A numerical method for solving the classical Blasius' equation is proposed. The Blasius' equation is a third order nonlinear ordinary differential equation , which arises in the problem of the two-dimensional laminar viscous flow over a semi-infinite flat plane. The approach is based on a modified rational Legendre tau method. The operational matrices for the derivative and product of the modified rational Legendre functions are presented. These matrices together with the tau method are utilized to reduce the solution of Blasius' equation to the solution of a system of algebraic equations. A numerical evaluation is included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the method and a comparison is made with existing results
Rational Chebyshev spectral transform for the dynamics of broad-area laser diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Javaloyes, J.; Balle, S.
2015-01-01
This manuscript details the use of the rational Chebyshev transform for describing the transverse dynamics of broad-area laser diodes and amplifiers. This spectral method can be used in combination with the delay algebraic equations approach developed in [1], which substantially reduces the computation time. The theory is presented in such a way that it encompasses the case of the Fourier spectral transform presented in [2] as a particular case. It is also extended to the consideration of index guiding with an arbitrary transverse profile. Because their domain of definition is infinite, the convergence properties of the Chebyshev rational functions allow handling the boundary conditions with higher accuracy than with the previously studied Fourier transform method. As practical examples, we solve the beam propagation problem with and without index guiding: we obtain excellent results and an improvement of the integration time between one and two orders of magnitude as compared with a fully distributed two dimensional model
Rational Chebyshev spectral transform for the dynamics of broad-area laser diodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Javaloyes, J., E-mail: julien.javaloyes@uib.es [Universitat de les Illes Balears, C/Valldemossa, km 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Balle, S. [Institut Mediterrani d' Estudis Avançats, CSIC-UIB, E-07071 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2015-10-01
This manuscript details the use of the rational Chebyshev transform for describing the transverse dynamics of broad-area laser diodes and amplifiers. This spectral method can be used in combination with the delay algebraic equations approach developed in [1], which substantially reduces the computation time. The theory is presented in such a way that it encompasses the case of the Fourier spectral transform presented in [2] as a particular case. It is also extended to the consideration of index guiding with an arbitrary transverse profile. Because their domain of definition is infinite, the convergence properties of the Chebyshev rational functions allow handling the boundary conditions with higher accuracy than with the previously studied Fourier transform method. As practical examples, we solve the beam propagation problem with and without index guiding: we obtain excellent results and an improvement of the integration time between one and two orders of magnitude as compared with a fully distributed two dimensional model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hekmat, Omid; Lo Leggio, Leila; Rosengren, Anna
2010-01-01
To date, rational redesign of glycosidase active-site clefts has been mainly limited to the removal of essential functionalities rather than their introduction. The glycoside hydrolase family 26 endo-beta-1,4-mannanase from the soil bacterium Cellulomonas fimi depolymerizes various abundant plant...
Rational Design of Rho Protein Inhibitors
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Rojas, Rafael J
2005-01-01
Rho GTPases are molecular switches that fluctuate between on and off states. When active, these proteins function to remodel the actin cytoskeleton by interacting with a number of downstream effector molecules...
Rakner, Lise
1996-01-01
The paper discusses and reviews various directions within new institutional economics. A central question of concern is whether theories of institutionalism based within rational choice reasoning provide a theoretical basis for understanding institutional formation and change. The paper presents what is perceived as core elements of rational choice theory, and focus is on new institutionalism in particular. General perspectives are compared to the works of Robert Bates. By way of conc1uding, ...
Critical Literacy – Open Values, Imaginary Rationalities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Hibert
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Critical Literacy – Open Values, Imaginary Rationalities This papers aims to emphasize the importance of discussing the relationship between positivism, critical pedagogy and politics of new media production of information and knowledge, claiming that critical information divide is far more problematic than digital (divide. In other words, if standardization of information literacy competencies shows its limits for upholding unbiased authenticity and relevance then such a position also asserts a deficit in recognizing focal points needed in analysing digital epistemology of today. The latter should encompass advocacy of critical media, literacy and ethics as the core components for socially responsible production and distribution of information in the new public domain: Internet. When practices of collaborative production of knowledge or p2p – commons based production– is neither fully understood nor actualized in contemporary education then free/open distribution of (digital commons is prevented by instrumentalized depolitization (culturalization discourses in commodified information society. For that reason, I argue for denunciation of information literacy models through the lenses of Paolo Freire’s concept of a banking model of education, hacktivism, as well as Samek’s argument that “there is nothing more practical than learning how to build the self-confidence to weigh in with professional opinion and defend it as critique (not obstructiveness.” Krytyczne kompetencje – otwarte wartości, wyobrażona racjonalność Artykuł dąży do podkreślenia dyskusji o relacji między pozytywizmem, krytyczną pedagogiką i charakterystyczną dla nowych mediów polityką wytwarzania informacji i wiedzy; założenie wstępne powiada, że krytyczny tryb informacji jest dużo bardziej problematyczny niż cyfrowy. Innymi słowy, skoro standaryzacja kompetencji informatycznych ma swoje granice w zachowywaniu niezapośredniczonej autentyczno
Winkler, Eva
2011-01-01
The field of oncology with its numerous high-priced innovations contributes considerably to the fact that medical progress is expensive. Additionally, due to the demographic changes and the increasing life expectancy, a growing number of cancer patients want to profit from this progress. Since resources are limited also in the health system, the fair distribution of the available resources urgently needs to be addressed. Dealing with scarcity is a typical problem in the domain of justice theory; therefore, this article first discusses different strategies to manage limited resources: rationalization, rationing, and prioritization. It then presents substantive as well as procedural criteria that assist in the just distribution of effective health benefits. There are various strategies to reduce the utilization of limited resources: Rationalization means that efficiency reserves are being exhausted; by means of rationing, effective health benefits are withheld due to cost considerations. Rationing can occur implicitly and thus covertly, e.g. through budgeting or the implementation of waiting periods, or explicitly, through transparent rules or policies about healthcare coverage. Ranking medical treatments according to their importance (prioritization) is often a prerequisite for rationing decisions. In terms of requirements of justice, both procedural and substantive criteria (e.g. equality, urgency, benefit) are relevant for the acceptance and quality of a decision to limit access to effective health benefits. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
A Rational Deconstruction of Landin's J Operator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin
2006-01-01
Landin's J operator was the first control operator for functional languages. It was specified with an extension of the SECD machine, which was the first abstract machine for functional languages. We present a family of compositional evaluation functions corresponding to this extension of the SECD...... in lock step with the original one but that (1) does not use a data stack and (2) uses the caller-save rather than the callee-save convention for environments. We then characterize the J operator in terms of CPS and in terms of delimited-control operators in the CPS hierarchy. As a byproduct, we also...... present a reduction semantics for applicative expressions with the J operator, based on Curien's original calculus of explicit substitutions. This reduction semantics mechanically corresponds to the modernized version of the SECD machine and to the best of our knowledge, it provides the first syntactic...
Rationality, perception, and the all-seeing eye.
Felin, Teppo; Koenderink, Jan; Krueger, Joachim I
2017-08-01
Seeing-perception and vision-is implicitly the fundamental building block of the literature on rationality and cognition. Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman's arguments against the omniscience of economic agents-and the concept of bounded rationality-depend critically on a particular view of the nature of perception and vision. We propose that this framework of rationality merely replaces economic omniscience with perceptual omniscience. We show how the cognitive and social sciences feature a pervasive but problematic meta-assumption that is characterized by an "all-seeing eye." We raise concerns about this assumption and discuss different ways in which the all-seeing eye manifests itself in existing research on (bounded) rationality. We first consider the centrality of vision and perception in Simon's pioneering work. We then point to Kahneman's work-particularly his article "Maps of Bounded Rationality"-to illustrate the pervasiveness of an all-seeing view of perception, as manifested in the extensive use of visual examples and illusions. Similar assumptions about perception can be found across a large literature in the cognitive sciences. The central problem is the present emphasis on inverse optics-the objective nature of objects and environments, e.g., size, contrast, and color. This framework ignores the nature of the organism and perceiver. We argue instead that reality is constructed and expressed, and we discuss the species-specificity of perception, as well as perception as a user interface. We draw on vision science as well as the arts to develop an alternative understanding of rationality in the cognitive and social sciences. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our arguments for the rationality and decision-making literature in cognitive psychology and behavioral economics, along with suggesting some ways forward.
Singular value correlation functions for products of Wishart random matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akemann, Gernot; Kieburg, Mario; Wei, Lu
2013-01-01
We consider the product of M quadratic random matrices with complex elements and no further symmetry, where all matrix elements of each factor have a Gaussian distribution. This generalizes the classical Wishart–Laguerre Gaussian unitary ensemble with M = 1. In this paper, we first compute the joint probability distribution for the singular values of the product matrix when the matrix size N and the number M are fixed but arbitrary. This leads to a determinantal point process which can be realized in two different ways. First, it can be written as a one-matrix singular value model with a non-standard Jacobian, or second, for M ⩾ 2, as a two-matrix singular value model with a set of auxiliary singular values and a weight proportional to the Meijer G-function. For both formulations, we determine all singular value correlation functions in terms of the kernels of biorthogonal polynomials which we explicitly construct. They are given in terms of the hypergeometric and Meijer G-functions, generalizing the Laguerre polynomials for M = 1. Our investigation was motivated from applications in telecommunication of multi-layered scattering multiple-input and multiple-output channels. We present the ergodic mutual information for finite-N for such a channel model with M − 1 layers of scatterers as an example. (paper)
A Rational Deconstruction of Landin's J Operator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin
2007-01-01
Landin’s J operator was the first control operator for functional languages, and was specified with an extension of the SECD machine. Through a series of meaning-preserving transformations (transformation into continuation-passing style (CPS) and defunctionalization) and their left inverses...... (transformation into direct style and refunctionalization), we present a compositional evaluation function corresponding to this extension of the SECD machine. We then characterize the J operator in terms of CPS and in terms of delimited-control operators in the CPS hierarchy. Finally, we present a motivated wish...
Rational Design of Nanobody80 Loop Peptidomimetics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martin, Charlotte; Moors, Samuel L C; Danielsen, Mia
2017-01-01
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play an important role in many cellular responses; as such, their mechanism of action is of utmost interest. To gain insight into the active conformation of GPCRs, the X-ray crystal structures of nanobody (Nb)-stabilized β2 -adrenergic receptor (β2 AR) have been......-hairpin conformation. Syntheses, conformational analysis, binding and functional in vitro assays, as well as internalization experiments, were performed. We demonstrate that peptidomimetics can structurally mimic the CDR3 loop of a nanobody and its function by inhibiting G protein coupling as measured by partial...
Guiding rational reservoir flood operation using penalty-type genetic algorithm
Chang, Li-Chiu
2008-06-01
SummaryReal-time flood control of a multi-purpose reservoir should consider decreasing the flood peak stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage during typhoon seasons. This study proposes a reservoir flood control optimization model with linguistic description of requirements and existing regulations for rational operating decisions. The approach involves formulating reservoir flood operation as an optimization problem and using the genetic algorithm (GA) as a search engine. The optimizing formulation is expressed not only by mathematical forms of objective function and constraints, but also by no analytic expression in terms of parameters. GA is used to search a global optimum of a mixture of mathematical and nonmathematical formulations. Due to the great number of constraints and flood control requirements, it is difficult to reach a solution without violating constraints. To tackle this bottleneck, the proper penalty strategy for each parameter is proposed to guide the GA searching process. The proposed approach is applied to the Shihmen reservoir in North Taiwan for finding the rational release and desired storage as a case study. The hourly historical data sets of 29 typhoon events that have hit the area in last thirty years are investigated bye the proposed method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the simplex method was performed. The results demonstrated that a penalty-type genetic algorithm could effectively provide rational hydrographs to reduce flood damage during the flood operation and to increase final storage for future usages.
Torque density measurements on vortex fluids produced by symmetry-breaking rational magnetic fields.
Solis, Kyle J; Martin, James E
2014-09-07
We have recently reported on the discovery that an infinite class of triaxial magnetic fields is capable of producing rotational flows in magnetic particle suspensions. These triaxial fields are created by applying a dc field orthogonally to a rational biaxial field, comprised of orthogonal components whose frequencies form a rational ratio. The vorticity axis can be parallel to any of the three field components and can be predicted by a careful consideration of the symmetry of the dynamic field. In this paper we not only test the field-symmetry predictions, but also quantify fluid vorticity as a function of the field parameters (strength, frequency ratio, phase angle and relative dc field strength) and particle shape. These measurements validate the symmetry predictions and demonstrate that rational fields are as effective as vortex fields for producing strong fluid mixing, yet have the advantage that small changes in the frequency of one of the field components can change the vorticity axis. This approach extends the possibilities for noncontact control of fluid flows and should be useful in areas such as microfluidics, and the manipulation and mixing of microdroplets.
RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY IN SOCIOLOGY: A METHODOLOGICAL ARGUMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ALEXANDRA GHEONDEA-ELADI
2013-01-01
Full Text Available În the last years, rational choice theory (RCT took over a lot of the social sciences, almost polarizing discussions in sociology, such that I was able to hear questions like: are there any other theories in sociology, besides rational choice theory? Although the answer to this question is clearly yes, what seems to be important to avoid is that the moment when this theory monopolizes behavioural explanations in a multi-paradigmatic discipline should not come from partial or incomplete knowledge of it. Consequently, I decided to write this article with two goals in mind: one, to make a review of what rational choice theory is and means to sociology and secondly, to shortly present a research which questioned the structuring of social events according to this theory2. In the first part of this paper, I will present the main aspects of rational choice theory, such that I can argue for choosing one of its variants in the second section. In the last part I will present the methodology I used to explore the closeness of the Volunteer’s Dilemma (as Diekmann (1985, 1993 proposed it to the volunteering situation in Romania. I shall do this by aid of institutional analysis and interview analysis. The results of the research will be briefly described, such that, in the end, the conclusions can summarize the main ideas about rational choice theory emerging from this article
Rationality District Policy Proliferation and Villages in Town Bandar Lampung
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Novita Tresiana
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This study is based on the premise that regional growth is a product of public policy, as the government attempts to solve public problems. Within the framework of rationality, then the expansion policy should be the result of rational choice, including the selection of alternatives for the achievement of objectives, contain a fundamental value and appropriate to achieve the end result (outcome is desired. The purpose of this paper is: to describe the process of policy-making division and rationality that are used to describe the actors in the division policy. The method used is qualitative. This paper raised the research findings that the process of defining the division policy, not the solutif effort the problem for substantive society and rationality that are used in the determination of policy, dominated model of rationality dustbin, as a structural response to the interests of elite (political, transactional, not a system response (legislative and executive to address the factual issues relating to the welfare of society.
'Ethical rationality': A subjective-objective concept of risk assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaiser, H.
1991-01-01
'Ethical rationality' as a concept of risk assessment means that risks are assessed using an integrative, ethical-normative approach (taking values, world views and people's understanding of what it means to be a human being and of what makes life worth living into account). Thus risks cannot be assessed on a mathematical and statistical basis alone. It is much more important to reflect upon what makes life worth living. In order to answer this question, the rationality of probability calculus does not suffice. Instead, this form of rationality must be transformed into or replaced by ethical discourse (an open, iterative and complex process of making ethical judgement). Proposals for an ethical assessment of risk are made which are substantiated by the theoretical concept of ethical rationality comprising the following steps: - Consideration of the nature of ethics (understanding of the viewer's perspective); - A look at an ethical interpretation of the traditional mathematical concept of risk (description); - Scheme for an ethical conception of rationality (theoretical reflections); - Weighing risks from an ethical perspective in practice. (orig./HSCH) [de
Institutional Analysis of Bounded Rationality of the Contemporary Russians
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Ivan V. Rozmainsky
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The paper argues that behavior of present-day Russians is inconsistent with standard Neoclassical economics and can be better explained by the synthesis of various branches of Institutionalism and Post Keynesianism. Authors try to show that the present-day Russians are characterized by bounded rationality when they invest in health and financial assets, by fits and starts spend their incomes and cannot predict future levels of these incomes. Sometimes such bounded rationality manifests itself as investor myopia – a phenomenon that describes a situation when people exclude future variables from consideration starting from some threshold point of time. Investor myopia can lead to negative investment in health via smoking and heavy drinking, and also generate non-rational saving behavior. Furthermore, the contemporary Russians behave in the opportunistic manner. In particular, in the course of important examination writing the majority of people prefer to cheat off. Finally, the social pressure modifies the consumptive choice of the present-day Russians; in other words, this choice is not intrinsic. These statements are verified on the base of opinion poll findings by authors in 2016 and 2017. Sample included 521 persons, mainly young people. These data are analyzed by means of econometric – binomial and multinomial logit-models. The results of these studies show that the contemporary Russians are really characterized by bounded rather than perfect rationality. One of the conclusions is that fee-paying educated students are significantly less rational in their saving choice.
Indignation, practical rationality and our moral life: a grammatical investigation
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Jônadas Techio
2016-12-01
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2016v15n2p260 This paper offers a grammatical investigation of some important aspects of our moral life taking a scene from the movie Mr. Deeds Goes to Town as a test case. The main question I try to answer is whether there are situations in our moral discussions in which the proper and rational attitude is to show disagreement(e.g. by expressing indignation, as opposed to continuing the dialogue. Many philosophers seem committed to a conception of moral reasoning that takes as its end rational agreement among agents; from that perspective, expressing indignation would just amount to an irrational way of trying to get rid of the burdens put upon the agent's shoulders in the context of a moral discussion. Against that widespread viewIwill defend a Cavellian version of moral perfectionism, which takes rational disagreement as a legitimate (and even productive outcomeof moral arguments. That view, as we shall see, will be predicated upon a distinctive understanding of practical rationality, hence the importance of comparing moral discussion to other forms of rational engagement (e.g., aesthetic, scientific and mathematical.
Rationally Designed TLR4 Ligands for Vaccine Adjuvant Discovery
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Kelsey A. Gregg
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Adjuvant properties of bacterial cell wall components like MPLA (monophosphoryl lipid A are well described and have gained FDA approval for use in vaccines such as Cervarix. MPLA is the product of chemically modified lipooligosaccharide (LOS, altered to diminish toxic proinflammatory effects while retaining adequate immunogenicity. Despite the virtually unlimited number of potential sources among bacterial strains, the number of useable compounds within this promising class of adjuvants are few. We have developed bacterial enzymatic combinatorial chemistry (BECC as a method to generate rationally designed, functionally diverse lipid A. BECC removes endogenous or introduces exogenous lipid A-modifying enzymes to bacteria, effectively reprogramming the lipid A biosynthetic pathway. In this study, BECC is applied within an avirulent strain of Yersinia pestis to develop structurally distinct LOS molecules that elicit differential Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activation. Using reporter cell lines that measure NF-κB activation, BECC-derived molecules were screened for the ability to induce a lower proinflammatory response than Escherichia coli LOS. Their structures exhibit varied, dose-dependent, TLR4-driven NF-κB activation with both human and mouse TLR4 complexes. Additional cytokine secretion screening identified molecules that induce levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-8 (IL-8 comparable to the levels induced by phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharide (PHAD. The lead candidates demonstrated potent immunostimulation in mouse splenocytes, human primary blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs. This newly described system allows directed programming of lipid A synthesis and has the potential to generate a diverse array of TLR4 agonist candidates.
Evaluation of urban river landscape design rationality based on AHP
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Qiao Lifang
2008-12-01
Full Text Available An evaluation model for the rationality of the landscape design of urban rivers was established with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method so as to provide a foundation for updating the landscape design of urban rivers. The evaluation system was divided into four layers, including the target layer, the comprehensive layer, the element layer, and the index layer. Each layer was made of different indices. The evaluation standards for each index were also given in this paper. This evaluation model was proved tenable through its application to the landscape design rationality evaluation of the Weihe River in Xinxiang City of Henan Province. The results show that the water quality, space, activity, facility, community, width of vegetation, sense of beauty and water content are among the most influential factors and should be considered the main basis for evaluating the rationality of the landscape design of urban rivers.
Poker as a skill game: rational versus irrational behaviors
Javarone, Marco Alberto
2015-03-01
In many countries poker is one of the most popular card games. Although each variant of poker has its own rules, all involve the use of money to make the challenge meaningful. Nowadays, in the collective consciousness, some variants of poker are referred to as games of skill, others as gambling. A poker table can be viewed as a psychology lab, where human behavior can be observed and quantified. This work provides a preliminary analysis of the role of rationality in poker games, using a stylized version of Texas Hold'em. In particular, we compare the performance of two different kinds of players, i.e. rational versus irrational players, during a poker tournament. Results show that these behaviors (i.e. rationality and irrationality) affect both the outcomes of challenges and the way poker should be classified.
Stanovich's arguments against the "adaptive rationality" project: An assessment.
Polonioli, Andrea
2015-02-01
This paper discusses Stanovich's appeal to individual differences in reasoning and decision-making to undermine the "adaptive rationality" project put forth by Gigerenzer and his co-workers. I discuss two different arguments based on Stanovich's research. First, heterogeneity in the use of heuristics seems to be at odds with the adaptationist background of the project. Second, the existence of correlations between cognitive ability and susceptibility to cognitive bias suggests that the "standard picture of rationality" (Stein, 1996, 4) is normatively adequate. I argue that, as matters stand, none of the arguments can be seen as fully compelling. Nevertheless, my discussion is not only critical of Stanovich's research, as I also show that (and how) his research can push forward the so-called "rationality debate" by encouraging greater theoretical and experimental work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Robertson, Susan Margaret
The dissertation investigates the interaction of rational accountability and rational autonomy in interdisciplinary science within the lifeworld of the university. It focuses on the cultural, social and motivational forces that university researchers draw on, and develop, to constitute and regulate interdisciplinary science. Findings are analyzed within an applied critical social theory framework that attends to the interaction of instrumental and communicative rational action within the public spaces that constitute the lifeworld of the university as a public sphere in society. The research raises questions of how academics practice interdisciplinary science and how these practices relate to the reproduction of the regulative ideal of the university as a community that practices public reason. The conceptual framework informing the research is Habermas' (1984) theory of communicative action. Using Burawoy's (1991) extended case study method as an operational strategy, two modes of constituting and regulating interdisciplinary science were found. Instrumental rational modes dominated in social contexts of interdisciplinary science where consensus on the normative goals and purposes of rational academic action were pre-existing and pre-supposed by participants. Communicative rational modes dominated in social contexts of interdisciplinary science where the normative goals and purposes of rational academic action entered a contested domain. Endorsements for interdisciplinary science policies are coinciding with demands for increased accountability and relevance of Canada's university system. At the same time that the university system must respond to external demands, it must reproduce itself as a public institution open to the discursive redemption of factual and normative validity claims. The study found that academics participate in, but also contest the instrumental regulation of academic inquiry and conduct by using their constitutional autonomy and freedom to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faten Zoghlami
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The puzzling momentum strategies’ payoffs defied the rational financial theory asserting the stocks returns’ unpredictability. Moreover, the momentum effect persist the main stocks returns’ anomaly escaping any risk-based explanation. The resilience of this phenomenon had favoured the development of behavioural financial field, which breaks with the investor’ full rationality hypothesis. This paper attempts to reconcile between the rational and behavioural financial theories, through the introduction of the progressive rationality concept. Especially, we argue that recognizing the temporary inappropriate investors’ reactions; can resolve the puzzling momentum anomaly. To fulfil our objective, we identify the appropriate autoregressive level that captures the significant autocorrelations involved by the investors’ over and under reactions. Then, we explore the profitability of the 6/6 momentum strategy implemented on the adjusted stocks’ returns. The adjusted momentum strategy is still profitable but no longer puzzling, since the related excess return is henceforth fully captured by a β and a size effect.Key words: Tunisian momentum effect, the rational finance theory, the behavioural finance theory, the three-factorial model and the autoregressive process.
Machine learning in the rational design of antimicrobial peptides.
Rondón-Villarreal, Paola; Sierra, Daniel A; Torres, Rodrigo
2014-01-01
One of the most important public health issues is the microbial and bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics by pathogen microorganisms. In recent years, many researches have been focused on the development of new antibiotics. Among these, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have raised as a promising alternative to combat antibioticresistant microorganisms. For this reason, many theoretical efforts have been done in the development of new computational tools for the rational design of both better and effective AMPs. In this review, we present an overview of the rational design of AMPs using machine learning techniques and new research fields.
Politics, Epistemology and the Problems of Rationalism in La pesquisa
Erik Larson
2012-01-01
This article analyzes how Juan José Saer’s noir detective novel, La pesquisa, exposes the fundamental contradictions of Kantian rationalism. The novel, like Kantian theory, realizes a critique of reason by positing its own human, epistemological limits. Of course, the philosophical problems we see in Saer’s novel don’t simply exist in a vacuum, but respond to the politics of rationalism within Argentina, namely the 1976-83 dictatorship. I demonstrate how the contradictions within the ‘rationa...
La Belgique et la coopération scientifique internationale
Marage, Pierre
2005-01-01
La Belgique et la coopération scientifique internationale P. Marage et Cl. Truffin Université Libre de Bruxelles Dans les années qui suivent la seconde guerre mondiale, la Belgique joue un rôle important, souvent moteur, dans la coopération scientifique internationale, en particulier européenne :collaborations notamment avec les Etats-Unis en matière nucléaire, création du CERN, EURATOM, Année géophysique internationale, ELDO, ESRO, etc. Cette implication internationale n’a cessé de s’affirme...
Network marketing with bounded rationality and partial information
Kiet, Hoang Anh Tuan; Kim, Beom Jun
2008-08-01
Network marketing has been proposed and used as a way to spread the product information to consumers through social connections. We extend the previous game model of the network marketing on a small-world tree network and propose two games: In the first model with the bounded rationality, each consumer makes purchase decision stochastically, while in the second model, consumers get only partial information due to the finite length of social connections. Via extensive numerical simulations, we find that as the rationality is enhanced not only the consumer surplus but also the firm’s profit is increased. The implication of our results is also discussed.
Rationalization in architecture with surfaces foliated by elastic curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge
We develop methods for rationalization of CAD surfaces using elastic curves, aiming at a costeffective fabrication method for architectural designs of complex shapes. By moving a heated flexible metal rod though a block of expanded polystyrene, it is possible to produce shapes with both positive...... and the production constraints. If the given surface is smooth, we want the approximating surface to be smooth as well, so we must ensure smooth transition between the surface segments of the final result. As an alternative to rationalization of arbitrary designs, we also present a method for direct generation...
On integrable rational potentials of the Dirac equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stachowiak, Tomasz, E-mail: stachowiak@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Przybylska, Maria, E-mail: M.Przybylska@proton.if.uz.zgora.pl [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland)
2013-05-03
The one-dimensional Dirac equation with a rational potential is reducible to an ordinary differential equation with a Riccati-like coefficient. Its integrability can be studied with the help of differential Galois theory, although the results have to be stated with recursive relations, because in general the equation is of Heun type. The inverse problem of finding integrable rational potentials based on the properties of the singular points is also presented; in particular, a general class of integrable potentials leading to the Whittaker equation is found.
Overview of P-glycoprotein inhibitors: a rational outlook
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Kale Mohana Raghava Srivalli
2012-09-01
Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a transmembrane permeability glycoprotein, is a member of ATP binding cassette (ABC super family that functions specifically as a carrier mediated primary active efflux transporter. It is widely distributed throughout the body and has a diverse range of substrates. Several vital therapeutic agents are substrates to P-gp and their bioavailability is lowered or a resistance is induced because of the protein efflux. Hence P-gp inhibitors were explored for overcoming multidrug resistance and poor bioavailability problems of the therapeutic P-gp substrates. The sensitivity of drug moieties to P-gp and vice versa can be established by various experimental models in silico, in vitro and in vivo. Ever since the discovery of P-gp, the research plethora identified several chemical structures as P-gp inhibitors. The aim of this review was to emphasize on the discovery and development of newer, inert, non-toxic, and more efficient, specifically targeting P-gp inhibitors, like those among the natural herb extracts, pharmaceutical excipients and formulations, and other rational drug moieties. The applications of cellular and molecular biology knowledge, in silico designed structural databases, molecular modeling studies and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR analyses in the development of novel rational P-gp inhibitors have also been mentioned.Glicoproteína-p (P-gp, uma glicoproteína de transmembrana permeável, é um membro da superfamília (ABC de cassete de gene de ligação de ATP que funciona especificamente como um carreador mediado pelo transportador de efluxo ativo primário. É amplamente distribuído por todo o corpo e apresenta uma gama diversificada de substratos. Diversos agentes terapêuticos vitais são substratos para P-gp e sua biodisponibilidade é reduzida ou a resistência é induzida devido ao efluxo de proteínas. Portanto, os inibidores da P-gp foram explorados para a superação da resistência a
Rational design of reconfigurable prismatic architected materials
Overvelde, Johannes T. B.; Weaver, James C.; Hoberman, Chuck; Bertoldi, Katia
2017-01-01
Advances in fabrication technologies are enabling the production of architected materials with unprecedented properties. Most such materials are characterized by a fixed geometry, but in the design of some materials it is possible to incorporate internal mechanisms capable of reconfiguring their spatial architecture, and in this way to enable tunable functionality. Inspired by the structural diversity and foldability of the prismatic geometries that can be constructed using the snapology origami technique, here we introduce a robust design strategy based on space-filling tessellations of polyhedra to create three-dimensional reconfigurable materials comprising a periodic assembly of rigid plates and elastic hinges. Guided by numerical analysis and physical prototypes, we systematically explore the mobility of the designed structures and identify a wide range of qualitatively different deformations and internal rearrangements. Given that the underlying principles are scale-independent, our strategy can be applied to the design of the next generation of reconfigurable structures and materials, ranging from metre-scale transformable architectures to nanometre-scale tunable photonic systems.
Rationality and Discursive Articulation in Place-Making
Ernste, H.; Meusburger, P.; Werlen, B.; Suarsana, L.
2017-01-01
In the debate on action-theoretic and the poststructuralist approaches in human geography, the former relies on a theory of modernity; the latter, on praxis theory. Action-theoretic approaches rest on the assumption of the effectivity of various kinds of rational and deliberative decision-making and
Ideology, Rationality and Reproduction in Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis
Lim, Leonel
2014-01-01
In undertaking a critical discourse analysis of the professed aims and objectives of one of the most influential curricula in the teaching of thinking, this article foregrounds issues of power and ideology latent in curricular discourses of rationality. Specifically, it documents the subtle but powerful ways in which political and class…
A paradox of rationality à la von Neumann-Morgenstern
Ismail, M.S.
2015-01-01
We show that there are games and decision situations in which it is not possible for the decision maker to be rational a la von Neumann-Morgenstern in both situations simultaneously, which is the source of the paradox presented in this note. We provide an assumption which is the necessary and
Rationalizing Neglect: An Institutional Response to Transfer Students
Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Cox, Bradley E.
2012-01-01
This qualitative study focuses on institutional efforts affecting the transfer student experience at a single research institution. Findings based on interviews with institutional representatives, both faculty and staff, using the rational, natural, and open system perspectives of organizational theory, provide insights into the institutional…
application of covariance analysis to feed/ ration experimental data
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Prince Acheampong
animals (the covariate or the independent variable) and the final weight (the dependent or response variable). Asiedu-Ansah ... The objective of this study was to demonstrate the abuse of the ANOVA for the analysis of feed/ration .... classification analysis of variance and a regression coefficient β as in regression analysis.
Rational Antimicrobial Use in an Intensive Care Unit in Jakarta ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Purpose: To analyze the rationality of antimicrobial usage and factors influencing it over the period of. January to December 2010 in Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods: Present study was conducted in the intensive care unit of Fatmawati General Hospital,. Jakarta, Indonesia. Gyssens method was ...
Exact rational expectations, cointegration, and reduced rank regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders Rygh
We interpret the linear relations from exact rational expectations models as restrictions on the parameters of the statistical model called the cointegrated vector autoregressive model for non-stationary variables. We then show how reduced rank regression, Anderson (1951), plays an important role...
Exact rational expectations, cointegration, and reduced rank regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders Rygh
2008-01-01
We interpret the linear relations from exact rational expectations models as restrictions on the parameters of the statistical model called the cointegrated vector autoregressive model for non-stationary variables. We then show how reduced rank regression, Anderson (1951), plays an important role...
Exact Rational Expectations, Cointegration, and Reduced Rank Regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders Rygh
We interpret the linear relations from exact rational expectations models as restrictions on the parameters of the statistical model called the cointegrated vector autoregressive model for non-stationary variables. We then show how reduced rank regression, Anderson (1951), plays an important role...
"Euthanasia" of Persons with Severe Handicaps: Refuting the Rationalizations.
Lusthaus, Evelyn
1985-01-01
The article examines two common rationalizations for euthanasia of persons with severe handicaps and presents arguments to refute them. The article calls for parents, professionals, and friends of persons with severe handicaps to be vocal in refuting euthanasia and its rationales. (Author/CL)
Cassapro in broiler ration : effect of halquinol Supplementation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I.P Kompiang
1997-10-01
Full Text Available A trial was conducted to determine the effect of various level of cassapro (fermented cassava and halquinol supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens . Experimental rations were formulated isoprotein and isoenergy with graded level of cassapro (0, 10, 20 and 30% . The 20 and 30% cassapro ration were prepared without and with halquinol supplementation (60 ppm. Each ration was fed to 40 of three day old broilers, divided into 4 cages ( 5 males and 5 females per cage for 4 weeks. Increasing the level of cassapro significantly reduced body weight gain (P < 0.005, increased feed conversion ratio (FCR (P < 0.0005 with no effect on feed intake (P < 0.10 . Halquinol supplementation has no effect on feed intake, but significantly increased body weight gain (P <0.05 and improved the FCR (P < 0.01 . It is concluded that high level of cassapro in the ration will cause poorer performance of the birds, however it can be alleviated by halquinolsupplementation.
Rudolf Diesel-The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Rudolf Diesel - The Rational Inventor of a Heat Engine. Tilottama Shrinivasa. Article-in-a-Box Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 319-320. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Ventilation, good indoor air quality and rational use of energy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Geo; Fernandes, E. D. O.; DeGids, W.
2003-01-01
The aim of this report is to provide information and advice to policy and decission makers, researchers, architects, designers, and manufacturers on strategies for achieving a good balance between good indoor air quality (IAQ) and the rational use of Energy in buildings, available guidelines...
Was there evidence of credit rationing in the Czech Republic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pruteanu, Anca
2004-01-01
Roč. 42, č. 5 (2004), s. 58-72 ISSN 0012-8775 Keywords : disequilibrium * credit rationing Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.233, year: 2004 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14617535&site=ehost-live
Rational Behavioral Training and Changes in Self-Actualization.
Johnson, Norbert; And Others
1982-01-01
Examined the effects on self-actualization of CETA supervisors who participated in a Rational Behavioral Training (RBT) group. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) was administered to experimental and control groups before and after the group. Results indicated the RBT experience enabled participants to move toward self-actualization. (RC)
On Friedrich Hayek and Taxation: Rationality, Rules, and Majority Rule
Spicer, Michael W.
1995-01-01
Explores the implications of the work of the late Friedrich Hayek for taxation policy. Examines Hayek's writings on the limits of rationality, the role of rules, and the limits of majority rule. Argues that Hayek's work provides general support for broad-based nondiscrimnatory tax policies but can be interpreted as cautioning against either radical or frequent changes in tax policy.
Karl Popper's Fallibilist Critique of Rationalism and Empirisism Ifec
African Journals Online (AJOL)
NGOZI
Abstract. The question of sure foundation of cognitive beliefs is a problem in epistemology and has defied solution. Both rationalism and empiricism lead to a common philosophical dead end: all we know is idea so that the existence of the external world remains an unjustifiable posit. This realization unleashed ...
On a Graphical Technique for Evaluating Some Rational Expectations Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders R.
2011-01-01
. In addition to getting a visual impression of the fit of the model, the purpose is to see if the two spreads are nevertheless similar as measured by correlation, variance ratio, and noise ratio. We extend these techniques to a number of rational expectation models and give a general definition of spread...
To Cheat or Not to Cheat: Rationalizing Academic Impropriety
MacGregor, Jason; Stuebs, Martin
2012-01-01
Academic cheating and fraud are becoming more prevalent. The Internet removes barriers and opens access to information and increases the opportunities for academic fraud. The incentives to succeed academically also are increasing as higher education continues to grow in importance. A student's rationalization is the last, critical piece needed to…
Rationalized Psycho-Economic Decisions And Parental Attitude To ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Rationalized Psycho-Economic Decisions And Parental Attitude To Girl-Child Education. ... African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ... The study examined how psycho-economic life circumstance encapsulated in parental attitude has affected the Girl-Child equal access to and participation in ...
Segmented arch or continuous arch technique? A rational approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergei Godeiro Fernandes Rabelo Caldas
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This study aims at revising the biomechanical principles of the segmented archwire technique as well as describing the clinical conditions in which the rational use of scientific biomechanics is essential to optimize orthodontic treatment and reduce the side effects produced by the straight wire technique.
Effect bf Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on the Level of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness or otherwise of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy in reducing the level of general and examination anxieties with a view to fostering better academic performance in English Language among students who had failed this subject at least once. Ninety eight students in ...
Approximation of quadrilaterals by rational quadrilaterals in the plane
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
diagonals and areas can be reduced to solving certain diophantine equations. We look at a number of such .... Now we state the theorem whose proof is given in the Appendix. Theorem 6. Let X0 −→ f1 ..... will proceed by re- expressing the problems in terms of rational points on families of some quartic and cubic curves.
Rationality In African Philosophy: A Critical Reflection | Higgs ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this essay I explore some of the ramifications that the Western discourse of postmodernism may have on the notion of rationality in African philosophy and indigenous African knowledge systems in general. I conclude by arguing that the merits of such a discourse include its acknowledgment of alternative forms of ...
Empiricism Verses Rationalism: Matters Arising in Medical Practice ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Empiricism Verses Rationalism: Matters Arising in Medical Practice. ... AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology ... philosophies are two logical and consistent thought structures which are in all respects entirely antagonistic to one another, one favoring the senses and the other favoring the mind.
Profit allocation among rational players in a cooperative game under ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper, a cooperative game has been considered, where there is a coalition between rational players in an uncertain environment. The uncertainty occurs in terms of the quality of the raw material. The pay-offs of the players are influ- enced by the degree of satisfaction. Pay-offs are considered as interval ...
RET [Rational Emotive Therapy] Abolishes Most of the Human Ego.
Ellis, Albert
Rational-emotive therapy (RET) holds that much of what we call the human "ego" has little or no legitimacy and, when conceived of and given a global rating (e.g., the individual gets rated as "worthwhile" or "worthless"), interferes with survival and happiness. Certain aspects of "ego" do have a verifiable existence and lead to beneficial results:…
Rational Variability in Children's Causal Inferences: The Sampling Hypothesis
Denison, Stephanie; Bonawitz, Elizabeth; Gopnik, Alison; Griffiths, Thomas L.
2013-01-01
We present a proposal--"The Sampling Hypothesis"--suggesting that the variability in young children's responses may be part of a rational strategy for inductive inference. In particular, we argue that young learners may be randomly sampling from the set of possible hypotheses that explain the observed data, producing different hypotheses with…
Rationality and the Politics of Democratization in Kenya and Zambia
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Book Review Contending Paradigms in Africa: Rationality and the Politics of Democratization in Kenya and Zambia By Shadrack W Nasong'o (2005). Godwin Murunga. Abstract. New York and London: Routledge xx + 225 pp. US$80.00. ISBN: 0-415-97588-3 (Hardcover) Africa Development Vol. 31(1) 2006: 193-200.
Rational Use of Medicines in Relation to Pharmaceutical Supply ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Pharmaceutical management involves a set of practices aiming at ensuring timely availability and appropriate use of safe, effective and quality pharmaceuticals and services in any health care setting. Rational use of medicines is often associated with efficiency of pharmaceutical supply system that operates in the health ...
Rationalization of work of leaders of physical-sports organizations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Galina Putiatina
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose: to create the main ways of rationalization of the work of heads of physical-sports organizations in the structure of their scientific organization of the work. Material & Methods: the content of the administrative activity of representatives of the system of the regional government of the sphere of physical culture and sport of the Kharkov area, and also directors of sports schools of Kharkov (57 respondents are generalized. Methods – the analysis of references, the organizational analysis, the organizational diagnosis, the poll (questioning, the methods of mathematical statistics. Results: the essence and the content of rationalization of the administrative work in the sphere of physical culture and sport are considered. The integrated approach to certain objects of rationalization of the administrative work is established in physical-sports organizations. Conclusions: the main ways of rationalization of the work of heads of physical-sports organizations are: the organization of work concerning the development of motivational mechanisms of the activity of heads; the increase of the economic appeal of work; the formation of ideology of a healthy lifestyle.
Effect of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT) On Federal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The research work was an experimental study, which investigated the effects of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT) on Federal teachers' attitude towards retirement in Lagos State, Nigeria. Two hundred teachers from two Federal Government owned secondary schools in Lagos State were pre-tested using the ...
Comparative Effect of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study compared the effectiveness of two (2) counselling techniques namely rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) and Token Economy (TE) in enhancing junior secondary student performance in Basic Science. One hundred and eighty (180) JSS II students were drawn as sample from both public and private ...
On the Rationality of Traditional Akan Religion: Analyzing the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper is an attempt to show how logically acceptable (or rational) belief in Traditional Akan religion is. The attempt is necessitated by the tendency by some scholars to (mis) treat all religions in a generic sense; and the potential which Akan religion has to influence philosophical debates on the nature of God and the ...
Rational Antimicrobial Use in an Intensive Care Unit in Jakarta ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Purpose: To analyze the rationality of antimicrobial usage and factors influencing it over the period of January to December 2010 in Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods: Present study was conducted in the intensive care unit of Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Gyssens method was used ...
Which Type of Rational Numbers Should Students Learn First?
Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.
2017-01-01
Many children and adults have difficulty gaining a comprehensive understanding of rational numbers. Although fractions are taught before decimals and percentages in many countries, including the USA, a number of researchers have argued that decimals are easier to learn than fractions and therefore teaching them first might mitigate children's…
Immunity ratione materiae of foreign state officials before Rwandan ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The article seeks to determine when, as a matter of international law, foreign state officials should be granted immunity ratione materiae when they are sued in civil and criminal proceedings in Rwanda. It also investigates the questions as to whether this immunity can be waived by the state on behalf of which the official ...
The Rationality of Happiness | Roberts | South African Journal of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In his recent book, Happiness: personhood, community, purpose, Pedro Tabensky answers the question of what happiness is. He develops an Aristotelian account of happiness that, he claims, is every one\\'s maximally rational ideal. Much of the support for this claim rests on what Tabensky calls the method of critical ...
Application of covariance analysis to feed/ ration experimental data ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The use Analysis of Covariance (ANOCOVA) to feed/ration experimental data for birds was examined. Correlation and Regression analyses were used to adjust for the covariate – initial weight of the experimental birds. The Fisher's F statistic for the straight forward Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed significant ...
The effectiveness of rational emotive therapy on achievement ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The main purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy on Students Achievement Motivation. It made use of ninety eight (98) SS 1 students randomly selected from two schools in Sapele Local Govt Area in Sapele Local Govt Area of Delta State. It is a quasi experimental ...
James Moffett's Mistake: Ignoring the Rational Capacities of the Other
Donehower, Kim
2013-01-01
Using Alasdair MacIntyre's theory of tradition-bound rationalities, this essay analyses James Moffett's depiction of the censors who opposed his "Interactions" textbook series in the Kanawha County, West Virginia, schools. Many reviewers have found Moffett's analysis of the censors in "Storm in the Mountains" even-handed and…
Profit allocation among rational players in a cooperative game under ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, a cooperative game has been considered, where there is a coalition between rational players in an uncertain environment. The uncertainty occurs in terms of the quality of the raw material. The pay-offs of the players are influenced by the degree of satisfaction. Pay-offs are considered as interval numbers.