WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioresources seibutsu tayosei

  1. Research cooperation project on conservation and sustainable use of tropical bioresources; Seibutsu tayosei hozen to jizokuteki riyonado ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Research cooperation has been conducted on the conservation of biological species inhabiting in the tropical rainforest in developing countries in tropic zone and the sustainable use of genetic resources using biotechnologies. For the research cooperation with Thailand in FY 1996, research of the food acquisition strategy of the Primates has been conducted. A total of 19 species of animals and plants, i.e., 7 species of arbors, 7 species of herbs, and 5 species of insects, were newly confirmed for pig-tailed monkey. In Indonesia, a feasibility study was conducted on the information center of Indonesian tropical bioresources. For the research of culture collection of bacteria, 113 strains of acetic acid bacteria and 85 strains of lactic acid bacteria were separated from Indonesian specimens, and they were identified. An agreement was concluded with Malaysia, and discussions were conducted for the concrete implementation plan. For the project, construction of a database was investigated for bioresources including bacteria and higher animals useful for industries. Maintenance of gene bank was also investigated. 391 refs., 61 figs., 93 tabs.

  2. Fiscal 1997 report on the cooperative research on the preservation and sustainable utilization of biological diversification; Seibutsu tayosei hozen to jizokuteki riyo nado ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku (1997 nendo hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Cooperative researches were conducted between Japan and Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia for the purpose of the technology development to make developing countries themselves preserve bioresources existing in tropical forests and use those sustainably. The research subjects for Thailand are a strategical study on eating of the primates, improvement of a microorganism culture collection system, preservation of biological diversification using an artificial ecosystem, bioresource utilization, etc. The subjects for Indonesia are a study of a microorganism culture collection system, study of plant preservation technology, study of microorganism utilization technology, study of plant utilization technology, promotion of the founding of the Indonesia tropical bioresource information center, etc. The subjects for Malaysia are biological diversification database and gene bank, assessment/monitoring of the ocean ecosystem, assessment and inventory of the ecosystem using hi-tech technology, search/separation of bioactive substances originated from microorganism/plant, etc. 26 refs., 24 figs., 81 tabs.

  3. Fiscal 1998 research cooperation project. Research cooperation on diversity preservation and sustainable use for living organisms; 1998 nendo seibutsu tayosei hozen to jizokuteki riyo nado ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report describes the titled research cooperation. Joint R and D with Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia was made on collection and preservation of bio-resources such as tropical rain forest, and sustainable use of them by developing countries themselves. The project includes the simple identification and preservation technology of biospecies such as microorganism, assessment and monitoring technology of ecosystem, search of useful functions of biospecies, and construction of a bio-resource information network. This project promotes conversion of excessive hunting into resource conservation in agriculture, forestry and fisheries industries, and establishment of the basis of new product development in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. This project also contributes to preparation of the basic scheme of developed countries including Japan to countries holding bio-resources in addition to industrial basis preparation of every country. Until 1997, basis establishment has been made such as training of researchers, preparation of equipment and technical guidance, and in the final 1998, various results such as extraction of promising samples from microorganisms were obtained. (NEDO)

  4. Coastal biodiversity and bioresources: variation and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Liu, Zhengyi; Yu, Roger Ziye

    2016-03-01

    The 1st International Coastal Biology Congress (1st ICBC) was held in Yantai, China, in Sep. 26-30, 2014. Eighteen manuscripts of the meeting presentations were selected in this special issue. According to the four themes set in the ICBC meeting, this special issue include four sections, i.e., Coastal Biodiversity under Global Change, Adaptation and Evolution to Special Environment of Coastal Zone, Sustainable Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, and Coastal Biotechnology. Recent advances in these filed are presented.

  5. Synthesis of the Carbon Nanomaterials Based on Renewable Bioresources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness and feasibility of producing nanoscale carbon materials from renewable bioresources were shown as an example marsh mass. The mechanisms of synthesis of amorphous organic carbon from sphagnum moss species modified by a liquid peat phase of humic nature are discussed. A fundamentally new way of producing carbon nanotubes by mechanical activation of amorphous organic carbon is described.

  6. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  7. Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Tapas; Shastry, Sunita; Kaul, S N

    2002-05-01

    Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4.0-4.3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52-58, COD: 92-100 kg/m3) and suspended solids (2.0-2.5 kg/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through the full-scale application of a biomethanation system as pretreatment option, comprising anaerobic fixed film reactors. This, combined with subsequent concentration through multiple effect evaporators (MEE), and utilization of concentrated effluent for biocomposting of pressmud (another by-product of the industry) for production of biomanure contributes to the elimination of effluent discharges. PMID:12173420

  8. Utilization of bio-resources through nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear technology such as gamma-ray, eb and ion beams is widely use for the utilization of bio-resources. Irradiation using gamma ray from 60Co and electron beam is commercially used for the sterilization and modification of materials. Polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.e. anti-bacterial activity, elicitor activity, plant growth promotion, suppression of environmental stress on plants. Some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethyl-starch and carboxymethyl-chitin/chitosan, can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural uses. Ion beams have also been applied for mutation breeding for medical and agricultural use. Ion beams have also been applied for mutation breeding and the production of positron-emitting isotopes such as 11C, 13N, etc. It was succeeded to induce several kinds of flower-color and flower-form mutants in chrysanthemum and carnation by ion beams that have never produced by gamma-ray. The positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS) has been developed to obtain a dynamic image of plant transport in situ. (Author)

  9. N Mineralisation from Bioresources Incubated at 12.5°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Ives

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils treated with lime-amended biosolids (LAB, poppy seed waste (PSW, anaerobically digested biosolids (ADB and poppy mulch (PM and incubated at 12.5°C for 56 days released 45%, 36%, 25%, and −8%, respectively, of total applied N as plant available nitrogen (PAN by the end of the incubation. The mineralisation rates were contrary to expectations based on the C : N ratios of the four products: LAB (5 : 1, PSW (7 : 1, ADB (3 : 1, and PM (16 : 1. PM showed a significant negative priming effect over the incubation period. These results have implications for production agriculture in temperate regions where application and incorporation of bio-resources traditionally occurs in autumn and spring when soil and air temperatures are relatively low. Current application times may not be suitable for nitrogen release to satisfy crop demand.

  10. ESTIMATION OF SOIL-PROTECTIVE SYSTEM WITH USE OF BIORESOURCES OF AGRICULTURE ON THE BASIS OF USE OF AGROCENOSIS ON THE GREY FOREST SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina RUSAKOVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data of long-term researches establishing high efficiency of soil-protective system of agriculture with use of bioresources on biological and humus in condition of arable grey forest soil has been presented.

  11. ESTIMATION OF SOIL-PROTECTIVE SYSTEM WITH USE OF BIORESOURCES OF AGRICULTURE ON THE BASIS OF USE OF AGROCENOSIS ON THE GREY FOREST SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Irina RUSAKOVA

    2013-01-01

    The experimental data of long-term researches establishing high efficiency of soil-protective system of agriculture with use of bioresources on biological and humus in condition of arable grey forest soil has been presented.

  12. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N; Singh, Devendra P

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet. PMID:27148218

  13. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N.; Singh, Devendra P.

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet. PMID:27148218

  14. Strategy of protected areas development in purposes of using and keeping bioresources and ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vyacheslavovna Tikhonova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Features and condition of existing system of especially protected natural territories of the Komi Republic are presented in this paper. Their specific environmental problems are defined. Strong sides and weaknesses of functioning and management of objects of special protection are provided. For approbation of a complex of methods of steady exploitation of this territory modeling objects of special protection are allocated and the economic assessment is carried out them. Potential recipients of benefits from use of bioresources and ecosystem services on modeling objects arerevealed. Theterritories possessing a reservefor increasein use of their resources and services are presented. Offers on strategy of development of a control system of especially protected natural territories of the Komi Republic are developed. Development strategy of control system ofespecially protected natural territories is consisting of someinstitutional decisions. This acceptance of federal-regional agreement about management control;creating of regional rules, which regulatethe usage of natural resources in especially protected natural territories; application of an integrated approach to the use of territories, which provide the bases to increase recreation and tourist industry; transfer buffer zone territories to biosphere reservation.

  15. Cyanobacteria: A precious bio-resource in agriculture, ecosystem and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Shankar eSingh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keeping in view the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters, generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, syngas and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet.

  16. BioResources - an online scientific journal devoted to lignocellulosic materials for new uses and new capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbe, M. A., and Lucia, L. A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this inaugural issue, the Co-Editors of BioResources would like to welcome you. In your role as a reader, we welcome you to download scholarly articles and opinion pieces; this is an open-access journal, providing a maximum of potential impact. BioResources will deal with new and emerging uses of materials from lignocellulosic sources, including wood and crop residues. Topics will include biofuels, biomass-derived chemical products, papermaking technology, and other new or improved uses of biomaterials. We also would like to welcome you as a prospective author. Our goal is to maintain very high standards of peer-review, as well as providing a mix of scholarly research articles, review articles, and editorials. By using an automated, online system of review and publication, we hope to accelerate scientific discourse. Our hope is to contribute to progress in the direction of a post-petroleum economy, taking advantage of the renewable, biodegradable, and relatively abundant nature of materials from lignocellulosic sources.

  17. Fiscal 1998 R and D project on industrial technology. Development report on use technology of bioresources such as bioconsortia (Development of analysis technology of bioconsortia); 1998 nendo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Fukugo seibutsukeinado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu (fukugo seibutsukei kaiseki gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For use of advanced functions of bioconsortia (complex microorganisms composed of more than 2 microorganisms with certain specific function), this project analyzes specific functions of specific organisms and the interaction between the specific functions, and develops isolation and incubation technologies of component organisms. In fiscal 1998, to promote this project, the meetings were held frequently in National Institute of Bioscience and human Technology. Study was made on production of useful substances and useful degradation functions in association with bioconsortia. The result showed that microorganisms coexisting with nematode produced physiologically active substances exhibiting antimicrobial activities to tubercle bacillus, MRSA and others, microorganisms coexisting in eggs of some insects produced substances having antiviral activities and activities against pathogenic bacteria in a plant, and microorganisms growing in some plants or mycorrhiza organisms produced insecticidal substances or growing-promoting substance. The basic understanding was obtained on cooperative actions of bioconsortia to bioremediation and degradation of organic substances. (NEDO)

  18. Establishment of rumen-mimic bacterial consortia: A functional union for bio-hydrogen production from cellulosic bioresource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jui-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Lin, Jia-Jen; Ho, Cheng-Yu.; Chin, Wei-Chih; Huang, Chieh-Chen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University,Taichung (China)

    2010-12-15

    The study aimed to establish stable rumen-mimic bacterial consortia as a functional union for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation from cellulosic bioresource. The consortia was constructed by repeated-batch culture with ruminal microflora and napiergrass at 38 C. The major bacterial composition of batch culture was monitored by 16S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The result showed that a stable consortia constituted by ruminal microflora was formed, and the consortia includes bacterial strains such as Clostridium xylanolyticum, Clostridium papyrosolvens, Clostridium beijerinckii, Ruminococcus sp., Ethanoligenens harbinense, and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. The Clostridium genus was showed as the dominant population in the system and contributed to the biohydrogen production. During each eight days incubation period, the functional consortia could degrade an average of 27% hemicellulose and 2% cellulose from napiergrass biomass. While the increasing of the reducing sugars and their converting to biohydrogen gas productivity were also observed. The time course profile for cellulytic enzymes showed that the hydrolysis of complex lignocellulosic material may occur through the ordered actions of xylenase and cellulase activities. (author)

  19. Ascidian bioresources: common and variant chemical compositions and exploitation strategy - examples of Halocynthia roretzi, Styela plicata, Ascidia sp. and Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yadong; Li, Jiebing

    2016-01-01

    To explore abundant marine ascidian bioresources, four species from two orders have been compared in their chemical compositions. After a universal separation of the animal body into two fractions, all tunics have been found rich in carbohydrate contents, while all inner body tissues are richer in proteins. Cellulose is present almost exclusively in the tunics and more in the order Stolidobranchia, while more sulfated polysaccharides are present in Phlebobranchia species. Almost all proteins are collagens with a high essential amino acid index and high delicious amino acid (DAA) content. All fractions also have high contents of good-quality fatty acids and trace minerals but low toxic element contents, with different sterols and glycosaminoglycans. There are species-specific characteristics observed for vanadium accumulation and sterol structures which are also meaningful for ascidian chemotaxonomy and resource exploitation. It is suggested that in addition to the present utilizations of tunics for cellulose production and of some species' inner body tissues as human food, one should explore all species' inner body tissues as human foods and all tunics as food or animal feed with the contained cellulose as dietary fiber. Collagens, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosaminoglycans, sterols and trace elements could be explored as byproducts for, e.g. pharmaceutical and chemical industries. PMID:27049617

  20. Planetary Bioresources and Astroecology. 1. Planetary Microcosm Bioassays of Martian and Carbonaceous Chondrite Materials: Nutrients, Electrolyte Solutions, and Algal and Plant Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, Michael N.

    2002-07-01

    The biological fertilities of planetary materials can be assessed using microcosms based on meteorites. This study applies microcosm tests to martian meteorites and analogues and to carbonaceous chondrites. The biological fertilities of these materials are rated based on the soluble electrolyte nutrients, the growth of mesophile and cold-tolerant algae, and plant tissue cultures. The results show that the meteorites, in particular the Murchison CM2 carbonaceous chondrite and DaG 476 martian shergottite, contain high levels of water-extractable Ca, Mg, and SO 4-S. The martian meteorites DaG 476 and EETA 79001 also contain higher levels of extractable essential nutrients NO 3-N (0.013-0.017 g kg -1) and PO 4-P (0.019-0.046 g kg -1) than the terrestrial analogues. The yields of most of the water-extractable electrolytes vary only by factors of 2-3 under a wide range of planetary conditions. However, the long-term extractable phosphate increases significantly under a CO 2 atmosphere. The biological yields of algae and plant tissue cultures correlate with extractable NO 3-N and PO 4-P, identifying these as the limiting nutrients. Mesophilic algae and Asparagus officinalis cultures are identified as useful bioassay agents. A fertility rating system based on microcosm tests is proposed. The results rate the fertilities in the order martian basalts > terrestrial basalt, agricultural soil > carbonaceous chondrites, lava ash > cumulate igneous rock. The results demonstrate the application of planetary microcosms in experimental astroecology to rate planetary materials as targets for astrobiology exploration and as potential space bioresources. For example, the extractable materials in Murchison suggest that concentrated internal solutions in carbonaceous asteroids (3.8 mol L -1 electrolytes and 10 g L -1 organics) can support and disperse microorganisms introduced by natural or directed panspermia in early solar systems. The results also suggest that carbonaceous asteroids

  1. Bioresources for third-generation

    OpenAIRE

    Picazo-Espinosa, Rafael; Gonz??lez L??pez, Jes??s; Manzanera Ruiz, Maximino

    2011-01-01

    Modern societies??? welfare relies greatly on fossil fuels. The current energy model, based on the extensive utilization of fossil fuels, is affected by economic and environmental problems. The United States Department of Energy 2009 report estimates that, within the next two decades, global energy consumption will double (Conti, 2009). On the other hand, the European Commission 2009 report indicates that the management of climate change problems in Europe, since 2000, has been gl...

  2. New Challenges and Opportunities for Putting into Value the Diversity of the Danube Territorial Capital, as a “European Axis” in light of Bio-Resources Supply during 2030-2050, in the context of Global Demographic Projections for 2100

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Bogdan; Andy-Corneliu Pusca; Mariana Trandafir; Emanuel Marinescu; Amalia-Gianina Străteanu; Iudith Ipate

    2014-01-01

    Diversity of the Danube territorial capital is the part of World Heritage public investment - biodiversity, environmental protection, sustainable development, reducing poverty and increasing social inclusion, continued development of the global economic welfare, promote a healthy environment, conservation of bio-resources as a ―European Axis‖ , business development in the context of eco-bio-economic, diplomatic instruments promoting eco-bio-economic development, food security, ...

  3. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent trends of agriculture in developed countries are to restrict the using of synthetic pesticides. The alternative to the above synthetic pesticide is the development of biological control system against plant pathogenic fungi using antifungal microbes. The antifungal microbes were isolated from various sources in Korea. The mutants of which antifungal activities were improved or disappeared were induced from the above antifungal microbes by radiation. By the 2-DE analysis, the antifugal proteins were identified and the N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined. Two antifungal materials of which molecular weights were 391 Da and 369 Da, respectively, were purified and analysed. From DNA microarray analysis of Bacillus lentimorbus WJ5 and its radiation induced antifungal activity deficient(AF-) mutants, we identified commonly down-regulated genes and selected the srb gene which regained the antifungal activity of WJ5m12 (AF-) mutant. We determined the formulations of biocontrollers to prevent plant pathogenic fungi. The natural plasmid (pWJ5) of B. lentimorbus WJ5 was isolated and sequenced completely. We isolated two biodegradable biopolymer (bioflocculant) producing microbes from soil and formulated to apply wastewater process and to develop bioflocculant-antifungal microbes complex

  4. Nottingham Health Science Biobank: a sustainable bioresource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharoo-Ball, Balwir; Thomson, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    Nottingham Health Science Biobank (NHSB) was established in 2011 by a 3-year "pump priming" grant from the United Kingdom National Institute of Health Research. Before biobanking operations began, NHSB commissioned a financial report on the full costs of biobanking and worked with key stakeholders and external consultants to develop a business plan with the aim of achieving financial and operational sustainability. The plan included: scanning published information, telephone interviews with commercial companies, Freedom of Information Requests, dialogue with prospective customers, and a market analysis of global trends in the use of human tissue samples in research. Our financial report provided a comprehensive and structured costing template for biobanking and confirmed the absolute requirement to ensure cost-efficient processes, careful staff utilization, and maximization of sample turnover. Together with our external consultants, we developed a business model responsive to global interest in healthcare founded on i) identification of key therapeutic areas that mapped to the strengths of the NHSB; ii) a systematic approach to identifying companies operating in these therapy areas; iii) engagement with noncommercial stakeholders to agree strategically aligned sample collection with the aim of ensuring the value of our tissue resource. By adopting this systematic approach to business modelling, the NHSB has achieved sustainability after less than 3 years of operation. PMID:25340939

  5. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Young Il; Song, HI Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Chang, Hwa Hyoung; Han, Gab Jin; Lee, Ki Sung; Kim, Soo Ki; Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Jung Sook

    1999-04-01

    The productivity of lignocellulosic biowastes is greatly expanded along the technical improvement of agricultural industry all over the world. Among the components of biowastes, the lignin is the most difficult fraction to be degraded by mushroom. Thus, the improved strains of edible mushroom with more highly lignocellulolytic activity were induced by {gamma}-ray radiation and analysed their physiological and genetical characteristics. After cultivation of radiation induced edible mushrooms. Antimutagenicity, glyceollin elicitation activity and synergistic effects with indole acetic acid were found promisingly from the extracts of their cultural byproduct. And also were the byproducts expected to be useful for the candidate of subsidiary animal feed suggested from the analysis of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, mineral, and vitamin concentration of them.

  6. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The productivity of lignocellulosic biowastes is greatly expanded along the technical improvement of agricultural industry all over the world. Among the components of biowastes, the lignin is the most difficult fraction to be degraded by mushroom. Thus, the improved strains of edible mushroom with more highly lignocellulolytic activity were induced by γ-ray radiation and analysed their physiological and genetical characteristics. After cultivation of radiation induced edible mushrooms. Antimutagenicity, glyceollin elicitation activity and synergistic effects with indole acetic acid were found promisingly from the extracts of their cultural byproduct. And also were the byproducts expected to be useful for the candidate of subsidiary animal feed suggested from the analysis of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, mineral, and vitamin concentration of them

  7. New Challenges and Opportunities for Putting into Value the Diversity of the Danube Territorial Capital, as a “European Axis” in light of Bio-Resources Supply during 2030-2050, in the context of Global Demographic Projections for 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bogdan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of the Danube territorial capital is the part of World Heritage public investment - biodiversity, environmental protection, sustainable development, reducing poverty and increasing social inclusion, continued development of the global economic welfare, promote a healthy environment, conservation of bio-resources as a ―European Axis‖ , business development in the context of eco-bio-economic, diplomatic instruments promoting eco-bio-economic development, food security, public health, are only several ideas of a smart modern world, which can be attached to development philosophy type ―smart power‖ and contextual intelligence world for Sustainable Development Smart (Smart Sustainable Development by Sustainable Diplomacy Smart (Smart Sustainable Diplomacy in diversity of the Danube territorial capital, which can be a key ingredient of success for Excellence in Foreign Affairs Diplomatic and intelligence dedicated Environmental and Eco- Bio-Economy (SMART & Excellence in Environmental and Eco-Bio-Economic Affairs.

  8. Agrice 2004. Activity report - from bio-resources to industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been ten years since AGRICE was founded to support technological research in the field of bio-products. Even if bio-products are indeed a commercial reality, and growing in diversity, they are still marginal in the marketplace. However, the amplification of the greenhouse effect, our increasing energy dependence, the inexorable rise in oil prices, international competition and the emergence of a genuine political awareness are all factors that converge in favour of bio-products, offering a promising future. Of course, the development of bio-products is dependent on a number of conditions: biomass resources, technological advances, mobilisation of actors through dynamic research programmes (conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for alternative fuels or hydrogen, bio-technology applied to chemicals), new agro-industrial supply chains, financial instruments to bridge the cost gap with fossil fuels, a national strategy supported by a public authority dedicated to non-food uses. In the immediate future, the recent decision to open up the biofuels market via implementation of the European biofuels directive (5.75% of the market in 2010) provides an opportunity to lay the groundwork for a veritable industry of plant-based products, opening the way to the bio-refineries of the future. There is considerable potential for the development of bio-products in France. An additional 25 to 30 million tonnes-oil-equivalent (toe) of agricultural and forestry biomass could be processed into energy and industrial bio-products in France. Accordingly we can set our sights on an overall objective of substituting plant feedstocks for petroleum used in fuels and chemicals, on the order of 10% in 2020, and 20 to 30% by 2030-2050. To achieve these goals many technological advances will be necessary, with constant attention to the requirements of sustainable development. In this respect AGRICE is an invaluable tool for guiding, catalysing and supporting research efforts in these fields. The AGRICE 2004 activity report presents: - the AGRICE's Profile, Scope of activity, Structure and operations and Project management, the Treatment of results; - AGRICE's sectors of activity: in energy (Liquid biofuels for vehicles, Non-vehicle biofuels), and in chemicals (Biomolecules, Biomaterials); - the year 2004: Financial statement and applications, Noteworthy achievements, Events, Working groups, Europe-wide activities and collaborations. In appendix: the Projects initiated in 2004, the Projects completed in 2004, the Financial statement 1994-2004, the Breakdown of aid by sector (1994-2004), the Partners and members of the Group Council and The AGRICE team

  9. Agrice 2005. bio-resources to industry. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 2005 was marked with a green stone. The increase in oil prices, and therefore of gas as well, is now an ongoing phenomenon. We are seeing an ever more widely shared awareness of the ineluctable depletion of certain forms of fossil energy such as petroleum and natural gas within the span of a human lifetime, and of growing environmental threats. The fight against global warming, the lessening of our dependence on fossil fuels and raw materials are now clearly proclaimed objectives. The use of biomass will be decisive in achieving these goals. Transportation is 98% dependant on oil, and accounts for 27% of all greenhouse gas emissions in France. Agricultural biofuels are the only way to achieve a significant drop in CO2 emissions in the short term. One tonne-oil-equivalent (toe) of biofuel means 2 tonnes of CO2 emission avoided. The biofuels plan adopted in France in 2005 under the European directive is a concrete response to these concerns. This plan calls for a level of 5.75% biofuels incorporated into vehicle fuels in 2008, and 7% in 2010. This decision will support significant development for the industrial production chain set up over ten years ago with technological assistance from AGRICE. In turn it will spur development of bio-products, e.g. chemicals and materials from vegetal feedstocks. In order to optimise the economic, energy and environmental balance sheet, industrial processing of plants will have to forge integrated systems, such as bio-refineries, that will create value from all the products in the production chain. While agriculture can bring some short-term answers to the fuel question, this will only partly address the problem, given the needs at stake. Chemicals and materials will be a major market outlet for vegetal resources. Here there is much room for industrial innovation, attracting partners from a wide range of sectors, as attested by AGRICE's membership. But vegetal feedstocks call for the elaboration of new processes, and going beyond classical chemical practices, will involve bio-technologies dedicated to sustainable development. France has an important role to play in this domain. To do so, however, we must durably mobilise our research and industrial capacities. AGRICE has effectively pursued this mission for years. It is essential for our agriculture and our industry that France continue on this path in the future, by endowing AGRICE with means and resources proportionate to the stakes, so that France can perform as a major research platform for industrial bio-technology. The AGRICE 2005 activity report presents: - the AGRICE's Profile, statement, Scope of activity, Structure and operations and Project management, the Treatment of results; - AGRICE's sectors of activity: in energy (Liquid biofuels for vehicles, Non-vehicle biofuels), and in chemicals (Biomolecules, Biomaterials); - the year 2005: Financial statement and applications, Noteworthy achievements, Events, Working groups, Europe-wide activities and joint-undertakings. In appendix: the Financial statement 2005, the Projects initiated in 2005, the Projects completed in 2005, the Financial statement 1994-2005, the Breakdown of aid by sector (1994-2005), the Partners and members of the Group Council and The AGRICE team

  10. Bacterial Bio-Resources for Remediation of Hexachlorocyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Amoroso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, highly toxic organic compounds like the organochlorine pesticide (OP hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH have been released into the environment. All HCH isomers are acutely toxic to mammals. Although nowadays its use is restricted or completely banned in most countries, it continues posing serious environmental and health concerns. Since HCH toxicity is well known, it is imperative to develop methods to remove it from the environment. Bioremediation technologies, which use microorganisms and/or plants to degrade toxic contaminants, have become the focus of interest. Microorganisms play a significant role in the transformation and degradation of xenobiotic compounds. Many Gram-negative bacteria have been reported to have metabolic abilities to attack HCH. For instance, several Sphingomonas strains have been reported to degrade the pesticide. On the other hand, among Gram-positive microorganisms, actinobacteria have a great potential for biodegradation of organic and inorganic toxic compounds. This review compiles and updates the information available on bacterial removal of HCH, particularly by Streptomyces strains, a prolific genus of actinobacteria. A brief account on the persistence and deleterious effects of these pollutant chemical is also given.

  11. Effect of water pollution on marine organisms; Sekiyu osen no kaiyo seibutsu eno eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Fujisawa, K. [Okayama Prefectural Fisheries Experiment Station, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-10

    Toxicity of petroleum component to aquatic organisms appears as a result of its deposition onto living organisms followed by its migration into bodies of the organisms, and emergence of toxicity from the migrated component. Effect evaluation processes standing on this viewpoint may include the exposure monitoring or migration monitoring, in which the petroleum component migrated into marine organisms is analyzed and the state of the component concentrated in these organisms is measured, or effect monitoring, in which actions of the petroleum component in the organisms are investigated. The effects of petroleum on aquatic organisms would include the following occurrence: direct fatal toxicity acting on cells and membranes, quasi-fatal toxicity causing death indirectly through feeding actions and abnormal actions, direct coating of oil on surface of organisms, which prevents movability and feeding actions of the organisms and reduces hydrophilicity of plumes and hairs, pollution of living organisms due to migration of carcinogenic aromatic compounds into bodies of the living organisms, and change in species compositions and geographic distribution of living organisms due to change in physico-chemical environment. This paper explains cases of detection and identification of organic sulfur compounds, aromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic compounds, paraffins, olefins and heavy metals in parametric compounds of petroleum. 20 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Habitat segregation of sessile marine organisms; Kaiyo fuchaku seibutsu no sumiwake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoai, A. [Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kawahara, H.; Shizuri, Y.

    1996-08-01

    In order to develop the safe control agent of sessile marine organisms, the mechanism of habitat segregation of them has been investigated. Among various marine organisms, around 120 species of Porifera and Coelenterata accompanied with less the other sessile organisms were collected, to examine the adhesion prevention activity of their extracts against barnacles and Mytilus edulis. As a result, this activity was found out for 33% of Porifera and 27% of Coelenterata specimens. This means these organisms contain the adhesion prevention substances, and it is considered these chemical substances are practically used for the habitat segregation. Isolation structures of the chemical substances used for the habitat segregation were determined from these organisms. It was made clear that two acceptor genes successfully cloned from Balanus amphitrate are new G-protein coupling type acceptors having similar homology to the adrenaline and serotonin acceptors. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Heightening in efficiency of biological treatment by additives. Tenkazai ni yoru seibutsu shori no koritsuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, M. (Fukui Institute of Technology, Fukui (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    The activated sludge process and other biological treatments, though utilized for most sewerage and drainage water disposals, often necessitate the maintenance to be managed with a professional knowledge so that confrontation is oftem impossible with trouble in management. In the present report, different basic studies are to be introduced of microbial activation by an addition with saponin. Saponin'', etymologically identical with savon'' and soap'', has been being used as natural cleaner, emulsifier and foamer in South America and Europe since olden times, and is used also for the processed food and potable water in the USA. The present experiment concluded that, in case of using it as microbial activator, the activated sludge can be considerably increased in load quantity of disposal by the heightening in oxygen-supplying power, high concentration microbial maintenance, microbial activation, etc. In the future, there will remain many problems unsolved such as what is the optimized condition for the addition depending upon the condition of base material. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Antifouling polymeric films against marine organisms. Kaiyo seibutsu fuchaku boshi to kobunshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamori, N. (Nippon Paint Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-15

    An introduction is made on prevention of marine organisms from depositing on bridges and vessels, and on anti-fouling function of highly anti-fouling silicone resin and hydrolytic resins. First, in the case of silicone rubber, its surface is hydrophobic making it more difficult for sticking constituent (glycoprotein) in a depositing organism to deposit, in addition to its resilience, which sheds off easily the deposited organisms by its impact resilience. On the one hand, organism deposition can be prevented by means of micro-domain structure. Further, a description is given on the hydrolytic resins as to their anti-fouling agent releasing mechanism in hydrolytic paint film, and capability of prolonging the anti-fouling life by means of making the film thicker because the anti-fouling life is proportional to film thickness. In addition, explanations are given on elusion mechanism of hydrolytic resins, their behaviors in anti-fouling agent dispersion, the importance of controlling the elusion since the film elusion amount is an important factor to determine the release amount of the dispersed anti-fouling agent and the anti-fouling life, and the improvement of anti-fouling performance of the resins by means of adding monobasic acid into copper-acrylic resin. 9 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Survey on bio-chemical complex harmonized with global environment. 3; Kankyo chowagata seibutsu kagaku konbinato ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A survey was conducted of bio-chemical complex harmonized with the global environment for the purpose of constructing the material production process harmonized with the environment by the process fusion between biological conversion and chemical reaction. Palm oil was taken up as renewable raw material plant resource. The process utilizing bio-chemical reaction advances at normal temperature and pressure and is high in reaction specificity and selectivity. This is a recycling, circulation and environmental harmony type production technology which brings high yield, energy conservation, resource conservation, and low environmental loads. Waste water treatment and production of useful substances from sludge were thought as elementary technology. A possibility was studied of enzyme production by culturing solid waste, and the enzyme was applied to the hydrolysis process. The paper indicated trace components in the palm oil and the extraction method and proposed the production process of new derivatives for adding value to hydrolysate. A study was also made of the overall process flow which integrated these new processes and the material balance. The comprehensive evaluation of this new process was made from the aspect of the product structure, the market, construction cost, economical efficiency, and the environment. 133 refs., 65 figs., 56 tabs.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of hydroxyapatite from different bioresources for tissue engineering application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudip Mondal; Rajashree Bardhan; Biswanath Mondal; Apurba Dey; Sudit S Mukhopadhyay; Syamal Roy; Rajan Guha; Koushik Roy

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) is synthesized from different biosources like eggshell, fish scale and bovine bone in a cost effective and ecofriendly way. HAp materials were synthesized from eggshell by wet precipitation method whereas thermal decomposition method was applied in case of fish scale and bovine bone. The phase purity and crystallinity of different calcined HAp powder were determined by XRD and FTIR analyses. The thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to show thermal stability of HAp powder. Average grain sizes of sintered samples were in submicron range. The morphology of the powders were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dried powders were wet ball milled for several hours and surfactants like Triton-X small fillers (2 / 4 mm long rod-shaped) were made for in vitro testing. In order to verify the biocompatibility of HAp powders, cytotoxicity evaluation was carried out in RAW macrophage like cell line media for an incubation period of 72 h. The cell attachment studies on HAp compacts show an excellent affinity between cells and compact surface. These results proved high biocompatibility of HAp powders obtained fromdifferent biosources for tissue engineering applications.

  17. EDTA Modified Irvingia gabonesis: An Efficient Bioresource Material for the Removal of Rhodamine B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDTA modified dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis) (EMDN) has been prepared, its physicochemical characteristics were determined and it was characterized using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of EMDN was obtained to be 8.092 m/sup 2/g. Its efficiency in the uptake of Rhodamine B (RhB) from aqueous effluent was investigated and maximum adsorption was recorded at pH 6. Adsorption data fitted best into the Freundlich adsorption isotherm than the Langmuir, Temkin and Dubinin Raduskevich (D-R) models, the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (qmax) obtained from the Langmuir equation was obtained to be 532.27 mg/g and the mean sorption energy (E) calculated from the D-R model was less than 8 kJmol-1 suggesting that the adsorption process was physical in nature. Pseudo second order better described the kinetics of adsorption than the pseudo first order. Desorption percentage of RhB from EMDN surface was found to be low for all the desorbing eluents used and HCl has the highest desorption percentage of 17.75 percentage. (author)

  18. Seasonal variation in the properties of titania photocatalysts produced from Ti-salt flocculated bioresource sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okour, Y; Shon, H K; Liu, H; Kim, J B; Kim, J H

    2011-05-01

    Ti-salt flocculation of biologically treated sewage effluent (BTSE) was carried out on monthly basis during one year to trace the seasonal variation in the properties of BTSE, Ti-salt flocculated BTSE and titania photocatalysts. Titania photocatalysts were produced from incineration of Ti-salt flocculated sludge at 600°C. The physio-chemical properties of BTSE, Ti-salt flocculated BTSE and titania photocatalysts were investigated. The photocatalytic activity of titania was examined using different substrates of rhodamine B and humic acid under UV light irradiation. Results indicated that the flocculation performance of Ti-salt was not affected by the seasonal variation of BTSE. BTSE characteristics resulted in marginal effect in titania characterisation and photocatalytic activity. Titania photocatalysts produced from Ti-salt flocculated sludge in different seasons showed constant anatase phase, high BET surface area and high photocatalytic activity. PMID:21144742

  19. Eichhornia crassipes as a potential phytoremediation agent and an important bioresource for Asia Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhat Kumar Rai; Mayanglambam Muni Singh

    2016-01-01

    Eichhornia crassipes is a free floating plant found growing in almost all the aquatic environment of Asia Pacific region. The invasive and infesting nature of this plant disturbed the whole environment wherever if present and has become one of the most problematic environmental concern. The current review discussed the cost-effective and eco-friendly way of utilizing this invasive and infesting plant in a way to incur the daily needs and also help in controlling the negative outcome. Developm...

  20. Eichhornia crassipes as a potential phytoremediation agent and an important bioresource for Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes is a free floating plant found growing in almost all the aquatic environment of Asia Pacific region. The invasive and infesting nature of this plant disturbed the whole environment wherever if present and has become one of the most problematic environmental concern. The current review discussed the cost-effective and eco-friendly way of utilizing this invasive and infesting plant in a way to incur the daily needs and also help in controlling the negative outcome. Development of the technology and used in accumulation and absorption of the heavy metals and other nutrients under phytoremediation from the aquatic bodies, biofuel and biogas production through fermentation and decomposition, fertilizer production through composting / vermicomposting, production of feeds for animal and many more utilities which are beneficial is discussed in this review. The review paper also deals with this multifaceted utility approach of this plant and their application in management.

  1. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources - Development of antifungal and-or nitrogen fixative microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sung; Kim, Soo Ki; Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Jung Suk [Paichai University, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    (1) In this study, the antifungal bacterial eight strains were isolated from various environment located in Chung-cheong area, Korea. These isolates were identified the genera Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis. Especially, strain KL2143, 2367 were identified as Bacillus subtilis (KL2143/KL2367) and strain KL2326, KL2314 identified as Pseudomonas aurantiaca have never been reported internationally. Considering antifungal(AF) spectrum of strain KL2143 show the broad range of AF activity on a number of pathogenic fungi. Therefore, strain KL2143 was selected with the strong candidate of antifungal bacteria on every purpose and usage related with our research goal. (2) Optimal conditions for the production of antifungal material were analyzed under various environmental conditions (carbon source, nitrogen source, phosphate concentration, pH, temperature, amino acids, vitamins). Growth rates were different according to carbon and nitrogen source, antifungal material production yield were not different, however. Product of antifungal material according to phosphate is proportional to concentration; the higher in high concentration and the low in lower concentration. And productivity of antifungal material is was generally high in the range 30 - 37 deg C at pH7 and in case of adding vitamin B12, lysine and aginine to medium it was enhanced. (3) Moreover, bio-degradability upon agricultural substance and organic substances by AF bacteria was strikingly effective. (4) AF stains were screened and selected from this research can be used in the microbial biocides as well as multifunctional bio-controllers in order to remove plant pathogenic fungi and to clarify the polluted environment. Due to their excellent degradation capability for agricultural and/or organic substances, they also can be used to improve soil quality, to ferment compost and to clean up the environment. (5) Establishment of a new technology for the formulation of microbial fungicide will transferred to the domestic companies, as well as to be exported to foreign countries. (author). 16 refs., 9 tabs.

  2. PosMed: ranking genes and bioresources based on Semantic Web Association Study

    OpenAIRE

    Makita, Yuko; Kobayashi, Norio; Yoshida, Yuko; Doi, Koji; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Nishikata, Koro; Matsushima, Akihiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ishii, Manabu; Takatsuki, Terue; Bhatia, Rinki; Khadbaatar, Zolzaya; Watabe, Hajime; Masuya, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Positional MEDLINE (PosMed; http://biolod.org/PosMed) is a powerful Semantic Web Association Study engine that ranks biomedical resources such as genes, metabolites, diseases and drugs, based on the statistical significance of associations between user-specified phenotypic keywords and resources connected directly or inferentially through a Semantic Web of biological databases such as MEDLINE, OMIM, pathways, co-expressions, molecular interactions and ontology terms. Since 2005, PosMed has lo...

  3. BOUNDARY CRISIS OF ATTRACTOR IN THE SIMULATION CAUSES OF THE DEGRADATION OF COMMERCIAL BIORESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yu. Perevarukha

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the computational model that unites the formalization of ecological features of the reproductive cycle of anadromous fish and the possibility of studying nonlinear effects in the population dynamics under anthropogenic impact. Event-driven component implemented in continuous time has allowed us to take into account changes in the survival generation in interrelation with the factors of growth rate. Discrete component trajectory of the dynamical system has two areas of at...

  4. BOUNDARY CRISIS OF ATTRACTOR IN THE SIMULATION CAUSES OF THE DEGRADATION OF COMMERCIAL BIORESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Perevarukha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the computational model that unites the formalization of ecological features of the reproductive cycle of anadromous fish and the possibility of studying nonlinear effects in the population dynamics under anthropogenic impact. Event-driven component implemented in continuous time has allowed us to take into account changes in the survival generation in interrelation with the factors of growth rate. Discrete component trajectory of the dynamical system has two areas of attraction and is characterized by the reverse tangent bifurcation due to the impact of fishing, which dramatically transforms the population with the condition of irregular fluctuations in low numbers. The further emergence of «boundary crisis» for the interval attractor describes a common scenario an irreversible degradation of biological resources.

  5. Interlab Cell Line Collection: Bioresource of Established Human and Animal Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi, Barbara; Aresu, Ottavia; Visconti, Paola; Manniello, Maria Assunta; Strada, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The Interlab Cell Line Collection (ICLC) was established in 1994 as a core facility of the National Institute of Cancer Research. It supplies: human and animal cell lines; Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling of human cell lines; quality control service; mycoplasma detection and eradication service; safe deposit service and patent deposit service of cell lines and hybridomas. The catalogue of services is on-line, and the cell lines are distributed all over the world. 

  6. Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes): A Potential Bioresource for Commercialization in Sikkim Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Bharat Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis has a long history of use in Tibetan traditional medicine and traditional Chinese medicine as a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac. The species is inextricably linked to the trade of medicinal and aromatic plants in East Asia. Its demand has increased substantially in the international market, and its collection and trade have significantly improved the socioeconomic status of the people in some regions. Nonetheless, in Sikkim this resource is still untapped formally, but it is traded illegally. Formal legalization and the community's involvement will ensure the conservation and sustainability of the species, as well as proper management of harvesting areas and monitoring of pressure on Yartsa Gunbu to exploit it. PMID:27481300

  7. From bio-resources to industry. Agrice 2 Activity report 2001-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofuels and bio-products are no longer a domain restricted to specialists, they are now a commercial reality. Growing awareness of the ways in which biomass can help combat climate change has led to concrete decisions in France and at the European level. The French biofuels plan that calls for 7% biofuels in motor fuels by 2010 is underway. Plant-based chemicals and biomaterials are now emerging as major strategic sectors. The French President has outlined the goals for bio-products: in 2015 they should represent the equivalent of 15% of the volume of petroleum devoted to non-energy uses. A strategic plan for bio-products is now being elaborated. The considerable amount of research accomplished in recent years has open-ed up these new perspectives, particularly work done under the auspices of the scientific interest group AGRICE, whose second charter agreement is now coming to a close (2001-2007). Following an evaluation conducted in 2006, one must emphasise the highly positive results of the action undertaken by AGRICE, and of ADEME's management of the group, concerning technological development, structuring of actors in the economy, and dissemination of information pertaining to biofuels and bio-products. With biomass a new industrial era is commencing, in the same way that oil took off in the preceding century. France has substantial advantages at its disposal for entering these new markets: its agricultural and forestry potential, and its enterprises. The ambitious goals that have been announced require a veritable change of scale in terms of resources devoted to research in this field, along the lines of the trends in the main competitor countries (Germany, United States, Japan). These goals call for the creation of a national bio-products research programme under the current framework, alongside the programme devoted to bio-energy. The wealth of experience compiled by AGRICE and revealed in this report, under ADEME's direction, should be exploited in the framework of this new programme. This AGRICE 2001-2007 activity report presents: - the AGRICE's Profile, Structure and operations; - Scope of AGRICE's activity and 2001-2007 AGRICE II activity, 2001-2007 Applications; - sectors of activity: bio-energy, bio-products, Biomaterials; - AGRICE Activities from 2001 to 2007: Role and activities, Knowledge, Market studies, Environmental impact studies, Resources, Communication (Conferences and Technical study days Publications), Extracting value, Industrial success stories, International networks and programmes, Evaluation of AGRICE II (objectives, Principal findings and recommendations); In appendix: the Financial statement 2007 and 2001-2007; the evaluation of projects by theme; The topical breakdown of subsidies allocated by AGRICE (2001-2007); the projects initiated from 2001 to 2007; the members of the group council and AGRICE representatives; the AGRICE team

  8. EDTA Modified Irvingia gabonensis: An Efficient Bioresource Material for the Removal of Rhodamine B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Inyinbor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available EDTA modified dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis (EMDN has been prepared, its physicochemical characteristics were determined and it was characterized using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area of EMDN was obtained to be 8.092 m2/g. Its efficiency in the uptake of Rhodamine B (RhB from aqueous effluent was investigated and maximum adsorption was recorded at pH 6. Adsorption data fitted best into the Freundlich adsorption isotherm than the Langmuir, Temkin and Dubinin Raduskevich (D-R models, the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (qmax obtained from the Langmuir equation was obtained to be 532.27 mg/g and the mean sorption energy (E calculated from the D-R model was less than 8 kJmol-1 suggesting that the adsorption process was physical in nature. Pseudo second order better described the kinetics of adsorption than the pseudo first order. Desorption percentage of RhB from EMDN surface was found to be low for all the desorbing eluents used and HCl has the highest desorption percentage of 17.75%.

  9. DWARF-GREEN COCONUT FIBERS: A VERSATILE NATURAL RENEWABLE RAW BIORESOURCE. TREATMENT, MORPHOLOGY, AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena A. Esmeraldo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dwarf-green coconut fibers were modified by alkali treatment and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, as well as thermogravimetric (TGA, mechanical, and dielectric analyses. Changes in composition, structure, and morphology of the coconut fibers were observed after sodium hydroxide treatments due to the removal of lignin, hemicellulose, and other impurities. The XRD data were in agreement with the morphological analysis, where the crystallinity fraction increased with the concentration of alkali solution and fell off above 10%. The infrared spectrometry showed the partial dissolution of hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin, which was clearly identified by the band at 1736 cm-1. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a double degradation process for the untreated dwarf-green coconut fibers, while a single one was observed after the pretreatment. The tensile properties showed an increased elongation at break, modulus, and strength, and the dielectric results showed a decrease of all parameters (permittivity, dielectric loss, and conductivity, reflecting the reduced dipole and ion mobility associated with the loss of amorphous components.

  10. Problems of the protection of bioresources development ofthe Bovanenkovo gas condensate field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dmitrievich Bogdanov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The data on the fish fauna and fish food resources in the Bovanenkovo gas field are presented. The estimation of fishery and fishery potential of water bodies, hydrobiological characteristics of water bodies in the studied area are given. It is shown that the arrangement of the gas field leads to overfishing BGKM fish and change the state of aquatic ecosystems associated with the violation of runoff, backfilling flood waters, crossing streams communications, water diversion, pollution, sand mining. Thehydrobionts reaction to anthropogenic influence in the area of the gas field developmentis identified and recommendations to reduce the impact on aquatic ecosystems in the period of construction are given

  11. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources - Development of antifungal and/or nitrogen fixative microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sung; Ko, Dong Kyu; Han, Gab Jin [Paichai University, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    (1) In this study, the antifungal bacteria six strains were isolated from various environment located in Chung-cheong area, Korea. These isolates were identified the genera Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis. Strains KL3362 and KL3397 were identified as Pseudomonas aurantiaca and Alcaligenes faecalis, respectively. Considering antifungal(AF) spectrum, strain KL3303, 3334, and 3341 show the broad range, KL3362 and KL3397 the narrow range of AF activity on a number of pathogenic fungi. Therefore, strains KL3341 and KL3362 were selected as the strong candidate of antifungal bacteria on every purpose and usage related with our research goal. (2) KL3341 producing-antifungal substances were consisted of five different kinds of low molecular weight polypeptides (3) Optimal conditions for the production of antifungal substances were analyzed under various environmental conditions. Growth rates were different according to carbon and nitrogen source, antifungal substance production yields were not different, however. Product of antifungal substances according t phosphate is proportional to the concentration. And productivity of antifungal substances was generally high in the range 30 {approx} 37 deg. C at pH 7. In case of adding vitamin B1 or lysine to medium, the antifungal activity was enhanced. (4) Mutants with enhanced antifungal activities were constructed by radiation of {gamma}-ray. (5) AF strains were screened and selected from this research can be used in the microbial biocides as well as multifunctional bio-controllers in order to remove plant pathogenic fungi and to clarify the polluted environment. Due to their excellent degradation capability for agricultural and/or organic substances, they also can be used to improve soil quality, to ferment compost and to clean up the environment. 35 refs., 17 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  12. Simulation by using model of two species of biomass on biological phosphorus removal processes. Seibutsugaku teki datsu rin katei no niso seibutsu model ni yoru simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H.; Suzuki, M. (Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Industrial Science)

    1990-07-10

    This study experimented with a simple model on the process of biological phosphorus removal by anaerobic/aerobic processes in order to estimate the changes in the concentration of phosphorus and biomass. In this model, assuming that an active sludge is constituted of two phases of phosphorus removability and non-phosphorus removability in microorganisms, characteristics in the change of concentrations of phosphous and biomass in a cycle period were examined. According to the study on the factors affecting the phosphorus concentration change during a cycle period, content of microorganisms capable of removing phosphorus in the chamber and the concentration of organic materials in the initial anaerobic stage greatly influence the behavior of phosphorus. In addition, the comparative study with the experimental results indicates that this model can roughly, accurately express the characteristics of concentration change. However, the future problem left is a proposal of a model which can apply to the accummulation and and decomposition of the biomass in the non-phosphorus microorganisms. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Organisms adaptable concrete. Eco-concrete for fresh water area; Seibutsu to kyoseisuru eco-concrete. Tansuiiki taiogata eco-concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, k. [Hokkaido Development Bureau, Hokkaido Development Agency, Sapporo (Japan); Shindo, K. [Kyowa Concrete Industry Co. Ltd., Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Described herein are the current statuses of organisms in fresh water and organisms adaptable concrete for fresh water use, and results of the tests in which cylindrical blocks of porous concrete are placed in fresh water to follow types of organisms clinging to them and temporal changes in their numbers. These tests have confirmed that porous concrete can be used as the one compatible with the environment, because large quantities of aqueous insects and algae are found to cling to these blocks. The major findings are: larger quantities of aqueous insects cling to porous concrete than to ordinary one, and sometimes than to natural river floors; no effect of concrete composition on algae clinging thereto is observed; types of algae clinging to porous concrete are diversified with time; and it is possible to minimize changes in natural environments by replacing ordinary concrete by porous one. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the development of technologies for utilizing biological resources such as complex biosystems. Development of technologies for producing substitute fuel for petroleum by utilizing organisms; 1997 nendo fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Technologies of producing useful substances using the substance decomposing/producing functions of complex biosystems and methods of their handling are developed. In the utilization of microbes in the digestive tracts of termites and longicorns, it is made clear that several kinds of termites cleave the {beta}-O-4 ether linkage. In relation to technologies for wood decomposing complex microbial system construction and complex vector system development, a screening system is constructed in which strains that exhibit complex actions are combined. Concerning the advanced utilization of tropical oil plants, conditions are determined for inducing callus out of oil palm tissues. Out of oil palm sarcocarp tissues, mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) is isolated for the construction of a cDNA (complementary deoxyribonucleic acid) library. For the purpose of isolating a powerful promoter, a partial base sequence is determined for ubiquitin that frequently expresses itself in cells. A pathogenic bacterium ailing the oil palm is sampled for identification, and it is inferred that the bacterium is a kind of Ganoderma boninense. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1997 report on the results of the industrial technology R and D project. Development of technology to use biological resources such as the complex biological system (Development of biological use petroleum substitution fuel production technology); 1997 nendo fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Experimental researches were conducted and the FY 1997 results were reported with the aim of establishing analytical technology for the complex biological system by which the complex biological system can be analyzed in such a state as it is using the molecular biological method. In the study of the molecular genetic analytical technology, PCR primers used for amplification of topoisomerase II genes of the whole eukaryote was designed. As to the histochemical analytical technology, a study was made on the new constitution microorganism detection method by the hybridization method and the antibody specific dyeing method, and the following were conducted: manifestation in quantity of colibacillus and the recovery, refining, and construction of peptide library by fuzzy display method. Concerning the functional analytical technology, technological researches were made such as the environmental adaptation mechanism of high thermophile and the information transfer mechanism among bacteria through cell membranes for elucidation of the special environment detection/response mechanism and the special environment adaptation/resistance mechanism. As to the separation/culture technology, various anaerobic microorganisms were separated from marine sponge for the development of a method of culturing in 3D matrices. (NEDO)

  16. Agrice 2004. Activity report - from bio-resources to industry; Agrice 2004. Rapport d'activite - des bioressources a l'industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    It has been ten years since AGRICE was founded to support technological research in the field of bio-products. Even if bio-products are indeed a commercial reality, and growing in diversity, they are still marginal in the marketplace. However, the amplification of the greenhouse effect, our increasing energy dependence, the inexorable rise in oil prices, international competition and the emergence of a genuine political awareness are all factors that converge in favour of bio-products, offering a promising future. Of course, the development of bio-products is dependent on a number of conditions: biomass resources, technological advances, mobilisation of actors through dynamic research programmes (conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for alternative fuels or hydrogen, bio-technology applied to chemicals), new agro-industrial supply chains, financial instruments to bridge the cost gap with fossil fuels, a national strategy supported by a public authority dedicated to non-food uses. In the immediate future, the recent decision to open up the biofuels market via implementation of the European biofuels directive (5.75% of the market in 2010) provides an opportunity to lay the groundwork for a veritable industry of plant-based products, opening the way to the bio-refineries of the future. There is considerable potential for the development of bio-products in France. An additional 25 to 30 million tonnes-oil-equivalent (toe) of agricultural and forestry biomass could be processed into energy and industrial bio-products in France. Accordingly we can set our sights on an overall objective of substituting plant feedstocks for petroleum used in fuels and chemicals, on the order of 10% in 2020, and 20 to 30% by 2030-2050. To achieve these goals many technological advances will be necessary, with constant attention to the requirements of sustainable development. In this respect AGRICE is an invaluable tool for guiding, catalysing and supporting research efforts in these fields. The AGRICE 2004 activity report presents: - the AGRICE's Profile, Scope of activity, Structure and operations and Project management, the Treatment of results; - AGRICE's sectors of activity: in energy (Liquid biofuels for vehicles, Non-vehicle biofuels), and in chemicals (Biomolecules, Biomaterials); - the year 2004: Financial statement and applications, Noteworthy achievements, Events, Working groups, Europe-wide activities and collaborations. In appendix: the Projects initiated in 2004, the Projects completed in 2004, the Financial statement 1994-2004, the Breakdown of aid by sector (1994-2004), the Partners and members of the Group Council and The AGRICE team

  17. Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f) Ettingsh (Neem mistletoe): A potent bioresource to fabricate silver nanoparticles for anticancer effect against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Gobinath, Chandrakasan; Wilson, Arockiyasamy; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal

    2014-07-01

    Fabrication of metal nano scale particles through environmentally acceptable greener route has been focused with much interest in the present scenario. In this study aqueous leaf extract of mistletoe Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f) Ettingsh was successfully employed as a reducing and stabilizing agent to fabricate nanosilver particles (AgNPs) for biomedical applications. Various reactions conditions such as temperature, pH, concentration of metal ion, incubation time and stoichiometric proportion of the reaction mixture were optimized to attain narrow size range particles with maximum synthesis rate. Fabricated crystalline AgNPs with spherical structure (5-45 nm) were characterized with UV-Visible spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and Selected area diffraction pattern (SEAD). Further the fabricated AgNPs were studied for their stability and surface chemistry through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Moreover, fabricated AgNPs and aqueous leaf extract were assessed for their cytotoxicity effect against human breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). It is concluded that colloidal AgNPs can be developed as an imminent candidature for cancer therapy.

  18. l-Lactic acid production by combined utilization of agricultural bioresources as renewable and economical substrates through batch and repeated-batch fermentation of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Lebaka Veeranjaneya; Kim, Young-Min; Yun, Jong-Sun; Ryu, Hwa-Won; Wee, Young-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 was used to produce l-lactic acid from hydrol, soybean curd residues (SCR), and malt. Hydrol was efficiently metabolized to l-lactic acid with optical purity of >97.5%, though hydrol contained mixed sugars such as glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltodextrin. Combined utilization of hydrol, SCR, and malt was enough to sustain lactic acid fermentation by E. faecalis RKY1. In order to reduce the amount of nitrogen sources and product inhibition, cell-recycle repeated-batch fermentation was employed, where a high cell mass (26.3g/L) was obtained. Lactic acid productivity was improved by removal of lactic acid from fermentation broth by membrane filtration and by linearly increased cell density. When the total of 10 repeated-batch fermentations were carried out using 100g/L hydrol, 150g/L SCR hydrolyzate, and 20g/L malt hydrolyzate as the main nutrients, lactic acid productivity was increased significantly from 3.20g/L/h to 6.37g/L/h. PMID:26970921

  19. Investigation of the Larvicidal Potential of Silver Nanoparticles against Culex quinquefasciatus: A Case of a Ubiquitous Weed as a Useful Bioresource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah T. Adesuji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Cassia hirsuta aqueous leaf extract were reported in this study. The synthesis was optimized by measuring various parameters such as temperature, time, volume ratio, and concentration. The surface plasmon resonance at 440 nm for 30°C and 420 nm for both 50°C and 70°C measured using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer confirmed the formation of AgNPs synthesized using C. hirsuta (CAgNPs. The functional groups responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the NPs were identified using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. The morphology, size, and elemental composition of the NPs were obtained using scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. X-ray diffractometer was used to identify the phases and crystallinity of CAgNPs. Crystalline spherical NPs with average diameter of 6.9 ± 0.1 nm were successfully synthesized. The thermal analysis of CAgNPs was observed from DSC-TGA. The larvicidal results against the different larva instar stage of Culex quinquefasciatus gave LC50 = 4.43 ppm and LC90 = 8.37 ppm. This is the first study on the synthesis of AgNPs using C. hirsuta and its application against lymphatic filariasis vector. Hence, it is suggested that the C. hirsuta synthesized AgNPs would be environmentally benign in biological control of mosquito.

  20. Products Based on Bio-Resourced Materials for Agriculture. Radiation Processed Biodegradable Polymers, Plant Growth Promoters and Superabsorbent Polymers. Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-processed natural polymers and their derivatives, namely starch, alginate, chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were explored for different agricultural applications such as biodegradable mulch films, super adsorbent polymers (SAPs), and plant growth promoters (PGPs). It was observed that gamma radiation-processed starch can lead to a better processability of starch/synthetic polymer alloys, and can offer tuneable biodegradability (as low as one month) with acceptable physico-mechanical properties. Acrylic acid/CMC-based SAP was prepared using 60Co gamma radiation, for soil conditioning. The equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the acrylic acid/CMC SAP was found to be 460 g/g. The field trial of the SAP was conducted on sorghum. It was found that, with the use of 20 kg/ha of SAP, the crop yield can be increased by almost 18.5% whereas the increase in plant height was 8.5%. A new super adsorbent polymer with a much higher water uptake capacity was also developed by adding a small fraction of carrageenan to neutralized acrylic acid (AA). This SAP had EDS of 800 g/g, with the addition of only 1% carrageenan. Experiments to check the soil conditioning efficacy of AA/carrageenan SAP are in progress. Oligomers of chitosan and alginates were prepared by gamma irradiation and were tried as plant growth promoters in wheat (Triticum aestivum), mung bean (Vigna radiata), linseed (Linum usitatissimum), mentha (Mentha arvensis), and lemon grass. The results suggest that these oligomers have a significant impact on the grain and oil yield. Large scale field trials on Mentha arvensis in collaboration with an industry are in progress, and efforts are going on to formulate a policy framework for the use of oligosaccharides as plant growth promoters. (author)

  1. Fiscal 1998 research report on the basic study on the effect of microgravity on living individuals; Bisho juryoku no seibutsu kotai ni taisuru eikyo no kiso kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to clarify the effect of microgravity on vital functions and organisms at a cell level, this research studies the molecular biological response function of higher animals, the gravity acceptable mechanism of single-cell organisms, the effect of gravity on geotaxis of insects, measurement of monoamine system neurotransmitters of rat hippocampus by dialysis in a brain and the effect of microgravity on it, the effect of microgravity on water and bone metabolism functions and immunity function, and the analysis of BZ reaction as a simple model of vital reaction. The themes of the research are as follows: the effect of microgravity environment on cell fusion, the analysis of gravity acceptable mechanisms of single-cell organisms, the effect of oriental medical treatment on bone metabolism anomaly of mouses under microgravity environment, the effect of oriental medical treatment on change in physiological function under microgravity environment, the effect of microgravity environment on immunity systems, the effect of gravity on cell activities, the effect of a gravity field on chemical oscillation reaction, and the effect of gravity on geotaxis of insects. (NEDO)

  2. Development of constructed wetland using hydroponic biofilter method for purification of hyper-eutrophic lake water; Fueiyoka kosui no joka no tameno suiko seibutsu rokaho wo mochiita jinko shicchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizaki, M. [Shimane Univ., Matsue (Japan)] Nakasato, H. [Top Ecology Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-10

    Applying the hydroponic biofilter method as a direct purification method for a hyper-eutrophic lake water, an experiment was carried out at the Tsuchiura Port on Lake Kasumigaura to obtain data for constructing a hydrophilic artificial wetland. Purification of hyper-eutrophic lake water containing a large amount of water blooms in summer was attempted applying the hydroponic biofilter method for which hydrophyte is used. As a result, it was clarified, by applying the hydroponic biofilter method, that capturing effect of suspended substances can be achieved in the rooting zone, captured suspended substances are decomposed at high rate, and the revolved nutrient salt can be absorbed and assimilated by the use of plants having high growth rates. Ipomoea aquatica had the highest removal activity, followed by nasturtium officinal, menthe spicata, and oenanthe javanica. As a result, it became clear that a constructed wetland made with the hydroponic biofilter method can be applied as a direct purifying method for hyper-eutrophic lake water by selecting appropriate plants in accordance with season. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Basic research on metallic peptides in marine organisms and microbes; 2000 nendo kaiyo seibutsu oyobi biseibutsu no kinzoku ketsugo pepchido ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research is conducted to collect findings on new metallic peptides and proteins which will work effectively in the bio-remediation of heavy metal pollution and in the collection of useful metals. In this fiscal year, primary evaluation methods for metal resistant bacteria are prepared so as to discover new metallic peptides, sampling was carried out at four sites which are characteristically different from each other, and more than 100 strains of metal resistant bacteria were obtained. Out of them, Ni enriched bacteria whose growth is accelerated in the presence of Ni and like others were found out. In another effort, a high concentration Cr resistant bacterium was examined, and it was learned that it exhibits its resistance by reducing hexavalent Cr to trivalent Cr. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was applied to the analysis of a culture process involving metal addition and accumulation, and the result indicated that a study of details of accumulation culture conditions would be necessary to find out strains that remain undiscovered. It is expected that peptides equipped with sophisticate functions may be obtained when details including sampling points are studied and the result is fed back to the sampling process. (NEDO)

  4. Investigations on a global environment improving technology utilizing biological functions. 2. Structuring a ligno-bioprocess; Seibutsu kino wo riyoshita chikyu kankyo kaizen gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. 2. Riguno bio process no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Discussions were given to reserve global environments on reducing dependence on fossil resources and more effectively utilizing wood resources. Economically utilizable amount of wastes from lumbering factories reaches about five million tons annually. Discussions were made on a ligno-bioprocess that uses these wastes. The current quantitative production efficiency of cellulase by means of bacterial breeding is very high. A problem is production of ligninolytic enzymes, to which application of the recombinant DNA method is indispensable. Combination of steam explosion with biological decomposition or the organosolv process is an effective method for lignin decomposition. Decomposition of cellulose by using the ultra critical water method is worth noticing. With respect to hemicellulose utilization, production of cellulose derivatives, biodegradable polymers and oligosaccharides would be conceivable by means of esterification and etherification. Vanillinic acid, adhesives, resins and lignin-based polymer materials could be manufactured from lignin. Material cost for these products accounts for about 35% of the product price, thus making the lignochemicals promising commercial products. 301 refs., 71 figs., 39 tabs.

  5. Sample Set (SE): SE54 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ic profiling of large-scale bioresources We established a novel methodology, termed widely targeted metabolo...ucted a targeted metabolite analysis of large-scale Arabidopsis bioresources, nam

  6. Research and development achievement report for fiscal 1998 on accelerated type biological function construction technologies. Development of new-type advanced-function enzyme creating technologies; 1998 nendo kasokugata seibutsu kino kochiku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shingata kokino koso sosei gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An artificial mutation/selection system was constructed in a laboratory based on molecular-level findings collected about the biological evolution mechanism, and biotechnology was studied for creating excellent biological functions. In the study of novel mutation generating technologies, selection is performed after the formation of numerous chimera enzymes by a family shuffling process using resistance to heat as the index. Then, a hybrid enzyme with its resistance to heat more than 10 times higher than that of the parent enzyme was obtained. In the study of establishing coordination between genotype and phenotype, a highly sensitive bacterial coordination technology was developed, and a highly sensitive detection method was constructed using a flow cytometer. As for technologies of highly efficient selection, a research was conducted about the selection of catalytic antibodies equipped with protease and esterase activity. In the study of technologies for enhancing adaptive walk in an evolution experimenting system, the usefulness is studied of a terrain survey based on the adaptive walk theory and a high-efficiency adaptive walk method using the mutation scrambling method. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1993 technological survey report. R and D project for industrial science and technology (Assignment by NEDO/R and D of biochip - survey on biological research of biochip); 1993 nendo bio soshi no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Bio soshi seibutsu kenkyu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    As a part of the R and D of a biochip, for the purpose of establishing fundamental technology in connection with a biochip having a new function that is nonexistent in a semiconductor, a committee for biological research and survey of biochip was organized, operating research activities, surveying and compiling research situations and technological trend at the forefront of each field, in regard to information processing in the biological field, brain-memory related information processing in the medical field, and biologically simulated information processing in the engineering field. The results were summarized in the following seven areas. 1. neurology of memory, 2. the frontal lobe and recognition, 3. function of the olfactory lobe and neural connection between the olfactory lobe and the hippocampus, 4. the cerebral fundus nucleus and function, 5. coordinate change from vision to motion in the brain, and 6. control of transient potassium current by the astroglia cell in the mouth and the hippocampus cultured nerve cell. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1997 R/D project of industrial and scientific technologies contracted with NEDO. Report on technology development of utilization of biological resources such as bioconsortia (development of analytical techniques of bioconsortia); 1997 nendo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu (fukugo seibutsukei kaiseki gijutsu no kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Bioconsortia are microbial composites composing of more than two kinds of microorganisms with special functions. To utilize their advanced functions, some techniques have been developed for analyzing their functions and interactions, and for identification, separation and incubation of the constituent microbial groups. In FY 1997, an investigation was made on technology trends, domestic researchers, and research topics related to bioconsortia. To manage and promote the progress of research at the National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology where the centralized management of this project is conducted, meetings are held once a month to examine the progress at the institute, in which reports are made and discussions are held on how each research item is progressing. In addition, meetings of the committee to promote research are held every other month to consider and examine measures required for promoting the research. Re-entrustment of research has been made on two subjects, i.e., `Studies on biological significance of symbiotic microorganisms` by Prof. Ishikawa of the University of Tokyo, and `Study on the relationship between the biosynthesis of useful terpenic materials of plant origin and the differentiation of plant tissues, and their effective production by plant cell cultures` by Prof. Inoue of Gifu Pharmaceutical University. 27 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. FY 1998 report on the results of the development of utilization technology of biological resources such as bioconsortia. Development of the bioconsortia system utilization/production technology; 1998 nendo fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Fukugo seibutsukei riyo seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For the purpose of developing the industrial utilization technology, analysis was made of functions and interactions of the specified functional biological groups, and at the same time the developmental study was made of the technology to isolate/culture the constitutive biological groups. The FY 1998 results were summed up. As to the technology to detect microorganisms in soil, the SFDA method was improved and the new dyeing method was developed. And, there almost was hope for the development. Concerning the functional analysis technology, the functional substances peculiarly manifested only in the complex system in the ocean environment are searched. Several kinds of compounds were found out, and at the same time the test to confirm the biological activity is under way. Relating to the isolation/culture technology, study was made on rotten fruit, and the existence in the sample of the microorganisms which are difficult in isolation/culture was newly confirmed. In regard to the culture of the microorganisms which are difficult in isolation/culture, availability of the replica method was found out. As to the technology to produce functional substances, studies were made on the following: utilization technology of the environmental harmony type oil/water separation polymer producing microbial consortia, method to artificially make gene exchanges in the microbial consortia, etc. (NEDO)

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the development of technologies for utilizing biological resources such as complex biosystems. Development of complex biosystem analyzing technology; 1997 nendo fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Fukugo seibutsukei kaiseki gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The aim is to utilize the sophisticated functions of complex biosystems. In the research and development of technologies for effectively utilizing unexploited resources and substances such as seeweeds and algae, seaweeds are added to seawater to turn into a microbial suspension after the passage of two weeks, the suspension is next scattered on a carageenan culture medium, and then carageenan decomposing microbes are obtained. In the research and development of technologies for utilizing microbe/fauna-flora complex systems, technologies for exploring and analyzing microbes are studied. For this purpose, 48 kinds of sponges and 300 kinds of bacteria symbiotic with the sponges are sampled in Malaysia. Out of them, 15 exhibit enzyme inhibition and Artemia salina lethality activities. In the development of technologies for analyzing the functions of microbes engaged in the production of useful resources and substances for animals and plants, 150 kinds of micro-algae are subjected to screening using protease and chitinase inhibiting activities as the indexes, and it is found that an extract of Isochrysis galbana displays an intense inhibitory activity. The alga is cultured in quantities, the active component is isolated from 20g of dried alga, and its constitution is determined. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1998 R and D of utilization of biological resources such as those in bioconsortia. Report on development results of techniques for utilization/production of organisms in bioconsortia; 1998 nendo fukugo seibutsukeinado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Fukugo seibutsukei riyo seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The objectives are set to analyze functions and interactions of organisms having specific functions, to develop the techniques for isolating and cultivating the constituent organisms, and thereby to develop the techniques for their industrial utilization, in order to develop the techniques for handling organisms in bioconsortia as the techniques to utilize their functions, e.g., production and decomposition of materials, and also to develop the techniques for culturing/controlling microorganisms in bioconsortia and for strengthening their functions. The FY 1998 themes are development of the functional material production technology, and comprehensive study for the project. More concretely, the former includes histochemical analytical technology (development of techniques for detecting microorganisms in soil, and of techniques for in-situ detection/isolation of specific microorganisms in bioconsortia and for analysis their functions), isolation and culture technology (development of detection, separation and cultivation technology of microorganisms that are not easily cultured), functional substance production technology (technical utilization of microbial consortia for production of environment-friendly oil/water separation polymers), and functional material production technology (development of methods for artificial gene exchange in microbial consortia). (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Venture business fostering regional consortium in its 2nd year--Creation of key industries (Development of manufacturing system for multiple applications of biological resources); 1998 nendo yuyo seibutsu shigen no tamokuteki riyo no tame no kako seizo system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development is conducted to collect intermediate products from Okinawan herbs for the production of antioxidant products usable for various purposes. Substance-producing plants are screened and the substances they offer are assessed for antioxidant activity, extracted, processed, prepared for market, and checked for safety. At the Okinawa Industrial Technology Center, a DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)/microplate method has been established, which promptly measures the antioxidant activity of the substances. Using this technology, the divisions concerned of industrial, academic, and governmental organizations cooperate with each other over the optimization of herb cultivation technology, development of a herbal ingredient analyzing technology, efficacy of herbs, development of a safety assessment system, development of a technology for the effective extraction, processing, and preparation of herbal ingredients, and the development of a technology of assessing antioxidant intermediate products for their efficacy. As the result, a technology is established of producing intermediate antioxidant products from Guava, Ryukyuyomogi, and Ukonisomatsu. They are unique Okinawan products, and sell at 40,000-50,000 yen. Since the prices are equal to or lower than the prices of other antioxidant intermediate products, probabilities are very high that they will get into markets in Japan proper. (NEDO)

  13. Research Groups & Research Subjects: 2208 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2208 Mie University Faculty of Bioresources, Laboratory of Plant Molecular ... Genetics and Breeding ... Tuchiya.Tohru Molecular ... Analysis of Self-Incompatibility Related Genes of ...

  14. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the technology of accelerated formation of bio-functions (R and D of the technology of creation of novel advanced enzymes); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Kasokugata seibutsu kino kochiku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (shingata kokino koso sosei gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes R and D on creation technique of novel advanced enzymes. In fiscal 1997, a novel mutagenesis technique was developed to obtain more kinds of mutational genes by shuffling between clonal genes as compared with the previous homogeneous recombination. A genotype- and phenotype-linking technology was developed by expressing random motifs (peptide as components of the active site of protein) on bacteria, and by developing a single-motif protein library. Study was made on a selection system for functional molecules of catalytic activities in a gene level, and a selection system for function of signal transduction. Analysis and evaluation study on vitro experimental technology can be efficiently promoted by recognizing the fitness landscape of target protein molecules. As a result, instead of the conventional method which needs several cycles of mutation and screening of 3-4 week/cycle, an efficient method possible to obtain multiple mutants was established. Research work was also promoted by various organizations to develop an accelerated formation technology of bio-functions. 68 refs., 51 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Focusing on agricultural products processing,accelerating the innovation of bio-resources development to push forward the modern food industry in Yunnan%推进云南生物资源开发创新,发展农产品加工为重点的现代食品产业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程达

    2005-01-01

    生物资源开发是云南省具有比较优势的产业,研究了9年来云南生物资源开发的运作理念和发展模式,得出了云南生物资源开发必须实现两个转变的结论.即开发观念从资源开发向"开发中保护,保护式开发"转变;开发方式从资源导向朝市场导向转变.同时深入分析了云南省生物资源的特点,研究了生物资源开发与农业的关系,提出了新形势下云南生物资源开发要以新型工业化的理念,推进农业产业化,实现传统农业向现代农业发展的新思路和对策措施.

  16. Investigation for industrial development related to the establishment of advanced radiation application research center

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y I; Kim In Kyu

    2002-01-01

    To promote an enhance the radiation application research through the cooperation between industry and Advanced Radiation Application Research Center, the related industries with radiation technology were surveyed. The related industries were bioresources, environment control and chemical industries and non-destructive testing including trace technology

  17. Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability. OECD Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Special Issue of Bioresource Technology is dedicated to selected contributions presented at the international Workshop: “Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability,” held 2-4 April, 2008, in Florence, South Carolina (US...

  18. Natural composites: Strength, packing ability and moisture sorption of cellulose fibres, and the related performance of composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Biobased materials are becoming of increasing interest as potential structural materials for the future. A useful concept in this context is the fibre reinforcement of materials by stiff and strong fibres. The bio-resources can contribute with cellulose fibres and (bio) polymers from hemicelluloses...

  19. First report of citrus exocortis viroid and two citrus variants of the hop stunt viroid on lemon in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budwood received from a lemon tree growing at the Bioresources Institute Nakhichivan, Azerbaijan, produced symptoms corresponding with citrus viroids and cachexia on biological indicators ‘S-1’ citron and ‘Parson’s Special’ (PSM) mandarin, respectively. Sequential poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis...

  20. Tissue banking for research--bench to bedside and back--myth, reality or fast fading reality at the dawn of a personalised healthcare era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anup

    2011-02-01

    In this article, the current landscape where bio-resource based research underpins a future paradigm of personalised healthcare is explored and important issues are highlighted. Barriers, challenges and needs are described and suggest a need for re-structuring, resourcing and investment to increase user-friendliness in the clinical setting for future gains, while safeguarding the patient. PMID:20824353

  1. Sources for Imanishi Kinji’s views of sociality and evolutionary outcomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pamela J Asquith

    2007-06-01

    Prior to the contribution of genetics or the modern evolutionary synthesis (MES) to natural selection theory, social ecologists searched for factors in addition to natural selection that could influence species change. The idea that sociality, not just biology, was important in determining evolutionary outcomes was prevalent in research in social ecology in the 1920s and 1930s. The influence of ‘tradition’ (or the transmission of learned behaviours between generations) and the view that animals are active in selecting their own environments, rather than passive organisms acted upon by chance, were given as much attention as natural selection theory in European ecology, while animal aggregation and cooperation studies were pursued in America. Imanishi Kinji’s personal library and his scientific notes and papers reveal that he was well aware of this literature and had been profoundly influenced by these earlier viewpoints prior to writing his view of nature in his first book, Seibutsu no Sekai (The World of Living Things, 1941). Evidence is presented to show that he developed his theories based partly on early western debates in social ecology while finding inspiration and a way to express his views in the writings of philosopher Nishida Kitarō and, perhaps, General J C Smuts. One of Imanishi’s lasting contributions is in the demonstrated results of over 40 years of subsequent ecological and ethological research by Imanishi and those trained by him that maintained the broader viewpoints on evolution that had been dropped from the western corpus of research by the 1950s. The current attempt to again get beyond natural selection theory is reflected in debates surrounding genetic and cultural evolution of cooperation, the biology of ‘traditions’ and the idea of ‘culture’ in animal societies.

  2. An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status ...

  3. Improving Heterogeneous Catalyst Stability for Liquid-phase Biomass Conversion and Reforming

    OpenAIRE

    Héroguel, Florent Emmanuel; Rozmysłowicz, Bartosz; Luterbacher, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a possible renewable alternative to fossil carbon sources. Today, many bio-resources can be converted to direct substitutes or suitable alternatives to fossil-based fuels and chemicals. However, catalyst deactivation under the harsh, often liquid-phase reaction conditions required for biomass treatment is a major obstacle to developing processes that can compete with the petrochemical industry. This review presents recently developed strategies to limit reversible and irreversible ...

  4. 博士後期課程の重点課題に関するシンポジウム「資源循環学専攻に学んで」から見えてきたもの

    OpenAIRE

    石田, 正昭; 波夛野, 豪; 橋本, 篤; 梅川, 逸人; Ishida, Masaaki; Hatano, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Umekawa, Hayato

    2011-01-01

    Major in Sustainable Resource Scciences, Graduate School of Bioresources held a momentous symposium this March. The purpose of this symposium is to clarify the present condition and some tasks in our major, and to improve our activities in research and education. Especially, the verification of the incubation abilities for Japanese researchers is essential for developing our major. The major fact findings are as follows. 1) An individual laboratory has a high ability of education and research...

  5. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES USING CROP PLANT ASSAYS

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Alice Teacă; Ruxanda Bodîrlău

    2008-01-01

    Environmental pollution has a harmful action on bioresources, including agricultural crops. It is generated through many industrial activities such as mining, coal burning, chemical technology, cement production, pulp and paper industry, etc. The toxicity of different industrial wastes and heavy metals excess was evaluated using crop plant assays (germination and hydroponics seedlings growth tests). Experimental data regarding the germination process of wheat (from two cultivars) and rye seed...

  6. Systems biology solutions to challenges in marine biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Gov, Esra; Arga, Kazim Y

    2014-01-01

    Marine biotechnology can be considered as the use of marine bioresources as the target or source of biotechnological applications. Despite many successes have been achieved in marine biotechnology, still many gaps remain to be filled in our basic knowledge on marine science before it could be fully exploited. Systems biology focuses on complex interactions within biological systems, using a holistic approach instead of the traditional reductionism. Marine ecosystems, with different levels of ...

  7. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    OpenAIRE

    Martina eKöberl; Ruth eSchmidt; Elshahat M Ramadan; Rudolf eBauer; Gabriele eBerg

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the...

  8. Learning of the root factors of incidents potentially impacting the biofuel supply chains from some 100 significant cases

    OpenAIRE

    Riviere, Carine; Marlair, Guy; Vignes, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    A biofuel is most often defined as a liquid or gaseous fuel used for transport purposes that can be produced from biomass substrates or bioresources. There are numerous potential supply chains for the production of biofuels, depending on feedstock, conventional or advanced processes, and final end use. AH stakeholders involved in the promotion of more sustainable biofuels highly welcomed the area of industrialization of so called 2nd génération type of biofuels. However existing facilities pr...

  9. Les Biotechnologies Marines dans le Grand Ouest

    OpenAIRE

    Boyen, Catherine; Jaouen, Pascal; Blanchard, Gilbert; Compere, Chantal; Dufour, Alain; Durand, Patrick; Guerard, Fabienne; Hallouin, Florence; Jebbar, Mohamed; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Le Deit, Hervé; Le Seyec, Jocelyne; Monks, Brian; Portal-sellin, Rachel; Probert, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Marine (= blue) biotechnology, i.e. the utilization of marine bio-resources as a target or source of biotechnological applications, is a field with massive potential for innovation and economic growth. In a context of rapid climate change and increasing pressure on natural resources, renewed interest in marine biotechnology has been promoted by application of recent methodological and technological advances, notably in bioprocessing and in the various –omics domains, to the study of marine bi...

  10. The state and trends of fishing activity development in the North-West of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuranov Yu. F.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the dynamics and problems of development of the aqueous bioresources of the Atlantic and Arctic Seas by the enterprises of the Northern basin have been considered. Quantitative and structural changes in the structure of fishing fleet have been shown; the influence of these changes on effectiveness of fishing activity and completeness of the resource base development has been analyzed

  11. Valorisation of fish waste biomass through recovery of nutritional lipids and biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Mbatia, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Commercial fish catch in Eastern Africa is dominated by Nile Perch. Of the fish that is processed for human consumption, 30-40% is wasted. Currently, these wastes are not fully utilized; they are sold off at low price, converted to low valued products or left to decompose leading to environmental pollution and wastage of bioresource. This biomass has however a potential to generate considerable revenue and can be turned into a commercially viable business. It can be used in production of fish...

  12. 岡山大学資源生物科学研究所における屋上緑化による建物冷却効果

    OpenAIRE

    且原, 真木; 田中丸, 重美; 森, 泉; 谷, 明生; 宇都木, 繁子; 榎本, 敬; 米谷, 俊彦

    2009-01-01

    Roof greening is known to be environmentally friendly technology. Recently developed new roof greening systems, such as the thin-layer/Excel soil© system and the wetland type greening system, were tested at the roof top of buildings of Research Institute for Bioresources, Okayama University. After a multi-year test, these new systems have been established during high-temperature and less-rainfall summer seasons in the south Okayama region. Data indicated that roof greening effectively reduced...

  13. PEA PEEL WASTE: A LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE AND ITS UTILITY IN CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY Trichoderma reesei UNDER SOLID STATE CULTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Verma; Mukesh C. Bansal; Vivek Kumar

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of waste bioresources are available on our planet for conversion into bioproducts. In the biological systems, microorganisms are used to utilize waste as an energy source for the synthesis of valuable products such as biomass proteins and enzymes. The large quantities of byproducts generated during the processing of plant food involve an economic and environmental problem due to their high volumes and elimination costs. After isolation of the main constituent, there are abundan...

  14. Biosystems and Food Engineering Research Review 21

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, Enda; Curran, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    The Twenty First Annual Research Review describes the ongoing research programme in the School of Biosystems and Food Engineering at University College Dublin from over 83 researchers (11 academic staff, 1 technician, 4 postdoctoral researchers and 67 postgraduates). The research programme covers three focal areas: Food and Process Engineering; Bioresource Systems; and Bioenvironmental Engineering. Each area is divided into sub-areas as outlined in the Table of Contents which also includes th...

  15. Fungal Secretome for Biorefinery: Recent Advances in Proteomic Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Siu Kwan Sze; Adav, Sunil S.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal biotechnology has been well established in food and healthcare sector, and now being explored for lignocellulosic biorefinery due to their great potential to produce a wide array of extracellular enzymes for nutrient recycling. Due to global warming, environmental pollution, green house gases emission and depleting fossil fuel, fungal enzymes for lignocellulosic biomass refinery become a major focus for utilizing renewal bioresources. Proteomic technologies tender better biological und...

  16. Optimization of cellulase CelA2 with improved performance in high ionic strength for the production of biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Limited reserves of fossil fuels and environmental impact on CO2 emissions motivate the research and development of fuel alternatives produced from renewable bioresources. A key-step in biofuel production is the chemo-enzymatic depolymerization of cellulose in order to release fermentable sugars under mild conditions. However, physico-chemical pretreatments must be applied to increase the solubility of cellulose prior to enzyme degradation. The use of ionic liquids (IL) was reported to decrea...

  17. Activity-guided screening of the antioxidants from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa Bark

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Ling Si; Shi-Chao Liu; Hai-Yan Hu; Ju-Zheng Jiang; Guo-Jing Yu; Xiao-Dan Ren; Guang-Hui Xu

    2013-01-01

    Tree barks, as a type of forestry residues, are a rich and renewable bioresource that can produce high value-added products. Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa (PTT) has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. However, the antioxidative activity of the chemical constituents of the tree has not yet been investigated. In this study, the bark of PTT were extracted and fractioned. Then the resulting ethyl acetate (EtOAc) soluble fraction, which exhibited th...

  18. NEW SPECIES IN THE ADRIATIC ICHTHYOFAUNA AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES FOR CROATIAN MARINE FISHERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Marlena Ćukteraš; Branko Dragičević; Željana Đođo; Jakov Dulčić

    2012-01-01

    Any change in marine ecosystems has effect on users of marine bioresources, primarily in marine fisheries. The impact of climate change on the marine fisheries sector is complex and the effects can be both positive and negative in economic terms. Changes include the entire marine environment, the change in the migration patterns of fish in open waters, potential changes in the growing season and the time required for fish farming, as well as a potential increase in the number of invasive spec...

  19. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of α-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Yao Meng,1,2 Shuangfeng Liu,1 Juan Li,3 Yanfa Meng,3 Xiaojun Zhao2,41School of Medical Laboratory Science, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China; 2West China Hospital Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; 3Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment Ministry of Education/Animal Disease Prevention and Food Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Life Science, Sichuan University, C...

  20. Efficient ethanol production from dried oil palm trunk treated by hydrothermolysis and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, In-Yong; Yu, Ju-Hyun; Jung, Chan-Duck; Hong, Kyung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background Oil palm trunk (OPT) is a valuable bioresource for the biorefinery industry producing biofuels and biochemicals. It has the distinct feature of containing a large amount of starch, which, unlike cellulose, can be easily solubilized by water when heated and hydrolyzed to glucose by amylolytic enzymes without pretreatment for breaking down the biomass recalcitrance. Therefore, it is suggested as beneficial to extract most of the starch from OPT through autoclaving and subsequent amyl...

  1. Catch the Best: Novel Screening Strategy to Select Stress Protecting Agents for Crop Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Zachow

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change increases stress levels for crops and affects the economic and environmental aspects of agricultural management systems. The application of stress tolerance-mediating microorganisms is an auspicious strategy for improving crop protection, and as such, we developed a direct selection strategy to obtain cultivable microorganisms from promising bioresources using the bait plants, maize, oilseed rape, sorghum and sugar beet. Alpine mosses, lichens and primrose were selected as bioresources, as each is adapted to adverse environmental conditions. A 10% crop-specific selection was found for bait plant rhizosphere communities using cultivation-independent fingerprints, and their potential role as stress protecting agents (SPA was evaluated following the cultivation of captured bacteria. In addition to assays identifying phytopathogen antagonism and plant growth promotion capacities, our evaluation included those that test the ability to allocate nutrients. Moreover, we developed new assays to measure tolerance in diverse stress conditions. A score scheme was applied to select SPAs with desired properties, and three Pseudomonas species with pronounced antagonistic activity that showed elevated tolerance to desiccation and an improved seed germination rate were subsequently chosen. Screening for environmentally-conditioned and host-adapted microorganisms provides a novel tool for target-oriented exploitation of microbial bioresources for the management of ecofriendly crops facing biotic and abiotic stresses.

  2. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Mee, Blanaid C.; Carroll, Paul; Donatello, Simona; Connolly, Elizabeth; Griffin, Mairead; Dunne, Barbara; Burke, Louise; Flavin, Richard; Rizkalla, Hala; Ryan, Ciara; Hayes, Brian; d'Adhemar, Charles; Banville, Niamh; Faheem, Nazia; Muldoon, Cian

    2011-01-01

    The Saint James's Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectivenes...

  3. Review on Nutritive Value of Edible Insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As an importam bio-resource, insect resources have not been put into full play as healthy food. Based on study and analysis, the nutritive value of edible insects was reviewed. The results showed that insects have rich protein (20%-70%), amino acid (30%-60%),fat (10%-50%),fatty acid, carbonhydrate (2%-10%), mineral elements, vitamins and other activated elements which are good for human 's health. As protein resources, the nutritive value of edible insects is as good as animal and plant resources. Insec...

  4. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withers, Paul J. A.; Dijk, Kimo van; Neset, Tina-Simone;

    2015-01-01

    stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, and feasible technological innovations to improve P use efficiency in society and reduce Europe’s dependence on P...... imports. Their combined adoption facilitated by interactive policies, co-operation between upstream and downstream stakeholders (researchers, investors, producers, distributors, and consumers), and more harmonized approaches to P accounting would maximize the resource and environmental benefits and help...... deliver a more competitive, circular, and sustainable European economy. The case of Europe provides a blueprint for global P stewardship....

  5. Use of Biomass as a Sustainable and Green Fuel with Alkali-Resistant DeNOx Catalysts based on Sulfated or Tungstated Zirconia

    OpenAIRE

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Christensen, Claus H.; Kustov, Arkadii

    2006-01-01

    Use of biomass as an alternative to fossil fuels has achieved increasing interest since it does not contribute to CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere. Over the past 10-15 years, heat and electricity production from biomass has increased to almost 7% of all energy supply in the European Union and is expected to increase further. The by far most efficient use of solid bio-resources in energy production is combustion in combined biomass and coal or oil-fired power plants. However, in such applica...

  6. Marine metagenomics as a source for bioprospecting

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-08-12

    This review summarizes usage of genome-editing technologies for metagenomic studies; these studies are used to retrieve and modify valuable microorganisms for production, particularly in marine metagenomics. Organisms may be cultivable or uncultivable. Metagenomics is providing especially valuable information for uncultivable samples. The novel genes, pathways and genomes can be deducted. Therefore, metagenomics, particularly genome engineering and system biology, allows for the enhancement of biological and chemical producers and the creation of novel bioresources. With natural resources rapidly depleting, genomics may be an effective way to efficiently produce quantities of known and novel foods, livestock feed, fuels, pharmaceuticals and fine or bulk chemicals.

  7. EST sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search) - Dicty_cDB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lone covering full-length ORF provided by the National BioResource Project ( http://www.nbrp.jp/ ). The...ein Coding Gene in dictyBase ( http://dictybase.org/ ). The link to dictyBase is provided in the...Dicty_cDB EST sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search) Data detai...l Data name EST sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search) Descript...ion of data contents Sequences of cDNA clones of Dictyostelium discoideum and the

  8. Telomerization of butadiene with starch under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnager, Julien; Quettier, Claude; Lambin, Anne; Rataboul, Franck; Pinel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The design of industrial products based on bioresources is a challenging issue. Modification of starch, by hydrophobic chemical substituents, results in an innovative hydrophobic material. Herein, the hydrophobic part of the derivative, comprised of octadienyl chains, is introduced through catalytic butadiene telomerization. The process is efficiently conducted on starch in its granular form in an aqueous medium using hydrosoluble palladium complexes. After optimization, a turnover number (TON) of up to 550 was achieved in the presence of [(pi-allyl)PdCl](2) catalyst and, unusually, by using dimethylisosorbide as a cosolvent. PMID:19856380

  9. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-03-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use.

  10. Importance of Micropore-Mesopore Interfaces in Carbon Dioxide Capture by Carbon-Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá, Gema; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Castro-Osma, José A; Shuttleworth, Peter S; Quek, Sophie C Z; Clark, James H; North, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Mesoporous carbonaceous materials (Starbons®) derived from low-value/waste bio-resources separate CO2 from CO2 /N2 mixtures. Compared to Norit activated charcoal (AC), Starbons® have much lower microporosities (8-32 % versus 73 %) yet adsorb up to 65 % more CO2 . The presence of interconnected micropores and mesopores is responsible for the enhanced CO2 adsorption. The Starbons® also showed three-four times higher selectivity for CO2 adsorption rather than N2 adsorption compared to AC. PMID:27336368

  11. SCREENING OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC O2 -EVOLVING PROKARYOTES FOR AN INSULIN-LIKE ANTIGEN(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khursheed, Saima; Anwer, Razique; Zutshi, Sunaina; Fatma, Tasneem

    2012-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic disorder, is becoming a major health problem worldwide. Insulin is the single hope for management of type 1 diabetes, but it is not always available or suitable. For finding additional bioresources, the present study was performed. ELISA-based preliminary screening of cyanobacterial biomass using antihuman insulin antibody have detected an insulin-like antigen in Spirulina platensis S-5, Spirulina NCCU-482, and Spirulina NCCU-483. Their similarity with insulin-like antigen was further confirmed by electrophoretic mobility using bovine insulin as marker. PMID:27009668

  12. Proceedings of the Canadian Society for Bioengineering CSBE/SCGAB 2009 annual general meeting and technical conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was attended by experts on current issues in engineering of an urban ecosystem, composting, biofuels and green energy. The meeting provided a forum to discuss advances in the application of engineering principles and practices dealing with biological systems for the production of food, bioproducts and energy. The discussions focused on engineering practices in agriculture, forestry, bioresources, biochemistry and biosystems. The 7 technical sessions of the conference were entitled: aquaculture; safety and training; bioprocessing; energy production and biofuels; environment and ecology; soil and water; and development of technologies. The conference feature 58 presentations, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Microsatellite development and survey of genetic variation in skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Noguchi, D.; Nakajima, M.; Taniguchi, N.

    Institute of Marine Bioresources, Fukuyama University, Ohama-cho 452-10, Onomichi City, Hiroshima Pref. 722-2101, Japan. Journal of Fish Biology (2008) 73, 463–473 doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2008.01912.x, available onlineathttp://www.blackwell-synergy.com 463... and (TAGA) 10 synthetic oligonucleotides. Positive clones were sequenced on the 377 DNA sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, U.S.A.) using a dGTP BigDye Terminator 54 Ready Reaction kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, U.S.A.). Primer...

  14. Are bioactive-rich fractions functionally richer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah; Ooi, Der Jiun; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Sarega, Nadarajan; Chan, Kim Wei; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal

    2016-08-01

    Plant bioresources are relied upon as natural, inexpensive, and sustainable remedies for the management of several chronic diseases worldwide. Plants have historically been consumed for medicinal purposes based on traditional belief, but this trend is currently changing. The growing interest in the medicinal properties of plant bioresources stems from concerns of side effects and other adverse effects caused by synthetic drugs. This interest has yielded a better understanding of the roles of plant bioactive compounds in health promotion and disease prevention, including the underlying mechanisms involved in such functional effects. The desire to maximize the potential of phytochemicals has led to the development of "rich fractions," in which extracts contain bioactive compounds in addition to elevated levels of the primary compound. Although a rich fraction effectively increases the bioactivity of the extract, the standardization and quality assurance process can be challenging. However, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system is a promising green technology in this regard. Future clinical and pharmacological studies are needed to fully elucidate the implications of these preparations in the management of human diseases, thereby fostering a move toward evidence-based medicine. PMID:25641328

  15. Integrating animal manure-based bioenergy production with invasive species control: A case study at Tongren Pig Farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Guoliang [Rural Energy Section, Agricultural Bureau of Haining City, Zhejiang Province 314400 (China); Wu, Jianguo [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Integrated approach and bioresource engineering are often required to deal with multiple and interactive environmental problems for sustainable development at local and regional scales. Pig farming has flourished with fast growing economy and increasing human demands for meat in China. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a noxious invasive species, has encroached into most of the local rivers and lakes. Both the wastes from the booming pig farms as well as the massive plant materials of water hyacinth have caused a range of serious ecological and environmental problems. Here we present an integrated sustainable, ecological and experimental study that was designed to deal with these two problems simultaneously. Our experimental results showed that the mixtures of water hyacinth with pig manure consistently had much higher biogas production than pig manure alone, and that the highest biogas production was achieved when 15% of the fermentation substrates were water hyacinth. Our analysis further revealed that the changing C/N ratio and the lignin content in the fermentation feedstock due to the addition of water hyacinth might be two important factors affecting the biogas production. We also found that the solar-powered water-heating unit significantly increased the biogas production (especially in winter time). Overall, the project proved to be successful ecologically and socially. Through such an integrated approach and bioresource engineering, wastes are treated, energy is harvested, and the environment is protected. (author)

  16. Mapping of fuelwood trees using geoinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandra, T.V. [Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Centre for Infrastructure, Sustainable Transportation and Urban Planning (CiSTUP) (India)

    2010-02-15

    Rural population of India constitutes about 70% of the total population and traditional fuels account for 75% of the rural energy needs. Depletion of woodlands coupled with the persistent dependency on fuel wood has posed a serious problem for household energy provision in many parts. This study highlights that the traditional fuels still meet 85-95% of fuel needs in rural areas of Kolar district; people prefer fuel wood for cooking and agriculture residues for water heating and other purposes. However, rapid changes in land cover and land use in recent times have affected these traditional fuels availability necessitating inventorying, mapping and monitoring of bioresources for sustainable management of bioresources. Remote sensing data (Multispectal and Panchromatic), Geographic Information System (GIS), field surveys and non-destructive sampling were used to assess spatially the availability and demand of energy. Field surveys indicate that rural household depends on species such as Prosopis juliflora, Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis to meet fuel wood requirement for domestic activities. Hence, to take stock of fuel wood availability, mapping was done at species level (with 88% accuracy) considering villages as sampling units using fused multispectral and panchromatic data. (author)

  17. Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Hayati Bagi Pemenuhan Kebutuhan Pangan dan Gizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafril

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Requirement of food and nutrients in a specified area is determined by the growth of population, availability of agriculture, plantation, animal husbandry and fisheries resources. Sufficient food for consumption can be calculated based on sexes, ages and other human conditions. To fulfill food sufficiency is also dependent upon non-consumptive use of the resources such as for seed, feed, industry and export. Comsumption of both food and nutrients in Indonesia follows the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA with the approach on the Desirable Dietary Pattern (DDP. Goals of land management based on its sustability are necessarily oriented to produce agricultural commodities to meet the requirement of nutrients and food in a balanced condition. Thus, it is of interest to optimize bio-resource management with respects to the fulfillment of food and nutrient sufficiency in a localized area. The use of linear programming may give possible variation of land uses to produce diversified foods that are accuarately required by the people living there. This paper introduces an approach on bio-resource management with the main concern is to produce diversified foods sustainably.

  18. Resource Usage Strategies and Trade-Offs between Cropland Demand, Fossil Fuel Consumption, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions—Building Insulation as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hansen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioresources are used in different production systems as materials as well as energy carriers. The same is true for fossil fuel resources. This study explored whether preferential resource usages exist, using a building insulation system as an example, with regard to the following sustainability criteria: climate impact, land, and fossil fuel demand. We considered the complete life cycle in a life cycle assessment-based approach. The criteria were compared for two strategies: one used natural fibers as material and generated production energies from fossil fuels; the other generated production energies from bioenergy carriers and transformed fossil resources into the insulation material. Both strategies finally yielded the same insulation effect. Hence, the energy demand for heating the building was ignored. None of the strategies operated best in all three criteria: While cropland demand was lower in the bioenergy than in the biomaterial system, its fossil fuel demand was higher. Net contribution to climate change was in the same range for both strategies if we considered no indirect changes in land use. Provided that effective recycling concepts for fossil-derived insulations are in place, using bioresources for energy generation was identified as a promising way to mitigate climate change along with efficient resource use.

  19. Phylogeny drives large scale patterns in Australian marine bioactivity and provides a new chemical ecology rationale for future biodiscovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Evans-Illidge

    Full Text Available Twenty-five years of Australian marine bioresources collecting and research by the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS has explored the breadth of latitudinally and longitudinally diverse marine habitats that comprise Australia's ocean territory. The resulting AIMS Bioresources Library and associated relational database integrate biodiversity with bioactivity data, and these resources were mined to retrospectively assess biogeographic, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns in cytotoxic, antimicrobial, and central nervous system (CNS-protective bioactivity. While the bioassays used were originally chosen to be indicative of pharmaceutically relevant bioactivity, the results have qualified ecological relevance regarding secondary metabolism. In general, metazoan phyla along the deuterostome phylogenetic pathway (eg to Chordata and their ancestors (eg Porifera and Cnidaria had higher percentages of bioactive samples in the assays examined. While taxonomy at the phylum level and higher-order phylogeny groupings helped account for observed trends, taxonomy to genus did not resolve the trends any further. In addition, the results did not identify any biogeographic bioactivity hotspots that correlated with biodiversity hotspots. We conclude with a hypothesis that high-level phylogeny, and therefore the metabolic machinery available to an organism, is a major determinant of bioactivity, while habitat diversity and ecological circumstance are possible drivers in the activation of this machinery and bioactive secondary metabolism. This study supports the strategy of targeting phyla from the deuterostome lineage (including ancestral phyla from biodiverse marine habitats and ecological niches, in future biodiscovery, at least that which is focused on vertebrate (including human health.

  20. Biomass: France has not yet exploited all its opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With France being the first European agricultural country and the second world exporter, the French chemical industry has set a 15 per cent objective for its renewable resources by 2017. This objective and the great opportunities of the French chemical industry are based on a notably diversified biomass and on active research programs. This article gives an overview of and discusses the variety of organic products or chemical molecules obtained from biomass (cereals, wood, colza...). It also evokes the competition which may occur between chemical industry and food production. Some innovative projects are briefly presented which are based on a better use of existing crops. A researcher member of the INRA gives an overview of research orientations in the field of vegetal chemistry. The case of bio-solvents is given as an example of application chemical products based on bio-resources

  1. Evolving Marine Biomimetics for Regenerative Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Green

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New products that help make human tissue and organ regeneration more effective are in high demand and include materials, structures and substrates that drive cell-to-tissue transformations, orchestrate anatomical assembly and tissue integration with biology. Marine organisms are exemplary bioresources that have extensive possibilities in supporting and facilitating development of human tissue substitutes. Such organisms represent a deep and diverse reserve of materials, substrates and structures that can facilitate tissue reconstruction within lab-based cultures. The reason is that they possess sophisticated structures, architectures and biomaterial designs that are still difficult to replicate using synthetic processes, so far. These products offer tantalizing pre-made options that are versatile, adaptable and have many functions for current tissue engineers seeking fresh solutions to the deficiencies in existing dental biomaterials, which lack the intrinsic elements of biofunctioning, structural and mechanical design to regenerate anatomically correct dental tissues both in the culture dish and in vivo.

  2. Studies on production and biological potential of prodigiosin by Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-07-01

    Efficacy of Serratia marcescens for pigment production and biological activity was investigated. Natural substrates like sweet potato, mahua flower extract (Madhuca latifolia L.), and sesam at different concentrations were taken. As a carbon source microorganism favored potato powder was followed by sesam and mannitol, and as nitrogen source casein hydrolysate was followed by yeast and malt extract. The effect of inorganic salts on pigment production was also studied. At final optimized composition of suitable carbon, nitrogen source, and trace materials and at suitable physiological conditions, prodigiosin production was 4.8 g L(-1). The isolated pigment showed antimicrobial activity against different pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Extracted pigment was characterized by spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and thin layer chromatography (TLC) which confirm production of biological compound prodigiosin. This study suggests that use of sweet potato powder and casein can be a potential alternative bioresource for commercial production of pigment prodigiosin. PMID:24781979

  3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM CURCUMA AMADA ROXB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnupriya.M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil of Curcuma amada Roxb. The GC- MS analysis of the oil resulted in the identification of 12 compounds. β-myrcene (63.85% and α-asarone (30.27% were the two major components identified. The sample was subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, ABTS radical, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-Carotene bleaching assay. Results showed that the essential oil possessed a strong degree of antioxidant activity in terms of β-Carotene bleaching capacity followed by ABTS radical, ferric reducing power and a moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity. This study concludes that the essential oil from Curcuma amada Roxb could serve as an important bioresource of antioxidants for using in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Proceedings of the workshops on the utilization of electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workshops organized by JAERI in cooperation with OAEP, BATAN and JAIF on the utilization of electron beam (EB) were held in Bangkok and Jakarta on 9 and 13 July 1992, respectively. The proceedings contain 13 papers presented at the Workshops. Welcome remarks, opening address and closing remarks are also recorded. At the first part of the Workshops, general view on the application of electron accelerators and introduction of electron accelerators were made. Potential applications of electron accelerators to polymer processing, sterilization of medical products, flue gas purification, treatment of wastewater and sewage sludge and bioresources were introduced from Japanese participants. Potential application of electron accelerators to polymer processing and food irradiation in Thailand and Indonesia were also discussed. (author)

  5. Concept of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T

    2012-01-01

    Unlike in urban areas where intensive water reclamation systems are available, development of decentralized technologies and systems is required for water use to be sustainable in agricultural areas. To overcome various water quality issues in those areas, a research project entitled 'Development of an innovative water management system with decentralized water reclamation and cascading material-cycle for agricultural areas under the consideration of climate change' was launched in 2009. This paper introduces the concept of this research and provides detailed information on each of its research areas: (1) development of a diffuse agricultural pollution control technology using catch crops; (2) development of a decentralized differentiable treatment system for livestock and human excreta; and (3) development of a cascading material-cycle system for water pollution control and value-added production. The author also emphasizes that the innovative water management system for agricultural areas should incorporate a strategy for the voluntary collection of bio-resources. PMID:22828292

  6. Scope of algae as third generation biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvashish eBehera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An initiative has been taken to develop different solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels as the alternative energy resources. The current research and technology based on the third generation biofuels derived from algal biomass have been considered as the best alternative bioresource that avoids the disadvantages of first and second generation biofuels. Algal biomass have been investigated for the implementation of economic conversion processes producing different biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, biohydrogen and other valuable co-products. In the present review, the recent findings and advance developments in algal biomass for improved biofuel production. This review discusses about the importance of the algal cell contents, various strategies for product formation through various conversion technologies, and its future scope as an energy security.

  7. Ethanol fermentation of mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers using free and immobilized yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M R; Kar, S; Sahoo, A K; Ray, R C

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest to find alternate bioresources for production of ethanol, apart from cane/sugar beet molasses and starchy crops like sweet sorghum, cassava and sweet potato. Mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) is a forest tree abundantly available in the Indian subcontinent and its flowers are very rich in fermentable sugars (28.1-36.3 g 100 g(-1)). Batch fermentation of fresh and 12-month-stored flowers with free (whole cells) and immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain CTCRI) was carried out in 2-l Erlenmeyer flasks. The ethanol yields were 193 and 148 g kg(-1) (using free cells) and 205 and 152 g kg(-1) (using immobilized cells) from fresh and 12-month-stored mahula flowers, respectively. PMID:16580830

  8. Activity-guided screening of the antioxidants from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Ling Si

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tree barks, as a type of forestry residues, are a rich and renewable bioresource that can produce high value-added products. Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa (PTT has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. However, the antioxidative activity of the chemical constituents of the tree has not yet been investigated. In this study, the bark of PTT were extracted and fractioned. Then the resulting ethyl acetate (EtOAc soluble fraction, which exhibited the strongest antioxidative effect, was subjected to repeated open column chromatography for purification. The screening process was carried out under the guidance antioxidative activity via diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. Eight phenolic compounds, glucodistylin (I, luteolin (II, ellagic acid (III, cistanoside F (IV, campneoside II (V, isocampneoside II (VI, verbascoside (VII, and isoverbascoside (VIII, were isolated and their structures were elucidated by various spectroscopic analyses. Among the phenolics, II~VIII showed significant antioxidative activity.

  9. Next-Generation Bio-Products Sowing the Seeds of Success for Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Müller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants have recently been recognized as meta-organisms due to a close symbiotic relationship with their microbiome. Comparable to humans and other eukaryotic hosts, plants also harbor a “second genome” that fulfills important host functions. These advances were driven by both “omics”-technologies guided by next-generation sequencing and microscopic insights. Additionally, these new results influence applied fields such as biocontrol and stress protection in agriculture, and new tools may impact (i the detection of new bio-resources for biocontrol and plant growth promotion, (ii the optimization of fermentation and formulation processes for biologicals, (iii stabilization of the biocontrol effect under field conditions, and (iv risk assessment studies for biotechnological applications. Examples are presented and discussed for the fields mentioned above, and next-generation bio-products were found as a sustainable alternative for agriculture.

  10. Intensified nitrogen removal of constructed wetland by novel integration of high rate algal pond biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xingpo; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Yuhui; Ullman, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-01

    High rate algal pond (HRAP) was combined with constructed wetland (CW) to intensify nitrogen removal through optimizing nitrification and denitrification. Nitrification and denitrification process mainly depends on the oxygen content and carbon source level in CWs. Algal biomass was enriched in HRAP, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was increased via photosynthesis. Algal debris increased COD as degradable bioresource. The results showed that HRAP-CW hybrid systems effectively promoted the nitrogen removal performance due to rich DO and COD. The extension of hydraulic retention time in HRAP significantly improved NH4-N and TN removals by 10.9% and 11.1% in hybrid systems, respectively. The highest NH4-N and TN removals in hybrid systems respectively reached 67.2% and 63.5%, which were significantly higher than those in single CW. The study suggested that the hybrid system had the application potentials in nitrogen removal from wastewater. PMID:27544265

  11. Use of metagenomic approaches to isolate lipolytic genes from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Ren-Bao; Cheng, Mei-Ping; Wu, Ming-Che; Lee, Chia-Yin

    2010-11-01

    The aims of this study were to access the bacterial diversity and isolate lipolytic genes using the metagenomic approach in activated sludge of a swine wastewater treatment facility. On the basis of BLASTN analysis of 16S rRNA gene clones, most of these communities (90%) were of uncultivated bacteria. The metagenomic library was constructed using a plasmid vector and DNA extracted directly from activated sludge samples. The average insert size was approximately 5.1 kb. A total of 12 unique and lipolytic clones were obtained using the tributyrin plate assay. The rate of discovering a lipolytic clone in this study was as high as 0.31%. Molecular analysis revealed that most of the 16 putative lipolytic enzymes showed 28-55% identity with non-redundant protein sequences in the database. Briefly, this study demonstrates that activated sludge is an ideal bioresource for isolating new lipolytic enzymes. PMID:20639117

  12. A technique for estimating maximum harvesting effort in a stochastic fishery model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Rup Sarkar; J Chattopadhayay

    2003-06-01

    Exploitation of biological resources and the harvest of population species are commonly practiced in fisheries, forestry and wild life management. Estimation of maximum harvesting effort has a great impact on the economics of fisheries and other bio-resources. The present paper deals with the problem of a bioeconomic fishery model under environmental variability. A technique for finding the maximum harvesting effort in fluctuating environment has been developed in a two-species competitive system, which shows that under realistic environmental variability the maximum harvesting effort is less than what is estimated in the deterministic model. This method also enables us to find out the safe regions in the parametric space for which the chance of extinction of the species is minimized. A real life fishery problem has been considered to obtain the inaccessible parameters of the system in a systematic way. Such studies may help resource managers to get an idea for controlling the system.

  13. Fabrication of core-shell structured magnetic nanocellulose base polymeric ionic liquid for effective biosorption of Congo red dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyki, Mostafa Hossein; Bayat, Mehrnoosh; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2016-10-01

    Ionic liquids are considered to be a class of environmentally friendly compounds as combination of them with bioresource polymeric substances such as; cellulose, constitute emerging coating materials. Biosorption by polymeric ionic liquids exhibits an attractive green way that involves low cost and irrespective of toxicity. As a result, a novel polymeric ionic liquid has been developed by the reaction of one step synthesized Fe3O4-cellulose nanohybrid, epichlorohydrin and 1-methylimidazole and employed as a green sorbent for efficient biosorption of Congo red dye. Effective parameters on dye removing as well as their interactions were determined with response surface methodology (RSM). Congo red adsorption showed fast equilibrium time (11min) with maximum uptake of 131mgg(-1). Isotherm study revealed that Langmuir adsorption model can better describe dye adsorption behavior. Regeneration of the sorbent was performed with a mixture of methanol-acetone-NaOH (3.0molL(-1)) solution. PMID:27372013

  14. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  15. Initial results of the spatial distribution of rubber trees in Peninsular Malaysia using remotely sensed data for biomass estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation and sustainable management of forest and other land cover ecosystems such as rubber trees will help addressing two major recent issues: climate change and bio-resource energy. The rubber trees are dominantly distributed in the Negeri Sembilan and Kedah on the west coast side of Peninsular Malaysia. This study is aimed to analyse the spatial distribution and biomass of rubber trees in Peninsular Malaysia with special emphasis in Negeri Sembilan State. Geospatial data from remote sensors are used to tackle the time and labour consuming problem due to the large spatial coverage and the need of continuous temporal data. Remote sensing imagery used in this study is a Landsat 5 TM. The image from optical sensor was used to sense the rubber trees and further classified rubber tree by different age

  16. Experimental Design and Bioinformatics Analysis for the Application of Metagenomics in Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have prompted the widespread application of metagenomics for the investigation of novel bioresources (e.g., industrial enzymes and bioactive molecules) and unknown biohazards (e.g., pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes) in natural and engineered microbial systems across multiple disciplines. This review discusses the rigorous experimental design and sample preparation in the context of applying metagenomics in environmental sciences and biotechnology. Moreover, this review summarizes the principles, methodologies, and state-of-the-art bioinformatics procedures, tools and database resources for metagenomics applications and discusses two popular strategies (analysis of unassembled reads versus assembled contigs/draft genomes) for quantitative or qualitative insights of microbial community structure and functions. Overall, this review aims to facilitate more extensive application of metagenomics in the investigation of uncultured microorganisms, novel enzymes, microbe-environment interactions, and biohazards in biotechnological applications where microbial communities are engineered for bioenergy production, wastewater treatment, and bioremediation. PMID:26451629

  17. Comparing energy storage options for renewable energy integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    -inclusive 100% renewable energy scenario developed for the Danish city Aalborg based on wind power, bio-resources and low-temperature geothermal heat. The paper investigates the system impact of different types of energy storage systems including district heating storage, biogas storage and electricity storage....... The system is modelled in the hourly energy systems analyses model energyPRO with a view to investigating how the different storages marginally affect the amount of wind power that may be integration applying the different storage options. Results show the largest potential but also most costly......Increasing penetrations of fluctuating energy sources for electricity generation, heating, cooling and transportation increase the need for flexibility of the energy system to accommodate the fluctuations of these energy sources. Controlling production, controlling demand and utilizing storage...

  18. Comparing electricity, heat and biogas storages’ impacts on renewable energy integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    -inclusive 100% renewable energy scenario developed for the Danish city Aalborg based on wind power, bio-resources and low-temperature geothermal heat. The article investigates the system impact of different types of energy storage systems including district heating storage, biogas storage and electricity...... storage. The system is modelled in the energy systems analyses model energyPRO with a view to investigating how the different storages marginally affect the amount of wind power that may be integrated applying the different storage options and the associated economic costs. Results show the largest system......Increasing penetration of fluctuating energy sources for electricity generation, heating, cooling and transportation increase the need for flexibility of the energy system to accommodate the fluctuations of these energy sources. Controlling production, controlling demand and utilising storage...

  19. ROLE OF HYDROBIOLOGY DEPARTMENT IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS, DEVELOPMENT OF FISHING INDUSTRY AND SCIENCE IN THE UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevtushenko N.Y.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Article summarized the information concerning the basic objectives and lines of action of hydrobiology department in training the specialists in major Water Bioresources and Aquaculture. The value of the complex of disciplines, which disclose processes of studying the water quality, condition of aquatic ecosystems, biological and fish productivity of different water types, is shown. The main focus is on the structure and content of educational disciplines, which provide realization of master program in hydrobioresources safety, and on their tight connection with scientific researches, which aim at safety, reproduction and rational use of hydrobioresources, the importance of aquatic organisms in the system of water quality bioidentification, using international and european standarts, also on processes of water quality control and waters’ bioreproduction.

  20. Modelling biogenic carbon flow in a macroalgal biorefinery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Marchi, Michela; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda;

    2016-01-01

    fertilized agriculture to the aquatic environment. We also differentiated between nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited marine water to improve the traditional freshwater impact category, making this indicator suitable for decision support in relation to coastal water management schemes. Offshore cultivation...... of Saccharina latissima with an average productivity of 150 Mg/km2 in Danish waters in 2014 was applied to a cultivation scenario of 208 km2. The bioresource scenario performs better than conventional biowaste management systems, delivering a net reduction in aquatic eutrophication levels of 32.29 kg N eq....... and 16.58 kg PO43 − eq. per Mg (dry weight) of seaweed, quantified by the ReCiPe and CML impact assessment methods, respectively. Seaweed cultivation, harvest and reuse of excess nutrients from the aquatic environment is a promising approach for sustainable resource cycling in a future regenerative...

  1. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress. PMID:26951880

  2. A NEW SPECIES OF SYMPETRUM (ODONATA, LIBELLULIDAE) FROM CHINA%中国赤蜻属一新种记述(蜻蜓目,蜻科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏杰

    2012-01-01

    Sympetrum shaanxiensis sp. nov. (Odonata, Libellulidae ) from Shaanxi Province, China is described. The type specimens are deposited at the museum of Zoology and Botany, the Shaanxi Bioresource Key Laboratory, Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China. The new species is similar to S. vulgatum, but differs from the latter in the characters listed in the Table 1. Etymology. The new species is named from the type locality, Shaanxi Province. Female. Unknown.%记述中国赤蜻属1新种,陕西赤蜻Sympetrum shaanxiensis sp.nov..新种近似流浪赤蜻S.vulgatum,但其交合器的后钩片的构造、头部、胸部和腹部的色斑与后者明显不同.模式标本保存于陕西省资源生物重点实验室动植物标本馆.

  3. Carotene-degrading activities from Bjerkandera adusta possess an application in detergent industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Diana; Leonhardt, Robin; Eisele, Nadine; Petersen, Laura M; Riemer, Stephanie; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

    2015-06-01

    Four extracellular enzymes, a versatile peroxidase, a manganese peroxidase, a dye-decolorizing peroxidase and a lignin peroxidase were discovered in liquid cultures of the basidiomycete Bjerkandera adusta. All of them cleaved β-carotene effectively. Expression was enhanced in the presence of β-carotene or Coomassie Brilliant Blue and peaked after 7-9 days. The monomeric proteins were purified by ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography and exhibited molecular masses of 41, 43, 51 and 43 kDa, respectively. The coding sequences showed homologies from 61 to 89 % to peroxidases from other basidiomycetes. The novel enzymes retained strong activity even in the absence of hydrogen peroxide and at alkaline pH. De-staining of fabrics using detergent-tolerant enzymes may help to save the most important bio-resources, energy and water, in washing processes and led to green processes in textile cleaning. PMID:25614450

  4. Development of green nanocomposites reinforced by cellulose nanofibers extracted from paper sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hitoshi; Nakagaito, Antonio N.; Kusaka, Kazuya; Muneta, Yuya

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been showing much greater potential to enhance the mechanical and physical properties of polymer-based composite materials. The purpose of this study is to extract the cellulose nanofibers from waste bio-resources; such as waste newspaper and paper sludge. The cellulosic raw materials were treated chemically and physically in order to extract individualized cellulose nanofiber. The combination of acid hydrolysis and following mechanical treatment resulted in the extraction of cellulose nanofibers having diameter of about 40 nm. In order to examine the reinforcing effect of the extracted cellulose nanofibers, fully biodegradable green nanocomposites were fabricated by composing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) resin with the extracted cellulose nanofibers, and then the tensile tests were conducted. The results showed that the enhancement in mechanical properties was successfully obtained in the cellulose nanofiber/PVA green nanocomposites.

  5. Biodegradation of methane, benzene, and toluene by a consortium MBT14 enriched from a landfill cover soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyunjung; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In this study, landfill cover soil was used as an inoculum source to enrich a methane, benzene, and toluene-degrading consortium MBT14. Under a single substrate, the maximum degradation rates of methane, benzene and toluene were 1.96, 0.15, and 0.77 mmole g-DCW(-1) h(-1), respectively. Although the coexistence of benzene and toluene inhibited the methane degradation rates, the consortium was able to simultaneously degrade methane, benzene and toluene. Methane had an insignificant effect on benzene or toluene degradation. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing analysis, Cupriavidus spp. are dominant in the consortium MBT14. The combined results of this study indicate that the consortium MBT 14 is a promising bioresource for removing CH(4), benzene, and toluene from a variety of environments. PMID:23245302

  6. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate from geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) belongs to subgroup II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Verma; B K Mahinghara; Raja Ram; A A Zaidi

    2006-03-01

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur, exhibiting mild mottling and stunting. The causal virus (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV) was identified and characterized on the basis of host range, aphid transmission, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), DNA-RNA hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). A complete coat protein (CP) gene was amplified using degenerate primers and sequenced. The CP gene showed nucleotide and amino acid homology up to 97%–98% and 96%–99%, respectively with the sequences of CMV subgroup II. The CP gene also showed homologies of 75%–97% in nucleotide and 77%–96% in amino acid with the CMV Indian isolates infecting various crops. On the basis of sequence homology, it was concluded that CMV-infecting geraniums in India belong to subgroup II.

  7. Endangered and Rare Species of Marine Medicinal Organisms and Their Protection in China%中国海洋药用生物濒危珍稀物种及其保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅秀梅; 王长云; 邵长伦; 韩磊; 武云飞; 伍汉霖; 钱树本; 管华诗

    2009-01-01

    首次对中国海洋药用生物濒危珍稀物种及其资源状况进行了调查和评价.结果显示,中国海洋药用生物及具有药用开发价值的海洋生物物种被列入濒危或保护物种的达235种,濒危比率达14.0%.极危物种9种,濒危物种112种,易危物种88种,近危物种5种,珍稀物种1种;其中,国家一级保护动物10种,国家二级保护动物44种.过度开发利用和海洋环境恶化是造成海洋野生药用生物濒危的主要原因.加强海洋自然保护区和海洋特别保护区的建设是保护海洋药用生物物种多样性和遏制资源衰退的有效途径.%The states of endangered and rare species of marine medicinal organisms in China were investigated and evaluated for the first time by field survey and data analysis together with literature data. It revealed that up to 235 species of marine medicinal organisms in China are in the Red List Categories and as protected species, including 9 critically endangered species, 112 endangered species, 88 vulnerable species, 5 near threatened species and 1 rare species, with an endangered rate of 14.0%. Among the endangered medicinal organisms, the species belonging to national protected animal categories Ⅰ and Ⅱ are 10 and 44, respectively. Over-fishing, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have resulted in the destruction of marine bioresources, especially acute degradation of biodiversity of marine medicinal animals. The feasible strategies for conservation of biodiversities and bioresources of Chinese marine medicinal species should be to improve the construction and management of marine natural reserves system as well as marine special reserves.

  8. Microstructural Characterization of Calcite-Based Powder Materials Prepared by Planetary Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a planetary ball milling was used to modify the surface properties of calcite-based material from waste oyster shell under the rotational speed of 200–600 rpm, grinding time of 5–180 min and sample mass of 1–10 g. The milling significantly changed the microstructural properties of the calcite-based minerals (i.e., surface area, pore volume, true density, and porosity. The surface characterization of the resulting powder should be macroporous and/or nonporous based on the nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. Under the optimal conditions at the rotational speed of 400 rpm, grinding time of 30 min and sample mass of 5 g, the resulting calcite-based powder had larger specific surface area (i.e., 10.64 m2·g−1 than the starting material (i.e., 4.05 m2·g−1. This finding was also consistent with the measurement of laser-diffraction (i.e., 9.7 vs. 15.0 μm of mean diameter. In addition, the results from the scanning electron microscope (SEM observation indicated that surface roughness can be enhanced as particle size decreases as a result of particle-particle attrition. Thus, grinding the aquacultural bioresource by a high-energy ball milling can create the fine materials, which may be applied in the fields of inorganic minerals like aggregate and construction material.

  9. A New Source of Elemol Rich Essential Oil and Existence of Multicellular Oil Glands in Leaves of the Dioscorea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy I. Odimegwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea species is a very important food and drug plant. The tubers of the plant are extensively used in food and drug purposes owing to the presence of steroidal constituent’s diosgenin in the tubers. In the present study, we report for the first time that the leaves of Dioscorea composita and Dioscorea floribunda grown under the field conditions exhibited the presence of multicellular oil glands on the epidermal layers of the plants using stereomicroscopy (SM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Essential oil was also isolated from the otherwise not useful herbage of the plant, and gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy analysis revealed confirmation of the essential oil constituents. Out of the 76 compounds detected in D. floribunda and 37 from D. composita essential oil, major terpenoids which are detected and reported for Dioscorea leaf essential oil are α-terpinene, nerolidol, citronellyl acetate, farnesol, elemol, α-farnesene, valerenyl acetate, and so forth. Elemol was detected as the major constituent of both the Dioscorea species occupying 41% and 22% of D. Floribunda and D. composita essential oils, respectively. In this paper, we report for the first time Dioscorea as a possible novel bioresource for the essential oil besides its well-known importance for yielding diosgenin.

  10. Response of arctic snow and permafrost algae to high light and nitrogen stress by changes in pigment composition and applied aspects for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leya, Thomas; Rahn, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Remias, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Ten algal strains from snow and permafrost substrates were tested for their ability to produce secondary carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol in response to high light and decreased nitrogen levels. The Culture Collection of Cryophilic Algae at Fraunhofer IBMT in Potsdam served as the bioresource for this study. Eight of the strains belong to the Chlorophyceae and two strains are affiliated to the Trebouxiophyceae. While under low light, all 10 strains produced the normal spectrum of primary pigments known to be present in Chlorophyta, only the eight chlorophyceaen strains were able to synthesize secondary carotenoids under stress conditions, namely canthaxanthin, echinenone and astaxanthin; seven of them were also able to synthesize minor amounts of adonixanthin and an unidentified hydroxyechinenone. The two trebouxiophyceaen species of Raphidonema exhibited an unusually high pool of primary xanthophyll cycle pigments, possibly serving as a buffering reservoir against excessive irradiation. They also proved to be good alpha-tocopherol producers, which might also support the deactivation of reactive oxygen species. This study showed that some strains might be interesting novel candidates for biotechnological applications. Cold-adapted, snow and permafrost algae might serve as valuable production strains still exhibiting acceptable growth rates during the cold season in temperate regions. PMID:19159422

  11. An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation in recent years (2004–2010, and its sustainable management principle. This paper also presents updated information about the governmental regulations and policies for promoting these biosolids as material resources, as well as validating the regulatory levels of toxic constituents in the biosludge and its derived product (e.g., organic fertilizer. Based on the preliminary benefit analysis of utilizing biosludge as raw material for organic fertilizer, reusing biosludge, being a beneficial resource, should be superior to those by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill.

  12. Systematic studies of tannin-formaldehyde aerogels: preparation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Szczurek, Andrzej; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Celzard, Alain

    2013-02-01

    Gelation of tannin-formaldehyde (TF) solutions was systematically investigated by changing pH and concentration of TF resin in water. In this way we constructed the TF phase diagram, from which chemical hydrogels could be described, and also synthesized thermoreversible tannin-based hydrogels. Conditions of non-gelation were also determined. Hydrogels were dried in supercritical CO2, leading to a broad range of TF aerogels. The latter were investigated for volume shrinkage, total porosity, micro-, meso- and macropore volumes, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, microscopic texture, mechanical and thermal properties. All these properties are discussed in relation to each other, leading to an accurate and self-consistent description of these bioresource-based highly porous materials. The conditions for obtaining the highest BET surface area or mesopore volume were determined and explained in relation to the preparation conditions. The highest BET surface area, 880 m2 g-1, is remarkably high for organic aerogels derived from a natural resource.

  13. Recent advances in membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Bagley, David M; Leung, Kam Tin; Liss, Steven N; Liao, Bao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The bioeconomy, and in particular, biorefining and bioenergy production, have received considerable attention in recent years as a shift to renewable bioresources to produce similar energy and chemicals derived from fossil energy sources, represents a more sustainable path. Membrane technologies have been shown to play a key role in process intensification and products recovery and purification in biorefining and bioenergy production processes. Among the various separation technologies used, membrane technologies provide excellent fractionation and separation capabilities, low chemical consumption, and reduced energy requirements. This article presents a state-of-the-art review on membrane technologies related to various processes of biorefining and bioenergy production, including: (i) separation and purification of individual molecules from biomass, (ii) removal of fermentation inhibitors, (iii) enzyme recovery from hydrolysis processes, (iv) membrane bioreactors for bioenergy and chemical production, such as bioethanol, biogas and acetic acid, (v) bioethanol dehydration, (vi) bio-oil and biodiesel production, and (vii) algae harvesting. The advantages and limitations of membrane technologies for these applications are discussed and new membrane-based integrated processes are proposed. Finally, challenges and opportunities of membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production in the coming years are addressed. PMID:22306168

  14. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-11-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  15. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency: The case of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul J A; van Dijk, Kimo C; Neset, Tina-Simone S; Nesme, Thomas; Oenema, Oene; Rubæk, Gitte H; Schoumans, Oscar F; Smit, Bert; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, and feasible technological innovations to improve P use efficiency in society and reduce Europe's dependence on P imports. Their combined adoption facilitated by interactive policies, co-operation between upstream and downstream stakeholders (researchers, investors, producers, distributors, and consumers), and more harmonized approaches to P accounting would maximize the resource and environmental benefits and help deliver a more competitive, circular, and sustainable European economy. The case of Europe provides a blueprint for global P stewardship. PMID:25681977

  16. Effective pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with combination pretreatment and its hydrolyzates as reaction media for the biosynthesis of ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate by whole cells of E. coli CCZU-K14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Cai; Zhang, Dan-Ping; Di, Jun-Hua; Wu, Yin-Qi; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Chong, Gang-Gang; Ding, Yun; Ma, Cui-Luan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SB) was pretreated with combination pretreatment (e.g., sequential KOH extraction and ionic liquid soaking, sequential KOH extraction and Fenton soaking, or sequential KOH extraction and glycerol soaking). After the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated SBs, it was found that all these three concentrated hydrolyzates could be used for the asymmetric bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(S)-CHBE]. Compared with glucose, arabinose and cellobiose couldn't promote the initial reaction rate, and xylose could increase the intracellular NADH content. Moreover, it was the first report that hydrolyzates could be used for the effective biosynthesis of (S)-CHBE (∼500g/L; 98.0% yield) from 3000 COBE by whole cells of Escherichia coli CCZU-K14 in the presence of β-CD (0.4mol β-CD/mol COBE), l-glutamine (200mM) and glycine (500mM). In conclusion, it is a new alternative to utilize bioresource for the synthesis of key chiral intermediate (S)-CHBE. PMID:27060248

  17. Production of liquid biofuels from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigam, Poonam Singh [Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Singh, Anoop [Biofuels Research Group, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork (Ireland)

    2011-02-15

    This article is an up-to-date review of the literature available on the subject of liquid biofuels. In search of a suitable fuel alternative to fast depleting fossil fuel and oil reserves and in serious consideration of the environmental issues associated with the extensive use of fuels based on petrochemicals, research work is in progress worldwide. Researchers have been re-directing their interests in biomass based fuels, which currently seem to be the only logical alternative for sustainable development in the context of economical and environmental considerations. Renewable bioresources are available globally in the form of residual agricultural biomass and wastes, which can be transformed into liquid biofuels. However, the process of conversion, or chemical transformation, could be very expensive and not worth-while to use for an economical large-scale commercial supply of biofuels. Hence, there is still need for much research to be done for an effective, economical and efficient conversion process. Therefore, this article is written as a broad overview of the subject, and includes information based on the research conducted globally by scientists according to their local socio-cultural and economic situations. (author)

  18. Systematic studies of tannin–formaldehyde aerogels: preparation and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelation of tannin–formaldehyde (TF) solutions was systematically investigated by changing pH and concentration of TF resin in water. In this way we constructed the TF phase diagram, from which chemical hydrogels could be described, and also synthesized thermoreversible tannin-based hydrogels. Conditions of non-gelation were also determined. Hydrogels were dried in supercritical CO2, leading to a broad range of TF aerogels. The latter were investigated for volume shrinkage, total porosity, micro-, meso- and macropore volumes, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, microscopic texture, mechanical and thermal properties. All these properties are discussed in relation to each other, leading to an accurate and self-consistent description of these bioresource-based highly porous materials. The conditions for obtaining the highest BET surface area or mesopore volume were determined and explained in relation to the preparation conditions. The highest BET surface area, 880 m2 g−1, is remarkably high for organic aerogels derived from a natural resource. (paper)

  19. ANTIOXIDATIVE LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT EXTRACTIVES FROM TRIPLOID POPULUS TOMENTOSA XYLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hao Ni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Triploid Populus tomentosa Carr. (Salicaceae is a good alternative to meet the increasing need of the global pulp and paper industry. Meanwhile, the xylem of this species could be a useful bioresource to develop low molecular extractives with significant bioactive potential. In the present work, a phytochemical investigation on aqueous EtOH extractives of Triploid P. tomentosa xylem, by systematical performance of Sephadex LH-20 open column chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, resulted in the isolation of two phenolic acids (ρ-coumaric acid (I and caffeic acid (II, two flavonoids (apigenin (III and luteolin (IV, and three phenolic glucosides (salicortin (V, salireposide (VI and populoside (VII. The structure elucidation and determination of the isolated extractives were based on their spectroscopical data and physiochemical evidences. This was the first time to report the low molecular weight extractives of Triploid P. tomentosa. Various low molecular weight extractives from Triploid P. tomentosa xylem exhibited significant antioxidative activities by DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays.

  20. Lichen Flora of Western Part of Yunnan Province, China%中国云南西部地衣区系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鑫丽; 王立松; 许宰铣

    2007-01-01

    Lichenological expedition was organized by Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) to survey highland macrolichen at the western part of Yunnan province, China in 2005. The expedition was aimed to collect oversea lichen materials as a potential bioresource for further industrial use. More than 400 lichen specimens were collected and 86 species in 46 genera of lichens were identified from the survey area. Among them, 40 species have been reported in Korea peninsula. All the collected specimens are deposited in the herbarium of KoLRI at Sunchon National University in Korea and Crytogamic Herbarium, Kunming Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica in China.%对中国云南西部高山地区的大型地衣进行了调查.采集地衣标本400余份,鉴定为46属86种,其中40种在朝鲜半岛有报道.所有采集的标本现保藏于顺天大学韩国地衣研究所和中国科学院昆明植物研究所隐花植物标本馆.

  1. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  2. Utility of Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of EBV immortalized LCLs have been generated and maintained in genetic/epidemiological studies as a perpetual source of DNA and as a surrogate in vitro cell model. Recent successes in reprograming LCLs into iPSCs have paved the way for generating more relevant in vitro disease models using this existing bioresource. However, the overall reprogramming efficiency and success rate remain poor and very little is known about the mechanistic changes that take place at the transcriptome and cellular functional level during LCL-to-iPSC reprogramming. Here, we report a new optimized LCL-to-iPSC reprogramming protocol using episomal plasmids encoding pluripotency transcription factors and mouse p53DD (p53 carboxy-terminal dominant-negative fragment and commercially available reprogramming media. We achieved a consistently high reprogramming efficiency and 100% success rate using this optimized protocol. Further, we investigated the transcriptional changes in mRNA and miRNA levels, using FC-abs ≥ 2.0 and FDR ≤ 0.05 cutoffs; 5,228 mRNAs and 77 miRNAs were differentially expressed during LCL-to-iPSC reprogramming. The functional enrichment analysis of the upregulated genes and activation of human pluripotency pathways in the reprogrammed iPSCs showed that the generated iPSCs possess transcriptional and functional profiles very similar to those of human ESCs.

  3. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  4. Synthesis of cellulose nanofiber composites for mechanical reinforcement and other advanced applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuezhu

    Cellulose nanofibers from bioresources have attracted intensive research interest in recent years due to their unique combination of properties including high strength and modulus, low density, biocompatibility/biodegradability and rich surface chemistry for functionalization. The nanofibers have been widely studied as nanoreinforcements in polymer nanocomposites; while the nanocomposite research is still very active, new research directions of using the nanofibers for hydrogels/aerogels, template for nanoparticle synthesis, scaffold, carbon materials, nanopaper, etc. have emerged. In this Ph.D. thesis, fundamental studies and application developments are performed on three types of cellulose nanofibers, i.e. cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and bacterial cellulose (BC). First CNCs and CNFs are systematically compared in terms of their effects on the mechanical properties, crystallization and failure behavior of the nanocomposites, which provides a guideline for the design of cellulose nanofiber reinforced composites. Second, CNFs and BC are used to develop core-shell carbon fibers and flexible carbon aerogels for energy storage applications. This part is focused on developing nanocarbon materials with multi-scale features. Lastly, hybrid CNC/CNF nanopaper with superior optical, mechanical, and electrical properties is developed and its application is demonstrated on a LED device.

  5. Wool quality traits of purebred and crossbred Merino lambs orally drenched with Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W.B. Holman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Spirulina supplementation, sire breed and sex on the wool characteristics of purebred and crossbred Merino weaned lambs under a single pasture-based management system. Lambs sired by Merino, White Suffolk, Dorset, Black Suffolk breeds were randomly allocated into 3 treatments – the control group grazing without Spirulina (0 mL, low (100 mL and high (200 mL Spirulina groups. All lambs were kept as a single mob in paddocks, grazed for 9 weeks and wool samples analysed. Differences in wool quality between the control and supplemented groups were not significant (P>0.05. However, sire breed significantly (P<0.001 influenced fibre diameter, spinning fineness, comfort factor and fibre curvature with purebred Merinos having superior wool quality than crossbreds. Wethers grew higher quality wool than ewes. Spirulina has a potential as an alternative supplementary bioresource in dual-purpose sheep feeding because it does not compromise wool quality in supplemented weaner lambs.

  6. Generation and characterization of neurogenin1-GFP transgenic medaka with potential for rapid developmental neurotoxicity screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Chunyang [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Simmons, Steven O. [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Law, Sheran H.W. [Environmental Sciences and Policy Division, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Jensen, Karl; Cowden, John [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hinton, David [Environmental Sciences and Policy Division, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Padilla, Stephanie [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ramabhadran, Ram, E-mail: Ram.Ramabhadran@gmail.com [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Fish models such as zebrafish and medaka are increasingly used as alternatives to rodents in developmental and toxicological studies. These developmental and toxicological studies can be facilitated by the use of transgenic reporters that permit the real-time, noninvasive observation of the fish. Here we report the construction and characterization of transgenic medaka lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the zebrafish neurogenin 1 (ngn1) gene promoter. Neurogenin (ngn1) is a helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in proliferating neuronal progenitor cells early in neuronal differentiation and plays a crucial role in directing neurogenesis. GFP expression was detected from 24 h post-fertilization until hatching, in a spatial pattern consistent with the previously reported zebrafish ngn1 expression. Temporal expression of the transgene parallels the expression profile of the endogenous medaka ngn1 transcript. Further, we demonstrate that embryos from the transgenic line permit the non-destructive, real-time screening of ngn1 promoter-directed GFP expression in a 96-well format, enabling higher throughput studies of developmental neurotoxicants. This strain has been deposited with and maintained by the National BioResource Project and is available on request ( (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/medaka/strainDetailAction.do?quickSearch=true and strainId=5660)).

  7. Characterization and analysis of the molecular weight of lignin for biorefining studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, Allison [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Akinosho, Hannah [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Khunsupat, Taya Ratayakorn [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2014-01-01

    The molecular weight of lignin is a fundamental property that infl uences the recalcitrance of biomass and the valorization of lignin. The determination of the molecular weight of lignin in native biomass is dependent on the bioresources used and the isolation and purifi cation procedures employed. The three most commonly employed isolation methods are milled wood lignin (MWL), cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL), and enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL). Common characterization techniques for determining the molecular weight of lignin will be addressed, with an emphasis on gel permeation chromatography (GPC). This review also examines the mechanisms behind several biological, physical, and chemical pre-treatments and their impact on the molecular weight of lignin. The number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (D) all vary in magnitude depending on the biomass source, pre-treatment conditions, and isolation method. Additionally, there is a growing body of literature that supports changes in the molecular weight of lignin in response to genetic modifi cations in the lignin biosynthetic pathways. This review summarizes different procedures for obtaining the molecular weight of lignin that have been used in recent years and highlight future opportunities for applications of lignin.

  8. THERMOGRAVIMETRIC INVESTIGATION AND THERMAL CONVERSION KINETICS OF TYPICAL NORTH-AFRICA AND MIDDLE-EAST LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to thermally characterize the renewable lignocellulosic bioresources derived from palm trees in order to highlight their energy potential. Pyrolysis and combustion behaviours of date stones (DS agricultural by-products were tested by thermo-gravimetric analysis, and the main chemical compositions were analyzed. The work has also been conducted to identify their most important physical characteristics. The study of the sizes and heating rate effects constitute the first part of the experimental work. Inert atmosphere and three heating rates: 10, 20, and 50 °C/min, were applied to various particle sizes of DS. In the second part, tests were carried out in an oxidizing atmosphere (21% O2 by varying the size of the DS. The kinetic parameters such as pre-exponential factor and activation energy were determined. Increasing the particle sizes and the heating rates didn’t have an appreciable influence on the global weight losses. However, degradation rates were significant with the porous structure of the DS. Weight losses in inert and oxidizing atmospheres were found to occur in two stages (drying and devolatilization and in three stages (drying, devolatilization, and oxidation of the char.

  9. Fruiting Body Production of the Medicinal Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes), in Artificial Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Ye, Yunshou; Han, Richou

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), regarded as the "Himalayan Viagra", is widely used for medicinal treatment and health foods. The price of O. sinensis has continued to increase over the past few years because of the growing worldwide demand and resource limitations. Artificial cultivation of the fruiting bodies to substitute natural O. sinensis is urgently needed for the effective protection of a valuable bioresource and environment in the Tibetan plateau, and for commercial trade. In this study, the anamorph of 3 isolates was separated from natural O. sinensis and identified by molecular markers as Hirsutella sinensis. These fungal isolates were cultured in a rice-based medium at 9-13 °C for 50 days for mycelial growth, at 4 °C for 100 days for stromatal induction, and at 13 °C for 40 days for fruiting body formation. The mature fruiting bodies with mature perithecium were harvested in about 140 days. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of stable fruiting body production of O. sinensis by artificial media in the low-altitude area outside the Tibetan plateau. PMID:26853966

  10. Rice agroecosystem of the Muda irrigation scheme, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides have become one of the major components of modern farming practice. However, their usage needs to be properly carried out and regulated. Farmers need to be aware of the potential hazards arising out of improper use of pesticides, to them as well to the environment. This book presents the results of a comprehensive study on the impact of pesticide usage in the largest rice agroecosystem in Malaysia, the Muda Irrigation Scheme. The study, carried out by a group of local scientists, covers the impact of pesticide usage on biodiversity and bioresources (forest, weed, insect, fish and bird). In addition to farmers education, it shows the potential of crop establishment, irrigation method and double cropping of rice as useful factors that can be employed in minimizing the impact. The book also provides good foundation for future work and points out areas for further studies. It is a valuable reference to policy makers, researchers, regulators, agriculture-related agencies, chemical / fertilizer companies as well as those concerned with sustainable farming. The ecologists, chemists, biochemists, entomologists, zoologists, botanists, microbiologists, agronomists and medical practitioners involved in this study are congratulated for their efforts. (Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid)

  11. Comparative analysis on transcriptome sequencings of six Sargassum species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guoliang; WANG Xumin; WU Shuangxiu; SUN Jing; LIU Guiming; WANG Liang; YU Jun; LIU Tao; CHI Shan; LIU Cui; GUO Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Species of Sargassum are distributed worldwide, and are of great ecological and economic importance in marine ecosystems and bioresources. In this study, transcriptome sequencings of six Sargassum species were performed for the first time using an Illumina platform. For each sample, a total of 2.1-2.5 Gb of nucle-otides are collected and assembled into 69 871-116 790 scaffolds, with an average length of 410-550 bp and N50 length of 756-1 462 bp. A total of 20 512-28 684 unigenes of each sample were annotated and compared well with known gene sequences from nr database. Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were also performed for further un-derstanding of gene functions and regulation pathways. Gene expression levels were calculated based on RPKM values and compared among these species, especially for those genes related to carbohydrate metab-olism. Cluster analyses indicated that the differences of global gene expression between S. fusiforme, which was nominated as Hizikia fusiformis before, and other five species were not significant. Further phylogenet-ic analysis of 108 orthologous genes confirmed that S. fusiforme had closer relationship with S. hemiphyllum rather than S. horneri. These transcriptome data provided valuable information for better understanding of genome and gene characteristics of Sargassum algae and benefiting comparative and phylogenetic studies of Phaeophyceae species in future studies.

  12. One-step synthesis of polydispersed silver nanocrystals using Malva sylvestris: an eco-friendly mosquito larvicide with negligible impact on non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis of eco-friendly nanoparticles is evergreen branch of nanoscience with a growing number of biomedical implications. In this study, we investigated the synthesis of polydisperse and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap leaf extract of Malva sylvestris (Malvaceae). Bio-reduced AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity of M. sylvestris leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, AgNP showed higher toxicity against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 10.33, 11.23, and 12.19 μg/mL, respectively. Green-synthesized AgNP were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 813.16 to 1044.52 μg/mL. Overall, this research firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of M. sylvestris, a potential bio-resource for rapid, cheap and effective synthesis of polydisperse and highly stable silver nanocrystals. PMID:27075309

  13. Advances in industrial prospective of cellulosic macromolecules enriched banana biofibre resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, Asokan; Patil, Vikas; Jain, Sonal; Mahindrakar, Amit; Haque, Ruhi; Thakur, Vijay Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Biological macromolecules enriched resources are rapidly emerging as sustainable, cost effective and environmental friendly materials for several industrial applications. Among different biological macromolecules enriched resources, banana fibres are one of the unexplored high potential bio-resources. Compared to various natural fibres such as jute, coir, palm etc., the banana fibres exhibits a better tensile strength i.e. 458 MPa with 17.14 GPa tensile modulus. Traditionally used petroleum based synthetic fibres have been proven to be toxic, non-biodegradable and energy intensive for manufacturing. Cellulosic banana fibres are potential engineering materials having considerable scope to be used as an environmental friendly reinforcing element for manufacturing of polymer based green materials. This paper summarizes the world scenario of current production of biological macromolecules rich banana residues and fibres; major user's of banana fibres. The quality and quantity of biological macromolecules especially the cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, wax, engineering and mechanical properties of banana biofibre resources are reported and discussed. Subsequently, the findings of the recent research on bio resource composites, materials performance and opportunities have been discussed which would be a real challenge for the tomorrow world to enhance the livelihood environmental friendly advancement. PMID:26001493

  14. VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE OF LAOKHOWA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY IN ASSAM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeeb Kumar Nath

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The protective areas like National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and reserve forests have attracted worldwide attention to study vegetation, floral diversity and other wild lives for its conservation, sustainable use and also for proper management of bioresources. Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary has most ideal habitat for Indian one horned rhinoceros and is one of its representative area in Brahmaputra flood plain. The sanctuary is one of the rich and ecological habitat for the wild variety of animals and plants species .The natural vegetation of the area is mainly contributed by forests of tall trees, grassland and wetland vegetation. The woodland provides food and shelter to a variety of animals and the grassland is the haven for a variety of herbivores. Besides these the wetlands and aquatic bodies provides food and shelter to avifauna, fish fauna and other wildlife. The present paper deals with the vegetation present in the sanctuary. The vegetation comprises (a Low alluvial savannah woodland (Salmaria – Albizzia(b Western Wet alluvial grasslands (c Riparian Fringing Forests (d Barringtonia Swamp forests (e Wetlands (f Plantation areas (g Degraded Forests. About 40 sq km areas is grassland; 6 sq km area is occupied by alluvial grassland in the Sanctuary.

  15. Agro-industrial lignocellulosic biomass a key to unlock the future bio-energy: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Anwar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available From the last several years, in serious consideration of the worldwide economic and environmental pollution issues there has been increasing research interest in the value of bio-sourced lignocellulosic biomass. Agro-industrial biomass comprised on lignocellulosic waste is an inexpensive, renewable, abundant and provides a unique natural resource for large-scale and cost-effective bio-energy collection. To expand the range of natural bio-resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of the product of interest. In this background green biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert most of the solid agricultural wastes particularly lignocellulosic materials into liquid bio based energy-fuels. In fact, major advances have already been achieved to competitively position cellulosic ethanol with corn ethanol. The present summarized review work begins with an overview on the physico-chemical features and composition of agro-industrial biomass. The information is also given on the multi-step processing technologies of agro-industrial biomass to fuel ethanol followed by a brief summary of future considerations.

  16. Enzymatic transesterification of palm stearin and olein blends to produce zero-trans margarine fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellami Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food industries aim to replace trans fat in their products by formulations having equivalent functionality and economic viability. Enzymatic transesterification can be a technological option to produce trans free fats targeting commercial applications. Results Palm stearin and palm olein blends in different ratios were enzymatically transesterified in a solvent free system using a Rhizopus oryzae lipase immobilised onto CaCO3 to produce a suitable fat for margarine formulation. Slip melting points and triacylglycerols profiles were evaluated upon transesterification. Results indicated that all transesterified blends had lower slip melting points than their non transesterified counterparts. Furthermore, the triacylglycerols profile showed a decrease in the concentration of the high melting point triacylglycerols. The rheological analysis showed that margarine prepared with the transesterified blend showed a better spreadability than that of a control margarine prepared with non transesterified fat. Adding powder of dry bark orange to margarine preparation improved its colour and fairly affected its spreadability and rheological behaviour. The margarine prepared with transesterified fat displayed a rheological behaviour that was comparable to that of commercial sample. Conclusions This study is an ecofriendly approach to the utilization of relatively low value bioresources like palm stearin and palm olein for making margarine free of trans fatty acids that are now implicated as risk factor for heart diseases.

  17. Current status of molecular biological techniques for plant breeding in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classical plant breeding has played an important role in developing new varieties in current agriculture. For decades, the technique of cross-pollination has been popular for breeding in cereal and horticultural crops to introduce special traits. However, recently the molecular techniques get widely accepted as an alternative tool in both introducing a useful trait for developing the new cultivars and investigating the characteristics of a trait in plant, like the identification of a gene. Using the advanced molecular technique, several genetically modified (GM) crops (e.g., Roundup Ready Soybean, YieldGard, LibertyLink etc.) became commercially cultivated and appeared in the global market since 1996. The GM crops, commercially available at the moment, could be regarded as successful achievements in history of crop breeding conferring the specific gene into economically valuable crops to make them better. Along with such achievements, on the other hand these new crops have also caused the controversial debate on the safety of GM crops as human consumption and environmental release as well. Nevertheless, molecular techniques are widespread and popular in both investigating the basic science of plant biology and breeding new varieties compared to their conventional counterparts. Thus, the Department of Bioresources at the National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NIAST) has been using the molecular biological techniques as a complimentary tool for the improvement of crop varieties for almost two decades. (author)

  18. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted. PMID:25025271

  19. IN SITU AND IN VITRO COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE BIOPRODUCTIVITY OF ARNICAE FOLIUM ET CAULIS FROM THE NORTHERN AREA OF THE ROMANIAN EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Paula ŞTEFANACHE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arnica montana L. is an important plant bioresource, being traditionally used as medicinal plant, for which the scientific and economic interest remains at a high level. The aim of our study was to evaluate the bioproductivity for Arnicae folium et caulis in terms of biomass and content in biological active compounds originating from the wild populations and in vitro experimental cultures – under controlled environment. In situ biomass production registered variations, probably due to the different environmental features and also to the management strategies for each site. The development of in vitro cultures had as purpose the evaluation of the biomass production and production of plant material for the phytochemical screening. The Arnicae folium et caulis samples harvested from the wild populations have a higher content in phenolic acids than the Arnicae flos from the same area, but the total content in sesquiterpen-lactones was significantly lower. In contrast, the samples originating from the in vitro cultures had a low content in phenolic compounds and a high content in sesquiterpen-lactones, comparable with Arnicae flos.

  20. Insights into roles of the miR-1, -133 and -206 family in gastric cancer (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Meng; Dart, Dafydd Alwyn; Owen, Sioned; Wen, Xianzi; Ji, Jiafu; Jiang, Wenguo

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) remains the third most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide and carries a high rate of metastatic risk contributing to the main cause of treatment failure. An accumulation of data has resulted in a better understanding of the molecular network of GC, however, gaps still exist between the unique bio-resources and clinical application. MicroRNAs are an important part of non-coding RNAs and behave as major regulators of tumour biology, alongside their well-known roles as intrinsic factors of gene expression in cellular processes, via their post-transcriptional regulation of components of signalling pathways in a coordinated manner. Deregulation of the miR-1, -133 and -206 family plays a key role in tumorigenesis, progression, invasion and metastasis. This review aims to provide a summary of recent findings on the miR-1, -133 and -206 family in GC and how this knowledge might be exploited for the development of future miRNA-based therapies for the treatment of GC. PMID:27349337

  1. Ultrafast and continuous synthesis of crystalline ferrite nanoparticles in supercritical ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Oana; Marre, Samuel; Aymonier, Cyril; Roig, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are of increasing interest in various industrially relevant products. For these, the development of greener and faster approaches facilitating scaling-up production is of paramount importance. Here, we report a novel, green and potentially scalable approach for the continuous and ultrafast (90 s) synthesis of superparamagnetic ferrite NPs (MnFe2O4, Fe3O4) in supercritical ethanol (scEtOH) at a fairly moderate temperature (260 °C). ScEtOH exhibits numerous advantages such as its production from bio-resources, its lack of toxicity and its relatively low supercritical coordinates (pc = 6.39 MPa and Tc = 243 °C), being therefore appropriate for the development of sustainable technologies. The present study is completed by the investigation of both in situ and ex situ NP surface functionalization. The as-obtained nanoparticles present good crystallinity, sizes below 8 nm, superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature and high saturation magnetization. Moreover, depending on the capping strategy, the ferrite NPs present extended (for in situ coated NPs) or short-term (for ex situ coated NPs) colloidal stability.

  2. An ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer N; Liu Q; Harrington D; Kohen J; Vemulpad S; Jamie J; Randall M; Randall D

    2005-01-01

    The Australian Aboriginal people have used plants as medicine and food for thousands of years, however, this traditional knowledge is documented only to a limited extent, and is in danger of being lost. The Indigenous Bioresources Research Group (IBRG) aims to help Australian Aboriginal communities to preserve their customary medicinal knowledge, and to provide information that can be used for their cultural or educational purposes, as well as for scientific advancement. This work is undertaken in close collaboration with Australian Aboriginal communities in New South Wales. The project is multidisciplinary, combining an ethnobotanical and an ethnopharmacological approach, which includes biological and chemical investigations, as well as developing best practices for protecting traditional knowledge. This paper describes the general strategy of the project as well as methods used in the ethnopharmacological study. Ethnobotanical databases are set up for each participating community. Plant material is collected, extracted, and active compounds are isolated using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. All extracts and compounds are tested for biological activity in antimicrobial assays (disc diffusion, resazurin, fluorescein diacetate), neurological assays or anti-inflammatory assays, depending on their traditional use.

  3. Biowaste biorefinery in Europe: opportunities and research & development needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Fabio; Totaro, Grazia; Diels, Ludo; Reis, Maria; Duarte, Jose; Carioca, Osvaldo Beserra; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ferreira, Bruno Sommer

    2015-01-25

    This review aims to explore the needs and opportunities of research & development in the field of biowaste biorefinery in Europe. Modern industry in recent years is giving its close attention on organic waste as a new precious bioresource. Specific biowaste valorisation pathways are focusing on food processing waste, being food sector the first manufacture in Europe. Anyway they need to be further tested and validated and then transferred at the larger scale. In particular, they also need to become integrated, combining biomass pretreatments and recovery of biogenic chemicals with bioconversion processes in order to obtain a large class of chemicals. This will help to (a) use the whole biowaste, by avoiding producing residues and providing to the approach the required environmental sustainability, and (b) producing different biobased products that enter different markets, to get the possible economical sustainability of the whole biorefinery. However, the costs of the developed integrated processes might be high, mostly for the fact that the industry dealing with such issues is still underdeveloped and therefore dominated by high processing costs. Such costs can be significantly reduced by intensifying research & development on process integration and intensification. The low or no cost of starting material along with the environmental benefits coming from the concomitant biowaste disposal would offset the high capital costs for initiating such a biorefinery. As long as the oil prices tend to increase (and they will) this strategy will become even more attractive. PMID:24284045

  4. Utilizing of black water from vacuum toilets in the biogas production. Aspects for the integration into a construction project under special consideration of co-substrates; Schwarzwasser von Vakuumtoiletten zur Biogaserzeugung. Aspekte zur Integration in ein Bauprojekt unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Co-Substraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Ina; Hertel, Saskia; Deegener, Stefan; Boltz, Kirstin [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Gruppe Biokonversion und Emissionsminderung

    2013-10-01

    In the Hamburg Jenfelder Au district, a residential area is currently being developed for 1,800 inhabitants. The buildings will be connected to an innovative system for the separate collection of grey water, rain water, and also of black water via vacuum toilets. An anaerobic fermentation plant will provide the district with electricity and heat via gas turbines. The daily black water quantity in Jenfelder Au will amount to approximately 12 m{sup 3}. It will provide only a trickle of the biogas needed to run the gas turbines. Therefore, high-caloric co-substrates are required. In an inventory, the theoretical regional potential of secondary and tertiary bioresources which could be used as co-substrates was determined. Enough greasy water from Hamburg and surrounding would be available on short term by redirection from another anaerobic fermentation plant. More sustainable would be the application of unused lawn cuttings. Enough lawn cuttings are probably available within a radius of five kilometers. Fresh or silage lawn cuttings need to be prepared in order to be mixable with the black water. The available options are the production of a juice through pressing, or of a suspension through wet grinding. Black water and co-substrates were characterized with regards to parameters necessary for the planning of the anaerobic fermentation plant. Continuous fermentation tests were first carried out with greasy water. Scenarios were developed with regard to suitable mixtures. (orig.)

  5. Chinese Marine Materia Medica. By Huashi Guan and Shuguang Wang. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, China Ocean Press, and Chemical Industry Press: Shanghai, Beijing, China, 2009; Hardback, 7064 pp; ¥ 2920; ISBN 978-7-5323-9958-1/R•2707; ISBN 978-7-5323-9973-4/R•2708; ISBN 978-7-1220-6012-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy. A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, collected over thousands of years, has provided an important foundation for modern research in the area of marine drugs. Thanks to these records and references, the research and development of modern Chinese marine drugs continue to evolve and mature. Since the middle of the 20th century, special attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in a significant increase in the number of newly discovered marine herbs. Comprehensive surveys in the past have also created a wealth of data on the pharmacology, chemistry, biology and ecology of marine medicinal bioresources. After thousands of years of research, historical references to traditional marine herbs are scattered throughout ancient books, local chronicles, medical books, or monographs on medicinal herbs. Unfortunately, there is no systematic way to collate or scientifically verify these references. Furthermore, during the last century, scientists around the world have accumulated large quantities of information on marine natural products, but these are also scattered throughout academic books and journals.

  6. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles fabricated using Anisomeles indica: Mosquitocidal potential against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools against mosquito vectors are a priority. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap, aqueous leaf extract of Anisomeles indica by reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. Bio-reduced AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The acute toxicity of A. indica leaf extract and biosynthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Both the A. indica leaf extract and AgNP showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against all tested mosquito species. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized AgNP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 31.56, 35.21 and 38.08 μg/mL, respectively. Overall, this study firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of A. indica, a potential bioresource for rapid, cheap and effective AgNP synthesis. PMID:26708933

  7. Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bauhinia variegata: a recent eco-friendly approach for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito vectors are responsible for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects, in addition to high operational cost. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has been proposed as an alternative to traditional control tools. In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia variegata by reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The bioreduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against the larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to aqueous extract, synthesized AgNPs showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 and LC90 values of 41.96, 46.16, and 51.92 μg/mL and 82.93, 89.42, and 97.12 μg/mL, respectively. Overall, this study proves that B. variegata is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis and may be proposed as an efficient mosquito control agent. PMID:26490683

  8. Electron beam irradiation as a method to modify the wheat starch characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Starch is a renewable bioresource with wide range of potential applications. At present time, considerable efforts are made worldwide with respect to research and mainly to development of processes for treating and modifying of different starches in order to extend their industrial applicability. Our previous work proved the potential of the electron beam irradiation to modify the functional properties of maize starch. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility to use the electron beam irradiation to change some characteristics of wheat starch. The physicochemical and structural characteristics of the irradiated wheat starch are analyzed in comparison to the native wheat starch ones. The electron beam irradiation lead to the reduction of the paste pH, clarity and apparent viscosity as the absorbed dose increase, while the thermal stability is not affected. Also, changes at the structure level in the irradiated starch can be observed. Electron beam irradiation may be an alternative method to modify some of the wheat starch properties

  9. Study on lignin decomposition and elimination methods using microorganisms for environmental conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to utilize effectively the resources limited on the earth, it is necessary to use more effectively reproducible bio-resources, especially forest products occupied most of biomass. Then, it is necessary to develop a technique to remove lignin covered on multi-saccharide with energy saving and pollution on production of chemicals, feeds, papers, and so forth from wood. In paper and pulp industries, a lot of heat and electric powers were required and chlorine was used in tis bleaching process, so it became a large problem to generate various organic chlorine compounds and extremely traced dioxins. Then, it was rapidly required to develop an energy saving technique and non-chlorine bleaching method using microbes and enzymes. This study aims at elucidating structure and decomposition of lignin causing environmental pollution, intending to produce a lignin decomposition bacterium with high decomposition activity to lignin by using gamma-ray radiation and gene conversion technique, to contribute to a technical development friendly to contribute to a technical development friendly to environment such as energy saving type de-lignin method using microbes and enzymes. (G.K.)

  10. From here to sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbe, M. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Many readers and contributors to BioResources are working to develop sustainable technology. Such research attempts to use products of photosynthesis to meet long-term human needs with a minimum of environmental impact. Archeological and historical studies have concluded that the long-term success or failure of various past civilizations has depended, at least in part, on people’s ability to maintain the quality of the resources upon which they depended. Though it is possible for modern societies to learn from such examples, modern societies are interconnected to an unprecedented degree. It is no longer realistic to expect one region to be immune from the effects of environmental mistakes that may happen elsewhere in the world. Research related to renewable, lignocellulosic resources is urgently needed. But in addition to the research, there also needs to be discussion of hard-hitting questions, helping to minimize the chances of technological failure. The next failed civilization may be our own.

  11. Echoes of the test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department for Medicine Sciences of Ministry of Science-Academy of Sciences jointly with Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Ecology and Bio-resources of the Republic of Kazakstan and with participation of public organizations (Kazakh Association International Movement 'A physicants against nuclear war'; International unti-nuclear movement 'Nevada -Semipalatisk') organized and held a Round Table on topic 'Society and State: nuclear safety'. The round table has been organized for to express the concern of public and to adopt a Address to Presidents of 8 countries, which are participants of International Summit on Antinuclear security held in Moscow 19 April 1996. Mr. Shkol'nik, Minister of Science-President of Academy of Sciences appears with opening speech to participants of the Round Table. He briefly informed about Republican Agency for Atomic Energy's activity. The main activity of the organization is nuclear and radiation safety monitoring and creation of state system of nuclear weapons non-proliferation regime. All other speakers told about tragic consequences of nuclear tests on Kazakstan territory and about working out strategy of way out from exiting ecological and economic situation and rehabilitation of victim population. The participants of the Round Table adopted the Address to Presidents of 'Big Eight' countries with request to start peaceful treaties signing about complete ban of nuclear weapons. All of the participants of the Round Table unanimously have adopted the Address

  12. Environmental restoration plans and activities in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period of uranium mining activities in the Republic of Kazakhstan so far more gm 200 million tonnes of radioactive waste with a total activity of about 250,000 Ci has accumulated. The problem of environmental restoration of contaminated uranium mining and milling sites is very topical and important for Kazakhstan. This paper presents the radiological status of the situation in Kazakhstan, the characteristics of the uranium mining and mill tailings and the approach to the tailings management for stabilization and isolation from the human environment. Legislation in the field of atomic energy including radwaste management has been established in Kazakhstan through a structure of State Bodies such as Ministries of Science, Ecology, Bioresources, Health and Atomic Energy Agency. An organization for radiation safety regulation has also been created. Studies regarding stabilization of radiological situation have been started in Kazakhstan with the support of IAEA and EU. This paper deals with the regional project for assessment of immediate measures to be taken for remediation of uranium mining and mill tailings sites. (author)

  13. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  14. PEA PEEL WASTE: A LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE AND ITS UTILITY IN CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY Trichoderma reesei UNDER SOLID STATE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Verma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of waste bioresources are available on our planet for conversion into bioproducts. In the biological systems, microorganisms are used to utilize waste as an energy source for the synthesis of valuable products such as biomass proteins and enzymes. The large quantities of byproducts generated during the processing of plant food involve an economic and environmental problem due to their high volumes and elimination costs. After isolation of the main constituent, there are abundant remains which represent an inexpensive material that has been undervalued until now. Pea peel waste is one of the undervalued, unused sources of energy that can serve as a potential source for cellulase production. Batch experiments have been performed, using pea peel waste as a carbon source for cellulase production under solid state cultivation by Trichoderma reesei. It was observed that 30 oC temperature and pH 5.0 are the most favorable conditions for cellulase production by T. reesei. FPase activity significantly increases by incorporation of whey as well as wheat starch hydrolysate in the basal salt media used in the production study. The present study describes the utility of pea peel waste, whey as well as wheat starch hydrolysate in cellulase production by T. reesei. The utilization of economically cheap, pea peel waste for cellulase production could be a novel, cost effective, and valuable approach in cellulase production as well as in solid waste management.

  15. Assessment of Danish biomass resources for producing biofuels for the transport sector towards the year 2020; Opgoerelse af den danske biomasseressourcer til brug for fremstilling af biobraendstoffer til transportsektoren frem mod 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, S.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2008-11-15

    The agricultural sector will have an increasing role to play according to society needs for biobased products, including biofuels. However, it is necessary to point out national positions of strength in order to act proactive and gain the benefits for this growing marked. It is clear from this report that both agriculture and forestry, and connected industries, have great possibilities to deliver biomass resources without decreasing the current food production. From the calculations in this report, including several assumptions concerning convertibility and uncertainties about yield potentials comparing, the sector can provide up to 30 % of the existing fossil fuel consumption in the transportation sector using cereal straw. Approximately, 10 % if the wood resources are utilized and about 6 % using more waste based biomasses. Fish and slaughterhouse waste can cover up to about 9 % of the present diesel consumption. However, increased sale of bioresources for bioenergy purposes require that this resource is validated as a part of the whole farm or forestry system including political regulations like for instance the EU Natura 2000 directives. Different crops have additional functions/ effects like groundwater protection, biodiversity, soil fertility (including carbon sequestration) which needs to be included when validating such biomass crops. Furthermore, several biomass resources which are regarded as waste at present represent a much higher value, and needs to be addressed in such perspective. (author)

  16. Current status of molecular biological techniques for plant breeding in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Si-Myung; Park, Bum-Seok; Yun, In-Sun; Goo, Doe-Hoe; Kim, Seok-Dong [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    Classical plant breeding has played an important role in developing new varieties in current agriculture. For decades, the technique of cross-pollination has been popular for breeding in cereal and horticultural crops to introduce special traits. However, recently the molecular techniques get widely accepted as an alternative tool in both introducing a useful trait for developing the new cultivars and investigating the characteristics of a trait in plant, like the identification of a gene. Using the advanced molecular technique, several genetically modified (GM) crops (e.g., Roundup Ready Soybean, YieldGard, LibertyLink etc.) became commercially cultivated and appeared in the global market since 1996. The GM crops, commercially available at the moment, could be regarded as successful achievements in history of crop breeding conferring the specific gene into economically valuable crops to make them better. Along with such achievements, on the other hand these new crops have also caused the controversial debate on the safety of GM crops as human consumption and environmental release as well. Nevertheless, molecular techniques are widespread and popular in both investigating the basic science of plant biology and breeding new varieties compared to their conventional counterparts. Thus, the Department of Bioresources at the National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NIAST) has been using the molecular biological techniques as a complimentary tool for the improvement of crop varieties for almost two decades. (author)

  17. Bird Mortaility at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: March 1998--September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, K. S.; Thelander, C. G.

    2005-09-01

    Over the past 15 years, research has shown that wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) kill many birds, including raptors, which are protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, and/or state and federal Endangered Species Acts. Early research in the APWRA on avian mortality mainly attempted to identify the extent of the problem. In 1998, however, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated research to address the causal relationships between wind turbines and bird mortality. NREL funded a project by BioResource Consultants to perform this research directed at identifying and addressing the causes of mortality of various bird species from wind turbines in the APWRA.With 580 megawatts (MW) of installed wind turbine generating capacity in the APWRA, wind turbines there provide up to 1 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of emissions-free electricity annually. By identifying and implementing new methods and technologies to reduce or resolve bird mortality in the APWRA, power producers may be able to increase wind turbine electricity production at the site and apply similar mortality-reduction methods at other sites around the state and country.

  18. Impact of Oil Drilling Operations on Forest Resources in Obagi, Niger Delta Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Mmom

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of oil drilling operation and its impact on forest resources in Obagi and other oil producing communities has over time been a challenge facing oil producing areas. This studyefore is necessitated to identify and evaluate the Changes that have taken place overtime on forest resources arising from oil drilling operation. It was to examine and establishes if the damage of ecosystem and loss of bio-resources is as a result of drilling operation in the area. A total of 135 persons were interviewed as sample population for the study. The result of findings of the study showed that oil drilling operation has no significant impact on ecosystem damage, ecosystem disruption, specie extinction and decline rather that to a significant extent that there are other factor which plays in the damage of ecosystem and loss of forest resources in the area, amongst them as found by the study are the introduction of exotic species, intensive farming, deforestation for construction purposes all these as found by the research in one way or the other affects the balance in the ecosystem.

  19. Utility of Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Curran, Joanne E.; Glahn, David C.; Blangero, John

    2016-01-01

    A large number of EBV immortalized LCLs have been generated and maintained in genetic/epidemiological studies as a perpetual source of DNA and as a surrogate in vitro cell model. Recent successes in reprograming LCLs into iPSCs have paved the way for generating more relevant in vitro disease models using this existing bioresource. However, the overall reprogramming efficiency and success rate remain poor and very little is known about the mechanistic changes that take place at the transcriptome and cellular functional level during LCL-to-iPSC reprogramming. Here, we report a new optimized LCL-to-iPSC reprogramming protocol using episomal plasmids encoding pluripotency transcription factors and mouse p53DD (p53 carboxy-terminal dominant-negative fragment) and commercially available reprogramming media. We achieved a consistently high reprogramming efficiency and 100% success rate using this optimized protocol. Further, we investigated the transcriptional changes in mRNA and miRNA levels, using FC-abs ≥ 2.0 and FDR ≤ 0.05 cutoffs; 5,228 mRNAs and 77 miRNAs were differentially expressed during LCL-to-iPSC reprogramming. The functional enrichment analysis of the upregulated genes and activation of human pluripotency pathways in the reprogrammed iPSCs showed that the generated iPSCs possess transcriptional and functional profiles very similar to those of human ESCs.

  20. Advances in Mapping Loci Conferring Resistance to Rice Sheath Blight and Mining Rhizoctonia solani Resistant Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yu-xiang; JI Zhi-juan; MA Liang-yong; LI Xi-ming; YANG Chang-deng

    2011-01-01

    Sheath blight (SB) caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the three major diseases of rice,and now has become the most severe disease causing rice yield loss in China.Breeding and use of varieties resistant to SB is crucial in controlling the disease,but the advances achieved have been limited due to the lack of highly SB-resistant rice germplasm.Genetic analysis revealed that the SB resistance in rice was a typical quantitative trait controlled by multi-genes.Although many QTLs conferring resistance to SB have been identified in recent years,most of the QTLs only showed small effects and few of them have been evaluated for utilization potential.Many R.solani-resistant resources have been found in wild rice species,microorganisms and other plant species.It is already known that the SB-resistance could be improved in transgenic rice plants by genetic transformation.This paper reviewed the genetic mapping of loci associated with resistance to rice SB,the evaluation of the potential of resistance QTLs,and the resistant resources found in various organisms besides rice.To develop SB-resistant rice varieties,it is important to develop and explore new resistant rice germplasms,fine map and evaluate resistance QTLs,and also to pay attention to various bio-resources showing resistance to R.solani.

  1. Biosorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Diospyrous melanoxylon Leaf Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra G Patil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste Tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon leaves from bidi (local cigarette industry has been used as a raw material to produce activated carbon applying sulfuric acid carbonization method. Batch experiments were conducted to assess the potential for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using the activated carbon and compared to raw tendu leaves powder and commercial activated carbon. Equilibrium isotherm and kinetic studies have been done by varying the parameters such initial concentration of dye, adsorbent dose, pH of the dye solution, and varying the contact time between the carbon and the dye. It was found that the methylene blue adsorption on tendu waste-based activated carbon conformed to the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities were found to be 219.3, 355.9 and 495.1 mg/g for raw tendu waste, carbonized tendu and commercial carbon, respectively. The kinetic studies were well characterized by a pseudo second order kinetic model. The results of this study indicate that raw tendu waste a renewable bioresource, as such as well as its carbonized form are attractive biosorbent for removing a cationic dye from the dye wastewater.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2735

  2. Complete utilization of non-edible oil seeds of Cascabela thevetia through a cascade of approaches for biofuel and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Debashis; Chutia, Rahul Singh; Bordoloi, Neonjyoti; Narzari, Rumi; Kataki, Rupam

    2016-08-01

    Lipid-rich biomass, generally opted for biodiesel production, produces a substantial amount of by-product (de-oiled cake and seed cover) during the process. Complete utilization of Cascabela thevetia seeds for biofuel production through both chemical and thermochemical conversion route is investigated in the present study. Various properties of biodiesel produced was characterized and compared with those obtained from similar oil seeds. The by-products of the chemical process were used as a feedstock for pyrolysis at different temperatures in a fixed bed reactor. Maximum bio-oil yields of 29.11% and 26.18% were observed at 500°C. The bio-oil obtained at optimum yield was characterized by CHN analyzer, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The biochar produced was further characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR along with elemental analysis to explore its utilization for various purposes. The present investigation depicts a new approach towards complete utilization of lipid-rich bio-resources to different types of biofuels and biochar. PMID:26927236

  3. Generation and characterization of neurogenin1-GFP transgenic medaka with potential for rapid developmental neurotoxicity screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish models such as zebrafish and medaka are increasingly used as alternatives to rodents in developmental and toxicological studies. These developmental and toxicological studies can be facilitated by the use of transgenic reporters that permit the real-time, noninvasive observation of the fish. Here we report the construction and characterization of transgenic medaka lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the zebrafish neurogenin 1 (ngn1) gene promoter. Neurogenin (ngn1) is a helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in proliferating neuronal progenitor cells early in neuronal differentiation and plays a crucial role in directing neurogenesis. GFP expression was detected from 24 h post-fertilization until hatching, in a spatial pattern consistent with the previously reported zebrafish ngn1 expression. Temporal expression of the transgene parallels the expression profile of the endogenous medaka ngn1 transcript. Further, we demonstrate that embryos from the transgenic line permit the non-destructive, real-time screening of ngn1 promoter-directed GFP expression in a 96-well format, enabling higher throughput studies of developmental neurotoxicants. This strain has been deposited with and maintained by the National BioResource Project and is available on request ( (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/medaka/strainDetailAction.do?quickSearch=true and strainId=5660)).

  4. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES USING CROP PLANT ASSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Alice Teacă

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution has a harmful action on bioresources, including agricultural crops. It is generated through many industrial activities such as mining, coal burning, chemical technology, cement production, pulp and paper industry, etc. The toxicity of different industrial wastes and heavy metals excess was evaluated using crop plant assays (germination and hydroponics seedlings growth tests. Experimental data regarding the germination process of wheat (from two cultivars and rye seeds in the presence of industrial wastes (thermal power station ash, effluents from a pre-bleaching stage performed on a Kraft cellulose – chlorinated lignin products or chlorolignin, along with use of an excess of some heavy metals (Zn and Cu are presented here. Relative seed germination, relative root elongation, and germination index (a factor of relative seed germination and relative root elongation were determined. Relative root elongation and germination index were more sensitive indicators of toxicity than seed germination. The toxic effects were also evaluated in hydroponics experiments, the sensitivity of three crop plant species, namely Triticum aestivum L. (wheat, Secale cereale (rye, and Zea mays (corn being compared. Physiological aspects, evidenced both by visual observation and biometric measurements (mean root, aerial part and plant length, as well as the cellulose and lignin content were examined.

  5. Atractaspis aterrima toxins: the first insight into the molecular evolution of venom in side-stabbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrat, Yves; Sunagar, Kartik; Fry, Bryan G; Jackson, Timothy N W; Scheib, Holger; Fourmy, Rudy; Verdenaud, Marion; Blanchet, Guillaume; Antunes, Agostinho; Ducancel, Frederic

    2013-11-01

    Although snake venoms have been the subject of intense research, primarily because of their tremendous potential as a bioresource for design and development of therapeutic compounds, some specific groups of snakes, such as the genus Atractaspis, have been completely neglected. To date only limited number of toxins, such as sarafotoxins have been well characterized from this lineage. In order to investigate the molecular diversity of venom from Atractaspis aterrima-the slender burrowing asp, we utilized a high-throughput transcriptomic approach completed with an original bioinformatics analysis pipeline. Surprisingly, we found that Sarafotoxins do not constitute the major ingredient of the transcriptomic cocktail; rather a large number of previously well-characterized snake venom-components were identified. Notably, we recovered a large diversity of three-finger toxins (3FTxs), which were found to have evolved under the significant influence of positive selection. From the normalized and non-normalized transcriptome libraries, we were able to evaluate the relative abundance of the different toxin groups, uncover rare transcripts, and gain new insight into the transcriptomic machinery. In addition to previously characterized toxin families, we were able to detect numerous highly-transcribed compounds that possess all the key features of venom-components and may constitute new classes of toxins. PMID:24169588

  6. The Scaevola frutescen (Mill.) Krause dried-leaves extract as a potential natural reduction system for synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their evaluation for antibacterial of Eschericia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salprima Yudha, S.; Angasa, Eka; Suharto, Totok Eka; Nishina, Yuta; Mardlia, Zulfikri Achid; Sipriyadi

    2016-02-01

    Many reports recently show that some plant and animal extracts were useful to prepare some desired materials. In line with the statement, this report will present a bioresources candidate that can be used for green preparation of gold nanoparticles. The Scaevola fruteschen (Mill.) Krause was obtained from Enggano island, Bengkulu Province, Indonesia. The current research include synthesis, characterization and application study of the obtained nanoparticles in their original medium/reduction system as antibacterial agent of Escherichia coli. Besides that, the interaction study of the nanoparticles solution with Pb2+ ions was also studied. The results, shows that the present reduction system (aqueous extract of the plant leaves) successfully reduced gold (III) ions to gold metals as shown by new peak at 544 nm in spectrophotometry analysis. The average nanopartiles size was 96 nm based on Particles Size Analyzer (PSA) result. The stability study revealed that the nanoparticles solution was not stable in the persence of Pb(OAc)2 at high concentration. The nanoparticles were effective enough toward E. coli as shown by inhibition zone that indicates the degree of sensitivity of bacteria to nanoparticles.

  7. Access Governance for Biobanks: The Case of the BioSHaRE-EU Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jane; Briceño Moraia, Linda; Mitchell, Colin; Bell, Jessica; Bovenberg, Jasper Adriaan; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2016-06-01

    Currently, researchers have to apply separately to individual biobanks if they want to carry out studies that use samples and data from multiple biobanks. This article analyzes the access governance arrangements of the original five biobank members of the Biobank Standardisation and Harmonisation for Research Excellence in the European Union (BioSHaRE-EU) project in Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom to identify similarities and differences in policies and procedures, and consider the potential for internal policy "harmonization." Our analysis found differences in the range of researchers and organizations eligible to access biobanks; application processes; requirements for Research Ethics Committee approval; and terms of Material Transfer Agreements relating to ownership and commercialization. However, the main elements of access are the same across biobanks; access will be granted to bona fide researchers conducting research in the public interest, and all biobanks will consider the scientific merit of the proposed use and it's compatibility with the biobank's objectives. These findings suggest potential areas for harmonization across biobanks. This could be achieved through a single centralized application to a number of biobanks or a system of mutual recognition that places a presumption in favor of access to one biobank if already approved by another member of the same consortium. Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure-European Research Infrastructure Consortia (BBMRI-ERIC), a European consortium of biobanks and bioresources with its own ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) common service, could provide a platform by developing guidelines for harmonized internal processes. PMID:27183185

  8. Reviving the carbohydrate economy via multi-product lignocellulose biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2008-05-01

    Before the industrial revolution, the global economy was largely based on living carbon from plants. Now the economy is mainly dependent on fossil fuels (dead carbon). Biomass is the only sustainable bioresource that can provide sufficient transportation fuels and renewable materials at the same time. Cellulosic ethanol production from less costly and most abundant lignocellulose is confronted with three main obstacles: (1) high processing costs (dollars /gallon of ethanol), (2) huge capital investment (dollars approximately 4-10/gallon of annual ethanol production capacity), and (3) a narrow margin between feedstock and product prices. Both lignocellulose fractionation technology and effective co-utilization of acetic acid, lignin and hemicellulose will be vital to the realization of profitable lignocellulose biorefineries, since co-product revenues would increase the margin up to 6.2-fold, where all purified lignocellulose co-components have higher selling prices (> approximately 1.0/kg) than ethanol ( approximately 0.5/kg of ethanol). Isolation of large amounts of lignocellulose components through lignocellulose fractionation would stimulate R&D in lignin and hemicellulose applications, as well as promote new markets for lignin- and hemicellulose-derivative products. Lignocellulose resource would be sufficient to replace significant fractionations (e.g., 30%) of transportation fuels through liquid biofuels, internal combustion engines in the short term, and would provide 100% transportation fuels by sugar-hydrogen-fuel cell systems in the long term. PMID:18180967

  9. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes in aerial stems and roots of Ephedra sinica based on high-throughput mRNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Taketo; Takahashi, Hironobu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Noji, Masaaki; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Toyota, Masao; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Kawahara, Nobuo; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Sekita, Setsuko

    2016-12-01

    Ephedra plants are taxonomically classified as gymnosperms, and are medicinally important as the botanical origin of crude drugs and as bioresources that contain pharmacologically active chemicals. Here we show a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of aerial stems and roots of Ephedra sinica based on high-throughput mRNA sequencing by RNA-Seq. De novo assembly of short cDNA sequence reads generated 23,358, 13,373, and 28,579 contigs longer than 200 bases from aerial stems, roots, or both aerial stems and roots, respectively. The presumed functions encoded by these contig sequences were annotated by BLAST (blastx). Subsequently, these contigs were classified based on gene ontology slims, Enzyme Commission numbers, and the InterPro database. Furthermore, comparative gene expression analysis was performed between aerial stems and roots. These transcriptome analyses revealed differences and similarities between the transcriptomes of aerial stems and roots in E. sinica. Deep transcriptome sequencing of Ephedra should open the door to molecular biological studies based on the entire transcriptome, tissue- or organ-specific transcriptomes, or targeted genes of interest. PMID:27625990

  10. Landscape Mapping and Tree Diversity Assessment of Pangi Valley: A Remote Tribal Area of Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pangi valley in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh is one of the remote tribal areas in Indian western Himalaya. The plant resources in its landscapes are flourishing under least anthropogenic conditions. For social upliftment of the tribals in this area, a number of developmental activities are being implemented by the government. A study was conducted for mapping of its landuse/landcover using satellite remote sensing to identify major forested landscapes in the region. It was followed by a detailed random stratified sampling of the forested landscapes for phytosociological estimation of its tree species. The 21.97 % of study area was estimated under forests followed by Scrublands and Grassy meadows (18.24 %. Majority of area (54.05 % was Snow and Scree slopes. Among the forests, maximum area was occupied by Mixed Broad Leaved Forest LSE type (36.08% followed by Cedrus deodara (26.94% and Betula utilis (18.07% forest LSE types. These species, owing to immense medicinal properties and value for their economic utilization, feature in threatened and endangered category list of plants. It is, therefore, recommended that the developmental activities may be implemented in scientific way, which may not pose threat to bioresources in this region.

  11. Flexural Properties of Injection-Molded Bamboo/pbs Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkita, Kazuya; Takagi, Hitoshi

    In recent years, from an environmental perspective, there has been increasing interest in the change to a sustainable society. The use of natural-fiber-reinforced biodegradable composites has been proposed as one solution. Bamboo is an often used renewable bio-resource; it has an inherent advantage of rapid growth. Polybutylene succinate (PBS), used as matrix resin, has biodegradable characteristics. This paper describes flexural properties of bamboo/PBS composites prepared by injection molding. The following results were obtained. The flexural modulus was improved with increasing bamboo powder contents when the cylinder temperature of the injection molder was 140°C. However, the flexural strength showed the opposite tendency to be decreased with increasing bamboo powder contents. An SEM photomicrograph of the fracture surface for bamboo/PBS composites showed typical fracture behavior of pull-out fibers without fiber fracture. Furthermore, there was no adhesion of PBS resin on the bamboo fiber surface. Processing conditions affected mechanical properties of bamboo/PBS composites, imparting higher flexural strength and flexural modulus at high cylinder temperatures such as 180°C and 200°C.

  12. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues. PMID:21942396

  13. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  14. Floristic Diversity of South Travancore Hindu College (S. T. Hindu College Campus, Kanyakumari District (Tamilnadu India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthipan B,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the list of flowering plants from the S.T. Hindu College, (South Tavancore Hindu Collge, Nagercoil. The campus which harbours part of the natural vegetation of Nagercoil city, Tamilnadu, India. A total of 238 taxa have been recorded comprising 47 trees, 42 shrubs, 125 herbs and 24 climbers that are distributed in 192 genera, represented in 67 families, 9 super orders and 30 orders as per the APG III classification. Superorder Lamids account for about 31% of the taxa. The family Poaceae was the most species-diverse (29, followed by Acanthaceae (18, Apocynaceae and Euphorbiaceae (14, Malvaceae (12, Lamiaceae and Poaceae (11each, the other families sharing the rest of the species. Most plant species of the study area are of considerable ecological and economic importance, useful as bioresources to wild fauna and human beings. Of the total 238 wild/naturalized plant species, most are economically useful as medicinal plants, and others are valuable as edible fruits, timbers, fuelwood, etc. The results of this study provide insights into the importance of urban green space and greatly help inurban conservation planning and management.

  15. Development Of Sustainable Biobased Products And Bioenergy In Cooperation With The Midwest Consortium For Sustainable Biobased Products And Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ladisch; Randy Woodson

    2009-03-18

    Collaborative efforts of Midwest Consortium have been put forth to add value to distiller's grains by further processing them into fermentable sugars, ethanol, and a protein rich co-product consistent with a pathway to a biorenewables industry (Schell et al, 2008). These studies were recently published in the enclosed special edition (Volume 99, Issue 12) of Bioresource Technology journal. Part of them have demonstrated the utilization of distillers grains as additional feedstock for increased ethanol production in the current dry grind process (Kim et al., 2008a, b; Dien et al.,2008, Ladisch et al., 2008a, b). Results showed that both liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) were effective for enhancing digestibility of distiller's grains. Enzymatic digestion of distiller's grains resulted in more than 90% glucose yield under standard assay conditions, although the yield tends to drop as the concentration of dry solids increases. Simulated process mass balances estimated that hydrolysis and fermentation of distillers grains can increase the ethanol yield by 14% in the current dry milling process (Kim et al., 2008c). Resulting co-products from the modified process are richer in protein and oil contents than conventional distiller's grains, as determined both experimentally and computationally. Other research topics in the special edition include water solubilization of DDGS by transesterification reaction with phosphite esters (Oshel el al., 2008) to improve reactivity of the DDGS to enzymes, hydrolysis of soluble oligomers derived from DDGS using functionalized mesoporous solid catalysts (Bootsma et al., 2008), and ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol) production from DDGS by solventogenic Clostridia (Ezeji and Blaschek, 2008). Economic analysis of a modified dry milling process, where the fiber and residual starch is extracted and fermented to produce more ethanol from the distillers grains while producing highly

  16. Optimization of a Dynamic Hot Water Pretreatment of Switchgrass using Catalysis by Carbonation to Maximize Carbochemical Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamdere, Rohit Tanaji

    A bio-refinery is a facility that converts renewable bio-resources into value-added chemicals and products. In this context of a bio-refinery, the production of the carbochemicals such as HMF, furfural and organic acids illustrate that multiple products can be produced from a renewable source such as lignocellulosic biomass (switchgrass). Traditionally, carbochemicals such as furfural and HMF are produced using inorganic acids such as H 2SO4, HCL, and H3PO4. The use of such acids requires the application of high cost materials of construction such as Hastelloy-C, titanium etc. The objective of this study is to develop a semi-continuous process for the conversion of switchgrass to carbochemicals such as HMF, furfural and organic acids. Moreover, the application of water as a green reaction medium and the utilization of carbonated water as a "green catalyst" were studied in this research. For the purpose of this study, we constructed a semi-continuous flow apparatus using three high precision Isco syringe pumps and a constant temperature oven to allow carbonation of the water over a range of temperatures and pressure to reactively pretreat switchgrass. Carbochemicals (furan-based aldehydes) and acids that were formed were detected using a Waters HPLC employing a Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87H column with a PDA (photo diode array) detector at wavelengths range of 210 and 280nm. Oligosaccharides were detected using Dionex HPLC employing Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87P column using a Shodex RI-101 refractive index detector. The kinetics of the formation and degradation of HMF and furfural were studied using the solver function in Microsoft Excel. Carbonated water clearly showed catalytic activity by increasing the yields of the HMF and furfural at temperatures of 220, 250 and 280°C. The highest catalytic activity was observed for HMF formation in carbonated water with a nine-fold increase in yields over that using neat subcritical water.

  17. The Research and Exploitation of Insect Protein%昆虫蛋白质资源的开发与研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏美才; 刘高强

    2001-01-01

    Insect is a kind of potential bioresource with plenty of high quality protein. In this paper, the advances on the research and exploitation of insect food are reviewed including the birth of Edible Entomology, basic research on exploitation and industrialization of insect food. The advances on exploitation of some common insects for food such as Musca domestica L., Tenebrio molitor L., Bombyx moril, locusts, Gryllotalpa orientalis burmeister,etc. are also reviewed. The prospects for exploitation of insect protein is reviewed in the end of the paper. It is pointed out that the research of management of some serious insect pests as a kind of protein resource and producing high value insect protein by biotechnology are important domains on exploitation of insect protein in the 21st century.%昆虫是一类蕴藏着大量高品质动物蛋白的生物资源,具有巨大的开发和应用潜力.从食用昆虫学的产生、昆虫源食品的开发基础研究和产业化等方面综述了昆虫源食品的开发与研究进展;并对一些常见的饲用昆虫,如蝇蛆、黄粉虫、蚕蛹、蝗虫、蝼蛄等的开发与研究进展作了综述.最后对昆虫蛋白质资源的开发前景作了展望,指出:对一些重大害虫采取蛋白质资源化管理研究和利用高新技术来生产高价值的昆虫蛋白将是21世纪昆虫蛋白质资源开发的重要研究领域.

  18. Metabolic responses in Candida tropicalis to complex inhibitors during xylitol bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizeng; Li, Hao; Fan, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Jingkun; Tang, Pingwah; Yuan, Qipeng

    2015-09-01

    During xylitol fermentation, Candida tropicalis is often inhibited by inhibitors in hemicellulose hydrolysate. The mechanisms involved in the metabolic responses to inhibitor stress and the resistances to inhibitors are still not clear. To understand the inhibition mechanisms and the metabolic responses to inhibitors, a GC/MS-based metabolomics approach was performed on C. tropicalis treated with and without complex inhibitors (CI, including furfural, phenol and acetic acid). Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used to determine the metabolic variability between CI-treated groups and control groups, and 25 metabolites were identified as possible entities responsible for the discrimination caused by inhibitors. We found that xylose uptake rate and xylitol oxidation rate were promoted by CI treatment. Metabolomics analysis showed that the flux from xylulose to pentose phosphate pathway increased, and tricarboxylic acid cycle was disturbed by CI. Moreover, the changes in levels of 1,3-propanediol, trehalose, saturated fatty acids and amino acids showed different mechanisms involved in metabolic responses to inhibitor stress. The increase of 1,3-propanediol was considered to be correlated with regulating redox balance and osmoregulation. The increase of trehalose might play a role in protein stabilization and cellular membranes protection. Saturated fatty acids could cause the decrease of membrane fluidity and make the plasma membrane rigid to maintain the integrity of plasma membrane. The deeper understanding of the inhibition mechanisms and the metabolic responses to inhibitors will provide us with more information on the metabolism regulation during xylitol bioconversion and the construction of industrial strains with inhibitor tolerance for better utilization of bioresource. PMID:26127015

  19. Bioflocculant exopolysaccharide production by Azotobacter indicus using flower extract of Madhuca latifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Satish V; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Deepak M; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2010-10-01

    Efficacy of Azotobacter indicus ATCC 9540 strain for production exopolysaccharide (EPS) bioflocculant was investigated. Mahua flower extract (Madhuca latifolia L), a natural substrate at the concentration of 20 g L(-1), gave maximum recovery of EPS followed by sucrose and mannitol as compared to other carbon sources after 172 h. Yeast extract was found to be the most effective nitrogen source as compared to beef extract, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, casein hydrolysate, and urea for the production of EPS. EPS production was increased in presence of nitrogen (5.51 g L(-1)) as compared to nitrogen-free medium (3.51 g L(-1)), and fermentation time was also reduced by 28 h. Maximum EPS production (6.10 g L(-1)) was found in the presence of 20 g L(-1) flower extract and 0.5 g L(-1) yeast extract containing Ashby's media with 180 rpm at 30 degrees C at 144 h, under controlled conditions in 2.5 L fermenter using optimized medium. The isolated EPS showed cation-dependent flocculating activity. Concentration of EPS played an important role in bioflocculating activity which increased in a concentration-dependent manner up to a certain limit, with the maximum flocculation of 72% at 500 mg L(-1) concentration but remained almost static after this concentration. Extracted polymer was characterized by different chemical tests, FT-IR spectroscopy, and TLC which showed presence of uronic acids, O-acetyl groups, and Orcinol with suggestive indication of alginate like polymer. This study suggests that use of M. latifolia L. flowers can be a potential alternative bioresource for production of exopolysaccharide. PMID:19921493

  20. Modeling the development and utilization of bioenergy and exploring the environmental economic benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A complete bioenergy flow is schemed to industrialize bioenergy utilization. • An input–output optimization simulation model is developed. • Energy supply and demand and bioenergy industries’ development are optimized. • Carbon tax and subsidies are endogenously derived by the model. • Environmental economic benefits of bioenergy utilization are explored dynamically. - Abstract: This paper outlines a complete bioenergy flow incorporating bioresource procurement, feedstock supply, conversion technologies and energy consumption to industrialize the development and utilization of bioenergy. An input–output optimization simulation model is developed to introduce bioenergy industries into the regional socioeconomy and energy production and consumption system and dynamically explore the economic, energy and environmental benefits. 16-term simulation from 2010 to 2025 is performed in scenarios preset based on bioenergy industries, carbon tax-subsidization policy and distinct levels of greenhouse gas emission constraints. An empirical study is conducted to validate and apply the model. In the optimal scenario, both industrial development and energy supply and demand are optimized contributing to a 8.41% average gross regional product growth rate and a 39.9% reduction in accumulative greenhouse gas emission compared with the base scenario. By 2025 the consumption ratio of bioenergy in total primary energy could be increased from 0.5% to 8.2%. Energy self-sufficiency rate could be increased from 57.7% to 77.9%. A dynamic carbon tax rate and the extent to which bioenergy industrial development could be promoted are also elaborated. Regional economic development and greenhouse gas mitigation can be potentially promoted simultaneously by bioenergy utilization and a proper greenhouse gas emission constraint. The methodology presented is capable of introducing new industries or policies related to energy planning and detecting the best tradeoffs of

  1. BIOCHAR AMENDMENT GREATLY REDUCES RICE Cd UPTAKE IN A CONTAMINATED PADDY SOIL: A TWO-YEAR FIELD EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Cui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted on the effect of biochar (BC amendment on Cd uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L. in a contaminated paddy in 2009 and 2010. BC was applied as a basal soil amendment before rice transplantation in 2009 at rates of 0, 10, 20, 40t ha-1, and rice yield and Cd uptake were monitored in both 2009 and 2010. The BC amendment significantly increased soil pH by 0.15-0.33 units in 2009 and 0.24-0.38 units in 2010, and decreased CaCl2 extracted Cd in soil by 32.0%-52.5% in 2009 and 5.5%-43.4% in 2010, respectively. Under BC amendment at 10, 20, 40 t ha-1, rice grain Cd concentration was observed to be reduced by 16.8%, 37.1%, and 45.0% in 2009 and by 42.7%, 39.9%, and 61.9% in 2010, while the total plant Cd uptake was found to decrease by 28.1%, 45.7%, and 54.2% in 2009 and by 14.4%, 35.9%, and 45.9% in 2010, respectively. Such effect of BC amendment on reducing Cd plant uptake has profound implications among those using bioresources for field application. Finally, BC amendment in combination with low Cd cultivars may offer a basic option to reduce Cd levels in rice as well as to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in rice agriculture in contaminated paddies.

  2. Organic Chemicals from Bioprocesses in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Lin, Jianping; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin

    Over the last 20 years, China has successfully established a modern biotechnology industry from almost nothing. Presently, China is a major producer of a vast array of products involving bioprocesses, for some China is even the world's top producer. The ever-increasing list of products includes organic acids, amino acids, antibiotics, solvents, chiral chemicals, biopesticides, and biopolymers. Herein, the research and development of bioprocesses in China will be reviewed briefly. We will concentrate on three categories of products: small molecules produced via fermentation, biopolymers produced via fermentation and small chemicals produced by enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In comparison with the traditional chemical process, in which, nonrenewable mineral resources are generally used, products in the first and second categories noted above can use renewable bioresources as raw materials. The bioprocesses are generally energy saving and environmentally benign. For products developed via the third category, although the raw materials still need to be obtained from mineral resources, the biocatalysts are more effective with higher selectivity and productivity, and the bioprocesses occur under ambient temperature and pressure, therefore, these are "green processes." Most of the products such as citric acid, xanthan and acrylamide etc., discussed in this paper have been in large-scale commercial production in China. Also introduced herein are three scientists, Prof. Shen Yinchu, Prof. Ouyang Pingkai and Prof. Chen Guoqiang, and six enterprises, Anhui Fengyuan Biochemical Co. Ltd., Shandong Hiland Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Shandong Fufeng Fermentation Co. Ltd., Shandong Bausch & Lomb-Freda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., and Changzhou Changmao Biochemical Engineering Co. Ltd.; they have all contributed a great deal to research and development in the commercialization of bioprocesses.

  3. Tohoku Earthquake-associated Marine Sciences: the research project for the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Kijima, Akihiro; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Hara, Motoyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Fujikura, Kasunori; Sonoda, Akira

    2015-04-01

    At 2:46 pm on March 11, 2011, a huge earthquake (M 9.0) occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Region, Japan. The subsequent Tsunamis hit the coasts and seriously damaged fishing villages and towns in the area. Tohoku Region faces Northwestern Pacific where is one of the most productive oceans on the Earth. Then, what happened to the marine ecosystems in the Tohoku Region? What happened to the fishery bioresources? What is the mechanism to sustain high productivity in the Region? Is the ecosystem restoring after 4 years? What is required for the recovery of fisheries in the area? In order to answer these questions, the 10 years research project, TEAMS (Tohoku Ecosystem-Associated Marine Sciences) was launched in January 2012 funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan) to conduct comprehensive research on the area. Tohoku University (TU), Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo (AORIUT), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), and 25 other institutions are conducting research for this project in close association with local government and fishery people. Currently, approximately 400 people (200 scientists, 160 students and others) covering physical, chemical, biological, and geological sciences including modeling take part in the project from all over Japan. MEXT also supports TEAMS by constructing R/V Shinsei Maru in 2013 for the oceanic investigations in the region. In this report, the overview of the ecosystem before and after the disaster, major findings and challenges of TEAMS will be described.

  4. In vitro production of RBCs from ES, iPS & Stem cell banking in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Nakamura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The supply of transfusable red blood cells (RBCs is not sufficient in many countries. If erythroid cell lines able to produce transfusable RBCs in vitro were established, they would be valuable resources. However, such cell lines have not been established.We developed a robust method to obtain differentiated cell lines following the induction of hematopoietic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells and established five independent hematopoietic cell lines using the method. Three of these lines exhibited characteristics of erythroid cells. Although their precise characteristics varied, each of these lines could differentiate in vitro into more mature erythroid cells, including enucleated RBCs. Following transplantation of these erythroid cells into mice suffering from acute anemia, the cells proliferated transiently, subsequently differentiated into functional RBCs, and significantly ameliorated the acute anemia.Considering the number of human ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cell lines that have been established so far, the intensive testing of a number of these lines for erythroid potential may allow the establishment of human erythroid cell lines similar to the mouse erythroid cell lines. In addition, our results strongly suggest the possibility of establishing useful cell lines committed to specific lineages other than hematopoietic progenitors from human ES and iPS cells. The Cell Engineering Division of RIKEN BioResource Center is a not-for-profit public “Cell Bank” that accepts donation and deposit of human and animal cell materials developed by life science research community. We examine, standardize, amplify, preserve, and provide cell materials to the scientists around the world. The stem cells such as ES cells and iPS cells are valuable in current biology and medical sciences. Thus, we are collecting such stem cell lines and aiming to contribute to the fields of developmental biology, transplantation medicine

  5. PROSPECTS OF USING INVASIVE LEGUMES IN HERBAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelepova O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose to consider alien invasive species as new bioresources. These plants form powerful (usually single-species thickets in the secondary range and their size are larger than at the native cenosis. The territory occupied by invasive species, especially in disturbed habitats, is quite high, so their possible yield is very high. The main problem of using alien species in the pharmacological purposes is the lack of information about the dynamics of the chemicals accumulation. Available data on the biochemistry in its natural habitat is inadaptable for the same taxon in the secondary range because of significant microevolutionary changes. In this work we present the results of phytochemical screening four legume species, formed invasive populations in the Middle Russia - Galega orientalis Lam., Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl., Robinia pseudoacacia L. & Caragana arborescens Lam. Information about these species as traditional medicine plants is given. Original data on the concentration phenolic compounds and biophile silicon in leaves and inflorescences are presented. Information on the fractional composition of the flavonoid complex is done. Taking into consideration the high adaptability of invasive species, the chemical analysis of the samples from different ecotypes was made. It is shown that accumulation of bioactive agents and biophile silicon isn’t depended on the environmental conditions. Concentrations of polyphenolic compounds were at the average level in comparison with medicinal plants. Thus, the combination of flavonoid complex with biophile silicon provides pharmacological significance of studied species, and justifies the needing the further study of invasive plant species in order to create new herbal medicines

  6. Evaluation of iron-binding activity of collagen peptides prepared from the scales of four cultivated fishes in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yung Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is one of the most concerning deficiency problems in the world. It may generate several adverse effects such as iron deficiency anemia (IDA and reduced physical and intellectual working capacity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the Fe(II-binding activity of collagen peptides from fishery by-products. Lates calcarifer, Mugil cephalus, Chanos chanos, and Oreochromis spp are four major cultivated fishes in Taiwan; thousands of scales of these fish are wasted without valuable utilization. In this study, scales of these fish were hydrolyzed by papain plus flavourzyme. Collagen peptides were obtained and compared for their Fe(II-binding activity. Collagen peptides from Chanos chanos showed the highest Fe(II-binding activity, followed by those from Lates calcarifer and Mugil cephalus; that from Oreochromis spp exhibited the lowest one. Fe(II-binding activity of collagen peptides from fish scales was also confirmed with a dialysis method. Molecular weight (MW distributions of the collagen peptides from scales of four fish are all < 10 kDa, and averaged 1.3 kDa. Hydrolysates of fish scales were further partially purified with ion exchange chromatography. Fractions having Fe(II-binding activity were obtained and their activity compared. Data obtained showed that collagen peptides from fish scales did have Fe(II-binding activity. This is the first observation elucidating fish scale collagen possessing this functionality. The results from this study also indicated that collagen peptides from fish scales could be applied in industry as a bioresource.

  7. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  8. Recent progress in development of transgenic silkworms overexpressing recombinant human proteins with therapeutic potential in silk glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kohji; Kobayashi, Isao; Nishioka, So-Ichiro; Sezutsu, Hideki; Machii, Hiroaki; Tamura, Toshiki

    2016-02-01

    Since 2000, transgenic silkworms have been developed to produce recombinant proteins with therapeutic potential for future clinical use, including antibody preparations. Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are inherited metabolic disorders caused by mutations of lysosomal enzymes associated with excessive accumulation of natural substrates and neurovisceral symptoms. Over the past few years, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with human lysosomal enzymes produced by genetically engineered mammalian cell lines has been used clinically to treat several patients with an LSD involving multi-organ symptoms. ERT is based on the incorporation of recombinant glycoenzymes by their binding to glycan receptors on the surface of target cells and their subsequent delivery to lysosomes. However, ERT has several disadvantages, including difficulty mass producing human enzymes, dangers of pathogen contamination, and high costs. Recently, the current authors have succeeded in producing transgenic silkworms overexpressing human lysosomal enzymes in the silk glands and the authors have purified catalytically active enzymes from the middle silk glands. Silk gland-derived human enzymes carrying high-mannose and pauci-mannose N-glycans were endocytosed by monocytes via the mannose receptor pathway and were then delivered to lysosomes. Conjugates with cell-penetrating peptides were also taken up by cultured fibroblasts derived from patients with enzyme deficiencies to restore intracellular catalytic activity and reduce the excessive accumulation of substrates in patient fibroblasts. Transgenic silkworms overexpressing human lysosomal enzymes in the silk glands could serve as future bioresources that provide safe therapeutic enzymes for the treatment of LSDs. Combining recent developments in transglycosylation technology with microbial endoglycosidases will promote the development of therapeutic glycoproteins as bio-medicines. PMID:26971553

  9. Bioextraction potential of seaweed in Denmark - An instrument for circular nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghetta, Michele; Tørring, Ditte; Bruhn, Annette; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of seaweed for circular nutrient management to reduce eutrophication levels in the aquatic environment. We performed a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two reference waste management systems treating seaweed as biowaste, i.e. landfill disposal and combustion, and an alternative scenario using the seaweed Saccharina latissima as a resource for biobased fertilizer production. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods were improved by using a cradle-to-cradle approach, quantifying fate factors for nitrogen and phosphorus loss from fertilized agriculture to the aquatic environment. We also differentiated between nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited marine water to improve the traditional freshwater impact category, making this indicator suitable for decision support in relation to coastal water management schemes. Offshore cultivation of Saccharina latissima with an average productivity of 150Mg/km(2) in Danish waters in 2014 was applied to a cultivation scenario of 208km(2). The bioresource scenario performs better than conventional biowaste management systems, delivering a net reduction in aquatic eutrophication levels of 32.29kgNeq. and 16.58kgPO4(3-)eq. per Mg (dry weight) of seaweed, quantified by the ReCiPe and CML impact assessment methods, respectively. Seaweed cultivation, harvest and reuse of excess nutrients from the aquatic environment is a promising approach for sustainable resource cycling in a future regenerative economy that exploits manmade emissions as a resource for closed loop biobased production while significantly reducing eutrophication levels in 3 out of 7 Danish river basin districts. We obtained at least 10% bioextraction of phosphorus manmade emissions (10%, 89% and >100%) and contributed significantly to local nitrogen reduction goals according to the Water Framework Directive (23%, 78% and >100% of the target). PMID:27152993

  10. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Showing Antioxidative and Probiotic Activities from Kimchi and Infant Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Keunho; Jang, Na Young; Kim, Young Tae

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lactic acid bacteria with antioxidative and probiotic activities isolated from Korean healthy infant feces and kimchi. Isolates A1, A2, S1, S2, and S3 were assigned to Lactobacillus sp. and isolates A3, A4, E1, E2, E3, and E4 were assigned to Leuconostoc sp. on the basis of their physiological properties and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Most strains were confirmed as safe bioresources through nonhemolytic activities and non-production of harmful enzymes such as β-glucosidase, β- glucuronidase and tryptophanase. The 11 isolates showed different resistance to acid and bile acids. In addition, they exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, all strains showed significantly high levels of hydrophobicity. The antioxidant effects of culture filtrates of the 11 strains included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2.2'- azino-bis (2-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase activity. The results revealed that most of the culture filtrates have effective scavenging activity for DPPH and ABTS radicals. All strains appeared to have effective superoxide dismutase activity. In conclusion, the isolated strains A1, A3, S1, and S3 have significant probiotic activities applicable to the development of functional foods and health-related products. These strains might also contribute to preventing and controlling several diseases associated with oxidative stress, when used as probiotics. PMID:25951843

  11. A novel gene SbSI-2 encoding nuclear protein from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance in E. coli and tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Singh Yadav

    Full Text Available Salicornia brachiata is an extreme halophyte that grows luxuriantly in coastal marshes. Previously, we have reported isolation and characterization of ESTs from Salicornia with large number of novel/unknown salt-responsive gene sequences. In this study, we have selected a novel salt-inducible gene SbSI-2 (Salicornia brachiata salt-inducible-2 for functional characterization. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that SbSI-2 protein has predicted nuclear localization signals and a strong protein-protein interaction domain. Transient expression of the RFP:SbSI2 fusion protein confirmed that SbSI-2 is a nuclear-localized protein. Genomic organization study showed that SbSI-2 is intronless and has a single copy in Salicornia genome. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed higher SbSI-2 expression under salt stress and desiccation conditions. The SbSI-2 gene was transformed in E. coli and tobacco for functional characterization. pET28a-SbSI-2 recombinant E. coli cells showed higher tolerance to desiccation and salinity compared to vector alone. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing SbSI-2 have improved salt- and osmotic tolerance, accompanied by better growth parameters, higher relative water content, elevated accumulation of compatible osmolytes, lower Na+ and ROS accumulation and lesser electrolyte leakage than the wild-type. Overexpression of the SbSI-2 also enhanced transcript levels of ROS-scavenging genes and some stress-related transcription factors under salt and osmotic stresses. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SbSI-2 might play an important positive modulation role in abiotic stress tolerance. This identifies SbSI-2 as a novel determinant of salt/osmotic tolerance and suggests that it could be a potential bioresource for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.

  12. Life cycle assessment of coupling household biogas production to agricultural industry: A case study of biogas-linked persimmon cultivation and processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas plant construction has been boosted in rural China not only due to the immediate merit from biogas production but also the succeeding benefit from by-product utilization in agro-industry, both of which are significant strategies to address energy shortage and global warming issues. However, little work has been done to evaluate the coupling of biogas projects to traditional agrosystems from a life-cycle perspective, which is most important in process and system optimization in different senses. By taking persimmon cultivation and processing with supports from a household biogas plant as a case study, this study conducts a life cycle assessment of coupling biogas production to agro-industry in terms of energy, environmental and economic performance. The results suggest that each production stage following the biogas/digestate utilization chain (biogas operation-persimmon cultivation-product processing) is beneficial across all three aspects. However, a tradeoff only exists in utilizing digestate as top-dressing and employing biogas utilization as engine fuel, while biogas application in fresh-keeping and digestate reuse as base fertilizer fails to increase either energy production or greenhouse gas mitigation. The coupled system can be hopefully optimized through increasing fermentation efficiency and joint operation of biogas digesters. -- Highlights: •Biogas/digestate utilization is overall beneficial in all production stages. •Each bioresource application may not be profitable in all respects. •Tradeoffs in using biogas and digestate vary among different utilization ways. •Multi-user operation and fermentation efficiency elevation optimize system

  13. Electrochemical energy: the green face of the salt-affected lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high soluble salt content make the salt-stressed terrestrial and the aquatic habitats electrically more active than the normal ecosystems. The salt-tolerant plants and the microbial populations adapted to the salt-stressed environments have developed special mechanisms to resist the ionic and the osmotic stresses. The study evaluated the bioelectricity or electrochemical energy potential of soil and bio-resources of a salt-affected land. The electrical conductivity and the charge resistance ability exhibited the various categories of salt-tolerant plants suitable for a range of salt-stressed conditions and the root activities including extrusion of proton (H+) in the rooting media. The microbial biofilms formed with plant roots, soil particles and the solid surface by exo-polysaccharides producing biofilm bacteria could regulate and monitor ion flux across the bio-membranes and the electrode surfaces. The ionic gradients thus created by plants and the microbial processes could be a continuous and uninterrupted valuable source of bio-energy of the salt-stressed and contaminated soil and water habitats. The bio-energy can be harnessed and utilized by especially designed microbial biofuel cells (MBFC). The biofilms developed on anode or cathode of MBFC could act as half cells for source and sink of the electrons released during oxidation reduction processes carried by microbial consortia while the exo-polysaccharides, the microbial biopolymer could support transfer of charge to the electrodes. The salt-affected soil and the soil organic matter constituents, microbial biopolymers and the brackish water, as a mediators and the cathode passivation inhibitors, thus could help enhance and increase the output intensity of the electrochemical energy and efficiency of the biofuel cells. The study suggested an enormous potential of the salt-affected lands for non-conventional renewable bio-energy source useful in the remote areas and for the small power requiring electrical

  14. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic profile and cytotoxic effects of saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jatinder; Dhar, Priyanka; Tayade, Amol B; Gupta, Damodar; Chaurasia, Om P; Upreti, Dalip K; Arora, Rajesh; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2014-01-01

    natural antioxidants for stress related problems. Our studies go on to prove that the unique trans-Himalayan lichens are a hitherto untapped bioresource with immense potential for discovery of new chemical entities, and this biodiversity needs to be tapped sustainably. PMID:24937759

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Cassia roxburghii-a most potent power for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Cassia roxburghii plant leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were determined. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extracts (60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 μg/mL) for 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Compare to aqueous extracted synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values that were 26.35, 28.67, 31.27 and 48.81, 53.24, and 58.11 μg/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of C. roxburghii to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach, and the AgNPs formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. Therefore, this study proves that C. roxburghii is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent. This is the first report on the larvicidal activity of the plant extract and AgNPs. PMID:26276645

  16. Forest biorefinery: Potential of poplar phytochemicals as value-added co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Rakshit, Sudip K; Dekker, Robert F H

    2015-11-01

    The global forestry industry after experiencing a market downturn during the past decade has now aimed its vision towards the integrated biorefinery. New business models and strategies are constantly being explored to re-invent the global wood and pulp/paper industry through sustainable resource exploitation. The goal is to produce diversified, innovative and revenue generating product lines using on-site bioresources (wood and tree residues). The most popular product lines are generally produced from wood fibers (biofuels, pulp/paper, biomaterials, and bio/chemicals). However, the bark and other tree residues like foliage that constitute forest wastes, still remain largely an underexploited resource from which extractives and phytochemicals can be harnessed as by-products (biopharmaceuticals, food additives and nutraceuticals, biopesticides, cosmetics). Commercially, Populus (poplar) tree species including hybrid varieties are cultivated as a fast growing bioenergy crop, but can also be utilized to produce bio-based chemicals. This review identifies and underlines the potential of natural products (phytochemicals) from Populus species that could lead to new business ventures in biorefineries and contribute to the bioeconomy. In brief, this review highlights the importance of by-products/co-products in forest industries, methods that can be employed to extract and purify poplar phytochemicals, the potential pharmaceutical and other uses of >160 phytochemicals identified from poplar species - their chemical structures, properties and bioactivities, the challenges and limitations of utilizing poplar phytochemicals, and potential commercial opportunities. Finally, the overall discussion and conclusion are made considering the recent biotechnological advances in phytochemical research to indicate the areas for future commercial applications from poplar tree species. PMID:25733011

  17. Systematic Phenotype Analysis of Arabidopsis Ds-tagged Mutants to Unravel Gene Functions in Abiotic Stress Response as well as Growth and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the availability of various mutant resources in Arabidopsis, it is now possible to investigate mutant lines for almost every gene. Arabidopsis is then, not only a model plant for plant research, but also a model species in which it is possible to carry out 'saturation mutagenesis' for all genes, and to totally analyze each gene and mutant of one organism. One of the future goals of the 'phenome' project is to collect information about the knockout-type mutant phenotypes for each Arabidopsis gene. We have generated thousands of Dissociation (Ds) transposon-tagged lines, which have a single insertion because of an advantage of the Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) system, and deposited it to the RIKEN BioResource Center. In this resource, we selected 4,000 transposon-tagged lines with a transposon insertion in gene-coding regions, and systematically observed the visible phenotype of each line as a first step of phenome analysis. In total, about 200 clear visible phenotypes were classified into 43 categories of morphological phenotypes. Phenotypic images have been entered into a searchable database. Parallel to this, we have been selecting homozygous transposon-insertional plants, which would be useful resources to detect other phenotypes besides the visible ones. We are setting three categories of measurement to search various traits for total phenome analysis, such as physical, chemical or biological methods. Recently, we started to investigate biologically-measured phenotypes, which are stress-responsive or conditional phenotypes, using homozygous mutant resources. We are also collecting any mutant phenotype information from published reports in journal research activity to make a comprehensive phenotype database of Arabidopsis genes and mutants. (author)

  18. Phytogenic silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles as novel antitubercular agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Richa Singh,1 Laxman Nawale,2 Manisha Arkile,2 Sweety Wadhwani,1 Utkarsha Shedbalkar,1 Snehal Chopade,1 Dhiman Sarkar,2 Balu Ananda Chopade1,3 1Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, 2Combichem-Bioresource Center, Organic Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, 3Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India Purpose: Multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB is a global threat to human health. It requires immediate action to seek new antitubercular compounds and devise alternate strategies. Nanomaterials, in the present scenario, have opened new avenues in medicine, diagnosis, and therapeutics. In view of this, the current study aims to determine the efficacy of phytogenic metal nanoparticles to inhibit mycobacteria. Methods: Silver (AgNPs, gold (AuNPs, and gold–silver bimetallic (Au–AgNPs nanoparticles synthesized from medicinal plants, such as Barleria prionitis, Plumbago zeylanica, and Syzygium cumini, were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays were designed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and half maximal inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles. Microscopic analyses were carried out to demonstrate intracellular uptake of nanoparticles in macrophages. Besides this, biocompatibility, specificity, and selectivity of nanoparticles were also established with respect to human cell lines. Results: Au–AgNPs exhibited highest antitubercular activity, with MIC of <2.56 µg/mL, followed by AgNPs. AuNPs did not show such activity at concentrations of up to 100 µg/mL. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays revealed the inhibition of both active and dormant stage mycobacteria on exposure to Au–AgNPs. These nanoparticles were capable of entering macrophage cells and exhibited up to 45% cytotoxicity at 30 µg/mL (ten times MIC concentration after 48 hours

  19. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Paul; Donatello, Simona; Connolly, Elizabeth; Griffin, Mairead; Dunne, Barbara; Burke, Louise; Flavin, Richard; Rizkalla, Hala; Ryan, Ciara; Hayes, Brian; D'Adhemar, Charles; Banville, Niamh; Faheem, Nazia; Muldoon, Cian; Gaffney, Eoin F.

    2011-01-01

    The Saint James's Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect® (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software®). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A260/280 values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates. PMID

  20. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    rats. The TPE of all three teas had significantly higher phenolic content than those of the TWE groups, which correlated strongly with the DPPH radical scavenging activity. This is the first report of tea pomace extract significantly inhibits intestinal α-glucosidase, resulting in delayed glucose absorption and thereby suppressed postprandial hyperglycemia. Our data suggest that tea pomace-derived bioactives may have great potential for further development as nutraceutical products and the reuse of otherwise biowaste as valuable bioresources for the industry.

  1. AKT/mTOR substrate P70S6K is frequently phosphorylated in gallbladder cancer tissue and cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pamela Leal,1,* Patricia Garcia,2,* Alejandra Sandoval,1 Kurt Buchegger,1 Helga Weber,1 Oscar Tapia,1 Juan C Roa1,2 1Department of Pathology, Universidad de La Frontera, Center of Genetical and Immunological Studies-Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus, Temuco, 2Department of Pathology, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile *These authors contributed equally to this paperBackground: Gallbladder carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor and a public health problem in some parts of the world. It is characterized by a poor prognosis and its resistance to radio and chemotherapy. There is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway is activated in about 50% of human malignancies, and its role in gallbladder carcinoma has previously been suggested. In the present study, we investigated the phosphorylation status of the mTOR substrate p70S6K in preneoplastic and neoplastic gallbladder tissues and evaluated the effect of three mTOR inhibitors on cell growth and migration in gallbladder carcinoma cell lines.Methods: Immunohistochemical staining of phospho-p70S6K was analyzed in 181 gallbladder carcinoma cases, classified according to lesion type as dysplasia, early carcinoma, or advanced carcinoma. Protein expression of AKT/mTOR members was also evaluated in eight gallbladder carcinoma cell lines by Western blot analysis. We selected two gallbladder carcinoma cell lines (G415 and TGBC-2TKB to evaluate the effect of rapamycin, RAD001, and AZD8055 on cell viability, cell migration, and protein expression.Results: Our results showed that phospho-p70S6K is highly expressed in dysplasia (66.7%, 12/18, early cancer (84.6%, 22/26, and advanced cancer (88.3%, 121/137. No statistical correlation was observed between phospho-p70S6K status and any clinical or pathological features, including age, gender, ethnicity, wall

  2. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid C.

    2011-12-29

    The Saint James\\'s Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect® (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software®). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A260\\/280 values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng\\/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng\\/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng\\/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng\\/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates.

  3. Modeling the synergistic antibacterial effects of honey characteristics of different botanical origins from the Sahara Desert of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadda eLAALLAM

    2015-11-01

    ; floral origin; inhibition zone; Sahara Desert bioresources; GLMM.

  4. Venom Down Under: Dynamic Evolution of Australian Elapid Snake Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy N. W. Jackson

    2013-12-01

    forms of kunitz and waprin peptides were recovered, including dual domain kunitz-kunitz precursors and the first kunitz-waprin hybrid precursors from elapid snakes. The novel sequences recovered in this study reveal that the huge diversity of unstudied venomous Australian snakes are of considerable interest not only for the investigation of venom and whole organism evolution but also represent an untapped bioresource in the search for novel compounds for use in drug design and development.

  5. Rumo ao desenvolvimento espacial sustentável? Explorando as implicações da nova bioeconomia no setor agroalimentar e na inovação regional Towards sustainable spatial development? Exploring the implications of the emerging bio-economy in agri-food and regional innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Horlings

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O paradigma da bioeconomia pode ser descrito como o conjunto das atividades econômicas que captam o valor latente em processos biológicos e nos biorecursos renováveis, para produzir melhores condições de saúde, além de crescimento e desenvolvimento sustentáveis. Este artigo faz uma revisão crítica do impacto da bioeconomia emergente sobre o desenvolvimento rural. São descritas algumas das consequências do desenvolvimento rural bioeconômico, na esfera agroalimentar e da inovação regional baseada em uma definição específica -e, de nosso ponto de vista, fraca -de Modernização Ecológica. A questão central, então, é: quais são as bases conceituais, a força impulsora, as expressões empíricas e as implicações do desenvolvimento bioeconômico? Argumenta-se que, embora a bioeconomia faça duras cobranças em relação à sustentabilidade, também deixa lacunas, apresenta al-guns efeitos secundários negativos, tanto ambientais como sociais, e corre o risco de ser uma economia parcial. Sustentamos, ainda, que a trajetória do desenvolvimento ecoeconômico pode constituir uma boa alternativa para localidades particularmente vulneráveis que queiram aumentar sua resiliência.The bio-economic paradigm can be described as those economic activities which capture the latent value in biological processes and renewable bioresources to produce improved health and sustainable growth and development. This article is a critical review of the impact of the emerging bio-economy in rural development. It describes some of its consequences in the sphere of agri-food and regional innovation based on a specific -and in our opinion weak - definition of Ecological Modernization. The central question then is: what are the conceptual roots, driving forces, empirical expressions and implications of bio-economic development? We argue that although the bio-economy makes severe sustainability claims, it also shows some missing links, has some negative

  6. Use of RSM modeling for optimizing decolorization of simulated textile wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 capable of simultaneous removal of reactive dyes and hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Zahid; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Tanvir; Nadeem, Habibullah; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Azeem; Abid, Muhammad; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Remediation of colored wastewater loaded with dyes and metal ions is a matter of interest nowadays. In this study, 220 bacteria isolated from textile wastewater were tested for their potential to decolorize each of the four reactive dyes (reactive red-120, reactive black-5, reactive yellow-2, and reactive orange-16) in the presence of a mixture of four different heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd) commonly found in textile effluents. Among the tested bacteria, the isolate ZM130 was found to be the most efficient in decolorizing reactive dyes in the presence of the mixture of heavy metals and was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The strain ZM130 was highly effective in simultaneously removing hexavalent chromium (25 mg L(-1)) and the azo dyes (100 mg L(-1)) from the simulated wastewater even in the presence of other three heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd). Simultaneous removal of chromium and azo dyes ranged as 76.6-98.7 % and 51.9-91.1 %, respectively, after 180 h incubation. On the basis of quadratic polynomial equation and response surfaces given by the response surface methodology (RSM), optimal salt content, pH, carbon co-substrate content, and level of multi-metal mixtures for decolorization of reactive red-120 in a simulated textile wastewater by the strain ZM130 were predicted to be 19.8, 7.8, and 6.33 g L(-1) and a multi-metal mixture (Cr 13.10 mg L(-1), Pb 26.21 mg L(-1), Cd 13.10 mg L(-1), Zn 26.21 mg L(-1)), respectively. Moreover, the strain ZM130 also exhibited laccase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (NADH-DCIP reductase) activity during the decolorization of reactive red-120. However, the laccase activity was found to be maximum in the presence of 300 mg L(-1) of the dye as compared to other concentrations. Hence, the isolation of this strain might serve as a potential bio-resource required for developing the strategies aiming at bioremediation of the

  7. Elaboration of the methodological referential for life cycle analysis of first generation biofuels in the French context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    methodological issues specific to fossil fuels pathways. The study was commissioned by the ADEME - Departement Bio-resources, the Minister of Agriculture and Fishing, the ONIGC, the IFP and the Minister of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Land Settlement (DGEMP, D4E, DPPR). A Committee was set up to provide a technical support for the analysis of the methodological issues, in order to reach a consensus for the elaboration of the recommendations presented in this document. This Committee involved representatives of the biofuels and petroleum pathways (PROLEA, BENP, Cristal Union, Lyondell and TOTAL), representatives of Technical Institutes (ARVALIS, CETIOM, ITB, ITERG), representatives of the National Institute for Agronomical Research, representatives of the car industry (PSA, Renault), representatives of a waste-treatment company (VEOLIA), representatives of an association for the protection of environment (Reseau Action Climat) and representatives of a Union of Cooperatives (COOP. IN VIVO)

  8. Optimization of reaction conditions to fabricate nano-silver using Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (leaf & fruit) and its enhanced larvicidal effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimala, R. T. V.; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal

    2015-01-01

    Currently bioactive principles of plants and their nanoproducts have been extensively studied in agriculture and medicine. In this study Couroupita guianensis Aubl. leaf and fruit extracts were selected for rapid and cost-effective synthesis of silver nanoparticles (leaf-LAgNPs and fruit-FAgNPs). Various physiological conditions such as temperature, pH, concentration of metal ions, stoichiometric proportion of reaction mixture and reaction time showed influence on the size, dispersity and synthesis rate of AgNPs. Generation of AgNPs was initially confirmed with the surface plasmon vibrations at 420 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results recorded from X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) supports the biosynthesis of cubic crystalline LAgNPs & FAgNPs with the size ranges between 10-45 nm and 5-15 nm respectively. Surface chemistry of synthesized AgNPs was studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), it reveals that water soluble phenolic compounds present in the extracts act as reducing and stabilizing agent. Leaf, fruit extracts and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera; Culicidae). Furthermore, different extracts and synthesized AgNPs showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against A. aegypti after 24 h of treatment. Compare to all extracts such as ethyl acetate (leaf; LC50 - 44.55 ppm and LC90 - 318.39 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 49.96 ppm and LC90 - 568.84 ppm respectively) and Methanol (leaf; LC50 - 85.75 ppm and LC90 - 598.63 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 67.78 ppm and LC90 - 714.45 ppm respectively) synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate (LAgNPs; LC50 - 2.1 ppm and LC90 - 5.59 ppm & FAgNPs; LC50 - 2.09 ppm and LC90 - 5.7 ppm). Hence, this study proves that C. guianensis is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent.

  9. Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

    2012-01-01

    bioreduction methods that rely on free cells for bioremediation suffer from Cr6 toxicity, and cell damage. Therefore, immobilization of microbial cell biomass enhances bioremediation and renders industrial bioremediation processes more economically viable from reduced free-cells toxicity, easier separation of biosorbents from the tannery effluent, ability to achieve multiple biosorption cycles, and desorption (elution) of metal(s) from matrices for reuse. Thus, microbial bioremediation can be a cost competitive strategy and beneficial bioresource for removing many hazardous contaminants from tannery and other industrial wastes. PMID:22350558

  10. High impact biowastes from South European agro-industries as feedstock for second-generation biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoma, Alberto; Rebecchi, Stefano; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Availability of bio-based chemicals, materials and energy at reasonable cost will be one of the forthcoming issues for the EU economy. In particular, the development of technologies making use of alternative resources to fossil fuels is encouraged by the current European research and innovation strategy to face the societal challenge of natural resource scarcity, fossil resource dependence and sustainable economic growth. In this respect, second- generation biorefineries, i.e. biorefineries fed with biowastes, appear to be good candidates to substitute and replace the present downstream processing scheme. Contrary to first-generation biorefineries, which make use of dedicated crops or primary cultivations to achieve such a goal, the former employ agricultural, industrial, zootechnical, fishery and forestry biowastes as the main feedstock. This leaves aside any ethical and social issue generated by first-generation approaches, and concomitantly prevents environmental and economical issues associated with the disposal of the aforementioned leftovers. Unfortunately, to date, a comprehensive and updated mapping of the availability and potential use of bioresources for second-generation biorefineries in Europe is missing. This is a lack that severely limits R&D and industrial applications in the sector. On the other hand, attempts at valorizing the most diverse biowastes dates back to the nineteenth century and plenty of information in the literature on their sustainable exploitation is available. However, the large majority of these investigations have been focused on single fractions of biowastes or single steps of biowaste processing, preventing considerations on an integrated and modular (cascade) approach for the whole valorization of organic leftovers. This review aims at addressing these issues by gathering recent data on (a) some of the main high-impact biowastes located in Europe and in particular in its Southern part, and (b) the bio-based chemicals, materials

  11. Role of marine bioprospecting contracts in developing access and benefit sharing mechanism for marine traditional knowledge holders in the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable growth of bio-based industry has led to a rapid increase in the bioprospecting activities. The marine biomes are a rich reservoir of unique life systems making them an attractive target for bioprospecting for identification and development of potential drug molecules for human therapeutics. Many of the drug molecules such as ara-c, trabecetidin and eribulin have been discovered from marine organisms. It is noteworthy that indigenous communities have developed, preserved as well as evolved the marine traditional knowledge from one generation to next. Pharmaceutical companies utilize marine life based traditional knowledge developed by the communities at various stages of drug development, unfortunately, many a times without having a mechanism of access and benefit sharing in place. One such example is the marine bioprospecting Fiji contract that illustrates the role played by Fijian community and the lacuna in access and benefit sharing mechanisms. The present study is an attempt to explore the mechanism of fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from use of marine bioresources with the local communities as marine traditional knowledge holders in marine areas. It briefly describes the various international conventions and protocols that emphasize on the development of fair and equitable benefit sharing mechanisms. The study proposes marine bioprospecting contracts that are based on mutually agreed terms among the key stakeholders (the State with the genetic resources, traditional knowledge holders and marine bioprospectors. Marine bioprospecting contracts eventually will need to be customized as per the legislation of a country because of territorial nature of law. Also, the marine bioprospecting contracts will differ from other bioprospecting contracts due to various unique parameters associated with the activity such as economics of deep sea explorations (expensive processes of exploration and sample extraction

  12. Elaboration of the methodological referential for life cycle analysis of first generation biofuels in the French context; Elaboration d'un referentiel methodologique pour la realisation d'Analyses de Cycle de Vie appliquees aux biocarburants de premiere generation en France. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    addition methodological issues specific to fossil fuels pathways. The study was commissioned by the ADEME - Departement Bio-resources, the Minister of Agriculture and Fishing, the ONIGC, the IFP and the Minister of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Land Settlement (DGEMP, D4E, DPPR). A Committee was set up to provide a technical support for the analysis of the methodological issues, in order to reach a consensus for the elaboration of the recommendations presented in this document. This Committee involved representatives of the biofuels and petroleum pathways (PROLEA, BENP, Cristal Union, Lyondell and TOTAL), representatives of Technical Institutes (ARVALIS, CETIOM, ITB, ITERG), representatives of the National Institute for Agronomical Research, representatives of the car industry (PSA, Renault), representatives of a waste-treatment company (VEOLIA), representatives of an association for the protection of environment (Reseau Action Climat) and representatives of a Union of Cooperatives (COOP. IN VIVO)

  13. Organic Synthesis and Potential Microbiology in the Solar Nebula: Are Early Solar Systems Nurseries for Microorganisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, M. N.; Ibrahim, Y.; El-Shall, M. S.

    2004-11-01

    We observed a new synthetic mechanism that can contribute organics toward the origins of life in the solar nebula. We also observed that microorganisms can grow on carbonaceous asteroid/meteorite materials, suggesting that micoorganisms can multiply in aqueous asteroids in the early Solar System. The new synthetic mechanism is provided by ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cold nebular and interstellar cloud environments, through associative charge transfer (ACT) and associative proton transfer (APT) reactions. For example, ionized benzene (C6H6+) reacts with two CH3CH=CH2 molecules to form C6H12+ that initiates ionic polymerization. Other unsaturated molecules (HCCH, H2CO, HCN, CH3CN) can yield complex organics by this mechanism. The C6H6+ ion also reacts with water molecules to form (H2O)nH+ nucleation centers for ices, in which UV-induced organic synthesis can occur. The organics in the nebula can contribute to the origins of life and support microorganisms. For example, we observed that microorganisms such as Nocardia asteroides, algae, fungi, and even plant cultures (Asparagus officinalis) grow in planetary microcosms based on carbonaceous chondrite, as well as Martian, meteorites. We found high microbial populations (10exp7 CFU/ml) and complex microbial communities in these planetary microcosms. Thermophilic archaebacteria also grew on these materials. The results suggest that early aqueous asteroids can support microorganisms, distribute them through the solar nebula by collisions, deliver them to planets, and possibly eject them to interstellar space. Such natural panspermia processes, or directed panspermia payloads, may seed other young solar systems where microbial life can multiply by similar mechanisms. We thank NASA Grant NNG04GH45G for funding support. References: 1. M. N. Mautner, Planetary Bioresources and Astroecology...., Icarus 2002, 158, 72-86; see www.astroecology.com. 2. M. Mautner and G. L. Matloff, Directed Panspermia...., Bull

  14. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  15. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic profile and cytotoxic effects of saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder Kumar

    may be used as natural antioxidants for stress related problems. Our studies go on to prove that the unique trans-Himalayan lichens are a hitherto untapped bioresource with immense potential for discovery of new chemical entities, and this biodiversity needs to be tapped sustainably.

  16. A strategic plan for the second phase (2013-2015) of the Korea biobank project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ok; Cho, Sang Yun; Shin, So Youn; Park, Jae-Sun; Kim, Jun Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee

    2013-04-01

    The Korea Biobank Project (KBP) was led by the Ministry of Health and Welfare to establish a network between the National Biobank of Korea and biobanks run by university-affiliated general hospitals (regional biobanks). The Ministry of Health and Welfare started the project to enhance medical and health technology by collecting, managing, and providing researchers with high-quality human bioresources. The National Biobank of Korea, under the leadership of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, collects specimens through various cohorts and regional biobanks within university hospitals gather specimens from patients. The project began in 2008, and the first phase ended in 2012, which meant that there needed to be a plan for the second phase that begins in 2013. Consequently, professionals from within and outside the project were gathered to develop a plan for the second phase. Under the leadership of the planning committee, six working groups were formed to formulate a practical plan. By conducting two workshops with experts in the six working groups and the planning committee and three forums in 2011 and 2012, they have developed a strategic plan for the second phase of the KBP. This document presents a brief report of the second phase of the project based on a discussion with them. During the first phase of the project (2008-2012), a network was set up between the National Biobank of Korea and 17 biobanks at university-affiliated hospitals in an effort to unify informatics and governance among the participating biobanks. The biobanks within the network manage data on their biospecimens with a unified Biobank Information Management System. Continuous efforts are being made to develop a common standard operating procedure for resource collection, management, distribution, and personal information security, and currently, management of these data is carried out in a somewhat unified manner. In addition, the KBP has trained and educated professionals to work within the

  17. Carbon and Nitrous Oxide Exchange from a Bioenergy Crop Cultivation on a Mineral Soil Measured with Eddy Covariance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, S.; Shurpali, N.; Martikainen, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    2009. The net exchange of CO2 (with Li-7000: LiCor, Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA) and N2O (with QCLAS: Aerodyne Research Inc., Bellerica, MA, USA) will be measured year-around using micrometeorological eddy covariance technique. Preliminary results of the CO2 and N2O exchange will be presented. Baldocchi D.D. (2003). Assessing ecosystem carbon balance: problems and prospects of the eddy covariance technique. Global Change Biology, 9, 479-492. Denmead, O. T. (2008). Approaches to measuring fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide between landscapes and the atmosphere. Plant & Soil, 309, 5-24. Hyvönen N.P., Huttunen J.T., Shurpali N.J., Tavi N.M., Repo M.E. & Martikainen P.J. 2009. Fluxes of nitrous oxide and methane on an abandoned peat extraction site: Effect of reed canary grass cultivation. Bioresource Technology 100: 4723-4730. Shurpali N.J., Hyvönen N.P., Huttunen J.T., Clement R.J., Reichstein M., Nykänen H., Biasi C., and Martikainen P.J. (2009). Cultivation of a perennial grass for bioenergy on a boreal organic soil - carbon sinks or source? Global Change Biology Bioenergy 1: 35-50.

  18. Anticancer activities of self-assembled molecular bowls containing a phenanthrene-based donor and Ru(II acceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim I

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inhye Kim,1,* Young Ho Song,2,* Nem Singh,2 Yong Joon Jeong,3 Jung Eun Kwon,3 Hyunuk Kim,4 Young Mi Cho,3 Se Chan Kang,3 Ki-Whan Chi2 1Laboratory of Bio-Resources, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-Do, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, 3Department of Life Science, Gachon University, Seongnam, 4Energy Materials Lab, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nano-sized multinuclear ruthenium complexes have rapidly emerged as promising therapeutic candidates with unique anticancer activities. Here, we describe the coordination-driven self-assembly and anticancer activities of a set of three organometallic tetranuclear Ru(II molecular bowls. [2+2] Coordination-driven self-assembly of 3,6-bis(pyridin-3-ylethynylphenanthrene (bpep (1 and one of the three dinuclear arene ruthenium clips, [(ƞ6-p-iPrC6H4Me2Ru2-(OO\\OO][OTf]2 (OO\\OO =2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzoquinonato, OTf = triflate (2, 5,8-dioxido-1,4-naphthoquinonato (3, or 6,11-dioxido-5,12-naphthacenediona (4, resulted in three molecular bowls 5–7 of general formula [{(ƞ6-p-iPrC6H4Me2Ru2-(OO\\OO}2(bpep2][OTf]4. All molecular bowls were obtained as triflate salts in very good yields (>90% and were fully characterized using multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The structure of the representative molecular bowl 5 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The anticancer activities of molecular bowls 5–7 were determined by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, autophagy, and Western blot analysis. Bowl 6 showed the strongest cytotoxicity in AGS human gastric carcinoma cells and was more cytotoxic than doxorubicin. In addition, autophagic activity and the ratio of apoptotic cell death increased in AGS cells by treatment with bowl 6. Bowl 6 also induced autophagosome formation via upregulation

  19. Effects of Selective Harvesting on Target Plants and the Related Ecosystems%选择性采集对植物及生态系统的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    淮虎银; 刘爱忠

    2013-01-01

    Selective harvesting is a common practice in human's utilization of wild bio-resources. It influences the characteristics of the harvested species at molecular, population, and ecosystem levels, and is therefore important for sustainable use and conservation of plant resources. The papers concerning selective harvesting of plants and their ecological and evolutionary effects have been reviewed in this paper. Selective harvesting can influence the genetic diversity, population structure and dynamics of the harvested species, and its impacts are dependent obviously on their biological characteristics, parts used, harvesting regime, harvesting time and harvesting intensity. Many studies presently focused on timbers. For non-timber plants, only some species with high economic value and endangered species have been studied. Selective harvesting also causes the species richness, structures and functions of related ecosystems. Traditional harvesting practices are considered as a sustainable approach to resource use, but few direct evidences on genetic and species levels are available. Commercial harvesting may lead to the change of traditional harvesting. Ethnobotany should play a more important role in the study of selective harvesting and its ecological and evolutionary effects.%选择性采集是人类利用野生生物资源过程中的一个普遍现象.选择性采集不仅对采集对象及其所在的生态系统有明显影响,而且也对资源的可持续利用和保护具有十分重要的意义.本文对近年来在选择性采集对资源植物及其所在生态系统等方面的影响进行了综述.集中阐述选择性采集对采集对象的居群遗传结构、多样性及动态的影响,以及和采集对象的生物学特征、采集部位、采集方式、采集时间和采集强度的关系.在生态系统水平上,选择性采集可能会导致采集对象所在的群落中物种多样性、生态系统的结构和功能等发生变化.然而,随

  20. Species Diversity and Population Status of Threatened Plants in Different Landscape Elements of the Rohtang Pass,Western Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.N.Singh; Gopichand; Amit Kumar; Brij Lal; N.P.Todaria

    2008-01-01

    .25 individuals/m2),Picrorhiza kurrooa(19.83 individuals/m2)and Rhododendron anthopogon(26.23 individuals/25m2)was highest.Aconitum heterophyllum was recorded for the lowest density(1 individual/m2).It was observed that the distribution of medicinal plants was very habitat-specific.Lower soil pH in most of the LSEs reflected its acidic nature.A significant positive correlation of Shannon diversity was found with soil organic matter,carbon content available and total nitrogen.Considering the continuous pressure of anthropogenie activities,this paper suggests effective ecotourism planning and plant conservation mechanisms to protect valuable plant bioresource at the Rohtang Pass.

  1. Geospatial data sharing, online spatial analysis and processing of Indian Biodiversity data in Internet GIS domain - A case study for raster based online geo-processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnatak, H.; Pandey, K.; Oberai, K.; Roy, A.; Joshi, D.; Singh, H.; Raju, P. L. N.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    National Biodiversity Characterization at Landscape Level, a project jointly sponsored by Department of Biotechnology and Department of Space, was implemented to identify and map the potential biodiversity rich areas in India. This project has generated spatial information at three levels viz. Satellite based primary information (Vegetation Type map, spatial locations of road & village, Fire occurrence); geospatially derived or modelled information (Disturbance Index, Fragmentation, Biological Richness) and geospatially referenced field samples plots. The study provides information of high disturbance and high biological richness areas suggesting future management strategies and formulating action plans. The study has generated for the first time baseline database in India which will be a valuable input towards climate change study in the Indian Subcontinent. The spatial data generated during the study is organized as central data repository in Geo-RDBMS environment using PostgreSQL and POSTGIS. The raster and vector data is published as OGC WMS and WFS standard for development of web base geoinformation system using Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The WMS and WFS based system allows geo-visualization, online query and map outputs generation based on user request and response. This is a typical mashup architecture based geo-information system which allows access to remote web services like ISRO Bhuvan, Openstreet map, Google map etc., with overlay on Biodiversity data for effective study on Bio-resources. The spatial queries and analysis with vector data is achieved through SQL queries on POSTGIS and WFS-T operations. But the most important challenge is to develop a system for online raster based geo-spatial analysis and processing based on user defined Area of Interest (AOI) for large raster data sets. The map data of this study contains approximately 20 GB of size for each data layer which are five in number. An attempt has been to develop system using

  2. 土壤宏基因组学研究方法与进展%METHODS FOR AND PROGRESS IN RESEARCH ON SOIL METAGENOMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺纪正; 袁超磊; 沈菊培; 张丽梅

    2012-01-01

    Soil microorganisms are a driving force in material recycling and nutrient transformation in soil. However, for a long time, soil has been treated as a "black box" system, wherein microbial diversity and biochemical processes remain to be explored. Since most of the soil microorganisms are still quite hard to be isolated for culture, traditional culture methods are quite limited in helping reveal compositions and functions of soil microbial communities. The metagenomic method is able to explore the structures and functions ( sequence-driven approach) of soil microbial community and to screen bioactive materials and new genes ( function-driven approach ) through extracting all microbial DNAs direct from environment samples and then sequencing or constructing clone library, thus breaking through the bottleneck of the traditional methods and greatly enriching the knowledge about soil microbial biodiversity and functions. While reviewing main procedures of the metagenomic technique, the paper focuses on the introduction to application of the next-generation sequencing (NCS) technologies in metagenomic research and processing of the huge volume of data it may produce. The new process on soil microbial ecology with the metagenomic technique is then discussed. And in the end, the authors propose that research projeces on soil metagenomics should be launched at the national level to explore soil microorganism communities and their variation, so as to contribute to the causes of bioresource exploitation, agricultural production and environment protection.%土壤微生物驱动着土壤中的物质循环和养分转化.在土壤学的研究中,长期将土壤作为一个黑箱系统来对待,对其中的生物组成及其参与的生化过程知之甚少.土壤中绝大部分微生物目前尚难以分离培养,因此基于传统的培养方法对于认识土壤微生物群落组成和功能有其局限性.宏基因组学直接从环境样品中提取全部微生物的DNA,

  3. Progress in the study of some important natural bioactive cyclopeptides%一些重要天然活性环肽化学和生物活性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许文彦; 赵思蒙; 曾广智; 贺文军; 徐会敏; 谭宁华

    2012-01-01

    天然环肽化合物以其广泛的分布、新奇的结构和丰富的活性成为化学家和药学家研究的热点.多年的天然产物化学及活性与药物研发已经从天然环肽化合物中发现一批药物,包括免疫抑制剂环孢菌素A(cyclosporin-A,1)、抗生素短杆菌肽S(gramicidin-S,2)、万古霉素(vancomycin,3)、达托霉素(daptomycin,4)等;多个环肽化合物正在进行临床试验研究,如具有抗肿瘤活性的海洋环肽aplidine (5)等;另有数个植物环肽化合物具有良好的成药前景,如具有抗肿瘤活性的茜草科类型环肽RA-Ⅴ(6)和RA-Ⅶ (7)、免疫抑制活性的菊科类型环肽astin-C (8)等.本文将从分子及其重要活性发现、作用机制、构效关系或结构改造等方面简要介绍以上这些重要天然活性环肽的化学和生物活性研究进展,期望帮助读者了解天然活性环肽化合物的研究概况.%Natural cyclopeptides are hot spots in chemical and pharmaceutical fields because of the wide spreading bio-resources, complex molecular structures and various bioactivities. Bio-producers of cyclopeptides distribute over almost every kingdom from bacteria to plants and animals. Many cyclopeptides contain non-coded amino acids and non-pepditic bonds. Most exciting characteristic of cyclopeptides is a range of interesting bioactivities such as antibiotics gramicidin-S (2), vancomycin (3) and daptomycin (4), immunosuppressive cyclosporin-A (1) and astin-C (8), and anti-tumor aplidine (S), RA-V (6) and RA-VII (7). Compounds 1-4 are being used in clinics; compounds 5-8 are in the stages of clinical trial or as a candidate for drug research. In this review, the progress in chemical and bioactive studies on these important natural bioactive cyclopeptides 1-8 are introduced, mainly including discovery, bioactivity, mechanism, QSAR and synthesis.

  4. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of α-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Y

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Yao Meng,1,2 Shuangfeng Liu,1 Juan Li,3 Yanfa Meng,3 Xiaojun Zhao2,41School of Medical Laboratory Science, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China; 2West China Hospital Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; 3Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment Ministry of Education/Animal Disease Prevention and Food Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Life Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; 4Center for Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USABackground: Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30 derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. However, strong immunogenicity and short plasma half-life limit their clinical application. To solve this problem, the two proteins were modified with (mPEG2-Lys-NHS (20 kDa.Methodology/principal findings: In this article, a novel purification strategy for the two main type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs, α-MMC and MAP30, was successfully developed for laboratory-scale preparation. Using this dramatic method, 200 mg of α-MMC and about 120 mg of MAP30 was obtained in only one purification process from 200 g of Momordica charantia seeds. The homogeneity and some other properties of the two proteins were assessed by gradient SDS-PAGE, electrospray ionization quadruple mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequence analysis as well as Western blot. Two polyethylene glycol (PEGylated proteins were synthesized and purified. Homogeneous mono-, di-, or tri-PEGylated proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The analysis of antitumor and antivirus activities indicated that the serial PEGylated RIPs preserved moderate activities on JAR choriocarcinoma cells and herpes simplex

  5. Discovery of potential drugs for human-infecting H7N9 virus containing R294K mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He JY

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jiao-Yu He,1,* Cheng Li,2,* Guo Wu3 1College of Life Sciences and Key Laboratory for Bio-resources of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, 2College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, 3College of Life Sciences, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: After the first epidemic wave from February through May 2013, the influenza A (H7N9 virus emerged and has followed a second epidemic wave since June 2013. As of June 27, 2014, the outbreak of H7N9 had caused 450 confirmed cases of human infection, with 165 deaths included. The case-fatality rate of all confirmed cases is about 36%, making the H7N9 virus a significant threat to people’s health. At present, neuraminidase inhibitors are the only licensed antiviral medications available to treat H7N9 infections in humans. Oseltamivir is the most commonly used inhibitor, and it is also a front-line drug for the threatening H7N9. Unfortunately, it has been reported that patients treated with oseltamivir can induce R294K (Arg294Lys substitution in the H7N9 virus, which is a rare mutation and can reduce the antiviral efficacy of inhibitors. Even worse, deaths caused by such mutation after oseltamivir treatment have already been reported, indicating that the need to find substitutive neuraminidase inhibitors for currently available drugs to treat drug-resistant H7N9 is really pressing.Materials and methods: First, the structure of H7N9 containing the R294K substitution was downloaded from the Protein Data Bank, and structural information of approved drugs was downloaded from the ZINC (ZINC Is Not Commercial database. Taking oseltamivir carboxylate as a reference drug, we then filtered these molecules through virtual screening to find out potential inhibitors targeting the mutated H7N9 virus. For further evaluation, we carried out a 14 ns molecular dynamic simulation for each H7N9–drug complex and

  6. Progress of marine biodiversity studies in China seas%中国海物种多样性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞玉

    2011-01-01

    国家级海洋自然保护区33个,特别保护区21个.论文在肯定中国海生物多样性研究进展和成绩的同时,指出了存在的主要不足是调查采集和研究的生境主要在陆架浅海,深海大洋特殊生境刚刚起步;多样性调查缺少全国统一计划行动,缺全面的多样性“背景值”资料.而监测、采集、研究不够;评估、保护亟待加强.文终提出了几点涉及学科发展和多样性监测、评估、保护的关键性建议.%Efforts have been made by scientists studying on the taxonomy, biogeography and biodiversity in China seas since 1950, the establishment of Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Over 1,000 papers and 200 volumes of monographs have been published, of which more than 47 volumes are Fauna Sinica - Invertebrata (27 volumes on marine biota), 11 volumes of Fauna Sinica - Vertebmta are on fishes, and 8 volumes are Flora Algarum Marinarum Sinkarum. Results of studies on biodiversity in whole China seas were summarized in Marine Species and Their Distributions in China's Seas' (1994) and Checklist of Marine Biota of China Seas (2008). In the latter volume, new taxonomic results up to 2007 were added, and a total of 22,629 marine species were recorded, with an increase of 5,118 species compared with those reported in 1994. So far, the biodiversity of China seas is high. The results of "Shelf Environment and Bio-resources Survey 1997-2000" and those of "Endangered Species Assessment Project" (2000-2004) published in China Species Red List vols.l, 3, 2A, 2B (2004, 2005 and 2009) revealed that under the impacts of global climate change and anthropogenic activities, the biodiversity and bio-resources have seriously declined, the number of endangered species increased, and some major populations collapsed. China joined the World Marine Biodiversity Project "Census of Marine Life" (CoML) in 2004. In the project "Census of Marine Zooplankton", ecosystem

  7. 秸秆厌氧消化产甲烷的研究进展%Review of methane production from straws anaerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨茜; 鞠美庭; 李维尊

    2016-01-01

    With the increasingly serious energy shortage and environmental pollution, anaerobic digestion of agricultural straws becomes one of the hotspots in recent years, and the domestic and foreign scholars study on biomass solid waste treatment. Anaerobic digestion of agricultural straws provides an excellent chance to convert abundant bio-resources into renewable energy. As the largest agricultural country in the world, China has an abundance of crop straws. The anaerobic digestion of straws not only improves the quality of the rural ecological environment, but also produces the clean energy, i.e. biogas, which makes the solid biomass wastes into “wealth”. Anaerobic digestion of straws is currently one of the most hopeful ways to realize the industrialization of biomass energy in China. However, the special physico-chemical property of straws creates a resistant ability for microorganisms and enzymes to degrade during the hydrolytic acidification process and methanogenic process, and thus limits the application and promotion of straws. For anaerobic digestion becomes a hot technology especially in China, we have quite limited knowledge on optional management of anaerobic digestion of agricultural straws due to the limited fermentation equipment. Although the biogas equipment manufacture and biogas plants have been established and encouraged by the incentive polices in China, some questions still exist in anaerobic digestion, especially for the large-scale application. According to the latest results of the domestic and foreign research on relevant anaerobic digestion of agricultural straws, this article reviewed the relative contents, including the anaerobic digestion principle, the physico-chemical characteristics of feedstocks, the influence factors and shortages of anaerobic digestion of agricultural straws, and the optimization of biogas and methane production. Moreover, the future research topics and prospects of anaerobic digestion of agricultural straws were

  8. 黄渤海夏季微藻调查%Investigation of the microalgae inhabiting the summer seawater of Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿琳; 杨官品; 朱葆华; 潘克厚

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are bioresources important for a wide range of applications in aquaculture, environmental treat-ment, medicine, agriculture and industry. For instance, Nannochloropsis sp., Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Skele-tonema costatum have served as natural feed of aquatic animals; Dunaliella salina, Haematococcus pluvialis, and Chlorella vulgaris have been widely used to manufacturing nutraceuticals and cosmetics due to their high content of carotenoids. Although more than 0.2 million species exist on earth, only a very small proportion of microalgae have been exploited. In China, approximately 600 microalgal species have been identified, of them less than 10 species have been cultured on large-scales so far. Isolation and identification of more cultivable microalgal strains from natural envi-ronments is thus foundamental and always appreciated by researching and exploiting communities. Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are rich in phytoplankton and deemed to be an important microalgal repository. However, the reports on the isolation and cultivation of microalgae inhabiting these sea areas are very scarce. In order to promote the exploitation of microalgal resource in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, a surveying cruise was carried out in summer 2011, during which the diversity of net collected microalgae was determined. Moreover, a rich collection of cultivable microalgal strains were successfully isolated from 71 stations. A total of 44 species in 30 genera, 4 phyla, were identified in fixed summer sea-waters. Among them, Bacillariophytas (28 species in 20 genera) accounted for 51.8%; while dinophytas (14 species in 8 genera) accounted for 23.2%. One speceis in phylum Chrysophyta (Dictyocha fibula) and Cyanophyta (Trichodesmium thiebautii) were also isolated and identified. Coscinodiscus sp. and Paralia sulcata which appeared in almost all sta-tions were dominant species. In total, 92 microalgal strains were isolated and purified with diverse methods including capillary

  9. Geochemical indicators and characterization of soil water repellence in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2016-04-01

    water repellence is closely related with fatty acids and the presence of short chain hydrocarbons. Acknowledgements This research has been funded by the University of Western Australia (Research Collaboration Award 2015: 'Soil water repellence in biodiverse semi arid environments: new insights and implications for ecological restoration') and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (research projects GEOFIRE, CGL2012-38655-C04-01, and POSTFIRE, CGL 2013-47862-C2-1-R. References Doerr, S.H., Llewellyn, C.T., Douglas, P., Morley, C.P., Mainwaring, K.A., Haskins, C., Johnsey, L., Ritsema, C.J., Stagnitti, F., Allison, G., Ferreira, A.J.D., Keizer, J.J., Ziogas, A.K., Diamantis, J. 2005. Extraction of compounds associated with water repellency in sandy soils of different origin. Australian Journal of Soil Research 43, 225-237. Gonzalez-Vila, F.J., Gonzalez-Perez, J.A., Akdi, K. Gomis, M.D. Perez-Barrera, F., Verdejo, T. 2009. Assessing the efficiency of urban waste biocomposting by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS). Bioresource Technology 100, 1304-1309. Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H. 2013. Soil water repellency: origin, assessment and geomorphological consequences. Catena 108, 1-8. Muñoz-Rojas, M., Erickson, T,E., Martini, D., Dixon, K.W., Merritt, D.J. 2016. Soil physicochemical and microbiological indicators of short, medium and long term post-fire recovery in semi-arid ecosystems. Ecological indicators 63, 14-22.

  10. Diversity of cultured and uncultured bacteria in surface layer sediment from the East China Sea%东海表层沉积物纯培养与非培养细菌多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建瑜; 刘雪珠; 赵荣涛; 吴方伟; 王健鑫

    2013-01-01

    Marine bacteria are an extremely important component of marine bioresources. We studied the community structure and diversity of cultured and uncultured bacteria in surface layer sediment sampled from the East China Sea (122°10'41" E, 29°49'7" N) by buried piece observation, fluorescence enumeration, pure culture techniques and 16S rDNA clone library analysis. The average abundance of bacteria was (9.30±3.44)×l07 cells/g according to fluorescence microscopy enumeration and observation of buried slides. A total of 313 bacterial strains belonging to 20 genera was obtained from four kinds of culture medium and the separation efficiency of bacteria ranked as ROMl>Zobell 2216>MR2A. In terms of morphology, physiology and biochemistry, Bacillus (21.08%) and Marinococcus (17.25%) were shown to be the most dominant and highly diverse bacteria. The analysis of 16S rDNA sequence from 73 representative bacteria showed most clones were affiliated with Firmicutes (57.5%): the other marine bacteria including gamma-Proteobacteria (32.9%), Flavobacteria (4.1%), and Actinobacteria (5.5%). Most clones were related to uncultivated bacterial clones retrieved from surface layer sediment and contained several highly divergent 16S rDNA gene sequences. After constructing a molecular library and phylogenetic analysis, the sequenced clones were shown to fall into two phyla of the domain Bacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, in which Bacillus and gamma-proteobacteria were the dominant groups, respectively. The results revealed that the species and community structure of bacteria in surface layer sediment from the East China Sea continental shelf were abundant and diverse, thus warranting further research and exploitation.%于2011年7月采集了浙江舟山沿岸海底沉积物样品(122°10′41″E,29°49′7″N),通过埋片原位观察、荧光显微计数、纯培养菌分离以及非培养细菌构建克隆文库的方法,分析和研究了东海表层沉积物细菌群落结

  11. INTEGRATED GENOME-BASED STUDIES OF SHEWANELLA ECOPHYSIOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NEALSON, KENNETH H.

    2013-10-15

    products of dissimilatory iron reduction. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 74:574-583. 10. Karpinets, T.V., A.Y Obraztsova, Y. Wang, D.D. Schmoyer, G.H. Kora, B.H. Park, M.H. Serres, M.F. Ropmine, M.L. Land, T.B. Kothe, J.K. Fredrickson, K.H. Nealson, and E.C. Uberbacher 2010. Conserved synteny at the protein family level reveals genes underlying Shewanella species? cold tolerance and predicts their novel phenotypes. Funct. Integr. Genomics 10: 97 ? 110. (DOI 10.1007/s10143-009-0142-y) 11. Bretschger, O., A.C.M. Cheung, F. Mansfeld, and K.H. Nealson. 2010. Comparative microbial fuel cell evaluations of Shewanella spp. Electroanalysis 22: 883-894. 12. McLean, J.S., G. Wanger, Y.A. Gorby, M. Wainstein, J. McQuaid, Shun?ichi Ishii, O. Bretschger, H. Beyanal, K.H. Nealson. 2010. Quantification of electron transfer rates to a solid phase electron acceptor through the stages of biofilm formation from single cells to multicellular communities. Env. Sci. Technol. 44:2721-2717. 13. El-Naggar, M., G. Wanger, K.M. Leung, T.D. Yuzvinsky, G. Southam, J. Yang, W.M. Lau, K.H. Nealson, and Y.A. Gorby. 2010. Electrical Transport Along Bacterial Nanowires from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 107:18127-18131. 14. Biffinger, J.C., L.A. Fitzgerald, R. Ray, B.J. Little, S.E. Lizewski, E.R. Petersen, B.R. Ringeisen, W.C. Sanders, P.E. Sheehan, J.J. Pietron, J.W. Baldwin, L.J. Nadeau, G.R. Johnson, M. Ribbens, S.E. Finkel, K.H. Nealson. 2010. The utility of Shewanella japonica for microbial fuel cells. Bioresource Technol. 102:290-297. 15. Rodionov, D. , C. Yang, X. Li, I. Rodionova, Y. Wang, A.Y. Obraztsova, O. P. Zagnitko, R. Overbeek, M. F. Romine, S. Reed, J.K. Fredrickson, K.H. Nealson, A.L. Osterman. 2010. Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus. BMC Genomics 2010, 11:494 16. Kan, J., L. Hsu, A.C.M. Cheung, M. Pirbazari, and K.H. Nealson. 2011. Current production by bacterial communities in microbial fuel cells enriched from wastewater sludge

  12. The use of straw mulch as a strategy to prevent extreme soil erosion rates in citrus orchard. A Rainfall simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    -115. 10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005. García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28, 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G., Govers, G., de Vente, J., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., Moeyersons, J. 2013. Assessing the performance of a Spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) in Northern Ethiopia. Land Degradation & Development 24, 188-204. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1121 Iranzo, M., Cañizares, J.V., Roca-Perez, L., Sainz-Pardo, I., Mormeneo, S., Boluda, R. 2004. Characteristics of rice straw and sewage sludge as composting materials in Valencia (Spain). Bioresource Technology 95, 107-112 Le Bellec, F., Damas, O., Boullenger, G., Vannière, H., Lesueur Jannoyer, M., Tournebize, R., Ozier Lafontaine, H. 2012. Weed control with a cover crop (Neonotonia wightii) in mandarin orchards in Guadeloupe (FWI). Acta Horticulturae 928, 359-366. Liu, Y., Tao, Y., Wan, K.Y., Zhang, G.S., Liu, D.B., Xiong, G.Y., Chen, F. 2012. Runoff and nutrient losses in citrus orchards on sloping land subjected to different surface mulching practices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of China. Agricultural Water Management 110, 34-40. Lu, J., Wilson, M.J., Yu, J. 1997. Effects of trench planting and soil chiselling on soil properties and citrusproduction in hilly ultisols of China Soil and Tillage Research 43, 309-318. Lü, W., Zhang, H., Wu, Y., Cheng, J., Li, J., Wang, X. 2012. The impact of plant hedgerow in Three Gorges on the soil chemicophysical properties and soil erosion. Key Engineering Materials 500 142-148. Robichaud, P.R., Lewis, S.A., Wagenbrenner, J.W., Ashmun, L.E., Brown, R.E. 2013a. Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation. Part I: Effectiveness at reducing hillslope erosion rates