WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioresources seibutsu tayosei

  1. Research cooperation project on conservation and sustainable use of tropical bioresources; Seibutsu tayosei hozen to jizokuteki riyonado ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Research cooperation has been conducted on the conservation of biological species inhabiting in the tropical rainforest in developing countries in tropic zone and the sustainable use of genetic resources using biotechnologies. For the research cooperation with Thailand in FY 1996, research of the food acquisition strategy of the Primates has been conducted. A total of 19 species of animals and plants, i.e., 7 species of arbors, 7 species of herbs, and 5 species of insects, were newly confirmed for pig-tailed monkey. In Indonesia, a feasibility study was conducted on the information center of Indonesian tropical bioresources. For the research of culture collection of bacteria, 113 strains of acetic acid bacteria and 85 strains of lactic acid bacteria were separated from Indonesian specimens, and they were identified. An agreement was concluded with Malaysia, and discussions were conducted for the concrete implementation plan. For the project, construction of a database was investigated for bioresources including bacteria and higher animals useful for industries. Maintenance of gene bank was also investigated. 391 refs., 61 figs., 93 tabs.

  2. Fiscal 1997 report on the cooperative research on the preservation and sustainable utilization of biological diversification; Seibutsu tayosei hozen to jizokuteki riyo nado ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku (1997 nendo hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Cooperative researches were conducted between Japan and Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia for the purpose of the technology development to make developing countries themselves preserve bioresources existing in tropical forests and use those sustainably. The research subjects for Thailand are a strategical study on eating of the primates, improvement of a microorganism culture collection system, preservation of biological diversification using an artificial ecosystem, bioresource utilization, etc. The subjects for Indonesia are a study of a microorganism culture collection system, study of plant preservation technology, study of microorganism utilization technology, study of plant utilization technology, promotion of the founding of the Indonesia tropical bioresource information center, etc. The subjects for Malaysia are biological diversification database and gene bank, assessment/monitoring of the ocean ecosystem, assessment and inventory of the ecosystem using hi-tech technology, search/separation of bioactive substances originated from microorganism/plant, etc. 26 refs., 24 figs., 81 tabs.

  3. Coastal biodiversity and bioresources: variation and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Liu, Zhengyi; Yu, Roger Ziye

    2016-03-01

    The 1st International Coastal Biology Congress (1st ICBC) was held in Yantai, China, in Sep. 26-30, 2014. Eighteen manuscripts of the meeting presentations were selected in this special issue. According to the four themes set in the ICBC meeting, this special issue include four sections, i.e., Coastal Biodiversity under Global Change, Adaptation and Evolution to Special Environment of Coastal Zone, Sustainable Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, and Coastal Biotechnology. Recent advances in these filed are presented.

  4. Bioresources for control of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Barindra

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution is one of the biggest threats to human beings. For practical reasons it is not possible to stop most of the activities responsible for environmental pollution; rather we need to eliminate the pollutants. In addition to other existing means, biological processes can be utilized to get rid of toxic pollutants. Degradation, removal, or deactivation of pollutants by biological means is known as bioremediation. Nature itself has several weapons to deal with natural wastage and some of them are equally active for eliminating nonnatural pollutants. Several plants, microorganisms, and some lower eukaryotes utilize environmental pollutants as nutrients and some of them are very efficient for decontaminating specific types of pollutants. If exploited properly, these natural resources have enough potential to deal with most elements of environmental pollution. In addition, several artificial microbial consortia and genetically modified organisms with high bioremediation potential were developed by application of advanced scientific tools. On the other hand, natural equilibria of ecosystems are being affected by human intervention. Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization are destroying ecological balances and the natural remediation ability of the Earth is being compromised. Several potential bioremediation tools are also being destroyed by biodiversity destruction of unexplored ecosystems. Pollution management by bioremediation is highly dependent on abundance, exploration, and exploitation of bioresources, and biodiversity is the key to success. Better pollution management needs the combined actions of biodiversity conservation, systematic exploration of natural resources, and their exploitation with sophisticated modern technologies.

  5. Synthesis of the Carbon Nanomaterials Based on Renewable Bioresources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness and feasibility of producing nanoscale carbon materials from renewable bioresources were shown as an example marsh mass. The mechanisms of synthesis of amorphous organic carbon from sphagnum moss species modified by a liquid peat phase of humic nature are discussed. A fundamentally new way of producing carbon nanotubes by mechanical activation of amorphous organic carbon is described.

  6. Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Tapas; Shastry, Sunita; Kaul, S N

    2002-05-01

    Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4.0-4.3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52-58, COD: 92-100 kg/m3) and suspended solids (2.0-2.5 kg/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through the full-scale application of a biomethanation system as pretreatment option, comprising anaerobic fixed film reactors. This, combined with subsequent concentration through multiple effect evaporators (MEE), and utilization of concentrated effluent for biocomposting of pressmud (another by-product of the industry) for production of biomanure contributes to the elimination of effluent discharges.

  7. National BioResource Project-Rat and related activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji; Takizawa, Akiko; Okajima, Ryoko; Maedomari, Naoki; Kumafuji, Kenta; Tagami, Fumi; Neoda, Yuki; Otsuki, Mito; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Ken-ichi; Voigt, Birger; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    In order to establish a system to facilitate the systematic collection, preservation, and provision of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) and their derivates, the National BioResource Project-Rat (NBRP-Rat) was launched in July 2002. By the end of 2008, more than 500 rat strains had been collected and preserved as live animals, embryos, or sperm. These rat resources are supplied to biomedical scientists in Japan as well as in other countries. This review article introduces NBRP-Rat and highlights the phenome project, recombinant inbred strains, BAC clone libraries, and the ENU-mutant archive, named the Kyoto University Rat Mutant Archive (KURMA). The future direction of rat resources are also discussed.

  8. Biobankers: Treat the Poison of Invisibility with CoBRA, a Systematic Way of Citing Bioresources in Journal Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitani, Federica; Calzolari, Alessia; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Mabile, Laurence; Rossi, Anna Maria; De Castro, Paola; Bravo, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Even though an increasing portion of biomedical research today relies on the use of bioresources, at present biobankers are not able to trace this use in scientific literature and measure its impact with a variety of citation metrics. The "BRIF (Bioresource Research Impact Factor) and journal editors" subgroup was created precisely with the aim to study this issue and to build a standardized system to cite bioresources in journal articles. This report aims at presenting a guideline for Citation of BioResources in journal Articles (CoBRA). The guideline offers for the first time a standard for citing bioresources (including biobanks) within journal articles. It will increase their visibility and promote their sharing.

  9. CURRENT STATE OF WATER BIORESOURCES OF THE VOLGA AND CASPIAN SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Vasileva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of current degraded state of aquatic biological resources of the Volga-Caspian Sea basin and provides specific data on commercial stocks of fish. The main reasons for decrease in natural stocks of ichthyofauna are regulation and pollution of the spawning rivers, adverse hydrological conditions, injudicious hunting, poaching pressure. To improve the state of natural stocks of fish it is necessary to increase their reproduction and implement measures to restore and rational exploitation of aquatic bioresources of the Volga- Caspian Sea basin.

  10. Perspectives of using fungi as bioresource for bioremediation of pesticides in the environment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Zahid; Hussain, Sabir; Imran, Muhammad; Mahmood, Faisal; Shahzad, Tanvir; Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Azeem, Farrukh; Muzammil, Saima

    2016-09-01

    Pesticides are used for controlling the development of various pests in agricultural crops worldwide. Despite their agricultural benefits, pesticides are often considered a serious threat to the environment because of their persistent nature and the anomalies they create. Hence removal of such pesticides from the environment is a topic of interest for the researchers nowadays. During the recent years, use of biological resources to degrade or remove pesticides has emerged as a powerful tool for their in situ degradation and remediation. Fungi are among such bioresources that have been widely characterized and applied for biodegradation and bioremediation of pesticides. This review article presents the perspectives of using fungi for biodegradation and bioremediation of pesticides in liquid and soil media. This review clearly indicates that fungal isolates are an effective bioresource to degrade different pesticides including lindane, methamidophos, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, cypermethrin, dieldrin, methyl parathion, heptachlor, etc. However, rate of fungal degradation of pesticides depends on soil moisture content, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, oxygen level, etc. Fungal strains were found to harbor different processes including hydroxylation, demethylation, dechlorination, dioxygenation, esterification, dehydrochlorination, oxidation, etc during the biodegradation of different pesticides having varying functional groups. Moreover, the biodegradation of different pesticides was found to be mediated by involvement of different enzymes including laccase, hydrolase, peroxidase, esterase, dehydrogenase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, etc. The recent advances in understanding the fungal biodegradation of pesticides focusing on the processes, pathways, genes/enzymes and factors affecting the biodegradation have also been presented in this review article.

  11. N Mineralisation from Bioresources Incubated at 12.5°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Ives

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils treated with lime-amended biosolids (LAB, poppy seed waste (PSW, anaerobically digested biosolids (ADB and poppy mulch (PM and incubated at 12.5°C for 56 days released 45%, 36%, 25%, and −8%, respectively, of total applied N as plant available nitrogen (PAN by the end of the incubation. The mineralisation rates were contrary to expectations based on the C : N ratios of the four products: LAB (5 : 1, PSW (7 : 1, ADB (3 : 1, and PM (16 : 1. PM showed a significant negative priming effect over the incubation period. These results have implications for production agriculture in temperate regions where application and incorporation of bio-resources traditionally occurs in autumn and spring when soil and air temperatures are relatively low. Current application times may not be suitable for nitrogen release to satisfy crop demand.

  12. The genetic architecture of the human immune system: a bioresource for autoimmunity and disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Mario; Quaye, Lydia; Mangino, Massimo; Beddall, Margaret H; Mahnke, Yolanda; Chattopadhyay, Pratip; Tosi, Isabella; Napolitano, Luca; Terranova Barberio, Manuela; Menni, Cristina; Villanova, Federica; Di Meglio, Paola; Spector, Tim D; Nestle, Frank O

    2015-04-09

    Despite recent discoveries of genetic variants associated with autoimmunity and infection, genetic control of the human immune system during homeostasis is poorly understood. We undertook a comprehensive immunophenotyping approach, analyzing 78,000 immune traits in 669 female twins. From the top 151 heritable traits (up to 96% heritable), we used replicated GWAS to obtain 297 SNP associations at 11 genetic loci, explaining up to 36% of the variation of 19 traits. We found multiple associations with canonical traits of all major immune cell subsets and uncovered insights into genetic control for regulatory T cells. This data set also revealed traits associated with loci known to confer autoimmune susceptibility, providing mechanistic hypotheses linking immune traits with the etiology of disease. Our data establish a bioresource that links genetic control elements associated with normal immune traits to common autoimmune and infectious diseases, providing a shortcut to identifying potential mechanisms of immune-related diseases.

  13. Strategy of protected areas development in purposes of using and keeping bioresources and ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vyacheslavovna Tikhonova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Features and condition of existing system of especially protected natural territories of the Komi Republic are presented in this paper. Their specific environmental problems are defined. Strong sides and weaknesses of functioning and management of objects of special protection are provided. For approbation of a complex of methods of steady exploitation of this territory modeling objects of special protection are allocated and the economic assessment is carried out them. Potential recipients of benefits from use of bioresources and ecosystem services on modeling objects arerevealed. Theterritories possessing a reservefor increasein use of their resources and services are presented. Offers on strategy of development of a control system of especially protected natural territories of the Komi Republic are developed. Development strategy of control system ofespecially protected natural territories is consisting of someinstitutional decisions. This acceptance of federal-regional agreement about management control;creating of regional rules, which regulatethe usage of natural resources in especially protected natural territories; application of an integrated approach to the use of territories, which provide the bases to increase recreation and tourist industry; transfer buffer zone territories to biosphere reservation.

  14. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N; Singh, Devendra P

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet.

  15. Organisms for biofuel production: natural bioresources and methodologies for improving their biosynthetic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangrong; Ji, Shiqi; Yu, Yanchong; Wang, Shi'an; Zhou, Gongke; Li, Fuli

    2015-01-01

    In order to relieve the pressure of energy supply and environment contamination that humans are facing, there are now intensive worldwide efforts to explore natural bioresources for production of energy storage compounds, such as lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, and polysaccharides. Around the world, many plants have been evaluated and developed as feedstock for bioenergy production, among which several crops have successfully achieved industrialization. Microalgae are another group of photosynthetic autotroph of interest due to their superior growth rates, relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, and vast metabolic capabilities. Heterotrophic microorganisms, such as yeast and bacteria, can utilize carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass directly or after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce liquid biofuels such as ethanol and butanol. Although finding a suitable organism for biofuel production is not easy, many naturally occurring organisms with good traits have recently been obtained. This review mainly focuses on the new organism resources discovered in the last 5 years for production of transport fuels (biodiesel, gasoline, jet fuel, and alkanes) and hydrogen, and available methods to improve natural organisms as platforms for the production of biofuels.

  16. Plant diversity and conservation in China: planning a strategic bioresource for a sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongwen

    2011-01-01

    China is one of the richest countries for plant diversity with approximately 33 000 vascular plant species, ranking second in the world. However, the plant diversity in China is increasingly threatened, with an estimated 4000–5000 plant species being threatened or on the verge of extinction, making China, proportionally, one of the highest priorities for global plant biodiversity conservation. Coming in the face of the current ecological crisis, it is timely that China has launched China's Strategy for Plant Conservation (CSPC). China has increasingly recognized the importance of plant diversity in efforts to conserve and sustainably use its plant diversity. More than 3000 nature reserves have been established, covering approximately 16% of the land surface of China. These natural reserves play important roles in plant conservation, covering more than 85% of types of terrestrial natural ecosystems, 40% of types of natural wetlands, 20% of native forests and 65% of natural communities of vascular plants. Meanwhile, the flora conserved in botanical gardens is also extensive. A recent survey shows that the 10 largest botanical gardens have living collections of 43 502 taxa, with a total of 24 667 species in ex situ conservation. These provide an important reserve of plant resources for sustainable economic and social development in China. Plant diversity is the basis for bioresources and sustainable utilization. The 21st century is predicted to be an era of bio-economy driven by advances of bioscience and biotechnology. Bio-economy may become the fourth economy form after agricultural, industrial, and information and information technology economies, having far-reaching impacts on sustainable development in agriculture, forestry, environmental protection, light industry, food supply and health care and other micro-economy aspects. Thus, a strategic and forward vision for conservation of plant diversity and sustainable use of plant resources in the 21st century is of

  17. Cyanobacteria: A precious bio-resource in agriculture, ecosystem and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Shankar eSingh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keeping in view the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters, generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, syngas and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet.

  18. BioResources - an online scientific journal devoted to lignocellulosic materials for new uses and new capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbe, M. A., and Lucia, L. A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this inaugural issue, the Co-Editors of BioResources would like to welcome you. In your role as a reader, we welcome you to download scholarly articles and opinion pieces; this is an open-access journal, providing a maximum of potential impact. BioResources will deal with new and emerging uses of materials from lignocellulosic sources, including wood and crop residues. Topics will include biofuels, biomass-derived chemical products, papermaking technology, and other new or improved uses of biomaterials. We also would like to welcome you as a prospective author. Our goal is to maintain very high standards of peer-review, as well as providing a mix of scholarly research articles, review articles, and editorials. By using an automated, online system of review and publication, we hope to accelerate scientific discourse. Our hope is to contribute to progress in the direction of a post-petroleum economy, taking advantage of the renewable, biodegradable, and relatively abundant nature of materials from lignocellulosic sources.

  19. [Significance and utilization of "RECHS" (Resource Center for Health Science) focusing on the importance of human bio-resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuo, Yushi; Matsunami, Hidetoshi; Takemura, Masao; Saito, Kuniaki

    2011-12-01

    The Resource Center for Health Science (RECHS) has initiated a project based on the development and utilization of Bio-Resources/Database (BR/DB), comprising personal health records(PHR), such as health/medical records of the health of individuals, physically consolidated with bio-resources, e.g. serum, urine etc. taken from the same individuals. This is characterized as analytical alterations of BR/DB annually collected from healthy individuals, targeting 100,000, but not as data dependent on the number of unhealthy individuals so far investigated. The purpose is to establish a primary defense for the improvement of QOL by applying BR/DB to analysis by epidemiology and clinical chemistry. Furthermore, it also contributes to the construction of a PHR system planned as a national project. The RECHS coordinating activities are fully dependent on as many general hospitals as possible on the basis of regional medical services, and academia groups capable of analyzing BR/DB.

  20. Fiscal 1998 R and D project on industrial technology. Development report on use technology of bioresources such as bioconsortia (Development of analysis technology of bioconsortia); 1998 nendo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Fukugo seibutsukeinado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu (fukugo seibutsukei kaiseki gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For use of advanced functions of bioconsortia (complex microorganisms composed of more than 2 microorganisms with certain specific function), this project analyzes specific functions of specific organisms and the interaction between the specific functions, and develops isolation and incubation technologies of component organisms. In fiscal 1998, to promote this project, the meetings were held frequently in National Institute of Bioscience and human Technology. Study was made on production of useful substances and useful degradation functions in association with bioconsortia. The result showed that microorganisms coexisting with nematode produced physiologically active substances exhibiting antimicrobial activities to tubercle bacillus, MRSA and others, microorganisms coexisting in eggs of some insects produced substances having antiviral activities and activities against pathogenic bacteria in a plant, and microorganisms growing in some plants or mycorrhiza organisms produced insecticidal substances or growing-promoting substance. The basic understanding was obtained on cooperative actions of bioconsortia to bioremediation and degradation of organic substances. (NEDO)

  1. Establishment of rumen-mimic bacterial consortia: A functional union for bio-hydrogen production from cellulosic bioresource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jui-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115 (China); Lin, Jia-Jen; Ho, Cheng-Yu.; Chin, Wei-Chih; Huang, Chieh-Chen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University,Taichung (China)

    2010-12-15

    The study aimed to establish stable rumen-mimic bacterial consortia as a functional union for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation from cellulosic bioresource. The consortia was constructed by repeated-batch culture with ruminal microflora and napiergrass at 38 C. The major bacterial composition of batch culture was monitored by 16S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The result showed that a stable consortia constituted by ruminal microflora was formed, and the consortia includes bacterial strains such as Clostridium xylanolyticum, Clostridium papyrosolvens, Clostridium beijerinckii, Ruminococcus sp., Ethanoligenens harbinense, and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. The Clostridium genus was showed as the dominant population in the system and contributed to the biohydrogen production. During each eight days incubation period, the functional consortia could degrade an average of 27% hemicellulose and 2% cellulose from napiergrass biomass. While the increasing of the reducing sugars and their converting to biohydrogen gas productivity were also observed. The time course profile for cellulytic enzymes showed that the hydrolysis of complex lignocellulosic material may occur through the ordered actions of xylenase and cellulase activities. (author)

  2. Multivariate analysis of fatty acid and biochemical constitutes of seaweeds to characterize their potential as bioresource for biofuel and fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Kumar, Manoj; Mishra, Girish; Sahoo, Dinabandhu

    2017-02-01

    In the present study bio prospecting of thirty seaweeds from Indian coasts was analyzed for their biochemical components including pigments, fatty acid and ash content. Multivariate analysis of biochemical components and fatty acids was done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) to manifest chemotaxonomic relationship among various seaweeds. The overall analysis suggests that these seaweeds have multi-functional properties and can be utilized as promising bioresource for proteins, lipids, pigments and carbohydrates for the food/feed and biofuel industry.

  3. Cold adaptations in animals; Teion to seibutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, C. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Inst. of Low Temperature Science

    1996-02-05

    This paper explains the relation between organisms and low temperature in three temperature regions divided by 0{degree}C with reference to protein and lipid, the constituents of an organism. At a low temperature somewhat higher than 0{degree}C, some mammals hibernate, and the hibernation of mammals has connection with protein. The results of recent researches clearly show that, when a chipmunk starts hibernating, four kinds of proteins having molecular weight of 20000-50000 disappear from his blood. At 0{degree}C, an insect has a reserve of special lipid as an energy source for the hibernation. Triacylglycerol which an insect utilizes as an energy source for the basal metabolism during the hibernation is a neutral lipid, which is also a main component of cooking oil and butter. In a temperature region lower than 0{degree}C, fishes in the polar regions hold nonfreezing proteins (glucoproteins), which have molecular weights of several thousands to several ten thousands, in the blood so as to prevent the water in the cells and blood does not freeze. 5 refs.

  4. Concise encyclopedia of bioresource technology: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of Environmental Quality requested a review of the book “The Concise Encyclopedia of Biotechnology” from the perspective of a scientist. Biotechnology is an emerging field and has rapidly become a buzzword in popular culture and politics today, yet it is not possible to be an expert in ...

  5. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Young Il; Song, HI Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Chang, Hwa Hyoung; Han, Gab Jin; Lee, Ki Sung; Kim, Soo Ki; Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Jung Sook

    1999-04-01

    The productivity of lignocellulosic biowastes is greatly expanded along the technical improvement of agricultural industry all over the world. Among the components of biowastes, the lignin is the most difficult fraction to be degraded by mushroom. Thus, the improved strains of edible mushroom with more highly lignocellulolytic activity were induced by {gamma}-ray radiation and analysed their physiological and genetical characteristics. After cultivation of radiation induced edible mushrooms. Antimutagenicity, glyceollin elicitation activity and synergistic effects with indole acetic acid were found promisingly from the extracts of their cultural byproduct. And also were the byproducts expected to be useful for the candidate of subsidiary animal feed suggested from the analysis of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, mineral, and vitamin concentration of them.

  6. Nottingham Health Science Biobank: a sustainable bioresource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharoo-Ball, Balwir; Thomson, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    Nottingham Health Science Biobank (NHSB) was established in 2011 by a 3-year "pump priming" grant from the United Kingdom National Institute of Health Research. Before biobanking operations began, NHSB commissioned a financial report on the full costs of biobanking and worked with key stakeholders and external consultants to develop a business plan with the aim of achieving financial and operational sustainability. The plan included: scanning published information, telephone interviews with commercial companies, Freedom of Information Requests, dialogue with prospective customers, and a market analysis of global trends in the use of human tissue samples in research. Our financial report provided a comprehensive and structured costing template for biobanking and confirmed the absolute requirement to ensure cost-efficient processes, careful staff utilization, and maximization of sample turnover. Together with our external consultants, we developed a business model responsive to global interest in healthcare founded on i) identification of key therapeutic areas that mapped to the strengths of the NHSB; ii) a systematic approach to identifying companies operating in these therapy areas; iii) engagement with noncommercial stakeholders to agree strategically aligned sample collection with the aim of ensuring the value of our tissue resource. By adopting this systematic approach to business modelling, the NHSB has achieved sustainability after less than 3 years of operation.

  7. New Challenges and Opportunities for Putting into Value the Diversity of the Danube Territorial Capital, as a “European Axis” in light of Bio-Resources Supply during 2030-2050, in the context of Global Demographic Projections for 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bogdan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of the Danube territorial capital is the part of World Heritage public investment - biodiversity, environmental protection, sustainable development, reducing poverty and increasing social inclusion, continued development of the global economic welfare, promote a healthy environment, conservation of bio-resources as a ―European Axis‖ , business development in the context of eco-bio-economic, diplomatic instruments promoting eco-bio-economic development, food security, public health, are only several ideas of a smart modern world, which can be attached to development philosophy type ―smart power‖ and contextual intelligence world for Sustainable Development Smart (Smart Sustainable Development by Sustainable Diplomacy Smart (Smart Sustainable Diplomacy in diversity of the Danube territorial capital, which can be a key ingredient of success for Excellence in Foreign Affairs Diplomatic and intelligence dedicated Environmental and Eco- Bio-Economy (SMART & Excellence in Environmental and Eco-Bio-Economic Affairs.

  8. Naturally occurring antifouling substances. Kaiyo fuchaku seibutsu no kiraina mono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ina, K. (Shizuoka University, Sizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1991-07-20

    Prohibition would be imposed on a method of mixing organic tin or copper suboxide into paints coated on vessel hulls or seawater ducts as a means to prevent deposition of marine contaminant organisms, such as barnacles and Mytilidae, Mytilidae, because the method can cause detrimental contamination. Therefore, this paper describes an attempt to find antifouling substances from plant extracts with Mytilus as the object. The antifouling activity was determined by a uniquely devised test plate method (count and evaluate the positions and number of moving tracks of shells utilizing their nature that shells extend their byssuses rear to their body when they face aversive substances, and the number of byssus reduces when their living energy gets weakened), and the toxicity was determined by the number of dead shells opening their shells after they have been immersed for a predetermined time. Thus, tests were carried out on methanol extracts of about 100 kinds of ground plants and seaweeds, whereas some of them were found having antifouling activity of several times that of copper sulfate, but the plant genera and families were unspecified. 14 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Toxicity bioassay of municipal sewage effluents using seaweed. Kaiso wo kyoshi seibutsu to shita toshi gesui shorisui no seibutsu kentei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, T. (Tokyo University of Fisheries, Tokyo (Japan)); Miura, A. (Aomori University, Aomori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes the result of a toxicity test by means of a shaking culture on municipal sewage effluents using seaweed as a test living organism. Dead cells of porphyra yezoensis (nori) have emerged more specifically with the addition of non-disinfected secondary treated water at about 1% and with the lower the salt content. This phenomenon is thought to be an antagonism among growth accelerating substances for porphyra thallus, growth inhibiting substances, and salt content, one of the important characteristics of non-disinfected treated water. As a result of culture test on ripe seawater added with chlorine-disinfected secondary treated water, it was found that the growth of porphyra yezoensis (nori) is governed completely by concentrations of free chlorine added to the treated water, but very little by the treated water addition factor. Substances with very strong growth inhibition power, including NH4Cl, are generated in the chlorine-disinfected secondary treated water. It was disclosed that growth ratios of giant kelps at different factors of addition of non-disinfected secondary treated water change with the sampling time; water quality of the treated sewage water changes from one hour to another; and there are two time bands that show the growth ratio of about the same extent and a time band that shows a transition growth ratio. 60 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Structural diversity of archaeal ether lipid and phylogenetic relationship; Ko saikin eteru shishitsu no tayosei to keito kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Y. [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    Existence of ether lipids is not limited in archaea, however, ether lipids are characteristic market of archaea. Archaeal ether lipids have diverse structures and unusual features not found in other organisms. Archaeal lipids have saturated isoprenoid hydrocarbon chain ether-linked to glycerol. Tetraether type lipids with two polar groups on two sides of hydrocarbon chains are found in archaea widely. Core lipids of non-methanogenic thermophilic archaea are mainly tetraether type lipids containing inositol as a phosphate-containing polar head group. Lipids of extreme halophilic archaea are composed of diether type and glycerophosphate as polar head groups. The feature of methanogenic archaeral lipids is nitrogen-containing polar head groups. Distribution of lipid constituents is used as a chemotaxonomic marker of extreme halophiles and methanogens. The most fundamental phenotypic difference between archaea and Eubacteria is enantiomeric difference at C-2 position of glycerophosphate backbone, that is archaea have G-1-P configuration. 31 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Annonaceae: bio-resource for tomorrow's drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Nematollahi, Alireza; Wiart, Christophe

    2011-05-01

    One of the rich sources of lead compounds is the Angiosperms. Many of these lead compounds are useful medicines naturally, whereas others have been used as the basis for synthetic agents. These are potent and effective compounds, which have been obtained from plants, including anti-cancer (cytotoxic) agents, anti-malaria (anti-protozoal) agents, and anti-bacterial agents. Today, the number of plant families that have been extensively studied is relatively very few and the vast majorities have not been studied at all. The Annonaceae is the largest family in the order Magnoliales. It includes tropical trees, bushes, and climbers, which are often used as traditional remedies in Southeast Asia. Members of the Annonaceae have the particularity to elaborate a broad spectrum of natural products that have displayed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-protozoal effects and have been used for the treatment of medical conditions, such as skin diseases, intestinal worms, inflammation of the eyes, HIV, and cancer. These special effects and the vast range of variation in potent compounds make the Annonaceae unique from other similar families in the Magnoliales and the Angiosperms in general. This paper attempts to summarize some important information and discusses a series of hypotheses about the effects of Annonaceae compounds.

  12. Bacterial Bio-Resources for Remediation of Hexachlorocyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Amoroso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, highly toxic organic compounds like the organochlorine pesticide (OP hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH have been released into the environment. All HCH isomers are acutely toxic to mammals. Although nowadays its use is restricted or completely banned in most countries, it continues posing serious environmental and health concerns. Since HCH toxicity is well known, it is imperative to develop methods to remove it from the environment. Bioremediation technologies, which use microorganisms and/or plants to degrade toxic contaminants, have become the focus of interest. Microorganisms play a significant role in the transformation and degradation of xenobiotic compounds. Many Gram-negative bacteria have been reported to have metabolic abilities to attack HCH. For instance, several Sphingomonas strains have been reported to degrade the pesticide. On the other hand, among Gram-positive microorganisms, actinobacteria have a great potential for biodegradation of organic and inorganic toxic compounds. This review compiles and updates the information available on bacterial removal of HCH, particularly by Streptomyces strains, a prolific genus of actinobacteria. A brief account on the persistence and deleterious effects of these pollutant chemical is also given.

  13. Problems of adhering organisms in power stations. Hatsudensho ni okeru fuchaku seibutsu no mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Isamu (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-01-05

    Much seawater is used in thermal power station in Japan to cool condensers but organisms adhered on the water channel system result many troubles such as increase of flowing resistance, reduction of thermal transfer efficiendy, corrosion or erosion-corrosion of condenser pipes, and cleaning difficulty for periodic inspection. Living organisms range from micro bacteria of 2 mum to oysters and others of about 10cm size. For these reasons, the intake open channel is previously designed to larger size and this margin is called the shellfish allowance. Mussels which adhere most on circulating water channels, are one of Bivalvia, grow to 3-6cm and in maximum case to 9cm in a year. These adhere on the surface base by secreting adhesive disc consisting of byssus. Barnacles are one of Crustacea and their larvas search preferable places as to light, roughness and water flow and can adhere on a place in considerably rapid water flow. Other organisms are bacteria and Hydrozoa. Many problems are caused by these organisms even now. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Biodegradation and aquatic toxicity of surfactants. Kaimen kasseizai no seibunkaisei oyobi suisei seibutsu ni taisuru tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M. (The Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes biodegradation, toxicity, and harmfulness to aquatic life of surfactants as starting materials for household synthetic detergents. The JIS and the chemicals examination law determine that linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) has good biodegradation, which is removed at a rate of more than 90% in sewage treatment plants as a methylene blue activated substance (MBAS). Too high concentration in a biodegradable surfactant makes decomposition more difficult to occur. A homolog with larger number of carbons in the alkyl group in LAS and an isomer attached with sulfophenyl groups are decomposed more preferentially. The larger the number of carbons in LAS, the toxicity becomes stronger. Increase in hardness of test water increases the toxicity. Rainbow trouts, exposed to surfactants for an extended period of time, emerge with the effect therefrom at lower concentrations. The effect of the toxicity varies depending on difference in growth stages and types of fishes. Algae get their growth impaired at higher concentrations, but may get it accelerated on occasion at lower concentrations. Fishes show changes in motion and in such a structure as gills. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Bioprocessing of coal. 1. Sekitan no seibutsu kako. 1. ; Sekitan wo datsuryusuru biseibutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K.; Omura, N.; Saiki, H.; Kono, Y.

    1989-11-01

    In the bioprocessing of coal using biotechnology, desulfurizing microorgaisms were examined. 30-70% of total sulfur in coal is occupied by inorganic sulfur, almost of that is a form of FeS {sub 2}. Using some acidophilic sulfur oxidizing bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thermophilic-acidophilic bacterial such as Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, about 90% of inorganic sulfur in coal can be removed in 1 or 2 weeks in pulverized coal-water slurry, a high possibility in practical use is shown. Organic sulfur (total sulfur {minus} inorganic sulfur) is difficult to be removed, since it is combined with carbon in a from of covalent bond. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius can remove both inorganic and organic sulfur simultaneously. One mutant strain of Pseudomonas is excellent at the rate of desulfurization. These organisms must be superior to others, but their desulfurization ratios are generally low. Some bacteria can degrade some kinds of low-rank coals into water soluble liquid fuel, and the ash content is decreased. Bioconversion of low-rank coals to methane gas applying methane enzyme principle, has been proposed, however, still an idea. 81 refs., 5 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Water purification by bio-function; Seibutsu kino niyoru suishitsu joka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1999-11-30

    The author has been studying aquifer heat reservation method as a main theme, and from this water quality purification by bio-function has been derived as a separated theme. The aquifer heat reservation method is a method to reduce a large amount of warm water (or cold water) to underground, to reserve the heat energy for 6 months, and to utilize the hot heat in winter for warming and cold heat in summer for cooling. It was discovered during a field experiment that a doughnut-shaped iron colloid dam was formed around a heat reserving well and improved the heat recovery rate to over 60% by interfering natural convection as well as contributed to the purification of reserved water. As a result of the investigation of anaerobe contained in a peat layer for the purpose of the utilization of the purification effect, bacillus was proven to be most excellent. This paper describes experiences of the author throughout this research by dividing chapters to (1) iron bacteria, (2) bio-filter including algae, (3) peat layer, (4) bacillus. (NEDO)

  17. Molecular machines in living cells. Seibutsu no bunshi kikai to sono system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, F. (Aichi Inst. of Tech., Nagoya (Japan))

    1992-12-20

    At first, flagellar motors of bacteria are reviewed as a typical example of molecular machines in living cells. A rotational motor is embedded in the cell membrane at the root of the flagellum. The driving power of the rotation is the flow of hydrogen ion from the inside to the outside of the cell. In a normal state of a bacterium, potential difference of about 0.2 V is produced by the ion pump existing in the cell membrane. A molecular motor of sliding motion of muscle attracts the attention on the relation of the input and output of the molecular motor. The mechanism of the smooth motion without fluctuation in the fluctuated environment and the fluctuated input is unknown. Next, the motion of Paramecium is discussed as an example of a system composed of a number of molecular machines. Paramecium moves to a place of a suitable temperature when placed in a water tank with temperature gradient, however, it does not stop the motion at the place of the suitable temperature and increases a probability to change the direction when leaving, that is it takes a method of indirect probabilistic control. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Habitat segregation of sessile marine organisms; Kaiyo fuchaku seibutsu no sumiwake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoai, A. [Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kawahara, H.; Shizuri, Y.

    1996-08-01

    In order to develop the safe control agent of sessile marine organisms, the mechanism of habitat segregation of them has been investigated. Among various marine organisms, around 120 species of Porifera and Coelenterata accompanied with less the other sessile organisms were collected, to examine the adhesion prevention activity of their extracts against barnacles and Mytilus edulis. As a result, this activity was found out for 33% of Porifera and 27% of Coelenterata specimens. This means these organisms contain the adhesion prevention substances, and it is considered these chemical substances are practically used for the habitat segregation. Isolation structures of the chemical substances used for the habitat segregation were determined from these organisms. It was made clear that two acceptor genes successfully cloned from Balanus amphitrate are new G-protein coupling type acceptors having similar homology to the adrenaline and serotonin acceptors. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Versatility of viewpoint and creativity. Development of high performance plasma cutter; Shiten no tayosei to sozosei. Koseino plasma setsudanki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuragi, S. [Komatsu Electronic Metals Co., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-07-05

    Ten years ago, CO2 laser cutters were mainly used to cut sheet metal less than 6 mm thick. However the operation cost of the cutter was expensive. Therefore the author developed a high performance plasma cutter; its operation cost is low. The main subject, `Versatility of Viewpoint and Creativity`, is described explaining the process of this development. The problems of developing the high performance plasma cutter are described first in detail. Then the author explained with examples how the versatility of viewpoint and creation of breakthrough ideas were made. Under the heading of `Essence for Breakthrough`, three important consideration process for solving technical problems are stated. Engineering essence is stated obtained from careful observations and long experiences of studies and developments. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of the 'Green' Techniques Applied for Polyphenols Extraction from Bioresources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmaciu, Adina Iulia; Volf, Irina; Popa, Valentin I

    2015-11-01

    From all the valuable biomass extractives, polyphenols are a widespread group of secondary metabolites found in all plants, representing the most desirable phytochemicals due to their potential to be used as additives in food industry, cosmetics, medicine, and others fields. At present, there is an increased interest to recover them from plant of spontaneous flora, cultivated plant, and wastes resulted in agricultural and food industry. That is why many efforts have been made to provide a highly sensitive, efficiently, and eco-friendly methods, for the extraction of polyphenols, according to the green chemistry and sustainable development concepts. Many extraction procedures are known with advantages and disadvantages. From these reasons, the aim of this article is to provide a comparative analysis regarding technical and economical aspects related to the most innovative extraction techniques studied in the last time: microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE).

  1. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of hydroxyapatite from different bioresources for tissue engineering application

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudip Mondal; Rajashree Bardhan; Biswanath Mondal; Apurba Dey; Sudit S Mukhopadhyay; Syamal Roy; Rajan Guha; Koushik Roy

    2012-08-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) is synthesized from different biosources like eggshell, fish scale and bovine bone in a cost effective and ecofriendly way. HAp materials were synthesized from eggshell by wet precipitation method whereas thermal decomposition method was applied in case of fish scale and bovine bone. The phase purity and crystallinity of different calcined HAp powder were determined by XRD and FTIR analyses. The thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to show thermal stability of HAp powder. Average grain sizes of sintered samples were in submicron range. The morphology of the powders were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dried powders were wet ball milled for several hours and surfactants like Triton-X small fillers (2 / 4 mm long rod-shaped) were made for in vitro testing. In order to verify the biocompatibility of HAp powders, cytotoxicity evaluation was carried out in RAW macrophage like cell line media for an incubation period of 72 h. The cell attachment studies on HAp compacts show an excellent affinity between cells and compact surface. These results proved high biocompatibility of HAp powders obtained fromdifferent biosources for tissue engineering applications.

  2. Innovative bioresource management technologies for recovery of ammonia and phosphorus from livestock and municipal wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recovery of nutrients from wastes for re-use as concentrated plant fertilizers is a new paradigm in agricultural and municipal waste management. Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the economy, impacting many sectors that depend on clean water. Treatment technologies have ...

  3. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources - Development of antifungal and-or nitrogen fixative microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sung; Kim, Soo Ki; Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Jung Suk [Paichai University, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    (1) In this study, the antifungal bacterial eight strains were isolated from various environment located in Chung-cheong area, Korea. These isolates were identified the genera Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis. Especially, strain KL2143, 2367 were identified as Bacillus subtilis (KL2143/KL2367) and strain KL2326, KL2314 identified as Pseudomonas aurantiaca have never been reported internationally. Considering antifungal(AF) spectrum of strain KL2143 show the broad range of AF activity on a number of pathogenic fungi. Therefore, strain KL2143 was selected with the strong candidate of antifungal bacteria on every purpose and usage related with our research goal. (2) Optimal conditions for the production of antifungal material were analyzed under various environmental conditions (carbon source, nitrogen source, phosphate concentration, pH, temperature, amino acids, vitamins). Growth rates were different according to carbon and nitrogen source, antifungal material production yield were not different, however. Product of antifungal material according to phosphate is proportional to concentration; the higher in high concentration and the low in lower concentration. And productivity of antifungal material is was generally high in the range 30 - 37 deg C at pH7 and in case of adding vitamin B12, lysine and aginine to medium it was enhanced. (3) Moreover, bio-degradability upon agricultural substance and organic substances by AF bacteria was strikingly effective. (4) AF stains were screened and selected from this research can be used in the microbial biocides as well as multifunctional bio-controllers in order to remove plant pathogenic fungi and to clarify the polluted environment. Due to their excellent degradation capability for agricultural and/or organic substances, they also can be used to improve soil quality, to ferment compost and to clean up the environment. (5) Establishment of a new technology for the formulation of microbial fungicide will transferred to the domestic companies, as well as to be exported to foreign countries. (author). 16 refs., 9 tabs.

  4. Radiation application for upgrading of bioresources - Development of antifungal and/or nitrogen fixative microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Sung; Ko, Dong Kyu; Han, Gab Jin [Paichai University, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    (1) In this study, the antifungal bacteria six strains were isolated from various environment located in Chung-cheong area, Korea. These isolates were identified the genera Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp. through morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis. Strains KL3362 and KL3397 were identified as Pseudomonas aurantiaca and Alcaligenes faecalis, respectively. Considering antifungal(AF) spectrum, strain KL3303, 3334, and 3341 show the broad range, KL3362 and KL3397 the narrow range of AF activity on a number of pathogenic fungi. Therefore, strains KL3341 and KL3362 were selected as the strong candidate of antifungal bacteria on every purpose and usage related with our research goal. (2) KL3341 producing-antifungal substances were consisted of five different kinds of low molecular weight polypeptides (3) Optimal conditions for the production of antifungal substances were analyzed under various environmental conditions. Growth rates were different according to carbon and nitrogen source, antifungal substance production yields were not different, however. Product of antifungal substances according t phosphate is proportional to the concentration. And productivity of antifungal substances was generally high in the range 30 {approx} 37 deg. C at pH 7. In case of adding vitamin B1 or lysine to medium, the antifungal activity was enhanced. (4) Mutants with enhanced antifungal activities were constructed by radiation of {gamma}-ray. (5) AF strains were screened and selected from this research can be used in the microbial biocides as well as multifunctional bio-controllers in order to remove plant pathogenic fungi and to clarify the polluted environment. Due to their excellent degradation capability for agricultural and/or organic substances, they also can be used to improve soil quality, to ferment compost and to clean up the environment. 35 refs., 17 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  5. Problems of the protection of bioresources development ofthe Bovanenkovo gas condensate field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dmitrievich Bogdanov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The data on the fish fauna and fish food resources in the Bovanenkovo gas field are presented. The estimation of fishery and fishery potential of water bodies, hydrobiological characteristics of water bodies in the studied area are given. It is shown that the arrangement of the gas field leads to overfishing BGKM fish and change the state of aquatic ecosystems associated with the violation of runoff, backfilling flood waters, crossing streams communications, water diversion, pollution, sand mining. Thehydrobionts reaction to anthropogenic influence in the area of the gas field developmentis identified and recommendations to reduce the impact on aquatic ecosystems in the period of construction are given

  6. Survey on bio-chemical complex harmonized with global environment. 3; Kankyo chowagata seibutsu kagaku konbinato ni kansuru chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A survey was conducted of bio-chemical complex harmonized with the global environment for the purpose of constructing the material production process harmonized with the environment by the process fusion between biological conversion and chemical reaction. Palm oil was taken up as renewable raw material plant resource. The process utilizing bio-chemical reaction advances at normal temperature and pressure and is high in reaction specificity and selectivity. This is a recycling, circulation and environmental harmony type production technology which brings high yield, energy conservation, resource conservation, and low environmental loads. Waste water treatment and production of useful substances from sludge were thought as elementary technology. A possibility was studied of enzyme production by culturing solid waste, and the enzyme was applied to the hydrolysis process. The paper indicated trace components in the palm oil and the extraction method and proposed the production process of new derivatives for adding value to hydrolysate. A study was also made of the overall process flow which integrated these new processes and the material balance. The comprehensive evaluation of this new process was made from the aspect of the product structure, the market, construction cost, economical efficiency, and the environment. 133 refs., 65 figs., 56 tabs.

  7. How green is green chemistry? Chlorophylls as a bioresource from biorefineries and their commercial potential in medicine and photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Aoife A; Senge, Mathias O

    2015-04-01

    As the world strives to create a more sustainable environment, green chemistry has come to the fore in attempts to minimize the use of hazardous materials and shift the focus towards renewable sources. Chlorophylls, being the definitive "green" chemical are rarely used for such purposes and this article focuses on the exploitation of this natural resource, the current applications of chlorophylls and their derivatives whilst also providing a perspective on the commercial potential of large-scale isolation of these pigments from biomass for energy and medicinal applications.

  8. Novel bioresources for studies of Brassica oleracea: identification of a kale MYB transcription factor responsible for glucosinolate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Ryoichi; Hasumi, Akiko; Nishizawa, Osamu Ishizaki; Sasaki, Katsunori; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Sawada, Yuji; Totoki, Yasushi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Li, Yimeng; Saito, Kazuki; Ogawa, Toshiya; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2013-10-01

    Plants belonging to the Brassicaceae family exhibit species-specific profiles of glucosinolates (GSLs), a class of defence compounds against pathogens and insects. GSLs also exhibit various human health-promoting properties. Among them, glucoraphanin (aliphatic 4-methylsulphinylbutyl GSL) has attracted the most attention because it hydrolyses to form a potent anticancer compound. Increased interest in developing commercial varieties of Brassicaceae crops with desirable GSL profiles has led to attempts to identify genes that are potentially valuable for controlling GSL biosynthesis. However, little attention has been focused on genes of kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). In this study, we established full-length kale cDNA libraries containing 59 904 clones, which were used to generate an expressed sequence tag (EST) data set with 119 204 entries. The EST data set clarified genes related to the GSL biosynthesis pathway in kale. We specifically focused on BoMYB29, a homolog of Arabidopsis MYB29/PMG2/HAG3, not only to characterize its function but also to demonstrate its usability as a biological resource. BoMYB29 overexpression in wild-type Arabidopsis enhanced the expression of aliphatic GSL biosynthetic genes and the accumulation of aliphatic GSLs. When expressed in the myb28myb29 mutant, which exhibited no detectable aliphatic GSLs, BoMYB29 restored the expression of biosynthetic genes and aliphatic GSL accumulation. Interestingly, the ratio of methylsulphinyl GSL content, including glucoraphanin, to that of methylthio GSLs was greatly increased, indicating the suitability of BoMYB29 as a regulator for increasing methylsulphinyl GSL content. Our results indicate that these biological resources can facilitate further identification of genes useful for modifications of GSL profiles and accumulation in kale.

  9. Bioresources inner-recycling between bioflocculation of Microcystis aeruginosa and its reutilization as a substrate for bioflocculant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Huo, Mingxin; Sun, Caiyun; Cui, Xiaochun; Zhou, Dandan; Crittenden, John C.; Yang, Wu

    2017-01-01

    Bioflocculation, being environmental-friendly and highly efficient, is considered to be a promising method to harvest microalgae. However, one limitation of this technology is high expense on substrates for bioflocculant bacteria cultivation. In this regard, we developed an innovative method for the inner-recycling of biomass that could harvest the typical microalgae, Microcystis aeruginosa, using a bioflocculant produced by Citrobacter sp. AzoR-1. In turn, the flocculated algal biomass could be reutilized as a substrate for Citrobacter sp. AzoR-1 cultivation and bioflocculant production. The experimental results showed that 3.4 ± 0.1 g of bioflocculant (hereafter called MBF-12) was produced by 10 g/L of wet biomass of M. aeruginosa (high-pressure steam sterilized) with an additional 10 g/L of glucose as an extra carbon source. The efficiency of MBF-12 for M. aeruginosa harvesting could reach ~95% under the optimized condition. Further analysis showed that MBF-12, dominated by ~270 kDa biopolymers, contributed the bioflocculation mechanisms of interparticle bridging and biosorption process. Bioflocculant synthesis by Citrobacter sp. AzoR-1 using microalga as a substrate, including the polyketide sugar unit, lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and terpenoid backbone pathways. Our research provides the first evidence that harvested algae can be reutilized as a substrate to grow a bioflocculant using Citrobacter sp. AzoR-1. PMID:28252111

  10. Bioresources inner-recycling between bioflocculation of Microcystis aeruginosa and its reutilization as a substrate for bioflocculant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Huo, Mingxin; Sun, Caiyun; Cui, Xiaochun; Zhou, Dandan; Crittenden, John C.; Yang, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Bioflocculation, being environmental-friendly and highly efficient, is considered to be a promising method to harvest microalgae. However, one limitation of this technology is high expense on substrates for bioflocculant bacteria cultivation. In this regard, we developed an innovative method for the inner-recycling of biomass that could harvest the typical microalgae, Microcystis aeruginosa, using a bioflocculant produced by Citrobacter sp. AzoR-1. In turn, the flocculated algal biomass could be reutilized as a substrate for Citrobacter sp. AzoR-1 cultivation and bioflocculant production. The experimental results showed that 3.4 ± 0.1 g of bioflocculant (hereafter called MBF-12) was produced by 10 g/L of wet biomass of M. aeruginosa (high-pressure steam sterilized) with an additional 10 g/L of glucose as an extra carbon source. The efficiency of MBF-12 for M. aeruginosa harvesting could reach ~95% under the optimized condition. Further analysis showed that MBF-12, dominated by ~270 kDa biopolymers, contributed the bioflocculation mechanisms of interparticle bridging and biosorption process. Bioflocculant synthesis by Citrobacter sp. AzoR-1 using microalga as a substrate, including the polyketide sugar unit, lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and terpenoid backbone pathways. Our research provides the first evidence that harvested algae can be reutilized as a substrate to grow a bioflocculant using Citrobacter sp. AzoR-1.

  11. Succession of benthos and nutrient removal rate in the hydroponic culture system; Shokubutsu suiko saibaikei ni okeru konken seibutsu no henka to eiyoen no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizaki, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakazato, H. [Biox Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-08-10

    Such nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorus discharged into lakes and rivers can cause organic contamination as a result of eutrophication in water areas if they are left as they are. However, they can be re-utilized as resources if they are utilized more effectively. This paper reports a hydroponic organism filtering method as a promising method of utilization thereof. It also explains transition in organism phase in rhizosphere and a water purification experiment. Such suspended matters as phytoplanktons in raw water are filtered and captured by roots of plants; such small animals as tendipedidae and physia live symbiotically in the rhizosphere; their excrements and nutrients are absorbed into and utilized by plants; and coexistence is made possible between diverse water-front environments including terrestrial systems and diverse living organisms. Cresson cultivation, observation on transition in the benthos composition, and a lake water purification experiment were carried out at the Kasumigaura Lake experimental facility. Various findings were acquired such that, in order to attain diverse coexistences including those with natural enemies and well-ventilated environments, a water channel of larger than a certain size is required. Results were also obtained that can be expected as an effective technique that may be used in public water areas. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Environmental endocrine disruptors and developmental abnormalities in wildlife; Kankyo horumon (gaiinsei naibunpi kakuran kagaku busshitsu) no kankyo seibutsu ni taisuru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, T. [Yokohama City Univ., Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-04-15

    The environmental endocrine disruptor, or the so-called environmental hormone, is outlined. Hormones are secreted from endocrine glands in trace amounts, transported by blood, and exert influence on the target organs and distal cells, this to sustain constancy in living organisms. There are two types: peptide hormones which are rows of amino acids and steroid hormones which are composed of cholesterol. Endocrine disruptors are chemical substances discharged into the environment which, once taken into human organisms, disrupt endocrine systems, some acting like female sex hormones and others resisting male sex hormones. Many a wild animal are found affected by them. They are accumulating in human organisms too. Synthesized chemical substances such as DDT, PCB, dioxins, and alkylphenols present in the water system affect a fish by disrupting its endocrine, immunity, nerve, growth, and regeneration. Embryos and larvae are quite susceptible, easy to turn abnormal. Voices are high across the world for the study of environmental endocrine disruptors. Introduced in this report are some animal experiments, typical cases of impact on the ecosystem, and systems for detecting environmental endocrine disruptors. 36 refs., 1 tab.

  13. FY 1997 report on the results of the industrial technology R and D project. Development of technology to use biological resources such as the complex biological system (Development of biological use petroleum substitution fuel production technology); 1997 nendo fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Experimental researches were conducted and the FY 1997 results were reported with the aim of establishing analytical technology for the complex biological system by which the complex biological system can be analyzed in such a state as it is using the molecular biological method. In the study of the molecular genetic analytical technology, PCR primers used for amplification of topoisomerase II genes of the whole eukaryote was designed. As to the histochemical analytical technology, a study was made on the new constitution microorganism detection method by the hybridization method and the antibody specific dyeing method, and the following were conducted: manifestation in quantity of colibacillus and the recovery, refining, and construction of peptide library by fuzzy display method. Concerning the functional analytical technology, technological researches were made such as the environmental adaptation mechanism of high thermophile and the information transfer mechanism among bacteria through cell membranes for elucidation of the special environment detection/response mechanism and the special environment adaptation/resistance mechanism. As to the separation/culture technology, various anaerobic microorganisms were separated from marine sponge for the development of a method of culturing in 3D matrices. (NEDO)

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the development of technologies for utilizing biological resources such as complex biosystems. Development of technologies for producing substitute fuel for petroleum by utilizing organisms; 1997 nendo fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Technologies of producing useful substances using the substance decomposing/producing functions of complex biosystems and methods of their handling are developed. In the utilization of microbes in the digestive tracts of termites and longicorns, it is made clear that several kinds of termites cleave the {beta}-O-4 ether linkage. In relation to technologies for wood decomposing complex microbial system construction and complex vector system development, a screening system is constructed in which strains that exhibit complex actions are combined. Concerning the advanced utilization of tropical oil plants, conditions are determined for inducing callus out of oil palm tissues. Out of oil palm sarcocarp tissues, mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) is isolated for the construction of a cDNA (complementary deoxyribonucleic acid) library. For the purpose of isolating a powerful promoter, a partial base sequence is determined for ubiquitin that frequently expresses itself in cells. A pathogenic bacterium ailing the oil palm is sampled for identification, and it is inferred that the bacterium is a kind of Ganoderma boninense. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1998 industrial technology R and D project. Report on the results of the development of utilization technology of biological resource such bioconsortia system (Development of production technology of biological use petroleum substituting fuels); 1998 nendo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Fukugo seibutsukeinado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu (seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Technology development was conducted for production of useful substances using the bioconsortia system. In FY 1998, the development of element technology was studied. As to the utilization technology of gut symbiotic microorganisms such as termite and longhorn beetle, clone types of gut microorganism complex system were analyzed to find out the diversification. In the decay of wood, co-culture of two species of mold fungus was increased in efficiency than single culture. More than 90% was classified/identified of the mold fungi accumulated (in wood piece)/separated for the utilization of plant symbiotic microorganisms. For the production of petroleum substituting useful resource, conditions were established of callus induction from immature embryos of tropical oil crops, especially oil palm, and of regeneration of a lot of small plants from the callus. To establish the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system of oil palm, the binary vector harboring the reporter gene and selectable marker gene was constructed. Using the vector, oil palm tissues are inoculated and infected with agrobacteria. To heighten the function of palm oil, 10 particular clones were selected from the complementary DNA library obtained from oil palm fruit tissues. The genetic study of germs was also made. (NEDO)

  16. Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f) Ettingsh (Neem mistletoe): A potent bioresource to fabricate silver nanoparticles for anticancer effect against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Gobinath, Chandrakasan; Wilson, Arockiyasamy; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal

    2014-07-01

    Fabrication of metal nano scale particles through environmentally acceptable greener route has been focused with much interest in the present scenario. In this study aqueous leaf extract of mistletoe Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f) Ettingsh was successfully employed as a reducing and stabilizing agent to fabricate nanosilver particles (AgNPs) for biomedical applications. Various reactions conditions such as temperature, pH, concentration of metal ion, incubation time and stoichiometric proportion of the reaction mixture were optimized to attain narrow size range particles with maximum synthesis rate. Fabricated crystalline AgNPs with spherical structure (5-45 nm) were characterized with UV-Visible spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and Selected area diffraction pattern (SEAD). Further the fabricated AgNPs were studied for their stability and surface chemistry through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Moreover, fabricated AgNPs and aqueous leaf extract were assessed for their cytotoxicity effect against human breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). It is concluded that colloidal AgNPs can be developed as an imminent candidature for cancer therapy.

  17. L-Lactic acid production by combined utilization of agricultural bioresources as renewable and economical substrates through batch and repeated-batch fermentation of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Lebaka Veeranjaneya; Kim, Young-Min; Yun, Jong-Sun; Ryu, Hwa-Won; Wee, Young-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 was used to produce l-lactic acid from hydrol, soybean curd residues (SCR), and malt. Hydrol was efficiently metabolized to l-lactic acid with optical purity of >97.5%, though hydrol contained mixed sugars such as glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltodextrin. Combined utilization of hydrol, SCR, and malt was enough to sustain lactic acid fermentation by E. faecalis RKY1. In order to reduce the amount of nitrogen sources and product inhibition, cell-recycle repeated-batch fermentation was employed, where a high cell mass (26.3g/L) was obtained. Lactic acid productivity was improved by removal of lactic acid from fermentation broth by membrane filtration and by linearly increased cell density. When the total of 10 repeated-batch fermentations were carried out using 100g/L hydrol, 150g/L SCR hydrolyzate, and 20g/L malt hydrolyzate as the main nutrients, lactic acid productivity was increased significantly from 3.20g/L/h to 6.37g/L/h.

  18. Fiscal 1998 research report on the basic study on the effect of microgravity on living individuals; Bisho juryoku no seibutsu kotai ni taisuru eikyo no kiso kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to clarify the effect of microgravity on vital functions and organisms at a cell level, this research studies the molecular biological response function of higher animals, the gravity acceptable mechanism of single-cell organisms, the effect of gravity on geotaxis of insects, measurement of monoamine system neurotransmitters of rat hippocampus by dialysis in a brain and the effect of microgravity on it, the effect of microgravity on water and bone metabolism functions and immunity function, and the analysis of BZ reaction as a simple model of vital reaction. The themes of the research are as follows: the effect of microgravity environment on cell fusion, the analysis of gravity acceptable mechanisms of single-cell organisms, the effect of oriental medical treatment on bone metabolism anomaly of mouses under microgravity environment, the effect of oriental medical treatment on change in physiological function under microgravity environment, the effect of microgravity environment on immunity systems, the effect of gravity on cell activities, the effect of a gravity field on chemical oscillation reaction, and the effect of gravity on geotaxis of insects. (NEDO)

  19. Investigations on a global environment improving technology utilizing biological functions. 2. Structuring a ligno-bioprocess; Seibutsu kino wo riyoshita chikyu kankyo kaizen gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. 2. Riguno bio process no kochiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Discussions were given to reserve global environments on reducing dependence on fossil resources and more effectively utilizing wood resources. Economically utilizable amount of wastes from lumbering factories reaches about five million tons annually. Discussions were made on a ligno-bioprocess that uses these wastes. The current quantitative production efficiency of cellulase by means of bacterial breeding is very high. A problem is production of ligninolytic enzymes, to which application of the recombinant DNA method is indispensable. Combination of steam explosion with biological decomposition or the organosolv process is an effective method for lignin decomposition. Decomposition of cellulose by using the ultra critical water method is worth noticing. With respect to hemicellulose utilization, production of cellulose derivatives, biodegradable polymers and oligosaccharides would be conceivable by means of esterification and etherification. Vanillinic acid, adhesives, resins and lignin-based polymer materials could be manufactured from lignin. Material cost for these products accounts for about 35% of the product price, thus making the lignochemicals promising commercial products. 301 refs., 71 figs., 39 tabs.

  20. Development of constructed wetland using hydroponic biofilter method for purification of hyper-eutrophic lake water; Fueiyoka kosui no joka no tameno suiko seibutsu rokaho wo mochiita jinko shicchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizaki, M. [Shimane Univ., Matsue (Japan)] Nakasato, H. [Top Ecology Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-10

    Applying the hydroponic biofilter method as a direct purification method for a hyper-eutrophic lake water, an experiment was carried out at the Tsuchiura Port on Lake Kasumigaura to obtain data for constructing a hydrophilic artificial wetland. Purification of hyper-eutrophic lake water containing a large amount of water blooms in summer was attempted applying the hydroponic biofilter method for which hydrophyte is used. As a result, it was clarified, by applying the hydroponic biofilter method, that capturing effect of suspended substances can be achieved in the rooting zone, captured suspended substances are decomposed at high rate, and the revolved nutrient salt can be absorbed and assimilated by the use of plants having high growth rates. Ipomoea aquatica had the highest removal activity, followed by nasturtium officinal, menthe spicata, and oenanthe javanica. As a result, it became clear that a constructed wetland made with the hydroponic biofilter method can be applied as a direct purifying method for hyper-eutrophic lake water by selecting appropriate plants in accordance with season. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. Fiscal 1998 research report. Industrial science and technology research project / R and D on accelerative construction technology of bio-functions; 1998 nendo kasokugata seibutsu kino kochiku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project aims at establishment of new basic biotechnology by preparing an artificial variation/selection system in a laboratory based on the molecular level information on bio-evolution mechanism. This report summarized the fiscal 1998 results. For analysis of the experimental system for in vitro evolution of protein molecules, it is necessary to make adaptive walk efficient based on the obtained feature information of a fitness landscape. The fitness landscape was studied using the heat resistance and specific activity of LOD (lactate oxidase) as fitness, and a practical system for screening clones was established. A crone superior in heat resistance and specific activity was obtained by repeating random variation, effective amino acid substitution and screening. Cystatin B is a specific inhibitor of cysteine protease (including Cathepsin K). Improvement of a specificity of Cystatin B to Cathepsin K was attempted by partially substituting its amino acid sequence. In the case of cysteine where two amino acid residues for mutation are linked closely, a mutant activity was additive to amino acid substitution. (NEDO)

  2. FY 1999 report on the results of the project on the industrial science technology R and D. Development of utilization technology of biological resources such as bioconsortium system (Development of the petroleum substituting fuel production technology using living organisms); 1999 nendo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Fukugou seibutsukei tou seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu (Seibutsu riyo sekiyu daitai nenryo seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of developing the technology for producing and degrading useful substances using bioconsortia, study was made of the handling technology of bioconsortia, the basic element technology, etc., and the FY 1999 results were reported. In the study of the high-grade utilization technology of lignocellulose/the components, an sample was obtained in which the effect of the bacteria culture supernatant treatment was recognized in the biobleaching by co-treatment of the bacteria culture filtrate - MnP. As to the search for control factor of lignin degrading enzyme and the utilization technology, it was found out that bisphenol A was efficiently degraded by a combination of laccase and mediator production bacteria. Concerning the utilization technology of plant symbiotic bacteria, classification/identification have been finished of approximately 60% of the stored bacteria. In the study of the production technology of the petroleum substituting useful resource, a system was constructed in which immature embryos were used for callus induction and regeneration of plantlets, and plants were regenerated at high frequency via the formation of adventitious embryos. By this, the culture cell with high propagation ability was obtained. (NEDO)

  3. Sample Set (SE): SE54 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ic profiling of large-scale bioresources We established a novel methodology, termed widely targeted metabolo...ucted a targeted metabolite analysis of large-scale Arabidopsis bioresources, nam

  4. FY 1997 R/D project of industrial and scientific technologies contracted with NEDO. Report on technology development of utilization of biological resources such as bioconsortia (development of analytical techniques of bioconsortia); 1997 nendo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu (fukugo seibutsukei kaiseki gijutsu no kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Bioconsortia are microbial composites composing of more than two kinds of microorganisms with special functions. To utilize their advanced functions, some techniques have been developed for analyzing their functions and interactions, and for identification, separation and incubation of the constituent microbial groups. In FY 1997, an investigation was made on technology trends, domestic researchers, and research topics related to bioconsortia. To manage and promote the progress of research at the National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology where the centralized management of this project is conducted, meetings are held once a month to examine the progress at the institute, in which reports are made and discussions are held on how each research item is progressing. In addition, meetings of the committee to promote research are held every other month to consider and examine measures required for promoting the research. Re-entrustment of research has been made on two subjects, i.e., `Studies on biological significance of symbiotic microorganisms` by Prof. Ishikawa of the University of Tokyo, and `Study on the relationship between the biosynthesis of useful terpenic materials of plant origin and the differentiation of plant tissues, and their effective production by plant cell cultures` by Prof. Inoue of Gifu Pharmaceutical University. 27 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. FY 1998 R and D of utilization of biological resources such as those in bioconsortia. Report on development results of techniques for utilization/production of organisms in bioconsortia; 1998 nendo fukugo seibutsukeinado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Fukugo seibutsukei riyo seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The objectives are set to analyze functions and interactions of organisms having specific functions, to develop the techniques for isolating and cultivating the constituent organisms, and thereby to develop the techniques for their industrial utilization, in order to develop the techniques for handling organisms in bioconsortia as the techniques to utilize their functions, e.g., production and decomposition of materials, and also to develop the techniques for culturing/controlling microorganisms in bioconsortia and for strengthening their functions. The FY 1998 themes are development of the functional material production technology, and comprehensive study for the project. More concretely, the former includes histochemical analytical technology (development of techniques for detecting microorganisms in soil, and of techniques for in-situ detection/isolation of specific microorganisms in bioconsortia and for analysis their functions), isolation and culture technology (development of detection, separation and cultivation technology of microorganisms that are not easily cultured), functional substance production technology (technical utilization of microbial consortia for production of environment-friendly oil/water separation polymers), and functional material production technology (development of methods for artificial gene exchange in microbial consortia). (NEDO)

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the development of technologies for utilizing biological resources such as complex biosystems. Development of complex biosystem analyzing technology; 1997 nendo fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Fukugo seibutsukei kaiseki gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The aim is to utilize the sophisticated functions of complex biosystems. In the research and development of technologies for effectively utilizing unexploited resources and substances such as seeweeds and algae, seaweeds are added to seawater to turn into a microbial suspension after the passage of two weeks, the suspension is next scattered on a carageenan culture medium, and then carageenan decomposing microbes are obtained. In the research and development of technologies for utilizing microbe/fauna-flora complex systems, technologies for exploring and analyzing microbes are studied. For this purpose, 48 kinds of sponges and 300 kinds of bacteria symbiotic with the sponges are sampled in Malaysia. Out of them, 15 exhibit enzyme inhibition and Artemia salina lethality activities. In the development of technologies for analyzing the functions of microbes engaged in the production of useful resources and substances for animals and plants, 150 kinds of micro-algae are subjected to screening using protease and chitinase inhibiting activities as the indexes, and it is found that an extract of Isochrysis galbana displays an intense inhibitory activity. The alga is cultured in quantities, the active component is isolated from 20g of dried alga, and its constitution is determined. (NEDO)

  7. Super water repellent finishing technology by simulating bio-structures. Improvement of chemical durability by super water repellent finishing of hydroxy- apatite/titan composite films prepared by high-frequency plasma arc spraying; Seibutsu no kozo wo mohoshita chohassuika gijutsu. Koshuha plasma yoshaho ni yori sakuseishita suisan apataito/chitan fukugo himaku no chohassuika ni yoru kagakuteki taikyusei no kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, A.; Inagaki, M.; Okuderaa, H.; Nishizawa, K.; Nagata, F.; Teraoka, H.; Yokogawa, Y.; Kameyama, T. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-08-25

    Artificial joint and tooth root produced by coating hydroxy- apatite (HA) onto Ti alloy base surface by DC plasma torch arc spraying in commercially available in Europe, and have been used for persons not less than 100,000 since 1985. However, peeling and dissolution of coats after implant have been reported as a serious problem. The long-term stability of coats is dependent on the chemical durability of coats. Paying attention to physical structure of HA/Ti composite film surface. this study attempted super water repellent finishing of the surface through reduction of surface energy by chemical modification of the surface in a molecular level. Self-organization single-molecule film of organic silane compound with perfluoroalkyl group was formed by CVD on the HA/Ti composite film surface prepared on Ti alloy by high- frequency plasma arc spraying. The extremely hydrophobic HA/Ti composite film with a contact angle ranging 130-160 degrees was thus obtained from the highly hydrophilic coat. This sample showed a very high chemical durability as compared with conventional ones. (NEDO)

  8. What correlation does the electron structure of environmental hormones have with manifestation of their toxicity and biological activity. Application of the hardness conception to biology; Kankyo horumon no denshi kozo wa sono dokusei ya seibutsu kassei no hatsugen ni donoyona sokansei wo motsunode aroka. Hardness gainen no seibutsugaku eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, S.; Tanaka, A. [Showa College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Sameshima, K. [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This paper indicates that the relationship between toxicity and biological activity of environmental hormones such as dioxin and their chemical structures may be predicted by using parameters (physical quantity) derived from the chemical hardness conception. According to this conception, softness and hardness of molecules are important in addition to electron receptivity and donation properties of molecules. Soft compounds facilitate electrons to migrate. Chlorine displacement of dioxin skeleton to 2nd, 3rd, 7th and 8th orders softens the molecules and displacement to 1st, 4th, 6th and 9th orders hardens them. The toxicity and biological activity of the environmental hormones cannot be explained only with the fit model of key-keyhole with the counterpart they act on (receptor). The softer the chemical hardness, the greater the toxicity and biological activity. Development has been made on an absolute hardness versus absolute electrical negative activity diagram to learn electron structure of molecules. This diagram indicates that the toxicity of dioxin depends more strongly on the chemical hardness than the strength of the electrical negativity, and the softer the hardness, the stronger the toxicity. (NEDO)

  9. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment form NEDO. R and D of the technology of accelerated formation of bio-functions; 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Kasokugata seibutsu kino kochiku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As a part of the study on accelerated formation of bio- functions, analysis technology of experimental systems for in vitro evolution of protein molecules was studied. For the analysis, recognition of a fitness landscape is indispensable. Improvement of adaptive walk is possible through its analysis in an ordered space based on features of the landscape. By the last fiscal year, the knowledge of the fitness (heat-stability) landscape was obtained in the experimental system of PEP (prolyl endopeptidase) in which an adaptive walk mechanism was found to function effectively (mutated protein with a heat-stability effectively improved by adaptive walk was obtained). To obtain more general fitness landscape information, landscapes of various proteins to a fitness should be examined, and the effectiveness of approaches to efficient adaptive walk on the fitness other than a heat-stability should be clarified. The second experimental system using LOD (lactate oxidase) was thus constructed to examine the heat-stability landscape. In addition, the system of in vitro molecular evolution of proteinase inhibitor (Cystatin B) was constructed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Technology to prevent deposition of marine organisms by means of electrically conductive coating. Discussions on current and potential distribution by using experiments; Doden tomaku ni yoru kaiyo seibutsu fuchaku boshi gijutsu. Denryu den`i bunpu ni kansuru jikken ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, M.; Masaki, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, K.

    1996-04-10

    Steel structures in sea water and surface of hulls are deposited with such marine organisms as microorganisms, algae and shellfish. The deposition causes a large problem such as occurrence of abnormal local corrosion in the structures, and increase in cruising resistance in ocean vessels. The present study has introduced a simplified equation of estimation for current and potential distribution in parts coated with an electrically conductive film, and verified its reasonability by an experiment. The equation of estimation was introduced by following a model of current flow in the electrically conductive coating. The experiment has the conductive coating applied to the interior of a concrete water tank with a length of 10.8 m, a width of 5 m and a depth of 3 m to measure potential at different locations. The conductive coating was energized from copper foils attached on each applied face, whereas the current was applied to two faces between the conductive films as a pair among the four coating applied faces to measure potential in each location. A simulated calculation revealed that the potential range in the depth direction is made smaller if specific resistance of the conductive film is decreased, and made greater if increased. Effectiveness of the equation of estimation was verified by an experiment. This method has provided a prospect of achieving optimization of the specification for application of the conductive film. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Fiscal 1998 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Venture business fostering regional consortium in its 2nd year--Creation of key industries (Development of manufacturing system for multiple applications of biological resources); 1998 nendo yuyo seibutsu shigen no tamokuteki riyo no tame no kako seizo system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development is conducted to collect intermediate products from Okinawan herbs for the production of antioxidant products usable for various purposes. Substance-producing plants are screened and the substances they offer are assessed for antioxidant activity, extracted, processed, prepared for market, and checked for safety. At the Okinawa Industrial Technology Center, a DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl)/microplate method has been established, which promptly measures the antioxidant activity of the substances. Using this technology, the divisions concerned of industrial, academic, and governmental organizations cooperate with each other over the optimization of herb cultivation technology, development of a herbal ingredient analyzing technology, efficacy of herbs, development of a safety assessment system, development of a technology for the effective extraction, processing, and preparation of herbal ingredients, and the development of a technology of assessing antioxidant intermediate products for their efficacy. As the result, a technology is established of producing intermediate antioxidant products from Guava, Ryukyuyomogi, and Ukonisomatsu. They are unique Okinawan products, and sell at 40,000-50,000 yen. Since the prices are equal to or lower than the prices of other antioxidant intermediate products, probabilities are very high that they will get into markets in Japan proper. (NEDO)

  12. Research and development achievement report for fiscal 1998 on accelerated type biological function construction technologies. Development of new-type advanced-function enzyme creating technologies; 1998 nendo kasokugata seibutsu kino kochiku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shingata kokino koso sosei gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An artificial mutation/selection system was constructed in a laboratory based on molecular-level findings collected about the biological evolution mechanism, and biotechnology was studied for creating excellent biological functions. In the study of novel mutation generating technologies, selection is performed after the formation of numerous chimera enzymes by a family shuffling process using resistance to heat as the index. Then, a hybrid enzyme with its resistance to heat more than 10 times higher than that of the parent enzyme was obtained. In the study of establishing coordination between genotype and phenotype, a highly sensitive bacterial coordination technology was developed, and a highly sensitive detection method was constructed using a flow cytometer. As for technologies of highly efficient selection, a research was conducted about the selection of catalytic antibodies equipped with protease and esterase activity. In the study of technologies for enhancing adaptive walk in an evolution experimenting system, the usefulness is studied of a terrain survey based on the adaptive walk theory and a high-efficiency adaptive walk method using the mutation scrambling method. (NEDO)

  13. Turning Russian specialized microbial culture collections into resource centers for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S

    2013-11-01

    Specialized nonmedical microbial culture collections contain unique bioresources that could be useful for biotechnology companies. Cooperation between collections and companies has suffered from shortcomings in infrastructure and legislation, hindering access to holdings. These challenges may be overcome by the transformation of collections into national bioresource centers and integration into international microbial resource networks.

  14. Commentary on "identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array." COGS-Cancer Research UK GWAS-ELLIPSE (part of GAME-ON) Initiative; Australian Prostate Cancer Bioresource; UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators/British Association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olumi, Aria F; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the international...... by the new and previously known risk loci, the top 1% of the risk distribution has a 4.7-fold higher risk than the average of the population being profiled. These results will facilitate population risk stratification for clinical studies....

  15. Fiscal 1997 R and D project on industrial science and technology under a consignment from NEDO. R and D of the technology of accelerated formation of bio-functions (R and D of the technology of creation of novel advanced enzymes); 1997 nendo sangyo kagaku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo Shin energy Sangyo Gijutsu Sogo Kaihatsu Kiko itaku. Kasokugata seibutsu kino kochiku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (shingata kokino koso sosei gijutsu kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes R and D on creation technique of novel advanced enzymes. In fiscal 1997, a novel mutagenesis technique was developed to obtain more kinds of mutational genes by shuffling between clonal genes as compared with the previous homogeneous recombination. A genotype- and phenotype-linking technology was developed by expressing random motifs (peptide as components of the active site of protein) on bacteria, and by developing a single-motif protein library. Study was made on a selection system for functional molecules of catalytic activities in a gene level, and a selection system for function of signal transduction. Analysis and evaluation study on vitro experimental technology can be efficiently promoted by recognizing the fitness landscape of target protein molecules. As a result, instead of the conventional method which needs several cycles of mutation and screening of 3-4 week/cycle, an efficient method possible to obtain multiple mutants was established. Research work was also promoted by various organizations to develop an accelerated formation technology of bio-functions. 68 refs., 51 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Composting Assessment for Organic Solid Waste at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    carbon and buffer amendment on ammonia volatilization in composting. Bioresource Technology 97:748-761. Mamo, M., T. R. Halbach, and C. J. Rosen. 1998...hydroxyoctonoate , PHBOd polyhydroxybutyrate co-hydroxyoctadecanoate Synthesized by bacteria (carbohydrates, alkanes, organic acids, etc.) Biopol®, Kaneka

  17. First report of citrus exocortis viroid and two citrus variants of the hop stunt viroid on lemon in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budwood received from a lemon tree growing at the Bioresources Institute Nakhichivan, Azerbaijan, produced symptoms corresponding with citrus viroids and cachexia on biological indicators ‘S-1’ citron and ‘Parson’s Special’ (PSM) mandarin, respectively. Sequential poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis...

  18. Glycerin Reformation in High Temperature and Pressure Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Ravella, A., Eds.), pp 249-281, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 168. Contadini, J. F., Diniz, C. V., Sperling, D., and Moore , R...reforming of glycerol, Bioresource Technology 100, 3540-3547. 253. Iulianelli, A., Longo, T., Liguori, S., and Basile , A. (2010) Production of

  19. A nationwide survey starts on lacustrine resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a key component of the national initiative for basic S&T data and infrastructure development, a nationwide survey on the lake water quality, volume and bio-resources has recently been kicked off. The move marks the systematic implementation of the second-round investigation of the country's lacustrine resources.

  20. What can systems and control theory do for agricultural science?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, van G.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: While many professionals with a background in agricultural and bio-resource sciences work with models, only few have been exposed to systems and control theory. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate a selection of methods from systems theory that can be beneficial to quantitative agric

  1. Sources for Imanishi Kinji’s views of sociality and evolutionary outcomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pamela J Asquith

    2007-06-01

    Prior to the contribution of genetics or the modern evolutionary synthesis (MES) to natural selection theory, social ecologists searched for factors in addition to natural selection that could influence species change. The idea that sociality, not just biology, was important in determining evolutionary outcomes was prevalent in research in social ecology in the 1920s and 1930s. The influence of ‘tradition’ (or the transmission of learned behaviours between generations) and the view that animals are active in selecting their own environments, rather than passive organisms acted upon by chance, were given as much attention as natural selection theory in European ecology, while animal aggregation and cooperation studies were pursued in America. Imanishi Kinji’s personal library and his scientific notes and papers reveal that he was well aware of this literature and had been profoundly influenced by these earlier viewpoints prior to writing his view of nature in his first book, Seibutsu no Sekai (The World of Living Things, 1941). Evidence is presented to show that he developed his theories based partly on early western debates in social ecology while finding inspiration and a way to express his views in the writings of philosopher Nishida Kitarō and, perhaps, General J C Smuts. One of Imanishi’s lasting contributions is in the demonstrated results of over 40 years of subsequent ecological and ethological research by Imanishi and those trained by him that maintained the broader viewpoints on evolution that had been dropped from the western corpus of research by the 1950s. The current attempt to again get beyond natural selection theory is reflected in debates surrounding genetic and cultural evolution of cooperation, the biology of ‘traditions’ and the idea of ‘culture’ in animal societies.

  2. New Progress in Applied Research of Silk protein biopolymer materials%蚕丝蛋白生物高分子材料的应用研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓连霞; 张海萍; 杨明英; 朱良均

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarized the application research achivement of silk protein biopolymer materials in superabsor-bent polymer, scaffold, biomaterials and other fields of the laboratory of Bio-resources and Macromolecuar Material Insti-tute of Applied Bioresources, Zhejiang University in recent 5 years.%本文综述了浙江大学应用生物资源研究所生物资源高分子材料实验室近5年来在蚕丝蛋白(丝素和丝胶)高分子材料在高吸水材料、支架材料、医用生物材料等领域的应用研究成果。

  3. Functional Assessment of the Role of BORIS in Ovarian Cancer Using a Novel in Vivo Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    cell lines (Sigma) were cultured in DMEM (Corning) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Invitrogen), 2 mM glutamine (Life Technologies...1% penicillin -streptomycin (pen- step, Life Technologies). KURAMOCHI and OVSAHO (Japanese Collection of Research Bioresources Cell Bank) and SNU...injection of 10 μL. Mice were euthanized and subjected to necropsy when tumor mass exceeded 1 cm or the animal exhibited other signs of sickness

  4. 岡山大学資源生物科学研究所における屋上緑化による建物冷却効果

    OpenAIRE

    且原, 真木; 田中丸, 重美; 森, 泉; 谷, 明生; 宇都木, 繁子; 榎本, 敬; 米谷, 俊彦

    2009-01-01

    Roof greening is known to be environmentally friendly technology. Recently developed new roof greening systems, such as the thin-layer/Excel soil© system and the wetland type greening system, were tested at the roof top of buildings of Research Institute for Bioresources, Okayama University. After a multi-year test, these new systems have been established during high-temperature and less-rainfall summer seasons in the south Okayama region. Data indicated that roof greening effectively reduced...

  5. Detection and analysis of changes in desertification in the Caspian Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasova, Tahira

    2010-01-01

    The Caspian Region includes the Caspian Sea and five littoral states: Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Russian. 40% of the Caspian coastal zone is arid, 69% of this territory undergone desertification according to international reports. Among the reasons are soil erosion caused by water, wind and irrigation, the salinization of soil, intense bioresources usage, and soil pollution due to oil extraction and production. Desertification is a serious problem, at global, national and ...

  6. A review on algal biofuel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ling; ZHU jing

    2016-01-01

    Culturing of microalgae has be established as an alternative feedstock for biofuel production due to their fast growth rate and ability to accumulate high quantity of lipid and carbohydrate respectively. However, using this bioresource is still limited duo to low productivity and higher cultivation cost. Genetic and metabolic engineering,photobioreactors play significant role in algal biomass production. Hence, this review is focused on these, aiming at providing useful informations.

  7. Catch the Best: Novel Screening Strategy to Select Stress Protecting Agents for Crop Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Zachow

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change increases stress levels for crops and affects the economic and environmental aspects of agricultural management systems. The application of stress tolerance-mediating microorganisms is an auspicious strategy for improving crop protection, and as such, we developed a direct selection strategy to obtain cultivable microorganisms from promising bioresources using the bait plants, maize, oilseed rape, sorghum and sugar beet. Alpine mosses, lichens and primrose were selected as bioresources, as each is adapted to adverse environmental conditions. A 10% crop-specific selection was found for bait plant rhizosphere communities using cultivation-independent fingerprints, and their potential role as stress protecting agents (SPA was evaluated following the cultivation of captured bacteria. In addition to assays identifying phytopathogen antagonism and plant growth promotion capacities, our evaluation included those that test the ability to allocate nutrients. Moreover, we developed new assays to measure tolerance in diverse stress conditions. A score scheme was applied to select SPAs with desired properties, and three Pseudomonas species with pronounced antagonistic activity that showed elevated tolerance to desiccation and an improved seed germination rate were subsequently chosen. Screening for environmentally-conditioned and host-adapted microorganisms provides a novel tool for target-oriented exploitation of microbial bioresources for the management of ecofriendly crops facing biotic and abiotic stresses.

  8. Marine metagenomics as a source for bioprospecting

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-08-12

    This review summarizes usage of genome-editing technologies for metagenomic studies; these studies are used to retrieve and modify valuable microorganisms for production, particularly in marine metagenomics. Organisms may be cultivable or uncultivable. Metagenomics is providing especially valuable information for uncultivable samples. The novel genes, pathways and genomes can be deducted. Therefore, metagenomics, particularly genome engineering and system biology, allows for the enhancement of biological and chemical producers and the creation of novel bioresources. With natural resources rapidly depleting, genomics may be an effective way to efficiently produce quantities of known and novel foods, livestock feed, fuels, pharmaceuticals and fine or bulk chemicals.

  9. Natural composites: Strength, packing ability and moisture sorption of cellulose fibres, and the related performance of composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Madsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Biobased materials are becoming of increasing interest as potential structural materials for the future. A useful concept in this context is the fibre reinforcement of materials by stiff and strong fibres. The bio-resources can contribute with cellulose fibres and (bio) polymers from hemicellulos...... in stiffness, on the packing ability of cellulose fibres and the related maximum fibre volume fraction in composites, on the moisture sorption of cellulose fibres and the related mass increase and (large) hygral strains induced, and on the mechanical performance of composites....

  10. Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Surendra, K C; Takara, Devin; Oechsner, Hans; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of lignocellulosic biomass provides an excellent opportunity to convert abundant bioresources into renewable energy. Rumen microorganisms, in contrast to conventional microorganisms, are an effective inoculum for digesting lignocellulosic biomass due to their intrinsic ability to degrade substrate rich in cellulosic fiber. However, there are still several challenges that must be overcome for the efficient digestion of lignocellulosic biomass. Anaerobic biorefinery is an emerging concept that not only generates bioenergy, but also high-value biochemical/products from the same feedstock. This review paper highlights the current status of lignocellulosic biomass digestion and discusses its challenges. The paper also discusses the future research needs of lignocellulosic biomass digestion.

  11. Marine metagenomics as a source for bioprospecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Gojobori, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    This review summarizes usage of genome-editing technologies for metagenomic studies; these studies are used to retrieve and modify valuable microorganisms for production, particularly in marine metagenomics. Organisms may be cultivable or uncultivable. Metagenomics is providing especially valuable information for uncultivable samples. The novel genes, pathways and genomes can be deducted. Therefore, metagenomics, particularly genome engineering and system biology, allows for the enhancement of biological and chemical producers and the creation of novel bioresources. With natural resources rapidly depleting, genomics may be an effective way to efficiently produce quantities of known and novel foods, livestock feed, fuels, pharmaceuticals and fine or bulk chemicals.

  12. DART MS based chemical profiling for therapeutic potential of Piper betle landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vikas; Pandey, Renu; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh; Kumar, Nikhil; Kumar, Brijesh

    2012-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. leaves are traditionally used as a folk medicine in India and other Asiatic countries. Twenty-one P. betle landraces were analyzed using a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) mass spectral technique and evaluated on the basis of molecules detected in the leaves. Clustering of landraces based on three well known biologically active phenols (m/z 151,165,193) showed two broad groups with high and low phenol contents suggesting differences in their therapeutic potential. Findings of this study could be useful in rapid screening of the landraces for determining their medicinal potential and optimum utilization of the bioresource.

  13. Review on Nutritive Value of Edible Insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As an importam bio-resource, insect resources have not been put into full play as healthy food. Based on study and analysis, the nutritive value of edible insects was reviewed. The results showed that insects have rich protein (20%-70%), amino acid (30%-60%),fat (10%-50%),fatty acid, carbonhydrate (2%-10%), mineral elements, vitamins and other activated elements which are good for human 's health. As protein resources, the nutritive value of edible insects is as good as animal and plant resources. Insec...

  14. Japan’s arctic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Streltsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article is devoted to the public policy of modern Japan in the Arctic. The Japanese government has put forward clear and well-specifi ed targets of the intensifi cation of Japan’s efforts in the economic development of the Arctic region. Among the priorities of the Arctic policy one should mention such areas as the development of maritime transportation, development of hydrocarbon deposits of the Arctic shelf, sea fi shing, as well as the preservation and increase of the sea bioresources.

  15. The population structure and the individual forms of Waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassips (Mart.) Solms, in Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    OSADA, MASAO; OKINO, TOKIO

    1986-01-01

    Certain ecological characteristics of the Waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms population were studied in Thailand in 1982, in order to gain a basic knowledge for its use as a bio-resource in the future. The waters were eutrophic in the study area, where the Waterhyacinth population prospered. The biomass and the Leaf Area Index of Waterhyacinth population showed large values ranging from 1.18 to 2.32 kg d.w./㎡ and from 5.1 to 7.1 ㎡ /㎡ , retpectively. The diagram of the productiv...

  16. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T. E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F

    2002-03-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use.

  17. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency: The case of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J. A. Withers; van Dijk, Kimo C.; Schmid Neset, Tina; Nesme, Thomas; Oenema, Oene; Rubæk, Gitte H.; Schoumans, Oscar; Smit, Bert; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, a...

  18. Importance of Micropore-Mesopore Interfaces in Carbon Dioxide Capture by Carbon-Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá, Gema; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Castro-Osma, José A; Shuttleworth, Peter S; Quek, Sophie C Z; Clark, James H; North, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Mesoporous carbonaceous materials (Starbons®) derived from low-value/waste bio-resources separate CO2 from CO2 /N2 mixtures. Compared to Norit activated charcoal (AC), Starbons® have much lower microporosities (8-32 % versus 73 %) yet adsorb up to 65 % more CO2 . The presence of interconnected micropores and mesopores is responsible for the enhanced CO2 adsorption. The Starbons® also showed three-four times higher selectivity for CO2 adsorption rather than N2 adsorption compared to AC.

  19. Natural Colorants: Historical, Processing and Sustainable Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohd; Shabbir, Mohd; Mohammad, Faqeer

    2017-02-01

    With the public's mature demand in recent times pressurized the textile industry for use of natural colorants, without any harmful effects on environment and aquatic ecosystem, and with more developed functionalities simultaneously. Advanced developments for the natural bio-resources and their sustainable use for multifunctional clothing are gaining pace now. Present review highlights historical overview of natural colorants, classification and predominantly processing of colorants from sources, application on textiles surfaces with the functionalities provided by them. Chemistry of natural colorants on textiles also discussed with relevance to adsorption isotherms and kinetic models for dyeing of textiles.

  20. 温室土壤中分离的三个中国新记录种%Three newly recorded fungal species from greenhouse soil in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓东; 杨瑞秀; 杨红; 吕国忠

    2006-01-01

    @@ More than 260 samples of greenhouse soil were collected from about 30 sites in Liaoning, Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces. Most of these samples were rhizosphere soil in vegetable farm. Soil from nearby normal crop fields was also collected as a check. Spore solution was made by diluting soil samples 1000 times with sterilized water and dropped onto Petri dishes containing Martin medium for culture. Nearly one hundred species have been identified,among these species, Acrernonium cerealis, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scytalidium japonicum are newly recorded in China. All the fungal isolates were stored in the culture collection of Dalian Nationalities University with IBE (Institute of Bioresources and Environmental Science) number.

  1. Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Hayati Bagi Pemenuhan Kebutuhan Pangan dan Gizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafril

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Requirement of food and nutrients in a specified area is determined by the growth of population, availability of agriculture, plantation, animal husbandry and fisheries resources. Sufficient food for consumption can be calculated based on sexes, ages and other human conditions. To fulfill food sufficiency is also dependent upon non-consumptive use of the resources such as for seed, feed, industry and export. Comsumption of both food and nutrients in Indonesia follows the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA with the approach on the Desirable Dietary Pattern (DDP. Goals of land management based on its sustability are necessarily oriented to produce agricultural commodities to meet the requirement of nutrients and food in a balanced condition. Thus, it is of interest to optimize bio-resource management with respects to the fulfillment of food and nutrient sufficiency in a localized area. The use of linear programming may give possible variation of land uses to produce diversified foods that are accuarately required by the people living there. This paper introduces an approach on bio-resource management with the main concern is to produce diversified foods sustainably.

  2. Using co-metabolism to accelerate synthetic starch wastewater degradation and nutrient recovery in photosynthetic bacterial wastewater treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Zhang, Guangming; Lu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Starch wastewater is a type of nutrient-rich wastewater that contains numerous macromolecular polysaccharides. Using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to treat starch wastewater can reduce pollutants and enhance useful biomass production. However, PSB cannot directly degrade macromolecular polysaccharides, which weakens the starch degradation effect. Therefore, co-metabolism with primary substances was employed in PSB wastewater treatment to promote starch degradation. The results indicated that co-metabolism is a highly effective method in synthetic starch degradation by PSB. When malic acid was used as the optimal primary substrate, the chemical oxygen demand, total sugar, macromolecules removal and biomass yield were considerably higher than when primary substances were not used, respectively. Malic acid was the primary substrate that played a highly important role in starch degradation. It promoted the alpha-amylase activity to 46.8 U and the PSB activity, which induced the degradation of macromolecules. The products in the wastewater were ethanol, acetic acid and propionic acid. Ethanol was the primary product throughout the degradation process. The introduction of co-metabolism with malic acid to treat wastewater can accelerate macromolecules degradation and bioresource production and weaken the acidification effect. This method provides another pathway for bioresource recovery from wastewater. This approach is a sustainable and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technology.

  3. Resource Usage Strategies and Trade-Offs between Cropland Demand, Fossil Fuel Consumption, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions—Building Insulation as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hansen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioresources are used in different production systems as materials as well as energy carriers. The same is true for fossil fuel resources. This study explored whether preferential resource usages exist, using a building insulation system as an example, with regard to the following sustainability criteria: climate impact, land, and fossil fuel demand. We considered the complete life cycle in a life cycle assessment-based approach. The criteria were compared for two strategies: one used natural fibers as material and generated production energies from fossil fuels; the other generated production energies from bioenergy carriers and transformed fossil resources into the insulation material. Both strategies finally yielded the same insulation effect. Hence, the energy demand for heating the building was ignored. None of the strategies operated best in all three criteria: While cropland demand was lower in the bioenergy than in the biomaterial system, its fossil fuel demand was higher. Net contribution to climate change was in the same range for both strategies if we considered no indirect changes in land use. Provided that effective recycling concepts for fossil-derived insulations are in place, using bioresources for energy generation was identified as a promising way to mitigate climate change along with efficient resource use.

  4. Integrating animal manure-based bioenergy production with invasive species control: A case study at Tongren Pig Farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hu, Guoliang [Rural Energy Section, Agricultural Bureau of Haining City, Zhejiang Province 314400 (China); Wu, Jianguo [Institute of Agro-Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); School of Life Sciences and Global Institute of Sustainability, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Integrated approach and bioresource engineering are often required to deal with multiple and interactive environmental problems for sustainable development at local and regional scales. Pig farming has flourished with fast growing economy and increasing human demands for meat in China. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a noxious invasive species, has encroached into most of the local rivers and lakes. Both the wastes from the booming pig farms as well as the massive plant materials of water hyacinth have caused a range of serious ecological and environmental problems. Here we present an integrated sustainable, ecological and experimental study that was designed to deal with these two problems simultaneously. Our experimental results showed that the mixtures of water hyacinth with pig manure consistently had much higher biogas production than pig manure alone, and that the highest biogas production was achieved when 15% of the fermentation substrates were water hyacinth. Our analysis further revealed that the changing C/N ratio and the lignin content in the fermentation feedstock due to the addition of water hyacinth might be two important factors affecting the biogas production. We also found that the solar-powered water-heating unit significantly increased the biogas production (especially in winter time). Overall, the project proved to be successful ecologically and socially. Through such an integrated approach and bioresource engineering, wastes are treated, energy is harvested, and the environment is protected. (author)

  5. Phylogeny drives large scale patterns in Australian marine bioactivity and provides a new chemical ecology rationale for future biodiscovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth A; Logan, Murray; Doyle, Jason; Fromont, Jane; Battershill, Christopher N; Ericson, Gavin; Wolff, Carsten W; Muirhead, Andrew; Kearns, Phillip; Abdo, David; Kininmonth, Stuart; Llewellyn, Lyndon

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five years of Australian marine bioresources collecting and research by the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS) has explored the breadth of latitudinally and longitudinally diverse marine habitats that comprise Australia's ocean territory. The resulting AIMS Bioresources Library and associated relational database integrate biodiversity with bioactivity data, and these resources were mined to retrospectively assess biogeographic, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns in cytotoxic, antimicrobial, and central nervous system (CNS)-protective bioactivity. While the bioassays used were originally chosen to be indicative of pharmaceutically relevant bioactivity, the results have qualified ecological relevance regarding secondary metabolism. In general, metazoan phyla along the deuterostome phylogenetic pathway (eg to Chordata) and their ancestors (eg Porifera and Cnidaria) had higher percentages of bioactive samples in the assays examined. While taxonomy at the phylum level and higher-order phylogeny groupings helped account for observed trends, taxonomy to genus did not resolve the trends any further. In addition, the results did not identify any biogeographic bioactivity hotspots that correlated with biodiversity hotspots. We conclude with a hypothesis that high-level phylogeny, and therefore the metabolic machinery available to an organism, is a major determinant of bioactivity, while habitat diversity and ecological circumstance are possible drivers in the activation of this machinery and bioactive secondary metabolism. This study supports the strategy of targeting phyla from the deuterostome lineage (including ancestral phyla) from biodiverse marine habitats and ecological niches, in future biodiscovery, at least that which is focused on vertebrate (including human) health.

  6. Mapping of fuelwood trees using geoinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandra, T.V. [Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Centre for Infrastructure, Sustainable Transportation and Urban Planning (CiSTUP) (India)

    2010-02-15

    Rural population of India constitutes about 70% of the total population and traditional fuels account for 75% of the rural energy needs. Depletion of woodlands coupled with the persistent dependency on fuel wood has posed a serious problem for household energy provision in many parts. This study highlights that the traditional fuels still meet 85-95% of fuel needs in rural areas of Kolar district; people prefer fuel wood for cooking and agriculture residues for water heating and other purposes. However, rapid changes in land cover and land use in recent times have affected these traditional fuels availability necessitating inventorying, mapping and monitoring of bioresources for sustainable management of bioresources. Remote sensing data (Multispectal and Panchromatic), Geographic Information System (GIS), field surveys and non-destructive sampling were used to assess spatially the availability and demand of energy. Field surveys indicate that rural household depends on species such as Prosopis juliflora, Acacia nilotica, Acacia auriculiformis to meet fuel wood requirement for domestic activities. Hence, to take stock of fuel wood availability, mapping was done at species level (with 88% accuracy) considering villages as sampling units using fused multispectral and panchromatic data. (author)

  7. Next-Generation Bio-Products Sowing the Seeds of Success for Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Müller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants have recently been recognized as meta-organisms due to a close symbiotic relationship with their microbiome. Comparable to humans and other eukaryotic hosts, plants also harbor a “second genome” that fulfills important host functions. These advances were driven by both “omics”-technologies guided by next-generation sequencing and microscopic insights. Additionally, these new results influence applied fields such as biocontrol and stress protection in agriculture, and new tools may impact (i the detection of new bio-resources for biocontrol and plant growth promotion, (ii the optimization of fermentation and formulation processes for biologicals, (iii stabilization of the biocontrol effect under field conditions, and (iv risk assessment studies for biotechnological applications. Examples are presented and discussed for the fields mentioned above, and next-generation bio-products were found as a sustainable alternative for agriculture.

  8. A technique for estimating maximum harvesting effort in a stochastic fishery model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Rup Sarkar; J Chattopadhayay

    2003-06-01

    Exploitation of biological resources and the harvest of population species are commonly practiced in fisheries, forestry and wild life management. Estimation of maximum harvesting effort has a great impact on the economics of fisheries and other bio-resources. The present paper deals with the problem of a bioeconomic fishery model under environmental variability. A technique for finding the maximum harvesting effort in fluctuating environment has been developed in a two-species competitive system, which shows that under realistic environmental variability the maximum harvesting effort is less than what is estimated in the deterministic model. This method also enables us to find out the safe regions in the parametric space for which the chance of extinction of the species is minimized. A real life fishery problem has been considered to obtain the inaccessible parameters of the system in a systematic way. Such studies may help resource managers to get an idea for controlling the system.

  9. Cultivation of microalgal Chlorella for biomass and lipid production using wastewater as nutrient resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Chien-Ya; Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Yu-Bin; Kuo, Chiu-Mei; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Using wastewater for microalgal cultures is beneficial for minimizing the use of freshwater, reducing the cost of nutrient addition, removing nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater and producing microalgal biomass as bioresources for biofuel or high-value by-products. There are three main sources of wastewater, municipal (domestic), agricultural and industrial wastewater, which contain a variety of ingredients. Some components in the wastewater, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are useful ingredients for microalgal cultures. In this review, the effects on the biomass and lipid production of microalgal Chlorella cultures using different kinds of wastewater were summarized. The use of the nutrients resource in wastewater for microalgal cultures was also reviewed. The effect of ammonium in wastewater on microalgal Chlorella growth was intensively discussed. In the end, limitations of wastewater-based of microalgal culture were commented in this review article.

  10. A NEW SPECIES OF SYMPETRUM (ODONATA, LIBELLULIDAE) FROM CHINA%中国赤蜻属一新种记述(蜻蜓目,蜻科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏杰

    2012-01-01

    Sympetrum shaanxiensis sp. nov. (Odonata, Libellulidae ) from Shaanxi Province, China is described. The type specimens are deposited at the museum of Zoology and Botany, the Shaanxi Bioresource Key Laboratory, Hanzhong, Shaanxi, China. The new species is similar to S. vulgatum, but differs from the latter in the characters listed in the Table 1. Etymology. The new species is named from the type locality, Shaanxi Province. Female. Unknown.%记述中国赤蜻属1新种,陕西赤蜻Sympetrum shaanxiensis sp.nov..新种近似流浪赤蜻S.vulgatum,但其交合器的后钩片的构造、头部、胸部和腹部的色斑与后者明显不同.模式标本保存于陕西省资源生物重点实验室动植物标本馆.

  11. Polyoxometalate-mediated electron transfer-oxygen transfer oxidation of cellulose and hemicellulose to synthesis gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bidyut Bikash; Neumann, Ronny

    2014-08-01

    Terrestrial plants contain ~70% hemicellulose and cellulose that are a significant renewable bioresource with potential as an alternative to petroleum feedstock for carbon-based fuels. The efficient and selective deconstruction of carbohydrates to their basic components, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, so called synthesis gas, is an important key step towards the realization of this potential, because the formation of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from synthesis gas are known technologies. Here we show that by using a polyoxometalate as an electron transfer-oxygen transfer catalyst, carbon monoxide is formed by cleavage of all the carbon-carbon bonds through dehydration of initially formed formic acid. In this oxidation-reduction reaction, the hydrogen atoms are stored on the polyoxometalate as protons and electrons, and can be electrochemically released from the polyoxometalate as hydrogen. Together, synthesis gas is formed. In a hydrogen economy scenario, this method can also be used to convert carbon monoxide to hydrogen.

  12. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate from geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) belongs to subgroup II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Verma; B K Mahinghara; Raja Ram; A A Zaidi

    2006-03-01

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur, exhibiting mild mottling and stunting. The causal virus (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV) was identified and characterized on the basis of host range, aphid transmission, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), DNA-RNA hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). A complete coat protein (CP) gene was amplified using degenerate primers and sequenced. The CP gene showed nucleotide and amino acid homology up to 97%–98% and 96%–99%, respectively with the sequences of CMV subgroup II. The CP gene also showed homologies of 75%–97% in nucleotide and 77%–96% in amino acid with the CMV Indian isolates infecting various crops. On the basis of sequence homology, it was concluded that CMV-infecting geraniums in India belong to subgroup II.

  13. Adsorptive removal of SO{sub 2} from coal burning by bamboo charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang; Qiu, Jianrong; Xiang, Jun; Zeng, Hancai [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    Bamboo charcoal (BC) is an environmentally friendly, low-cost and renewable bioresource with porous structure. The adsorption property of bamboo charcoal for sulfur dioxide was investigated through a parametric study conducted with a bench-scale bed and mechanism study by BET, XPS, and temperature pro-grammed desorption (TPD). The varying parameters investigated include particle size of BC, moisture, oxygen, nitric oxide. The experimental data suggest that BC has a good adsorption potential for SO{sub 2}, which removal efficiency is greatly dependent upon the operation conditions. This study provides a good reference for BC to be used for SO{sub 2} removal in the actual flue gas over a wide range of conditions and further provided the preliminary experimental studies and theoretical discussion for bamboo charcoal to be used in multiple pollutants removing.

  14. Development of green nanocomposites reinforced by cellulose nanofibers extracted from paper sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hitoshi; Nakagaito, Antonio N.; Kusaka, Kazuya; Muneta, Yuya

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose nanofibers have been showing much greater potential to enhance the mechanical and physical properties of polymer-based composite materials. The purpose of this study is to extract the cellulose nanofibers from waste bio-resources; such as waste newspaper and paper sludge. The cellulosic raw materials were treated chemically and physically in order to extract individualized cellulose nanofiber. The combination of acid hydrolysis and following mechanical treatment resulted in the extraction of cellulose nanofibers having diameter of about 40 nm. In order to examine the reinforcing effect of the extracted cellulose nanofibers, fully biodegradable green nanocomposites were fabricated by composing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) resin with the extracted cellulose nanofibers, and then the tensile tests were conducted. The results showed that the enhancement in mechanical properties was successfully obtained in the cellulose nanofiber/PVA green nanocomposites.

  15. Experimental Design and Bioinformatics Analysis for the Application of Metagenomics in Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have prompted the widespread application of metagenomics for the investigation of novel bioresources (e.g., industrial enzymes and bioactive molecules) and unknown biohazards (e.g., pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes) in natural and engineered microbial systems across multiple disciplines. This review discusses the rigorous experimental design and sample preparation in the context of applying metagenomics in environmental sciences and biotechnology. Moreover, this review summarizes the principles, methodologies, and state-of-the-art bioinformatics procedures, tools and database resources for metagenomics applications and discusses two popular strategies (analysis of unassembled reads versus assembled contigs/draft genomes) for quantitative or qualitative insights of microbial community structure and functions. Overall, this review aims to facilitate more extensive application of metagenomics in the investigation of uncultured microorganisms, novel enzymes, microbe-environment interactions, and biohazards in biotechnological applications where microbial communities are engineered for bioenergy production, wastewater treatment, and bioremediation.

  16. A Green Route for Substrate-Independent Oil-Repellent Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ping; Han, Da; Wu, Xiuwen; Zhang, Qingqing; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Shutao

    2016-11-01

    Oil repellent surface have lots of practical applications in many fields. Current oil repellent coating may suffer from limited liquid repellency to oils or environmental risks. In this work, we report an eco-friendly ‘green’ processes for preparing oil-repellent surface using a renewable and environmentally benign bioresource alginate. The oil-repellent coating was prepared by a two-step surface coating technique and showed stable oil repellency to many kinds of oils. The fabrication process was very simple with no need for special equipment, and this approach can be successfully employed to various substrates with different compositions, sizes and shapes, or even substrate-independent oil-repellent materials. The as-prepared coating of calcium alginate may have a good future in packaging oil-containing products and foods.

  17. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency: The case of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul J A; van Dijk, Kimo C; Neset, Tina-Simone S; Nesme, Thomas; Oenema, Oene; Rubæk, Gitte H; Schoumans, Oscar F; Smit, Bert; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, and feasible technological innovations to improve P use efficiency in society and reduce Europe's dependence on P imports. Their combined adoption facilitated by interactive policies, co-operation between upstream and downstream stakeholders (researchers, investors, producers, distributors, and consumers), and more harmonized approaches to P accounting would maximize the resource and environmental benefits and help deliver a more competitive, circular, and sustainable European economy. The case of Europe provides a blueprint for global P stewardship.

  18. Biological activities and health effects of terpenoids from marine fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Li, Yong-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed by the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical products due to their various health beneficial effects. Hence, it can be suggested that bioactive functional ingredients from marine bioresources and their by-products are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to consumer's well-being, as a part of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Marine-derived fungi produce a vast array of secondary metabolites including terpenes, steroids, polyketides, peptides, alkaloids, and polysaccharides. These secondary metabolites serve many biopharmaceutical purposes. This chapter discusses about marine fungi-derived terpenoids and presents an overview of their beneficial health effects.

  19. Intensified nitrogen removal of constructed wetland by novel integration of high rate algal pond biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xingpo; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Yuhui; Ullman, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-01

    High rate algal pond (HRAP) was combined with constructed wetland (CW) to intensify nitrogen removal through optimizing nitrification and denitrification. Nitrification and denitrification process mainly depends on the oxygen content and carbon source level in CWs. Algal biomass was enriched in HRAP, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was increased via photosynthesis. Algal debris increased COD as degradable bioresource. The results showed that HRAP-CW hybrid systems effectively promoted the nitrogen removal performance due to rich DO and COD. The extension of hydraulic retention time in HRAP significantly improved NH4-N and TN removals by 10.9% and 11.1% in hybrid systems, respectively. The highest NH4-N and TN removals in hybrid systems respectively reached 67.2% and 63.5%, which were significantly higher than those in single CW. The study suggested that the hybrid system had the application potentials in nitrogen removal from wastewater.

  20. Ecofriendly Synthesis of Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles: A Potential Candidate of SERS Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwala Gaware

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecofriendly synthesis of nanoparticles has been inspiring to nanotechnologists especially for biomedical applications. Moreover, anisotropic particle synthesis is an attractive option due to decreased symmetry of such particles often leads to new and unusual chemical and physical behaviour. This paper reports a single-step room-temperature synthesis of gold nanotriangles using a cheap bioresource of reducing and stabilizing agent Piper betle leaf extract. On treating aqueous chloroauric acid solution with Piper betle leaf extract, after 12 hr, complete reduction of the chloroaurate ions was observed leading to the formation of flat and single crystalline gold nanotriangles. These gold nanotriangles can be exploited in photonics, optical coating, optoelectronics, magnetism, catalysis, chemical sensing, and so forth, and are a potential candidate of SERS studies.

  1. Comparing electricity, heat and biogas storages’ impacts on renewable energy integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    -inclusive 100% renewable energy scenario developed for the Danish city Aalborg based on wind power, bio-resources and low-temperature geothermal heat. The article investigates the system impact of different types of energy storage systems including district heating storage, biogas storage and electricity......Increasing penetration of fluctuating energy sources for electricity generation, heating, cooling and transportation increase the need for flexibility of the energy system to accommodate the fluctuations of these energy sources. Controlling production, controlling demand and utilising storage...... options are the three general categories of measures that may be applied for ensuring balance between production and demand, however with fluctuating energy sources, options are limited, and flexible demand has also demonstrated limited perspective. This article takes its point of departure in an all...

  2. Comparing energy storage options for renewable energy integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    -inclusive 100% renewable energy scenario developed for the Danish city Aalborg based on wind power, bio-resources and low-temperature geothermal heat. The paper investigates the system impact of different types of energy storage systems including district heating storage, biogas storage and electricity storage......Increasing penetrations of fluctuating energy sources for electricity generation, heating, cooling and transportation increase the need for flexibility of the energy system to accommodate the fluctuations of these energy sources. Controlling production, controlling demand and utilizing storage...... options are the three general categories of measures that may be applied for ensuring balance between production and demand, however with fluctuating energy sources, options are limited, and flexible demand has also demonstrated limited perspective. This paper takes its point of departure in an all...

  3. Development of protected area system of the Komi Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vyacheslavovna Tikhonova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the damages for biodiversity on the Republic of Komi Protected Areas are outlined. World experience of organizing Protected Areas is represented. The central management tasks into categories of domestic Protected areas are shown. Analysis of prevailing categories of these objects functioning by continents is carried out. The main resources of financing are listed including state investments, various payments, taxes and charitable and grant incomes. In the result of the economic evaluation potential recipients of benefits from the usage of bioresources and ecosystem services on model objects are defined, including the world community, local inhabitants and tourists. Territories that possess reserve for increased usage of its resources and services are represented. The Russian experience of attracting investment, using of economic potential and cultural traditions, development of recreation, tourism and tourism industry and revival of native craft is shown. Actual and perspective objects of tourism and recreation on the territory of Protected Areas are represented

  4. Marine peptides and their anti-infective activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2015-01-16

    Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish) from 2006 to the present.

  5. Marine Peptides and Their Anti-Infective Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kyoung Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish from 2006 to the present.

  6. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress.

  7. Activity-guided screening of the antioxidants from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Ling Si

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tree barks, as a type of forestry residues, are a rich and renewable bioresource that can produce high value-added products. Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa (PTT has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. However, the antioxidative activity of the chemical constituents of the tree has not yet been investigated. In this study, the bark of PTT were extracted and fractioned. Then the resulting ethyl acetate (EtOAc soluble fraction, which exhibited the strongest antioxidative effect, was subjected to repeated open column chromatography for purification. The screening process was carried out under the guidance antioxidative activity via diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. Eight phenolic compounds, glucodistylin (I, luteolin (II, ellagic acid (III, cistanoside F (IV, campneoside II (V, isocampneoside II (VI, verbascoside (VII, and isoverbascoside (VIII, were isolated and their structures were elucidated by various spectroscopic analyses. Among the phenolics, II~VIII showed significant antioxidative activity.

  8. Initial results of the spatial distribution of rubber trees in Peninsular Malaysia using remotely sensed data for biomass estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidiq, I. P. A.; Ismail, M. H.; Kamarudin, N.

    2014-02-01

    The preservation and sustainable management of forest and other land cover ecosystems such as rubber trees will help addressing two major recent issues: climate change and bio-resource energy. The rubber trees are dominantly distributed in the Negeri Sembilan and Kedah on the west coast side of Peninsular Malaysia. This study is aimed to analyse the spatial distribution and biomass of rubber trees in Peninsular Malaysia with special emphasis in Negeri Sembilan State. Geospatial data from remote sensors are used to tackle the time and labour consuming problem due to the large spatial coverage and the need of continuous temporal data. Remote sensing imagery used in this study is a Landsat 5 TM. The image from optical sensor was used to sense the rubber trees and further classified rubber tree by different age.

  9. STUDY ON WETLAND LOSS AND ITS REASONS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wetlands are ecosystems with many functions. But the general public and government lack a comprehensive understanding of the importance of wetland benefits, thus making blindly exploitation, wetland resources decreasing and losing biodiversity. So wetlands in China, as in most countries, have suffered heavily from the pressure of development and have confronted with the threats of loss. The paper takes Sanjiang Plain marshes, lakes in the middle reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River, coastal wetlands and mangroves as cases to study wetland loss in China, and puts forward main existing reasons of wetland loss, such as blindly reclamation and exploitation of wetland resources,over-exploitation of bio-resources in wetland, etc. More recently, there has been a growing recognition of the benefits of wetlands and a wide range of legal and regulatory initiatives have been undertaken which are designed to improve wetland management and conservation. On the basis of the above analysis, the paper brings forward some suggestions on wetland conservation.

  10. COLOUR CHARACTESISTICS OF PINE WOOD AFFECTED BY TERMAL COMPRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Atik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989291The goal of this study was to determine the effects of thermal modification and hot-pressing on the colour characteristics of pine wood as bio-resource. The experimental wood boards with dimensions of 250 mm in width by 500 mm in length by 18 mm in thickness were thermally compressed at a temperature of 120˚C or 150˚C, press pressure of 5 or 7 MPa for 60 min in a hot press. Results obtained in this study showed that the colour characteristics of the pine wood boards were affected by press pressure and temperature. The resin leakages significantly increased the chromacity (a* - 25.99 and b* - 43.18 of the treated wood samples. Thermally compressing caused browning of wood colour, which rate increases with pressure at high temperature conditions.

  11. Review: Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2011. Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 44-58. Selaginella is a potent medicinal-stuff, which contains diverse of natural products such as alkaloid, phenolic (flavonoid, and terpenoid. This species is traditionally used to cure several diseases especially for wound, after childbirth, and menstrual disorder. Biflavonoid, a dimeric form of flavonoids, is the most valuable natural products of Selaginella, which constituted at least 13 compounds, namely amentoflavone, 2',8''-biapigenin, delicaflavone, ginkgetin, heveaflavone, hinokiflavone, isocryptomerin, kayaflavone, ochnaflavone, podocarpusflavone A, robustaflavone, sumaflavone, and taiwaniaflavone. Ecologically, plants use biflavonoid to response environmental condition such as defense against pests, diseases, herbivory, and competitions; while human medically use biflavonoid especially for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti carcinogenic. Selaginella also contains valuable disaccharide, namely trehalose that has long been known for protecting from desiccation and allows surviving severe environmental stress. The compound has very prospects as molecular stabilizer in the industries based bioresources.

  12. Scope of algae as third generation biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvashish eBehera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An initiative has been taken to develop different solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels as the alternative energy resources. The current research and technology based on the third generation biofuels derived from algal biomass have been considered as the best alternative bioresource that avoids the disadvantages of first and second generation biofuels. Algal biomass have been investigated for the implementation of economic conversion processes producing different biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas, biohydrogen and other valuable co-products. In the present review, the recent findings and advance developments in algal biomass for improved biofuel production. This review discusses about the importance of the algal cell contents, various strategies for product formation through various conversion technologies, and its future scope as an energy security.

  13. Use of Biomass as a Sustainable and Green Fuel with Alkali-Resistant DeNOx Catalysts based on Sulfated or Tungstated Zirconia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Christensen, Claus H.

    Use of biomass as an alternative to fossil fuels has achieved increasing interest since it does not contribute to CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere. Over the past 10-15 years, heat and electricity production from biomass has increased to almost 7% of all energy supply in the European Union...... and is expected to increase further. The by far most efficient use of solid bio-resources in energy production is combustion in combined biomass and coal or oil-fired power plants. However, in such applications nitrogen oxides are inevitably present in the flue gases. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR......) of NO with ammonia as reductant is the most common method to eliminate NOx from flue gases in stationary sources. Even though biofuels are considered as environmentally benign fuels, the reactions occurring inside the boilers during biomass combustion tend to be more “dirty”. Indeed, traditional V2O5-WO3-TiO2 SCR...

  14. Future cereal starch bioengineering: Cereal ancestors encounter gene technology and designer enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2013-01-01

    The importance of cereal starch production worldwide cannot be overrated. However, the qualities and resulting values of existing raw and processed starch do not fully meet future demands for environmentally friendly production of renewable, advanced biomaterials, functional foods and biomedical...... additives. New approaches for starch bioengineering are needed. In this review we discuss cereal starch from a combined universal bioresource point of view. The combination of new biotechniques and clean tech methods can be implemented to replace e.g. chemical modification. The recently released cereal...... genomes and the exploding advancement in whole genome sequencing now paves the road for identifying new genes to be exploited to generate a multitude of completely new starch functionalities directly in the cereal grain converting cereal crops to production plants. Newly released genome data from cereal...

  15. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM CURCUMA AMADA ROXB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnupriya.M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil of Curcuma amada Roxb. The GC- MS analysis of the oil resulted in the identification of 12 compounds. β-myrcene (63.85% and α-asarone (30.27% were the two major components identified. The sample was subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, ABTS radical, Ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-Carotene bleaching assay. Results showed that the essential oil possessed a strong degree of antioxidant activity in terms of β-Carotene bleaching capacity followed by ABTS radical, ferric reducing power and a moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity. This study concludes that the essential oil from Curcuma amada Roxb could serve as an important bioresource of antioxidants for using in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Efficacy of oral Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521 on microflora and antioxidant in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-gui; Xu, Hai-bo; Xu, Feng; Zeng, Zhe-ling; Wei, Hua

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine whether Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, a species of colonic microflora in humans, is involved in the intestinal tract of mice. This study was also conducted to determine the antioxidant activity of this species by evaluating different microbial populations and reactive oxygen species isolated from feces and intestinal contents for 28 days of oral administration. Microbial diversities were assessed through bacterial culture techniques, PCR-DGGE, and real-time PCR. This study showed that the intake of B. bifidum ATCC 29521 significantly (p stress were also determined. Results indicated that B. bifidum ATCC 29521 elicits a beneficial effect on murine gut microbiota and antioxidant activities compared with the control samples. This species can be considered as a potential bioresource antioxidant to promote health. Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521 may also be used as a promising material in microbiological and food applications.

  17. Separation of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid with supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R L; Malaluan, R M; Setianto, W B; Inomata, H; Arai, K

    2003-05-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) represents the largest readily available bioresource of alkenyl phenolic compounds. In this work, separation of CNSL from the pericarp of the cashew nut with supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. In the initial extractions with CO(2) at 40-60 degrees C and at pressures from 14.7 to 29.4 MPa, low yields were obtained. However, when the extractions were performed with one or more intermediate depressurization steps, the yield of CNSL increased to as high as 94%. Most of the oil did not separate from the shell during the depressurization step, but was obtained during the subsequent repressurization. The CNSL extract had a clear light brownish pink color and exhibited no evidence of polymerization or degradation. The pressure profile extraction method proposed in this work increases the possible CNSL extraction yields and greatly reduces the amount of CO(2) required for CNSL separation.

  18. Tungstated zirconia as promising carrier for DeNOx catalysts with improved resistance towards alkali poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes; Kustov, Arkadii; Rasmussen, Søren Birk;

    2006-01-01

    Use of biomass as an alternative to fossil fuels has achieved increasing interest since it is considered neutral regarding CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere. The by far most energy-efficient use of solid bio-resources in energy production is combustion in combined biomass and coal or oilfired po......, and NH3-TPD methods. The influence of calcination temperature of zirconia modified with tungsten oxide on the textural characteristics, acidity and catalytic performance was studied. The resistance of the catalysts towards model poisoning with potassium was found to depend dramatically...... on the crystallinity of the zirconia and on the surface acidity. Vanadia supported on tungstated zirconia calcined at 700 8C revealed superior catalytic performance and resistance towards alkali poisoning in comparison with a traditional catalyst. The improved poisoning resistance of the samples based on tungstated...

  19. Evolving Marine Biomimetics for Regenerative Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Green

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New products that help make human tissue and organ regeneration more effective are in high demand and include materials, structures and substrates that drive cell-to-tissue transformations, orchestrate anatomical assembly and tissue integration with biology. Marine organisms are exemplary bioresources that have extensive possibilities in supporting and facilitating development of human tissue substitutes. Such organisms represent a deep and diverse reserve of materials, substrates and structures that can facilitate tissue reconstruction within lab-based cultures. The reason is that they possess sophisticated structures, architectures and biomaterial designs that are still difficult to replicate using synthetic processes, so far. These products offer tantalizing pre-made options that are versatile, adaptable and have many functions for current tissue engineers seeking fresh solutions to the deficiencies in existing dental biomaterials, which lack the intrinsic elements of biofunctioning, structural and mechanical design to regenerate anatomically correct dental tissues both in the culture dish and in vivo.

  20. Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of bio-butanol over novel supported Co-based bimetallic catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weijie; de la Piscina, Pilar Ramirez; Homs, Narcis

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the hydrogen production through the steam reforming of a bioresource-derived butanol mixture (butanol:acetone:ethanol=6:3:1 mass ratio) over supported cobalt-based catalysts. The support plays an important role for the catalytic behavior and Co/ZnO exhibits the best catalytic performance compared to Co/TiO(2) and Co/CeO(2). Moreover, a higher hydrogen yield is obtained over bimetallic Co-Ir/ZnO, which shows an increase in H(2) selectivity and a decrease in CH(4) selectivity under steam reforming conditions, compared to Co/ZnO. Raman results of the used catalysts indicate that the addition of Ir could prevent the coke formation to prolong the catalyst stability.

  1. Comparative life cycle assessment of biowaste to resource management systems - A Danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne; Seghetta, Michele; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth;

    2017-01-01

    from combustion (Reference Scenario) to biogas and fertilizer production (Alternative Scenario). The goals defined in the Danish National resource action plan for waste management, i.e. 33% reduction of organic fraction household waste dry weight, is taken as a case study. A comparative life cycle...... assessment of the diverting of the organic fraction of the household waste away from a Waste to Energy combustion plant towards sludge- and manure-based biogas plants in North Zealand (Denmark) shows a net increase in renewable electricity production of 39% at the expense of a reduction in heat production......Waste to Energy combustion plants currently process most of the organic fraction of the household waste. This study presents an assessment of the environmental performance of an increased circular bioresource management system obtained by reallocating the organic fraction of the household waste...

  2. Valorization of residual Empty Palm Fruit Bunch Fibers (EPFBF) by microfluidization: production of nanofibrillated cellulose and EPFBF nanopaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ana; Filpponen, Ilari; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Laine, Janne; Rojas, Orlando J

    2012-12-01

    Different cellulose pulps were produced from sulfur-free chemical treatments of Empty Palm Fruit Bunch Fibers (EPFBF), a by-product from palm oil processing. The pulps were microfluidized for deconstruction into nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and nanopaper was manufactured by using an overpressure device. The morphological and structural features of the obtained NFCs were characterized via atomic force and scanning electron microscopies. The physical properties as well as the interactions with water of sheets from three different pulps were compared with those of nanopaper obtained from the corresponding NFC. Distinctive chemical and morphological characteristics and ensuing nanopaper properties were generated by the EPFBF fibers. The NFC grades obtained compared favorably with associated materials typically produced from bleached wood fibers. Lower water absorption, higher tensile strengths (107-137 MPa) and elastic modulus (12-18 GPa) were measured, which opens the possibility for valorization of such widely available bioresource.

  3. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mesoporous Nanocrystalline Tetragonal ZrO2 Using Dehydroabietyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous nanocrystalline tetragonal zirconias were successfully synthesized through a hydrothermal method using a novel bioresource-derived quaternary ammonium salt, dehydroabietyltrimethyl ammonium bromine (DTAB, as a templating agent. The templating agent provides a surface area (242.02 m2/g, high pore volume (0.53 cm3/g, and large average pore diameter (7.65 nm, which suggests that DTAB is a good candidate for mesostructure synthesis. The hydrothermal treatments give the materials improved thermal stabilities because of the generation of tetragonal nanocrystallites that are more stable than the bulk amorphous ones in the hydrothermal process. However, because of the absence of stabilizers, the sizes of the crystallites of the as-synthesized sample increase gradually with increasing calcination temperature. As the crystalline size of the sample rises to 25 nm, the nanocrystallites become too large to integrate well together, causing the well-organized mesostructure to collapse.

  4. Planetary resources and astroecology. Planetary microcosm models of asteroid and meteorite interiors: electrolyte solutions and microbial growth--implications for space populations and panspermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, Michael N

    2002-01-01

    Planetary microcosms were constructed using extracts from meteorites that simulate solutions in the pores of carbonaceous chondrites. The microcosms were found to support the growth of complex algal and microbial populations. Such astroecology experiments demonstrate how a diverse ecosystem could exist in fluids within asteroids, and in meteorites that land on aqueous planets. The microcosm solutions were obtained by extracting nutrient electrolytes under natural conditions from powders of the Allende (CV3) and Murchison (CM2) meteorites at low (0.02 g/ml) and high (10.0 g/ml) solid/solution ratios. The latter solutions contain > 3 mol/L electrolytes and about 10 g/L organics, that simulate natural fluids in asteroids during aqueous alteration and in the pores of meteorites, which can help prebiotic synthesis and the survival of early microorganisms. These solutions and wet solids were in fact found to support complex self-sustaining microbial communities with populations of 4 x 10(5) algae and 6 x 10(6) bacteria and fungi for long periods (> 8 months). The results show that planetary microcosms based on meteorites can: assay the fertilities of planetary materials; identify space bioresources; target astrobiology exploration; and model past and future space-based ecosystems. The results show that bioresources in the carbonaceous asteroids can sustain a biomass of 10(18) kg, comprising 10(32) microorganisms and a human population of 10(14). The results also suggest that protoplanetary nebulae can support and disperse microorganisms and can be therefore effective environments for natural and directed panspermia.

  5. Rediscovering medicinal plants' potential with OMICS: microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic

  6. Characterization of a salt resistant bacterial strain Proteus sp. NA6 capable of decolorizing reactive dyes in presence of multi-metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naila; Hussain, Sabir; Azeem, Farrukh; Shahzad, Tanvir; Bhatti, Sajjad Haider; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Maqbool, Zahid; Abid, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Microbial biotechnologies for the decolorization of textile wastewaters have attracted worldwide attention because of their economic suitability and easiness in handling. However, the presence of high amounts of salts and metal ions in textile wastewaters adversely affects the decolorization efficiency of the microbial bioresources. In this regard, the present study was conducted to isolate salt tolerant bacterial strains which might have the potential to decolorize azo dyes even in the presence of multi-metal ion mixtures. Out of the tested 48 bacteria that were isolated from an effluent drain, the strain NA6 was found relatively more efficient in decolorizing the reactive yellow-2 (RY2) dye in the presence of 50 g L(-1) NaCl. Based on the similarity of its 16S rRNA gene sequence and its position in a phylogenetic tree, this strain was designated as Proteus sp. NA6. The strain NA6 showed efficient decolorization (>90 %) of RY2 at pH 7.5 in the presence of 50 g L(-1) NaCl under static incubation at 30 °C. This strain also had the potential to efficiently decolorize other structurally related azo dyes in the presence of 50 g L(-1) NaCl. Moreover, Proteus sp. NA6 was found to resist the presence of different metal ions (Co(+2), Cr(+6), Zn(+2), Pb(+2), Cu(+2), Cd(+2)) and was capable of decolorizing reactive dyes in the presence of different levels of the mixtures of these metal ions along with 50 g L(-1) NaCl. Based on the findings of this study, it can be suggested that Proteus sp. NA6 might serve as a potential bioresource for the biotechnologies involving bioremediation of textile wastewaters containing the metal ions and salts.

  7. Endangered and Rare Species of Marine Medicinal Organisms and Their Protection in China%中国海洋药用生物濒危珍稀物种及其保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅秀梅; 王长云; 邵长伦; 韩磊; 武云飞; 伍汉霖; 钱树本; 管华诗

    2009-01-01

    首次对中国海洋药用生物濒危珍稀物种及其资源状况进行了调查和评价.结果显示,中国海洋药用生物及具有药用开发价值的海洋生物物种被列入濒危或保护物种的达235种,濒危比率达14.0%.极危物种9种,濒危物种112种,易危物种88种,近危物种5种,珍稀物种1种;其中,国家一级保护动物10种,国家二级保护动物44种.过度开发利用和海洋环境恶化是造成海洋野生药用生物濒危的主要原因.加强海洋自然保护区和海洋特别保护区的建设是保护海洋药用生物物种多样性和遏制资源衰退的有效途径.%The states of endangered and rare species of marine medicinal organisms in China were investigated and evaluated for the first time by field survey and data analysis together with literature data. It revealed that up to 235 species of marine medicinal organisms in China are in the Red List Categories and as protected species, including 9 critically endangered species, 112 endangered species, 88 vulnerable species, 5 near threatened species and 1 rare species, with an endangered rate of 14.0%. Among the endangered medicinal organisms, the species belonging to national protected animal categories Ⅰ and Ⅱ are 10 and 44, respectively. Over-fishing, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have resulted in the destruction of marine bioresources, especially acute degradation of biodiversity of marine medicinal animals. The feasible strategies for conservation of biodiversities and bioresources of Chinese marine medicinal species should be to improve the construction and management of marine natural reserves system as well as marine special reserves.

  8. Bibliometric Analysis of Research Trends of Anaerobic Digestion for Methane Production%厌氧发酵产沼气研究趋势的文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡玮玮; 王利红; 汪群慧

    2012-01-01

    Technique of anaerobic fermentation for methane production has arisen increasing attentions, since the methane as regeneration bioenergy is important to solve the world's energy shortage problem. Bibliometric approach was used to quantitatively assess current research trends on anaerobic digestion for methane, by using the data from Science Citation Index-Expended database and Derwent Innovations Index of the Web of Science. A metric analysis was made on related literature and patents in the two databases, which was indexed from 1992 to 2009. Results indicated that in recent years there had been a notable growth trend in publication outputs, Russian Academy of Sciences held primacy over the most publications. Mainstream of anaerobic digestion for methane research was in the environmental, biotechnology and energy related fields. Three journals including Bioresource Technology, Water Research, Applied and Environmental Microbiology were the most popular ones in this field. In addition, keyword analysis shows that the process, reactor, pretreatment and co-digestion were the hotspot of the latest 18years.%沼气作为一种可再生生物质能源,对于解决世界能源紧缺问题具有重要意义,因而厌氧发酵产沼气技术受到人们越来越多的关注.文章从文献计量角度定量分析厌氧发酵产沼气研究趋势.数据来源于Web of Science中Science Citation Index-Expended以及Derwent Innovations Index数据库,并对1992-2009年间该库收录的相关文献及相关专利进行计量分析.结果表明:近年来,厌氧发酵产沼气领域发文量显著增长.统计时间范围内,美国发文量居榜首.研究机构中,俄罗斯科学研究院发文量位列第一.环境、生物、能源相关学科是厌氧发酵产沼气的主流领域.学术期刊主要有Bioresource Technology、Water Research、Applied and Environmental Microbiology.此外,关键词分析结果表明:反应过程、反应器、预处理、混合

  9. Commentary on "identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array." Eeles RA, Olama AA, Benlloch S, Saunders EJ, Leongamornlert DA, Tymrakiewicz M, Ghoussaini M, Luccarini C, Dennis J, Jugurnauth-Little S, Dadaev T, Neal DE, Hamdy FC, Donovan JL, Muir K, Giles GG, Severi G, Wiklund F, Gronberg H, Haiman CA, Schumacher F, Henderson BE, Le Marchand L, Lindstrom S, Kraft P, Hunter DJ, Gapstur S, Chanock SJ, Berndt SI, Albanes D, Andriole G, Schleutker J, Weischer M, Canzian F, Riboli E, Key TJ, Travis RC, Campa D, Ingles SA, John EM, Hayes RB, Pharoah PD, Pashayan N, Khaw KT, Stanford JL, Ostrander EA, Signorello LB, Thibodeau SN, Schaid D, Maier C, Vogel W, Kibel AS, Cybulski C, Lubinski J, Cannon-Albright L, Brenner H, Park JY, Kaneva R, Batra J, Spurdle AB, Clements JA, Teixeira MR, Dicks E, Lee A, Dunning AM, Baynes C, Conroy D, Maranian MJ, Ahmed S, Govindasami K, Guy M, Wilkinson RA, Sawyer EJ, Morgan A, Dearnaley DP, Horwich A, Huddart RA, Khoo VS, Parker CC, Van As NJ, Woodhouse CJ, Thompson A, Dudderidge T, Ogden C, Cooper CS, Lophatananon A, Cox A, Southey MC, Hopper JL, English DR, Aly M, Adolfsson J, Xu J, Zheng SL, Yeager M, Kaaks R, Diver WR, Gaudet MM, Stern MC, Corral R, Joshi AD, Shahabi A, Wahlfors T, Tammela TL, Auvinen A, Virtamo J, Klarskov P, Nordestgaard BG, Røder MA, Nielsen SF, Bojesen SE, Siddiq A, Fitzgerald LM, Kolb S, Kwon EM, Karyadi DM, Blot WJ, Zheng W, Cai Q, McDonnell SK, Rinckleb AE, Drake B, Colditz G, Wokolorczyk D, Stephenson RA, Teerlink C, Muller H, Rothenbacher D, Sellers TA, Lin HY, Slavov C, Mitev V, Lose F, Srinivasan S, Maia S, Paulo P, Lange E, Cooney KA, Antoniou AC, Vincent D, Bacot F, Tessier DC; COGS-Cancer Research UK GWAS-ELLIPSE (part of GAME-ON) Initiative; Australian Prostate Cancer Bioresource; UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators/British Association of Urological Surgeons' Section of Oncology; UK ProtecT (Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumi, Aria F

    2014-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Twenty-three new prostate cancer susceptibility loci were identified at genome-wide significance (P<5×10(-8)). More than 70 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, explaining ~30% of the familial risk for this disease, have now been identified. On the basis of combined risks conferred by the new and previously known risk loci, the top 1% of the risk distribution has a 4.7-fold higher risk than the average of the population being profiled. These results will facilitate population risk stratification for clinical studies.

  10. A novel PSB-EDI system for high ammonia wastewater treatment, biomass production and nitrogen resource recovery: PSB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hangyao; Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Guangming; Yan, Guokai; Lu, Haifeng; Sun, Liyan

    A novel process coupling photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) with electrodeionization (EDI) treatment was proposed to treat high ammonia wastewater and recover bio-resources and nitrogen. The first stage (PSB treatment) was used to degrade organic pollutants and accumulate biomass, while the second stage (EDI) was for nitrogen removal and recovery. The first stage was the focus in this study. The results showed that using PSB to transform organic pollutants in wastewater into biomass was practical. PSB could acclimatize to wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,300 mg/L and an ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) concentration of 288-4,600 mg/L. The suitable pH was 6.0-9.0, the average COD removal reached 80%, and the biomass increased by an average of 9.16 times. The wastewater COD removal was independent of the NH4(+)-N concentration. Moreover, the PSB functioned effectively when the inoculum size was only 10 mg/L. The PSB-treated wastewater was then further handled in an EDI system. More than 90% of the NH4(+)-N was removed from the wastewater and condensed in the concentrate, which could be used to produce nitrogen fertilizer. In the whole system, the average NH4(+)-N removal was 94%, and the average NH4(+)-N condensing ratio was 10.0.

  11. Isolation and characterization of a novel thermostable neopullulanase-like enzyme from a hot spring in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kittapong; Kobayashi, Rutchadaporn Sriprang; Champreda, Verawat; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa

    2008-06-01

    A gene encoding a thermostable pullulan-hydrolyzing enzyme was isolated from environmental genomic DNA extracted from soil sediments of Bor Khleung hot spring in Thailand. Sequence comparison with related enzymes suggested that the isolated enzyme, designated Env Npu193A, was most likely a neopullulanase-like enzyme. Env Npu193A was expressed in Pichia pastoris as a monomeric recombinant protein. The purified Env Npu193A exhibited pH stability ranging from 3 to 9. More than 60% of enzyme activity was retained after incubation at 60 degrees C for 1 h. Env Npu193A was found to hydrolyze various substrates, including pullulan, starch, and gamma-cyclodextrin. The optimal working condition for Env Npu193A was at pH 7 at 75 degrees C with K(m) and V(max) toward pullulan of 1.22+/-0.3% and 23.24+/-1.7 U/mg respectively. Env Npu193A exhibited distinct biochemical characteristics as compared with the previously isolated enzyme from the same source. Thus, a culture-independent approach with sequence-basing was found to be an effective way to discover novel enzymes displaying unique substrate specificity and high thermostability from natural bioresources.

  12. Phylogenetic Tree Analysis of the Cold-Hot Nature of Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine for Possible Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjun Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine (TCMM represents one of the medicinal resources for research and development of novel anticancer drugs. In this study, to investigate the presence of anticancer activity (AA displayed by cold or hot nature of TCMM, we analyzed the association relationship and the distribution regularity of TCMMs with different nature (613 TCMMs originated from 1,091 species of marine organisms via association rules mining and phylogenetic tree analysis. The screened association rules were collected from three taxonomy groups: (1 Bacteria superkingdom, Phaeophyceae class, Fucales order, Sargassaceae family, and Sargassum genus; (2 Viridiplantae kingdom, Streptophyta phylum, Malpighiales class, and Rhizophoraceae family; (3 Holothuroidea class, Aspidochirotida order, and Holothuria genus. Our analyses showed that TCMMs with closer taxonomic relationship were more likely to possess anticancer bioactivity. We found that the cluster pattern of marine organisms with reported AA tended to cluster with cold nature TCMMs. Moreover, TCMMs with salty-cold nature demonstrated properties for softening hard mass and removing stasis to treat cancers, and species within Metazoa or Viridiplantae kingdom of cold nature were more likely to contain AA properties. We propose that TCMMs from these marine groups may enable focused bioprospecting for discovery of novel anticancer drugs derived from marine bioresources.

  13. Microstructural Characterization of Calcite-Based Powder Materials Prepared by Planetary Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a planetary ball milling was used to modify the surface properties of calcite-based material from waste oyster shell under the rotational speed of 200–600 rpm, grinding time of 5–180 min and sample mass of 1–10 g. The milling significantly changed the microstructural properties of the calcite-based minerals (i.e., surface area, pore volume, true density, and porosity. The surface characterization of the resulting powder should be macroporous and/or nonporous based on the nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. Under the optimal conditions at the rotational speed of 400 rpm, grinding time of 30 min and sample mass of 5 g, the resulting calcite-based powder had larger specific surface area (i.e., 10.64 m2·g−1 than the starting material (i.e., 4.05 m2·g−1. This finding was also consistent with the measurement of laser-diffraction (i.e., 9.7 vs. 15.0 μm of mean diameter. In addition, the results from the scanning electron microscope (SEM observation indicated that surface roughness can be enhanced as particle size decreases as a result of particle-particle attrition. Thus, grinding the aquacultural bioresource by a high-energy ball milling can create the fine materials, which may be applied in the fields of inorganic minerals like aggregate and construction material.

  14. Biogenic hierarchical TiO₂/SiO₂ derived from rice husk and enhanced photocatalytic properties for dye degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice husk, an agricultural bioresource, is utilized as a non-metallic bio-precursor to synthesize biogenic hierarchical TiO₂/SiO₂ (BH-TiO₂/SiO₂ and the products are applied to dye degradation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The as-prepared BH-TiO₂/SiO₂ samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS, nitrogen-adsorption measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy and electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR. The results show that BH-TiO₂/SiO₂ possesses both anatase and rutile phases with amorphous SiO₂ as background, which contains mesopore structure, and nitrogen derived from original rice husk is self-doped into the lattice. Besides, the light-harvesting within the visible-light range of BH-TiO₂/SiO₂ has been enhanced. Moreover, the catalytic activity of BH-TiO₂/SiO₂ has been proven by EPR, and both the photocatalytic activity and stability of BH-TiO₂/SiO₂ are improved as well, which has been illustrated by cycled degradation of methylene blue dye under irradiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work provides a good way to combine natural hierarchical porous structure with synthetic material chemistry based on available biomass in the vast natural environment for the sustainable development of human society, and extends potentials of biomass in applications such as photocatalysts, sunlight splitting water and so forth.

  15. Sodium-ion supercapacitors based on nanoporous pyroproteins containing redox-active heteroatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Se Youn; Yoon, Hyeon Ji; Kim, Na Rae; Yun, Young Soo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2016-10-01

    Nanostructured carbon-based materials fabricated via simple methods from renewable bio-resources have great potential in rechargeable energy storage systems. In this study, nanoporous pyroproteins containing a large amount of redox-active heteroatoms (H-NPs) were fabricated from silk fibroin by an in situ carbonization/activation method. The H-NPs have a large surface area of ∼3050 m2 g-1, which is mainly comprised of nanometer-scale pores. Also, these H-NPs have oxygen and nitrogen heteroatoms of 17.4 wt% and 2.9 wt%, respectively. Synergistic sodium ion storage behaviors originate from electrochemical double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, leading to very high electrochemical performances of H-NPs in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolyte systems. Sodium-ion supercapacitors (NISs) based on commercial graphite//H-NPs show a high specific power of ∼1900 W kg-1 at ∼77 Wh kg-1. Also, NISs based on commercial hard carbon//H-NPs exhibit a high specific energy of ∼217 Wh kg-1 at ∼42 W kg-1. In addition, outstanding cycling performances over 30,000 cycles are achieved for symmetric NISs.

  16. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes in aerial stems and roots of Ephedra sinica based on high-throughput mRNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketo Okada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ephedra plants are taxonomically classified as gymnosperms, and are medicinally important as the botanical origin of crude drugs and as bioresources that contain pharmacologically active chemicals. Here we show a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of aerial stems and roots of Ephedra sinica based on high-throughput mRNA sequencing by RNA-Seq. De novo assembly of short cDNA sequence reads generated 23,358, 13,373, and 28,579 contigs longer than 200 bases from aerial stems, roots, or both aerial stems and roots, respectively. The presumed functions encoded by these contig sequences were annotated by BLAST (blastx. Subsequently, these contigs were classified based on gene ontology slims, Enzyme Commission numbers, and the InterPro database. Furthermore, comparative gene expression analysis was performed between aerial stems and roots. These transcriptome analyses revealed differences and similarities between the transcriptomes of aerial stems and roots in E. sinica. Deep transcriptome sequencing of Ephedra should open the door to molecular biological studies based on the entire transcriptome, tissue- or organ-specific transcriptomes, or targeted genes of interest.

  17. Advances in Mapping Loci Conferring Resistance to Rice Sheath Blight and Mining Rhizoctonia solani Resistant Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yu-xiang; JI Zhi-juan; MA Liang-yong; LI Xi-ming; YANG Chang-deng

    2011-01-01

    Sheath blight (SB) caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the three major diseases of rice,and now has become the most severe disease causing rice yield loss in China.Breeding and use of varieties resistant to SB is crucial in controlling the disease,but the advances achieved have been limited due to the lack of highly SB-resistant rice germplasm.Genetic analysis revealed that the SB resistance in rice was a typical quantitative trait controlled by multi-genes.Although many QTLs conferring resistance to SB have been identified in recent years,most of the QTLs only showed small effects and few of them have been evaluated for utilization potential.Many R.solani-resistant resources have been found in wild rice species,microorganisms and other plant species.It is already known that the SB-resistance could be improved in transgenic rice plants by genetic transformation.This paper reviewed the genetic mapping of loci associated with resistance to rice SB,the evaluation of the potential of resistance QTLs,and the resistant resources found in various organisms besides rice.To develop SB-resistant rice varieties,it is important to develop and explore new resistant rice germplasms,fine map and evaluate resistance QTLs,and also to pay attention to various bio-resources showing resistance to R.solani.

  18. Generation and characterization of neurogenin1-GFP transgenic medaka with potential for rapid developmental neurotoxicity screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Chunyang [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Simmons, Steven O. [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Law, Sheran H.W. [Environmental Sciences and Policy Division, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Jensen, Karl; Cowden, John [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hinton, David [Environmental Sciences and Policy Division, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Padilla, Stephanie [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ramabhadran, Ram, E-mail: Ram.Ramabhadran@gmail.com [Integrated Systems Toxicology and Toxicity Assessment Divisions, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Fish models such as zebrafish and medaka are increasingly used as alternatives to rodents in developmental and toxicological studies. These developmental and toxicological studies can be facilitated by the use of transgenic reporters that permit the real-time, noninvasive observation of the fish. Here we report the construction and characterization of transgenic medaka lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the zebrafish neurogenin 1 (ngn1) gene promoter. Neurogenin (ngn1) is a helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in proliferating neuronal progenitor cells early in neuronal differentiation and plays a crucial role in directing neurogenesis. GFP expression was detected from 24 h post-fertilization until hatching, in a spatial pattern consistent with the previously reported zebrafish ngn1 expression. Temporal expression of the transgene parallels the expression profile of the endogenous medaka ngn1 transcript. Further, we demonstrate that embryos from the transgenic line permit the non-destructive, real-time screening of ngn1 promoter-directed GFP expression in a 96-well format, enabling higher throughput studies of developmental neurotoxicants. This strain has been deposited with and maintained by the National BioResource Project and is available on request ( (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/medaka/strainDetailAction.do?quickSearch=true and strainId=5660)).

  19. Mini-review: Current Understanding of the Correlation of Lignin Structure with Biomass Recalcitrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Arthur

    2016-11-01

    Lignin, a complex aromatic polymer in terrestrial plants, contributes significantly to biomass recalcitrance to microbial and/or enzymatic deconstruction. To reduce biomass recalcitrance, substantial endeavors have been exerted on pretreatment and lignin engineering in the past few decades. Lignin removal and/or alteration of lignin structure have been shown to result in reduced biomass recalcitrance with improved cell wall digestibility. While high lignin content is usually a barrier to a cost-efficient application of bioresource to biofuels, the direct correlation of lignin structure and its concomitant properties with biomass remains unclear due to the complexity of cell wall and lignin structure. Advancement in application of biorefinery to production of biofuels, chemicals, and biomaterials necessitates a fundamental understanding of the relationship of lignin structure and biomass recalcitrance. In this mini-review, we focus on recent investigations on the influence of lignin chemical properties on bioprocessability— pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. Specifically, lignin-enzyme interaction and the effects of lignin compositional units, hydroxycinnamates, and lignin functional groups on biomass recalcitrance have been highlighted, which will be useful not only in addressing biomass recalcitrance but also in deploying renewable lignocelluloses efficiently.

  20. Bird Mortaility at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: March 1998--September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, K. S.; Thelander, C. G.

    2005-09-01

    Over the past 15 years, research has shown that wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) kill many birds, including raptors, which are protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, and/or state and federal Endangered Species Acts. Early research in the APWRA on avian mortality mainly attempted to identify the extent of the problem. In 1998, however, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated research to address the causal relationships between wind turbines and bird mortality. NREL funded a project by BioResource Consultants to perform this research directed at identifying and addressing the causes of mortality of various bird species from wind turbines in the APWRA.With 580 megawatts (MW) of installed wind turbine generating capacity in the APWRA, wind turbines there provide up to 1 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of emissions-free electricity annually. By identifying and implementing new methods and technologies to reduce or resolve bird mortality in the APWRA, power producers may be able to increase wind turbine electricity production at the site and apply similar mortality-reduction methods at other sites around the state and country.

  1. Assessment of Danish biomass resources for producing biofuels for the transport sector towards the year 2020; Opgoerelse af den danske biomasseressourcer til brug for fremstilling af biobraendstoffer til transportsektoren frem mod 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, S.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Jensen, E.S.

    2008-11-15

    The agricultural sector will have an increasing role to play according to society needs for biobased products, including biofuels. However, it is necessary to point out national positions of strength in order to act proactive and gain the benefits for this growing marked. It is clear from this report that both agriculture and forestry, and connected industries, have great possibilities to deliver biomass resources without decreasing the current food production. From the calculations in this report, including several assumptions concerning convertibility and uncertainties about yield potentials comparing, the sector can provide up to 30 % of the existing fossil fuel consumption in the transportation sector using cereal straw. Approximately, 10 % if the wood resources are utilized and about 6 % using more waste based biomasses. Fish and slaughterhouse waste can cover up to about 9 % of the present diesel consumption. However, increased sale of bioresources for bioenergy purposes require that this resource is validated as a part of the whole farm or forestry system including political regulations like for instance the EU Natura 2000 directives. Different crops have additional functions/ effects like groundwater protection, biodiversity, soil fertility (including carbon sequestration) which needs to be included when validating such biomass crops. Furthermore, several biomass resources which are regarded as waste at present represent a much higher value, and needs to be addressed in such perspective. (author)

  2. An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation in recent years (2004–2010, and its sustainable management principle. This paper also presents updated information about the governmental regulations and policies for promoting these biosolids as material resources, as well as validating the regulatory levels of toxic constituents in the biosludge and its derived product (e.g., organic fertilizer. Based on the preliminary benefit analysis of utilizing biosludge as raw material for organic fertilizer, reusing biosludge, being a beneficial resource, should be superior to those by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill.

  3. Immune effects of extractives on bamboo biomass self-plasticization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wanxi; Xue, Qiu; Ohkoshi, Makoto

    2014-07-01

    Bamboo is a fast-growing renewable bioresource. However, bamboo resources are wasted, and bamboo products release toxic gases. Bamboo biomass was therefore extracted and self-plasticized, and the immune effects of bamboo extractives were determined and investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the following. (1) The 1H-NMR signals at ~5.5, 4-8, 7.4-10.2, and 12.22-12.37 ppm were attributed to the chemical shifts of active protons on carbons adjacent to R-OH, RAr-OH, oximes, and -COOH, respectively. This showed that there were highly reactive hydrogen atoms in bamboo benzene/ethanol extractives. The 13C-NMR spectrum gave further confirmation. (2) The extents of the effects of key process parameters were different: temperature > hot pressure > time. The optimal self-plasticizing conditions were temperature 170°C, hot pressure 9 MPa, time 40 min, and extraction of bamboo. (3) SEM, FT-IR, and XRD showed that contact and linkages among bamboo cells were significantly decreased by extractives, so the internal bond strengths of the self-plasticized samples were all higher after bamboo extraction. It was also found that the extractives created a significant barrier to bamboo self-plasticization as a result of their structure and chemical linkage reactions.

  4. The Scaevola frutescen (Mill.) Krause dried-leaves extract as a potential natural reduction system for synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their evaluation for antibacterial of Eschericia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salprima Yudha, S.; Angasa, Eka; Suharto, Totok Eka; Nishina, Yuta; Mardlia, Zulfikri Achid; Sipriyadi

    2016-02-01

    Many reports recently show that some plant and animal extracts were useful to prepare some desired materials. In line with the statement, this report will present a bioresources candidate that can be used for green preparation of gold nanoparticles. The Scaevola fruteschen (Mill.) Krause was obtained from Enggano island, Bengkulu Province, Indonesia. The current research include synthesis, characterization and application study of the obtained nanoparticles in their original medium/reduction system as antibacterial agent of Escherichia coli. Besides that, the interaction study of the nanoparticles solution with Pb2+ ions was also studied. The results, shows that the present reduction system (aqueous extract of the plant leaves) successfully reduced gold (III) ions to gold metals as shown by new peak at 544 nm in spectrophotometry analysis. The average nanopartiles size was 96 nm based on Particles Size Analyzer (PSA) result. The stability study revealed that the nanoparticles solution was not stable in the persence of Pb(OAc)2 at high concentration. The nanoparticles were effective enough toward E. coli as shown by inhibition zone that indicates the degree of sensitivity of bacteria to nanoparticles.

  5. Traditional Knowledge in the Time of Neo-Liberalism: Access and Benefit-Sharing Regimes in India and Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Barpujari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In a neoliberal world, traditional knowledge (TK of biodiversity possessed by Indigenous and Local Communities (ILCs in the global South has become a valuable "commodity" or "bio-resource," necessitating the setting up of harmonized ground rules (international and national in the form of an access and benefitsharing regime to facilitate its exchange in the world market. Despite criticisms that a regime with a neo-liberal orientation is antithetical to the normative ethos of ILCs, it could also offer a chance for developing countries and ILCs to generate revenue for socioeconomic development—to which they are gradually becoming open, but only under fair and equitable terms. Based on this context, this article proposes to look into the legal and policy frameworks and institutional regimes governing access and benefit sharing of TK associated with biological resources in two countries of South Asia: India and Bhutan. The article seeks to examine how such regimes are reconciling the imperatives of a neo-liberal economy with providing a just and equitable framework for ILCs and TK holders, which is truly participatory and not top-down.

  6. Toward Global Biobank Integration by Implementation of the Minimum Information About BIobank Data Sharing (MIABIS 2.0 Core).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Martinez, Roxana; Norlin, Loreana; van Enckevort, David; Anton, Gabriele; Schuffenhauer, Simone; Silander, Kaisa; Mook, Linda; Holub, Petr; Bild, Raffael; Swertz, Morris; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2016-08-01

    Biobanks are the biological back end of data-driven medicine, but lack standards and generic solutions for interoperability and information harmonization. The move toward a global information infrastructure for biobanking demands semantic interoperability through harmonized services and common ontologies. To tackle this issue, the Minimum Information About BIobank data Sharing (MIABIS) was developed in 2012 by the Biobanking and BioMolecular Resources Research Infrastructure of Sweden (BBMRI.se). The wide acceptance of the first version of MIABIS encouraged evolving it to a more structured and descriptive standard. In 2013 a working group was formed under the largest infrastructure for health in Europe, Biobanking and BioMolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI-ERIC), with the remit to continue the development of MIABIS (version 2.0) through a multicountry governance process. MIABIS 2.0 Core has been developed with 22 attributes describing Biobanks, Sample Collections, and Studies according to a modular structure that makes it easier to adhere to and to extend the standard. This integration standard will make a great contribution to the discovery and exploitation of biobank resources and lead to a wider and more efficient use of valuable bioresources, thereby speeding up the research on human diseases. Many within the European Union have accepted MIABIS 2.0 Core as the "de facto" biobank information standard.

  7. A Multifunctional and Possible Skin UV Protectant, (3R)-5-Hydroxymellein, Produced by an Endolichenic Fungus Isolated from Parmotrema austrosinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Paik, Man-Jeong; Lee, Wonjae; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2016-12-26

    Lichens are considered a great bio-resource because they produce large numbers of secondary metabolites with many biological activities; however, they have not been cultivated under artificial conditions to date. As a result, lichen substances from natural sources are limited and have not been widely utilized in commercial applications. Accordingly, interest in lichen-associated fungi, especially endogenic fungi, has increased. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight is harmful to human health, resulting in demand for effective UV filtering agents for use in sunscreen. In this study, we purified (3R)-5-hydroxymellein, which has UVA absorption activity, from the secondary metabolites of an endolichenic fungus (ELF000039). The antioxidant properties were then assessed by in vitro tests. The antioxidant activity of (3R)-5-hydroxymellein was high when compared to the recognized antioxidants ascorbic acid (ASA) and butyl hydroxyl anisole (BHA). Moreover, the compound exhibited no cytotoxicity toward mouse melanoma cell lines, B16F1 and B16F10, or the normal cell line, HaCaT. Furthermore, (3R)-5-hydroxymellein recovered the damage caused by UVB irradiation and inhibited melanin synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that (3R)-5-hydroxymellein could have an interesting and vital profile to go further development as a multifunctional skin UV protectant.

  8. Phylogenetic Tree Analysis of the Cold-Hot Nature of Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine for Possible Anticancer Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuxia; Li, Xuebo; Zhang, Fengcong; Wang, Changyun

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Marine Medicine (TCMM) represents one of the medicinal resources for research and development of novel anticancer drugs. In this study, to investigate the presence of anticancer activity (AA) displayed by cold or hot nature of TCMM, we analyzed the association relationship and the distribution regularity of TCMMs with different nature (613 TCMMs originated from 1,091 species of marine organisms) via association rules mining and phylogenetic tree analysis. The screened association rules were collected from three taxonomy groups: (1) Bacteria superkingdom, Phaeophyceae class, Fucales order, Sargassaceae family, and Sargassum genus; (2) Viridiplantae kingdom, Streptophyta phylum, Malpighiales class, and Rhizophoraceae family; (3) Holothuroidea class, Aspidochirotida order, and Holothuria genus. Our analyses showed that TCMMs with closer taxonomic relationship were more likely to possess anticancer bioactivity. We found that the cluster pattern of marine organisms with reported AA tended to cluster with cold nature TCMMs. Moreover, TCMMs with salty-cold nature demonstrated properties for softening hard mass and removing stasis to treat cancers, and species within Metazoa or Viridiplantae kingdom of cold nature were more likely to contain AA properties. We propose that TCMMs from these marine groups may enable focused bioprospecting for discovery of novel anticancer drugs derived from marine bioresources. PMID:28191021

  9. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-11-14

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  10. Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bauhinia variegata: a recent eco-friendly approach for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito vectors are responsible for transmitting diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects, in addition to high operational cost. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has been proposed as an alternative to traditional control tools. In the present study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia variegata by reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The bioreduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against the larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to aqueous extract, synthesized AgNPs showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 and LC90 values of 41.96, 46.16, and 51.92 μg/mL and 82.93, 89.42, and 97.12 μg/mL, respectively. Overall, this study proves that B. variegata is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis and may be proposed as an efficient mosquito control agent.

  11. Biosynthesis of Inorganic Nanoparticles: A Fresh Look at the Control of Shape, Size and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Amar Dahoumane

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several methodologies have been devised for the design of nanomaterials. The “Holy Grail” for materials scientists is the cost-effective, eco-friendly synthesis of nanomaterials with controlled sizes, shapes and compositions, as these features confer to the as-produced nanocrystals unique properties making them appropriate candidates for valuable bio-applications. The present review summarizes published data regarding the production of nanomaterials with special features via sustainable methodologies based on the utilization of natural bioresources. The richness of the latter, the diversity of the routes adopted and the tuned experimental parameters have led to the fabrication of nanomaterials belonging to different chemical families with appropriate compositions and displaying interesting sizes and shapes. It is expected that these outstanding findings will encourage researchers and attract newcomers to continue and extend the exploration of possibilities offered by nature and the design of innovative and safer methodologies towards the synthesis of unique nanomaterials, possessing desired features and exhibiting valuable properties that can be exploited in a profusion of fields.

  12. From here to sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbe, M. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Many readers and contributors to BioResources are working to develop sustainable technology. Such research attempts to use products of photosynthesis to meet long-term human needs with a minimum of environmental impact. Archeological and historical studies have concluded that the long-term success or failure of various past civilizations has depended, at least in part, on people’s ability to maintain the quality of the resources upon which they depended. Though it is possible for modern societies to learn from such examples, modern societies are interconnected to an unprecedented degree. It is no longer realistic to expect one region to be immune from the effects of environmental mistakes that may happen elsewhere in the world. Research related to renewable, lignocellulosic resources is urgently needed. But in addition to the research, there also needs to be discussion of hard-hitting questions, helping to minimize the chances of technological failure. The next failed civilization may be our own.

  13. Synthesis of cellulose nanofiber composites for mechanical reinforcement and other advanced applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuezhu

    Cellulose nanofibers from bioresources have attracted intensive research interest in recent years due to their unique combination of properties including high strength and modulus, low density, biocompatibility/biodegradability and rich surface chemistry for functionalization. The nanofibers have been widely studied as nanoreinforcements in polymer nanocomposites; while the nanocomposite research is still very active, new research directions of using the nanofibers for hydrogels/aerogels, template for nanoparticle synthesis, scaffold, carbon materials, nanopaper, etc. have emerged. In this Ph.D. thesis, fundamental studies and application developments are performed on three types of cellulose nanofibers, i.e. cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and bacterial cellulose (BC). First CNCs and CNFs are systematically compared in terms of their effects on the mechanical properties, crystallization and failure behavior of the nanocomposites, which provides a guideline for the design of cellulose nanofiber reinforced composites. Second, CNFs and BC are used to develop core-shell carbon fibers and flexible carbon aerogels for energy storage applications. This part is focused on developing nanocarbon materials with multi-scale features. Lastly, hybrid CNC/CNF nanopaper with superior optical, mechanical, and electrical properties is developed and its application is demonstrated on a LED device.

  14. Kinetics and isothermal modeling of liquid phase adsorption of rhodamine B onto urea modified Raphia hookerie epicarp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyinbor, A. A.; Adekola, F. A.; Olatunji, G. A.

    2016-09-01

    Epicarp of Raphia hookerie, a bioresource material, was modified with urea (UMRH) to adsorb Rhodamine B (RhB) from aqueous solution. Adsorbent morphology and surface chemistry were established by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area determination, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as the pH point of zero charge (pHpzc) determination. Prepared material was subsequently utilized for the uptake of Rhodamine B (RhB). Operational parameters, such as adsorbent dosage, concentration, time, and temperature, were investigated. Evidence of effective urea modification was confirmed by vivid absorption bands at 1670 and 1472 cm-1 corresponding to C=O and C-N stretching vibrations, respectively. Optimum adsorption was obtained at pH 3. Freundlich adsorption isotherm best fits the equilibrium adsorption data, while evidence of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction was revealed by Temkin isotherm model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (q max) was 434.78 mg/g. Kinetics of the adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Desorption efficiency was less than or equal to 25 % for all the eluents, and it follows the order HCl > H2O > CH3COOH.

  15. Bacillus methylotrophicus Strain NKG-1, Isolated from Changbai Mountain, China, Has Potential Applications as a Biofertilizer or Biocontrol Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Beibei; Liu, Binghua; Nwet, Thinn Thinn; Zhao, Wenjun; Shi, Liming; Zhang, Kecheng

    2016-01-01

    Chemical pesticides are widely used in agriculture, which endangers both environmental health and food safety. Biocontrol is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective green technique in environmental protection and agricultural production; it generally uses selected bioresources, including beneficial microorganisms. We isolated a novel bacterial strain (NKG-1) from the rare dormant volcanic soils of Changbai Mountain in China’s Jilin Province. The strain was identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus using morphological, biochemical, physiological, and phylogenetic 16S rDNA sequencing data. This strain was able to suppress mycelial growth and conidial germination of numerous plant pathogenic fungi on solid media. A greenhouse experiment showed that application of NKG-1 fermentation broth prior to inoculation of Botrytis cinerea, the cause of gray tomato mold, inhibited growth of the mold by 60%. Furthermore, application of a 100× dilution of NKG-1 fermentation broth to tomato seedlings yielded a significant increase in seedling fresh weight (27.4%), seedling length (12.5%), and root length (57.7%) compared to the control. When the same dosage was applied in the field, we observed increases in tomato plant height (14.7%), stem diameter (12.7%), crown width (16.3%), and maximum fruit diameter (11.5%). These results suggest that NKG-1 has potential commercial application as a biofertilizer or biocontrol agent. PMID:27832162

  16. Enzymatic transesterification of palm stearin and olein blends to produce zero-trans margarine fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellami Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food industries aim to replace trans fat in their products by formulations having equivalent functionality and economic viability. Enzymatic transesterification can be a technological option to produce trans free fats targeting commercial applications. Results Palm stearin and palm olein blends in different ratios were enzymatically transesterified in a solvent free system using a Rhizopus oryzae lipase immobilised onto CaCO3 to produce a suitable fat for margarine formulation. Slip melting points and triacylglycerols profiles were evaluated upon transesterification. Results indicated that all transesterified blends had lower slip melting points than their non transesterified counterparts. Furthermore, the triacylglycerols profile showed a decrease in the concentration of the high melting point triacylglycerols. The rheological analysis showed that margarine prepared with the transesterified blend showed a better spreadability than that of a control margarine prepared with non transesterified fat. Adding powder of dry bark orange to margarine preparation improved its colour and fairly affected its spreadability and rheological behaviour. The margarine prepared with transesterified fat displayed a rheological behaviour that was comparable to that of commercial sample. Conclusions This study is an ecofriendly approach to the utilization of relatively low value bioresources like palm stearin and palm olein for making margarine free of trans fatty acids that are now implicated as risk factor for heart diseases.

  17. Assessment of the effects of forest land use strategies on the provision of ecosystem services at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Christine; Frank, Susanne; Witt, Anke; Koschke, Lars; Makeschin, Franz

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents results of a case study in Middle Saxony, Germany, where the impact of conversion, afforestation and alternatively introduction of short rotation coppice areas on the provision of ecosystem services was tested in a spatially inexplicit and a spatially explicit way to formulate recommendations for regional planning. While the spatially inexplicit testing did not lead to clear results regarding to what degree forests or short rotation coppice areas are desirable and applicable, the spatially explicit testing revealed that an increase in the forest area or area with short rotation coppice by 29.7% in unstructured agriculturally dominated Loess regions, 14.4% in more topographically structured parts in the North-East of the model region and 23.6% in its mountainous parts would be beneficial. Potentially resulting losses in the provision of bioresources and regional economy can be considerably reduced by replacing afforestation areas with short rotation coppice. In summary, we found that the spatially explicit analysis of land use scenarios in combination with a more detailed land use classification and including an assessment of changes in land use pattern gave us an improved basis for assessing different possible planning strategies and to enhance the communication between forest management planners and regional planners.

  18. Systematic studies of tannin–formaldehyde aerogels: preparation and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Amaral-Labat, Andrzej Szczurek, Vanessa Fierro, Antonio Pizzi and Alain Celzard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelation of tannin–formaldehyde (TF solutions was systematically investigated by changing pH and concentration of TF resin in water. In this way we constructed the TF phase diagram, from which chemical hydrogels could be described, and also synthesized thermoreversible tannin-based hydrogels. Conditions of non-gelation were also determined. Hydrogels were dried in supercritical CO2, leading to a broad range of TF aerogels. The latter were investigated for volume shrinkage, total porosity, micro-, meso- and macropore volumes, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area, microscopic texture, mechanical and thermal properties. All these properties are discussed in relation to each other, leading to an accurate and self-consistent description of these bioresource-based highly porous materials. The conditions for obtaining the highest BET surface area or mesopore volume were determined and explained in relation to the preparation conditions. The highest BET surface area, 880 m2 g−1, is remarkably high for organic aerogels derived from a natural resource.

  19. Responses of the Microalga Chlorophyta sp. to Bacterial Quorum Sensing Molecules (N-Acylhomoserine Lactones): Aromatic Protein-Induced Self-Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dandan; Zhang, Chaofan; Fu, Liang; Xu, Liang; Cui, Xiaochun; Li, Qingcheng; Crittenden, John C

    2017-03-21

    Bacteria and microalgae often coexist during the recycling of microalgal bioresources in wastewater treatment processes. Although the bacteria may compete with the microalgae for nutrients, they could also facilitate microalgal harvesting by forming algal-bacterial aggregates. However, very little is known about interspecies interactions between bacteria and microalgae. In this study, we investigated the responses of a model microalga, Chlorophyta sp., to the typical quorum sensing (QS) molecules N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) extracted from activated sludge bacteria. Chlorophyta sp. self-aggregated in 200 μm bioflocs by secreting 460-1000 kDa aromatic proteins upon interacting with AHLs, and the settling efficiency of Chlorophyta sp. reached as high as 41%. However, Chlorophyta sp. cells were essentially in a free suspension in the absence of AHLs. Fluorescence intensity of the aromatic proteins had significant (P microalga. Transcriptome results further revealed up-regulation of synthesis pathways for aromatic proteins from tyrosine and phenylalanine that was assisted by anthranilate accumulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm that eukaryotic microorganisms can sense and respond to prokaryotic QS molecules.

  20. Identification of carbohydrates as the major carbon sink of the marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis (Haptophyta) and optimization of its productivity by nitrogen manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Tao; Yao, Chang-Hong; Ai, Jiang-Ning; Cao, Xu-Peng; Xue, Song; Wang, Wei-liang

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae represent a potential feedstock for biofuel production. During cultivation under nitrogen-depleted conditions, carbohydrates, rather than neutral lipids, were the major carbon sink of the marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis (Haptophyta). Carbohydrates reached maximum levels of 21.2 pg cell(-1) on day 5, which was an increase of more than 7-fold from day 1, while neutral lipids simultaneously increased 1.9-fold from 4.0 to 7.6 pg cell(-1) during the ten-day nitrogen-depleted cultivation. The carbohydrate productivity of I. zhangjiangensis was improved by optimization of the nitrate supply mode. The maximum carbohydrate concentration was 0.95 g L(-1) under batch cultivation, with an initial nitrogen concentration of 31.0 mg L(-1), which was 2.4-fold greater than that achieved under nitrogen-depleted conditions. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the accumulated carbohydrate in I. zhangjiangensis was composed of glucose. These results show that I. zhangjiangensis represents an ideal carbohydrate-enriched bioresource for biofuel production.

  1. An Efficient Rice Mutagenesis System Based on Suspension-Cultured Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Ling Chen; Hui-Lin Liang; Xing-Liang Ma; Su-Lin Lou; Yong-Yao Xie; Zhen-Lan Liu; Le-Tian Chen; Yao-Guang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Plant mutants are important bio-resources for crop breeding and gene functional studies.Conventional methods for generating mutant libraries by mutagenesis of seeds with physical or chemical agents are of low efficiency.Here,we developed a highly-efficient ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis system based on suspension-cultured cells,with rice (Oryza sativa L.) as an example.We show that treatment of suspension-cultured tiny cell clusters with 0.4% EMS for 18-22 h followed by differentiation and regeneration produced as high as 29.4% independent mutant lines with visible phenotypic variations,including a number of important agronomic traits such as grain size,panicle size,grain or panicle shape,tiller number and angle,heading date,male sterility,and disease sensitivity.No mosaic mutant was observed in the mutant lines tested.In this mutant library,we obtained a mutant with an abnormally elongated uppermost internode.Sequencing and functional analysis revealed that this is a new allelic mutant of eui (elongated uppermost internode) caused by two point mutations in the first exon of the EUI gene,representing a successful example of this mutagenesis system.

  2. Morphological alteration, lysosomal membrane fragility and apoptosis of the cells of Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Dutta, Manab Kumar; Acharya, Avanti; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Sajal

    2015-12-01

    Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is a component of laundry detergent. Domestic effluent, drain water and various anthropogenic activities have been identified as major routes of sodium carbonate contamination of the freshwater ecosystem. The freshwater sponge, Eunapius carteri, bears ecological and evolutionary significance and is considered as a bioresource in aquatic ecosystems. The present study involves estimation of morphological damage, lysosomal membrane integrity, activity of phosphatases and apoptosis in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Exposure to washing soda resulted in severe morphological alterations and damages in cells of E. carteri. Fragility and destabilization of lysosomal membranes of E. carteri under the sublethal exposure was indicative to toxin induced physiological stress in sponge. Prolonged exposure to sodium carbonate resulted a reduction in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in the cells of E. carteri. Experimental concentration of 8 mg/l of washing soda for 192 h yielded an increase in the physiological level of cellular apoptosis among the semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, which was suggestive to possible shift in apoptosis mediated immunoprotection. The results were indicative of an undesirable shift in the immune status of sponge. Contamination of the freshwater aquifers by washing soda thus poses an alarming ecotoxicological threat to sponges.

  3. Xylooligosaccharides: an economical prebiotic from agroresidues and their health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ira; Kumar, Vikash; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-03-01

    Oligosaccharides and dietary fibres are non-digestible food ingredients that preferentially stimulate the growth of prebiotic Bifidobacterium and other lactic acid bacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) provide a plethora of health benefits and can be incorporated into several functional foods. In the recent times, there has been an over emphasis on the microbial conversion of agroresidues into various value added products. Xylan, the major hemicellulosic component of lignocellulosic materials (LCMs), represents an important structural component of plant biomass in agricultural residues and could be a potent bioresource for XOS. On an industrial scale, XOS can be produced by chemical, enzymatic or chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of LCMs. Chemical methods generate XOS with a broad degree of polymerization (DP), while enzymatic processes will be beneficial for the manufacture of food grade and pharmaceutically important XOS. Xylooligomers exert several health benefits, and therefore, have been considered to provide relief from several ailments. This review provides a brief on production, purification and structural characterization of XOS and their health benefits.

  4. Anticancer activity of biostabilized selenium nanorods synthesized by Streptomyces bikiniensis strain Ess_amA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maged Sayed; Yasser, Manal Mohamed; Sholkamy, Essam Nageh; Ali, Ali Mohamed; Mehanni, Magda Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Selenium is an important component of human diet and a number of studies have declared its chemopreventive and therapeutic properties against cancer. However, very limited studies have been conducted about the properties of selenium nanostructured materials in comparison to other well-studied selenospecies. Here, we have shown that the anticancer property of biostabilized selenium nanorods (SeNrs) synthesized by applying a novel strain Ess_amA-1 of Streptomyces bikiniensis. The strain was grown aerobically with selenium dioxide and produced stable SeNrs with average particle size of 17 nm. The optical, structural, morphological, elemental, and functional characterizations of the SeNrs were carried out using techniques such as UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, respectively. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay revealed that the biosynthesized SeNrs induces cell death of Hep-G2 and MCF-7 human cancer cells. The lethal dose (LD50%) of SeNrs on Hep-G2 and MCF-7 cells was recorded at 75.96 μg/mL and 61.86 μg/mL, respectively. It can be concluded that S. bikiniensis strain Ess_amA-1 could be used as renewable bioresources of biosynthesis of anticancer SeNrs. A hypothetical mechanism for anticancer activity of SeNrs is also proposed.

  5. Efficient production of L-lactic acid from cassava powder by Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Bo; Yang, Chunyu; Yu, Bo; Li, Qinggang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping; Ma, Yanhe

    2010-10-01

    Cassava is one of the most efficient and rich crops in terms of carbohydrate production, which is a tropical perennial plant that grows on poor or depleted soils. Microbial conversion of such a renewable raw material to useful products is an important objective in industrial biotechnology. L-Lactic acid was efficiently produced from cassava powder by a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain CASL. The fermentation properties of cassava powder were compared with those of glucose and corn powder. The efficiencies of various fermentation strategies for L-lactic acid production from cassava powder, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), two-step fermentation (TSF) and simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification and fermentation (SLSF), were investigated. The high L-lactic acid concentration (175.4 g/l) was obtained using 275 g/l of cassava powder concentration (total sugar of 222.5 g/l) in SSF batch fermentation. This is the highest L-lactic acid concentration reported, from cassava source, and it provides an efficient L-lactic acid production process with cheap raw bioresources, such as cassava powder.

  6. Anticancer Effects of the Marine Sponge Lipastrotethya sp. Extract on Wild-Type and p53 Knockout HCT116 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiheon Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in marine bioresources is increasing in the drug development sector. In particular, marine sponges produce a wide range of unique metabolites that enable them to survive in challenging environments, which makes them attractive sources of candidate pharmaceuticals. In previous study, we investigated over 40 marine specimens collected in Micronesia and provided by the Korean Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, for their antiproliferative effects on various cancer cell lines, and Lipastrotethya sp. extract (LSSE was found to have a marked antiproliferative effect. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism responsible for its anticancer effect on wild-type p53 (WT or p53 knockout (KO HCT116 cells. LSSE inhibited cell viability and induced apoptotic cell death more so in HCT116 p53 KO cells than the WT. HCT116 WT cells treated with LSSE underwent apoptosis associated with the induction of p53 and its target genes. On the other hand, in HCT116 p53 KO cells, LSSE reduced mTOR and Bcl-2 and increased Beclin-1 and LC3-II protein levels, suggesting autophagy induction. These results indicate that the mechanisms responsible for the anticancer effect of LSSE depend on p53 status.

  7. Apoptosis-Inducing Activity of Marine Sponge Haliclona sp. Extracts Collected from Kosrae in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woori Bae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although various anticancer drugs have been developed for the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer, chemotherapeutic efficacy is still limited. Natural products such as phytochemicals have been screened as novel alternative materials, but alternative funds such as marine bioresources remain largely untapped. Of these resources, marine sponges have undergone the most scrutiny for their biological activities, including antiinflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer properties. However, the biological mechanisms of the activities of these marine sponges are still unclear. We investigated the anticancer activity of marine sponges collected from Kosrae in Micronesia and examined their mechanisms of action using nonsmall cell lung cancer A549 cells as a model system. Of 20 specimens, the Haliclona sp. (KO1304-328 showed both dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Further, methanol extracts of Haliclona sp. significantly inhibited cell proliferation and cell viability. A549 cells treated with Haliclona sp. demonstrated induced expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, p53, p21, caspase-8, and caspase-3. The percentage of apoptotic cells significantly increased in A549 cultures treated with Haliclona sp. These results indicate that Haliclona sp. induces apoptosis via the JNK-p53 pathway and caspase-8, suggesting that this marine sponge is a good resource for the development of drugs for treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer.

  8. Anticancer Activity of Marine Sponge Hyrtios sp. Extract in Human Colorectal Carcinoma RKO Cells with Different p53 Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyung Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug development using marine bioresources is limited even though the ocean occupies about 70% of the earth and contains a large number of biological materials. From the screening test of the marine sponge extracts, we found Hyrtios sp. sponge collected from Chuuk island, Micronesia. In this study, the Hyrtios sp. extract was examined for anticancer activity against human colorectal carcinoma RKO cells that are wildtype for p53 and RKO-E6 that are p53 defective. The Hyrtios sp. extract dose-dependently inhibited viability in both cell lines. Multinucleation as an indication of mitotic catastrophe was also observed. Cytotoxicity tests gave significantly different results for RKO and RKO-E6 cells after 48 h exposure to Hyrtios sp. extract. In RKO cells treated with Hyrtios sp. extract, cell death occurred by induction of p53 and p21 proteins. In p53-defective RKO-E6 cells, Hyrtios sp. extract decreased expression of JNK protein and increased p21 protein. These results indicate that Hyrtios sp. extract induced apoptosis via different pathways depending on p53 status and could be a good natural product for developing new anticancer drugs.

  9. Terminalia belerica Roxb. seed oil: a potential biodiesel resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Rakesh; Sharma, Meeta; Khan, Arif Ali

    2010-02-01

    Terminalia belerica seeds, collected from Indian forests, were explored as an alternate bioresource for biodiesel synthesis. The oil yield of T. belerica seed is about 31% (dry weight basis). The fatty acid profile of T. belerica seed oil shows predominance of oleic acid (C(18:1)) glycerides (61.5%) along with linoleic (18.5%) and palmitic (11.6%) glycerides. Oil was extracted and evaluated for physico-chemical properties vis-a-vis jatropha, sunflower, soybean and rapeseed oil. T. belerica oil was transesterified with methanol in the presence of sodium methoxide catalyst. The physico-chemical properties of synthesized methyl ester were compared to jatropha, sunflower, soybean and rapeseed methyl esters as per ASTM D-6751 specification of biodiesel. Synthesized T. belerica methyl ester was also blended in diesel at 5-20% ratios and evaluated for key physico-chemical properties as per IS 1460 specification and found to meet in properties evaluated as per specific standards. The study revealed the possibility of T. belerica seed oil as potential resource of biodiesel.

  10. Animal models of Parkinson's disease and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park HJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Jin Park, Ting Ting Zhao, Myung Koo LeeDepartment of Pharmacy, Research Center for Bioresource and Health, College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Republic of Korea Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that occurs mainly due to the degeneration of dopaminergic neuronal cells in the substantia nigra. l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA is the most effective known therapy for PD. However, chronic L-DOPA administration results in a loss of drug efficacy and irreversible adverse effects, including L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, affective disorders, and cognitive function disorders. To study the motor and non-motor symptomatic dysfunctions in PD, neurotoxin and genetic animal models of PD have been widely applied. However, these animal models do not exhibit all of the pathophysiological symptoms of PD. Regardless, neurotoxin rat and mouse models of PD have been commonly used in the development of bioactive components from natural herbal medicines. Here, the main animal models of PD and their applications have been introduced in order to aid the development of therapeutic and adjuvant agents. Keywords: Parkinson's disease, neurotoxin animal models, genetic animal models, adjuvant therapeutics

  11. Diversity of Marine-Derived Fungal Cultures Exposed by DNA Barcodes: The Algorithm Matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Andreakis

    Full Text Available Marine fungi are an understudied group of eukaryotic microorganisms characterized by unresolved genealogies and unstable classification. Whereas DNA barcoding via the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS provides a robust and rapid tool for fungal species delineation, accurate classification of fungi is often arduous given the large number of partial or unknown barcodes and misidentified isolates deposited in public databases. This situation is perpetuated by a paucity of cultivable fungal strains available for phylogenetic research linked to these data sets. We analyze ITS barcodes produced from a subsample (290 of 1781 cultured isolates of marine-derived fungi in the Bioresources Library located at the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS. Our analysis revealed high levels of under-explored fungal diversity. The majority of isolates were ascomycetes including representatives of the subclasses Eurotiomycetidae, Hypocreomycetidae, Sordariomycetidae, Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetidae, Xylariomycetidae and Saccharomycetidae. The phylum Basidiomycota was represented by isolates affiliated with the genera Tritirachium and Tilletiopsis. BLAST searches revealed 26 unknown OTUs and 50 isolates corresponding to previously uncultured, unidentified fungal clones. This study makes a significant addition to the availability of barcoded, culturable marine-derived fungi for detailed future genomic and physiological studies. We also demonstrate the influence of commonly used alignment algorithms and genetic distance measures on the accuracy and comparability of estimating Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs by the automatic barcode gap finder (ABGD method. Large scale biodiversity screening programs that combine datasets using algorithmic OTU delineation pipelines need to ensure compatible algorithms have been used because the algorithm matters.

  12. Diversity of Marine-Derived Fungal Cultures Exposed by DNA Barcodes: The Algorithm Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreakis, Nikos; Høj, Lone; Kearns, Philip; Hall, Michael R; Ericson, Gavin; Cobb, Rose E; Gordon, Benjamin R; Evans-Illidge, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Marine fungi are an understudied group of eukaryotic microorganisms characterized by unresolved genealogies and unstable classification. Whereas DNA barcoding via the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) provides a robust and rapid tool for fungal species delineation, accurate classification of fungi is often arduous given the large number of partial or unknown barcodes and misidentified isolates deposited in public databases. This situation is perpetuated by a paucity of cultivable fungal strains available for phylogenetic research linked to these data sets. We analyze ITS barcodes produced from a subsample (290) of 1781 cultured isolates of marine-derived fungi in the Bioresources Library located at the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS). Our analysis revealed high levels of under-explored fungal diversity. The majority of isolates were ascomycetes including representatives of the subclasses Eurotiomycetidae, Hypocreomycetidae, Sordariomycetidae, Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetidae, Xylariomycetidae and Saccharomycetidae. The phylum Basidiomycota was represented by isolates affiliated with the genera Tritirachium and Tilletiopsis. BLAST searches revealed 26 unknown OTUs and 50 isolates corresponding to previously uncultured, unidentified fungal clones. This study makes a significant addition to the availability of barcoded, culturable marine-derived fungi for detailed future genomic and physiological studies. We also demonstrate the influence of commonly used alignment algorithms and genetic distance measures on the accuracy and comparability of estimating Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) by the automatic barcode gap finder (ABGD) method. Large scale biodiversity screening programs that combine datasets using algorithmic OTU delineation pipelines need to ensure compatible algorithms have been used because the algorithm matters.

  13. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  14. Wound healing modulation by a latex protein-containing polyvinyl alcohol biomembrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Márcio V; de Alencar, Nylane Maria N; de Oliveira, Raquel S B; Freitas, Lyara B N; Aragão, Karoline S; de Andrade, Thiago Antônio M; Frade, Marco Andrey C; Brito, Gerly Anne C; de Figueiredo, Ingrid Samantha T

    2016-07-01

    In a previous study, we performed the chemical characterization of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membrane supplemented with latex proteins (LP) displaying wound healing activity, and its efficacy as a delivery system was demonstrated. Here, we report on aspects of the mechanism underlying the performance of the PVA-latex protein biomembrane on wound healing. LP-PVA, but not PVA, induced more intense leukocyte (neutrophil) migration and mast cell degranulation during the inflammatory phase of the cicatricial process. Likewise, LP-PVA induced an increase in key markers and mediators of the inflammatory response (myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide, TNF, and IL-1β). These results demonstrated that LP-PVA significantly accelerates the early phase of the inflammatory process by upregulating cytokine release. This remarkable effect improves the subsequent phases of the healing process. The polyvinyl alcohol membrane was fully absorbed as an inert support while LP was shown to be active. It is therefore concluded that the LP-PVA is a suitable bioresource for biomedical engineering.

  15. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from spent coffee grounds oil obtained by supercritical fluid extraction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Madalena V; Paiva, Alexandre; Lisboa, Pedro; Freitas, Filomena; Alves, Vítor D; Simões, Pedro; Barreiros, Susana; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-04-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG) oil was obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) extraction in a pilot plant apparatus, with an oil extraction yield of 90% at a 35kgkg(-1) CO2/SCG ratio. Cupriavidus necator DSM 428 was cultivated in 2L bioreactor using extracted SCG oil as sole carbon source for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates. The culture reached a cell dry weight of 16.7gL(-1) with a polymer content of 78.4% (w/w). The volumetric polymer productivity and oil yield were 4.7gL(-1)day(-1) and 0.77gg(-1), respectively. The polymer produced was a homopolymer of 3-hydroxybutyrate with an average molecular weight of 2.34×10(5) and a polydispersity index of 1.2. The polymer exhibited brittle behaviour, with very low elongation at break (1.3%), tensile strength at break of 16MPa and Young's Modulus of 1.0GPa. Results show that SCG can be a bioresource for polyhydroxyalkanoates production with interesting properties.

  16. A Multifunctional and Possible Skin UV Protectant, (3R-5-Hydroxymellein, Produced by an Endolichenic Fungus Isolated from Parmotrema austrosinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are considered a great bio-resource because they produce large numbers of secondary metabolites with many biological activities; however, they have not been cultivated under artificial conditions to date. As a result, lichen substances from natural sources are limited and have not been widely utilized in commercial applications. Accordingly, interest in lichen-associated fungi, especially endogenic fungi, has increased. Ultraviolet (UV radiation in sunlight is harmful to human health, resulting in demand for effective UV filtering agents for use in sunscreen. In this study, we purified (3R-5-hydroxymellein, which has UVA absorption activity, from the secondary metabolites of an endolichenic fungus (ELF000039. The antioxidant properties were then assessed by in vitro tests. The antioxidant activity of (3R-5-hydroxymellein was high when compared to the recognized antioxidants ascorbic acid (ASA and butyl hydroxyl anisole (BHA. Moreover, the compound exhibited no cytotoxicity toward mouse melanoma cell lines, B16F1 and B16F10, or the normal cell line, HaCaT. Furthermore, (3R-5-hydroxymellein recovered the damage caused by UVB irradiation and inhibited melanin synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that (3R-5-hydroxymellein could have an interesting and vital profile to go further development as a multifunctional skin UV protectant.

  17. Cholesteric liquid crystal formation in suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato-Rios, Camilla; Bruckner, Johanna; Schütz, Christina; Wagner, Sammy; Tosheva, Zornitza; Bergström, Lennart; Lagerwall, Jan P. F.

    With the strong current trend in nanotechnology to focus on sustainably produced nanomaterials, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are emerging as a particularly interesting candidate. They are mechanically strong, optically transparency and birefringent, have low weight and low thermal expansion coefficient. A most desirable feature of CNC is that aqueous suspensions form cholesteric liquid crystal phases already at low concentration, and when dried into thin solid films, the periodicity of the helical structure can be reduced to the range of visible selective reflection, in practice making the film a photonic crystal paper. We begin the chapter by briefly explaining how CNC is extracted from cellulose-rich bioresources, followed by a summary of the typical characteristics in terms of dimensions and surface charge, and how these depend on the production method. The current understanding of the phase diagram of CNC suspensions is then discussed, from the low-concentration regime around the isotropic-cholesteric transition to the less well understood regime where the system is kinetically arrested in a non-equilibrium state. We discuss the influences on phase behavior and cholesteric pitch of the solvent and its ionic strength. Finally, we discuss the production of photonic crystal films and we give a brief outlook.

  18. Access Governance for Biobanks: The Case of the BioSHaRE-EU Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jane; Briceño Moraia, Linda; Mitchell, Colin; Bell, Jessica; Bovenberg, Jasper Adriaan; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2016-06-01

    Currently, researchers have to apply separately to individual biobanks if they want to carry out studies that use samples and data from multiple biobanks. This article analyzes the access governance arrangements of the original five biobank members of the Biobank Standardisation and Harmonisation for Research Excellence in the European Union (BioSHaRE-EU) project in Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom to identify similarities and differences in policies and procedures, and consider the potential for internal policy "harmonization." Our analysis found differences in the range of researchers and organizations eligible to access biobanks; application processes; requirements for Research Ethics Committee approval; and terms of Material Transfer Agreements relating to ownership and commercialization. However, the main elements of access are the same across biobanks; access will be granted to bona fide researchers conducting research in the public interest, and all biobanks will consider the scientific merit of the proposed use and it's compatibility with the biobank's objectives. These findings suggest potential areas for harmonization across biobanks. This could be achieved through a single centralized application to a number of biobanks or a system of mutual recognition that places a presumption in favor of access to one biobank if already approved by another member of the same consortium. Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure-European Research Infrastructure Consortia (BBMRI-ERIC), a European consortium of biobanks and bioresources with its own ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) common service, could provide a platform by developing guidelines for harmonized internal processes.

  19. Current status of molecular biological techniques for plant breeding in the Republic of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Si-Myung; Park, Bum-Seok; Yun, In-Sun; Goo, Doe-Hoe; Kim, Seok-Dong [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    Classical plant breeding has played an important role in developing new varieties in current agriculture. For decades, the technique of cross-pollination has been popular for breeding in cereal and horticultural crops to introduce special traits. However, recently the molecular techniques get widely accepted as an alternative tool in both introducing a useful trait for developing the new cultivars and investigating the characteristics of a trait in plant, like the identification of a gene. Using the advanced molecular technique, several genetically modified (GM) crops (e.g., Roundup Ready Soybean, YieldGard, LibertyLink etc.) became commercially cultivated and appeared in the global market since 1996. The GM crops, commercially available at the moment, could be regarded as successful achievements in history of crop breeding conferring the specific gene into economically valuable crops to make them better. Along with such achievements, on the other hand these new crops have also caused the controversial debate on the safety of GM crops as human consumption and environmental release as well. Nevertheless, molecular techniques are widespread and popular in both investigating the basic science of plant biology and breeding new varieties compared to their conventional counterparts. Thus, the Department of Bioresources at the National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NIAST) has been using the molecular biological techniques as a complimentary tool for the improvement of crop varieties for almost two decades. (author)

  20. Excavating abiotic stress-related gene resources of terrestrial macroscopic cyanobacteria for crop genetic engineering: dawn and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shuifeng; Gao, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered (GE) crops with resistance to environmental stresses are one of the most important solutions for future food security. Numerous genes associated to plant stress resistance have been identified and characterized. However, the current reality is that only a few transgenic crops expressing prokaryotic genes are successfully applied in field conditions. These few prokaryotic genes include Agrobacterium strain CP4 EPSPS gene, Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab gene and a bacterial chaperonin gene. Thus, the excavation of potentially critical genes still remains an arduous task for crop engineering. Terrestrial macroscopic cyanobacteria, Nostoc commune and Nostoc flagelliforme, which exhibit extreme resistance to desiccation stress, may serve as new prokaryotic bioresources for excavating critical genes. Recently, their marker gene wspA was heterologously expressed in Arabidopsis plant and the transgenics exhibited more flourishing root systems than wild-type plants under osmotic stress condition. In addition, some new genes associated with drought response and adaptation in N. flagelliforme are being uncovered by our ongoing RNA-seq analysis. Although the relevant work about the terrestrial macroscopic cyanobacteria is still underway, we believe that the prospect of excavating their critical genes for application in GE crops is quite optimistic.

  1. World data centre for microorganisms: an information infrastructure to explore and utilize preserved microbial strains worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhuan; Sun, Qinglan; Desmeth, Philippe; Sugawara, Hideaki; Xu, Zhenghong; McCluskey, Kevin; Smith, David; Alexander, Vasilenko; Lima, Nelson; Ohkuma, Moriya; Robert, Vincent; Zhou, Yuguang; Li, Jianhui; Fan, Guomei; Ingsriswang, Supawadee; Ozerskaya, Svetlana; Ma, Juncai

    2017-01-04

    The World Data Centre for Microorganisms (WDCM) was established 50 years ago as the data center of the World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC)-Microbial Resource Center (MIRCEN). WDCM aims to provide integrated information services using big data technology for microbial resource centers and microbiologists all over the world. Here, we provide an overview of WDCM including all of its integrated services. Culture Collections Information Worldwide (CCINFO) provides metadata information on 708 culture collections from 72 countries and regions. Global Catalogue of Microorganism (GCM) gathers strain catalogue information and provides a data retrieval, analysis, and visualization system of microbial resources. Currently, GCM includes >368 000 strains from 103 culture collections in 43 countries and regions. Analyzer of Bioresource Citation (ABC) is a data mining tool extracting strain related publications, patents, nucleotide sequences and genome information from public data sources to form a knowledge base. Reference Strain Catalogue (RSC) maintains a database of strains listed in International Standards Organization (ISO) and other international or regional standards. RSC allocates a unique identifier to strains recommended for use in diagnosis and quality control, and hence serves as a valuable cross-platform reference. WDCM provides free access to all these services at www.wdcm.org.

  2. Inbreeding Ratio and Genetic Relationships among Strains of the Western Clawed Frog, Xenopus tropicalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Igawa

    Full Text Available The Western clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis, is a highly promising model amphibian, especially in developmental and physiological research, and as a tool for understanding disease. It was originally found in the West African rainforest belt, and was introduced to the research community in the 1990s. The major strains thus far known include the Nigerian and Ivory Coast strains. However, due to its short history as an experimental animal, the genetic relationship among the various strains has not yet been clarified, and establishment of inbred strains has not yet been achieved. Since 2003 the Institute for Amphibian Biology (IAB, Hiroshima University has maintained stocks of multiple X. tropicalis strains and conducted consecutive breeding as part of the National BioResource Project. In the present study we investigated the inbreeding ratio and genetic relationship of four inbred strains at IAB, as well as stocks from other institutions, using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and mitochondrial haplotypes. Our results show successive reduction of heterozygosity in the genome of the IAB inbred strains. The Ivory Coast strains clearly differed from the Nigerian strains genetically, and three subgroups were identified within both the Nigerian and Ivory Coast strains. It is noteworthy that the Ivory Coast strains have an evolutionary divergent genetic background. Our results serve as a guide for the most effective use of X. tropicalis strains, and the long-term maintenance of multiple strains will contribute to further research efforts.

  3. Lichen Flora of Western Part of Yunnan Province, China%中国云南西部地衣区系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鑫丽; 王立松; 许宰铣

    2007-01-01

    Lichenological expedition was organized by Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) to survey highland macrolichen at the western part of Yunnan province, China in 2005. The expedition was aimed to collect oversea lichen materials as a potential bioresource for further industrial use. More than 400 lichen specimens were collected and 86 species in 46 genera of lichens were identified from the survey area. Among them, 40 species have been reported in Korea peninsula. All the collected specimens are deposited in the herbarium of KoLRI at Sunchon National University in Korea and Crytogamic Herbarium, Kunming Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica in China.%对中国云南西部高山地区的大型地衣进行了调查.采集地衣标本400余份,鉴定为46属86种,其中40种在朝鲜半岛有报道.所有采集的标本现保藏于顺天大学韩国地衣研究所和中国科学院昆明植物研究所隐花植物标本馆.

  4. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles fabricated using Anisomeles indica: Mosquitocidal potential against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools against mosquito vectors are a priority. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap, aqueous leaf extract of Anisomeles indica by reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. Bio-reduced AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The acute toxicity of A. indica leaf extract and biosynthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Both the A. indica leaf extract and AgNP showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against all tested mosquito species. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized AgNP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 31.56, 35.21 and 38.08 μg/mL, respectively. Overall, this study firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of A. indica, a potential bioresource for rapid, cheap and effective AgNP synthesis.

  5. Facile fabrication of eco-friendly nano-mosquitocides: Biophysical characterization and effectiveness on neglected tropical mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors are solely responsible for transmitting important diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and Zika virus. Eco-friendly control tools of Culicidae vectors are a priority. In this study, we proposed a facile fabrication process of poly-disperse and stable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using a cheap leaf extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens (Apocyanaceae). Bio-reduced Ag NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity of I. frutescens leaf extract and green-synthesized Ag NPs was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, Ag NPs showed higher toxicity against A. subpictus, A. albopictus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 14.22, 15.84 and 17.26μg/mL, respectively. Ag NPs were found safer to non-target mosquito predators Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 636.61 to 2098.61μg/mL. Overall, this research firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of I. frutescens, a potential bio-resource for rapid, cheap and effective synthesis of poly-disperse and highly stable silver nanocrystals.

  6. One-step synthesis of polydispersed silver nanocrystals using Malva sylvestris: an eco-friendly mosquito larvicide with negligible impact on non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis of eco-friendly nanoparticles is evergreen branch of nanoscience with a growing number of biomedical implications. In this study, we investigated the synthesis of polydisperse and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap leaf extract of Malva sylvestris (Malvaceae). Bio-reduced AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity of M. sylvestris leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, AgNP showed higher toxicity against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 10.33, 11.23, and 12.19 μg/mL, respectively. Green-synthesized AgNP were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 813.16 to 1044.52 μg/mL. Overall, this research firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of M. sylvestris, a potential bio-resource for rapid, cheap and effective synthesis of polydisperse and highly stable silver nanocrystals.

  7. Public-private relationships in biobanking: a still underestimated key component of open innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Paul; Bréchot, Christian; Zatloukal, Kurt; Dagher, Georges; Clément, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Access to human bioresources is essential to the understanding of human diseases and to the discovery of new biomarkers aimed at improving the diagnosis, prognosis, and the predictive response of patients to treatments. The use of biospecimens is strictly controlled by ethical assessment, which complies with the laws of the country. These laws regulate the partnerships between the biobanks and industrial actors. However, private-public partnerships (PPP) can be limiting for several reasons, which can hamper the discovery of new biological tests and new active molecules targeted to human diseases. The bottlenecks and roadblocks in establishing these partnerships include: poor organization of the biobank in setting up PPP, evaluation of the cost of human samples, the absence of experience on the public side in setting up contracts with industry, and the fact that public and private partners may not share the same objectives. However, it is critical, in particular for academic biobanks, to establish strong PPP to accelerate translational research for the benefits of patients, and to allow the sustainability of the biobank. The purpose of this review is to discuss the main bottlenecks and roadblocks that can hamper the establishment of PPP based on solid and trusting relationships.

  8. Removal of elemental mercury by bamboo charcoal impregnated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengqiang Tan; Jianrong Qiu; Hancai Zeng; Hao Liu; Jun Xiang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2011-04-15

    Mercury emission from coal combustion is an increasing environmental concern due to its high volatility and toxicity, and activated carbon (AC) adsorption has been proven an effective mercury-control method, with high-cost limit. The renewable bioresource of bamboo constitutes an important precursor for activated carbon, and the bamboo charcoal (BC) may act as low-cost sorbent used in the mercury-control. The adsorptive potential of BC and modified BC using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for elemental mercury was investigated for the first time through a parametric study conducted with a bench-scale bed. The effects of pore structure and surface chemistry were investigated based on BET, XPS. Which suggest that BC materials have excellent adsorption potential for elemental mercury, especially after modified by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The modification using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} altered the physical and chemical properties of BC materials, making the sorbents more effective in mercury adsorption even at a relative higher temperature, and the enhancing-effect was more obvious with increasing H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. 32 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. An Ethnopharmacological Study of Medicinal Plants in New South Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Randall

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Aboriginal people have used plants as medicine and food for thousands of years, however, this traditional knowledge is documented only to a limited extent, and is in danger of being lost. The Indigenous Bioresources Research Group (IBRG aims to help Australian Aboriginal communities to preserve their customary medicinal knowledge, and to provide information that can be used for their cultural or educational purposes, as well as for scientific advancement. This work is undertaken in close collaboration with Australian Aboriginal communities in New South Wales. The project is multidisciplinary, combining an ethnobotanical and an ethnopharmacological approach, which includes biological and chemical investigations, as well as developing best practices for protecting traditional knowledge. This paper describes the general strategy of the project as well as methods used in the ethnopharmacological study. Ethnobotanical databases are set up for each participating community. Plant material is collected, extracted, and active compounds are isolated using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. All extracts and compounds are tested for biological activity in antimicrobial assays (disc diffusion, resazurin, fluorescein diacetate, neurological assays or anti-inflammatory assays, depending on their traditional use.

  10. Comparative analysis on transcriptome sequencings of six Sargassum species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guoliang; WANG Xumin; WU Shuangxiu; SUN Jing; LIU Guiming; WANG Liang; YU Jun; LIU Tao; CHI Shan; LIU Cui; GUO Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Species of Sargassum are distributed worldwide, and are of great ecological and economic importance in marine ecosystems and bioresources. In this study, transcriptome sequencings of six Sargassum species were performed for the first time using an Illumina platform. For each sample, a total of 2.1-2.5 Gb of nucle-otides are collected and assembled into 69 871-116 790 scaffolds, with an average length of 410-550 bp and N50 length of 756-1 462 bp. A total of 20 512-28 684 unigenes of each sample were annotated and compared well with known gene sequences from nr database. Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were also performed for further un-derstanding of gene functions and regulation pathways. Gene expression levels were calculated based on RPKM values and compared among these species, especially for those genes related to carbohydrate metab-olism. Cluster analyses indicated that the differences of global gene expression between S. fusiforme, which was nominated as Hizikia fusiformis before, and other five species were not significant. Further phylogenet-ic analysis of 108 orthologous genes confirmed that S. fusiforme had closer relationship with S. hemiphyllum rather than S. horneri. These transcriptome data provided valuable information for better understanding of genome and gene characteristics of Sargassum algae and benefiting comparative and phylogenetic studies of Phaeophyceae species in future studies.

  11. New Integrative, Cross-border and Transnational Approaches for a Carpatho-Danubiano-Pontic Transdisciplinary Mega Project Based on Horizon 2020 and the European Strategy for Bio-Economy 2030. Innovative Eco-bio-geo-economic Solutions and Legislative-Financial Synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bogdan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This project is absolutely necessary because the economic situation, nationally and globally, requires innovative impetus that materialize in socio-economic development through the use of transalpine Eco-zone balanced and efficient management, responsible and rational local bioresources, improving quality of life and therefore human and animal health, combating and preventing major environmental issues, sustainable use of biological resources for industrial purposes, while ensuring environmental protection and biodiversity, rational land use and not least food security. This project aims at increasing the added value of RDI national system - forming and research; - formation of new specialists; - conducting research into new areas of European institutions; - carrying out scientific research FOOD Bio-Platform in the context of innovative ecobio- geo-economic solutions and legislative-financial synergies. The present project is contribute to counteract biodiversity loss, relying on the protection of natural heritage and cultural landscape vulnerable. Biodiversity in general and biodiversity protection in particular, must be compatible with economic development for the benefit of local communities, biodiversity as a ―common heritage of mankind‖ and therefore, mankind must band together to preserve them. Overexploitation of resources to meet the demand for bio-products are in a continuous growth and industrial hazards can cause serious damage and endanger regional development. Changes in land use threatening cultural resources and landscapes and may lead to fragmentation of natural and ecological habitats.

  12. Homogeneous Modification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Graft Copolymerization in Ionic Liquid for Oil Absorption Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jie Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse, lignocellulosic residue from the sugar industry, is an abundant and renewable bioresource on the earth. The application of ionic liquids in sugarcane bagasse biorefinery is gaining increasing interest. The homogeneous modification of sugarcane bagasse by free radical initiated graft copolymerization of acrylate monomers using 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as solvent was performed. A variety of sugarcane bagasse graft copolymers with different weight percent gain were prepared via adjusting the monomer dosage. FT-IR studies confirmed the success in attaching the poly(acrylate side chains onto sugarcane bagasse. Oil absorbency studies suggested that the sugarcane bagasse graft copolymers were potential biobased materials for effective treatment of ester-based oils. SEM studies showed that the sugarcane bagasse graft copolymers displayed a dense morphology structure. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the thermal stability of sugarcane bagasse decreased after the homogeneous modification by the graft copolymerization. The present study provides an alternative strategy to convert sugarcane bagasse into a value-added functional biobased material.

  13. A New Source of Elemol Rich Essential Oil and Existence of Multicellular Oil Glands in Leaves of the Dioscorea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy I. Odimegwu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea species is a very important food and drug plant. The tubers of the plant are extensively used in food and drug purposes owing to the presence of steroidal constituent’s diosgenin in the tubers. In the present study, we report for the first time that the leaves of Dioscorea composita and Dioscorea floribunda grown under the field conditions exhibited the presence of multicellular oil glands on the epidermal layers of the plants using stereomicroscopy (SM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Essential oil was also isolated from the otherwise not useful herbage of the plant, and gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy analysis revealed confirmation of the essential oil constituents. Out of the 76 compounds detected in D. floribunda and 37 from D. composita essential oil, major terpenoids which are detected and reported for Dioscorea leaf essential oil are α-terpinene, nerolidol, citronellyl acetate, farnesol, elemol, α-farnesene, valerenyl acetate, and so forth. Elemol was detected as the major constituent of both the Dioscorea species occupying 41% and 22% of D. Floribunda and D. composita essential oils, respectively. In this paper, we report for the first time Dioscorea as a possible novel bioresource for the essential oil besides its well-known importance for yielding diosgenin.

  14. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues.

  15. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  16. Kappaphycus alvarezii as a source of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambhaty, Yasmin; Mody, Kalpana; Gandhi, Mahesh R; Thampy, Sreekumaran; Maiti, Pratyush; Brahmbhatt, Harshad; Eswaran, Karuppanan; Ghosh, Pushpito K

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes production of bio-ethanol from fresh red alga, Kappaphycus alvarezii. It was crushed to expel sap--a biofertilizer--while residual biomass was saccharified at 100 °C in 0.9 N H2SO4. The hydrolysate was repeatedly treated with additional granules to achieve desired reducing sugar concentration. The best yields for saccharification, inclusive of sugar loss in residue, were 26.2% and 30.6% (w/w) at laboratory (250 g) and bench (16 kg) scales, respectively. The hydrolysate was neutralized with lime and the filtrate was desalted by electrodialysis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NCIM 3523) was used for ethanol production from this non-traditional bio-resource. Fermentation at laboratory and bench scales converted ca. 80% of reducing sugar into ethanol in near quantitative selectivity. A petrol vehicle was successfully run with E10 gasoline made from the seaweed-based ethanol. Co-production of ethanol and bio-fertilizer from this seaweed may emerge as a promising alternative to land-based bio-ethanol.

  17. Landscape Mapping and Tree Diversity Assessment of Pangi Valley: A Remote Tribal Area of Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pangi valley in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh is one of the remote tribal areas in Indian western Himalaya. The plant resources in its landscapes are flourishing under least anthropogenic conditions. For social upliftment of the tribals in this area, a number of developmental activities are being implemented by the government. A study was conducted for mapping of its landuse/landcover using satellite remote sensing to identify major forested landscapes in the region. It was followed by a detailed random stratified sampling of the forested landscapes for phytosociological estimation of its tree species. The 21.97 % of study area was estimated under forests followed by Scrublands and Grassy meadows (18.24 %. Majority of area (54.05 % was Snow and Scree slopes. Among the forests, maximum area was occupied by Mixed Broad Leaved Forest LSE type (36.08% followed by Cedrus deodara (26.94% and Betula utilis (18.07% forest LSE types. These species, owing to immense medicinal properties and value for their economic utilization, feature in threatened and endangered category list of plants. It is, therefore, recommended that the developmental activities may be implemented in scientific way, which may not pose threat to bioresources in this region.

  18. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted.

  19. Preparation and characterization of glycerol plasticized-pea starch/ZnO-carboxymethylcellulose sodium nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiugao; Yang, Jingwen; Liu, Baoxiang; Ma, Xiaofei

    2009-06-01

    Among natural polymers, starch is one of the most promising biodegradable materials because it is a renewable bioresource that is universally available and of low cost. However, the properties of starch-based materials are not satisfactory. One approach is the use of nano-filler as reinforcement for starch-based materials. In this paper, a nanocomposite is prepared using ZnO nanoparticles stabilized by carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) as the filler in glycerol plasticized-pea starch (GPS) matrix by the casting process. According to the characterization of ZnO-CMC particles with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG), ZnO (about 60 wt%) is encapsulated with CMC (about 40 wt%) in ZnO-CMC particles with the size of about 30-40 nm. A low loading of ZnO-CMC particles can obviously improve the pasting viscosity, storage modulus, the glass transition temperature and UV absorbance of GPS/ZnO-CMC nanocomposites. When the ZnO-CMC contents vary from 0 to 5 wt%, the tensile yield strength increase from 3.94 MPa to 9.81 MPa, while the elongation at break reduce from 42.2% to 25.8%. The water vapor permeability decrease from 4.76 x 10(-10) to 1.65 x 10(-10) g m(-1) s(-1) Pa(-1).

  20. Agro-industrial lignocellulosic biomass a key to unlock the future bio-energy: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Anwar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available From the last several years, in serious consideration of the worldwide economic and environmental pollution issues there has been increasing research interest in the value of bio-sourced lignocellulosic biomass. Agro-industrial biomass comprised on lignocellulosic waste is an inexpensive, renewable, abundant and provides a unique natural resource for large-scale and cost-effective bio-energy collection. To expand the range of natural bio-resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of the product of interest. In this background green biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert most of the solid agricultural wastes particularly lignocellulosic materials into liquid bio based energy-fuels. In fact, major advances have already been achieved to competitively position cellulosic ethanol with corn ethanol. The present summarized review work begins with an overview on the physico-chemical features and composition of agro-industrial biomass. The information is also given on the multi-step processing technologies of agro-industrial biomass to fuel ethanol followed by a brief summary of future considerations.

  1. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is i to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, ii to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and iii to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn. cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  2. Occurrence and diversity of yeasts in the mangrove ecosystems in fujian, guangdong and hainan provinces of china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhen-Ming; Liu, Tian-Tian; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Wang, Zhi-Peng

    2012-09-01

    Mangrove wetland is a unique ecosystem and has rich bioresources. In this article, the roots, stems, branches, leaves, barks, fruits, and flowers from 12 species of the mangrove plants and six species of the accompanying mangrove plants, seawater and sediments in mangrove ecosystems in China were used as sources for isolation of yeasts. A total of 269 yeasts strains were obtained from the samples. The results of routine identification and phylogenetic analysis showed that they belonged to 22 genera and 45 species. Of all the 269 strains, Candida spp. was predominant with the proportion of 44.61%, followed by Kluyveromyces spp. (8.55%), Pichia spp. (7.44%), Kodamaea ohmeri (5.58%), Issatchenkia spp. (4.83%) and Debaryomyces hansenii (4.46%). We also found that strains N02-2.3 and ST3-1Y3 belonged to the undescribed species of Pichia sp. and Trichosporon sp. respectively while strain HN-12 was not related to any known yeast strains. This means that different yeast strains of Candida spp. especially C. tropicalis were widely distributed in the mangrove ecosystems and may have an important role in the mangrove ecosystems. The results also showed that some of them may have potential applications.

  3. "Tinni" Rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Production: An Integrated Sociocultural Agroecosystem in Eastern Uttar Pradesh of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Turner, Nancy J.; Pandey, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, ` tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively selected Bhar villages. Two distinct varieties of tinni (` tinni patali' and ` tinni moti') with differing habitats and phenotypic characters were identified. Seven microecosystems (Kari, Badaila, Chammo, Karmol, Bhainsiki, Bhainsala and Khodailia) were found to support these varieties in differing proportions. Tinni rice can withstand more extreme weather conditions (the highest as well as lowest temperatures and rainfall regimes) than the `genetically improved' varieties of rice ( Oriza sativa L.) grown in the region. Both tinni varieties are important bioresources for the Bhar's subsistence livelihoods, and they use distinctive conservation approaches in their maintenance. Bhar women are the main custodians of tinni rice agrobiodiversity, conserving tinni through an institution called Sajha. Democratic decision-making at meetings organized by village elders determines the market price of the tinni varieties. Overall, the indigenous institutions and women's participation seem to have provided safeguards from excessive exploitation of tinni rice varieties. The maintenance of tinni through cultural knowledge and institutions serves as an example of the importance of locally maintained crop varieties in contributing to people's resilience and food security in times of rapid social and environmental change.

  4. Ultrafast and continuous synthesis of crystalline ferrite nanoparticles in supercritical ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Oana; Marre, Samuel; Aymonier, Cyril; Roig, Anna

    2013-03-07

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are of increasing interest in various industrially relevant products. For these, the development of greener and faster approaches facilitating scaling-up production is of paramount importance. Here, we report a novel, green and potentially scalable approach for the continuous and ultrafast (90 s) synthesis of superparamagnetic ferrite NPs (MnFe(2)O(4), Fe(3)O(4)) in supercritical ethanol (scEtOH) at a fairly moderate temperature (260 °C). ScEtOH exhibits numerous advantages such as its production from bio-resources, its lack of toxicity and its relatively low supercritical coordinates (p(c) = 6.39 MPa and T(c) = 243 °C), being therefore appropriate for the development of sustainable technologies. The present study is completed by the investigation of both in situ and ex situ NP surface functionalization. The as-obtained nanoparticles present good crystallinity, sizes below 8 nm, superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature and high saturation magnetization. Moreover, depending on the capping strategy, the ferrite NPs present extended (for in situ coated NPs) or short-term (for ex situ coated NPs) colloidal stability.

  5. Characterizing Cellulosic Fibers from Ulex europaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Celis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information on the morphological and physical properties of biofibers is necessary to support the mechanical understanding of the biological design of plants, as well as for the development of new technology that adds value to non-traditional bioresources, such as those based on Ulex europaeus fibers. Ulex europaeus fibers were extracted through a chemical pulping process at 170 °C and with 40 g/L NaOH. The dimensions of the fibers produced were 0.97 ± 0.1 mm in length and 13 ± 2 μm in diameter. Pressed fiber paper sheets were made to evaluate their mechanical properties. Burst and tear indices of 1.2 mN/kg and 8.6 Nm2/kg, respectively, were recorded. The values obtained did not compare well to fiber paper sheets from Pinus radiata, presumably due to the significant amount of non-structural elements of wood present in the samples and the lower length of Ulex europaeus fibers, which resulted in lower tensile strength. Additionally, nanoindentation tests were conducted to assess the hardness and elastic modulus of the fibers, obtaining average values of 0.84 GPa and 9.23 GPa for the stem, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those of industrial biofiber, perhaps due to the lower morphogenic maturity of Ulex europaeus fibers compared to other traditional sources of fiber.

  6. Characterization of Lignocellulosic Fruit Waste as an Alternative Feedstock for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Sánchez Orozco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To use a new potential lignocellulosic bioresource that has several attractive agroenergy features for ethanol production, the chemical characterization and compositional analysis of several fruit wastes were carried out. Orange bagasse and orange, banana, and mango peels were studied to determine their general biomass characteristics and to provide detailed analysis of their chemical structures. Semiquantitative analysis showed that the components for each fruit waste differed with respect to chemical composition. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR of the residual biomass showed the presence of various functional groups – aldehydes or ketones (C=O, alkanes (C-C, and ethers (C-O-C. Even water molecules were detected, indicating the complex nature of the feedstocks. The concentrations of total sugars ranged between 0.487 g∙g−1 and 0.591 g∙g−1 of dry weight biomass. The thermal profiles (TG-DSC of the residual fruits occurred in at least three steps, which are associated with the main components (hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. The decomposition by thermal analysis was completed at around 600 °C and was influenced by the nature of the component ratio.

  7. Recent advances in membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Bagley, David M; Leung, Kam Tin; Liss, Steven N; Liao, Bao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The bioeconomy, and in particular, biorefining and bioenergy production, have received considerable attention in recent years as a shift to renewable bioresources to produce similar energy and chemicals derived from fossil energy sources, represents a more sustainable path. Membrane technologies have been shown to play a key role in process intensification and products recovery and purification in biorefining and bioenergy production processes. Among the various separation technologies used, membrane technologies provide excellent fractionation and separation capabilities, low chemical consumption, and reduced energy requirements. This article presents a state-of-the-art review on membrane technologies related to various processes of biorefining and bioenergy production, including: (i) separation and purification of individual molecules from biomass, (ii) removal of fermentation inhibitors, (iii) enzyme recovery from hydrolysis processes, (iv) membrane bioreactors for bioenergy and chemical production, such as bioethanol, biogas and acetic acid, (v) bioethanol dehydration, (vi) bio-oil and biodiesel production, and (vii) algae harvesting. The advantages and limitations of membrane technologies for these applications are discussed and new membrane-based integrated processes are proposed. Finally, challenges and opportunities of membrane technologies for biorefining and bioenergy production in the coming years are addressed.

  8. What Is the Bioeconomy? A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M. Bugge

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The notion of the bioeconomy has gained importance in both research and policy debates over the last decade, and is frequently argued to be a key part of the solution to multiple grand challenges. Despite this, there seems to be little consensus concerning what bioeconomy actually implies. Consequently, this paper seeks to enhance our understanding of what the notion of bioeconomy means by exploring the origins, uptake, and contents of the term “bioeconomy” in the academic literature. Firstly, we perform a bibliometric analysis that highlights that the bioeconomy research community is still rather fragmented and distributed across many different fields of science, even if natural and engineering sciences take up the most central role. Secondly, we carry out a literature review that identifies three visions of the bioeconomy. The bio-technology vision emphasises the importance of bio-technology research and application and commercialisation of bio-technology in different sectors of the economy. The bio-resource vision focuses on processing and upgrading of biological raw materials, as well as on the establishment of new value chains. Finally, the bio-ecology vision highlights sustainability and ecological processes that optimise the use of energy and nutrients, promote biodiversity, and avoid monocultures and soil degradation.

  9. IN SITU AND IN VITRO COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE BIOPRODUCTIVITY OF ARNICAE FOLIUM ET CAULIS FROM THE NORTHERN AREA OF THE ROMANIAN EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Paula ŞTEFANACHE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arnica montana L. is an important plant bioresource, being traditionally used as medicinal plant, for which the scientific and economic interest remains at a high level. The aim of our study was to evaluate the bioproductivity for Arnicae folium et caulis in terms of biomass and content in biological active compounds originating from the wild populations and in vitro experimental cultures – under controlled environment. In situ biomass production registered variations, probably due to the different environmental features and also to the management strategies for each site. The development of in vitro cultures had as purpose the evaluation of the biomass production and production of plant material for the phytochemical screening. The Arnicae folium et caulis samples harvested from the wild populations have a higher content in phenolic acids than the Arnicae flos from the same area, but the total content in sesquiterpen-lactones was significantly lower. In contrast, the samples originating from the in vitro cultures had a low content in phenolic compounds and a high content in sesquiterpen-lactones, comparable with Arnicae flos.

  10. Consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production from rice straw with undefined mixed culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binling Ai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L•d. In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41% and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes.

  11. Economic feasibility of microalgal bacterial floc production for wastewater treatment and biomass valorization: A detailed up-to-date analysis of up-scaled pilot results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulsteke, Elien; Van Den Hende, Sofie; Bourez, Lode; Capoen, Henk; Rousseau, Diederik P L; Albrecht, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The economic potential of outdoor microalgal bacterial floc (MaB-floc) raceway ponds as wastewater treatment technology and bioresource of biomass for fertilizer, shrimp feed, phycobiliproteins and biogas in Northwest Europe is assessed. This assessment is based on cost data provided by industry experts, on experimental data obtained from pilot-scale outdoor MaB-floc ponds treating aquaculture and food-industry effluents, and from different biomass valorization tests. MaB-floc ponds exhibit a cost-performance of EUR 0.25-0.50m(-3) wastewater which is similar to conventional wastewater treatment technologies. The production cost of MaB-flocs in aquaculture and food industry effluent is EUR 5.29 and 8.07kg(-1)TSS, respectively. Capital costs and pond mixing costs are the major expenses. Commercializing MaB-flocs as aquaculture feed generates substantial revenues, but the largest profit potential lies in production of high-purity phycobiliproteins from MaB-flocs. These results highlight the large economic potential of MaB-floc technology, and justify its further development.

  12. STUDY OF THE VARIABILITY IN CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BARK LAYERS OF QUERCUS SUBER L. FROM DIFFERENT PRODUCTION AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Jové

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cork is the bark of the cork oak tree (Quercus suber L, a renewable and biodegradable raw bioresource concentrated mainly in the Mediterranean region. Development of its potential uses as a biosorbent will require the investigation of its chemical composition; such information can be of help to understand its interactions with organic pollutants. The present study investigates the summative chemical composition of three bark layers (back, cork, and belly of five Spanish cork samples and one cork sample from Portugal. Suberin was the main component in all the samples (21.1 to 53.1%, followed by lignin (14.8 to 31%, holocellulose (2.3 to 33.6%, extractives (7.3 to 20.4%, and ash (0.4 to 3.3%. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether the variations in chemical composition with respect to the production area and bark layers were significant. The results indicate that, with respect to the bark layer, significant differences were found only for suberin and holocellulose contents: they were higher in the belly and cork than in the back. Based on the results presented, cork is a material with a lot of potential because of its heterogeneity in chemical composition.

  13. Utility of Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of EBV immortalized LCLs have been generated and maintained in genetic/epidemiological studies as a perpetual source of DNA and as a surrogate in vitro cell model. Recent successes in reprograming LCLs into iPSCs have paved the way for generating more relevant in vitro disease models using this existing bioresource. However, the overall reprogramming efficiency and success rate remain poor and very little is known about the mechanistic changes that take place at the transcriptome and cellular functional level during LCL-to-iPSC reprogramming. Here, we report a new optimized LCL-to-iPSC reprogramming protocol using episomal plasmids encoding pluripotency transcription factors and mouse p53DD (p53 carboxy-terminal dominant-negative fragment and commercially available reprogramming media. We achieved a consistently high reprogramming efficiency and 100% success rate using this optimized protocol. Further, we investigated the transcriptional changes in mRNA and miRNA levels, using FC-abs ≥ 2.0 and FDR ≤ 0.05 cutoffs; 5,228 mRNAs and 77 miRNAs were differentially expressed during LCL-to-iPSC reprogramming. The functional enrichment analysis of the upregulated genes and activation of human pluripotency pathways in the reprogrammed iPSCs showed that the generated iPSCs possess transcriptional and functional profiles very similar to those of human ESCs.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES USING CROP PLANT ASSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Alice Teacă

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution has a harmful action on bioresources, including agricultural crops. It is generated through many industrial activities such as mining, coal burning, chemical technology, cement production, pulp and paper industry, etc. The toxicity of different industrial wastes and heavy metals excess was evaluated using crop plant assays (germination and hydroponics seedlings growth tests. Experimental data regarding the germination process of wheat (from two cultivars and rye seeds in the presence of industrial wastes (thermal power station ash, effluents from a pre-bleaching stage performed on a Kraft cellulose – chlorinated lignin products or chlorolignin, along with use of an excess of some heavy metals (Zn and Cu are presented here. Relative seed germination, relative root elongation, and germination index (a factor of relative seed germination and relative root elongation were determined. Relative root elongation and germination index were more sensitive indicators of toxicity than seed germination. The toxic effects were also evaluated in hydroponics experiments, the sensitivity of three crop plant species, namely Triticum aestivum L. (wheat, Secale cereale (rye, and Zea mays (corn being compared. Physiological aspects, evidenced both by visual observation and biometric measurements (mean root, aerial part and plant length, as well as the cellulose and lignin content were examined.

  15. Complete utilization of non-edible oil seeds of Cascabela thevetia through a cascade of approaches for biofuel and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Debashis; Chutia, Rahul Singh; Bordoloi, Neonjyoti; Narzari, Rumi; Kataki, Rupam

    2016-08-01

    Lipid-rich biomass, generally opted for biodiesel production, produces a substantial amount of by-product (de-oiled cake and seed cover) during the process. Complete utilization of Cascabela thevetia seeds for biofuel production through both chemical and thermochemical conversion route is investigated in the present study. Various properties of biodiesel produced was characterized and compared with those obtained from similar oil seeds. The by-products of the chemical process were used as a feedstock for pyrolysis at different temperatures in a fixed bed reactor. Maximum bio-oil yields of 29.11% and 26.18% were observed at 500°C. The bio-oil obtained at optimum yield was characterized by CHN analyzer, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The biochar produced was further characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR along with elemental analysis to explore its utilization for various purposes. The present investigation depicts a new approach towards complete utilization of lipid-rich bio-resources to different types of biofuels and biochar.

  16. Effect of operational pH on biohydrogen production from food waste using anaerobic batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chaeyoung; Lee, Sewook; Han, Sun-Kee; Hwang, Sunjin

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of operational pH on dark H(2) fermentation of food waste by employing anaerobic batch reactors. The highest maximum H(2) yield was 1.63 mol H(2)/mol hexoseadded at operational pH 5.3, whereas the lowest maximum H(2) yield was 0.88 mol H(2)/mol hexoseadded at operational pH 7.0. With decreasing operational pH values, the n-butyrate concentration tended to increase and the acetate concentration tended to decrease. The highest hydrogen conversion efficiency of 11.3% was obtained at operational pH 5.3, which was higher than that (8.3%) reported by a previous study (Kim et al. (2011) 'Effect of initial pH independent of operational pH on hydrogen fermentation of food waste', Bioresource Technology 102 (18), 8646-8652). The new result indicates that the dark fermentation of food waste was stable and efficient in this study. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that Clostridium species Cluster I accounted for 84.7 and 13.3% of total bacteria at operational pH 5.3 and pH 7.0, respectively, after 48 h operation.

  17. Chinese Marine Materia Medica. By Huashi Guan and Shuguang Wang. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, China Ocean Press, and Chemical Industry Press: Shanghai, Beijing, China, 2009; Hardback, 7064 pp; ¥ 2920; ISBN 978-7-5323-9958-1/R•2707; ISBN 978-7-5323-9973-4/R•2708; ISBN 978-7-1220-6012-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy. A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, collected over thousands of years, has provided an important foundation for modern research in the area of marine drugs. Thanks to these records and references, the research and development of modern Chinese marine drugs continue to evolve and mature. Since the middle of the 20th century, special attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in a significant increase in the number of newly discovered marine herbs. Comprehensive surveys in the past have also created a wealth of data on the pharmacology, chemistry, biology and ecology of marine medicinal bioresources. After thousands of years of research, historical references to traditional marine herbs are scattered throughout ancient books, local chronicles, medical books, or monographs on medicinal herbs. Unfortunately, there is no systematic way to collate or scientifically verify these references. Furthermore, during the last century, scientists around the world have accumulated large quantities of information on marine natural products, but these are also scattered throughout academic books and journals.

  18. Development Of Sustainable Biobased Products And Bioenergy In Cooperation With The Midwest Consortium For Sustainable Biobased Products And Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ladisch; Randy Woodson

    2009-03-18

    Collaborative efforts of Midwest Consortium have been put forth to add value to distiller's grains by further processing them into fermentable sugars, ethanol, and a protein rich co-product consistent with a pathway to a biorenewables industry (Schell et al, 2008). These studies were recently published in the enclosed special edition (Volume 99, Issue 12) of Bioresource Technology journal. Part of them have demonstrated the utilization of distillers grains as additional feedstock for increased ethanol production in the current dry grind process (Kim et al., 2008a, b; Dien et al.,2008, Ladisch et al., 2008a, b). Results showed that both liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) were effective for enhancing digestibility of distiller's grains. Enzymatic digestion of distiller's grains resulted in more than 90% glucose yield under standard assay conditions, although the yield tends to drop as the concentration of dry solids increases. Simulated process mass balances estimated that hydrolysis and fermentation of distillers grains can increase the ethanol yield by 14% in the current dry milling process (Kim et al., 2008c). Resulting co-products from the modified process are richer in protein and oil contents than conventional distiller's grains, as determined both experimentally and computationally. Other research topics in the special edition include water solubilization of DDGS by transesterification reaction with phosphite esters (Oshel el al., 2008) to improve reactivity of the DDGS to enzymes, hydrolysis of soluble oligomers derived from DDGS using functionalized mesoporous solid catalysts (Bootsma et al., 2008), and ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol) production from DDGS by solventogenic Clostridia (Ezeji and Blaschek, 2008). Economic analysis of a modified dry milling process, where the fiber and residual starch is extracted and fermented to produce more ethanol from the distillers grains while producing highly

  19. Analysis on ecological security elements and landscape esthesia transitivity of forest tourism scenic area%森林旅游景区生态安全要素及其景观感知传递性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永贤; 张智光

    2015-01-01

    The ecological security status and its’ landscape perception, the transitivity relationships between biological resources elements and landscape perception were dissected, an ecological security structure for forest tourism and a transitivity model of landscape perception were also built up and the status of scenic spot eco-security elements were analyzed. The results reveal that there are many ecological security problems in Chinese forest scenic areas, such as serious pollutions of water, soil, air, sound environment, and the degradation occurred on plants and animals living conditions, etc. and all the factors led to the negative effects of tourist’s landscape perception; After further exploring the transitivity of scenic and landscape ecological security and scenic landscape esthesia security, we found that the scenic landscape esthesia security is a reflection of human activities on natural resources transferred to itself, and it had certain predictable actions on the scenic ecological security status; Based on the above researches, the forest tourism ecological safety construction (including biological habitat security and bio-resources security), and the relation models among of biological habitat security, bio-resources security and landscape esthesia transitivity were put forward.%剖析森林旅游景区生物资源等要素的生态安全状态及其相应的景观感知,以及它们之间的传递关系,建立森林旅游景区生态安全与景观感知安全传递关系模型。通过对景区生态安全各要素的分析发现,在景区开发、游客干扰等人类活动的干扰下,我国一些森林旅游景区水体、土壤、空气、声音环境受到严重污染,动植物生长生存条件发生退化,并对游客的景观感知产生了显著的负面影响。对景区生态安全与景观感知安全的传递性分析表明,景观感知安全是人类活动对自然资源的影响转移到自身的一种反映,它对

  20. Xylanase production by Penicillium canescens on soya oil cake in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Assamoi Allah; Jacqueline, Destain; Thonart, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing interest for the organic residues from various sectors of agriculture and industries over the past few decades. Their application in the field of fermentation technology has resulted in the production of bulk chemicals and value-added products such as amino acid, enzymes, mushroom, organic acids, single-cell protein, biologically active secondary metabolites, etc. (Ramachandran et al., Bioresource Technology 98:2000-2009, 2007). In this work, the production of extracellular xylanase by the fungus Penicillium canescens was investigated in solid-state fermentation using five agro-industrial substrates (soya oil cake, soya meal, wheat bran, whole wheat bran, and pulp beet). The best substrate was the soya oil cake. In order to optimize the production, the most effective cultivation conditions were investigated in Erlenmeyer flasks and in plastic bags with 5 and 100 g of soya oil cake, respectively. The initial moisture content, initial pH, and temperature of the culture affected the xylanase synthesis. The optimal fermentation medium was composed by soya oil cake crushed to 5 mm supplemented with 3% and 4% (w/w) of casein peptone and Na(2)HPO(4) x 2H(2)O. After 7 days of incubation at 30 degrees C and under 80% of initial moisture, a xylanase production level of 18,895 +/- 778 U/g (Erlenmeyer flasks) and 9,300 +/- 589 U/g (plastic bags) was reached. The partially purified enzyme recovered by ammonium sulfate fractionation was completely stable at freezing and refrigeration temperatures up to 6 months and reasonably stable at room temperature for more than 3 months.

  1. The Lausanne Institutional Biobank: a new resource to catalyse research in personalised medicine and pharmaceutical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooser, Vincent; Currat, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Breakthrough technologies which now enable the sequencing of individual genomes will irreversibly modify the way diseases are diagnosed, predicted, prevented and treated. For these technologies to reach their full potential requires, upstream, access to high-quality biomedical data and samples from large number of properly informed and consenting individuals and, downstream, the possibility to transform the emerging knowledge into a clinical utility. The Lausanne Institutional Biobank was designed as an integrated, highly versatile infrastructure to harness the power of these emerging technologies and catalyse the discovery and development of innovative therapeutics and biomarkers, and advance the field of personalised medicine. Described here are its rationale, design and governance, as well as parallel initiatives which have been launched locally to address the societal, ethical and technological issues associated with this new bio-resource. Since January 2013, inpatients admitted at Lausanne CHUV University Hospital have been systematically invited to provide a general consent for the use of their biomedical data and samples for research, to complete a standardised questionnaire, to donate a 10-ml sample of blood for future DNA extraction and to be re-contacted for future clinical trials. Over the first 18 months of operation, 14,459 patients were contacted, and 11,051 accepted to participate in the study. This initial 18-month experience illustrates that a systematic hospital-based biobank is feasible; it shows a strong engagement in research from the patient population in this University Hospital setting, and the need for a broad, integrated approach for the future of medicine to reach its full potential.

  2. Variations in Essential Oil Yield, Composition, and Antioxidant Activity of Different Plant Organs from Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. at Different Growth Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Mei; Pang, Yu-Xin; Yu, Fu-Lai; Chen, Ce; Liu, Li-Wei; Chen, Zhen-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Lu; Hu, Xuan

    2016-08-05

    Blumea balsamifera, also named Ainaxiang, is widely used as an ancient medicinal herb in tropical and subtropical Asia. It is rich in essential oils. In this work the essential oils of B. balsamifera from different plant organs and in different months were extracted, and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that essential oil yield of young leaves was the highest (0.65 mL/100 g), followed by mature leaves (0.57 mL/100 g), and the oil yield was higher in October (0.47 mL/100 g) than other months. A total of 44 compounds were identified, representing 92.64%-96.71% of the oil. Eighteen common chemical components were found among the six plant organs, representing >80% of the oil constituents. l-borneol was the main ingredient in leaves, and its content was the highest in senescent leaves and in December. In the essential oils of young shoots and young stems, the main component was dimethoxydurene. Antioxidant activity was also determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assays. The results indicated that the β-carotene bleaching activity was far stronger than the DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, and the young leaves and young shoots showed stronger antioxidant activity. Dimethoxydurene, β-caryophyllene, and α-caryophyllene play a positive role in good antioxidant activity, while β-eudesmol, phytol, and tetradecanal play a negative role. The antioxidant activity revealed in this study might help in developing this promising bioresource for use in the medicinal and cosmetic industries.

  3. Samples and data accessibility in research biobanks: an explorative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Capocasa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biobanks, which contain human biological samples and/or data, provide a crucial contribution to the progress of biomedical research. However, the effective and efficient use of biobank resources depends on their accessibility. In fact, making bio-resources promptly accessible to everybody may increase the benefits for society. Furthermore, optimizing their use and ensuring their quality will promote scientific creativity and, in general, contribute to the progress of bio-medical research. Although this has become a rather common belief, several laboratories are still secretive and continue to withhold samples and data. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey in order to investigate sample and data accessibility in research biobanks operating all over the world. The survey involved a total of 46 biobanks. Most of them gave permission to access their samples (95.7% and data (85.4%, but free and unconditioned accessibility seemed not to be common practice. The analysis of the guidelines regarding the accessibility to resources of the biobanks that responded to the survey highlights three issues: (i the request for applicants to explain what they would like to do with the resources requested; (ii the role of funding, public or private, in the establishment of fruitful collaborations between biobanks and research labs; (iii the request of co-authorship in order to give access to their data. These results suggest that economic and academic aspects are involved in determining the extent of sample and data sharing stored in biobanks. As a second step of this study, we investigated the reasons behind the high diversity of requirements to access biobank resources. The analysis of informative answers suggested that the different modalities of resource accessibility seem to be largely influenced by both social context and legislation of the countries where the biobanks operate.

  4. A pilot-scale floating closed culture system for the multicellular cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis NIES-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Masakazu; Aikawa, Shimpei; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Kondo, Akihiko; Kawai, Hiroshi

    Microalgae are considered to be efficient bio-resources for biofuels and bio-based chemicals because they generally have high productivity. The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis has been widely used for food, feed, and nutrient supplements and is usually cultivated in open ponds. In order to extend the surface area for growing this alga, we designed a pilot-scale floating closed culture system for cultivating A. platensis on open water and compared the growth and quality of the alga harvested at both subtropical and temperate regions. The biomass productivity of A. platensis NIES-39 was ca. 9 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1) in summer at Awaji Island (warm temperature region) and ca. 10 and 6 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1) in autumn and winter, respectively, at Ishigaki Island, (subtropical region) in Japan. If seawater can be used for culture media, culture cost can be reduced; therefore, we examined the influence of seawater salt concentrations on the growth of A. platensis NIES-39. Growth rates of A. platensis NIES-39 in diluted seawater with enrichment of 2.5 g L(-1) NaNO3, 0.01 g L(-1) FeSO4·7H2O, and 0.08 g L(-1) Na2EDTA were considerably lower than SOT medium, but the biomass productivity (dry weight) was comparable to SOT medium. This is explained by the heavier cell weight of the alga grown in modified seawater media compared to the alga grown in SOT medium. Furthermore, A. platensis grown in modified seawater-based medium exhibited self-flocculation and had more loosely coiled trichomes.

  5. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel. The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%, AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L, and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  6. Bioextraction potential of seaweed in Denmark - An instrument for circular nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghetta, Michele; Tørring, Ditte; Bruhn, Annette; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of seaweed for circular nutrient management to reduce eutrophication levels in the aquatic environment. We performed a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two reference waste management systems treating seaweed as biowaste, i.e. landfill disposal and combustion, and an alternative scenario using the seaweed Saccharina latissima as a resource for biobased fertilizer production. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods were improved by using a cradle-to-cradle approach, quantifying fate factors for nitrogen and phosphorus loss from fertilized agriculture to the aquatic environment. We also differentiated between nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited marine water to improve the traditional freshwater impact category, making this indicator suitable for decision support in relation to coastal water management schemes. Offshore cultivation of Saccharina latissima with an average productivity of 150Mg/km(2) in Danish waters in 2014 was applied to a cultivation scenario of 208km(2). The bioresource scenario performs better than conventional biowaste management systems, delivering a net reduction in aquatic eutrophication levels of 32.29kgNeq. and 16.58kgPO4(3-)eq. per Mg (dry weight) of seaweed, quantified by the ReCiPe and CML impact assessment methods, respectively. Seaweed cultivation, harvest and reuse of excess nutrients from the aquatic environment is a promising approach for sustainable resource cycling in a future regenerative economy that exploits manmade emissions as a resource for closed loop biobased production while significantly reducing eutrophication levels in 3 out of 7 Danish river basin districts. We obtained at least 10% bioextraction of phosphorus manmade emissions (10%, 89% and >100%) and contributed significantly to local nitrogen reduction goals according to the Water Framework Directive (23%, 78% and >100% of the target).

  7. Tohoku Earthquake-associated Marine Sciences: the research project for the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Kijima, Akihiro; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Hara, Motoyuki; Nagata, Toshi; Fujikura, Kasunori; Sonoda, Akira

    2015-04-01

    At 2:46 pm on March 11, 2011, a huge earthquake (M 9.0) occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Region, Japan. The subsequent Tsunamis hit the coasts and seriously damaged fishing villages and towns in the area. Tohoku Region faces Northwestern Pacific where is one of the most productive oceans on the Earth. Then, what happened to the marine ecosystems in the Tohoku Region? What happened to the fishery bioresources? What is the mechanism to sustain high productivity in the Region? Is the ecosystem restoring after 4 years? What is required for the recovery of fisheries in the area? In order to answer these questions, the 10 years research project, TEAMS (Tohoku Ecosystem-Associated Marine Sciences) was launched in January 2012 funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan) to conduct comprehensive research on the area. Tohoku University (TU), Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, the University of Tokyo (AORIUT), Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), and 25 other institutions are conducting research for this project in close association with local government and fishery people. Currently, approximately 400 people (200 scientists, 160 students and others) covering physical, chemical, biological, and geological sciences including modeling take part in the project from all over Japan. MEXT also supports TEAMS by constructing R/V Shinsei Maru in 2013 for the oceanic investigations in the region. In this report, the overview of the ecosystem before and after the disaster, major findings and challenges of TEAMS will be described.

  8. Organic Chemicals from Bioprocesses in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Lin, Jianping; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin

    Over the last 20 years, China has successfully established a modern biotechnology industry from almost nothing. Presently, China is a major producer of a vast array of products involving bioprocesses, for some China is even the world's top producer. The ever-increasing list of products includes organic acids, amino acids, antibiotics, solvents, chiral chemicals, biopesticides, and biopolymers. Herein, the research and development of bioprocesses in China will be reviewed briefly. We will concentrate on three categories of products: small molecules produced via fermentation, biopolymers produced via fermentation and small chemicals produced by enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In comparison with the traditional chemical process, in which, nonrenewable mineral resources are generally used, products in the first and second categories noted above can use renewable bioresources as raw materials. The bioprocesses are generally energy saving and environmentally benign. For products developed via the third category, although the raw materials still need to be obtained from mineral resources, the biocatalysts are more effective with higher selectivity and productivity, and the bioprocesses occur under ambient temperature and pressure, therefore, these are "green processes." Most of the products such as citric acid, xanthan and acrylamide etc., discussed in this paper have been in large-scale commercial production in China. Also introduced herein are three scientists, Prof. Shen Yinchu, Prof. Ouyang Pingkai and Prof. Chen Guoqiang, and six enterprises, Anhui Fengyuan Biochemical Co. Ltd., Shandong Hiland Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Shandong Fufeng Fermentation Co. Ltd., Shandong Bausch & Lomb-Freda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., and Changzhou Changmao Biochemical Engineering Co. Ltd.; they have all contributed a great deal to research and development in the commercialization of bioprocesses.

  9. Review: Recent status of Selaginella (Selaginellaceae research in Nusantara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2011. Recent status of Selaginella (Selaginellaceae research in Nusantara. Biodiversitas 12: 112-124. Selaginella Pal. Beauv. (Selaginellaceae Reichb. is a cosmopolitan genus that grows in tropical and temperate regions. Some species of Selaginella have widely distribution and tend to be invasive, but the others are endemics or even, according to IUCN criteria, endangered. Nusantara or Malesia (Malay Archipelago is the most complex biogeographic region and rich in biodiversity. It is one of the biodiversity hotspot of Selaginella, whereas about 200 species of 700-750 species are exist. Selaginella has been survived for 440 mya without any significant morphological modification, but extinction of tree-shaped species. Selaginella have similar morphological characteristics, particularly having heterospore form and loose strobili; and is classified as one genus and one family. However, individual species has high morphological variation caused by different edaphic and climatic factors. Genetic studies indicate high polymorphism among Selaginella species. Selaginella had been used as complementary and alternative medicines treated to postpartum, menstrual disorder, wound, etc. Biflavonoid – the main secondary metabolites – gives this benefit and is especially used as anti oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti cancer in modern pharmaceutical industry. The other metabolites, trehalose, potentially act as molecular stabilizer in biological based industry. Metabolite profiles can also be used to identify Selaginella by its species, time and harvest age, and locations. Since most of Selaginella grows on moist, organically rich, and well drained soils, which is vulnerable to forest degradation and global warming, it needs more conservation priority. Biosystematics and ethnobotanical researches of Nusantara Selaginella is needed to expand taxonomic status and bioprospecting of this bioresources.

  10. Forest biorefinery: Potential of poplar phytochemicals as value-added co-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Rakshit, Sudip K; Dekker, Robert F H

    2015-11-01

    The global forestry industry after experiencing a market downturn during the past decade has now aimed its vision towards the integrated biorefinery. New business models and strategies are constantly being explored to re-invent the global wood and pulp/paper industry through sustainable resource exploitation. The goal is to produce diversified, innovative and revenue generating product lines using on-site bioresources (wood and tree residues). The most popular product lines are generally produced from wood fibers (biofuels, pulp/paper, biomaterials, and bio/chemicals). However, the bark and other tree residues like foliage that constitute forest wastes, still remain largely an underexploited resource from which extractives and phytochemicals can be harnessed as by-products (biopharmaceuticals, food additives and nutraceuticals, biopesticides, cosmetics). Commercially, Populus (poplar) tree species including hybrid varieties are cultivated as a fast growing bioenergy crop, but can also be utilized to produce bio-based chemicals. This review identifies and underlines the potential of natural products (phytochemicals) from Populus species that could lead to new business ventures in biorefineries and contribute to the bioeconomy. In brief, this review highlights the importance of by-products/co-products in forest industries, methods that can be employed to extract and purify poplar phytochemicals, the potential pharmaceutical and other uses of >160 phytochemicals identified from poplar species - their chemical structures, properties and bioactivities, the challenges and limitations of utilizing poplar phytochemicals, and potential commercial opportunities. Finally, the overall discussion and conclusion are made considering the recent biotechnological advances in phytochemical research to indicate the areas for future commercial applications from poplar tree species.

  11. Symbiodinium spp. associated with scleractinian corals from Dongsha Atoll (Pratas), Taiwan, in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kuo-Hsun; Hsu, Chia-Min; Gan, Chai-Hsia; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Soong, Keryea; Chou, Hong-Nong

    2017-01-01

    Dongsha Atoll (also known as Pratas) in Taiwan is the northernmost atoll in the South China Sea and a designated marine national park since 2007. The marine park’s scope of protection covers the bio-resources of its waters in addition to uplands, so it is important to have data logging information and analyses of marine flora and fauna, including their physiology, ecology, and genetics. As part of this effort, we investigated Symbiodinium associations in scleractinian corals from Dongsha Atoll through surveys carried out at two depth ranges (shallow, 1–5 m; and deep, 10–15 m) in 2009 and during a bleaching event in 2010. Symbiodinium composition was assessed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 28S nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (nlsrDNA). Our results showed that the 796 coral samples from seven families and 20 genera collected in 2009 and 132 coral samples from seven families and 12 genera collected in 2010 were associated with Symbiodinium C, D and C+D. Occurrence of clade D in shallow water (24.5%) was higher compared to deep (14.9%). Due to a bleaching event in 2010, up to 80% of coral species associated with Symbiodinium C underwent moderate to severe bleaching. Using the fine resolution technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) in 175 randomly selected coral samples, from 2009 and 2010, eight Symbiodinium C types and two Symbiodinium D types were detected. This study is the first baseline survey on Symbiodinium associations in the corals of Dongsha Atoll in the South China Sea, and it shows the dominance of Symbiodinium clade C in the population. PMID:28133566

  12. Morphological, molecular, and biochemical characterization of astaxanthin-producing green microalga Haematococcus sp. KORDI03 (Haematococcaceae, Chlorophyta) isolated from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Affan, Abu; Jang, Jiyi; Kang, Mee-Hye; Ko, Ah-Ra; Jeon, Seon-Mi; Oh, Chulhong; Heo, Soo-Jin; Lee, Youn-Ho; Ju, Se-Jong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-02-01

    A unicellular red microalga was isolated from environmental freshwater in Korea, and its morphological, molecular, and biochemical properties were characterized. Morphological analysis revealed that the isolate was a unicellular biflagellated green microalga that formed a non-motile, thick-walled palmelloid or red aplanospore. To determine the taxonomical position of the isolate, its 18S rRNA and rbcL genes were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed. We found that the isolate was clustered together with other related Haematococcus strains showing differences in the rbcL gene. Therefore, the isolated microalga was classified into the genus Haematococcus, and finally designated Haematococcus sp. KORDI03. The microalga could be cultivated in various culture media under a broad range of pH and temperature conditions. Compositions of the microalgal cellular components were analyzed, and its protein, carbohydrate, and lipid compositions were estimated to be 21.1 ± 0.2%, 48.8 ± 1.8%, and 22.2 ± 0.9%, respectively. In addition, D-glucose and D-mannose were the dominant monosaccharides in the isolate, and its amino acids were composed mainly of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, and leucine. Moreover, several polyunsaturated fatty acids accounted for about 80% of the total fatty acids in Haematococcus sp. KORDI03, and the astaxanthin content in the red aplanospores was estimated to be 1.8% of the dry cell weight. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an Haematococcus sp. isolated from Korea, which may be used for bioresource production in the microalgal industry.

  13. Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandini; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Cissampelos pareira Linn: Natural Source of Potent Antiviral Activity against All Four Dengue Virus Serotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, poses a significant global public health risk. In tropical countries such as India where periodic dengue outbreaks can be correlated to the high prevalence of the mosquito vector, circulation of all four dengue viruses (DENVs and the high population density, a drug for dengue is being increasingly recognized as an unmet public health need.Using the knowledge of traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, we developed a systematic bioassay-guided screening approach to explore the indigenous herbal bio-resource to identify plants with pan-DENV inhibitory activity. Our results show that the alcoholic extract of Cissampelos pariera Linn (Cipa extract was a potent inhibitor of all four DENVs in cell-based assays, assessed in terms of viral NS1 antigen secretion using ELISA, as well as viral replication, based on plaque assays. Virus yield reduction assays showed that Cipa extract could decrease viral titers by an order of magnitude. The extract conferred statistically significant protection against DENV infection using the AG129 mouse model. A preliminary evaluation of the clinical relevance of Cipa extract showed that it had no adverse effects on platelet counts and RBC viability. In addition to inherent antipyretic activity in Wistar rats, it possessed the ability to down-regulate the production of TNF-α, a cytokine implicated in severe dengue disease. Importantly, it showed no evidence of toxicity in Wistar rats, when administered at doses as high as 2g/Kg body weight for up to 1 week.Our findings above, taken in the context of the human safety of Cipa, based on its use in Indian traditional medicine, warrant further work to explore Cipa as a source for the development of an inexpensive herbal formulation for dengue therapy. This may be of practical relevance to a dengue-endemic resource-poor country such as India.

  15. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria Showing Antioxidative and Probiotic Activities from Kimchi and Infant Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Keunho; Jang, Na Young; Kim, Young Tae

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate lactic acid bacteria with antioxidative and probiotic activities isolated from Korean healthy infant feces and kimchi. Isolates A1, A2, S1, S2, and S3 were assigned to Lactobacillus sp. and isolates A3, A4, E1, E2, E3, and E4 were assigned to Leuconostoc sp. on the basis of their physiological properties and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Most strains were confirmed as safe bioresources through nonhemolytic activities and non-production of harmful enzymes such as β-glucosidase, β- glucuronidase and tryptophanase. The 11 isolates showed different resistance to acid and bile acids. In addition, they exhibited antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, all strains showed significantly high levels of hydrophobicity. The antioxidant effects of culture filtrates of the 11 strains included 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2.2'- azino-bis (2-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase activity. The results revealed that most of the culture filtrates have effective scavenging activity for DPPH and ABTS radicals. All strains appeared to have effective superoxide dismutase activity. In conclusion, the isolated strains A1, A3, S1, and S3 have significant probiotic activities applicable to the development of functional foods and health-related products. These strains might also contribute to preventing and controlling several diseases associated with oxidative stress, when used as probiotics.

  16. Effect of reactor configuration on biogas production from wheat straw hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Serrano, María; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-12-01

    The potential of wheat straw hydrolysate for biogas production was investigated in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. The hydrolysate originated as a side stream from a pilot plant pretreating wheat straw hydrothermally (195 degrees C for 10-12 min) for producing 2nd generation bioethanol [Kaparaju, P., Serrano, M., Thomsen, A.B., Kongjan, P., Angelidaki, I., 2009. Bioethanol, biohydrogen and biogas production from wheat straw in a biorefinery concept. Bioresource Technology 100 (9), 2562-2568]. Results from batch assays showed that hydrolysate had a methane potential of 384 ml/g-volatile solids (VS)(added). Process performance in CTSR and UASB reactors was investigated by varying hydrolysate concentration and/or organic loading rate (OLR). In CSTR, methane yields increased with increase in hydrolysate concentration and maximum yield of 297 ml/g-COD was obtained at an OLR of 1.9 g-COD/l d and 100% (v/v) hydrolysate. On the other hand, process performance and methane yields in UASB were affected by OLR and/or substrate concentration. Maximum methane yields of 267 ml/g-COD (COD removal of 72%) was obtained in UASB reactor when operated at an OLR of 2.8 g-COD/l d but with only 10% (v/v) hydrolysate. However, co-digestion of hydrolysate with pig manure (1:3 v/v ratio) improved the process performance and resulted in methane yield of 219 ml/g-COD (COD removal of 72%). Thus, anaerobic digestion of hydrolysate for biogas production was feasible in both CSTR and UASB reactor types. However, biogas process was affected by the reactor type and operating conditions.

  17. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  18. 均相体系中纤维素化学改性研究概述%Progress on homogeneously chemical modification of cellulose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金平; 甘蔚萍; 张俐娜

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose, as an environmentally friendly renewable resource, has received more and more attention. It has been investigated extensively by both academic and industrial researchers Because of the depletion of oil resources, the increasing pollution of the environment and the urgent need for sustainable development. Based on the unique structure and reactivity of cellulose, chemical modifications play dominant roles in improving the overall utilization of this bioresource. Cellulose derivatives have been found in numerous applications in a variety of fields, including the paper and textile, food, cosmetics, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Moreover, homogeneous modification of cellulose has been one focus of cellulose research for a long time. In this review, research development of chemical modification of cellulose in the homogeneously systems in the recent 10 years was summarized and 155 references were cited. Esterification, etherification and graft copolymerization of cellulose in LiCl/AyV-dimethylacetamide, dimethyl sufoxide/tertrabutylammonium fluoride, ionic liquids, and NaOH/urea aqueous solutions have been described in detail.%本文概述了近十年来纤维素在均相体系中化学改性的研究成果,重点介绍了纤维素在氯化锂/N,N-二甲基乙酰胺(LiCl/DMAc)、二甲基亚砜/三水合四丁基氟化铵(DMSO/TBAF·3H2O)、离子液体、碱/尿素体系中的均相酯化、醚化以及接枝共聚合反应.同时,总结了纤维素在这些溶剂中的反应特性及其衍生化产物的结构、性质和应用.

  19. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Cassia roxburghii-a most potent power for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Cassia roxburghii plant leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were determined. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extracts (60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 μg/mL) for 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Compare to aqueous extracted synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values that were 26.35, 28.67, 31.27 and 48.81, 53.24, and 58.11 μg/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of C. roxburghii to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach, and the AgNPs formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents. Therefore, this study proves that C. roxburghii is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent. This is the first report on the larvicidal activity of the plant extract and AgNPs.

  20. Production of anti-cancer triterpene (betulinic acid) from callus cultures of different Ocimum species and its elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Harshita; Pandey, Pallavi; Singh, Sailendra; Gupta, Ruby; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2015-03-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, is gaining unmatched attention owing to its unique anti-cancer activity with selective melanoma growth inhibition without damaging normal cells. It is also well-known for its multifaceted pharmacokinetics, entailing antibacterial, antimalarial, anti-HIV and antioxidant merits. Considering the escalating demand with diminishing bioresource of this molecule, the present study was undertaken that revealed the untapped potentials of Ocimum calli, contrasting to that in the in vitro derived leaves, as effective production alternative of BA in three out of four tested species (i.e. Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum kilimandscharicum, Ocimum sanctum excluding Ocimum grattisimum). Callus inductions were obtained in all the four species with different 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) concentrations with kinetin. Notably, 2,4-D favoured maximum callus growth in all whereas NAA proved beneficial for the highest metabolite yield in the calli of each BA-producing species. The O. basilicum calli demonstrated the maximum growth (growth index (GI) 678.7 ± 24.47) and BA yield (2.59 ± 0.55 % dry weight [DW]), whereas those in O. kilimandscharicum (GI 533.33 ± 15.87; BA 1.87 ± 0.6 % DW) and O. sanctum (GI 448 ± 16.07; BA 0.39 ± 0.12 % DW) followed a descending order. The O. gratissimum calli revealed minimum growth (GI 159 ± 13.25) with no BA accumulation. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at 200-μM concentration after 48-h exposure doubled the BA yield (5.10 ± 0.18 % DW) in NAA-grown O. basilicum calli compared to that in the untreated counterpart (2.61 ± 0.19 % DW), which further enthused its future application.

  1. Optimization of a Dynamic Hot Water Pretreatment of Switchgrass using Catalysis by Carbonation to Maximize Carbochemical Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamdere, Rohit Tanaji

    A bio-refinery is a facility that converts renewable bio-resources into value-added chemicals and products. In this context of a bio-refinery, the production of the carbochemicals such as HMF, furfural and organic acids illustrate that multiple products can be produced from a renewable source such as lignocellulosic biomass (switchgrass). Traditionally, carbochemicals such as furfural and HMF are produced using inorganic acids such as H 2SO4, HCL, and H3PO4. The use of such acids requires the application of high cost materials of construction such as Hastelloy-C, titanium etc. The objective of this study is to develop a semi-continuous process for the conversion of switchgrass to carbochemicals such as HMF, furfural and organic acids. Moreover, the application of water as a green reaction medium and the utilization of carbonated water as a "green catalyst" were studied in this research. For the purpose of this study, we constructed a semi-continuous flow apparatus using three high precision Isco syringe pumps and a constant temperature oven to allow carbonation of the water over a range of temperatures and pressure to reactively pretreat switchgrass. Carbochemicals (furan-based aldehydes) and acids that were formed were detected using a Waters HPLC employing a Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87H column with a PDA (photo diode array) detector at wavelengths range of 210 and 280nm. Oligosaccharides were detected using Dionex HPLC employing Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87P column using a Shodex RI-101 refractive index detector. The kinetics of the formation and degradation of HMF and furfural were studied using the solver function in Microsoft Excel. Carbonated water clearly showed catalytic activity by increasing the yields of the HMF and furfural at temperatures of 220, 250 and 280°C. The highest catalytic activity was observed for HMF formation in carbonated water with a nine-fold increase in yields over that using neat subcritical water.

  2. The Research and Exploitation of Insect Protein%昆虫蛋白质资源的开发与研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏美才; 刘高强

    2001-01-01

    Insect is a kind of potential bioresource with plenty of high quality protein. In this paper, the advances on the research and exploitation of insect food are reviewed including the birth of Edible Entomology, basic research on exploitation and industrialization of insect food. The advances on exploitation of some common insects for food such as Musca domestica L., Tenebrio molitor L., Bombyx moril, locusts, Gryllotalpa orientalis burmeister,etc. are also reviewed. The prospects for exploitation of insect protein is reviewed in the end of the paper. It is pointed out that the research of management of some serious insect pests as a kind of protein resource and producing high value insect protein by biotechnology are important domains on exploitation of insect protein in the 21st century.%昆虫是一类蕴藏着大量高品质动物蛋白的生物资源,具有巨大的开发和应用潜力.从食用昆虫学的产生、昆虫源食品的开发基础研究和产业化等方面综述了昆虫源食品的开发与研究进展;并对一些常见的饲用昆虫,如蝇蛆、黄粉虫、蚕蛹、蝗虫、蝼蛄等的开发与研究进展作了综述.最后对昆虫蛋白质资源的开发前景作了展望,指出:对一些重大害虫采取蛋白质资源化管理研究和利用高新技术来生产高价值的昆虫蛋白将是21世纪昆虫蛋白质资源开发的重要研究领域.

  3. An efficient method for in vitro gene delivery via regulation of cellular endocytosis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jing Luo,1,2,* Caixia Li,3,* Jianlin Chen,1,2 Gang Wang,2 Rong Gao,1 Zhongwei Gu2 1Key Laboratory for Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Prevention and Food Safety of Sichuan Province, College of Life Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 3Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Transfection efficiency was the primary goal for in vitro gene delivery mediated by nonviral gene carriers. Here, we report a modified gene transfection method that could greatly increase the efficiency of, and accelerate the process mediated by, 25 kDa branched polyethyleneimine and Lipofectamine™ 2000 in a broad range of cell strains, including tumor, normal, primary, and embryonic stem cells. In this method, the combination of transfection procedure with optimized complexation volume had a determinant effect on gene delivery result. The superiorities of the method were found to be related to the change of cellular endocytosis pathway and decrease of particle size. The efficient and simple method established in this study can be widely used for in vitro gene delivery into cultured cells. We think it may also be applicable for many more nonviral gene delivery materials than polyethyleneimine and liposome. Keywords: gene delivery, gene expression, endocytosis, polyethyleneimine, Lipofectamine™ 2000

  4. In situ biological resources: Soluble nutrients and electrolytes in carbonaceous asteroids/meteorites. Implications for astroecology and human space populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, Michael N.

    2014-12-01

    Ecosystems in space will need in-situ bioavailable nutrients. The measured nutrients in meteorites allow experiment-based estimates of nutrients in asteroids, and of the biomass and populations that can be derived from these in situ bioresources. In this respect, we found that carbonaceous chondrite meteorites can support microorganisms and plant cultures, suggesting that similar asteroid materials are also biologically fertile. The sustainable biomass and populations are determined by the available resource materials, their yields of nutrients and biomass, the biomass needed to support human populations, the duration of the ecosystem, and wastage. The bioavailable C, N, and electrolytes in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites vary as CM2>CR2>CV3>CO3>CK4>CK5 in correlation with petrologic type, including aqueous alteration. Their average bioavailable C, N, K and P can yield 2.4, 3.5, 2.5, and 0.08 g biomass/kg resource material, respectively, showing phosphorus as the limiting nutrient. On this basis, soluble nutrients in a 100 km radius, 1019 kg resource asteroid can sustain an ecosystem of 108 kg biomass and a human population of 10,000 for >109 years, and its total nutrient contents can sustain a population of one million, by replacing a wastage of 1% of the biomass per year. Overall, the total nutrient contents of the 1022 kg carbonaceous asteroids can yield a biomass of 1020 kg that supports a steady-state human population of one billion during the habitable future of the Solar System, contributing a time-integrated biomass of 1022 kg-years. These astroecology estimates use experimental data on nutrients in asteroids/meteorites to quantify the sustainable biomass and human populations in this and similar solar systems.

  5. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic profile and cytotoxic effects of saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jatinder; Dhar, Priyanka; Tayade, Amol B; Gupta, Damodar; Chaurasia, Om P; Upreti, Dalip K; Arora, Rajesh; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2014-01-01

    natural antioxidants for stress related problems. Our studies go on to prove that the unique trans-Himalayan lichens are a hitherto untapped bioresource with immense potential for discovery of new chemical entities, and this biodiversity needs to be tapped sustainably.

  6. PROSPECTS OF USING INVASIVE LEGUMES IN HERBAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelepova O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose to consider alien invasive species as new bioresources. These plants form powerful (usually single-species thickets in the secondary range and their size are larger than at the native cenosis. The territory occupied by invasive species, especially in disturbed habitats, is quite high, so their possible yield is very high. The main problem of using alien species in the pharmacological purposes is the lack of information about the dynamics of the chemicals accumulation. Available data on the biochemistry in its natural habitat is inadaptable for the same taxon in the secondary range because of significant microevolutionary changes. In this work we present the results of phytochemical screening four legume species, formed invasive populations in the Middle Russia - Galega orientalis Lam., Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl., Robinia pseudoacacia L. & Caragana arborescens Lam. Information about these species as traditional medicine plants is given. Original data on the concentration phenolic compounds and biophile silicon in leaves and inflorescences are presented. Information on the fractional composition of the flavonoid complex is done. Taking into consideration the high adaptability of invasive species, the chemical analysis of the samples from different ecotypes was made. It is shown that accumulation of bioactive agents and biophile silicon isn’t depended on the environmental conditions. Concentrations of polyphenolic compounds were at the average level in comparison with medicinal plants. Thus, the combination of flavonoid complex with biophile silicon provides pharmacological significance of studied species, and justifies the needing the further study of invasive plant species in order to create new herbal medicines

  7. Symbiodinium spp. associated with scleractinian corals from Dongsha Atoll (Pratas, Taiwan, in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Keshavmurthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dongsha Atoll (also known as Pratas in Taiwan is the northernmost atoll in the South China Sea and a designated marine national park since 2007. The marine park’s scope of protection covers the bio-resources of its waters in addition to uplands, so it is important to have data logging information and analyses of marine flora and fauna, including their physiology, ecology, and genetics. As part of this effort, we investigated Symbiodinium associations in scleractinian corals from Dongsha Atoll through surveys carried out at two depth ranges (shallow, 1–5 m; and deep, 10–15 m in 2009 and during a bleaching event in 2010. Symbiodinium composition was assessed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of 28S nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (nlsrDNA. Our results showed that the 796 coral samples from seven families and 20 genera collected in 2009 and 132 coral samples from seven families and 12 genera collected in 2010 were associated with Symbiodinium C, D and C+D. Occurrence of clade D in shallow water (24.5% was higher compared to deep (14.9%. Due to a bleaching event in 2010, up to 80% of coral species associated with Symbiodinium C underwent moderate to severe bleaching. Using the fine resolution technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 in 175 randomly selected coral samples, from 2009 and 2010, eight Symbiodinium C types and two Symbiodinium D types were detected. This study is the first baseline survey on Symbiodinium associations in the corals of Dongsha Atoll in the South China Sea, and it shows the dominance of Symbiodinium clade C in the population.

  8. Academic Science and New Industrialization (on the Republic of Komi Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Nikolayevich Lazhentsev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the achievements of science and technological progress define in a greater degree new reference points of the strategic planning for national and regional development are d by. The results of research and development which are noteworthy from the point of view of the improvement of scientific, technological, socio- economic processes in northern and Arctic territories (in our case — the Republic of Komi, as a rule, take the form of interdisciplinary projects. These projects generate the results of research on the social and economic, humanitarian and medical- biological problems; conservation of biosphere and ecosystems with simultaneous development of bioresource economics; management of mineral-raw, fuel and energy resources; spatial development; creation and use of innovative technologies. The key idea of the paper is the realization of new industrialization of the Republic of Komi taking into account the results of the research works carried out at the institutes of the Komi Scientific Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The applied research of the institutes of the Komi Scientific Centre is based on fundamental studies and is closely connected with the practice of the development and location of production. They are oriented at the realization of a new paradigm of the northern policy which consists not only in the development of mineral-raw and power resources for external consumers, but also in the arrangement, sustainable development and creation of appropriate conditions for the life of the population settled down in the North. Special attention is paid to the reproduction of human and natural resource potentials. The sectoral structure of the economy of the republic, as well as of the majority of other northern and Arctic regions, will not change drastically in the long term,, but the internal content of productive forces will be different. It will correspond to the concept of resource

  9. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid C.

    2011-12-29

    The Saint James\\'s Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect® (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software®). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A260\\/280 values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng\\/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng\\/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng\\/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng\\/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates.

  10. Anticancer activity of biostabilized selenium nanorods synthesized by Streptomyces bikiniensis strain Ess_amA-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad MS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maged Sayed Ahmad,1 Manal Mohamed Yasser,1 Essam Nageh Sholkamy,1,2 Ali Mohamed Ali,3,4 Magda Mohamed Mehanni3 1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Beni-Suef, Beni-Suef, Egypt; 2Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, Egypt; 4Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Selenium is an important component of human diet and a number of studies have declared its chemopreventive and therapeutic properties against cancer. However, very limited studies have been conducted about the properties of selenium nanostructured materials in comparison to other well-studied selenospecies. Here, we have shown that the anticancer property of biostabilized selenium nanorods (SeNrs synthesized by applying a novel strain Ess_amA-1 of Streptomyces bikiniensis. The strain was grown aerobically with selenium dioxide and produced stable SeNrs with average particle size of 17 nm. The optical, structural, morphological, elemental, and functional characterizations of the SeNrs were carried out using techniques such as UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, respectively. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay revealed that the biosynthesized SeNrs induces cell death of Hep-G2 and MCF-7 human cancer cells. The lethal dose (LD50% of SeNrs on Hep-G2 and MCF-7 cells was recorded at 75.96 µg/mL and 61.86 µg/mL, respectively. It can be concluded that S. bikiniensis strain Ess_amA-1 could be used as renewable bioresources of biosynthesis of anticancer SeNrs. A hypothetical mechanism for anticancer activity of SeNrs is also proposed. Keywords: biosynthesis, selenium nanorods, Streptomyces, anticancer activity

  11. Production of wood vinegars from coconut shells and additional materials for control of termite workers, Odontotermes sp. and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisia virgata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunan Wititsiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shells and coir are considered as wastes of coconut based products that have not been utilized efficiently.By using these abundant bioresources, which are widely available in Thailand, as raw materials, we were able to producewood vinegars that may be alternatives to termiticides and pesticides. The wood vinegars were obtained from carbonizationprocess using a 200-liter fuel tank as charcoal brazier under temperatures of 300-400°C. In this study, termiticidal and pesticidalactivities of wood vinegars were evaluated against termite workers, Odontotermes sp., and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisiavirgata, using direct contact application. Percent mortalities in the experiments were recorded after 24 hours and correctedfor control mortality with Abbott’s formula. Wood vinegars of 850, 696, and 898 milliliters were produced from coconut shell(wood vinegar A and the mixture of coconut shell and coir (wood vinegar B and the mixture of coconut shell, coir and holybasil (wood vinegar C, respectively. Wood vinegar A exhibited high termiticidal activity against termite workers at a dilutionof 1:50, wood vinegar: sterile water (v/v. By this way, 85% (81.71% corrected mortality of termite workers were killed afterthe 24 hours of test. At a dilution of 1:10, both wood vinegar A and B had exhibited high pesticidal activities against mealybugs, 96% (95.12% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs were killed by those wood vinegars. In the weakest termiticidaland pesticidal activities, wood vinegar C was able to kill 60% (51.22% corrected mortality of termite workers at a dilution of1:50 within 24 hours. Also it killed 93% (91.89% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs with a dilution of 1:10 (v/v withinthe same amount of time. Post-hoc comparisons (Tukey test revealed that wood vinegar A possessed the most effectivetermiticidal activity against termite workers. However, a similarity in high pesticidal activity was found among three woodvinegars

  12. Functional IL6R 358Ala allele impairs classical IL-6 receptor signaling and influences risk of diverse inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, which is directly regulated by interleukin-6 (IL-6 signaling, is implicated in the etiology of several chronic diseases. Although a common, non-synonymous variant in the IL-6 receptor gene (IL6R Asp358Ala; rs2228145 A>C is associated with the risk of several common diseases, with the 358Ala allele conferring protection from coronary heart disease (CHD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, atrial fibrillation (AF, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA, and increased susceptibility to asthma, the variant's effect on IL-6 signaling is not known. Here we provide evidence for the association of this non-synonymous variant with the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D in two independent populations and confirm that rs2228145 is the major determinant of the concentration of circulating soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R levels (34.6% increase in sIL-6R per copy of the minor allele 358Ala; rs2228145 [C]. To further investigate the molecular mechanism of this variant, we analyzed expression of IL-6R in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in 128 volunteers from the Cambridge BioResource. We demonstrate that, although 358Ala increases transcription of the soluble IL6R isoform (P = 8.3×10⁻²² and not the membrane-bound isoform, 358Ala reduces surface expression of IL-6R on CD4+ T cells and monocytes (up to 28% reduction per allele; P≤5.6×10⁻²². Importantly, reduced expression of membrane-bound IL-6R resulted in impaired IL-6 responsiveness, as measured by decreased phosphorylation of the transcription factors STAT3 and STAT1 following stimulation with IL-6 (P≤5.2×10⁻⁷. Our findings elucidate the regulation of IL-6 signaling by IL-6R, which is causally relevant to several complex diseases, identify mechanisms for new approaches to target the IL-6/IL-6R axis, and anticipate differences in treatment response to IL-6 therapies based on this common IL6R variant.

  13. Reality and prospects of development of communication of the Northern Sea Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veretennikov N. P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing priorities in the development of the Arctic natural resources – hydrocarbons and marine bioresources – has been carried out. The problems and prospects of organizing logistics and transport corridors for trade by goods produced in the North and in the central regions of Russia have been considered; some issues of control over the marine area in the Arctic have been reviewed. Проведен анализ существующих приоритетов в освоении природных богатств Арктики – углеводородного сырья и морских биологических ресурсов. Рассмотрены проблемы и перспективы организации логистики и транспортных коридоров для торговли товарами, произведенными на Севере и в центральных регионах России, а также вопросы обеспечения контроля над морской акваторией в Арктической зоне

  14. Optimization of reaction conditions to fabricate nano-silver using Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (leaf & fruit) and its enhanced larvicidal effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimala, R. T. V.; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal

    2015-01-01

    Currently bioactive principles of plants and their nanoproducts have been extensively studied in agriculture and medicine. In this study Couroupita guianensis Aubl. leaf and fruit extracts were selected for rapid and cost-effective synthesis of silver nanoparticles (leaf-LAgNPs and fruit-FAgNPs). Various physiological conditions such as temperature, pH, concentration of metal ions, stoichiometric proportion of reaction mixture and reaction time showed influence on the size, dispersity and synthesis rate of AgNPs. Generation of AgNPs was initially confirmed with the surface plasmon vibrations at 420 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results recorded from X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) supports the biosynthesis of cubic crystalline LAgNPs & FAgNPs with the size ranges between 10-45 nm and 5-15 nm respectively. Surface chemistry of synthesized AgNPs was studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), it reveals that water soluble phenolic compounds present in the extracts act as reducing and stabilizing agent. Leaf, fruit extracts and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera; Culicidae). Furthermore, different extracts and synthesized AgNPs showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against A. aegypti after 24 h of treatment. Compare to all extracts such as ethyl acetate (leaf; LC50 - 44.55 ppm and LC90 - 318.39 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 49.96 ppm and LC90 - 568.84 ppm respectively) and Methanol (leaf; LC50 - 85.75 ppm and LC90 - 598.63 ppm & fruit; LC50 - 67.78 ppm and LC90 - 714.45 ppm respectively) synthesized AgNPs showed extensive mortality rate (LAgNPs; LC50 - 2.1 ppm and LC90 - 5.59 ppm & FAgNPs; LC50 - 2.09 ppm and LC90 - 5.7 ppm). Hence, this study proves that C. guianensis is a potential bioresource for stable, reproducible nanoparticle synthesis (AgNPs) and also can be used as an efficient mosquito control agent.

  15. Rumo ao desenvolvimento espacial sustentável? Explorando as implicações da nova bioeconomia no setor agroalimentar e na inovação regional Towards sustainable spatial development? Exploring the implications of the emerging bio-economy in agri-food and regional innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Horlings

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O paradigma da bioeconomia pode ser descrito como o conjunto das atividades econômicas que captam o valor latente em processos biológicos e nos biorecursos renováveis, para produzir melhores condições de saúde, além de crescimento e desenvolvimento sustentáveis. Este artigo faz uma revisão crítica do impacto da bioeconomia emergente sobre o desenvolvimento rural. São descritas algumas das consequências do desenvolvimento rural bioeconômico, na esfera agroalimentar e da inovação regional baseada em uma definição específica -e, de nosso ponto de vista, fraca -de Modernização Ecológica. A questão central, então, é: quais são as bases conceituais, a força impulsora, as expressões empíricas e as implicações do desenvolvimento bioeconômico? Argumenta-se que, embora a bioeconomia faça duras cobranças em relação à sustentabilidade, também deixa lacunas, apresenta al-guns efeitos secundários negativos, tanto ambientais como sociais, e corre o risco de ser uma economia parcial. Sustentamos, ainda, que a trajetória do desenvolvimento ecoeconômico pode constituir uma boa alternativa para localidades particularmente vulneráveis que queiram aumentar sua resiliência.The bio-economic paradigm can be described as those economic activities which capture the latent value in biological processes and renewable bioresources to produce improved health and sustainable growth and development. This article is a critical review of the impact of the emerging bio-economy in rural development. It describes some of its consequences in the sphere of agri-food and regional innovation based on a specific -and in our opinion weak - definition of Ecological Modernization. The central question then is: what are the conceptual roots, driving forces, empirical expressions and implications of bio-economic development? We argue that although the bio-economy makes severe sustainability claims, it also shows some missing links, has some negative

  16. Metabolic engineering of Enterobacter cloacae for high-yield production of enantiopure (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol from lignocellulose-derived sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixiang; Li, Kun; Wang, Yu; Chen, Chao; Xu, Youqiang; Zhang, Lijie; Han, Binbin; Gao, Chao; Tao, Fei; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Biotechnological production of biofuels is restricted by toxicity of the products such as ethanol and butanol. As its low toxicity to microbes, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), a fuel and platform bio-chemical, could be a promising alternative for biofuel production from renewable bioresources. In addition, no bacterial strains have been reported to produce enantiopure 2,3-BD using lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In this study, Enterobacter cloacae strain SDM was systematically and metabolically engineered to construct an efficient biocatalyst for production of the fuel and enantiopure bio-chemical-(2R,3R)-2,3-BD. First, the various (2R,3R)-2,3-BD dehydrogenase encoding genes were expressed in a meso-2,3-BD dehydrogenase encoding gene disrupted E. cloacae strain under native promoter Pb of the 2,3-BD biosynthetic gene cluster of E. cloacae. Then, carbon catabolite repression was eliminated via inactivation of the glucose transporter encoding gene ptsG and overexpression of a galactose permease encoding gene galP. The resultant strain could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously. To improve the efficiency of (2R,3R)-2,3-BD production, the byproduct-producing genes (ldh and frdA) were knocked out, thereby enhancing the yield of (2R,3R)-2,3-BD by 16.5% in 500-mL Erlenmeyer flasks. By using fed-batch fermentation in a 5-L bioreactor, 152.0 g/L (2R,3R)-2,3-BD (purity>97.5%) was produced within 44 h with a specific productivity of 3.5 g/[Lh] and a yield of 97.7% from a mixture of glucose and xylose, two major carbohydrate components in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In addition, when a lignocellulosic hydrolysate was used as the substrate, 119.4 g/L (2R,3R)-2,3-BD (purity>96.0%) was produced within 51 h with a productivity of 2.3g/[Lh] and a yield of 95.0%. These results show that the highest records have been acquired for enantiopure (2R,3R)-2,3-BD production by a native or engineered strain from biomass-derived sugars. In addition to producing the 2,3-BD, our systematic

  17. A highly efficient β-glucosidase from the buffalo rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsin-Liang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose, which is the most abundant renewable biomass on earth, is a potential bio-resource of alternative energy. The hydrolysis of plant polysaccharides is catalyzed by microbial cellulases, including endo-β-1,4-glucanases, cellobiohydrolases, cellodextrinases, and β-glucosidases. Converting cellobiose by β-glucosidases is the key factor for reducing cellobiose inhibition and enhancing the efficiency of cellulolytic enzymes for cellulosic ethanol production. Results In this study, a cDNA encoding β-glucosidase was isolated from the buffalo rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5 and is named NpaBGS. It has a length of 2,331 bp with an open reading frame coding for a protein of 776 amino acid residues, corresponding to a theoretical molecular mass of 85.1 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.4. Two GH3 catalytic domains were found at the N and C terminals of NpaBGS by sequence analysis. The cDNA was expressed in Pichia pastoris and after protein purification, the enzyme displayed a specific activity of 34.5 U/mg against cellobiose as the substrate. Enzymatic assays showed that NpaBGS was active on short cello-oligosaccharides from various substrates. A weak activity in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC digestion indicated that the enzyme might also have the function of an endoglucanase. The optimal activity was detected at 40°C and pH 5 ~ 6, showing that the enzyme prefers a weak acid condition. Moreover, its activity could be enhanced at 50°C by adding Mg2+ or Mn2+ ions. Interestingly, in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF experiments using Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 or Kluyveromyces marxianus KY3 as the fermentation yeast, NpaBGS showed advantages in cell growth, glucose production, and ethanol production over the commercial enzyme Novo 188. Moreover, we showed that the KY3 strain engineered with the NpaNGS gene can utilize 2 % dry napiergrass as the sole carbon source to produce 3.32 mg

  18. Selected tea and tea pomace extracts inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro and postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jungbae; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Justin S; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yun; Choi, Hwang-Yong; Yu, Seok-Yeong; Kwon, Young-In; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2015-01-01

    of all three teas had significantly higher phenolic content than those of the TWE groups, which correlated strongly with the DPPH radical scavenging activity. This is the first report of tea pomace extract significantly inhibits intestinal α-glucosidase, resulting in delayed glucose absorption and thereby suppressed postprandial hyperglycemia. Our data suggest that tea pomace-derived bioactives may have great potential for further development as nutraceutical products and the reuse of otherwise biowaste as valuable bioresources for the industry.

  19. 氯化锌改性竹炭脱除单质汞的特性与机理分析%Performance and mechanism for elemental mercury removal by bamboo charcoal modified by ZnCl2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭增强; 邱建荣; 向军; 孙路石; 刘子红; 曾汉才; 张盛诚

    2011-01-01

    Elemental mercury from coal combustion has become an increasingly environmental concern due to its high volatility and toxicity, and it has been found that activated carbon adsorption is an effective mercury-control method, but there exists high-cost limit. An important precursor for activated carbon is bamboo, a renewable bioresource, and bamboo charcoal (BC) may act as a low-cost sorbent used for mercury controlling. In this paper, the adsorptive potential of modified BC using ZnCl2 (Cl-BC) for elemental mercury was investigated in a bench-scale bed. Their pore structure and surface chemical properties were characterized by BET and XPS. The results suggested that Cl-BC had excellent adsorption potential for elemental mercury even at a relative higher temperature, and the enhancing-effect was more obvious with increasing Cl content. There was an optimum ZnCl2 concentration for impregnation. The increase of performance of Cl-BC is probably due to the increase of active sites for mercury adsorption. The kind of Cl functional groups on the original and ZnCl2-modified BC was found to be different, the latter is of the active site for mercury adsorption and oxidation, and for the former it is negligible. There is an optimum Cl content on the ZnCl2-modified BC for elemental mercury removal, and mercuric chloride could be formed during mercury sorption.%@@ 引言 燃煤排放的汞是人为汞污染的主要来源之一,燃煤烟气中的汞主要以单质汞(Hg)、二价汞化合物(HgO、HgCl)和颗粒态汞3种形式存在,其中单质汞因其高挥发性、不溶于水等特点最难控制.由于汞的剧毒性,目前汞的排放控制已经引起广泛的研究[1-4],目前对汞的排放控制可分为燃烧前控制、燃烧中控制和尾部烟气控制3种,已有的研究发现活性炭吸附除汞是尾部烟气汞控制中最有前途的技术之一,美国目前已将该技术用于垃圾焚烧炉,并取得较好的效果.

  20. Strategies for chromium bioremediation of tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan

    2012-01-01

    bioreduction methods that rely on free cells for bioremediation suffer from Cr6 toxicity, and cell damage. Therefore, immobilization of microbial cell biomass enhances bioremediation and renders industrial bioremediation processes more economically viable from reduced free-cells toxicity, easier separation of biosorbents from the tannery effluent, ability to achieve multiple biosorption cycles, and desorption (elution) of metal(s) from matrices for reuse. Thus, microbial bioremediation can be a cost competitive strategy and beneficial bioresource for removing many hazardous contaminants from tannery and other industrial wastes.

  1. Use of RSM modeling for optimizing decolorization of simulated textile wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 capable of simultaneous removal of reactive dyes and hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Zahid; Hussain, Sabir; Ahmad, Tanvir; Nadeem, Habibullah; Imran, Muhammad; Khalid, Azeem; Abid, Muhammad; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Remediation of colored wastewater loaded with dyes and metal ions is a matter of interest nowadays. In this study, 220 bacteria isolated from textile wastewater were tested for their potential to decolorize each of the four reactive dyes (reactive red-120, reactive black-5, reactive yellow-2, and reactive orange-16) in the presence of a mixture of four different heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd) commonly found in textile effluents. Among the tested bacteria, the isolate ZM130 was found to be the most efficient in decolorizing reactive dyes in the presence of the mixture of heavy metals and was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZM130 by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The strain ZM130 was highly effective in simultaneously removing hexavalent chromium (25 mg L(-1)) and the azo dyes (100 mg L(-1)) from the simulated wastewater even in the presence of other three heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd). Simultaneous removal of chromium and azo dyes ranged as 76.6-98.7 % and 51.9-91.1 %, respectively, after 180 h incubation. On the basis of quadratic polynomial equation and response surfaces given by the response surface methodology (RSM), optimal salt content, pH, carbon co-substrate content, and level of multi-metal mixtures for decolorization of reactive red-120 in a simulated textile wastewater by the strain ZM130 were predicted to be 19.8, 7.8, and 6.33 g L(-1) and a multi-metal mixture (Cr 13.10 mg L(-1), Pb 26.21 mg L(-1), Cd 13.10 mg L(-1), Zn 26.21 mg L(-1)), respectively. Moreover, the strain ZM130 also exhibited laccase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (NADH-DCIP reductase) activity during the decolorization of reactive red-120. However, the laccase activity was found to be maximum in the presence of 300 mg L(-1) of the dye as compared to other concentrations. Hence, the isolation of this strain might serve as a potential bio-resource required for developing the strategies aiming at bioremediation of the

  2. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    rats. The TPE of all three teas had significantly higher phenolic content than those of the TWE groups, which correlated strongly with the DPPH radical scavenging activity. This is the first report of tea pomace extract significantly inhibits intestinal α-glucosidase, resulting in delayed glucose absorption and thereby suppressed postprandial hyperglycemia. Our data suggest that tea pomace-derived bioactives may have great potential for further development as nutraceutical products and the reuse of otherwise biowaste as valuable bioresources for the industry.

  3. Phytogenic silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles as novel antitubercular agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Richa Singh,1 Laxman Nawale,2 Manisha Arkile,2 Sweety Wadhwani,1 Utkarsha Shedbalkar,1 Snehal Chopade,1 Dhiman Sarkar,2 Balu Ananda Chopade1,3 1Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, 2Combichem-Bioresource Center, Organic Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, 3Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India Purpose: Multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB is a global threat to human health. It requires immediate action to seek new antitubercular compounds and devise alternate strategies. Nanomaterials, in the present scenario, have opened new avenues in medicine, diagnosis, and therapeutics. In view of this, the current study aims to determine the efficacy of phytogenic metal nanoparticles to inhibit mycobacteria. Methods: Silver (AgNPs, gold (AuNPs, and gold–silver bimetallic (Au–AgNPs nanoparticles synthesized from medicinal plants, such as Barleria prionitis, Plumbago zeylanica, and Syzygium cumini, were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays were designed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and half maximal inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles. Microscopic analyses were carried out to demonstrate intracellular uptake of nanoparticles in macrophages. Besides this, biocompatibility, specificity, and selectivity of nanoparticles were also established with respect to human cell lines. Results: Au–AgNPs exhibited highest antitubercular activity, with MIC of <2.56 µg/mL, followed by AgNPs. AuNPs did not show such activity at concentrations of up to 100 µg/mL. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays revealed the inhibition of both active and dormant stage mycobacteria on exposure to Au–AgNPs. These nanoparticles were capable of entering macrophage cells and exhibited up to 45% cytotoxicity at 30 µg/mL (ten times MIC concentration after 48 hours

  4. Bioextraction potential of seaweed in Denmark — An instrument for circular nutrient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seghetta, Michele [Research Group on EcoIndustrial System Analysis, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Tørring, Ditte [Orbicon A/S, Jens Juuls Vej 16, 8260 Viby (Denmark); Bruhn, Annette [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, 8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Thomsen, Marianne, E-mail: mth@envs.au.dk [Research Group on EcoIndustrial System Analysis, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of seaweed for circular nutrient management to reduce eutrophication levels in the aquatic environment. We performed a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two reference waste management systems treating seaweed as biowaste, i.e. landfill disposal and combustion, and an alternative scenario using the seaweed Saccharina latissima as a resource for biobased fertilizer production. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods were improved by using a cradle-to-cradle approach, quantifying fate factors for nitrogen and phosphorus loss from fertilized agriculture to the aquatic environment. We also differentiated between nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited marine water to improve the traditional freshwater impact category, making this indicator suitable for decision support in relation to coastal water management schemes. Offshore cultivation of Saccharina latissima with an average productivity of 150 Mg/km{sup 2} in Danish waters in 2014 was applied to a cultivation scenario of 208 km{sup 2}. The bioresource scenario performs better than conventional biowaste management systems, delivering a net reduction in aquatic eutrophication levels of 32.29 kg N eq. and 16.58 kg PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} eq. per Mg (dry weight) of seaweed, quantified by the ReCiPe and CML impact assessment methods, respectively. Seaweed cultivation, harvest and reuse of excess nutrients from the aquatic environment is a promising approach for sustainable resource cycling in a future regenerative economy that exploits manmade emissions as a resource for closed loop biobased production while significantly reducing eutrophication levels in 3 out of 7 Danish river basin districts. We obtained at least 10% bioextraction of phosphorus manmade emissions (10%, 89% and > 100%) and contributed significantly to local nitrogen reduction goals according to the Water Framework Directive (23%, 78% and > 100% of the target). - Highlights: • Offshore seaweed production

  5. Bioenergy options. Multidisciplinary participatory method for assessing bioenergy options for rural villages in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauzeni, A.S.; Masao, H.P.; Sawe, E.N.; Shechambo, F.C. [Dar Es Salaam Univ. (Tanzania). Inst. of Resource Assessment; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In Tanzania, like in many other developing countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, bioenergy planning has received relatively little attention, compared to planning for `modern` energy sources, although it accounts for about 90% of the country`s energy supply. As a result there is less understanding of the complexity and diversity of bioenergy systems. There is a lack of reliable data and information on bio-resources, their consumption and interaction with social, economic, institutional and environmental factors. This is largely due to lack of adequately developed and easily understood methods of data and information development, analysis and methods of evaluating available bioenergy options. In order to address the above constraints a project was initiated where the general objective was to develop and test a multi-disciplinary research method for identifying bioenergy options that can contribute to satisfying the energy needs of the rural household, agricultural and small scale industrial sectors, promote growth and facilitate sustainable development. The decision on the development and testing of a multidisciplinary research method was based on the fact that in Tanzania several bioenergy programmes have been introduced e.g. tree planting, improved cookstoves, biogas, improved charcoal making kilns etc. for various purposes including combating deforestation; promoting economic growth, substitution of imported petroleum fuels, health improvement, and raising standards of living. However efforts made in introducing these programmes or interventions have met with limited success. This situation prevails because developed bioenergy technologies are not being adopted in adequate numbers by the target groups. There are some indications from the study that some of the real barriers to effective bioenergy interventions or adoption of bioenergy technologies lie at the policy level and not at the project level. After the development and testing of the methodology

  6. Venom Down Under: Dynamic Evolution of Australian Elapid Snake Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy N. W. Jackson

    2013-12-01

    forms of kunitz and waprin peptides were recovered, including dual domain kunitz-kunitz precursors and the first kunitz-waprin hybrid precursors from elapid snakes. The novel sequences recovered in this study reveal that the huge diversity of unstudied venomous Australian snakes are of considerable interest not only for the investigation of venom and whole organism evolution but also represent an untapped bioresource in the search for novel compounds for use in drug design and development.

  7. Study on Information Management System of Bacillus-like Species Sample Database%芽胞杆菌菌种资源库信息管理系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志针; 刘波; 史怀; 陈峥; 唐建阳; 朱育菁; 刘国红; 刘丹莹

    2013-01-01

    福建省农业科学院农业生物资源研究所搜集并保存了大量的芽胞杆菌的样本,并对其进行了分类、统计、代谢产物分析等研究.为了更好地对芽孢杆菌菌种资源库进行信息管理,构建了芽胞杆菌的SQL Server数据库,并通过ODBC实现数据库与客户端的链接,保证客户端能够通过网络方便地访问数据库.芽胞杆菌的样本信息采用二维码的方式建库,可通过扫描枪实现样本的快速定位和样本信息的快速查询.芽孢杆菌菌种资源库信息管理系统可自定义样本信息,并可根据任一样本信息进行多条件的检索与统计,实现芽胞杆菌菌种资源库智能化的信息管理.%Many Bacillus-like species samples were collected by the Institute of Agricultural Bioresource, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences (FAAS), and their classification characterization, statistics and the property of metabolism had been studied. In order to make a better management of Bacillus-like species sample database, a SQL Server database of Bacillus-like species samples was constructed, where the open database connectivity (ODBC) was used to the communications between clients and server on internet. All informations were stored in the QR code and a scanning gun can be used to do quick navigation of samples and rapid lookup of sample information. Bacillus-like species sample database could custom any sample information, customer could accomplish multi-conditions retrieval and statistics.

  8. A strategic plan for the second phase (2013-2015) of the Korea biobank project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ok; Cho, Sang Yun; Shin, So Youn; Park, Jae-Sun; Kim, Jun Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee

    2013-04-01

    The Korea Biobank Project (KBP) was led by the Ministry of Health and Welfare to establish a network between the National Biobank of Korea and biobanks run by university-affiliated general hospitals (regional biobanks). The Ministry of Health and Welfare started the project to enhance medical and health technology by collecting, managing, and providing researchers with high-quality human bioresources. The National Biobank of Korea, under the leadership of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, collects specimens through various cohorts and regional biobanks within university hospitals gather specimens from patients. The project began in 2008, and the first phase ended in 2012, which meant that there needed to be a plan for the second phase that begins in 2013. Consequently, professionals from within and outside the project were gathered to develop a plan for the second phase. Under the leadership of the planning committee, six working groups were formed to formulate a practical plan. By conducting two workshops with experts in the six working groups and the planning committee and three forums in 2011 and 2012, they have developed a strategic plan for the second phase of the KBP. This document presents a brief report of the second phase of the project based on a discussion with them. During the first phase of the project (2008-2012), a network was set up between the National Biobank of Korea and 17 biobanks at university-affiliated hospitals in an effort to unify informatics and governance among the participating biobanks. The biobanks within the network manage data on their biospecimens with a unified Biobank Information Management System. Continuous efforts are being made to develop a common standard operating procedure for resource collection, management, distribution, and personal information security, and currently, management of these data is carried out in a somewhat unified manner. In addition, the KBP has trained and educated professionals to work within the

  9. 土壤宏基因组学研究方法与进展%METHODS FOR AND PROGRESS IN RESEARCH ON SOIL METAGENOMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺纪正; 袁超磊; 沈菊培; 张丽梅

    2012-01-01

    Soil microorganisms are a driving force in material recycling and nutrient transformation in soil. However, for a long time, soil has been treated as a "black box" system, wherein microbial diversity and biochemical processes remain to be explored. Since most of the soil microorganisms are still quite hard to be isolated for culture, traditional culture methods are quite limited in helping reveal compositions and functions of soil microbial communities. The metagenomic method is able to explore the structures and functions ( sequence-driven approach) of soil microbial community and to screen bioactive materials and new genes ( function-driven approach ) through extracting all microbial DNAs direct from environment samples and then sequencing or constructing clone library, thus breaking through the bottleneck of the traditional methods and greatly enriching the knowledge about soil microbial biodiversity and functions. While reviewing main procedures of the metagenomic technique, the paper focuses on the introduction to application of the next-generation sequencing (NCS) technologies in metagenomic research and processing of the huge volume of data it may produce. The new process on soil microbial ecology with the metagenomic technique is then discussed. And in the end, the authors propose that research projeces on soil metagenomics should be launched at the national level to explore soil microorganism communities and their variation, so as to contribute to the causes of bioresource exploitation, agricultural production and environment protection.%土壤微生物驱动着土壤中的物质循环和养分转化.在土壤学的研究中,长期将土壤作为一个黑箱系统来对待,对其中的生物组成及其参与的生化过程知之甚少.土壤中绝大部分微生物目前尚难以分离培养,因此基于传统的培养方法对于认识土壤微生物群落组成和功能有其局限性.宏基因组学直接从环境样品中提取全部微生物的DNA,

  10. Effects of Selective Harvesting on Target Plants and the Related Ecosystems%选择性采集对植物及生态系统的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    淮虎银; 刘爱忠

    2013-01-01

    Selective harvesting is a common practice in human's utilization of wild bio-resources. It influences the characteristics of the harvested species at molecular, population, and ecosystem levels, and is therefore important for sustainable use and conservation of plant resources. The papers concerning selective harvesting of plants and their ecological and evolutionary effects have been reviewed in this paper. Selective harvesting can influence the genetic diversity, population structure and dynamics of the harvested species, and its impacts are dependent obviously on their biological characteristics, parts used, harvesting regime, harvesting time and harvesting intensity. Many studies presently focused on timbers. For non-timber plants, only some species with high economic value and endangered species have been studied. Selective harvesting also causes the species richness, structures and functions of related ecosystems. Traditional harvesting practices are considered as a sustainable approach to resource use, but few direct evidences on genetic and species levels are available. Commercial harvesting may lead to the change of traditional harvesting. Ethnobotany should play a more important role in the study of selective harvesting and its ecological and evolutionary effects.%选择性采集是人类利用野生生物资源过程中的一个普遍现象.选择性采集不仅对采集对象及其所在的生态系统有明显影响,而且也对资源的可持续利用和保护具有十分重要的意义.本文对近年来在选择性采集对资源植物及其所在生态系统等方面的影响进行了综述.集中阐述选择性采集对采集对象的居群遗传结构、多样性及动态的影响,以及和采集对象的生物学特征、采集部位、采集方式、采集时间和采集强度的关系.在生态系统水平上,选择性采集可能会导致采集对象所在的群落中物种多样性、生态系统的结构和功能等发生变化.然而,随

  11. Anticancer activities of self-assembled molecular bowls containing a phenanthrene-based donor and Ru(II acceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim I

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inhye Kim,1,* Young Ho Song,2,* Nem Singh,2 Yong Joon Jeong,3 Jung Eun Kwon,3 Hyunuk Kim,4 Young Mi Cho,3 Se Chan Kang,3 Ki-Whan Chi2 1Laboratory of Bio-Resources, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-Do, 2Department of Chemistry, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, 3Department of Life Science, Gachon University, Seongnam, 4Energy Materials Lab, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nano-sized multinuclear ruthenium complexes have rapidly emerged as promising therapeutic candidates with unique anticancer activities. Here, we describe the coordination-driven self-assembly and anticancer activities of a set of three organometallic tetranuclear Ru(II molecular bowls. [2+2] Coordination-driven self-assembly of 3,6-bis(pyridin-3-ylethynylphenanthrene (bpep (1 and one of the three dinuclear arene ruthenium clips, [(ƞ6-p-iPrC6H4Me2Ru2-(OO\\OO][OTf]2 (OO\\OO =2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzoquinonato, OTf = triflate (2, 5,8-dioxido-1,4-naphthoquinonato (3, or 6,11-dioxido-5,12-naphthacenediona (4, resulted in three molecular bowls 5–7 of general formula [{(ƞ6-p-iPrC6H4Me2Ru2-(OO\\OO}2(bpep2][OTf]4. All molecular bowls were obtained as triflate salts in very good yields (>90% and were fully characterized using multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The structure of the representative molecular bowl 5 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The anticancer activities of molecular bowls 5–7 were determined by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, autophagy, and Western blot analysis. Bowl 6 showed the strongest cytotoxicity in AGS human gastric carcinoma cells and was more cytotoxic than doxorubicin. In addition, autophagic activity and the ratio of apoptotic cell death increased in AGS cells by treatment with bowl 6. Bowl 6 also induced autophagosome formation via upregulation

  12. Analysis of Anoectochilus roxburghii Root Microbial Diversity by Metagenomic Technology%金线莲根部内生菌多样性宏基因组的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈倩倩; 刘波; 关雄; 唐建阳

    2014-01-01

    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been used for diabetes and tumor treatment. The wild A. roxburghii and its endophytes live together to form a balanced symbiotic system. The endophytes produce various secondary metabolites to protect the host from being attacked by fungi and pests. Endophytes are rich bio-resources. Because of a major limitation of isolation methods and cultivation media, the diversity endophytes still remain undiscovered. Metagenomics simultaneous study of endophytes genomes from environmental samples may avoid the limitations of culture-dependent methods. We enriched the microbiota from the root of A. roxburghii and extracted and purified the metagenomic DNA.16S rDNA fragments were amplified by PCR and cloned to Escherichia coli DH5α to sequence. The endophytes were mainly uncultured bacterium, uncultured compost bacterium, Enterobacteriaceae, Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus sp. and Brevibacillus sp., according to 16S rDNA information. This research provided the basis for mining endophytes resources of A. roxburghii. Analyzed the groups of endophytes by partial sequence of 16S rDNA. This work opens further insight into the great potential of A. roxburghii microbiota.%金线莲(Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl)是中国传统中药,具有重要的药用价值,现代医学用来治疗糖尿病和癌症。金线莲作为兰科植物,与内生菌在长期的生长过程中建立起和谐的共生关系,内生菌产生多种次生代谢产物,帮助宿主植物抗菌防虫。现有实验条件下,环境中绝大多数的微生物不能培养,而宏基因组学是认识环境中不可培养微生物的重要手段。本研究对福建金线莲根部内生菌富集进行探索,提取混合内生菌样品宏基因组DNA,并对宏基因组DNA纯化,PCR扩增微生物16S rDNA片段,克隆至大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)并测序。根据16S rDNA信息初步对富集的内生菌

  13. Geospatial data sharing, online spatial analysis and processing of Indian Biodiversity data in Internet GIS domain - A case study for raster based online geo-processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnatak, H.; Pandey, K.; Oberai, K.; Roy, A.; Joshi, D.; Singh, H.; Raju, P. L. N.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2014-11-01

    National Biodiversity Characterization at Landscape Level, a project jointly sponsored by Department of Biotechnology and Department of Space, was implemented to identify and map the potential biodiversity rich areas in India. This project has generated spatial information at three levels viz. Satellite based primary information (Vegetation Type map, spatial locations of road & village, Fire occurrence); geospatially derived or modelled information (Disturbance Index, Fragmentation, Biological Richness) and geospatially referenced field samples plots. The study provides information of high disturbance and high biological richness areas suggesting future management strategies and formulating action plans. The study has generated for the first time baseline database in India which will be a valuable input towards climate change study in the Indian Subcontinent. The spatial data generated during the study is organized as central data repository in Geo-RDBMS environment using PostgreSQL and POSTGIS. The raster and vector data is published as OGC WMS and WFS standard for development of web base geoinformation system using Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). The WMS and WFS based system allows geo-visualization, online query and map outputs generation based on user request and response. This is a typical mashup architecture based geo-information system which allows access to remote web services like ISRO Bhuvan, Openstreet map, Google map etc., with overlay on Biodiversity data for effective study on Bio-resources. The spatial queries and analysis with vector data is achieved through SQL queries on POSTGIS and WFS-T operations. But the most important challenge is to develop a system for online raster based geo-spatial analysis and processing based on user defined Area of Interest (AOI) for large raster data sets. The map data of this study contains approximately 20 GB of size for each data layer which are five in number. An attempt has been to develop system using

  14. Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of α-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica Charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Y

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Yao Meng,1,2 Shuangfeng Liu,1 Juan Li,3 Yanfa Meng,3 Xiaojun Zhao2,41School of Medical Laboratory Science, Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, China; 2West China Hospital Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Institute for Nanobiomedical Technology and Membrane Biology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; 3Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment Ministry of Education/Animal Disease Prevention and Food Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, College of Life Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; 4Center for Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USABackground: Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30 derived from Momordica charantia L. have been confirmed to possess antitumor and antivirus activities due to their RNA-N-glycosidase activity. However, strong immunogenicity and short plasma half-life limit their clinical application. To solve this problem, the two proteins were modified with (mPEG2-Lys-NHS (20 kDa.Methodology/principal findings: In this article, a novel purification strategy for the two main type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs, α-MMC and MAP30, was successfully developed for laboratory-scale preparation. Using this dramatic method, 200 mg of α-MMC and about 120 mg of MAP30 was obtained in only one purification process from 200 g of Momordica charantia seeds. The homogeneity and some other properties of the two proteins were assessed by gradient SDS-PAGE, electrospray ionization quadruple mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequence analysis as well as Western blot. Two polyethylene glycol (PEGylated proteins were synthesized and purified. Homogeneous mono-, di-, or tri-PEGylated proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The analysis of antitumor and antivirus activities indicated that the serial PEGylated RIPs preserved moderate activities on JAR choriocarcinoma cells and herpes simplex

  15. Species Diversity and Population Status of Threatened Plants in Different Landscape Elements of the Rohtang Pass,Western Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.N.Singh; Gopichand; Amit Kumar; Brij Lal; N.P.Todaria

    2008-01-01

    .25 individuals/m2),Picrorhiza kurrooa(19.83 individuals/m2)and Rhododendron anthopogon(26.23 individuals/25m2)was highest.Aconitum heterophyllum was recorded for the lowest density(1 individual/m2).It was observed that the distribution of medicinal plants was very habitat-specific.Lower soil pH in most of the LSEs reflected its acidic nature.A significant positive correlation of Shannon diversity was found with soil organic matter,carbon content available and total nitrogen.Considering the continuous pressure of anthropogenie activities,this paper suggests effective ecotourism planning and plant conservation mechanisms to protect valuable plant bioresource at the Rohtang Pass.

  16. Discovery of potential drugs for human-infecting H7N9 virus containing R294K mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He JY

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jiao-Yu He,1,* Cheng Li,2,* Guo Wu3 1College of Life Sciences and Key Laboratory for Bio-resources of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, 2College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, 3College of Life Sciences, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: After the first epidemic wave from February through May 2013, the influenza A (H7N9 virus emerged and has followed a second epidemic wave since June 2013. As of June 27, 2014, the outbreak of H7N9 had caused 450 confirmed cases of human infection, with 165 deaths included. The case-fatality rate of all confirmed cases is about 36%, making the H7N9 virus a significant threat to people’s health. At present, neuraminidase inhibitors are the only licensed antiviral medications available to treat H7N9 infections in humans. Oseltamivir is the most commonly used inhibitor, and it is also a front-line drug for the threatening H7N9. Unfortunately, it has been reported that patients treated with oseltamivir can induce R294K (Arg294Lys substitution in the H7N9 virus, which is a rare mutation and can reduce the antiviral efficacy of inhibitors. Even worse, deaths caused by such mutation after oseltamivir treatment have already been reported, indicating that the need to find substitutive neuraminidase inhibitors for currently available drugs to treat drug-resistant H7N9 is really pressing.Materials and methods: First, the structure of H7N9 containing the R294K substitution was downloaded from the Protein Data Bank, and structural information of approved drugs was downloaded from the ZINC (ZINC Is Not Commercial database. Taking oseltamivir carboxylate as a reference drug, we then filtered these molecules through virtual screening to find out potential inhibitors targeting the mutated H7N9 virus. For further evaluation, we carried out a 14 ns molecular dynamic simulation for each H7N9–drug complex and

  17. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Auwalu Abdullahi,1–3 Azmi Hassan,1 Norizhar Kadarman,2 Ahmadu Saleh,4 Yusha’u Shu’aibu Baraya,5 Pei Lin Lua,61Institute for Community Development and Quality of Life  (i-CODE, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Gong Badak, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Kota, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3Department of Animal Health and Husbandry, Audu Bako College of Agriculture, Dambatta, Kano, Nigeria; 4School of Animal Science, Faculty of Bio-resources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Terengganu, Malaysia; 5Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM, Malaysia; 6Community Health Research Cluster, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Gong Badak, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia Purpose: Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty

  18. 微生物资源在茶产业中的应用现状及展望%Application and development of microorganism resources in tea industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡桂萍; 刘波; 石旭平; 曹挥华; 陈李林; 杨普香; 高其章; 杨艳

    2015-01-01

    With the development of ecological agriculture and the progress of modern biotechnology, the tea industry is undergoing developmental transition. The resource-conserving and environment-friendly development model with the goal of ecology, green and environmentalism, is an important part of sustainable development in tea industry. Microorganism with characters of species and functional diversity forming in the long-term evolution process, and simple structure for easily analysis and application, are considered as one newly environmental bioresources. Many beneficial agricultural microorganisms are developed as microbial fertilizer, microbial pesticide, microbial preservatives, microbial degrader, which was applied to pollution-free cultivation of tea, tea processing and byproduct comprehensive utilization of tea. This article described the application advance of microbe in tea fertility management, the biocontrol of pest and pathogens, pesticide residue degradation, tea processing, tea storage and preservation, the utilization of tea and its by-products, and discussed the problems existing in the application of microbe in tea industry.%随着生态农业发展和现代生物技术的不断进步,茶产业进入转型发展期,走生态、绿色、环保的环境友好型和资源节约型发展模式,是茶产业可持续发展的重要内容。微生物作为一种新型环保生物资源,由于其在长期的进化过程所形成物种多样性和功能多样性,加上其结构简单便于研究应用的特性,许多有益农业微生物已被开发成微生物肥料、微生物农药、微生物保鲜剂、微生物降污剂等资源,在茶叶无公害种植生产,茶叶加工和茶叶副产物资源的综合利用等方面具有广泛的应用。本文就微生物资源在茶产业中肥培管理、病虫害防治、农药残留绿色防控、茶叶加工、储藏保鲜剂以及茶综合利用方面的国内外研究进展进行概述,同时

  19. Progress of marine biodiversity studies in China seas%中国海物种多样性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞玉

    2011-01-01

    国家级海洋自然保护区33个,特别保护区21个.论文在肯定中国海生物多样性研究进展和成绩的同时,指出了存在的主要不足是调查采集和研究的生境主要在陆架浅海,深海大洋特殊生境刚刚起步;多样性调查缺少全国统一计划行动,缺全面的多样性“背景值”资料.而监测、采集、研究不够;评估、保护亟待加强.文终提出了几点涉及学科发展和多样性监测、评估、保护的关键性建议.%Efforts have been made by scientists studying on the taxonomy, biogeography and biodiversity in China seas since 1950, the establishment of Qingdao Marine Biological Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Over 1,000 papers and 200 volumes of monographs have been published, of which more than 47 volumes are Fauna Sinica - Invertebrata (27 volumes on marine biota), 11 volumes of Fauna Sinica - Vertebmta are on fishes, and 8 volumes are Flora Algarum Marinarum Sinkarum. Results of studies on biodiversity in whole China seas were summarized in Marine Species and Their Distributions in China's Seas' (1994) and Checklist of Marine Biota of China Seas (2008). In the latter volume, new taxonomic results up to 2007 were added, and a total of 22,629 marine species were recorded, with an increase of 5,118 species compared with those reported in 1994. So far, the biodiversity of China seas is high. The results of "Shelf Environment and Bio-resources Survey 1997-2000" and those of "Endangered Species Assessment Project" (2000-2004) published in China Species Red List vols.l, 3, 2A, 2B (2004, 2005 and 2009) revealed that under the impacts of global climate change and anthropogenic activities, the biodiversity and bio-resources have seriously declined, the number of endangered species increased, and some major populations collapsed. China joined the World Marine Biodiversity Project "Census of Marine Life" (CoML) in 2004. In the project "Census of Marine Zooplankton", ecosystem

  20. Simplified method to assess soil organic matter in landscape and carbon sequestration studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallasser, Robert; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex; de Bruyn, Hank

    2010-05-01

    , Issue 1-2, 1-10. Siewert C., 2004. Rapid screening of soil properties using thermogravimetry. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68, 1656-1661. Xie X.F., Goodell B., Zhang D.J., Nagle D.C., Qian Y.H., Peterson M.L., Jellison J., 2009. Characterization of carbons derived from cellulose and lignin and their oxidative behaviour. Bioresource Technology 100, 1797-1802.

  1. 黄渤海夏季微藻调查%Investigation of the microalgae inhabiting the summer seawater of Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿琳; 杨官品; 朱葆华; 潘克厚

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are bioresources important for a wide range of applications in aquaculture, environmental treat-ment, medicine, agriculture and industry. For instance, Nannochloropsis sp., Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Skele-tonema costatum have served as natural feed of aquatic animals; Dunaliella salina, Haematococcus pluvialis, and Chlorella vulgaris have been widely used to manufacturing nutraceuticals and cosmetics due to their high content of carotenoids. Although more than 0.2 million species exist on earth, only a very small proportion of microalgae have been exploited. In China, approximately 600 microalgal species have been identified, of them less than 10 species have been cultured on large-scales so far. Isolation and identification of more cultivable microalgal strains from natural envi-ronments is thus foundamental and always appreciated by researching and exploiting communities. Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are rich in phytoplankton and deemed to be an important microalgal repository. However, the reports on the isolation and cultivation of microalgae inhabiting these sea areas are very scarce. In order to promote the exploitation of microalgal resource in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, a surveying cruise was carried out in summer 2011, during which the diversity of net collected microalgae was determined. Moreover, a rich collection of cultivable microalgal strains were successfully isolated from 71 stations. A total of 44 species in 30 genera, 4 phyla, were identified in fixed summer sea-waters. Among them, Bacillariophytas (28 species in 20 genera) accounted for 51.8%; while dinophytas (14 species in 8 genera) accounted for 23.2%. One speceis in phylum Chrysophyta (Dictyocha fibula) and Cyanophyta (Trichodesmium thiebautii) were also isolated and identified. Coscinodiscus sp. and Paralia sulcata which appeared in almost all sta-tions were dominant species. In total, 92 microalgal strains were isolated and purified with diverse methods including capillary

  2. Geochemical indicators and characterization of soil water repellence in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2016-04-01

    water repellence is closely related with fatty acids and the presence of short chain hydrocarbons. Acknowledgements This research has been funded by the University of Western Australia (Research Collaboration Award 2015: 'Soil water repellence in biodiverse semi arid environments: new insights and implications for ecological restoration') and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (research projects GEOFIRE, CGL2012-38655-C04-01, and POSTFIRE, CGL 2013-47862-C2-1-R. References Doerr, S.H., Llewellyn, C.T., Douglas, P., Morley, C.P., Mainwaring, K.A., Haskins, C., Johnsey, L., Ritsema, C.J., Stagnitti, F., Allison, G., Ferreira, A.J.D., Keizer, J.J., Ziogas, A.K., Diamantis, J. 2005. Extraction of compounds associated with water repellency in sandy soils of different origin. Australian Journal of Soil Research 43, 225-237. Gonzalez-Vila, F.J., Gonzalez-Perez, J.A., Akdi, K. Gomis, M.D. Perez-Barrera, F., Verdejo, T. 2009. Assessing the efficiency of urban waste biocomposting by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS). Bioresource Technology 100, 1304-1309. Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H. 2013. Soil water repellency: origin, assessment and geomorphological consequences. Catena 108, 1-8. Muñoz-Rojas, M., Erickson, T,E., Martini, D., Dixon, K.W., Merritt, D.J. 2016. Soil physicochemical and microbiological indicators of short, medium and long term post-fire recovery in semi-arid ecosystems. Ecological indicators 63, 14-22.

  3. 岩礁潮间带大型底栖生物对资源增殖保护区建立的生态响应——以台州大陈岛为例%Ecological response of intertidal macrobenthos to the construction of stock enhancement and protection area: A case of Dachen Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭欣; 吴洪喜; 高鹏程; 陈清建; 仇建标; 蔡景波; 李磊

    2012-01-01

    /m2, (766±435. 35) ind/ m2)] > 2007[(2 460. 83±l 356.42) g/m2, (691 ±330. 27) ind/m2] > 2006 [(408.64 ± 212.83) g/m2, (363±221. 50) ind/m2)]. And the biodiversity index and Margate's species richness index in 2007(1. 33, 2. 25) and 2009(2. 36, 5. 24) are bigger than that in 2006(1. 06, 1. 90). In addition, the community structure of the macrobenthos changed obviously. The dominant species were Ulva lactnca L. (0. 246) and Tetraclita squamosa squamosa(0. 238) in 2006; Trichomya hirsuta(0. 512) and Thais luteostoma (.0. 113) in 2007, and Tetraclita squamosa squamosa (0. 316), Trichomya hirsuta (0. 165), Mytilus coruscus (0. 071), Thais luteostoma (0. 020) in 2009, from which it can be seen that Mytilus coruscus and Thais luteostoma that declined before became major dominant species again in the stock enhancement protection area. Analysis of the marcobenthic community structure by ABC curve shows that it was unstable and had been interfered in 2006, but became stable in 2007 and in 2009. The main reason for this is that the stock enhancement protection area has made a stable environment for the intertidal macrobenthos to live and grow, and with enrichment release of recession species, the stock number and the ecosystem of the intertidal macrobenthos has been restored and improved, and sustainable utilization of the bio-resources of the zone is achieved.

  4. 秸秆厌氧消化产甲烷的研究进展%Review of methane production from straws anaerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨茜; 鞠美庭; 李维尊

    2016-01-01

    With the increasingly serious energy shortage and environmental pollution, anaerobic digestion of agricultural straws becomes one of the hotspots in recent years, and the domestic and foreign scholars study on biomass solid waste treatment. Anaerobic digestion of agricultural straws provides an excellent chance to convert abundant bio-resources into renewable energy. As the largest agricultural country in the world, China has an abundance of crop straws. The anaerobic digestion of straws not only improves the quality of the rural ecological environment, but also produces the clean energy, i.e. biogas, which makes the solid biomass wastes into “wealth”. Anaerobic digestion of straws is currently one of the most hopeful ways to realize the industrialization of biomass energy in China. However, the special physico-chemical property of straws creates a resistant ability for microorganisms and enzymes to degrade during the hydrolytic acidification process and methanogenic process, and thus limits the application and promotion of straws. For anaerobic digestion becomes a hot technology especially in China, we have quite limited knowledge on optional management of anaerobic digestion of agricultural straws due to the limited fermentation equipment. Although the biogas equipment manufacture and biogas plants have been established and encouraged by the incentive polices in China, some questions still exist in anaerobic digestion, especially for the large-scale application. According to the latest results of the domestic and foreign research on relevant anaerobic digestion of agricultural straws, this article reviewed the relative contents, including the anaerobic digestion principle, the physico-chemical characteristics of feedstocks, the influence factors and shortages of anaerobic digestion of agricultural straws, and the optimization of biogas and methane production. Moreover, the future research topics and prospects of anaerobic digestion of agricultural straws were

  5. INTEGRATED GENOME-BASED STUDIES OF SHEWANELLA ECOPHYSIOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NEALSON, KENNETH H.

    2013-10-15

    products of dissimilatory iron reduction. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 74:574-583. 10. Karpinets, T.V., A.Y Obraztsova, Y. Wang, D.D. Schmoyer, G.H. Kora, B.H. Park, M.H. Serres, M.F. Ropmine, M.L. Land, T.B. Kothe, J.K. Fredrickson, K.H. Nealson, and E.C. Uberbacher 2010. Conserved synteny at the protein family level reveals genes underlying Shewanella species? cold tolerance and predicts their novel phenotypes. Funct. Integr. Genomics 10: 97 ? 110. (DOI 10.1007/s10143-009-0142-y) 11. Bretschger, O., A.C.M. Cheung, F. Mansfeld, and K.H. Nealson. 2010. Comparative microbial fuel cell evaluations of Shewanella spp. Electroanalysis 22: 883-894. 12. McLean, J.S., G. Wanger, Y.A. Gorby, M. Wainstein, J. McQuaid, Shun?ichi Ishii, O. Bretschger, H. Beyanal, K.H. Nealson. 2010. Quantification of electron transfer rates to a solid phase electron acceptor through the stages of biofilm formation from single cells to multicellular communities. Env. Sci. Technol. 44:2721-2717. 13. El-Naggar, M., G. Wanger, K.M. Leung, T.D. Yuzvinsky, G. Southam, J. Yang, W.M. Lau, K.H. Nealson, and Y.A. Gorby. 2010. Electrical Transport Along Bacterial Nanowires from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 107:18127-18131. 14. Biffinger, J.C., L.A. Fitzgerald, R. Ray, B.J. Little, S.E. Lizewski, E.R. Petersen, B.R. Ringeisen, W.C. Sanders, P.E. Sheehan, J.J. Pietron, J.W. Baldwin, L.J. Nadeau, G.R. Johnson, M. Ribbens, S.E. Finkel, K.H. Nealson. 2010. The utility of Shewanella japonica for microbial fuel cells. Bioresource Technol. 102:290-297. 15. Rodionov, D. , C. Yang, X. Li, I. Rodionova, Y. Wang, A.Y. Obraztsova, O. P. Zagnitko, R. Overbeek, M. F. Romine, S. Reed, J.K. Fredrickson, K.H. Nealson, A.L. Osterman. 2010. Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus. BMC Genomics 2010, 11:494 16. Kan, J., L. Hsu, A.C.M. Cheung, M. Pirbazari, and K.H. Nealson. 2011. Current production by bacterial communities in microbial fuel cells enriched from wastewater sludge

  6. The use of straw mulch as a strategy to prevent extreme soil erosion rates in citrus orchard. A Rainfall simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    -115. 10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005. García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012. Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28, 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Verstraeten, G., Govers, G., de Vente, J., Nyssen, J., Deckers, J., Moeyersons, J. 2013. Assessing the performance of a Spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) in Northern Ethiopia. Land Degradation & Development 24, 188-204. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1121 Iranzo, M., Cañizares, J.V., Roca-Perez, L., Sainz-Pardo, I., Mormeneo, S., Boluda, R. 2004. Characteristics of rice straw and sewage sludge as composting materials in Valencia (Spain). Bioresource Technology 95, 107-112 Le Bellec, F., Damas, O., Boullenger, G., Vannière, H., Lesueur Jannoyer, M., Tournebize, R., Ozier Lafontaine, H. 2012. Weed control with a cover crop (Neonotonia wightii) in mandarin orchards in Guadeloupe (FWI). Acta Horticulturae 928, 359-366. Liu, Y., Tao, Y., Wan, K.Y., Zhang, G.S., Liu, D.B., Xiong, G.Y., Chen, F. 2012. Runoff and nutrient losses in citrus orchards on sloping land subjected to different surface mulching practices in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area of China. Agricultural Water Management 110, 34-40. Lu, J., Wilson, M.J., Yu, J. 1997. Effects of trench planting and soil chiselling on soil properties and citrusproduction in hilly ultisols of China Soil and Tillage Research 43, 309-318. Lü, W., Zhang, H., Wu, Y., Cheng, J., Li, J., Wang, X. 2012. The impact of plant hedgerow in Three Gorges on the soil chemicophysical properties and soil erosion. Key Engineering Materials 500 142-148. Robichaud, P.R., Lewis, S.A., Wagenbrenner, J.W., Ashmun, L.E., Brown, R.E. 2013a. Post-fire mulching for runoff and erosion mitigation. Part I: Effectiveness at reducing hillslope erosion rates