WorldWideScience

Sample records for biorefining

  1. Bioelectrochemical Biorefining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, Abhijeet P. [ORNL

    2017-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical biorefining is a new concept which has evolved from the field of microbial fuel cells and electrolysis cells. It targets integration of microbial electrochemical cells into the biorefinery. The idea is to use low value resources to generate electrons and then use the electrons to produce value-added products. This can enable production of fuels and chemicals from waste and biomass using electrons as intermediates. Thus, the name: Bioelectrochemical Biorefining. Electrons are the simplest and most common ‘energy carriers’ of many energy transfer systems and energetic molecules. Thus, using them as the vehicle for conversion of existing renewable resources into products needed for the 21st century is the primary goal of this marriage between microbial electrochemical technology and biorefineries.

  2. PETROLEUM BIOREFINING FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize thermophilic bacterial cultures that can be used for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur, and/or metals in the biorefining of petroleum. The project was completed on schedule and no major difficulties were encountered. Significant progress was made on multiple topics relevant to the development of a petroleum biorefining process capable of operating at thermophilic temperatures. New cultures capable of selectively cleaving C-N or C-S bonds in molecules relevant to petroleum were obtained, and the genes encoding the enzymes for these unique biochemical reactions were cloned and sequenced. Genetic tools were developed that enable the use of Thermus thermophilus as a host to express any gene of interest, and information was obtained regarding the optimum conditions for the growth of T. thermophilus. The development of a practical biorefining process still requires further research and the future research needs identified in this project include the development of new enzymes and pathways for the selective cleavage of C-N or C-S bonds that have higher specific activities, increased substrate range, and are capable of functioning at thermophilic temperatures. Additionally, there is a need for process engineering research to determine the maximum yield of biomass and cloned gene products that can be obtained in fed-batch cultures using T. thermophilus, and to determine the best configuration for a process employing biocatalysts to treat petroleum.

  3. Understanding biorefining efficiency--the case of agrifood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Miia; Kahiluoto, Helena; Havukainen, Jouni; Lehtonen, Eeva; Luoranen, Mika; Myllymaa, Tuuli; Grönroos, Juha; Horttanainen, Mika

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine biorefining efficiency according to the choices made in the entire value chain. The importance of the share of biomass volume biorefined or products substituted was investigated. Agrifood-waste-based biorefining represented the case. Anticipatory scenarios were designed for contrasting targets and compared with the current situation in two Finnish regions. Biorefining increases nutrient and energy efficiency in comparison with current use of waste. System boundaries decisively influence the relative efficiency of biorefining designs. For nutrient efficiency, full exploitation of biomass potential and anaerobic digestion increase nutrient efficiency, but the main determinant is efficient substitution for mineral fertilisers. For energy efficiency, combustion and location of biorefining close to heat demand are crucial. Regional differences in agricultural structure, the extent of the food industry and population density have a major impact on biorefining. High degrees of exploitation of feedstock potential and substitution efficiency are the keys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sustainable biorefining in wastewater by engineered extreme alkaliphile Bacillus marmarensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernick, David G; Pontrelli, Sammy P; Pollock, Alexander W; Liao, James C

    2016-02-01

    Contamination susceptibility, water usage, and inability to utilize 5-carbon sugars and disaccharides are among the major obstacles in industrialization of sustainable biorefining. Extremophilic thermophiles and acidophiles are being researched to combat these problems, but organisms which answer all the above problems have yet to emerge. Here, we present engineering of the unexplored, extreme alkaliphile Bacillus marmarensis as a platform for new bioprocesses which meet all these challenges. With a newly developed transformation protocol and genetic tools, along with optimized RBSs and antisense RNA, we engineered B. marmarensis to produce ethanol at titers of 38 g/l and 65% yields from glucose in unsterilized media. Furthermore, ethanol titers and yields of 12 g/l and 50%, respectively, were produced from cellobiose and xylose in unsterilized seawater and algal-contaminated wastewater. As such, B. marmarensis presents a promising approach for the contamination-resistant biorefining of a wide range of carbohydrates in unsterilized, non-potable seawater.

  5. Genetic engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Gallagher, Joe A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Bosch, Maurice

    2017-09-01

    Grasses represent an abundant and widespread source of lignocellulosic biomass, which has yet to fulfil its potential as a feedstock for biorefining into renewable and sustainable biofuels and commodity chemicals. The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials to deconstruction is the most crucial limitation for the commercial viability and economic feasibility of biomass biorefining. Over the last decade, the targeted genetic engineering of grasses has become more proficient, enabling rational approaches to modify lignocellulose with the aim of making it more amenable to bioconversion. In this review, we provide an overview of transgenic strategies and targets to tailor grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining applications. The bioengineering efforts and opportunities summarized here rely primarily on (A) reprogramming gene regulatory networks responsible for the biosynthesis of lignocellulose, (B) remodelling the chemical structure and substitution patterns of cell wall polysaccharides and (C) expressing lignocellulose degrading and/or modifying enzymes in planta. It is anticipated that outputs from the rational engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides by such strategies could help in realizing an economically sustainable, grass-derived lignocellulose processing industry. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. BIOREFINE-2G — Result In Brief: Novel biopolymers from biorefinery waste-streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovicek, Vratislav; Chen, Xiao; Borodina, Irina

    Second generation biorefineries are all about creating value from waste, so it seems only right that the ideal plant should leave nothing behind. With this in mind, the BIOREFINE-2G project has developed novel processes to convert pentose-rich side-streams into biopolymers.......Second generation biorefineries are all about creating value from waste, so it seems only right that the ideal plant should leave nothing behind. With this in mind, the BIOREFINE-2G project has developed novel processes to convert pentose-rich side-streams into biopolymers....

  7. Conceptual net energy output for biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass through biorefining

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; X.S. Zhuang

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of comprehensive information in the retrievable literature on pilot scale process and energy data using promising process technologies and commercially scalable and available capital equipment for lignocellulosic biomass biorefining. This study conducted a comprehensive review of the energy efficiency of selected sugar platform biorefinery process...

  8. BioRefine. New biomass products programme 2007-2012. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makinen, T. (ed.) [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Alakangas, E.; Holviala, N. (eds.) [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    The focal areas of the BioRefine programme have been business development, raw materials, and product lines. The key issue in the programme has been the development of business opportunities. The other two programme areas - raw materials and product lines, including technologies and services - have always been viewed from the perspective of short, medium or long-term business activities.The programme has organised four calls for research projects. The focus of the first call was on biomass-based fuels for transport (in the autumn 2007), the second one focused on other biomass-based products like chemicals and materials (in the spring 2008), and the third one on new biomass sources and waste-based biomass, and research supporting the business development of SME companies (early in 2010). In the last call in the spring 2011, project proposals were expected to focus on the following areas: new innovative and multidisciplinary research initiatives related to biomass utilisation, small distributed biorefinery concepts, efficient and sustainable utilisation of biomass raw materials in new integrated solutions for biorefining, and new integrated solutions for the efficient utilisation of sidestreams in the biorefining value chain or in its parts. Unlike research organizations, companies have been able to apply for funding continuously from Tekes.

  9. Catalytic biorefining of plant biomass to non-pyrolytic lignin bio-oil and carbohydrates through hydrogen transfer reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Paola; Rinaldi, Roberto

    2014-08-11

    Through catalytic hydrogen transfer reactions, a new biorefining method results in the isolation of depolymerized lignin--a non-pyrolytic lignin bio-oil--in addition to pulps that are amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. Compared with organosolv lignin, the lignin bio-oil is highly susceptible to further hydrodeoxygenation under low-severity conditions and therefore establishes a unique platform for lignin valorization by heterogeneous catalysis. Overall, the potential of a catalytic biorefining method designed from the perspective of lignin utilization is reported. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Bio-Refining of Carbohydrate-Rich Food Waste for Biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Tuong Nguyen Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The global dependence on finite fossil fuel-derived energy is of serious concern given the predicted population increase. Over the past decades, bio-refining of woody biomass has received much attention, but data on food waste refining are sorely lacking, despite annual and global deposition of 1.3 billion tons in landfills. In addition to negative environmental impacts, this represents a squandering of valuable energy, water and nutrient resources. The potential of carbohydrate-rich food waste (CRFW for biofuel (by Rhodotorulla glutinis fermentation and biogas production (by calculating theoretical methane yield was therefore investigated using a novel integrated bio-refinery approach. In this approach, hydrolyzed CRFW from three different conditions was used for Rhodotorulla glutinis cultivation to produce biolipids, whilst residual solids after hydrolysis were characterized for methane recovery potential via anaerobic digestion. Initially, CRFW was hydrolysed using thermal- (Th, chemical- (Ch and Th-Ch combined hydrolysis (TCh, with the CRFW-leachate serving as a control (Pcon. Excessive foaming led to the loss of TCh cultures, while day-7 biomass yields were similar (3.4–3.6 g dry weight (DW L−1 for the remaining treatments. Total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME content of R. glutinis cultivated on CRFW hydrolysates were relatively low (~6.5% but quality parameters (i.e., cetane number, density, viscosity and higher heating values of biomass extracted biodiesel complied with ASTM standards. Despite low theoretical RS-derived methane potential, further research under optimised and scaled conditions will reveal the potential of this approach for the bio-refining of CRFW for energy recovery and value-added co-product production.

  11. Ionizing radiation processing and its potential in advancing biorefining and nanocellulose composite materials manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T; Poster, Dianne L; Vládar, András E; Driscoll, Mark S; LaVerne, Jay A; Tsinas, Zois; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad I

    2018-02-01

    Nanocellulose is a high value material that has gained increasing attention because of its high strength, stiffness, unique photonic and piezoelectric properties, high stability and uniform structure. Through utilization of a biorefinery concept, nanocellulose can be produced in large volumes from wood at relatively low cost via ionizing radiation processing. Ionizing radiation causes significant break down of the polysaccharide and leads to the production of potentially useful gaseous products such as H 2 and CO. The application of radiation processing to the production of nanocellulose from woody and non-wood sources, such as field grasses, bio-refining byproducts, industrial pulp waste, and agricultural surplus materials remains an open field, ripe for innovation and application. Elucidating the mechanisms of the radiolytic decomposition of cellulose and the mass generation of nanocellulose by radiation processing is key to tapping into this source of nanocelluose for the growth of nanocellulostic-product development. More importantly, understanding the structural break-up of the cell walls as a function of radiation exposure is a key goal and only through careful, detailed characterization and dimensional metrology can this be achieved at the level of detail that is needed to further the growth of large scale radiation processing of plant materials. This work is resulting from strong collaborations between NIST and its academic partners who are pursuing the unique demonstration of applied ionizing radiation processing to plant materials as well as the development of manufacturing metrology for novel nanomaterials.

  12. Are plants the new oil? Responsible innovation, biorefining and multipurpose agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortall, O.K.; Raman, Sujatha; Millar, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Bioenergy is seen as one of the options for industrialised countries to wean themselves off fossil fuels. However bioenergy, transport biofuels in particular, has faced considerable environmental and social controversies. Biorefining has been proposed in the UK and Denmark to address these concerns by using biomass efficiently for multiple purposes (food, feed, fuel, chemicals). Drawing from frameworks on responsible innovation, this paper opens up the implicit assumptions within the biorefinery concept about how biomass should be produced. Stakeholder interviews show that the biorefinery concept is framed within an industrial agricultural paradigm that aims to overcome controversies through large-scale production stimulated by biotechnology innovation. By contrast, an “alternative agriculture” paradigm envisions sustainable multipurpose biomass production in terms of on-farm nutrient and energy cycling and local, smaller scale production. However, there is a potential overlap through the concept of quality industrial biomass production. These three visions provide different perspectives on the bioeconomy in terms of the differences between biomass and fossil fuels; and where biomass should come from. Policy development for bioenergy must reckon with these different visions in innovation pathways for multipurpose biomass. - Highlights: • The biorefinery is seen as a way for bioenergy to overcome resource constraints. • Interviews were carried out with stakeholders in UK and Danish bioenergy sectors. • Industrial and alternative agriculture visions of biomass production were found. • An overlapping vision of quality biomass production was also found. • Policy should remain aware of and potentially support different innovation pathways.

  13. Ionizing radiation processing and its potential in advancing biorefining and nanocellulose composite materials manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Poster, Dianne L.; Vládar, András E.; Driscoll, Mark S.; LaVerne, Jay A.; Tsinas, Zois; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad I.

    2018-02-01

    Nanocellulose is a high value material that has gained increasing attention because of its high strength, stiffness, unique photonic and piezoelectric properties, high stability and uniform structure. Through utilization of a biorefinery concept, nanocellulose can be produced in large volumes from wood at relatively low cost via ionizing radiation processing. Ionizing radiation causes significant break down of the polysaccharide and leads to the production of potentially useful gaseous products such as H2 and CO. The application of radiation processing to the production of nanocellulose from woody and non-wood sources, such as field grasses, bio-refining by-products, industrial pulp waste, and agricultural surplus materials remains an open field, ripe for innovation and application. Elucidating the mechanisms of the radiolytic decomposition of cellulose and the mass generation of nanocellulose by radiation processing is key to tapping into this source of nanocelluose for the growth of nanocellulostic-product development. More importantly, understanding the structural break-up of the cell walls as a function of radiation exposure is a key goal and only through careful, detailed characterization and dimensional metrology can this be achieved at the level of detail that is needed to further the growth of large scale radiation processing of plant materials. This work is resulting from strong collaborations between NIST and its academic partners who are pursuing the unique demonstration of applied ionizing radiation processing to plant materials as well as the development of manufacturing metrology for novel nanomaterials.

  14. A closed-loop biorefining system to convert organic residues into fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui

    This project delivers an energy positive and water neutral, closed-loop biorefining system that converts organic wastes into renewable energy and reduces the overall impacts on the environment. The research consisted of three major stages: The first stage of this project was conducted in an anaerobic co-digestion system. Effects of the ratio of dairy manure-to-food waste as well as operating temperature were tested on the performance of the co-digestion system. Results illustrated an increase in biogas productivity with the increase of supplemental food waste; fiber analysis revealed similar chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of final solid digestate regardless their different initial feedstock blends and digestion conditions. The molecular genetic analyses demonstrated that anaerobic methanogenic microorganisms were able to adjust their community assemblage to maximize biogas production and produce homogenized solid digestate. The second stage utilized electrocoagulation (EC) pretreated liquid digestate from previous stage to culture freshwater algae. Kinetics study showed a similar maximum growth rate (0.201-0.207 g TS day-1) in both 2x and 5x dilutions of EC solution; however, the algal growth was inhibited in original EC solution (1x), possibly due to the high ammonia-to-phosphate ratio. Algal community assemblage changed drastically in different dilutions of EC solution after a 9-day culture. The following semi-continuous culture in 2x and 5x EC media established steady biomass productivities and nitrogen removal rates; in addition, both conditions illustrated a phenomenon of phosphorus luxury uptake. Biomass composition analyses showed that algae cultured in medium containing higher nitrogen (2x EC medium) accumulated more protein but less carbohydrate and lipid than the 5x EC medium. The last stage involved hydrolyzing the algal biomass cultured in anaerobic digestion effluent and analyzing the effects of the neutralized algal

  15. Research report on new business opportunities and models in Finnish biorefining industry; Biotuli. Selvitys bioliiketoiminnan uusista liiketoimintamahdollisuuksista ja -malleista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hono, E.

    2013-11-01

    This report is a part of BIOTULI-project, which focuses on new products and business models for Finnish biorefining industry. The objective of this report is to review the business models required to capture value from the business opportunities discovered in BIOTULI-project. Report also aims to define the supply chain required for the business model and prerequisites for conducting profitable business in small and medium-scale enterprises. The report consists of two cases. Combining torrefaction with small-scale heat production and producing a biodegradable disinfectant with a new separation technique developed in BIOTULI-project. Research was conducted by literature review and interviews with experts from related fields. A business model was done for both cases. The execution and future developments of both business models were assessed. According to the analysis done for this report, combining torrefaction with a small-scale heat production is not profitable at moment. Possible changes in markets might make this business concept more lucrative in the future. The new biodegradable disinfectant has a significant commercial potential, but the research is still unfinished and it's too early to make an accurate evaluation of the business models profitability. Results of this paper can be used as a base for more comprehensive research projects regarding these business models. (orig.)

  16. Challenges of the refining and bio-refining integration: a future view; O desafio da integracao refino-bio-refino: uma visao do futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Claudia Alvarenga; Oliveira, Sandra Lima de [PETROBRAS S. A., Rio de de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Suely Coutinho da [Hope Consultoria Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As the world economy growths, it is expected an increase in the fuels demand. In the other hand, there is a public denounce against the harmful of gas emissions from the mineral fuels, especial the emission of greenhouse gases. Based on this scenario, there is a growing search for renewable fuels as an alternative for the present world energetic matrix. Therefore the biofuel has conquered more and more participation in the economy as a clean grow-your-own fuel. It is not only a renewable fuel but also a way to reduces Co2 emission. The use of this kind of fuel can bring environmental, social and economic advantages. So, a feasible proposal for the near future could be the performance of a binomial and dynamic model that takes place in the integration between biorefining and conventional refining. Biorefining is similar in concept to the petroleum refining industry, except that renewable biomass materials or vegetable oil are the feedstocks rather than crude oil. An important incentive to the integration of these two concepts is the alternative to process the majority of the conventional refining residue or by products in the biorefining. It is possible to produce high quality low emission fuel from co-conversion of biomass and petroleum residue. There are important processes that can be used to carry out this object, such as gasification coupled with Fischer-Tropsch. Besides the production of PREMIUM quality fuel, the energy and the hydrogen obtained in the gasification process can be used in the conventional refining. Biomass can also be turned into alcohol fuel by enzymatic hydrolysis and can be mixed in the refinery gasoline pool for emissions reduction. Another possibility is to process vegetable oil together with middle distillate in the conventional hydrotreating unity. Although the optimized integration involves technical and economic challenges, it is known that this is an important opportunity to mitigate the environmental problems and to allow the world

  17. A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

    2007-03-31

    Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be

  18. IEA Bioenergy Task42 Biorefining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bell, Geoff; Schuck, Stephen; Jungmeier, Gerfried

    Sustainable and synergetic processing of biomass into marketable food & feed ingredients, chemicals, materials and energy (fuels, power, heat)......Sustainable and synergetic processing of biomass into marketable food & feed ingredients, chemicals, materials and energy (fuels, power, heat)...

  19. Biorefining compounds and organocatalytic upgrading methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eugene Y.; Liu, Dajiang

    2016-10-18

    The invention provides new methods for the direct umpolung self-condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by organocatalysis, thereby upgrading the readily available substrate into 5,5'-di(hydroxymethyl)furoin (DHMF). While many efficient catalyst systems have been developed for conversion of plant biomass resources into HMF, the invention now provides methods to convert such nonfood biomass directly into DHMF by a simple process as described herein. The invention also provides highly effective new methods for upgrading other biomass furaldehydes and related compound to liquid fuels. The methods include the organocatalytic self-condensation (umpolung) of biomass furaldehydes into (C.sub.8-C.sub.12)furoin intermediates, followed by hydrogenation, etherification or esterification into oxygenated biodiesel, or hydrodeoxygenation by metal-acid tandem catalysis into premium hydrocarbon fuels.

  20. Enzyme technology: Key to selective biorefining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    to the reaction is a unique trait of enzyme catalysis. Since enzyme selectivity means that a specific reaction is catalysed between particular species to produce definite products, enzymes are particularly fit for converting specific compounds in mixed biomass streams. Since enzymes are protein molecules...... their rational use in biorefinery processes requires an understanding of the basic features of enzymes and reaction traits with respect to specificity, kinetics, reaction optima, stability and structure-function relations – we are now at a stage where it is possible to use nature’s enzyme structures as starting...... point and then improve the functional traits by targeted mutation of the protein. The talk will display some of our recent hypotheses related to enzyme action, recently obtained results within knowledge-based enzyme improvements as well as cast light on research methods used in optimizing enzyme...

  1. Macroalgae - Production and Biorefining in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Hou, Xiaoru; Bastianoni, Simone

    Macroalgae is a key biomass for the development of circular economy. This study analyzes the environmental sustainability of a macroalgae production and conversion system in Denmark. A brown algae model based on Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima is utilized as feedstock for a biorefinery...... system which produces bioethanol, fish feed and liquid fertilizers. A Life Cycle Assessment was conducted from cradle to grave; i.e. from cultivation and harvest of biomass, to the use phase of the products....

  2. Biorefining compounds and organocatalytic upgrading methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Eugene Y.; Liu, Dajiang

    2017-11-28

    The invention provides new methods for the direct umpolung self-condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by organocatalysis, thereby upgrading the readily available substrate into 5,5'-di(hydroxymethyl) furoin (DHMF). While many efficient catalyst systems have been developed for conversion of plant biomass resources into HMF, the invention now provides methods to convert such nonfood biomass directly into DHMF by a simple process as described herein. The invention also provides highly effective new methods for upgrading other biomass furaldehydes and related compound to liquid fuels. The methods include the organocatalytic self-condensation (umpolung) of biomass furaldehydes into (C.sub.8-C.sub.12)furoin intermediates, followed by hydrogenation, etherification or esterification into oxygenated biodiesel, or hydrodeoxygenation by metal-acid tandem catalysis into premium hydrocarbon fuels.

  3. Nanoparticle Technology for Biorefining of Non-Food Source Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruski, Marek; Trewyn, Brian G.; Lee, Young-Jin; Lin, Victor S.-Y.

    2013-01-22

    The goal of this proposed work is to develop and optimize the synthesis of mesoporous nanoparticle materials that are able to selectively sequester fatty acids from hexane extracts from algae, and to catalyze their transformation, as well as waste oils, into biodiesel. The project involves studies of the interactions between the functionalized MSN surface and the sequestering molecules. We investigate the mechanisms of selective extraction of fatty acids and conversion of triglycerides and fatty acids into biodiesel by the produced nanoparticles. This knowledge is used to further improve the properties of the mesoporous nanoparticle materials for both tasks. Furthermore, we investigate the strategies for scaling the synthesis of the catalytic nanomaterials up from the current pilot plant scale to industrial level, such that the biodiesel obtained with this technology can successfully compete with food crop-based biodiesel and petroleum diesel.

  4. Biomass for biorefining: Resources, allocation, utilization, and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of biomass in the development of renewable energy, the availability and allocation of biomass, its preparation for use in biorefineries, and the policies affecting biomass are discussed in this chapter. Bioenergy development will depend on maximizing the amount of biomass obtained fro...

  5. Cell surface engineering of industrial microorganisms for biorefining applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-11-15

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, biofuel/biochemical production should be promoted for replacing fossil-based industrial processes. Utilization of abundant lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock has recently become an attractive option. In this review, we focus on recent efforts of cell surface display using industrial microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and yeast. Cell surface display is used primarily for endowing cellulolytic activity on the host cells, and enables direct fermentation to generate useful fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Cell surface display systems are systematically summarized, and the drawbacks/perspectives as well as successful application of surface display for industrial biotechnology are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential and utilization of thermophiles and thermostable enzymes in biorefining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Eva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In today's world, there is an increasing trend towards the use of renewable, cheap and readily available biomass in the production of a wide variety of fine and bulk chemicals in different biorefineries. Biorefineries utilize the activities of microbial cells and their enzymes to convert biomass into target products. Many of these processes require enzymes which are operationally stable at high temperature thus allowing e.g. easy mixing, better substrate solubility, high mass transfer rate, and lowered risk of contamination. Thermophiles have often been proposed as sources of industrially relevant thermostable enzymes. Here we discuss existing and potential applications of thermophiles and thermostable enzymes with focus on conversion of carbohydrate containing raw materials. Their importance in biorefineries is explained using examples of lignocellulose and starch conversions to desired products. Strategies that enhance thermostablity of enzymes both in vivo and in vitro are also assessed. Moreover, this review deals with efforts made on developing vectors for expressing recombinant enzymes in thermophilic hosts.

  7. Update on bio-refining and nanocellulose composite materials manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T.; Poster, Dianne L.

    2017-08-01

    Nanocellulose is a high value material that has gained increasing attention because of its high strength, stiffness, unique photonic and piezoelectric properties, high stability and uniform structure. One of the factors limiting the potential of nanocellulose and the vast array of potential new products is the ability to produce high-volume quantities of this nano-material. However, recent research has demonstrated that nanocellulose can be efficently produced in large volumes from wood at relatively low cost by the incorporation of ionizing radiation in the process stream. Ionizing radiation causes significant break down of the polysaccharides and leads to the production of potentially useful gaseous products such as H2 and CO. Ionizing radiation processing remains an open field, ripe for innovation and application. This presentation will review the strong collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and its academic partners pursuing the demonstration of applied ionizing radiation processing to plant materials for the manufacturing and characterization of novel nanomaterials.

  8. Bioremediation capacity, nutritional value and biorefining of macroalga Saccharina latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Marinho, Goncalo

    Macroalgae have the ability to assimilate and convert waste nutrients (N and P) into valuable biomass. In this context, they have been extensively studied for their bioremediation potential for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA). With a global aquaculture production of 23.8 million tonnes...... attention as sustainable feedstock for biorefinery. Nevertheless, macroalgae resources are still very little explored in western countries. The aim of this study was fulfilled by the investigation of the bioremediation potential of the macroalga Saccharina latissima cultivated at a reference site (control...... two growing seasons enhanced the biomass yield and thus value, but not the bioremediation capacity. Harvest time had a significant impact in overall chemical composition, while cultivation site did not generally result in marked differences. The growth of epiphytic organisms from July to November...

  9. Sustainable Liquid Biofuels from Biomass Biorefining (SUNLIBB). Policy Brief No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-01

    The SUNLIBB project is funded under the European Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) within the Energy theme: Second Generation Biofuels -- EU Brazil Coordinated Call. SUNLIBB started on 1 October 2010 for 4 years and collaborates with a parallel project in Brazil, CeProBIO. First generation biofuels -- which are mainly produced from food crops such as grains, sugarcane and vegetable oils -- have triggered one of the most highly contentious debates on the current international sustainability agenda, given their links to energy security, transport, trade, food security, land-use impacts and climate change concerns. Developing second generation biofuels has emerged as a more attractive option, as these are manufactured from inedible sources, such as woody crops, energy grasses, or even agricultural and forestry residues. Residues from sugarcane and biomass from maize, as well as 'whole-crop' miscanthus are all potential raw material (called 'feedstock') for second generation bioethanol production. Because these three plants are all closely related, processing the biomass from these crops raises common technical challenges, which offers the opportunity for breakthroughs in one species to be rapidly exploited in the others. Despite the potential sustainability benefits of second generation bioethanol, the current inefficiency of production makes it economically uncompetitive. Taking up this challenge, the SUNLIBB consortium's multidisciplinary team of scientists -- in cooperation with CeProBIO, the sister project in Brazil -- combines European and Brazilian research strengths so as to open the way for environmentally, socially and economically sustainable second generation bioethanol production.

  10. A strategy for urban outdoor production of high-concentration algal biomass for green biorefining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chun Yong; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-05-01

    The present study was to investigate the feasibility of carrying out effective microalgae cultivation and high-rate tertiary wastewater treatment simultaneously in a vertical sequencing batch photobioreactor with small areal footprint, suitable for sustainable urban microalgae production. For 15 consecutive days, Chlorella sorokiniana was cultivated in synthetic wastewater under various trophic conditions. A cycle of 12-h heterotrophic: 12-h mixotrophic condition produced 0.98 g l(-1) d(-1) of algal biomass in tandem with a 94.7% removal of 254.4 mg l(-1) C-acetate, a 100% removal of 84.7 mg l(-1) N-NH4 and a removal of 15.0 mg l(-1) P-PO4. The cells were harvested via cost-effective chitosan flocculation with multiple dosing (3 times) applying established chitosan:cell ratio (1:300 w/w) and pH control (6.3-6.8). Reproducible flocculation efficiencies of greater than 99% and high-concentration algal broths (>20% solids) were achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simulating the impact of new industries on the economy : The case of biorefining in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, Arunima; Lenzen, Manfred; Ely, Romulo Neves; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the economic and employment consequences of introducing a new sugarcane-based biofuel industry into Australia. We model the new biofuel industry on the production recipe of the existing large-scale gasoalcohol and alcohol sectors in the Brazilian economy. To this end we utilise a

  12. White biotechnology: State of the art strategies for the development of biocatalysts for biorefining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heux, S; Meynial-Salles, I; O'Donohue, M J; Dumon, C

    2015-12-01

    White biotechnology is a term that is now often used to describe the implementation of biotechnology in the industrial sphere. Biocatalysts (enzymes and microorganisms) are the key tools of white biotechnology, which is considered to be one of the key technological drivers for the growing bioeconomy. Biocatalysts are already present in sectors such as the chemical and agro-food industries, and are used to manufacture products as diverse as antibiotics, paper pulp, bread or advanced polymers. This review proposes an original and global overview of highly complementary fields of biotechnology at both enzyme and microorganism level. A certain number of state of the art approaches that are now being used to improve the industrial fitness of biocatalysts particularly focused on the biorefinery sector are presented. The first part deals with the technologies that underpin the development of industrial biocatalysts, notably the discovery of new enzymes and enzyme improvement using directed evolution techniques. The second part describes the toolbox available by the cell engineer to shape the metabolism of microorganisms. And finally the last part focuses on the 'omic' technologies that are vital for understanding and guide microbial engineering toward more efficient microbial biocatalysts. Altogether, these techniques and strategies will undoubtedly help to achieve the challenging task of developing consolidated bioprocessing (i.e. CBP) readily available for industrial purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Distributed Model of Oilseed Biorefining, via Integrated Industrial Ecology Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Jeremy C.

    As the demand for direct petroleum substitutes increases, biorefineries are poised to become centers for conversion of biomass into fuels, energy, and biomaterials. A distributed model offers reduced transportation, tailored process technology to available feedstock, and increased local resilience. Oilseeds are capable of producing a wide variety of useful products additive to food, feed, and fuel needs. Biodiesel manufacturing technology lends itself to smaller-scale distributed facilities able to process diverse feedstocks and meet demand of critical diesel fuel for basic municipal services, safety, sanitation, infrastructure repair, and food production. Integrating biodiesel refining facilities as tenants of eco-industrial parks presents a novel approach for synergistic energy and material exchanges whereby environmental and economic metrics can be significantly improved upon compared to stand alone models. This research is based on the Catawba County NC EcoComplex and the oilseed crushing and biodiesel processing facilities (capacity-433 tons biodiesel per year) located within. Technical and environmental analyses of the biorefinery components as well as agronomic and economic models are presented. The life cycle assessment for the two optimal biodiesel feedstocks, soybeans and used cooking oil, resulted in fossil energy ratios of 7.19 and 12.1 with carbon intensity values of 12.51 gCO2-eq/MJ and 7.93 gCO2-eq/MJ, respectively within the industrial ecology system. Economic modeling resulted in a biodiesel conversion cost of 1.43 per liter of fuel produced with used cooking oil, requiring a subsidy of 0.58 per liter to reach the break-even point. As subsidies continue significant fluctuation, metrics other than operating costs are required to justify small-scale biofuel projects.

  14. Toward a sustainable bioeconomy in West Africa: A focus on biorefining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Adeboye, Peter Temitope; Duedu, Kwabena O.

    2017-01-01

    is usually disposed of by burning, which releases harmful greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the environment. Wood and agricultural wastes are valuable biomass feedstocks for second-generation biofuels and chemicals. The availability of diverse feedstocks makes the West African sub-region suitable for setting up...... and other developing economies to invest in this industry. Therefore, we present an idea for developing a multipurpose modular biorefinery model to meet the energy needs of the region with an added advantage of creating new markets and jobs. We also discuss what new energy policies should be focused...... on in order to fast-track the development of the bioenergy sector. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  15. Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for biorefining giant reed (Arundo donax L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Cosentino; Jae-Won Lee; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    Biomass pretreatment is essential to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose for ethanol production. In the present study we pretreated giant reed (Arundo donax L.), a perennial, rhizomatous lignocellulosic grass with dilute oxalic acid. The effects of temperature (170-190 ºC), acid loading (2-10% w/w) and reaction time (15-40 min) were handled as a single...

  16. A practical approach towards energy conversion through bio-refining of mixed kraft pulps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharm, D.; Upadhyaya, J.S.; Tyagi, C.H.; Ahamad, S. (Dept. of Paper Technology, Indian Inst. of Technology Roorkee, Saharanpur (India))

    2007-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry is an energy intensive process industry where energy contributes about 16-20% of the manufacturing cost. Due to shortage in energy availability and increase in energy cost, energy conservation has become a necessity in the paper industry. A laboratory study on bleached and unbleached kraft pulps having 15% bamboo, eucalyptus 15%, poplar waste 20% and veneer waste 50% was conducted using two distinct commercial enzymes i.e. cellulases and xylanase and its effect on slowness, drainage time, beating time, mechanical strength properties and power consumption were studied. Enzymatic pretreatment of chemical pulp in laboratory improves degSR by 5 and 4 points in case of bleached and unbleached pulps respectively at the same beating time. Breaking length improves up to 4.0% at the constant beating level. The application of cellulase during refining saves energy 18.5% at constant refining level i.e. 28 degSR. The enzymatic treatment shows a power saving per 100 metric tone of paper by 1390 kWh which costs power saving in euro 160.70/ 100 metric tone of paper. In this way, net cost saving by deducting the cost of enzyme per 100 metric tone of paper is euro 157.90. (orig.)

  17. Paving the Way for Lignin Valorisation : Recent Advances in Bioengineering, Biorefining and Catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldi, Roberto; Jastrzebski, Robin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338017747; Clough, Matthew T; Ralph, John; Kennema, Marco; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33799529X; Weckhuysen, Bert M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2016-01-01

    Lignin is an abundant biopolymer with a high carbon content and high aromaticity. Despite its potential as a raw material for the fuel and chemical industries, lignin remains the most poorly utilised of the lignocellulosic biopolymers. Effective valorisation of lignin requires careful fine-tuning of

  18. Biorefine: Recovery of nutrients and metallic trace elements from different wastes by chemical and biochemical processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tarayre, Cédric; Fischer, Christophe; De Clercq, Lies; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Buysse, Jeroen; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    At present, most waste processing operations are not oriented towards the valorization of valuable reusable components such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and even Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs). Currently, sewage sludge, for example is usually used as a fertilizer in agriculture, in energy production or in the field of construction. Ashes originating from sludge incineration contain heavy metals and minerals in large quantities. Manure is mainly used in agriculture, although considerable...

  19. Sustainable Liquid Biofuels from Biomass Biorefining (SUNLIBB). Policy Brief No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-15

    The SUNLIBB project is funded under the European Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) within the Energy theme: Second Generation Biofuels -- EU Brazil Coordinated Call. SUNLIBB started on 1 October 2010 for 4 years and collaborates with a parallel project in Brazil, CeProBIO. This is the second in a series of policy briefs providing an update on the project. The first brief was issued in March 2012. The project focus is on looking at developing second generation biofuels that hope to improve on issues seen with the first generation options. Second generation biofuels are manufactured from inedible sources, such as woody crops, energy grasses, or even agricultural and forestry residues. Residues from sugarcane and biomass from maize, as well as 'whole-crop' miscanthus are all potential raw material (called 'feedstock') for second generation bioethanol production. Because these three plants are all closely related, processing the biomass from these crops raises common technical challenges, which offers the opportunity for breakthroughs in one species to be rapidly exploited in the others. Despite the potential sustainability benefits of second generation bioethanol, the current inefficiency of production makes it economically uncompetitive. Taking up this challenge, the SUNLIBB consortium's multidisciplinary team of scientists -- in cooperation with CeProBIO, the sister project in Brazil -- combines European and Brazilian research strengths so as to open the way for environmentally, socially and economically sustainable second generation bioethanol production.

  20. Sequential and simultaneous strategies for biorefining of wheat straw using room temperature ionic liquids, xylanases and cellulases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Eric; Auxenfans, Thomas; Herbaut, Mickael; Baralle, Manon; Lambertyn, Virginie; Rakotoarivonina, Harivoni; Rémond, Caroline; Sarazin, Catherine

    2018-03-01

    Sequential and simultaneous strategies for fractioning wheat straw were developed in combining 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate [C2mim][OAc], endo-xylanases from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus and commercial cellulases. After [C2mim][OAc]-pretreatment, hydrolysis catalyzed by endo-xylanases of wheat straw led to efficient xylose production with very competitive yield (97.6 ± 1.3%). Subsequent enzymatic saccharification allowed achieving a total degradation of cellulosic fraction (>99%). These high performances revealed an interesting complementarity of [C2mim][OAc]- and xylanase-pretreatments for increasing enzymatic digestibility of cellulosic fraction in agreement with the structural and morphological changes of wheat straw induced by each of these pretreatment steps. In addition a higher tolerance of endo-xylanases from T. xylaniliticus to [C2mim][AcO] until 30% v/v than cellulases from T. reesei was observed. Based on this property, a simultaneous strategy combining [C2mim][OAc]- and endo-xylanases as pretreatment in a one-batch produced xylose with similar yield than those obtained by the sequential strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolution of Lignocellulosic Macrocomponents in the Wastewater Streams of a Sulfite Pulp Mill: A Preliminary Biorefining Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Llano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of lignin, five- and six-carbon sugars, and other decomposition products derived from hemicelluloses and cellulose was monitored in a sulfite pulp mill. The wastewater streams were characterized and the mass balances throughout digestion and total chlorine free bleaching stages were determined. Summative analysis in conjunction with pulp parameters highlights some process guidelines and valorization alternatives towards the transformation of the traditional factory into a lignocellulosic biorefinery. The results showed a good separation of cellulose (99.64% during wood digestion, with 87.23% of hemicellulose and 98.47% lignin dissolved into the waste streams. The following steps should be carried out to increase the sugar content into the waste streams: (i optimization of the digestion conditions increasing hemicellulose depolymerization; (ii improvement of the ozonation and peroxide bleaching stages, avoiding deconstruction of the cellulose chains but maintaining impurity removal; (iii fractionation of the waste water streams, separating sugars from the rest of toxic inhibitors for 2nd generation biofuel production. A total of 0.173 L of second-generation ethanol can be obtained in the spent liquor per gram of dry wood. The proposed methodology can be usefully incorporated into other related industrial sectors.

  2. Effects of ensiling treatments on lactic acid production and supplementary methane formation of maize and amaranth--an advanced green biorefining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Nicola Leonard; Nägele, Hans-Joachim; Fritz, Thomas; Oechsner, Hans

    2015-02-01

    A green biorefinery enables the material and energetic use of biomass via lactic acid and methane production. Different ensiling techniques were applied to maize and amaranth with the aim to increase the amount of lactic acid in the silage. In addition the methane formation potential of the ensiled samples and the remaining solid residues after separating the organic juice were assessed. Treating maize with homofermentative lactic acid bacteria in combination with carbonated lime increased the amount of lactic acid about 91.9%. For amaranth no additional lactic acid production was obtained by treating the raw material. Specific methane yields for the solid residues of amaranth were significantly lower in comparison to the corresponding silages. The most promising treatment resulted in a production of 127.9±4.1 g kg(-1) DM lactic acid and a specific methane yield for the solid residue of 349.5±6.6 lN kg(-1) ODM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Wet fractionation of the succulent halophyte Salicornia sinus-persica, with the aim of low input (water saving) biorefining into bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alassali, Ayah; Cybulska, Iwona; Galvan, Alejandro Ríos

    2017-01-01

    -persica was collected and split into two fractions by wet fractionation; liquid (juice) and solid (pulp). Sugar contents were found to be 1.0–1.5% for the juice fraction and 50% (w/w) for the fresh pulp. Direct fermentation of the juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed no salt inhibition of the yeast and ethanol...... yields of ~70% were achieved. A pretreatment study was carried out for the pulp fraction applying mild hydrothermal pretreatment. Cellulose convertibility was found to be significantly higher for severity factors above 2.00, and the highest ethanol yield (76.91 ± 3.03%) was found at process severity of 3...

  4. Biorefining in the prevailing energy and materials crisis: a review of sustainable pathways for biorefinery value chains and sustainability assessment methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    comparisons of alternatives. Life Cycle Assessment is regarded as one of the most relevant tools to assess the environmental hotspots in the biomass supply chains, at processing stages and also to support in the prioritization of any specific biobased products and the alternatives delivered from biorefineries.......The aim of the current paper is to discuss the sustainability aspect of biorefinery systems with focus on biomass supply chains, processing of biomass feedstocks in biorefinery platforms and sustainability assessment methodologies. From the stand point of sustainability, it is important to optimize...... the agricultural production system and minimize the related environmental impacts at the farming system level. These impacts are primarily related to agri-chemical inputs and the related undesired environmental emissions and to the repercussions from biomass production. At the same time, the biorefineries need...

  5. BioREFINE-2G project – Engineering of industrial yeast strains for production of dicarboxylic acids from side and waste streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovicek, Vratislav; Chen, Xiao; Borodina, Irina

    2014-01-01

    For our future we need to assure that fuels as well as chemicals will be produced environmentallyfriendly from renewable resources. There must be a major move away from the use of food biomasstowards the use of renewable non-food feed-stocks, such as wood, stover, straw etc. The existing 2nd...... compounds can be polymerised to biodegradable polymersthat can find application as plastics, coatings or adhesives. To reach the goals, the identification of relevant metabolic routes, strain engineering and the development of a toolbox for manipulation of industrial S. cerevisiae strains are required. Here...

  6. A comparative study for the organic byproducts from hydrothermal carbonizations of sugarcane bagasse and its bio-refined components cellulose and lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fang-Li; Du, Qi-Shi; Dai, Jun; Tang, Pei-Duo; Li, Yan-Ming; Long, Si-Yu; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Wang, Qing-Yan; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2018-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was refined into cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin using an ethanol-based organosolv technique. The hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) reactions were applied for bagasse and its two components cellulose and lignin. Based on GC-MS analysis, 32 (13+19) organic byproducts were derived from cellulose and lignin, more than the 22 byproducts from bagasse. Particularly, more valuable catechol products were obtained from lignin with 56.8% share in the total GC-MS integral area, much higher than the 2.263% share in the GC-MS integral areas of bagasse. The organic byproducts from lignin make up more than half of the total mass of lignin, indicating that lignin is a chemical treasure storage. In general, bio-refinery and HTC are two effective techniques for the valorization of bagasse and other biomass materials from agriculture and forest industry. HTC could convert the inferior biomass to superior biofuel with higher energy quantity of combustion, at the same time many valuable organic byproducts are produced. Bio-refinery could promote the HTC reaction of biomass more effective. With the help of bio-refinery and HTC, bagasse and other biomass materials are not only the sustainable energy resource, but also the renewable and environment friendly chemical materials, the best alternatives for petroleum, coal and natural gas.

  7. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment-severity equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne R; Knudsen, Niels Ole; Schjoerring, Jan K; Meyer, Anne S

    2014-01-01

    Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the present study was to examine the levels of mineral elements in pretreated wheat straw in response to systematic variations in the hydrothermal pretreatment parameters (pH, temperature, and treatment time), and to assess whether it is possible to model mineral levels in the pretreated fiber fraction. Principal component analysis of the wheat straw biomass constituents, including mineral elements, showed that the recovered levels of wheat straw constituents after different hydrothermal pretreatments could be divided into two groups: 1) Phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and calcium correlated with xylose and arabinose (that is, hemicellulose), and levels of these constituents present in the fiber fraction after pretreatment varied depending on the pretreatment-severity; and 2) Silicon, iron, copper, aluminum correlated with lignin and cellulose levels, but the levels of these constituents showed no severity-dependent trends. For the first group, an expanded pretreatment-severity equation, containing a specific factor for each constituent, accounting for variability due to pretreatment pH, was developed. Using this equation, the mineral levels could be predicted with R(2) > 0.75; for some with R(2) up to 0.96. Pretreatment conditions, especially pH, significantly influenced the levels of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, manganese, zinc, and calcium in the resulting fiber fractions. A new expanded pretreatment-severity equation is proposed to model and predict mineral composition in pretreated wheat straw biomass.

  8. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mineral elements present in lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks may accumulate in biorefinery process streams and cause technological problems, or alternatively can be reaped for value addition. A better understanding of the distribution of minerals in biomass in response to pretreatment...... factors is therefore important in relation to development of new biorefinery processes. The objective of the present study was to examine the levels of mineral elements in pretreated wheat straw in response to systematic variations in the hydrothermal pretreatment parameters (pH, temperature......) Silicon, iron, copper, aluminum correlated with lignin and cellulose levels, but the levels of these constituents showed no severity-dependent trends. For the first group, an expanded pretreatment-severity equation, containing a specific factor for each constituent, accounting for variability due...

  9. Redfield Energy Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This September 19, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition from Poet Biorefining-Lake Crystal, regarding non-This October 27, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition from Redfield Energy, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced

  10. Poet Marion Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This update August 9, 2016 letter from EPA approves, with modifications, the petition from Poet Biorefining-North Manchester, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable

  11. Poet Portland Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This update August 9, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition, with modifications, from Poet Biorefining-Portland, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel

  12. Poet North Manchester Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This update August 9, 2016 letter from EPA approves, with modifications, the petition from Poet Biorefining-North Manchester, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable

  13. Poet Alexandria Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This update August 9, 2016 letter from EPA approves, with modifications, the petition from Poet Biorefining-Alexandria, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel

  14. Poet Laddonia Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This update Auugust 9, 2016 letter from EPA approves with modifications, the petition from Poet Biorefining Laddonia, Poet Laddonia Facility, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act f

  15. Sustainability considerations for integrated biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-01-01

    Integrated biorefineries have the potential to contribute towards sustainable production of transportation fuels, energy, and chemicals. However, because there are currently no commercial biorefining plants in operation, it is not clear how sustainable they really are. This paper sets out to examine key issues associated with biorefining that should be considered carefully along the whole supply chain to ensure sustainable development of the sector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Les initiatives commerciales de bioraffinage en Région wallonne (Belgique : production de biocarburants et voies de valorisation connexes (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquet, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial biorefining initiatives in Wallonia: production of biofuels and related valorization routes. A review. Introduction. Biorefining is gaining increasing interest in Wallonia as a complement to the conventional petrochemical industry. Biorefineries are categorized according to the nature of the raw materials they treat (food or non-food and the nature of their products (energy and biofuels or biobased compounds. Literature. Production of first-generation (bioethanol and biodiesel and second-generation biofuels are described, as well as their parallel valorization pathways. A description of the Belgian biobased industry is also provided. Conclusions. Diversification of supply chains, as well as the need to promote a circular economy, is becoming a priority for the development of biorefining in Wallonia.

  17. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  18. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  19. Poet Fostoria Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This August 9, 2016 letter from EPA approves, with modifications, the petition from Poet Biorefining-Fostoria, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6)

  20. Poet Lake Crystal Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This September 19, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition from Poet Biorefining-Lake Crystal, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS

  1. Poet Leipsic Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This August 9, 2016 letter from EPA approves,wtih modifications, the petition from Poet Biorefining-Leipsic, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs

  2. Techno-environmental assessment of the green biorefinery concept: Combining process simulation and life cycle assessment at an early design stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Andrea; Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Vega, Giovanna Croxatto; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    2018-09-01

    The Green biorefinery (GBR) is a biorefinery concept that converts fresh biomass into value-added products. The present study combines a Process Flowsheet Simulation (PFS) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the technical and environmental performance of different GBR configurations and the cascading utilization of the GBR output. The GBR configurations considered in this study, test alternatives in the three main steps of green-biorefining: fractionation, precipitation, and protein separation. The different cascade utilization alternatives analyse different options for press-pulp utilization, and the LCA results show that the environmental profile of the GBR is highly affected by the utilization of the press-pulp and thus by the choice of conventional product replaced by the press-pulp. Furthermore, scenario analysis of different GBR configurations shows that higher benefits can be achieved by increasing product yields rather than lowering energy consumption. Green biorefining is shown to be an interesting biorefining concept, especially in a Danish context. Biorefining of green biomass is technically feasible and can bring environmental savings, when compared to conventional production methods. However, the savings will be determined by the processing involved in each conversion stage and on the cascade utilization of the different platform products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pretreatments for converting wood into paper and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Kenealy; Carl J. Houtman; Jose Laplaza; Thomas W. Jeffries; Eric G. Horn

    2007-01-01

    Biorefining wood into paper and chemicals is not as easy as making a single traditional paper product. Paper is made from the cellulose- containing fractions of wood and processing may remove lignin and hemicellulose components. The yield and composition of the product depend upon the type of paper being produced. The paper process often alters the noncellulose...

  4. A new generation of versatile chromogenic substrates for high-throughput analysis of biomass-degrading enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Schückel, Julia; Westereng, Bjørge

    2015-01-01

    of carbohydrate-acting enzymes to be putatively identified. However, there is a paucity of methods for rapidly screening the biochemical activities of these enzymes, and this is a serious bottleneck in the development of enzyme-reliant bio-refining processes. Results: We have developed a new generation of multi...

  5. The process of producing biogas is by anaerobic fermentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ... nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and water. Hydrogen sulfide was not detected. REFERENCES. Bauer F., Persson T., Hulteberg, C and Tamm,. D., 2013. "Biogas upgrading – technology overview, comparison and perspectives for the future" , Biofuels, Bioproducts and. Biorefining, Volume 7, Issue 5, pages. 38. A. A. ADAMU ...

  6. Engineering yeast for the expression and secretion of cellulase cocktails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzyme systems that digest the cellulose in plant cell walls have potential value in the biorefining of renewable feedstocks such as crop residues, straws, and grasses to biofuels and other bioproducts. The bacterium Clostridium cellulovorans is a useful source of biomass-degrading enzymes because ...

  7. Metasecretome analysis of a lignocellulolytic microbial consortium grown on wheat straw, xylan and xylose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Maruthamuthu, Mukil; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background: Synergistic action of different enzymes is required to complete the degradation of plant biomass in order to release sugars which are useful for biorefining. However, the use of single strains is often not efficient, as crucial parts of the required enzymatic machinery can be absent. The

  8. Deterministic ratchets for suspension fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulrattanarak, T.

    2010-01-01

    Driven by the current insights in sustainability and technological development in
    biorefining natural renewable resources, the food industry has taken an interest in
    fractionation of agrofood materials, like milk and cereal crops. The purpose of fractionation
    is to split the raw

  9. Evaluation of a value prior to pulping-thermomechanical pulp business concept. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted Bilek; Carl Houtman; Peter Ince

    2011-01-01

    Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) is a novel biorefining concept for pulp mills that includes hydrolysis extraction of hemicellulose wood sugars and acetic acid from pulpwood prior to pulping. The concept involves conversion of wood sugars via fermentation to fuel ethanol or other chemicals and the use of remaining solid wood material in the pulping process. This paper...

  10. Petroleum Biotechnology. Developments and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R.; Quintero-Ramirez, R.

    2004-01-01

    This book deals with the field of petroleum biorefining and biological upgrade of petroleum; it presents a critical review as well as an integrated overview of the potential biochemical processes, bridging the gap between academia and industry. It addresses today's demanding production challenges, taking into account energy efficient and environmentally friendly processes, and also looks at the future possibility of implementing new refinery systems

  11. A multi-substrate approach for functional metagenomics-based screening for (hemi)cellulases in two wheat straw-degrading microbial consortia unveils novel thermoalkaliphilic enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruthamuthu, Mukil; Jiménez Avella, Diego; Stevens, Patricia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional metagenomics is a promising strategy for the exploration of the biocatalytic potential of microbiomes in order to uncover novel enzymes for industrial processes (e.g. biorefining or bleaching pulp). Most current methodologies used to screen for enzymes involved in plant

  12. Lignin from hydrothermally pretreated grass biomass retards enzymatic cellulose degradation by acting as a physical barrier rather than by inducing nonproductive adsorption of enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djajadi, Demi T.; Jensen, Mads M.; Oliveira, Marlene

    2018-01-01

    Lignin is known to hinder efficient enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose in biorefining processes. In particular, nonproductive adsorption of cellulases onto lignin is considered a key mechanism to explain how lignin retards enzymatic cellulose conversion in extended reactions. Lignin-rich resi...

  13. The evaluation of consolidated bioprocessing as a strategy for production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Cellulosic biomass is one of the most abundant industrial waste products and an appealing substrate for biorefining strategies to produce biofuels by fermentation. The metabolic engineering of fermentative bacteria, such as the thermophile Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius, for high bioethanol yield is well characterised. This has been traditionally facilitated by an economically inefficient multistep process referred to as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), in which the enzymatic hydr...

  14. Rich biotin content in lignocellulose biomass plays the key role in determining cellulosic glutamic acid accumulation by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jingbai; Xiao, Yanqiu; Liu, Ting; Gao, Qiuqiang; Bao, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Lignocellulose is one of the most promising alternative feedstocks for glutamic acid production as commodity building block chemical, but the efforts by the dominant industrial fermentation strain Corynebacterium glutamicum failed for accumulating glutamic acid using lignocellulose feedstock. We identified the existence of surprisingly high biotin concentration in corn stover hydrolysate as the determining factor for the failure of glutamic acid accumulation by Corynebacterium glutamicum . Under excessive biotin content, induction by penicillin resulted in 41.7 ± 0.1 g/L of glutamic acid with the yield of 0.50 g glutamic acid/g glucose. Our further investigation revealed that corn stover contained 353 ± 16 μg of biotin per kg dry solids, approximately one order of magnitude greater than the biotin in corn grain. Most of the biotin remained stable during the biorefining chain and the rich biotin content in corn stover hydrolysate almost completely blocked the glutamic acid accumulation. This rich biotin existence was found to be a common phenomenon in the wide range of lignocellulose biomass and this may be the key reason why the previous studies failed in cellulosic glutamic acid fermentation from lignocellulose biomass. The extended recording of the complete members of all eight vitamin B compounds in lignocellulose biomass further reveals that the major vitamin B members were also under the high concentration levels even after harsh pretreatment. The high content of biotin in wide range of lignocellulose biomass feedstocks and the corresponding hydrolysates was discovered and it was found to be the key factor in determining the cellulosic glutamic acid accumulation. The highly reserved biotin and the high content of their other vitamin B compounds in biorefining process might act as the potential nutrients to biorefining fermentations. This study creates a new insight that lignocellulose biorefining not only generates inhibitors, but also keeps nutrients

  15. Spatial Price Discovery, Dynamics, and Leadership in Evolving Distiller’s Grain Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Van Winkle, Tyler W.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent dramatic growth in corn-based bio-refining has generated considerable growth in the by-product of this process, distiller’s grains. Distiller’s grains are rapidly becoming important livestock feed ingredient sources. However, little public market information is available on distiller’s grain. This study determines spatial and temporal price relationships among distiller’s grain markets. Results indicate spatial distiller’s grain markets operate somewhat independently suggesting potenti...

  16. Corn Stover Availability for Biomass Conversion: Situation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, J. Richard; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher T.; Perlack, Robert; Turhollow, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    As biorefining conversion technologies become commercial, feedstock availability, supply system logistics, and biomass material attributes are emerging as major barriers to the availability of corn stover for biorefining. While systems do exist to supply corn stover as feedstock to biorefining facilities, stover material attributes affecting physical deconstruction, such as densification and post-harvest material stability, challenge the cost-effectiveness of present-day feedstock logistics systems. In addition, the material characteristics of corn stover create barriers with any supply system design in terms of equipment capacity/efficiency, dry matter loss, and capital use efficiency. However, this study of a large, square-bale corn stover feedstock supply system concludes that (1) where other agronomic factors are not limiting, corn stover can be accessed and supplied to a biorefinery using existing bale-based technologies, (2) technologies and new supply system designs are necessary to overcome biomass bulk density and moisture material property challenges, and (3) major opportunities to improve conventional-bale biomass feedstock supply systems include improvements in equipment efficiency and capacity and reducing biomass losses in harvesting and collection and storage. Finally, the backbone of an effective stover supply system design is the optimization of intended and minimization of unintended material property changes as the corn stover passes through the individual supply system processes from the field to the biorefinery conversion processes

  17. Techno-environmental assessment of the green biorefinery concept: Combining process simulation and life cycle assessment at an early design stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Andrea; Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Vega, Giovanna Croxatto

    2018-01-01

    and the cascading utilization of the GBR output. The GBR configurations considered in this study, test alternatives in the three main steps of green-biorefining: fractionation, precipitation, and protein separation. The different cascade utilization alternatives analyse different options for press-pulp utilization......, and the LCA results show that the environmental profile of the GBR is highly affected by the utilization of the press-pulp and thus by the choice of conventional product replaced by the press-pulp. Furthermore, scenario analysis of different GBR configurations shows that higher benefits can be achieved...

  18. Modeling of pretreatment and acidogenic fermentation of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccari, M; Longo, G; Majone, M; Rolle, E; Scarinci, A [Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-01-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste represents a potential feedstock to be treated through biorefining. However, the process feasibility strongly depends on the effectiveness of a chemical pretreatment. Consequently, experimentation aimed at choosing the optimal type of reagent (alkali or acids) and optimal operating conditions was carried out. The best results were obtained using NaOH at room temperature. Solubilization data are in good agreement with a kinetics based on two competing reactions. Simulation of the overall process (pretreatment and acidogenic fermentation) taking place in two CFSTR reactors shows that an optimum ratio exists between the hydraulic residence times of the two stages of the process. (author)

  19. Toward a sustainable biorefinery using high-gravity technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiros, Charilaos; Janssen, Matty; Bystrom, Roberth

    2017-01-01

    The realization of process solutions for a sustainable bioeconomy depends on the efficient processing of biomass. High-gravity technology is one important alternative to realizing such solutions. The aims of this work were to expand the knowledge-base on lignocellulosic bioconversion processes...... at high solids content, to advance the current technologies for production of second-generation liquid biofuels, to evaluate the environmental impact of the proposed process by using life cycle assessment (LCA), and to develop and present a technically, economically, and environmentally sound process....... Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining published by Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  20. Development of a new bioethanol feedstock - Anaerobically digested fiber from confined dairy operations using different digestion configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Zhengbo; Teater, Charles; MacLellan, James; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Two types of digesters, continuous stirring-tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow reactor (PFR), were integrated into a biorefining concept to generate a new cellulosic ethanol feedstock -anaerobically digested fiber (AD fiber) from dairy cow feces. Cellulose content in AD fibers was significantly increased during the anaerobic digestion. CSTR and PFR AD fibers had cellulose contents of 357 and 322 g kg -1 dried AD fiber. The AD fibers were enzymatically hydrolyzed after being pretreated by dilute sulfuric acid or dilute sodium hydroxide, and the hydrolysates were used to produce ethanol. Alkali pretreatment was concluded as a suitable pretreatment method for AD fibers. Under the optimal conditions the AD fibers processed by CSTR and PFR produced ethanol of 26 g kg -1 and 23 g kg -1 dry feces, respectively. Energy balance analysis further indicated that CSTR was a preferred digestion method to prepare AD fiber for ethanol production. -- Highlights: → Anaerobic digestion process has been discovered as a process that is not only a downstream process, but also a pretreatment method to prepare cellulosic feedstock for biorefining. → In this study the effects of two different AD reactor configurations (CSTR and PFR) on AD fiber quality and bioethanol conversion of the AD fiber have been explored. → Mass and energy balance analysis elucidated that compared to PFR, CSTR is better AD treatment to prepare AD fiber for bioethanol production.

  1. Maximizing cellulosic ethanol potentials by minimizing wastewater generation and energy consumption: Competing with corn ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Energy consumption and wastewater generation in cellulosic ethanol production are among the determinant factors on overall cost and technology penetration into fuel ethanol industry. This study analyzed the energy consumption and wastewater generation by the new biorefining process technology, dry acid pretreatment and biodetoxification (DryPB), as well as by the current mainstream technologies. DryPB minimizes the steam consumption to 8.63GJ and wastewater generation to 7.71tons in the core steps of biorefining process for production of one metric ton of ethanol, close to 7.83GJ and 8.33tons in corn ethanol production, respectively. The relatively higher electricity consumption is compensated by large electricity surplus from lignin residue combustion. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by DryPB is below $2/gal and falls into the range of corn ethanol production cost. The work indicates that the technical and economical gap between cellulosic ethanol and corn ethanol has been almost filled up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling of the biorefinery scenarios - Bioscen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkanen, J.-P. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: juha-pekka.pitkanen@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the BioScen project was to develop quantitative modelling approaches for the future biomass based processes producing fuels and chemicals. The aim of the project was in developing methods to estimate the necessary material properties for phase and reaction equilibria, for the calculation of unit processes and their integration to biorefining production plant simulations. Additional focus was laid on model optimisation and product life cycle analysis. As the biorefining technologies possess an extensive range from thermal pyrolysis to biochemical processing at ambient temperatures, a most generic thermodynamically based approach was selected to enable usage of the methods to the wide variety of possible applications. The methods were then applied to a number of case studies including modelling of flash condensation of pyrolysis oil, hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass and its product recovery and the subsequent fermentation processes for bioethanol and biobutanol, for which also a comparative life cycle analysis was performed. Flowsheet process simulation was applied to a conceptual wood bark biorefinery. Metamodelling techniques were used for both model and parameter optimisation, including their sensitivity analysis.

  3. The effect of nonenzymatic protein on lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Hiraide, Hatsue; Cui, Zongjun; Mochidzuki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonenzymatic protein was added to cellulase hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of different biomass materials. Adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) and corn steep before cellulase enhanced enzyme activity in solution and increased cellulose and xylose conversion rates. The cellulose conversion rate of filter paper hydrolysis was increased by 32.5 % with BSA treatment. When BSA was added before cellulase, the remaining activity in the solution was higher than that in a control without BSA pretreatment. During SSF with pretreated rice straw as the substrate, adding 1.0 mg/mL BSA increased the ethanol yield by 13.6 % and final xylose yield by 42.6 %. The results indicated that lignin interaction is not the only mechanism responsible for the positive BSA effect. BSA had a stabilizing effect on cellulase and relieved cumulative sugar inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass materials. Thus, nonenzymatic protein addition represents a promising strategy in the biorefining of lignocellulose materials.

  4. BIOREFINERIES – NEW GREEN STRATEGY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF SMART AND INNOVATIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna A. PŁAZA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecological engineering or ecotechnology is defined as the design of sustainable production that integrate human society with the natural environment for the benefit of both. In order to reach the goal of sustainability therefore important that bioproduct production systems are converted from to natural cycle oriented. In natural cycles there are not waste, but products are generated at different stages of the cycle. The ecotechnology creates a sustainable bioeconomy using biomass in a smart and efficient way. The biorefining sector, which uses smart, innovative and efficient technologies to convert biomass feedstocks into a range of bio-based products including fuels, chemicals, power, food, and renewable oils, currently presents the innovative and efficient bio-based production can revitalize existing industries. The paper presents the concept of biorefinery as the ecotechnological approach for creating a sustainable bioeconomy using biomass in a smart and efficient way.

  5. Biorefineries - New Green Strategy For Development Of Smart And Innovative Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, Grażyna A.; Wandzich, Dorota

    2016-09-01

    Ecological engineering or ecotechnology is defined as the design of sustainable production that integrate human society with the natural environment for the benefit of both. In order to reach the goal of sustainability therefore important that bioproduct production systems are converted from to natural cycle oriented. In natural cycles there are not waste, but products are generated at different stages of the cycle. The ecotechnology creates a sustainable bioeconomy using biomass in a smart and efficient way. The biorefining sector, which uses smart, innovative and efficient technologies to convert biomass feedstocks into a range of bio-based products including fuels, chemicals, power, food, and renewable oils, currently presents the innovative and efficient bio-based production can revitalize existing industries. The paper presents the concept of biorefinery as the ecotechnological approach for creating a sustainable bioeconomy using biomass in a smart and efficient way.

  6. Heterologous expression of cellobiohydrolases in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolases are among the most important enzymes functioning in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, significantly contributing to the efficient biorefining of recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-based products. Filamentous fungi are recognized as both well...... into valuable products. However, due to low cellobiohydrolase activities, certain fungi might be deficient with regard to enzymes of value for cellulose conversion, and improving cellobiohydrolase expression in filamentous fungi has proven to be challenging. In this review, we examine the effects of altering...... promoters, signal peptides, culture conditions and host post-translational modifications. For heterologous cellobiohydrolase production in filamentous fungi to become an industrially feasible process, the construction of site-integrating plasmids, development of protease-deficient strains and glycosylation...

  7. Strategy and design of Innovation Policy Road Mapping for a waste biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Mohan, S

    2016-09-01

    Looming energy crisis, climate change concerns coupled with decreasing fossil fuel resources has garnered significant global attention toward development of alternative, renewable, carbon-neutral and eco-friendly fuels to fulfil burgeoning energy demands. Waste utilization and its management are being pursued with renewed interest due to the gamut of biobased products it can offer apart from providing enough energy to meet a major fraction of the world's energy demand. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy. Integrating all components of waste treatment culminating into biobased products and energy recovery in a single integrated waste biorefinery is self sufficient, highly sustainable and is very beneficial. Designing systematic innovation policies are essential for development and commercialization of new technologies in this important futuristic research area. This communication explores Innovation Policy Road Mapping (IPRM) methodology available in the literature and applies it to design integrated waste biorefinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elements for optimizing a one-step enzymatic bio-refinery process of shrimp cuticles: Focus on enzymatic proteolysis screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, R; Socol, M; Kaas, R; Arhaliass, A; Rodriguez Del Pino, J; Le Roux, K; Donnay-Moreno, C; Bergé, J P

    2017-09-01

    This article complements an earlier work published in 2015 Baron et al. (2015) that showed the interest of a shrimp shells bio-refining process. We compare here the effect of eleven commercial proteases at pH 3.5 or 4.0 on a residual amount of shrimp shells proteins after 6 h at 50 °C. The two pH are obtained when respectively 40 and 25 mmol of formic acid are added to 5 g of mild dried shell. Deproteinisation yield above 95% are obtained. Residual amino acids profile in the solid phase was identical for the eleven proteases except for pepsin which was similar to the raw material profile. A significant relative increase in the proportion of Glycine is observed for the ten other cases. Likewise, shapes of size exclusion chromatograms of the dissolved phase are similar except with pepsin.

  9. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Macroalgae Biorefinery for Production of Bioethanol and Fish Feed from the Two Brown Algae: Laminaria Digitata and Saccharina Latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda; Hansen, Jonas Høeg

    by ensiling (with lactic acid bacteria) or simple drying. Pretreatment was carried out using wet-milling and enzymatic hydrolysis in accordance with 1G bioethanol technology from corn. Different commercial enzyme mixtures for fully or partly hydrolysis of algae sugar polymers into monomers were tested...... and conversion of the differently pretreated macroalgae biomass into ethanol by fermentation were compared. The protein contents and nutrient salts in residues from ethanol fermentation trials were characterized for potential fish feed. A first-step scenario for sustainability and feasibility assessment...... will be presented for this innovative process of biorefining of value-added algae proteins derived directly through fermentation processes of algae sugars to bioenergy carriers....

  11. Cell disruption and lipid extraction for microalgal biorefineries: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Youn; Cho, Jun Muk; Chang, Yong Keun; Oh, You-Kwan

    2017-11-01

    The microalgae-based biorefinement process has attracted much attention from academic and industrial researchers attracted to its biofuel, food and nutraceutical applications. In this paper, recent developments in cell-disruption and lipid-extraction methods, focusing on four biotechnologically important microalgal species (namely, Chlamydomonas, Haematococcus, Chlorella, and Nannochloropsis spp.), are reviewed. The structural diversity and rigidity of microalgal cell walls complicate the development of efficient downstream processing methods for cell-disruption and subsequent recovery of intracellular lipid and pigment components. Various mechanical, chemical and biological cell-disruption methods are discussed in detail and compared based on microalgal species and status (wet/dried), scale, energy consumption, efficiency, solvent extraction, and synergistic combinations. The challenges and prospects of the downstream processes for the future development of eco-friendly and economical microalgal biorefineries also are outlined herein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of electricity generation from lignin residue and biogas in cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    This study takes the first insight on the rigorous evaluation of electricity generation based on the experimentally measured higher heating value (HHV) of lignin residue, as well as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) of wastewater. For producing one metric ton of ethanol fuel from five typical lignocellulose substrates, including corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and poplar sawdust, 1.26-1.85tons of dry lignin residue is generated from biorefining process and 0.19-0.27tons of biogas is generated from anaerobic digestion of wastewater, equivalent to 4335-5981kWh and 1946-2795kWh of electricity by combustion of the generated lignin residue and biogas, respectively. The electricity generation not only sufficiently meets the electricity needs of process requirement, but also generates more than half of electricity surplus selling to the grid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomass production and water use efficiency in perennial grasses during and after drought stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Lærke, Poul Erik; Sørensen, Helle Baadsgaard

    2018-01-01

    be suitable for assessment of drought stress. There were indications of positive associations between plants carbon isotope composition and water use efficiency (WUE) as well as DM under well-watered conditions. Compared to control, drought-treated plots showed increased growth in the period after drought...... stress. Thus, the drought events did not affect total biomass production (DMtotal) of the whole growing season. During drought stress and the whole growing season, WUE was higher in drought-treated compared to control plots, so it seems possible to save water without loss of biomass. Across soil types, M......Drought is a great challenge to agricultural production, and cultivation of drought-tolerant or water use-efficient cultivars is important to ensure high biomass yields for bio-refining and bioenergy. Here, we evaluated drought tolerance of four C3 species, Dactylis glomerata cvs. Sevenop and Amba...

  14. Effective Release of Lignin Fragments from Lignocellulose by Lewis Acid Metal Triflates in the Lignin-First Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Jiadong; Korányi, Tamás I; Boot, Michael D; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-12-08

    Adding value to lignin, the most complex and recalcitrant fraction in lignocellulosic biomass, is highly relevant to costefficient operation of biorefineries. We report the use of homogeneous metal triflates to rapidly release lignin from biomass. Combined with metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis, the process separates woody biomass into few lignin-derived alkylmethoxyphenols and cellulose under mild conditions. Model compound studies show the unique catalytic properties of metal triflates in cleaving lignin-carbohydrate interlinkages. The lignin fragments can then be disassembled by hydrogenolysis. The tandem process is flexible and allows obtaining good aromatic monomer yields from different woods (36-48 wt %, lignin base). The cellulose-rich residue is an ideal feedstock for established biorefining processes. The highly productive strategy is characterized by short reaction times, low metal triflate catalyst requirement, and leaving cellulose largely untouched. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Bio-based products from solar energy and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Producing bio-based products directly from CO₂ and solar energy is a desirable alternative to the conventional biorefining that relies on biomass feedstocks. The production paradigm is based on an artificial photosynthetic system that converts sunlight to electricity and H₂ via water electrolysis. An autotrophic H₂-oxidizing bacterium fixes CO₂ in dark conditions. The assimilated CO₂ is stored in bacterial cells as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), from which a range of products can be derived. Compared with natural photosynthesis of a fast-growing cyanobacterium, the artificial photosynthetic system has much higher energy efficiency and productivity of bio-based products. The new technology looks promising because of possible cost reduction in feedstock, equipment, and operation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diseño de un biorreactor para la obtención de Ácido Glicérico por fermentación bacteriana de Glicerol

    OpenAIRE

    Sastre Pujol, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Hoy en día existe un gran excedente de glicerol ya que es subproducto de las biorefinerías en la producción de biocombustibles, dado que existe una gran cantidad en el mercado su precio se ha ido devaluando y no tiene ningún tipo de valor económico. Para revertir esta tendencia se está buscando crear un producto de alto valor a partir del glicerol. Uno de los productos que se pueden obtener a partir del glicerol es el ácido glicérico, este tiene un gran valor para la producción de bioplást...

  17. Monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes: A review perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Esbensen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    to a new level of reliability and effectiveness. It is shown, how proper involvement of process sampling understanding, Theory of Sampling (TOS), constitutes a critical success factor. We survey the more recent trends within the field of AD monitoring and the powerful PAT/TOS/chemometrics application...... processes, sanitation of industrial organic waste, and benefits from degassing of manure are a few of the most important applications. Especially, renewable energy production, integrated biorefining concepts, and advanced waste handling are delineated as the major market players for AD that likely...... will expand rapidly in the near future. The complex, biologically mediated AD events are far from being understood in detail however. Despite decade-long serious academic and industrial research efforts, only a few general rules have been formulated with respect to assessing the state of the process from...

  18. Comparing methods for measuring the digestibility of miscanthus in bioethanol or biogas processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Frydendal; Jørgensen, Uffe; Hjorth, Maibritt

    2017-01-01

    expected to have different digestibilities due to maturity stage, dry matter content and the implementation of extrusion as a mechanical pretreatment. The results of the DNS and the biogas batch test methods were highly correlated (R2 between 0.75 and 0.92), but not with the results of the HTPH method....... The DNS and biogas batch test showed that digestibility differed between samples, probably due to the degree of lignification and content of soluble sugars. For the HTPH method, the digestibility for biorefining was the same irrespective of the variation in the other analyses. The HTPH method had higher...... biomass use efficiency, closely followed by the biogas batch test running for 91 days on the mechanically pretreated biomass. The HTPH method provided information on the overall quantity of carbohydrates that can be made available from a given biomass. Additionally, DNS and biogas batch test visualize...

  19. Development and operation of innovative scum to biodiesel pilot-system for the treatment of floatable wastewater scum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Erik; Addy, Min; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2018-02-01

    A novel process was developed for the biorefining of floatable wastewater scum and other waste oils from water treatment facilities into biodiesel and other value-added bio-products. To test the scalability and commercial potential of the technology, a 7000 l/year pilot-scale system was designed and built. Scum from a wastewater treatment facility, located in St. Paul, Mn, was collected and converted into methyl esters (biodiesel) according to the process chemistry. All of the incoming and outgoing process streams were sampled, tested, weighed and recorded to calculate both the process efficiency and product quality. Data from the pilot-scale system operation was compared to laboratory results and the theoretically expected values for each individual unit operation. The biodiesel was tested using a third party laboratory and confirmed it met all of the US EPA's test requirements for commercial-grade biodiesel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Critical fluid technology for the processing of lipid-related natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., Supercritical Fluid Facility, Chemistry Div. NM (United States)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, the technology envelope that embraces critical fluids can involve a wide range of conditions, different types of pure and modified fluids, as well as processing options involving extractions, fractionations or reactions. Technological development drivers continue to be environmentally and consumer-benign processing and/or products, however in recent years expansion of the use of sub- and supercritical fluids has been catalyzed by applications in such opportune fields as nutraceuticals, conversion of biomass (bio-refining), and the ability to modify natural products by reactions. The use of critical fluid technology is an important facet of any sustainable development program, particularly when utilized over a broad, interconnected application platform. In this overview presentation, concepts and applications of critical fluids from the author's research as well as the literature will be cited to support the above trends. A totally 'green' processing platform appears to be viable using carbon dioxide in the appropriate form, ethanol and water as intermediate co-solvents/reactants, and water from above its boiling point to supercritical conditions. These fluids can be combined in overall coupled unit processes, such as combining trans-esterification with hydrogenation, or glycero-lysis of lipid moieties with supercritical fluid fractionation. Such fluids also can exploited sequentially for bio-refining processes or the segregation of value-added products, but may require using coupled fluid or unit operations to obtain the targeted product composition or purity. Changing the reduced temperatures and/or pressures of critical fluids offers a plethora of opportunity, an excellent example being the relative critical fluid state of water. For example, sub-critical water slightly above its boiling point provides a unique medium that mimics polar organic solvents, and has been used even for the extraction of thermally labile solutes or

  1. APROVECHAMIENTO DE RESIDUOS AGROINDUSTRIALES COMO BIOCOMBUSTIBLE Y BIOREFINERÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEYANIRA MUÑOZ-MUÑOZ

    Full Text Available El aprovechamiento de residuos generados en procesos agroindustriales, es de interés en el ámbito mundial. En la actualidad se investiga en biomasa lignocelulósica para obtener energía, combustibles, biomateriales y productos químicos, mediante tecnologías limpias y sistemas cerrados que permitan conservar el medio ambiente. En esta investigación, a partir de características de residuos agroindustriales típicos del Departamento del Cauca, bagacillo de caña, polvillo de fique, afrecho de yuca y sus mezclas, se evalúo el aprovechamiento como biorefinería. Se determinaron las propiedades térmicas, físicas químicas y morfológicas en siete muestras de residuos, se realizaron ensayos exploratorios de pre-tratamientos y posibles usos. Se concluye que la muestra M6 con el 9,93% de humedad, 4,12% de ceniza, 43,97% de carbono, 5,86% de hidrogeno, 0,43% nitrógeno, poder calorífico inferior de 15MJ/kg y con 22,25% de celulosa, 9,30% de hemicelulosa y 4,56% de lignina, presenta características apropiadas para ser utilizada en hornos y calderas de menor potencia para el sector rural por la cantidad de ceniza, la cual mantiene estable el poder calorífico inferior y reduce la emisión de material particulado. Por las características térmicas, físicas, químicas y morfológicas, todas las muestras de M1 a M7, pueden ser hidrolizadas, densificadas y aprovechadas como biocombustible y/o biorefinería.

  2. Effect of pretreatment severity on accumulation of major degradation products from dilute acid pretreated corn stover and subsequent inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Byung-Hwan; van Walsum, G Peter

    2012-09-01

    The concept of reaction severity, which combines residence time and temperature, is often used in the pulp and paper and biorefining industries. The influence of corn stover pretreatment severity on yield of sugar and major degradation products and subsequent effects on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was investigated. The pretreatment residence time and temperature, combined into the severity factor (Log R(o)), were varied with constant acid concentration. With increasing severity, increasing concentrations of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) coincided with decreasing yields of oligosaccharides. With further increase in severity factor, the concentrations of furans decreased, while the formation of formic acid and lactic acid increased. For example, from severity 3.87 to 4.32, xylose decreased from 6.39 to 5.26 mg/mL, while furfural increased from 1.04 to 1.33 mg/mL; as the severity was further increased to 4.42, furfural diminished to 1.23 mg/mL as formate rose from 0.62 to 1.83 mg/mL. The effects of dilute acid hydrolyzate, acetic acid, and lignin, in particular, on enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated with a rapid microassay method. The microplate method gave considerable time and cost savings compared to the traditional assay protocol, and it is applicable to a broad range of lignocellulosic substrates.

  3. Biological potential of microalgae in China for biorefinery-based production of biofuels and high value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Jay J; Mos, Michal; Daroch, Maurycy

    2015-12-25

    Microalgae abundance and diversity in China shows promise for identifying suitable strains for developing algal biorefinery. Numerous strains of microalgae have already been assessed as feedstocks for bioethanol and biodiesel production, but commercial scale algal biofuel production is yet to be demonstrated, most likely due to huge energy costs associated with algae cultivation, harvesting and processing. Biorefining, integrated processes for the conversion of biomass into a variety of products, can improve the prospects of microalgal biofuels by combining them with the production of high value co-products. Numerous microalgal strains in China have been identified as producers of various high value by-products with wide application in the medicine, food, and cosmetics industries. This paper reviews microalgae resources in China and their potential in producing liquid biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and high value products in an integrated biorefinery approach. Implementation of a 'high value product first' principle should make the integrated process of fuels and chemicals production economically feasible and will ensure that public and private interest in the development of microalgal biotechnology is maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical conversion of hemicellulose coproducts from forest biorefineries to polymers and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boluk, Y.; Jost, R. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Raw material is the basis of the chemical industry. This presentation discussed the chemical conversion of hemicellulose coproducts from forest biorefineries to polymers and chemicals. Biorefining pretreatment processes open up the biomass structure, release hemicelluloses and overcome the resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. Although hemicellulose is the second most abundant carbohydrate, it does not have many industrial applications. The state of released hemicellulose whether polymeric, oligomeric or monosaccharides depends primarily on the pretreatment process conditions. Physical pretreatment methods include high-pressure steaming and steam explosion; milling and grinding; extrusion; and high-energy radiation. The chemical pretreatment methods involve the use of alkali, acid, gas and oxidizing agents as well as solvents. The biological pretreatment methods involve the use of lignin consuming fungi and cellulose consuming fungi. A profitable use of C5 sugars in monomeric, oligomeric and polymeric forms is necessary for a viable wood to bioethanol process. Hemicellulose composition varies depending on the biomass source. It usually has a lower molecular weight than cellulose, contains branching, and is comprised of several different monosaccharides. The existing commercial chemical products include xylitol, mannitol, and furfural. The hemicellulose coproducts from a lignocellulosic biorefinery have the potential to become a feasible replacement for their fossil-based equivalents. tabs., figs.

  5. Plus 10 million tons plan. Feasible increased Danish production of sustainable biomass for bio-refineries; + 10 mio. tons planen - muligheder for en oeget dansk produktion af baeredygtig biomasse til bioraffinaderier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gylling, M.; Scott Bentsen, N.; Felby, C.; Kvist Johannsen, V. (Koebenhavns Univ., Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Joergensen, Uffe; Kristensen, Inge T.; Dalgaard, T. (Aarhus Univ., Aarhus (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    The desire to create sustainable solutions in the energy sector has led researchers at the University of Copenhagen, Aarhus University and research and development staff from DONG Energy to enter into a cooperation agreement that will start concrete initiatives in research and education in green energy. An important part of the collaboration is a study of how we can produce more biomass compared to today without compromising food production, feed production or the environment. The present study shows that it can be done through a total commitment to sustainable technology and biology. The report also describes the effects of the establishment of a Danish supplied bio-refinery sector. In order to achieve this required additional research and development is required, particularly in agriculture and forestry but also in biological and chemical conversion of biomass. The initiative supports the BioRefining Alliance, which brings together Danish companies, public partners and organizations with world-class knowledge and technologies for bio-refinery. (LN)

  6. Compositional analysis and projected biofuel potentials from common West African agricultural residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the focus on sustainable biofuel production from agricultural residues has increased considerably. However, the scientific work within this field has predominantly been concentrated upon bioresources from industrialised and newly industrialised countries, while analyses of the res......In recent years the focus on sustainable biofuel production from agricultural residues has increased considerably. However, the scientific work within this field has predominantly been concentrated upon bioresources from industrialised and newly industrialised countries, while analyses......, cassava stalks, plantain peelings, plantain trunks, plantain leaves, cocoa husks, cocoa pods, maize cobs, maize stalks, rice straw, groundnut straw and oil palm empty fruit bunches. The yam peelings showed the highest methane and bioethanol potentials, with 439 L methane (kg Total Solids)−1 and 0.61 L...... bioethanol (kg TS)−1 based on starch and cellulose alone due to their high starch content and low content of un-biodegradable lignin and ash. A complete biomass balance was done for each of the 13 residues, providing a basis for further research into the production of biofuels or biorefining from West...

  7. Process design and optimization of novel wheat-based continuous bioethanol production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifeen, Najmul; Wang, Ruohang; Kookos, Ioannis K; Webb, Colin; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2007-01-01

    A novel design of a wheat-based biorefinery for bioethanol production, including wheat milling, gluten extraction as byproduct, fungal submerged fermentation for enzyme production, starch hydrolysis, fungal biomass autolysis for nutrient regeneration, yeast fermentation with recycling integrated with a pervaporation membrane for ethanol concentration, and fuel-grade ethanol purification by pressure swing distillation (PSD), was optimized in continuous mode using the equation-based software General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS). The novel wheat biorefining strategy could result in a production cost within the range of dollars 0.96-0.50 gal(-1) ethanol (dollars 0.25-0.13 L(-1) ethanol) when the production capacity of the plant is within the range of 10-33.5 million gal y(-1) (37.85-126.8 million L y(-1)). The production of value-added byproducts (e.g., bran-rich pearlings, gluten, pure yeast cells) was identified as a crucial factor for improving the economics of fuel ethanol production from wheat. Integration of yeast fermentation with pervaporation membrane could result in the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation outlet stream (up to 40 mol %). The application of a PSD system that consisted of a low-pressure and a high-pressure column and employing heat integration between the high- and low-pressure columns resulted in reduced operating cost (up to 44%) for fuel-grade ethanol production.

  8. EMBIO - The Danish Energy Agency's model for economic and environmental evaluation of bio-fuels. Appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A methodological concept is established for a life-cycle based model which can be used for socio- and private economic and environmental assessment of automotive bio-fuels. The calculation method must be able to calculate socio-economic, energy, environmental, and other consequences by alternative productions and uses of bio-fuels. The main emphasis in the development of the model has been put on the relation between CO 2 reduction and economics. The appendix presents details of the model used for evaluating two specific projects: 'Bio-diesel in the Lemvig area (Denmark), rape seeds as energy crops'; 'Ethanol in the green bio-refining plant'. The results from the use of the model are presented and sensitivity analyses of the model results are performed. Furthermore, a number of background information is presented to be used in relation to the model for evaluating alternative production methods and uses of bio-fuels. Primarily Danish and other European sources of information are selected. (LN)

  9. Robust enzymatic hydrolysis of Formiline-pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) for efficient conversion of polysaccharide to sugars and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingkai; Zhao, Xuebing; Zeng, Jing; Loh, Soh Kheang; Choo, Yuen May; Liu, Dehua

    2014-08-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was pretreated by Formiline process to overcome biomass recalcitrance and obtain hemicellulosic syrup and lignin. Higher formic acid concentration led to more lignin removal but also higher degree of cellulose formylation. Cellulose digestibility could be well recovered after deformylation with a small amount of lime. After digested by enzyme loading of 15 FPU+10 CBU/g solid for 48 h, the polysaccharide conversion could be over 90%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results demonstrated that ethanol concentration reached 83.6 g/L with approximate 85% of theoretic yield when performed at an initial dry solid consistency of 20%. A mass balance showed that via Formiline pretreatment 0.166 kg of ethanol could be produced from 1 kg of dry EFB with co-production of 0.14 kg of high-purity lignin and 5.26 kg hemicellulosic syrup containing 2.8% xylose. Formiline pretreatment thus can be employed as an entry for biorefining of EFB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimizing fermentation process miscanthus-to-ethanol biorefinery scale under uncertain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomberg, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel L; Lipman, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstocks has garnered significant interest for greenhouse gas abatement and energy security promotion. One outstanding question in the development of a mature cellulosic ethanol industry is the optimal scale of biorefining activities. This question is important for companies and entrepreneurs seeking to construct and operate cellulosic ethanol biorefineries as it determines the size of investment needed and the amount of feedstock for which they must contract. The question also has important implications for the nature and location of lifecycle environmental impacts from cellulosic ethanol. We use an optimization framework similar to previous studies, but add richer details by treating many of these critical parameters as random variables and incorporating a stochastic sub-model for land conversion. We then use Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a probability distribution for the optimal scale of a biorefinery using a fermentation process and miscanthus feedstock. We find a bimodal distribution with a high peak at around 10–30 MMgal yr −1 (representing circumstances where a relatively low percentage of farmers elect to participate in miscanthus cultivation) and a lower and flatter peak between 150 and 250 MMgal yr −1 (representing more typically assumed land-conversion conditions). This distribution leads to useful insights; in particular, the asymmetry of the distribution—with significantly more mass on the low side—indicates that developers of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries may wish to exercise caution in scale-up. (letters)

  11. Optimizing fermentation process miscanthus-to-ethanol biorefinery scale under uncertain conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomberg, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel L.; Lipman, Timothy E.

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstocks has garnered significant interest for greenhouse gas abatement and energy security promotion. One outstanding question in the development of a mature cellulosic ethanol industry is the optimal scale of biorefining activities. This question is important for companies and entrepreneurs seeking to construct and operate cellulosic ethanol biorefineries as it determines the size of investment needed and the amount of feedstock for which they must contract. The question also has important implications for the nature and location of lifecycle environmental impacts from cellulosic ethanol. We use an optimization framework similar to previous studies, but add richer details by treating many of these critical parameters as random variables and incorporating a stochastic sub-model for land conversion. We then use Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a probability distribution for the optimal scale of a biorefinery using a fermentation process and miscanthus feedstock. We find a bimodal distribution with a high peak at around 10-30 MMgal yr-1 (representing circumstances where a relatively low percentage of farmers elect to participate in miscanthus cultivation) and a lower and flatter peak between 150 and 250 MMgal yr-1 (representing more typically assumed land-conversion conditions). This distribution leads to useful insights; in particular, the asymmetry of the distribution—with significantly more mass on the low side—indicates that developers of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries may wish to exercise caution in scale-up.

  12. Simultaneous saccharification and aerobic fermentation of high titer cellulosic citric acid by filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is the most efficient operation in biorefining conversion, but aerobic SSF under high solids loading significantly faces the serious oxygen transfer limitation. This study took the first insight into an aerobic SSF by high oxygen demanding filamentous fungi in highly viscous lignocellulose hydrolysate. The results show that oxygen requirement in the aerobic SSF by Aspergillus niger was well satisfied for production of cellulosic citric acid. The record high citric acid titer of 136.3 g/L and the overall conversion yield of 74.9% of cellulose were obtained by the aerobic SSF. The advantage of SSF to the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) on citric acid fermentation was compared based on the rigorous Aspen Plus modeling. The techno-economic analysis indicates that the minimum citric acid selling price (MCSP) of $0.603 per kilogram by SSF was highly competitive with the commercial citric acid from starch feedstock. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzymatic Refining and Cellulose Nanofiber Addition in Papermaking Processes from Recycled and Deinked Slurries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Delgado-Aguilar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and deinking processes cause fiber damage because of hornification phenomena and increased external fibrillation. Mechanical refining has been used for many years to enhance the mechanical properties of paper. Biorefining of pulp using enzymes is receiving increasing interest for energy reduction at the refining step of the paper-making process. Moreover, enzymes have also been used for the enhancement of mechanical properties without affecting the drainage rate. As an alternative to mechanical refining treatment, a combination of an enzymatic treatment and cellulose nanofibril (CNF addition was explored to enhance the mechanical properties of paper. The tests were carried out on a deinked pulp (DIP suspension made of 50% old newspapers (ONP and 50% old magazines (OMG. Various enzyme charges and CNF amounts were added to the mixture of ONP and OMG. All pulps (treated and untreated were characterized from a morphological point of view, and the paper sheets made thereof were mechanically characterized. The combination of the enzymatic treatment with the addition of 3% CNF provided sufficient tensile strength for the paper to be used in high-performance applications.

  14. Progressing opportunities for Australian renewable energy technology research, development and demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckitt, A.; Kile, R.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2004, a team of experienced Australian specialists in the field of renewable energy technology conducted a Mission to the United States of America led by the Renewable and Sustainable Energy ROUNDTABLE. The Mission was made possible by a generous grant from the Department of Education Science and Training (DEST), administered through the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE) under the Innovation Access Programme. Mission participants engaged in a three day structured workshop with the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and the opportunity was taken to meet leading USA research teams and visit relevant facilities ranging from solar thermal and photovoltaic testing, wind through to bioenergy an biorefining. The Mission concluded in Washington DC with a series of meetings with the US Department of Energy, the World Bank and Austrade. The Mission was extremely successful in terms of relationship building, technical learning and the development of future commercial opportunities for Australian businesses. It was conducted within the context of the United States - Australia Climate Action Partnership (CAP). This paper provides an overview of the Mission, its objectives and key outcomes

  15. Le bioraffinage, une alternative prometteuse à la pétrochimie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent, P.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biorefining, a promising alternative to petrochemistry. Because of the price increase of fossil resources, of their uncertain availability and because of environmental concerns, alternative solutions able to mitigate global warming, and reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and carbon dioxide emissions should be promoted. The replacement of petroleum with biomass as raw material for bioenergy (biofuels, power and heat and chemical production is an interesting option and is the driving force for the development of biorefinery complexes that will have a critical role to play in our common future. A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat and chemicals from biomass. In biorefinery, almost all types of biomass feedstocks can be converted to different classes of biofuels and biochemicals through various processes that maximize economic and environmental benefits, while minimizing waste and pollution. Through the integration of green chemistry into biorefineries, and the use of low environmental impact technologies, future sustainable production chains of biofuels and high value chemicals from biomass can therefore be established. Currently, the green biorefinery, the whole-crop biorefinery, the oilseed biorefinery and the lignocellulosic feedstock biorefinery are favoured in research, development and industrial implementation, essentially through fully integrated biorefinery complexes.

  16. City/industry/utility partnership leads to innovative combined heat and power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, J. [Savage and Associates, Quesnel, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed a combined heat and power (CHP) project that was launched in Quesnel, British Columbia. The CHP is being developed in phases in which new components will enter the system, providing added benefits. Hot oil from a sawmill bioenergy system will be used to heat lumber kilns, generate electricity at an Organic Rankine Cycle co-generation plant, and heat water for a District Energy Loop (DEL) to heat up to 22 existing buildings in the city as well as sawmill and planer buildings. The DEL piping would comprise a 5 kilometre loop. The energy would come from recovered sawmill space heating, recovered stack energy, and additional biomass energy. All of the district heating and 41 per cent of the power would be from heat recovered from the existing industrial operation. This bio-economy vision ultimately involves incorporating a biogas digester into the system to process food, regional organic waste, and pulp mill residuals, relying on bio-solids and heat from the mill. The fertilizer from the digester would then be used in a biomass plantation, which would provide materials to industry for many products, including bio-refining. This project evolved in response to concerns about the ecological effects and long-term economics of aggressive utilization of forest biomass. 15 figs.

  17. Cascading of Biomass. 13 Solutions for a Sustainable Bio-based Economy. Making Better Choices for Use of Biomass Residues, By-products and Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odegard, I.; Croezen, H.; Bergsma, G.

    2012-08-15

    Smarter and more efficient use of biomass, referred to as cascading, can lead to an almost 30% reduction in European greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared with 2010. As the title study makes clear, cascading of woody biomass, agricultural and industrial residues and other waste can make a significant contribution to a greening of the economy. With the thirteen options quantitatively examined annual emissions of between 330 and 400 Mt CO2 can be avoided by making more efficient use of the same volume of biomass as well as by other means. 75% of the potential CO2 gains can be achieved with just four options: (1) bio-ethanol from straw, for use as a chemical feedstock; (2) biogas from manure; (3) biorefining of grass; and (4) optimisation of paper recycling. Some of the options make multiple use of residues, with biomass being used to produce bioplastics that, after several rounds of recycling, are converted to heat and power at the end of their life, for example. In other cases higher-grade applications are envisaged: more efficient use of recyclable paper and wood waste, in both economic and ecological terms, using them as raw materials for new paper and chipboard rather than as an energy source. Finally, by using smart technologies biomass can be converted to multiple products.

  18. A metabolic pathway for catabolizing levulinic acid in bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, Jacqueline M.; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Clark, Ryan L.; Thiede, Joshua M.; Mehrer, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms can catabolize a wide range of organic compounds and therefore have the potential to perform many industrially relevant bioconversions. One barrier to realizing the potential of biorefining strategies lies in our incomplete knowledge of metabolic pathways, including those that can be used to assimilate naturally abundant or easily generated feedstocks. For instance, levulinic acid (LA) is a carbon source that is readily obtainable as a dehydration product of lignocellulosic biomass and can serve as the sole carbon source for some bacteria. Yet, the genetics and structure of LA catabolism have remained unknown. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a seven-gene operon that enables LA catabolism in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. When the pathway was reconstituted with purified proteins, we observed the formation of four acyl-CoA intermediates, including a unique 4-phosphovaleryl-CoA and the previously observed 3-hydroxyvaleryl-CoA product. Using adaptive evolution, we obtained a mutant of Escherichia coli LS5218 with functional deletions of fadE and atoC that was capable of robust growth on LA when it expressed the five enzymes from the P. putida operon. Here, this discovery will enable more efficient use of biomass hydrolysates and metabolic engineering to develop bioconversions using LA as a feedstock.

  19. Plant synthetic biology: a new platform for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, Elena; Edwards, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Thirty years after the production of the first generation of genetically modified plants we are now set to move into a new era of recombinant crop technology through the application of synthetic biology to engineer new and complex input and output traits. The use of synthetic biology technologies will represent more than incremental additions of transgenes, but rather the directed design of completely new metabolic pathways, physiological traits, and developmental control strategies. The need to enhance our ability to improve crops through new engineering capability is now increasingly pressing as we turn to plants not just for food, but as a source of renewable feedstocks for industry. These accelerating and diversifying demands for new output traits coincide with a need to reduce inputs and improve agricultural sustainability. Faced with such challenges, existing technologies will need to be supplemented with new and far-more-directed approaches to turn valuable resources more efficiently into usable agricultural products. While these objectives are challenging enough, the use of synthetic biology in crop improvement will face public acceptance issues as a legacy of genetically modified technologies in many countries. Here we review some of the potential benefits of adopting synthetic biology approaches in improving plant input and output traits for their use as industrial chemical feedstocks, as linked to the rapidly developing biorefining industry. Several promising technologies and biotechnological targets are identified along with some of the key regulatory and societal challenges in the safe and acceptable introduction of such technology.

  20. Succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant Escherichia coli strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghui; Pan, Jiachuan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2014-11-02

    Succinic acid (1,4-butanedioic acid) is identified as one of important building-block chemicals. Xylose mother liquor is an abundant industrial residue in xylitol biorefining industry. In this study, xylose mother liquor was utilized to produce succinic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli strain SD121, and the response surface methodology was used to optimize the fermentation media. The optimal conditions of succinic acid fermentation were as follows: 82.62 g L -1 total initial sugars, 42.27 g L -1 MgCO 3 and 17.84 g L -1 yeast extract. The maximum production of succinic acid was 52.09 ± 0.21 g L -1 after 84 h with a yield of 0.63 ± 0.03 g g -1 total sugar, approaching the predicted value (53.18 g L -1 ). It was 1.78-fold of the production of that obtained with the basic medium. This was the first report on succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant E. coli strains with media optimization using response surface methodology. This work suggested that the xylose mother liquor could be an alternative substrate for the economical production of succinic acid by recombinant E. coli strains.

  1. Dewatering treatments to increase dry matter content of the brown seaweed, kelp (Laminaria digitata ((Hudson) JV Lamouroux)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joe A; Turner, Lesley B; Adams, Jessica M M; Dyer, Philip W; Theodorou, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Macroalgal water content is an on-going problem for the use of readily accessible seaweeds in sustainable biorefining, including fuel production. Silage is a reduced-water, compactable, easily stored, transportable material. Ensiling could establish a non-seasonal supply of preserved algal biomass, but requires high initial dry matter content to mitigate environmental pollution risks from effluent. This study investigated potential dewatering methods for kelp harvested throughout the year. Treatments included air-drying, osmotic media and acids. Significant interactions between treatment and harvest-time were observed for traits of interest. Fresh weight loss during treatment was composed of changes in water and dry matter content. Air-drying gave reliable increase in final dry matter content; in summer and autumn 30% dry matter content was reached after 24h. Dilute hydrochloric acid reduced stickiness and rendered material suitable for dewatering by screw-pressing; it may be possible to use the consequent pH reduction to promote efficient preservation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, Kenneth F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  3. Characterization of industrial broccoli discards (Brassica oleracea var. italica) for their glucosinolate, polyphenol and flavonoid contents using UPLC MS/MS and spectrophotometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Minty; Badr, Ashraf; Desjardins, Yves; Gosselin, Andre; Angers, Paul

    2018-04-15

    The agrifood industry produces tons of waste and substandard products that are discarded at great expense. Valorization of industrial residues curbs issues related to food security and environmental problems. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is associated with varied beneficial health effects, but its production yields greater than 25% rejects. We aimed to characterize and quantify industrial broccoli by-products for their glucosinolate and polyphenol contents as a first step towards industrial bio-refining. Broccoli segments and rejected lots of 10 seed cultivars were analyzed using UPLC MS/MS. Variability in the contents of bioactive molecules was observed within and between the cultivars. Broccoli by-products were rich in glucosinolates (0.2-2% dry weight sample), predominantly glucoraphanin (32-64% of the total glucosinolates), whereas the polyphenolic content was less than 0.02% dry weight sample. Valorization of industrial residues facilitates the production of high value functional food ingredients along with socio-economic sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioethanol production using genetically modified and mutant wheat and barley straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Engineering; East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (CN). State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering; Liu, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (US). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Chen, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zemetra, R.S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (US). Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences

    2011-01-15

    To improve the performance of wheat and barley straws as feedstocks for ethanol biorefining, the genetic modifications of down regulating Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and low phytic acid mutation have been introduced into wheat and barley respectively. In this study, total 252 straw samples with different genetic background and location were collected from the field experiment based on a randomized complete block design. The fiber analysis (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) indicated that there were no significant differences between modified and wild type straw lines in terms of straw compositions. However, the difference did exist among straw lines on fiber utilization. 16 straw samples were further selected to conduct diluted acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The data indicated that the phytic acid mutant and transgenic straws have changed the fiber structure, which significantly influences their hydrolysibility. These results may lead to a possible solution of mutant or genetic modified plant species that is capable to increase the hydrolysibility of biomass without changing their compositions and sacrificing their agronomy performance. (author)

  5. Lignin from hydrothermally pretreated grass biomass retards enzymatic cellulose degradation by acting as a physical barrier rather than by inducing nonproductive adsorption of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajadi, Demi T; Jensen, Mads M; Oliveira, Marlene; Jensen, Anders; Thygesen, Lisbeth G; Pinelo, Manuel; Glasius, Marianne; Jørgensen, Henning; Meyer, Anne S

    2018-01-01

    Lignin is known to hinder efficient enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose in biorefining processes. In particular, nonproductive adsorption of cellulases onto lignin is considered a key mechanism to explain how lignin retards enzymatic cellulose conversion in extended reactions. Lignin-rich residues (LRRs) were prepared via extensive enzymatic cellulose degradation of corn stover ( Zea mays subsp. mays L.), Miscanthus  ×  giganteus stalks (MS) and wheat straw ( Triticum aestivum L.) (WS) samples that each had been hydrothermally pretreated at three severity factors (log R 0 ) of 3.65, 3.83 and 3.97. The LRRs had different residual carbohydrate levels-the highest in MS; the lowest in WS. The residual carbohydrate was not traceable at the surface of the LRRs particles by ATR-FTIR analysis. The chemical properties of the lignin in the LRRs varied across the three types of biomass, but monolignols composition was not affected by the severity factor. When pure cellulose was added to a mixture of LRRs and a commercial cellulolytic enzyme preparation, the rate and extent of glucose release were unaffected by the presence of LRRs regardless of biomass type and severity factor, despite adsorption of the enzymes to the LRRs. Since the surface of the LRRs particles were covered by lignin, the data suggest that the retardation of enzymatic cellulose degradation during extended reaction on lignocellulosic substrates is due to physical blockage of the access of enzymes to the cellulose caused by the gradual accumulation of lignin at the surface of the biomass particles rather than by nonproductive enzyme adsorption. The study suggests that lignin from hydrothermally pretreated grass biomass retards enzymatic cellulose degradation by acting as a physical barrier blocking the access of enzymes to cellulose rather than by inducing retardation through nonproductive adsorption of enzymes.

  6. Flexible biorefinery for producing fermentation sugars, lignin and pulp from corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Kiran L; Chin, Chim Y; Brown, Lawrence W

    2008-05-01

    A new biorefining process is presented that embodies green processing and sustainable development. In the spirit of a true biorefinery, the objective is to convert agricultural residues and other biomass feedstocks into value-added products such as fuel ethanol, dissolving pulp, and lignin for resin production. The continuous biomass fractionation process yields a liquid stream rich in hemicellulosic sugars, a lignin-rich liquid stream, and a solid cellulose stream. This paper generally discusses potential applications of the three streams and specifically provides results on the evaluation of the cellulose stream from corn stover as a source of fermentation sugars and specialty pulp. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this relatively pure cellulose stream requires significantly lower enzyme loadings because of minimal enzyme deactivation from nonspecific binding to lignin. A correlation was shown to exist between lignin removal efficiency and enzymatic digestibility. The cellulose produced was also demonstrated to be a suitable replacement for hardwood pulp, especially in the top ply of a linerboard. Also, the relatively pure nature of the cellulose renders it suitable as raw material for making dissolving pulp. This pulping approach has significantly smaller environmental footprint compared to the industry-standard kraft process because no sulfur- or chlorine-containing compounds are used. Although this option needs some minimal post-processing, it produces a higher value commodity than ethanol and, unlike ethanol, does not need extensive processing such as hydrolysis or fermentation. Potential use of low-molecular weight lignin as a raw material for wood adhesive production is discussed as well as its use as cement and feed binder. As a baseline application the hemicellulosic sugars captured in the hydrolyzate liquor can be used to produce ethanol, but potential utilization of xylose for xylitol fermentation is also feasible. Markets and values of these applications are

  7. [Industrial exploitation of renewable resources: from ethanol production to bioproducts development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Plants, which are one of major groups of life forms, are constituted of an amazing number of molecules such as sugars, proteins, phenolic compounds etc. These molecules display multiple and complementary properties involved in various compartments of plants (structure, storage, biological activity etc.). The first uses of plants in industry were for food and feed, paper manufacturing or combustion. In the coming decades, these renewable biological materials will be the basis of a new concept: the "biorefiner" i.e. the chemical conversion of the whole plant to various products and uses. This concept, born in the 90ies, is analogous to today's petroleum refinery, which produces multiple fuels and derivative products from petroleum. Agriculture generates lots of co-products which were most often wasted. The rational use of these wasted products, which can be considered as valuable renewable materials, is now economically interesting and will contribute to the reduction of greenhouse has emissions by partially substituting for fossil fuels. Such substructures from biological waste products and transforming them into biofuels and new industrial products named "bioproducts". These compounds, such as bioplastics or biosurfactants, can replace equivalent petroleum derivatives. Towards that goal, lots of filamentous fungi, growing on a broad range of vegetable species, are able to produce enzymes adapted to the modification of these type of substrates. The best example, at least the more industrially developed to date, is the second generation biofuel technology using cellulose as a raw material. The process includes an enzymatic hydrolysis step which requires cellulases secreted from Trichoderma fungal species. This industrial development of a renewable energy will contribute to the diversification of energy sources used to transport and to the development of green chemistry which will partially substitute petrochemicals.

  8. Desarrollo de biocatalizadores hidrofóbicos y termotolerantes mediante técnicas de evolución dirigida Development of hydrofobic and thermotolerant biocatalysts by directed evolution techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogollón G. Leonardo Ivan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available

    La evolución dirigida se presenta hoy como una de las alternativas más efectivas en el desarrollo y adaptación de biocatalizadores a los requerimientos industriales. Este trabajo muestra el desarrollo de biocatalizadores más hidrofóbicos y termotolerantes útiles en procesos de biorefinación. Para la Industria del Petróleo. Se presenta la obtención de una segunda librería del gen de la enzima Cloroperoxidasa por Error-Prone PCR (EP-PCR y la selección de los mejores mutantes de acuerdo con el grado de hidrofobicidad, termorresistencia y estabilidad en medios orgánicos. Estas proteínas fueron más activas que las obtenidas en la primera librería y que la proteína nativa. Se demuestra que esta técnica de evolución dirigida es eficiente en la generación de variedades enzimáticas de interés industrial.

    Directed evolution has emerged as one of the most effective approaches in developing and adapting biocatalysts to industrial requirements. This work shows the development of hidrophobic and thermotolerant biocatalyst useful in biorefining processes for the Petroleum Industry. We generated a second library of Cloroperoxidase enzyme gene by Error-Prone PCR (EP-PCR with the selection of the best mutants based on their hidrophobicity, thermoresistance and stability in organic media. These proteins were more active than the first library mutants and the wildtype enzyme. We demonstrated that this directed evolution technique is efficient in generating chimeric libraries of enzymes of industrial interest. 

  9. A biorefinery concept using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the coproduction of bioethanol and biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Yahmed, Nesrine; Jmel, Mohamed Amine; Ben Alaya, Monia; Bouallagui, Hassib; Marzouki, M. Nejib; Smaali, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chaetomorpha linum was used as sustainable feedstock for co-production of bioethanol and biomethane. • An eco-friendly process was developed, only generating 0.3 ± 0.01 g/g of waste. • Ethanol yield obtained was 0.41 g/g reducing sugar. • Methane yield obtained was 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. - Abstract: An innovative integrated biorefinery approach using the green macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum was investigated in the present study for the co-production of bioethanol and biogas. Among three pretreatments of C. linum biomass, consisting of acidic, neutral and alkali ones, 3% NaOH pretreatment gave the best result in terms of thallus disintegration, biomass recovery and enzymatic digestibility as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy and saccharification tests. The hydrolysis of C. linum feedstock with a crude specific enzyme preparation, locally produced from fermentation of Aspergillus awamori, at 45 °C, pH 5 for 30 h gave the maximum yield of fermentable sugar of 0.22 ± 0.02 g/g dry substrate. An ethanol yield of 0.41 g/g reducing sugar corresponding to about 0.093 g/g pretreated algae was obtained after alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the integrated proposed process, mycelium issued from the fungal fermentation, liquid issued from alkali pretreatment, residual from the non-hydrolysable biomass and all effluents and co-products represent a heterogeneous substrate that feed an anaerobic digester for biogas production. GC-analysis of this later showed that the biomethane yield reached 0.26 ± 0.045 L/gVS. This study presents therefore an eco-friendly biorefining process, which efficiently coproduce bioethanol and biomethane and generate only a single waste (0.3 ± 0.01 g/g) allowing an almost complete conversion of the algal biomass.

  10. Using past transitions to inform scenarios for the future of renewable raw materials in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Simon J

    2012-01-01

    Transitions between technological systems involve evolutionary processes. The past both shapes the current system and influences future options and pathways. Understanding the nature of energy transitions has become particularly important in light of the major changes that the world faces in the next century in the way that energy is sourced, converted and used. Policy-makers and decisiontakers need to understand the extent to which they can, or should, manage the transition. This paper proposes that a detailed study the patterns of change in a specific sector's past can improve our understanding of how it might evolve. A methodology is presented and applied to a case study of the prospective transition towards renewable raw material (RRM) use in the production of liquid fuels and organic chemicals in the UK. A process analysis of the historical transition to petroleum-based fuels and chemicals was used to shape a series of contemporary interviews that explored the perceptions and expectations of key actors in RRM and biorefining. The results show that the innovation system is already experiencing the socio-technical dynamics of regime disruption and competing designs. An empirical basis is offered for the the use of past transitions to inform scenarios for the future. - Highlights: ► Two sectors were studies in detail to learn about the dynamics of energy transitions. ► A methodology for linking historical studies with foresight work is presented. ► Interview results from a UK case study on biofuels and biochemicals are discussed. ► Socio-technical dynamics of transitions provide insight for decisions about the future. ► Socio-technical dynamics can be a basis for constructing scenarios to inform policy.

  11. Jerusalem artichoke as a platform for inulin, ethanol and feed production in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anyia, A.O.; Mostafa, H.; Melnichuk, R.; Slaski, J.J. [Alberta Research Council, Vegreville, AB (Canada). Bioresource Technologies Unit

    2009-07-01

    The Alberta Research Council (ARC) is developing an extraction and fermentation process for making ethanol from Jerusalem artichoke (JA). In particular, ARC has collaborated with Olds College in developing an extraction process and an engineering process for the commercial production of inulin, ethanol, polymers and animal feed from JA tubers. Fresh JA tubers contain about 20 per cent of water soluble carbohydrates, which occur primarily in the form of inulin. Several health promoting benefits are associated with intake of inulin. High volumes of dry residual aerial biomass following tuber harvest contain 40 to 50 per cent water soluble carbohydrates that are fermentable to ethanol. Some studies have shown that under optimal climatic conditions, JA can yield more ethanol per ha than sugarcane. ARC has the exclusive North American rights to several high yielding JA cultivars. Jerusalem artichoke is not a designated food crop and has a high biomass yield for soluble sugars. This perennial crop forms tubers, has a deep root system that can be adapted to marginal lands. ARC's research involves a seed to final product technology development approach that includes new variety development, agronomy and processing. ARC applied a hot water extraction technique along with a low liquid to JA stalk ratio to achieve more than 40 per cent total water soluble carbohydrates per gram of biomass that are fermentable to ethanol without the need for weak acid or enzymatic hydrolysis. A 400 hectare plantation of JA in Alberta could produce about 1,500 tonnes of inulin and 1.5 million liters of ethanol per year in a pilot scale bio-refining plant. An economic and market analysis showed that capital investments in an inulin production plant in Alberta will be a profitable venture. ARC has estimated a 5 year Internal Rate of Return (IRR) to range from 10 to 30 per cent and payback period of 4 to 5 years depending on plant location and value of by-products. tabs., figs.

  12. Optimizing Biorefinery Design and Operations via Linear Programming Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, Michael; Batan, Liaw; Lamers, Patrick; Hartley, Damon; Biddy, Mary; Tao, Ling; Tan, Eric

    2017-03-28

    The ability to assess and optimize economics of biomass resource utilization for the production of fuels, chemicals and power is essential for the ultimate success of a bioenergy industry. The team of authors, consisting of members from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), has developed simple biorefinery linear programming (LP) models to enable the optimization of theoretical or existing biorefineries. The goal of this analysis is to demonstrate how such models can benefit the developing biorefining industry. It focuses on a theoretical multi-pathway, thermochemical biorefinery configuration and demonstrates how the biorefinery can use LP models for operations planning and optimization in comparable ways to the petroleum refining industry. Using LP modeling tools developed under U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (DOE-BETO) funded efforts, the authors investigate optimization challenges for the theoretical biorefineries such as (1) optimal feedstock slate based on available biomass and prices, (2) breakeven price analysis for available feedstocks, (3) impact analysis for changes in feedstock costs and product prices, (4) optimal biorefinery operations during unit shutdowns / turnarounds, and (5) incentives for increased processing capacity. These biorefinery examples are comparable to crude oil purchasing and operational optimization studies that petroleum refiners perform routinely using LPs and other optimization models. It is important to note that the analyses presented in this article are strictly theoretical and they are not based on current energy market prices. The pricing structure assigned for this demonstrative analysis is consistent with $4 per gallon gasoline, which clearly assumes an economic environment that would favor the construction and operation of biorefineries. The analysis approach and examples provide valuable insights into the usefulness of analysis tools for

  13. Development of a genetically programed vanillin-sensing bacterium for high-throughput screening of lignin-degrading enzyme libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Barindra; Chia, Kuan Hui Burton; Raghavan, Sarada S; Ramalingam, Balamurugan; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Seayad, Jayasree; Ghadessy, Farid J

    2017-01-01

    Lignin is a potential biorefinery feedstock for the production of value-added chemicals including vanillin. A huge amount of lignin is produced as a by-product of the paper industry, while cellulosic components of plant biomass are utilized for the production of paper pulp. In spite of vast potential, lignin remains the least exploited component of plant biomass due to its extremely complex and heterogenous structure. Several enzymes have been reported to have lignin-degrading properties and could be potentially used in lignin biorefining if their catalytic properties could be improved by enzyme engineering. The much needed improvement of lignin-degrading enzymes by high-throughput selection techniques such as directed evolution is currently limited, as robust methods for detecting the conversion of lignin to desired small molecules are not available. We identified a vanillin-inducible promoter by RNAseq analysis of Escherichia coli cells treated with a sublethal dose of vanillin and developed a genetically programmed vanillin-sensing cell by placing the 'very green fluorescent protein' gene under the control of this promoter. Fluorescence of the biosensing cell is enhanced significantly when grown in the presence of vanillin and is readily visualized by fluorescence microscopy. The use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis further enhances the sensitivity, enabling dose-dependent detection of as low as 200 µM vanillin. The biosensor is highly specific to vanillin and no major response is elicited by the presence of lignin, lignin model compound, DMSO, vanillin analogues or non-specific toxic chemicals. We developed an engineered E. coli cell that can detect vanillin at a concentration as low as 200 µM. The vanillin-sensing cell did not show cross-reactivity towards lignin or major lignin degradation products including vanillin analogues. This engineered E. coli cell could potentially be used as a host cell for screening lignin-degrading enzymes that

  14. Engineering better biomass-degrading ability into a GH11 xylanase using a directed evolution strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Letian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the hydrolytic performance of hemicellulases on lignocellulosic biomass is of considerable importance for second-generation biorefining. To address this problem, and also to gain greater understanding of structure-function relationships, especially related to xylanase action on complex biomass, we have implemented a combinatorial strategy to engineer the GH11 xylanase from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus (Tx-Xyn. Results Following in vitro enzyme evolution and screening on wheat straw, nine best-performing clones were identified, which display mutations at positions 3, 6, 27 and 111. All of these mutants showed increased hydrolytic activity on wheat straw, and solubilized arabinoxylans that were not modified by the parental enzyme. The most active mutants, S27T and Y111T, increased the solubilization of arabinoxylans from depleted wheat straw 2.3-fold and 2.1-fold, respectively, in comparison to the wild-type enzyme. In addition, five mutants, S27T, Y111H, Y111S, Y111T and S27T-Y111H increased total hemicellulose conversion of intact wheat straw from 16.7%tot. xyl (wild-type Tx-Xyn to 18.6% to 20.4%tot. xyl. Also, all five mutant enzymes exhibited a better ability to act in synergy with a cellulase cocktail (Accellerase 1500, thus procuring increases in overall wheat straw hydrolysis. Conclusions Analysis of the results allows us to hypothesize that the increased hydrolytic ability of the mutants is linked to (i improved ligand binding in a putative secondary binding site, (ii the diminution of surface hydrophobicity, and/or (iii the modification of thumb flexibility, induced by mutations at position 111. Nevertheless, the relatively modest improvements that were observed also underline the fact that enzyme engineering alone cannot overcome the limits imposed by the complex organization of the plant cell wall and the lignin barrier.

  15. The prospects of cellulase-producing bacteria for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Miranda; Leung, Kam Tin; Qin, Wensheng

    2009-07-29

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable and abundant resource with great potential for bioconversion to value-added bioproducts. However, the biorefining process remains economically unfeasible due to a lack of biocatalysts that can overcome costly hurdles such as cooling from high temperature, pumping of oxygen/stirring, and, neutralization from acidic or basic pH. The extreme environmental resistance of bacteria permits screening and isolation of novel cellulases to help overcome these challenges. Rapid, efficient cellulase screening techniques, using cellulase assays and metagenomic libraries, are a must. Rare cellulases with activities on soluble and crystalline cellulose have been isolated from strains of Paenibacillus and Bacillus and shown to have high thermostability and/or activity over a wide pH spectrum. While novel cellulases from strains like Cellulomonas flavigena and Terendinibacter turnerae, produce multifunctional cellulases with broader substrate utilization. These enzymes offer a framework for enhancement of cellulases including: specific activity, thermalstability, or end-product inhibition. In addition, anaerobic bacteria like the clostridia offer potential due to species capable of producing compound multienzyme complexes called cellulosomes. Cellulosomes provide synergy and close proximity of enzymes to substrate, increasing activity towards crystalline cellulose. This has lead to the construction of designer cellulosomes enhanced for specific substrate activity. Furthermore, cellulosome-producing Clostridium thermocellum and its ability to ferment sugars to ethanol; its amenability to co-culture and, recent advances in genetic engineering, offer a promising future in biofuels. The exploitation of bacteria in the search for improved enzymes or strategies provides a means to upgrade feasibility for lignocellulosic biomass conversion, ultimately providing means to a 'greener' technology.

  16. Oleaginous crops as integrated production platforms for food, feed, fuel and renewable industrial feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaudoin Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The world faces considerable challenges including how to produce more biomass for food, feed, fuel and industrial feedstock without significantly impacting on our environment or increasing our consumption of limited resources such as water or petroleum-derived carbon. This has been described as sustainable intensification. Oleaginous crops have the potential to provide renewable resources for all these commodities, provided they can be engineered to meet end-use requirements, and that they can be produced on sufficient scale to meet current growing world population and industrial demand. Although traditional breeding methods have been used successfully to modify the fatty acid composition of oils, metabolic engineering provides a more rapid and direct method for manipulating plant lipid composition. Recent advances in our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of seed oil biogenesis and the cloning of genes involved in fatty acid and oil metabolic pathways, have allowed the generation of oilseed crops that produce ‘designer oils’ tailored for specific applications and the conversion of high biomass crops into novel oleaginous crops. However, improvement of complex quantitative traits in oilseed crops remains more challenging as the underlying genetic determinants are still poorly understood. Technological advances in sequencing and computing have allowed the development of an association genetics method applicable to crops with complex genomes. Associative transcriptomics approaches and high throughput lipidomic profiling can be used to identify the genetic components controlling quantitative variation for lipid related traits in polyploid crops like oilseed rape and provide molecular tools for marker assisted breeding. In this review we are citing examples of traits with potential for bio-refining that can be harvested as co-products in seeds, but also in non-harvested biomass.

  17. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    The research project 'Torrefaction of woody biomasses as energy carriers for the European markets' was carried out within the Tekes BioRefine programme in 2010-2012 and was coordinated by VTT. The main objective of the project was to create a discussion platform and collate basic information for the Finnish industrial stakeholders involved in developing torrefaction technology or planning to include torrefied biomass in their fuel supply for energy production. Given the availability of torrefaction pilot facilities in Europe, it was decided at an early phase of the national torrefaction research project not to build and operate separate pilot equipment, and thus save time and money. Experimental research was conducted in cooperation with ECN, The Netherlands. Finnish wood chips and crushed forest residue were tested at different torrefaction temperatures in the PATRIG torrefaction test rig with great success, and large quantities of torrefied wood chips and pellets were produced. CFD simulation work was carried out at VTT to investigate the feasibility of torrefied fuels to replace part of the coal. From the combustion point of view it seems feasible to replace coal by torrefied wood biomass with shares up to 50% by weight. Basic, small-scale experiments were carried out to compare torrefied wood pellets with conventional wood and straw pellets with regard to their handling and storage properties. The experiments showed that the torrefied pellets are clearly more hydrophobic than wood and straw pellets and do not disintegrate completely on exposure to water. A study on dust explosion and self-ignition characteristics indicated that the torrefied dust does not differ significantly from the normal biomass dust, but is clearly more reactive than coal dust. Commercial development of torrefaction is currently in its early phase. The current general view is that most of the demonstration plants have technical problems, which have delayed their commercial

  18. Mining for hemicellulases in the fungus-growing termite Pseudacanthotermes militaris using functional metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Géraldine; Arnal, Grégory; Bozonnet, Sophie; Laguerre, Sandrine; Ferreira, Fernando; Fauré, Régis; Henrissat, Bernard; Lefèvre, Fabrice; Robe, Patrick; Bouchez, Olivier; Noirot, Céline; Dumon, Claire; O'Donohue, Michael

    2013-05-14

    The metagenomic analysis of gut microbiomes has emerged as a powerful strategy for the identification of biomass-degrading enzymes, which will be no doubt useful for the development of advanced biorefining processes. In the present study, we have performed a functional metagenomic analysis on comb and gut microbiomes associated with the fungus-growing termite, Pseudacanthotermes militaris. Using whole termite abdomens and fungal-comb material respectively, two fosmid-based metagenomic libraries were created and screened for the presence of xylan-degrading enzymes. This revealed 101 positive clones, corresponding to an extremely high global hit rate of 0.49%. Many clones displayed either β-d-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37) or α-l-arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55) activity, while others displayed the ability to degrade AZCL-xylan or AZCL-β-(1,3)-β-(1,4)-glucan. Using secondary screening it was possible to pinpoint clones of interest that were used to prepare fosmid DNA. Sequencing of fosmid DNA generated 1.46 Mbp of sequence data, and bioinformatics analysis revealed 63 sequences encoding putative carbohydrate-active enzymes, with many of these forming parts of sequence clusters, probably having carbohydrate degradation and metabolic functions. Taxonomic assignment of the different sequences revealed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were predominant phyla in the gut sample, while microbial diversity in the comb sample resembled that of typical soil samples. Cloning and expression in E. coli of six enzyme candidates identified in the libraries provided access to individual enzyme activities, which all proved to be coherent with the primary and secondary functional screens. This study shows that the gut microbiome of P. militaris possesses the potential to degrade biomass components, such as arabinoxylans and arabinans. Moreover, the data presented suggests that prokaryotic microorganisms present in the comb could also play a part in the degradation of biomass within the

  19. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Camila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process, the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between

  20. Multidisciplinary Graduate Education in Bioprocess Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Eiteman

    2006-04-18

    graduate students in several engineering and science degree programs. Other significant developments have arisen as direct or indirect consequences of this project. The University of Georgia has established a B.S. Biochemical Engineering degree and an M.S. Biochemical Engineering degree. A strong component of these degree programs is education toward a biobased economy. We will integrate particularly positive components of this project (such as the distinguished lecture series) into these degree programs. The University of Georgia is establishing a Center for Biorefining and Carbon Cycling. This multidisciplinary Center houses a pilot scale biorefinery, comprising a pyrolysis unit and an ethanol plant. Together with new faculty positions that are currently being advertised, this project has encouraged the University of Georgia to assume a leadership role in the preparation of students in the biobased industries of the future.

  1. Genome-Centric Analysis of a Thermophilic and Cellulolytic Bacterial Consortium Derived from Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Leandro N.; Pereira, Roberta V.; Quaggio, Ronaldo B.; Martins, Layla F.; Moura, Livia M. S.; da Silva, Amanda R.; Antunes, Luciana P.; da Silva, Aline M.; Setubal, João C.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial consortia selected from complex lignocellulolytic microbial communities are promising alternatives to deconstruct plant waste, since synergistic action of different enzymes is required for full degradation of plant biomass in biorefining applications. Culture enrichment also facilitates the study of interactions among consortium members, and can be a good source of novel microbial species. Here, we used a sample from a plant waste composting operation in the São Paulo Zoo (Brazil) as inoculum to obtain a thermophilic aerobic consortium enriched through multiple passages at 60°C in carboxymethylcellulose as sole carbon source. The microbial community composition of this consortium was investigated by shotgun metagenomics and genome-centric analysis. Six near-complete (over 90%) genomes were reconstructed. Similarity and phylogenetic analyses show that four of these six genomes are novel, with the following hypothesized identifications: a new Thermobacillus species; the first Bacillus thermozeamaize genome (for which currently only 16S sequences are available) or else the first representative of a new family in the Bacillales order; the first representative of a new genus in the Paenibacillaceae family; and the first representative of a new deep-branching family in the Clostridia class. The reconstructed genomes from known species were identified as Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius and Caldibacillus debilis. The metabolic potential of these recovered genomes based on COG and CAZy analyses show that these genomes encode several glycoside hydrolases (GHs) as well as other genes related to lignocellulose breakdown. The new Thermobacillus species stands out for being the richest in diversity and abundance of GHs, possessing the greatest potential for biomass degradation among the six recovered genomes. We also investigated the presence and activity of the organisms corresponding to these genomes in the composting operation from which the consortium was built

  2. Uncertainty in techno-economic estimates of cellulosic ethanol production due to experimental measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicari Kristin J

    2012-04-01

    the TE model predictions. This analysis highlights the primary measurements that merit further development to reduce the uncertainty associated with their use in TE models. While we develop and apply this mathematical framework to a specific biorefinery scenario here, this analysis can be readily adapted to other types of biorefining processes and provides a general framework for propagating uncertainty due to analytical measurements through a TE model.

  3. A multi-substrate approach for functional metagenomics-based screening for (hemi)cellulases in two wheat straw-degrading microbial consortia unveils novel thermoalkaliphilic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthamuthu, Mukil; Jiménez, Diego Javier; Stevens, Patricia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-28

    Functional metagenomics is a promising strategy for the exploration of the biocatalytic potential of microbiomes in order to uncover novel enzymes for industrial processes (e.g. biorefining or bleaching pulp). Most current methodologies used to screen for enzymes involved in plant biomass degradation are based on the use of single substrates. Moreover, highly diverse environments are used as metagenomic sources. However, such methods suffer from low hit rates of positive clones and hence the discovery of novel enzymatic activities from metagenomes has been hampered. Here, we constructed fosmid libraries from two wheat straw-degrading microbial consortia, denoted RWS (bred on untreated wheat straw) and TWS (bred on heat-treated wheat straw). Approximately 22,000 clones from each library were screened for (hemi)cellulose-degrading enzymes using a multi-chromogenic substrate approach. The screens yielded 71 positive clones for both libraries, giving hit rates of 1:440 and 1:1,047 for RWS and TWS, respectively. Seven clones (NT2-2, T5-5, NT18-17, T4-1, 10BT, NT18-21 and T17-2) were selected for sequence analyses. Their inserts revealed the presence of 18 genes encoding enzymes belonging to twelve different glycosyl hydrolase families (GH2, GH3, GH13, GH17, GH20, GH27, GH32, GH39, GH53, GH58, GH65 and GH109). These encompassed several carbohydrate-active gene clusters traceable mainly to Klebsiella related species. Detailed functional analyses showed that clone NT2-2 (containing a beta-galactosidase of ~116 kDa) had highest enzymatic activity at 55 °C and pH 9.0. Additionally, clone T5-5 (containing a beta-xylosidase of ~86 kDa) showed > 90% of enzymatic activity at 55 °C and pH 10.0. This study employed a high-throughput method for rapid screening of fosmid metagenomic libraries for (hemi)cellulose-degrading enzymes. The approach, consisting of screens on multi-substrates coupled to further analyses, revealed high hit rates, as compared with recent other studies. Two

  4. Advanced modelling, monitoring, and process control of bioconversion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Elliott C.

    Production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is an increasingly important area of research and industrialization throughout the world. In order to be competitive with fossil-based fuels and chemicals, maintaining cost-effectiveness is critical. Advanced process control (APC) and optimization methods could significantly reduce operating costs in the biorefining industry. Two reasons APC has previously proven challenging to implement for bioprocesses include: lack of suitable online sensor technology of key system components, and strongly nonlinear first principal models required to predict bioconversion behavior. To overcome these challenges batch fermentations with the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica were monitored with Raman spectroscopy for the conversion of real lignocellulosic hydrolysates and a kinetic model for the conversion of synthetic sugars was developed. Raman spectroscopy was shown to be effective in monitoring the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw hydrolysate, where univariate models predicted acetate concentrations with a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.9 and 1.0 g L-1 for bagasse and straw, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) models were employed to predict acetate, xylose, glucose, and total sugar concentrations for both hydrolysate fermentations. The PLS models were more robust than univariate models, and yielded a percent error of approximately 5% for both sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw. In addition, a screening technique was discussed for improving Raman spectra of hydrolysate samples prior to collecting fermentation data. Furthermore, a mechanistic model was developed to predict batch fermentation of synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of the two sugars to acetate. The models accurately described the bioconversion process with an RMSEP of approximately 1 g L-1 for each model and provided insights into how kinetic parameters changed during dual substrate

  5. Sustainable bioethanol production combining biorefinery principles and intercropping strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, M.H.; Haugaard-Nielsen, H.; Petersson, A.; Thomsen, A.B.; Jensen, E.S. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Biosystems Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    Ethanol produced from pretreatment and microbial fermentation of biomass has great potential to become a sustainable transportation fuel in the near future. First generation biofuel focus on starch (from grain) fermentation, but in the present study that is regarded as a too important food source. In recent years 2nd generation technologies are developed utilizing bulk residues like wheat straw, woody materials, and corn stover. However, there is a need for integrating the biomass starting point into the energy manufacturing steps to secure that bioenergy is produced from local adapted raw materials with limited use of non-renewable fossil fuels. Produced crops can be transformed into a number of useful products using the concept of biorefining, where no waste streams are produced. An advantage of intercropping is that the intercrop components composition can be designed to produce a medium (for microbial fermentation) containing all essential nutrients. Thereby addition of e.g. urea and other fermentation nutrients produced from fossil fuels can be avoided. Intercropping, defined as the growing of two or more species simultaneously on the same area of land, is a cropping strategy based on the manipulation of plant interactions in time and space to maximize growth and productivity. Cereal-legume intercropping data from field trials show the possibility to improve the use of nitrogen resources, because the non fixing species (e.g. wheat) efficiently exploits soil mineral N sources while at the same time atmospheric N from the N{sub 2}-fixing species (e.g. pea) enter the cropping system reducing the need for N fertilizer application. Nitrogen fertilization is responsible for more than 85 % of the greenhouse gas emissions from wheat grain production in Denmark. Increase of fertilizer N supply promotes the growth of wheat and results in a decreased pea N accumulation and a different proportion of intercrop components. Intercropping introduce a dynamic change of plant

  6. Bio-inspired MOF-based Catalysts for Lignin Valorization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie; Ramakrishnan, Parthasarathi; Davis, Ryan Wesley

    2014-09-01

    Lignin is a potentially plentiful source of renewable organics, with %7E50Mtons/yr produced by the pulp/paper industry and 200-300 Mtons/yr projected production by a US biofuels industry. This industry must process approximately 1 billion tons of biomass to meet the US Renewable Fuel goals. However, there are currently no efficient processes for converting lignin to value-added chemicals and drop-in fuels. Lignin is therefore an opportunity for production of valuable renewable chemicals, but presents staggering technical and economic challenges due to the quantities of material involved and the strong chemical bonds comprising this polymer. Aggressive chemistries and high temperatures are required to degrade lignin without catalysts. Moreover, chemical non-uniformity among lignins leads to complex product mixtures that tend to repolymerize. Conventional petrochemical approaches (pyrolysis, catalytic cracking, gasification) are energy intensive (400-800 degC), require complicated separations, and remove valuable chemical functionality. Low-temperature (25-200 degC) alternatives are clearly desirable, but enzymes are thermally fragile and incompatible with liquid organic compounds, making them impractical for large-scale biorefining. Alternatively, homogeneous catalysts, such as recently developed vanadium complexes, must be separated from product mixtures, while many heterogenous catalysts involve costly noble metals. The objective of this project is to demonstrate proof of concept that an entirely new class of biomimetic, efficient, and industrially robust synthetic catalysts based on nanoporous Metal- Organic Frameworks (MOFs) can be developed. Although catalytic MOFs are known, catalysis of bond cleavage reactions needed for lignin degradation is completely unexplored. Thus, fundamental research is required that industry and most sponsoring agencies are currently unwilling to undertake. We introduce MOFs infiltrated with titanium and nickel species as catalysts

  7. Cadre de planification integree de la chaine logistique pour la gestion et l'evaluation de strategies de bioraffinage forestier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Louis Patrick

    Biorefining is now recognized as a promising solution to transform the struggling forestry industry and to generate value-added pathways. The implementation of new products and processes will help companies to diversify revenues, but implies several strategic changes in the business model. Companies will face the dilemma of exiting or not traditional pulp and paper operations, while selecting their biorefinery product and process portfolio. As well, they will have to enter new markets and manage production to minimize the risk of market volatility. Over the past decades, both industry and academia paid a lot of attention to supply-chain management in order to increase the cost effectiveness of overall operations. The application of supply-chain management concepts could therefore greatly help the transforming North American forestry industry to compete globally. The objective of this Ph.D. project was to propose and illustrate an integrated supply-chain planning framework for the management and the evaluation of forest biorefinery strategies. This framework, named margins-based , integrates principles from revenue management, activity-based cost accounting, and manufacturing flexibility in a tactical planning model that maximizes profit of a company. The structure of the mathematical model and its associated cost model aims to represent as closely as possible the activities of a company, from procurement to sales. It enables the modeling of different process configurations leading to manufacturing flexibility. The model can thus be used as a platform for evaluating various operating strategies of a company, at both production and supply-chain levels. A case study of a newsprint mill implementing a parallel biomass fractionation line producing several bioproducts was used to illustrate this margins-based approach. Various strategic and tactical analyses were conducted to show the relevance of the approach as a decision-making tool for management problems related to

  8. Nouvelle methode d'integration energetique pour la retro-installation des procedes industriels et la transformation des usines papetieres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhivers, Jean-Christophe

    The increase in production of goods over the last decades has led to the need for improving the management of natural resources management and the efficiency of processes. As a consequence, heat integration methods for industry have been developed. These have been successful for the design of new plants: the integration principles are largely employed, and energy intensity has dramatically decreased in many processes. Although progress has also been achieved in integration methods for retrofit, these methods still need further conceptual development. Furthermore, methodological difficulties increase when trying to retrofit heat exchange networks that are closely interrelated to water networks, such as the case of pulp and paper mills. The pulp and paper industry seeks to increase its profitability by reducing production costs and optimizing supply chains. Recent process developments in forestry biorefining give this industry the opportunity for diversification into bio-products, increasing potential profit margins, and at the same time modernizing its energy systems. Identification of energy strategies for a mill in a changing environment, including the possibility of adding a biorefinery process on the industrial site, requires better integration methods for retrofit situations. The objective of this thesis is to develop an energy integration method for the retrofit of industrial systems and the transformation of pulp and paper mills, ant to demonstrate the method in case studies. Energy is conserved and degraded in a process. Heat can be converted into electricity, stored as chemical energy, or rejected to the environment. A systematic analysis of successive degradations of energy between the hot utilities until the environment, through process operations and existing heat exchangers, is essential in order to reduce the heat consumption. In this thesis, the "Bridge Method" for energy integration by heat exchanger network retrofit has been developed. This method

  9. Top chemical opportunities from carbohydrate biomass: a chemist's view of the Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusselier, Michiel; Mascal, Mark; Sels, Bert F

    2014-01-01

    Cheap fossil oil resources are becoming depleted and crude oil prices are rising. In this context, alternatives to fossil fuel-derived carbon are examined in an effort to improve the security of carbon resources through the development of novel technologies for the production of chemicals, fuels, and materials from renewable feedstocks such as biomass. The general concept unifying the conversion processes for raw biomass is that of the biorefinery, which integrates biofuels with a selection of pivot points towards value-added chemical end products via so-called "platform chemicals". While the concept of biorefining is not new, now more than ever there is the motivation to investigate its true potential for the production of carbon-based products. A variety of renewable chemicals have been proposed by many research groups, many of them being categorized as drop-ins, while others are novel chemicals with the potential to displace petrochemicals across several markets. To be competitive with petrochemicals, carbohydrate-derived products should have advantageous chemical properties that can be profitably exploited, and/or their production should offer cost-effective benefits. The production of drop-ins will likely proceed in short term since the markets are familiar, while the commercial introduction of novel chemicals takes longer and demands more technological and marketing effort.Rather than describing elaborate catalytic routes and giving exhaustive lists of reactions, a large part of this review is devoted to creating a guideline for the selection of the most promising (platform) chemicals derived via chemical-catalytic reaction routes from lignocellulosic biomass. The major rationale behind our recommendations is a maximum conservation of functionality, alongside a high atom economy. Nature provides us with complex molecules like cellulose and hemicellulose, and it should be possible to transform them into chemical products while maintaining aspects of their

  10. Estudio de prefactibilidad para el diseño de una planta de etanol a partir de residuos de cosecha de caña de azúcar (Pre-feasibility study for design of a ethanol plant from waste of sugar sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny del Carmen Velásquez Riascos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available En el Valle del Cauca se generan alrededor de 5 millones de toneladas anuales de desechos lignocelulósicos de la caña de azúcar, constituidos principalmente por hojas y cogollos. Esta biomasa dependiendo de su variedad, posee un estimado promedio en peso de 42% de celulosa, 26% de hemicelulosa y 22% de lignina en base seca, siendo apta para obtener azúcares fermentables para conseguir etanol deshidratado como combustible. Basados en las anteriores consideraciones, el grupo de investigación en biocombustibles y biorefinerías de la Escuela de Ingeniería Química de la Universidad del Valle junto con el Laboratorio de Biotecnología de la Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, viene ajustando el diseño de una planta de obtención de etanol a partir de las hojas y cogollos que son dejados en el suelo tras realizar la cosecha de la caña de azúcar, por esta razón el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar la prefactibilidad de montar la planta para la producción de etanol como producto principal y de otras sustancias que puedan ser aprovechables (lignina y proteína a partir de estos residuos lignocelulósicos. Para este estudio se hizo uso de los estudios experimentales previos ejecutados por los investigadores del grupo en biocombustibles y realizando el proceso a partir de 1000 toneladas de hojas y cogollos usando los datos de pruebas realizadas en el laboratorio y mediante cálculos de balances, que fueron incluidos en un simulador comercial Aspen Plus versión 10.8.1. Se logró obtener 121.000 litros/día de etanol anhidro con un rendimiento del 78,57% y 202 ton/día en base seca de lignina con 94,5% y 6,4 ton/día de proteína con 40% de recuperación como subproductos principales. El análisis económico muestra que la capacidad mínima de la planta de producción es de 285.000 litros/día, presentada a una tasa interna de retorno de 34% y VPN de US$ 36.839.602. (Abstract. In Valle of Cauca are grown around 100,153 hectares of