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Sample records for bioreactor mixing efficiency

  1. Modeling of mixing for stirred bioreactors: 3. Mixing time for aerated simulated broths

    OpenAIRE

    Cascaval Dan; Oniscu Corneliu; Galaction Anca-Irina; Ungureanu Fiorina

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the experiments on mixing efficiency for aerated media for a laboratory stirred bioreactor with a double turbine impeller. The effects of stirrer rotation speed, air volumetric flow rate and stirrer position on the shaft on mixing time for aerated water and simulated broths (CMCNa solutions) were analyzed. Compared to non-aerated broths, the results indicated that the variation of mixing time with the considered parameters is very different, due to the complex flow mechani...

  2. Modeling of mixing in stirred bioreactors 4. mixing time for aerated bacteria, yeasts and fungus broths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixing time for bioreactors depends mainly on the rheoiogicai properties of the broths, the biomass concentration and morphology, mixing system characteristics and fermentation conditions. For quantifying the influence of these factors on the mixing efficiency for stirred bioreactors, aerated broths of bacteria (P. shermanii, yeasts (S. cerevisiae and fungi (P. chrysogenum, free mycelia and mycelial aggregates of different concentrations have been investigated using a laboratory bioreactor with a double turbine impeller. The experimental data indicated that the influence of the rotation speed, aeration rate and stirrer positions on the mixing intensity strongly differ from one system to another and must be correlated with the microorganism characteristics, namely: the biomass concentration and morphology. Moreover, compared with non-aerated broths, variations of the mixing time with the considered parameters are very different, due to the complex flow mechanism of gas-liquid dispersions. By means of the experimental data and using a multiregression analysis method some mathematical correlations for the mixing time of the general form: tm = a1*Cx2+a2*Cx+a3*IgVa+a4-N2+a5-N+a6/a7*L2+a8*L+a9 were established. The proposed equations offer good agreement with the experiments, the average deviation being ±6.7% - ±9.4 and are adequate for the flow regime Re < 25,000.

  3. Rheological characterization of mixed liquor in a submerged membrane bioreactor: Interest for process management

    OpenAIRE

    Van Kaam, Romuald; Anne-Archard, Dominique; Alliet-Gaubert, Marion; Albasi, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Rheological analyses of a submerged membrane bioreactor mixed liquor were performed in the aim of characterizing the mixed liquor present in the bioreactor and thus proposing a process management. These analyses pointed out that the mixed liquor was characterized by its viscoplastic property, which leads to a possible restructuring ability when a shear stress lower than the yield stress is applied. As the shear stress in the bioreactor is essentially generated by coarse bubbles, specific expe...

  4. CFD of mixing of multi-phase flow in a bioreactor using population balance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jayati; Shekhawat, Lalita Kanwar; Loomba, Varun; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-05-01

    Mixing in bioreactors is known to be crucial for achieving efficient mass and heat transfer, both of which thereby impact not only growth of cells but also product quality. In a typical bioreactor, the rate of transport of oxygen from air is the limiting factor. While higher impeller speeds can enhance mixing, they can also cause severe cell damage. Hence, it is crucial to understand the hydrodynamics in a bioreactor to achieve optimal performance. This article presents a novel approach involving use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model the hydrodynamics of an aerated stirred bioreactor for production of a monoclonal antibody therapeutic via mammalian cell culture. This is achieved by estimating the volume averaged mass transfer coefficient (kL a) under varying conditions of the process parameters. The process parameters that have been examined include the impeller rotational speed and the flow rate of the incoming gas through the sparger inlet. To undermine the two-phase flow and turbulence, an Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase model and k-ε turbulence model have been used, respectively. These have further been coupled with population balance model to incorporate the various interphase interactions that lead to coalescence and breakage of bubbles. We have successfully demonstrated the utility of CFD as a tool to predict size distribution of bubbles as a function of process parameters and an efficient approach for obtaining optimized mixing conditions in the reactor. The proposed approach is significantly time and resource efficient when compared to the hit and trial, all experimental approach that is presently used. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:613-628, 2016. PMID:26850863

  5. Mixing and In situ product removal in micro-bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X

    2009-01-01

    Summary Of the thesis :’ Mixing and In-situ product removal in micro bioreactors’ by Xiaonan Li The work presented in this thesis is a part of a large cluster project, which was formed between DSM, Organon, Applikon and two university groups (TU Delft and University of Twente), under the ACTS and IBOS program. The aim of this cluster project was to develop a system consisting of parallel bioreactors of 30 to 200 microliter working volume for the cultivation of micro-organisms under well contr...

  6. Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

  7. Genetic Algorithmic Optimization of PHB Production by a Mixed Culture in an Optimally Dispersed Fed-batch Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap R. Patnaik

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB is an energy-storage polymer whose properties are similar to those of chemical polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene. Moreover, PHB is biodegradable, absorbed by human tissues and less energy-consuming than synthetic polymers. Although Ralstonia eutropha is widely used to synthesize PHB, it is inefficient in utilizing glucose and similar sugars. Therefore a co-culture of R. eutropha and Lactobacillus delbrueckii is preferred since the latter can convert glucose to lactate, which R. eutropha can metabolize easily. Tohyama et al. [24] maximized PHB production in a well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor with glucose and (NH42SO4 as the primary substrates. Since production-scale bioreactors often deviate from ideal laboratory-scale reactors, a large bioreactor was simulated by means of a dispersion model with the kinetics determined by Tohyama et al. [24] and dispersion set at an optimum Peclet number of 20 [32]. The time-dependent feed rates of the two substrates were determined through a genetic algorithm (GA to maximize PHB production. This bioreactor produced 22.2% more PHB per liter and 12.8% more cell mass than achieved by Tohyama et al. [24]. These results, and similar observations with other fermentations, indicate the feasibility of enhancing the efficiency of large nonideal bioreactors through GA optimizations.

  8. EVALUATION OF HOLLOW FIBER MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR EFFICIENCY FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naghizadeh ، A. H. Mahvi ، F. Vaezi ، K. Naddafi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The membrane bioreactor technology has been proven to be a single step process in efficient treatment ofwastewater, either directly or after pretreatment by reverse osmosis. In this study, a pilot scale experimentwas studied to treat a synthetic municipal wastewater sample. The aerobic reactor with a submergedmembrane used in this work was continuously aerated for organic matter oxidation, nitrification andphosphorous uptake as well as for fouling control. The mixed liquor was recycled from the aerated zoneto the anoxic zone for denitrification. The membrane had a nominal pore size of 0.1 μm and a filtrationarea of 4.0 m2. The performance of submerged membrane bioreactor was examined in order to determinethe removal efficiency of organic compounds and nitrogen in different solid retention times (10, 20, 30,and 40 days under a continuous inflow of the synthetic municipal wastewater. Results indicated that thesubmerged membrane bioreactor could efficiently remove the pollutants. Average removal rates ofchemical oxygen demand, total Kejeldahl nitrogen removal, total nitrogen and phosphorous reached to ashigh as 99.3%, 98.1%, 85.5%, and 52%, respectively. Furthermore, concentrations of nitrate and nitrite inthe last stage were well reduced and reached to 5.3 and 0.047 mg/L, respectively.

  9. Theoretical and experimental study of the effects of scale-up on mixing time for a stirred-tank bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bonvillani; M. P. Ferrari; E. M. Ducrós; J. A. Orejas

    2006-01-01

    Mixing time is one of the criteria most widely used to characterize mixing intensity in bioprocesses. In bioreactors, mixing mainly depends on amount of energy consumed, reactor and stirrer shapes, airing speed and the rheology of the medium. In this work we experimentally determined the mixing times for a lab-scale bioreactor equipped with a stirrer propelled by two Rushton turbines. From these experiments we could obtain expressions to evaluate the effects of stirring speed, superficial gas...

  10. Bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaleddine, E. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Composting is once again gaining interest among ecological engineers in view of greener industrial and residential activities. Uniform composting is needed to ensure decomposition and to keep the whole system at the same composting stage. A homogeneous temperature must be maintained throughout the media. A bioreactor design consisting of a heater core made of copper tubing was designed and tested. Two four-inch holes were made at the top and bottom of the barrel to allow air to flow through the system and promote aerobic composting. Once composting began and temperature increased, the water began to flow through the copper piping and the core heat was distributed throughout the medium. Three thermocouples were inserted at different heights on a 200 litre plastic barrel fitted with the aforementioned apparatus. Temperature variations were found to be considerably lower when the apparatus was operated with the heat redistribution system, enabling uniform composting, accelerating the process and reducing the risks of pathogenic or other contaminants remaining active in the barrels.

  11. The efficiency of a membrane bioreactor in drinking water denitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovič Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The membrane bioreactor (MBR system was investigated regarding its nitrate removal capacity from drinking water. The performance of a pilot-scale MBR was tested, depending on the operational parameters, using sucrose as a carbon source. Drinking water from the source was introduced into the reactor in order to study the influence of flow-rate on the nitrate removal and denitrification efficiency of drinking water. The content of the nitrate was around 70 mg/L and the C/N ratio was 3:1. Nitrate removal efficiencies above 90% were obtained by flow-rates lower than 4.8 L/h. The specific denitrification rates varied between 0.02 and 0.16 g/L NO3/ (g/L MLSS•d. The efficiencies and nitrate removal were noticeably affected by the flow-rate and hydraulic retention times. At the maximum flow-rate of 10.2 L/h still 68% of the nitrate had been removed, whilst the highest specific denitrification rate was achieved at 0.2738 g/L NO3/ (g/L MLSS•d. The maximum reactor removal capacity was calculated at 8.75 g NO3/m3•h.

  12. Mixing characteristics and liquid circulation in a new multi-environment bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerushalmi, Laleh; Alimahmoodi, Mahmood; Behzadian, Farnaz; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2013-10-01

    The theoretical and experimental aspects of the hydrodynamics and mixing in a new multi-environment bioreactor that uses the air-lift design were investigated. This study focused on the mixing characteristics, residence time distribution, liquid circulation between three zones of aerobic, microaerophilic and anoxic, and liquid displacement in the bioreactor at influent flow rates of 720-1,450 L/day and air flow rates of 15-45 L/min. The theoretical analysis of liquid displacement led to the estimation of the specific rate of liquid discharge from the bioreactor at any given influent flow rate, and the number of liquid circulations between various bioreactor zones before the discharge of a given quantity of wastewater. The ratio of mean residence time to the overall hydraulic retention time (t m/HRT) decreased with the increase of air flow rate at any given influent flow rate, and approached unity at higher air flow rates. Mixing was characterized in terms of the axial dispersion coefficient and Bodenstein number, demonstrating a linear relationship with the superficial gas velocity. A correlation was developed between the Bodenstein number and the Froude number. The study of liquid circulation between the zones showed that less than 1.5 % of the circulating liquid escapes circulation at each cycle and flows towards the outer clarifier, while the percentage of escaped liquid decreases with increasing air flow rate at a given influent flow rate. The specific rate of liquid discharge from the bioreactor increased from 0.19 to 0.69 h⁻¹ with the increase of air and influent flow rates from 15 to 45 L/min and 500 to 1,450 L/day, respectively. Under the examined operating conditions, mixed liquor circulates between 364 and 1,698 times between the aerobic, microaerophilic and anoxic zones before 99 % of its original volume is replaced by the influent wastewater. PMID:23086548

  13. Mixing and In situ product removal in micro-bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Of the thesis :’ Mixing and In-situ product removal in micro bioreactors’ by Xiaonan Li The work presented in this thesis is a part of a large cluster project, which was formed between DSM, Organon, Applikon and two university groups (TU Delft and University of Twente), under the ACTS and

  14. Biofilm development in membrane bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Savnik, Veronika

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of biofilm development and its removal has crucial meaning in membrane reactor. Biofilm causes pore blocking on membranes, which causes a drop in efficiency of mixed liquor filtration and consequently deteriorates the efficiency of whole membrane bioreactor. This thesis deals with factors that affect biofilm development in membrane bioreactors. Structure and growth of biofilm are presented from its initial attachment of individual particles, their parameters of adhesion, hydrodynam...

  15. Theoretical and experimental study of the effects of scale-up on mixing time for a stirred-tank bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bonvillani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixing time is one of the criteria most widely used to characterize mixing intensity in bioprocesses. In bioreactors, mixing mainly depends on amount of energy consumed, reactor and stirrer shapes, airing speed and the rheology of the medium. In this work we experimentally determined the mixing times for a lab-scale bioreactor equipped with a stirrer propelled by two Rushton turbines. From these experiments we could obtain expressions to evaluate the effects of stirring speed, superficial gas velocity, specific power consumption and system geometry on mixing times under various flow regimes. The resulting correlations were employed to analyze the effect of scale-up on mixing times for the production of Staphylococcus aureus Smith.

  16. Development of a compartment model based on CFD simulations for description of mixing in bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crine, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and modeling the complex interactions between biological reaction and hydrodynamics are a key problem when dealing with bioprocesses. It is fundamental to be able to accurately predict the hydrodynamics behavior of bioreactors of different size and its interaction with the biological reaction. CFD can provide detailed modeling about hydrodynamics and mixing. However, it is computationally intensive, especially when reactions are taken into account. Another way to predict hydrodynamics is the use of "Compartment" or "Multi-zone" models which are much less demanding in computation time than CFD. However, compartments and fluxes between them are often defined by considering global quantities not representative of the flow. To overcome the limitations of these two methods, a solution is to combine compartment modeling and CFD simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a methodology in order to propose a compartment model based on CFD simulations of a bioreactor. The flow rate between two compartments can be easily computed from the velocity fields obtained by CFD. The difficulty lies in the definition of the zones in such a way they can be considered as perfectly mixed. The creation of the model compartments from CFD cells can be achieved manually or automatically. The manual zoning consists in aggregating CFD cells according to the user's wish. The automatic zoning defines compartments as regions within which the value of one or several properties are uniform with respect to a given tolerance. Both manual and automatic zoning methods have been developed and compared by simulating the mixing of an inert scalar. For the automatic zoning, several algorithms and different flow properties have been tested as criteria for the compartment creation.

  17. Co-digestion of mixed industrial sludge with municipal solid wastes in anaerobic simulated landfilling bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the feasibility of the anaerobic co-digestion of a mixed industrial sludge with municipal solid wastes (MSW) was investigated in three simulated anaerobic landfilling bioreactors during a 150-day period. All of the reactors were operated with leachate recirculation. One of them was loaded only with MSW (control reactor); the second reactor was loaded with mixed industrial sludge and MSW, the weight ratio of the MSW to mixed industrial sludge was 1:1 (based on dry solid) (Run 1); the third reactor was loaded with mixed industrial sludge and MSW, the weight ratio of the MSW to mixed industrial sludge was 1:2 (based on dry solid) (Run 2). The VFA concentrations decreased significantly in Run 1 and Run 2 reactors at the end of 150 days. The pH values were higher in Run 1 and Run 2 reactors compared to control reactor. The differences between leachate characteristics, the biodegradation and the bioefficiency of the reactors were compared. The NH4-N concentrations released to leachate from mixed sludge in Run 1 and Run 2 reactors were lower than that of control reactor. The BOD5/COD ratios in Run 1 and Run 2 reactors were lower than that of control reactor at the end of 150 days. Cumulative methane gas productions and methane percentages were higher in Run 1 and Run 2 reactors. Reductions in waste quantity, carbon percentage and settlement of the waste were better in Run 1 and Run 2 reactors compared to control reactor at the end of 150 days. Furthermore, TN and TP removals in waste were higher in reactors containing industrial sludge compared to control. The toxicity test results showed that toxicity was observed in reactors containing industrial mixed sludge

  18. NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. Assessment of mass transfer and mixing in rigid lab-scale disposable bioreactors at low power input levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eikenhorst, Gerco; Thomassen, Yvonne E; van der Pol, Leo A; Bakker, Wilfried A M

    2014-01-01

    Mass transfer, mixing times and power consumption were measured in rigid disposable stirred tank bioreactors and compared to those of a traditional glass bioreactor. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient and mixing times are usually determined at high agitation speeds in combination with sparged aeration as used for single cell suspension and most bacterial cultures. In contrast, here low agitation speeds combined with headspace aeration were applied. These settings are generally used for cultivation of mammalian cells growing adherent to microcarriers. The rigid disposable vessels showed similar engineering characteristics compared to a traditional glass bioreactor. On the basis of the presented results appropriate settings for adherent cell culture, normally operated at a maximum power input level of 5 W m(-3) , can be selected. Depending on the disposable bioreactor used, a stirrer speed ranging from 38 to 147 rpm will result in such a power input of 5 W m(-3) . This power input will mix the fluid to a degree of 95% in 22 ± 1 s and produce a volumetric mass transfer coefficient of 0.46 ± 0.07 h(-1) . PMID:25139070

  20. Efficiency and detrimental side effects of denitrifying bioreactors for nitrate reduction in drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Hein, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory column experiment was conducted to test the efficiency of denitrifying bioreactors for the nitrate (NO3-N) removal in drainage waters at different flow rates and after desiccation. In addition, we investigated detrimental side effects in terms of the release of nitrite (NO2-N), ammonium (NH4-N), phosphate (PO4-P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), methane (CH4), and dinitrogen oxide (N2O). The NO3-N removal efficiency decreased with increasing NO3-N concentrations, increasing flow rates, and after desiccation. Bioreactors with purely organic fillings showed higher NO3-N removal rates (42.6-55.7 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)) than those with organic and inorganic fillings (6.5-21.4 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)). The release of NO2-N and DOC was considerable and resulted in concentrations of up to 800 μg NO2-N L(-1)and 25 mg DOC L(-1) in the effluent water. N2O concentrations increased by 4.0 to 15.3 μg N2O-N L(-1) between the influent and the effluent, while CH4 production rates were low. Our study confirms the high potential of denitrifying bioreactors to mitigate NO3-N pollution in drainage waters, but highlights also the potential risks for the environment. PMID:25943519

  1. Bioreactor principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. Effect of cytostatic drugs on the sludge and on the mixed liquor characteristics of a cross-flow membrane bioreactor: Consequence on the process

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Luis Fernando; Faucet-Marquis, Virginie; Schetrite, Sylvie; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Paranthoen, Sylvia; Albasi, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The influence of cyclophosphamide and its principal metabolites (CPs) on the physicochemical properties of the mixed liquor of a cross-flow membrane bioreactor and the consequences for membrane fouling were investigated. The influence of CPs was determined by comparing the performance of two bioreactors running in parallel, MBR-CPs (with CPs) and MBR-control (without CPs). The physicochemical properties of the mixed liquor were characterized by soluble extracellular polymeric substances (solu...

  3. Efficient production of Staphylococcus simulans lysostaphin in a benchtop bioreactor by recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szweda, Piotr; Gorczyca, Grzegorz; Filipkowski, Pawel; Zalewska, Magdalena; Milewski, Slawomir

    2014-01-01

    Lysostaphin is an enzyme with bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and other staphylococcal species. In spite of many advantages and promising results of preliminary research, the enzyme is still not widely used in medicine, veterinary medicine, or as a food preservative. One of the most important factors limiting application of the enzyme in clinical or technological practice is the high cost of its production. In this study we have determined the optimal conditions for lysostaphin production in a 5-L batch bioreactor. The enzyme production was based on a heterologous, Escherichia coli expression system designated as pBAD2Lys and constructed earlier in our laboratory. An evident influence of physicochemical conditions of the process (areation, pH and temperature) and composition of the growing media on the amount and activity of produced enzyme was noticed. Efficiency of production of about 13,000 U/L has been achieved in the optimal conditions of the production process: low aeration (400 rpm of mechanical stirrer), pH 6, and temperature 37°C in classical LB medium. Further, about twofold improvement in the production efficiency of the enzyme was achieved as a result of modification of composition of growing media. Finally, more than 80,000 units of lysostaphin were obtained from one (batch) bioreactor with 3 L of culture of E. coli TOP10F' transformed with pBAD2Lys plasmid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most efficient method of production of recombinant lysostaphin in E. coli expression systems described to date. PMID:24320237

  4. Efficient treatment of azo dye containing wastewater in a hybrid acidogenic bioreactor stimulated by biocatalyzed electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Cheng; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Wang, Shu-Sen; Cui, Dan; Han, Jing-Long; Hu, Ya-Ping; Su, Shi-Gang; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel scaled-up hybrid acidogenic bioreactor (HAB) was designed and adopted to evaluate the performance of azo dye (acid red G, ARG) containing wastewater treatment. Principally, HAB is an acidogenic bioreactor coupled with a biocatalyzed electrolysis module. The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and ARG loading rate on the performance of HAB were investigated. In addition, the influent was switched from synthetic wastewater to domestic wastewater to examine the key parameters for the application of HAB. The results showed that the introduction of the biocatalyzed electrolysis module could enhance anoxic decolorization and COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal. The combined process of HAB-CASS presented superior performance compared to a control system without biocatalyzed electrolysis (AB-CASS). When the influent was switched to domestic wastewater, with an environment having more balanced nutrients and diverse organic matters, the ARG, COD and nitrogen removal efficiencies of HAB-CASS were further improved, reaching 73.3%±2.5%, 86.2%±3.8% and 93.5%±1.6% at HRT of 6 hr, respectively, which were much higher than those of AB-CASS (61.1%±4.7%, 75.4%±5.0% and 82.1%±2.1%, respectively). Moreover, larger TCV/TV (total cathode volume/total volume) for HAB led to higher current and ARG removal. The ARG removal efficiency and current at TCV/TV of 0.15 were 39.2%±3.7% and 28.30±1.48 mA, respectively. They were significantly increased to 62.1%±2.0% and 34.55±0.83 mA at TCV/TV of 0.25. These results show that HAB system could be used to effectively treat real wastewater. PMID:26899658

  5. Do efficiency scores depend on input mix?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Kronborg, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the possibility of using the standard Kruskal-Wallis (KW) rank test in order to evaluate whether the distribution of efficiency scores resulting from Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is independent of the input (or output) mix of the observations. Since the DEA frontier is...... estimated, many standard assumptions for evaluating the KW test statistic are violated. Therefore, we propose to explore its statistical properties by the use of simulation studies. The simulations are performed conditional on the observed input mixes. The method, unlike existing approaches in the...... assumption of mix independence is rejected the implication is that it, for example, is impossible to determine whether machine intensive project are more or less efficient than labor intensive projects....

  6. Numerical Simulation of Mixing in a Micro-well Scale Bioreactor by Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of the multi-well plate miniaturisation technology with its associated automated dispensers, readers and integrated systems coupled with advances in life sciences has a propelling effect on the rate at which new potential drug molecules are discovered. The translation of these discoveries to real outcome now demands parallel approaches which allow large numbers of process options to be rapidly assessed. The engineering challenges in achieving this provide the motivation for the proposed work. In this work we used computational fluid dynamics(CFD) analysis to study flow conditions in a gas-liquid contactor which has the potential to be used as a fermenter on a multi-well format. The bioreactor had a working volume of 6.5 mL with the major dimensions equal to those of a single well of a 24-well plate. The 6.5 mL bioreactor was mechanically agitated and aerated by a single sparger placed beneath the bottom impeller. Detailed numerical procedure for solving the governing flow equations is given. The CFD results are combined with population balance equations to establish the size of the bubbles and their distribution in the bioreactor, Power curves with and without aeration are provided based on the simulated results.

  7. A two-reservoir, hollow-fiber bioreactor for the study of mixed-population dynamics: design aspects and validation of the approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarrez, E S; Albasi, C; Riba, J P

    2000-08-20

    A two-reservoir, membrane bioreactor for carrying out studies of mixed-population dynamics in batch fermentations is presented. Mixing requirements and design aspects for the validity of the approach are given and discussed. Equations describing mixing times between the reservoirs are presented and compared to the experimental results. The validity of the approach is demonstrated by the study of an amensalistic-type interaction, the protein-mediated killer phenomenon between two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The validation consisted in the comparison between the results obtained in actual mixed culture and the results obtained by keeping the strains separated. A good agreement was found which demonstrates the viability of the designed bioreactor. PMID:10862678

  8. New insight into influence of mechanical stirring on membrane fouling of membrane bioreactor: Mixed liquor properties and hydrodynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chao; Wang, Jinnan; Lin, Yaohua

    2016-07-01

    Although membrane bioreactor is widely used in wastewater treatment, the problem of membrane fouling remains to be resolved. This paper focused on the influence of mechanical stirring on membrane fouling. Ammonium removal decreased with viscous bulking when stirring rates slowed down. Trans-membrane pressure increased more rapidly when the stirring rate decreased. The resistance of the gel layer increased significantly under low stirring rates, which indicated that the fouling rates of MBR in different stages were attributed to gel layer variation. The proportion of small particles increased when stirring rates slowed down. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominant in the mixed liquor. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased from 41% to 50% in the entire experiment. The computational fluid dynamics model was used to simulate the fluid flow characteristics. The model indicated velocities and directions of the fluid flow changes with different stirring rates. PMID:27058400

  9. Denitrification in Membrane Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Anabela Duarte

    1999-01-01

    Three membrane bioreactors, a low flux filter (LFF), a diafilter (DF), and an ion-exchange (IE) membrane bioreactor were used to treat water polluted with 50 ppm-N nitrate. The three systems were compared in terms of removal efficiency of nitrate, operational complexity, and overall quality of the treated water. In the low flux filter (LFF) membrane bioreactor an hemo-dialysis hollow fiber module was used and operated continuously for 29 days with a constant flux of permeate. The perform...

  10. AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE SMALL BIOREACTOR WITH THE BUBBLE MIXING SYSTEM AND CATALYTIC HEATING Экспериментальные исследования малого биореактора с системой барботажного перемешивания и каталитического обогрева

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onychin E. M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the results of an experimental research of a small bioreactor with bubble mixing system and catalytic heating. The methods improving the efficiency of biogas plants are considered there

  11. Energy efficient of ethanol recovery in pervaporation membrane bioreactor with mechanical vapor compression eliminating the cold traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Senqing; Xiao, Zeyi; Li, Minghai

    2016-07-01

    An energy efficient pervaporation membrane bioreactor with mechanical vapor compression was developed for ethanol recovery during the process of fermentation coupled with pervaporation. Part of the permeate vapor at the membrane downstream under the vacuum condition was condensed by running water at the first condenser and the non-condensed vapor enriched with ethanol was compressed to the atmospheric pressure and pumped into the second condenser, where the vapor was easily condensed into a liquid by air. Three runs of fermentation-pervaporation experiment have been carried out lasting for 192h, 264h and 360h respectively. Complete vapor recovery validated the novel pervaporation membrane bioreactor. The total flux of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane was in the range of 350gm(-2)h(-1) and 600gm(-2)h(-1). Compared with the traditional cold traps condensation, mechanical vapor compression behaved a dominant energy saving feature. PMID:26995618

  12. A perfusion bioreactor system efficiently generates cell‐loaded bone substitute materials for addressing critical size bone defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Claudia; Mohan, Ramkumar Ramani; Vacun, Gabriele; Schwarz, Thomas; Haller, Barbara; Sun, Yang; Kahlig, Alexander; Kluger, Petra; Finne‐Wistrand, Anna; Walles, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Critical size bone defects and non‐union fractions are still challenging to treat. Cell‐loaded bone substitutes have shown improved bone ingrowth and bone formation. However, a lack of methods for homogenously colonizing scaffolds limits the maximum volume of bone grafts. Additionally, therapy robustness is impaired by heterogeneous cell populations after graft generation. Our aim was to establish a technology for generating grafts with a size of 10.5 mm in diameter and 25 mm of height, and thus for grafts suited for treatment of critical size bone defects. Therefore, a novel tailor‐made bioreactor system was developed, allowing standardized flow conditions in a porous poly(L‐lactide‐co‐caprolactone) material. Scaffolds were seeded with primary human mesenchymal stem cells derived from four different donors. In contrast to static experimental conditions, homogenous cell distributions were accomplished under dynamic culture. Additionally, culture in the bioreactor system allowed the induction of osteogenic lineage commitment after one week of culture without addition of soluble factors. This was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of calcification and gene expression markers related to osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, the novel bioreactor technology allows efficient and standardized conditions for generating bone substitutes that are suitable for the treatment of critical size defects in humans. PMID:26011163

  13. Product mixes as objects of choice in nonparametric efficiency measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Laurens Cherchye; Tom Vanpuyenbroeck

    1999-01-01

    Non-radial measures of technical efficiency essentially differ from their radial counterparts in that the product mix of the efficient reference is allowed to be different from the product mix of the evaluated observation. Whereas existing non-radial measures are still based on the product mix of the evaluated, i.e. possibly inefficient observation, we change the perspective and propose a measure based on the mix properties of the efficient reference. The resulting `inverse' measure can be co...

  14. Perchlorate and Nitrate Remediation Efficiency and Microbial Diversity in a Containerized Wetland Bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jr., B D; Dibley, V; Pinkart, H; Legler, T

    2004-06-09

    We have developed a method to remove perchlorate (14 to 27 {micro}g/L) and nitrate (48 mg/L) from contaminated groundwater using a wetland bioreactor. The bioreactor has operated continuously in a remote field location for more than two years with a stable ecosystem of indigenous organisms. This study assesses the bioreactor for long-term perchlorate and nitrate remediation by evaluating influent and effluent groundwater for reduction-oxidation conditions and nitrate and perchlorate concentrations. Total community DNA was extracted and purified from 10-g sediment samples retrieved from vertical coring of the bioreactor during winter. Analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of short, 16S rDNA, polymerase-chain-reaction products was used to identify dominant microorganisms. Bacteria genera identified were closely affiliated with bacteria widely distributed in soils, mud layers, and fresh water. Of the 17 dominant bands sequenced, most were gram negative and capable of aerobic or anaerobic respiration with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Halomonas, and Nitrospira). Several identified genera (Rhizobium, Acinetobactor, and Xanthomonas) are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a combined form (ammonia) usable by host plants. Isolates were identified from the Proteobacteria class, known for the ability to reduce perchlorate. Initial bacterial assessments of sediments confirm the prevalence of facultative anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing perchlorate and nitrate in situ.

  15. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  16. Efficient Mixed Mode Summary for Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. El-Din

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellular networks monitoring and management tasks are based on huge amounts of continuously collecteddata from network elements and devices. Log files are used to store this data, but it might need toaccumulate millions of lines in one day. The standard name of this log is in GPEH format which stands forGeneral Performance Event Handling. This log is usually recorded in a binary format (bin. Thus, efficientand fast compression technique is considered as one of the main aspects targeting the storage capabilities.On the other hand, based on our experience, we noticed that experts and network engineers are notinterested in each log entry. In addition, this massive burst of entries can lose important information;especially those translated into performance abnormalities. Thus, summarizing log files would bebeneficial in specifying the different problems on certain elements, the overall performance and theexpected network future state. In this paper, we introduce an efficient compression algorithm based logfrequent patterns. In addition, we propose a Mixed Mode Summary-based Lossless Compression Techniquefor Mobile Networks log files (MMSLC as a mixed on-line and off-line compression modes based on thesummary extracted from the frequent patterns. Our scheme exploits the strong correlation between thedirectly and consecutively recorded bin files for utilizing the online compression mode. On the other hand,it uses the famous “Apriori Algorithm” to extract the frequent patterns from the current file in offline mode.Our proposed scheme is proved to gain high compression ratios in fast speed as well as help in extractingbeneficial information from the recorded data.

  17. Using carbon dioxide to maintain an elevated oleaginous microalga concentration in mixed-culture photo-bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, Michael J; Retotar, Allison; Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid; Peccia, Jordan

    2015-06-01

    Microbial contamination of growth reactors is a major concern for microalgal biofuel production. In this study, the oleaginous, CO2-tolerant microalga Scenedesmus dimorphus was combined with a wastewater-derived microbial community and grown in replicated sequencing batch photobioreactors. The reactors were sparged with either ambient air or 20% v/v CO2. In the initial growth cycles, air and the 20% CO2 reactors were similar in terms of growth and microbial community structure. Beyond the fourth growth cycle, however, the ambient air reactors had larger decreases in cell density and growth rate, and increases in species richness and non-algal microorganisms compared to the 20% CO2 reactors. Both qPCR and rDNA sequence analyses demonstrated a greater loss in S. dimorphus enrichment in the ambient-air reactors compared to the 20% CO2 reactors. These results demonstrate that environmental parameters can be used to delay the adverse impacts of microbial contamination in open, mixed-culture microalgae bioreactors. PMID:25768421

  18. Mixing and mass transfer in a pilot scale U-loop bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Leander A. H.; Villadsen, John; Jørgensen, Sten Bay;

    2016-01-01

    A system capable of handling a large volumetric gas fraction while providing a high gas to liquid mass transfer is a necessity if the metanotrophic bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus is to be used in single cell protein (SCP) production. In this study mixing time and mass transfer coefficients we...

  19. Macro-Mixing and Streptomyces Fradiae: Modelling Oxygen and Nutrient Segregation in an Industrial Bioreactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlaev, D.; Mann, R.; Lossev, V.; Vlaev, S. D.; Zahradník, Jindřich; Seichter, P.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 73, Part A (2000), s. 354-362. ISSN 0263-8762. [Symposium of Fluid Mixing /6./. Bradford, 07.07.1999-08.07.1999] Grant ostatní: CEC INCO-COPERNICUS(XE) CIPA-CT94-0179 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.732, year: 2000

  20. Human cell culture in a space bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

  1. Genome editing of BmFib-H gene provides an empty Bombyx mori silk gland for a highly efficient bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sanyuan; Shi, Run; Wang, Xiaogang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Chang, Jiasong; Gao, Jie; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Jianduo; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has produced some remarkable creatures, of which silk gland is a fascinating organ that exists in a variety of insects and almost half of the 34,000 spider species. The impressive ability to secrete huge amount of pure silk protein, and to store proteins at an extremely high concentration (up to 25%) make the silk gland of Bombyx mori hold great promise to be a cost-effective platform for production of recombinant proteins. However, the extremely low production yields of the numerous reported expression systems greatly hindered the exploration and application of silk gland bioreactors. Using customized zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), we successfully performed genome editing of Bmfib-H gene, which encodes the largest and most abundant silk protein, in B. mori with efficiency higher than any previously reported. The resulted Bmfib-H knocked-out B. mori showed a smaller and empty silk gland, abnormally developed posterior silk gland cells, an extremely thin cocoon that contain only sericin proteins, and a slightly heavier pupae. We also showed that removal of endogenous Bmfib-H protein could significantly increase the expression level of exogenous protein. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the bioreactor is suitable for large scale production of protein-based materials. PMID:25359576

  2. Modelling and characterization of an airlift-loop bioreactor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, P.

    1987-01-01

    An airlift-loop reactor is a bioreactor for aerobic biotechnological processes. The special feature of the ALR is the recirculation of the liquid through a downcomer connecting the top and the bottom of the main bubbling section. Due to the high circulation-flow rate, efficient mixing and oxygen tra

  3. Methane recovery efficiency in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) treating sulphate-rich urban wastewater: Evaluation of methane losses with the effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, J; Seco, A.; Martí,N; Gimenez, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) as a sustainable approach for urban wastewater treatment at 33 and 20 C, since greenhouse gas emissions are reduced and energy recovery is enhanced. Compared to other anaerobic systems, such as UASB reactors, the membrane technology allows the use of biogas-assisted mixing which enhances the methane stripping from the liquid phase bulk. The methane saturation index obtained for the whole period (1.00 ± ...

  4. Delegation and Efficiency in a Mixed Oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima BARROS

    1994-01-01

    The present work analyses the effect of delegation on the market outcome when agents have private information about the firms' productivity. Two types of firms are considered: managerial firms (delegation) and entrepreneurial firms (no delegation). Due to the asymmetry of information managerial firms are less efficient (productive efficiency) because they must pay informational rents to their managers. The existence of delegating firms leads the market outcome further away from the competitiv...

  5. Comparison between mixed liquors of two side-stream membrane bioreactors treating wastewaters from waste management plants with high and low solids anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriaga-Agustí, E; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Bes-Piá, A; Alonso-Molina, J L; Fernández-Giménez, E; Álvarez-Requena, C; Muñagorri-Mañueco, F; Ortiz-Villalobos, G

    2016-09-01

    In the last years, biological treatment plants for the previously separated organic fraction from municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) have gained importance. In these processes a liquid effluent (liquid fraction from the digestate and leachate from composting piles), which has to be treated previously to its discharge, is produced. In this paper, the characteristics of the mixed liquor from two full-scale membrane bioreactors treating the effluents of two OFMSW treatment plants have been evaluated in view to study their influence on membrane fouling in terms of filterability. For that, the mixed liquor samples have been ultrafiltrated in an UF laboratory plant. Besides, the effect of the influent characteristics to MBRs and the values of the chemical and physical parameters of the mixed liquors on the filterability have been studied. Results showed that the filterability of the mixed liquor was strongly influenced by the soluble microbial products in the mixed liquors and the influent characteristics to MBR. Permeate flux of MBR mixed liquor treating the most polluted wastewater was considerable the lowest (around 20 L/m(2) h for some samples), what was explained by viscosity and soluble microbial products concentration higher than those measured in other MBR mixed liquor. PMID:27235772

  6. EFFICIENT USE OF TEMPORARY IMMERSION BIOREACTOR (TIB ON PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus L. MULTIPLICATION AND ROOTING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Ayenew

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. is one of the most potential fruit crop growing in Ethiopia due to suitable agro-ecology and economic importance. However, it is difficult to meet the demand for planting materials using the conventional propagation techniques due to production inefficiency and disease transmission. The experiment is laid in Completely Randomized Design with three treatments of vessels used along its media type, Temporary Immersion Bioreactor, TIB (RITA®, Vitropic, France , Glass jam jar and plastic jars , replicated six times on MS medium. A highly significant difference (p<0.001 was observed between culturing vessels with the same media supplement. From this study, it was found that pineapple explants cultured on TIB having full strength MS media supplemented with 2 mgl-1BA and 30gl–1 sucrose was found to be better which gave an average multiplication of 13.17 shoots per explant within six weeks of culture. Similarly plantlets cultured on TIB with half strength MS media supplemented with 3mgl-1 IBA and 40 g l-1 sucrose developed on average 16.33 roots having 6.27 cm length with well developed hairy root in four weeks of culture period that performed better in acclimatization facility and open field too.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Programming Efficiency in Mixed Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Lin-Tao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolog language is used for mixed programming in a example of Class Scheduling System based on multi-agent, in order to enhance the programming efficiency. The Language Suitability Model is introduced to quantify the programming efficiency of the programming. Finally, experiment is carried out for sample codes.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. Degradation behaviour and excess sludge production of mixed biocoenoses in membrane bioreactors; Abbauverhalten und Ueberschussschlammproduktion von Mischbiozoenosen in Membranbioreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraume, M. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik; Szewzyk, U. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Oekologie und Mikroorganismen

    1999-07-01

    In three different membrane bioreactors (technical scale and pilot scale), process engineering and microbiological studies were carried out over a period of up to three years. The sewage used was sugar-beet molasses slop and municipal sewage. All three plants exhibited stable COD degradation rates of 87 % (molasses slop) and 95 % (municipal sewage). They could be operated during the test period without regular removal of excess sludge. (orig.) [German] An drei unterschiedlichen Membranbioreaktoren (Technikums- und Pilotmassstab) wurden ueber einen Zeitraum von bis zu 3 Jahren verfahrenstechnische und mirkobiologische Untersuchungen durchgefuehrt. Als Abwasser wurde Zuckerrueben-Melasseschlempe und kommunales Abwasser eingesetzt. Alle drei Anlagen zeigten stabile CSB-Abbaugrade von 87% (Melasseschlempe) und 95% (kommunale Abwasser). Sie konnten ueber den Vesuchszeitraum ohne regelmaessigen Abzug von Ueberschussschlamm betrieben werden. (orig.)

  10. Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. Bag Bioreactor Based on Wave-Induced Motion: Characteristics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, Regine; Werner, Sören; Eibl, Dieter

    Today wave-mixed bag bioreactors are common devices in modern biotechnological processes where simple, safe and flexible production has top priority. Numerous studies that have been published on ex vivo generation of cells, viruses and therapeutic agents during the last 10 years have confirmed their suitability and even superiority to stirred bioreactors made from glass or stainless steel for animal as well as plant cell cultivations. In these studies the wave-mixed bag bioreactors enabled middle to high cell density and adequate productivity in laboratory and pilot scale. This mainly results from low-shear conditions and highly efficient oxygen transfer for cell cultures, as demonstrated for the widely used BioWave®.Starting with an overview of wave-mixed bag bioreactors and their common operation strategies, this chapter delineates engineering aspects of BioWave®, which like Wave Reactor™ and BIOSTAT®CultiBag RM originates from the prototype of a wave-mixed bag bioreactor introduced in 1998. Subsequently, the second part of the chapter focuses on reported BioWave® applications. Conditions and results from cultivations with animal cells, plant cells, microbial cells and nematodes are presented and discussed.

  12. Assessment of the Mixing Efficiency of Neutral Protamine Hagedorn Cartridges

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Pia; Maxeiner, Sebastian; Weise, Alexander; Nolden, Florain; Borck, Anja; Forst, Thomas; Pfützner, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Reliable application of neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin requires previous resuspension of the suspension by tipping over the cartridge 20 times. This procedure is considered annoying by patients. The goal of this investigation was to assess the efficiency of the mixing procedure when performed less frequently than recommended. Neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin cartridges from five different manufacturers (sanofi-aventis, Lilly, Berlin-Chemie, B. Braun, and Novo Nordisk) were emptied...

  13. Increasing chemical efficiency by mixing different buffer gases on COIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuMingxiu; Sang Fengting; ChenFang; FangBenjie; JinYuqi

    2011-01-01

    To improve the output power and chemical efficiency,a new method is put forward,which requires no notable change in the configurations and uses different gases as buffer gas.Some experiments are done on chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) with an 11.7 cm gain length.When N2,Ar and CO2 are used as the primary and secondary buffer gases,change of the average molecular weight promotes the mixing between the primary and secondary gases.Experimental results confirm the possibility of improving the chemical efficiency.When N2 is used as the primary gas and Ar as the secondary gas,the highest output power and chemical efficiency are obtained as 3.09 kW and 30.2%.

  14. Towards efficient crude oil degradation by a mixed bacterial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, K.S.M.; Thahira-Rahman, J.; Banat, I.M. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). School of Biological and Environmental Studies; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P. [Bharathiar Univ., Tamilnadu (India). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2002-12-01

    A laboratory study was undertaken to assess the optimal conditions for biodegradation of Bombay High (BH) crude oil. Among 130 oil degrading bacterial cultures isolated from oil contaminated soil samples, Micrococcus sp. GS2-22, Corynebacterium sp. GS5-66, Flavobacterium sp. DS5-73, Bacillus sp. DS6-86 and Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129 were selected for the study based on the efficiency of crude oil utilisation. A mixed bacterial consortium prepared using the above strains was also used. Individual bacterial cultures showed less growth and degradation than did the mixed bacterial consortium. At 1% crude oil concentration, the mixed bacterial consortium degraded a maximum of 78% of BH crude oil. This was followed by 66% by Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129, 59% by Bacillus sp. DS6-86, 49% by Micrococcus sp. GS2-22, 43% by Corynebacterium sp. GS5-66 and 41% by Flavobacterium sp. DS5-73. The percentage of degradation by the mixed bacterial consortium decreased from 78% to 52% as the concentration of crude oil was increased from 1% to 10%. Temperature of 30{sup o}C and pH 7.5 were found to be optima for maximum biodegradation. (Author)

  15. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor under extreme conditions (poster)

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Sierra, J.D.; De Kreuk, M.K.; Spanjers, H.; van Lier, J B

    2013-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors ensure biomass retention by the application of micro or ultrafiltration processes. This allows operation at high sludge concentrations. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic membrane bioreactors is an efficient way to retain specialist microorganisms for treating wastewaters from different industries such as coke, textile, food, and chemical. However, few research has been found into the use of membrane bioreactors for anaerobic treatment of wastewater under extreme ...

  16. Hospital Ownership Mix Efficiency in the US: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rexford E. Santerre; John A. Vernon

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers an empirical test of ownership mix efficiency in the U.S. hospital services industry. The test compares the benefits of quality assurance with the costs from the attenuation of property rights that result from an increased presence of nonprofit organizations. The empirical results suggest that too many not-for-profit and public hospitals may exist in the typical market area of the U.S. The policy implication is that more quality of care per dollar might be obtained by attrac...

  17. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  18. Turbulent Diapycnal Mixing In Stratified Shear Flows: Parameterizations of Mixing Efficiency and Diapycnal Diffusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehipour, Hesam; Peltier, W. Richard

    2014-11-01

    Motivated by the importance of diapycnal mixing in geophysical fluids, we study the inhomogeneously stratified and sheared turbulence that is engendered by the breaking of a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave and will direct connections to the homogeneously stratified case. We employ DNS method to focus on the high- Re regime and investigate a wide range of Ri and Pr . This talk will consist of three related topics: (1) linear stability analysis of the transition process to understand the sequence of secondary instabilities that govern transition at increasing values of Pr at a fixed high- Re . (2) A ``recipe'' for irreversible mixing which illuminates the fundamental physical mechanisms that are involved in rising the background potential energy and represents mixing as being composed of both (i) turbulent buoyancy flux and (ii) flow anisotropy due to energy-containing coherent eddies. (3) The precise derivation of diapycnal diffusivity, Kρ, with no simplifying assumptions which depends on an exact definition of mixing efficiency (rather than approximating it in terms of the flux Richardson number). We will propose robust parameterizations in terms of buoyancy Reynolds number, Reb , Ri and Pr for a wide range of these parameters extending Reb = O (103) .

  19. Bioreactor landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; XING Kai; Anthony Adzomani

    2004-01-01

    Following the population expansion, there is a growing threat brought by municipal solid waste (MSW) against environment and human health. Sanitary landfill is the most important method of MSW disposal in China. In contrast to the conventional landfill, this paper introduces a new technique named bioreactor landfill (BL). Mechanisms, operation conditions as well as the advantages and disadvantages of BL are also discussed in this paper.

  20. Bioreactor design and optimization – a future perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    Bioreactor design and optimisation are essential in translating the experience gained from lab or pilot scale experiments to efficient production processes in industrial scale bioreactors. This article gives a future perspective on bioreactor design and optimisation, where it is foreseen that technologies including mechanistic models, process simulation and advanced model analysis will play an increasingly important role.

  1. Bioreactor design and optimization – a future perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    Bioreactor design and optimisation are essential in translating the experience gained from lab or pilot scale experiments to efficient production processes in industrial scale bioreactors. This article gives a future perspective on bioreactor design and optimisation, where it is foreseen that...

  2. Bioreactor engineering using disposable technology for enhanced production of hCTLA4Ig in transgenic rice cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jun-Young; Yang, Yong-Suk; Cheon, Su-Hwan; Nam, Hyung-Jin; Jin, Gi-Hong; Kim, Dong-Il

    2013-09-01

    Two kinds of disposable bioreactors, air-lift disposable bioreactors (ADB) and wave disposable bioreactors (WDB) were compared with stirred-tank reactors (5-L STR). These bioreactors were successfully applied to transgenic rice cell cultures for the production of recombinant human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig). In both systems, a fed-batch culture method was used to produce hCTLA4Ig efficiently by feeding concentrated amino acids and production levels were enhanced when dissolved oxygen (DO) level was regulated at 30% using pure oxygen sparging. Agitation and aeration rate during cultivation in ADB and WDB were determined by the same mixing time. The results in both disposable bioreactors showed similar values in maximum cell density (11.9 gDCW/L and 12.6 gDCW/L), doubling time (4.8- and 5.0-day), and maximum hCTLA4Ig concentration (43.7 and 43.3 mg/L). Relatively higher cell viability was sustained in the ADB whereas hCTLA4Ig productivity was 1.2-fold higher than that in WDB. The productivity was improved by increasing aeration rate (0.2 vvm). Overall, our experiments demonstrate pneumatically driven disposable bioreactors are applicable for the production of recombinant proteins in plant cell cultures. These results will be useful for development and scale-up studies of disposable bioreactor systems for transgenic plant cell cultures. PMID:23568400

  3. Materials, geometry, and net energy ratio of tubular photo bioreactors for micro-algal hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the energy content, the operational energy inputs, and the net energy ratio (NER) of an industrial tubular photo bioreactor used for the photosynthetic production of H2 by micro-algae. The calculated H2 output of the photo bioreactor is based on a range of algal photosynthetic H2 generation efficiencies, and on the application of standard theory for tubular solar collectors. Small diameter reactors have a low NER as the mixing energy becomes large. For a tubular photo bioreactor, low density polyethylene (LDPE) film and glass have significantly higher NERs than rigid polymers such as poly-methyl methyl-acrylate (acrylic). Using a hypothetical improved micro-algal H2 generation efficiency of 5 %, a NER ∼ 6 can be obtained for LDPE film and for glass. For mechanical and assembly reasons LDPE film is the material of choice. These results show that photo bio-hydrogen could be a viable H2 generation technology. (authors)

  4. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  5. Photosynthetic bacteria production from food processing wastewater in sequencing batch and membrane photo-bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

    2012-01-01

    Application of photosynthetic process could be highly efficient and surpass anaerobic treatment in releasing less greenhouse gas and odor while the biomass produced can be utilized. The combination of photosynthetic process with membrane separation is possibly effective for water reclamation and biomass production. In this study, cultivation of mixed culture photosynthetic bacteria from food processing wastewater was investigated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) supplied with infrared light. Both photo-bioreactors were operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. Higher MLSS concentration achieved in the MBR through complete retention of biomass resulted in a slightly improved performance. When the system was operated with MLSS controlled by occasional sludge withdrawal, total biomass production of MBR and SBR photo-bioreactor was almost equal. However, 64.5% of total biomass production was washed out with the effluent in SBR system. Consequently, the higher biomass could be recovered for utilization in MBR. PMID:22258682

  6. Suspension cell culture in microgravity and development of a space bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1987-01-01

    NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells.

  7. Efficient Source of Cells in Proximal Oviduct for Testing Non-Viral Expression Constructs in the Chicken Bioreactor Model and for Other in Vitro Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnicka, Katarzyna; Bodnar, Magdalena; Marszałek, Andrzej; Bajek, Anna; Drewa, Tomasz; Płucienniczak, Grazyna; Chojnacka-Puchta, Luiza; Cecuda-Adamczewska, Violetta; Dunisławska, Aleksandra; Bednarczyk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the usefulness of chicken oviduct epithelial cells (COEC) in evaluating the efficacy of non-viral expression vectors carrying human therapeutic genes. Secondly, an efficient source of progenitor COEC for in vitro studies is described. Within the distal part of the oviduct, weak to moderate expression of a trans membrane glycoprotein (CD44) was observed. Single cells presenting only weak expression of CD44 were found in magnum sections. in vitro cultured oviduct cells originating from the distal oviduct were suitable for subculturing and showed a stable proliferation potential up to the 2nd passage. However, the pavimentous epithelial-like morphology of COEC was progressively lost over time and mainly a fibroblast-like monolayer was established in consecutive passages. Moreover, various commercial transfection agents including FuGENE6 and XtremeGENE9 DNA were used to optimize delivery of human interferon alfa-2a, (IFNα2a) a therapeutic protein gene under an ovalbumin promoter. The transfection efficiency of adherent COEC was estimated for up to 40% at a ratio of 6:1 of transfectant to pOVA5EIFN + GFP plasmid. Expression of IFNα2a was confirmed by western blotting in transformed COEC. In conclusion, the population of epithelial progenitor cells sourced from the distal oviduct can significantly contribute to in vitro culture of COEC, representing an efficient model to develop the production of avian bioreactors and other in vitro studies related to oviduct tissue. PMID:27172711

  8. CFD simulation of rotating heat pipe bioreactor with different mixing structures%旋转热管生物反应器搅拌结构的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 张红; 王中贤; 印彩霞

    2012-01-01

    Flow characteristics of different mixing formations for new-type rotating bioreactor were studied with computational fluid dynamics (CFD ). The numerical model of the rotating heat pipe bioreactor was established. The flow and the mixing process in the bioreactor were calculated with the standard k-s turbulent model,multiple-reference frame method (MRF) and sliding mesh method (SM).The stirring power and the mixing time were calculated on heat pipe evaporator with different inclination angles ( α) of 0°, 15° ,30°,and 45°. The result indicated that the mixing structure with blade of heat pipe evaporator led to the formation of three ring vortices around the axial position. Therefore, the mean velocity of the axial was relatively higher and the flow near the free surface was intensified. With the increasing of inclination angle , the flow rate near the free surface and power consumption decreased but the mixing time increased.%针对不同搅拌结构形式的新型旋转热管生物反应器内的流动特性进行数值模拟.建立旋转热管生物反应器的数值模型,将多重参考系法(MRF)与滑移网格法(SM)相结合,选用标准k-ε湍流模型模拟计算反应器内的速度分布,并对作为搅拌结构的热管蒸发段上桨叶的倾斜角度(α)在0°、15°、30°和45°时的搅拌功率和混合时间进行计算.结果表明:在搅拌结构中,有热管蒸发段桨叶反应器的轴向形成了3个漩涡区,轴向平均流速相对较高,并且靠近自由液面附近的流速也较大.随着桨叶倾斜角度的增加,反应器液面附近速度减小,搅拌功率减小,混合时间变长.

  9. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor develop...

  10. The Regional Efficiency of Mixed Crop and Livestock Type of Farming and Its Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    J. Špička

    2014-01-01

    The mixed crop and livestock farming represents significant share in agricultural output in the Czech Republic. So, it raises questions about determinants of its production efficiency. The aim of the article is to evaluate production efficiency and its determinants of mixed crop and livestock farming among the EU regions. The DEA method with variable returns to scale (DEAVRS) reveals efficient and inefficient regions including the scale efficiency. In the next step, the two-sample t-test dete...

  11. Modelling and characterization of an airlift-loop bioreactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Verlaan, P

    1987-01-01

    An airlift-loop reactor is a bioreactor for aerobic biotechnological processes. The special feature of the ALR is the recirculation of the liquid through a downcomer connecting the top and the bottom of the main bubbling section. Due to the high circulation-flow rate, efficient mixing and oxygen transfer is combined with a controlled liquid flow in the absence of mechanical agitators.Liquid velocities and gas hold-ups in an external-loop airlift reactor (ALR) on different scales were modelled...

  12. Optimal design of scalable photo-bioreactor for phototropic culturing of Haematococcus pluvialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Jun; Choi, Seung Phill; Kim, Byung Woo; Sim, Sang Jun

    2012-01-01

    The unicellular green microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis, has been examined as a microbial source for the production of astaxanthin, which has been suggested as a food supplement for humans and is also prescribed as an ingredient in eye drops because of its powerful anti-oxidant properties. In this study, we estimated the effects of the slope of a V-shaped bottom design, the volumetric flow rate of air, height/diameter (H/D) ratio, and diameter of an air sparger on the performance of a photo-bioreactor. These parameters were selected because they are recognized as important factors effecting the mixing that produces increased cell density in the reactor. The mixing effect can be measured by changes in optical density in the bioreactor over a period of time. A 6 L indoor photo-bioreactor was prepared in a short time period of 24 h for the performance study. A bioreactor designed with a V-shaped bottom with a slope of 60° showed an optical density change of 0.052 at 680 nm, which was sixfold less than the change in a photo-bioreactor designed with a flat bottom. Studies exploring the effects of bioreactor configuration and a porous metal sparger with a 10 μm pore size showed the best performance at an H/D ratio of 6:1 and a sparger diameter of 1.3 cm, respectively. The optimal rate of air flow was 0.2 vvm. The indoor culture of microalgae in the photo-bioreactor was subsequently carried for an application study using the optimal values established for the important factors. The indoor culture system was composed of a light source controlled according to cell phase, a carbon dioxide feeder, a bag-type reactor with an H/D ratio of 6:1, and a temperature controller. Results demonstrated the efficient production of microalgal cells and astaxanthin in the amounts of 2.62 g/L and 78.37 mg/L, respectively, when using adequate hydrodynamic mixing. Furthermore, the optimal design of a photo-bioreactor can be applied for the phototropic culturing of other microalgae for

  13. Development of grapevine somatic embryogenesis using an air-lift bioreactor as an efficient tool in the generation of transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Eduardo; Sequeida, Alvaro; Castro, Alvaro; Montes, Christian; Zamora, Pablo; López, Reinaldo; Acevedo, Fernando; Prieto, Humberto

    2009-01-01

    The grapevine genetic transformation programs have relayed on the use of solid media-based somatic embryogenesis. To reach a high throughput of candidate gene evaluation in 'Thompson Seedless', a semi-automatic system allowing viable transformation of explants was designed. An intermediate procedure using liquid media and agitated flasks was first characterized, leading to reduction in the biomass duplication time of pro-embryogenic (PE) cells from 30 d in dishes to 14 d. The oxygen transfer coefficient value in this system was 213h(-1) at 120rpm and 25 degrees C with a 16/8-h (light/darkness) photoperiod. The scaling-up to the air-lift bioreactor decreased the biomass duplication time of PE cells up to 5.3 d post-inoculation (pi) and an average volumetric productivity of 1.6g/(dxL). Although slight browning was seen in the explants during the phase of 8-14 d pi, no losses in their viability and regenerative capability were observed. Cultured cells showed normal elongation in the transition from heart- to the torpedo-shape and finally to advanced developmental stages, with radicle emergence and whole plant generation. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cells was efficiently incorporated after this multiplication process by use of conventional procedures in dishes, allowing the generation of transgenic plantlets confirmed by PCR. PMID:18984020

  14. Analysis of bacterial diversity and efficiency of continuous removal of Victoria Blue R from wastewater by using packed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Guey-Horng; Tseng, I-Hung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics of a packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) for continuously removing Victoria Blue R (VBR) from an aqueous solution were determined. The effects of various factors including liquid retention time (RT), VBR concentration, shock loading, and coexisting compounds on the VBR removal and bacterial community in a continuous system were investigated. The intermediates of degraded VBR and the acute toxicity of the effluent from PBB were analyzed. When the VBR concentration was lower than 400 mg/l for a two-day retention time (RT), 100% removal was achieved. During continuous operation, the efficiency initially varied with the VBR concentration and RT, but gradually increased in one to two days. Furthermore, the acute toxicity of the effluent reduced by a factor of 21.25-49.61, indicating that the PBB can be successfully operated under turbulent environmental conditions. VBR degradation involved stepwise demethylation and yielded partially dealkylated VBR species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant phylum in the PBB was Proteobacteria and that Aeromonas hydrophila dominated during the entire operating period. The characteristics of the identified species showed that the PBB is suitable for processes such as demethylation, aromatic ring opening, carbon oxidation, nitrification, and denitrification. PMID:26657084

  15. Aeration and hydrodynamics in submerged membrane bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Braak, Etienne; Alliet-Gaubert, Marion; Schetrite, Sylvie; Albasi, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is already a well-developed wastewater treatment process for both municipal and industrial applications. Nonetheless, membrane fouling remains a significant problem for its wider development. In the case of submerged membrane bioreactors (SMBRs), one of the most efficient strategies to limit fouling is the use of a gas/liquid two-phase flow to enhance the mass transfer. However, the effect of aeration still remains incompletely understood. The complexity ...

  16. Enhancement of methane production and bio-stabilisation of municipal solid waste in anaerobic bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali Sandip, T; Khare Kanchan, C; Biradar Ashok, H

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the experiment was to enhance biodegradation and methane production of municipal solid waste (MSW). Two groups of simulated anaerobic bioreactor landfill were used; one group of mixed MSW with three bioreactors (R1, R2 and R3) and second group was compostable MSW with two bioreactors (R4 and R5). The different combinations of operational parameters were aeration with addition of aerobic microbial culture, anaerobic sludge, coarse gravel mixing, intermediate soil cover and varied leachate recirculation rate. The results observed at the end of 270days prevail that the process combination of above operational parameters adopted in compostable MSW bioreactor was more efficient approach for stabilization of MSW. It has accelerated the methane production rate (141.28Lkg(-1)dry waste) by 25%. It was also observed that the degradation time of MSW was reduced by 25% compared to maximum values quoted in the literature. The nonlinear regression of the cumulative biogas production and digestion time shows that Gompertz growth equation fits the results well. PMID:22342079

  17. Energy Efficient Crawlspace Foundation Retrofit: Mixed Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Residential quality management systems have most often been designed for new home construction. To address quality in existing homes in the form of Scopes of Work (SOW), the NAHB Research Center began with a new construction scope of work and applied it to an existing home project. This document is intended to outline the steps of translating a new home construction SOW to SOW for retrofit and addressed crawlspace foundations in a mixed-humid climate.

  18. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Here, a transmission electron micrograph of engineered tissue shows a number of important landmarks present in functional heart tissue: (A) well-organized myofilaments (Mfl), z-lines (Z), and abundant glycogen granules (Gly); and (D) intercalcated disc (ID) and desmosomes (DES). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: MIT

  19. STUDY ON THE ACTION EFFICIENCY OF THE MIXES OF HERBICIDES AND FERTILISERS IN THE CORN CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. TARAŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using mixes of herbicides and fertilizers we obtain synergic effects between the components of those compositions, which is materialized in superior crops compared to the crops obtained when these products are separately used. The mix of fertilizer – herbicide is very efficient on the mono and dicotyledonous weeds of the corn crops. As well, the toxicity of these mixes to mammals is moderate, pertaining to the toxicity group III.

  20. The Regional Efficiency of Mixed Crop and Livestock Type of Farming and Its Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Špička

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The mixed crop and livestock farming represents significant share in agricultural output in the Czech Republic. So, it raises questions about determinants of its production efficiency. The aim of the article is to evaluate production efficiency and its determinants of mixed crop and livestock farming among the EU regions. The DEA method with variable returns to scale (DEAVRS reveals efficient and inefficient regions including the scale efficiency. In the next step, the two-sample t-test determines differences of economic and structural indicators between efficient and inefficient regions. The research reveals that substitution of labor by capital/ contract work positively affects income indicator Farm Net Value Added per AWU. The significant economic determinants of production efficiency in mixed type of farming are crop output per hectare, livestock output per livestock unit, productivity of energy and capital. Agricultural enterprises in inefficient regions have more extensive structure and produce more non-commodity output (public goods.

  1. Microbial acetate oxidation in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Slavica; B Šantek; S Novak; V Marić

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of conducting a continuous aerobic bioprocess in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). Aerobic oxidation of acetate by the action of a mixed microbial culture was chosen as a model process. The microbial culture was not only grown in a suspension but also in the form of a biofilm on the interior surface of HRTB. Efficiency of the bioprocess was monitored by determination of the acetate concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). While acetate inlet concentration and feeding rate influenced efficiency of acetate oxidation, the bioreactor rotation speed did not influence the bioprocess dynamics significantly. Gradients of acetate concentration and pH along HRTB were more pronounced at lower feeding rates. Volumetric load of acetate was proved to be the most significant parameter. High volumetric loads (above 2 g acetate l–1 h–1) gave poor acetate oxidation efficiency (only 17 to 50%). When the volumetric load was in the range of 0.60–1.75 g acetate l–1 h–1, acetate oxidation efficiency was 50–75%. At lower volumetric loads (0.14–0.58 g acetate l–1 h–1), complete acetate consumption was achieved. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that HRTB is suitable for conducting aerobic continuous bioprocesses.

  2. Efficient charge balance in blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by two types of mixed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hyung Jin; Lee, Ho Won; Lee, Song Eun; Sun, Yong; Hwang, Kyo Min; Yoo, Han Kyu; Lee, Sung Kyu [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Young, E-mail: wykim@hoseo.edu [Department of Green Energy & Semiconductor Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-31

    The authors have demonstrated a highly efficient and long-lifetime blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (PHOLED) that uses two types of mixed layers. The mixed layers play the role of carrier injection control and exciton generation zone extension. One of the layers is applied for mixing the hole transport layer (HTL) and host material at the HTL side for carrier injection control. The other works as a mixed electron transporting layer (ETL) and host material at the ETL side. The optimized blue PHOLED has been shown to achieve high performance owing to the mixed layer effects. It gave a maximum luminous efficiency of 25.55 cd/A, maximum external quantum efficiency of 13.05%, and lifetime of 7.24 h under 500 cd/m{sup 2}. These results indicate that applying mixed layers is a simple and efficient method that does not require significant structural change. - Highlights: • Highly efficient blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLEDs) • Hole transporting layer consists with mixed layer for delayed hole injection • The blue PHOLEDs with long lifetime due to suppression of quenching process.

  3. Technical Efficiency and Organ Transplant Performance: A Mixed-Method Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen de-Pablos-Heredero; Carlos Fernández-Renedo; Jose-Amelio Medina-Merodio

    2015-01-01

    Mixed methods research is interesting to understand complex processes. Organ transplants are complex processes in need of improved final performance in times of budgetary restrictions. As the main objective a mixed method approach is used in this article to quantify the technical efficiency and the excellence achieved in organ transplant systems and to prove the influence of organizational structures and internal processes in the observed technical efficiency. The results show that it is poss...

  4. Lignocellulose-derived thin stillage composition and efficient biological treatment with a high-rate hybrid anaerobic bioreactor system

    KAUST Repository

    Oosterkamp, Margreet J.

    2016-06-06

    Background This study aims to chemically characterize thin stillage derived from lignocellulosic biomass distillation residues in terms of organic strength, nutrient, and mineral content. The feasibility of performing anaerobic digestion on these stillages at mesophilic (40 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures to produce methane was demonstrated. The microbial communities involved were further characterized. Results Energy and sugar cane stillage have a high chemical oxygen demand (COD of 43 and 30 g/L, respectively) and low pH (pH 4.3). Furthermore, the acetate concentration in sugar cane stillage was high (45 mM) but was not detected in energy cane stillage. There was also a high amount of lactate in both types of stillage (35–37 mM). The amount of sugars was 200 times higher in energy cane stillage compared to sugar cane stillage. Although there was a high concentration of sulfate (18 and 23 mM in sugar and energy cane stillage, respectively), both thin stillages were efficiently digested anaerobically with high COD removal under mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions and with an organic loading rate of 15–21 g COD/L/d. The methane production rate was 0.2 L/g COD, with a methane percentage of 60 and 64, and 92 and 94 % soluble COD removed, respectively, by the mesophilic and thermophilic reactors. Although both treatment processes were equally efficient, there were different microbial communities involved possibly arising from the differences in the composition of energy cane and sugar cane stillage. There was more acetic acid in sugar cane stillage which may have promoted the occurrence of aceticlastic methanogens to perform a direct conversion of acetate to methane in reactors treating sugar cane stillage. Conclusions Results showed that thin stillage contains easily degradable compounds suitable for anaerobic digestion and that hybrid reactors can efficiently convert thin stillage to methane under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions

  5. Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

  6. Change Best: Task 2.3. Analysis of policy mix and development of Energy Efficiency Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Change Best project is to promote the development of an energy efficiency service (EES) market and to give good practice examples of changes in energy service business, strategies, and supportive policies and measures in the course of the implementation of Directive 2006/32/EC on Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services. This report addresses task 2.3: Analysis of policy mix and development of Energy Efficiency Services.

  7. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED WETTABILITY AT DIFFERENT SCALES AND ITS IMPACT ON OIL RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul M. Sharma; George J. Hirasaki

    2003-09-01

    The objectives of the this research project were to: (1) Quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir; (2) Study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states; (3) Clarify the effect of mixed-wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods; and (4) Develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturations and relative permeabilities.

  9. Quantum Chernoff bound as a measure of efficiency of quantum cloning for mixed states

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiu, Iulia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the efficiency of quantum cloning of $N$ identical mixed qubits. We employ a recently introduced measure of distinguishability of quantum states called quantum Chernoff bound. We evaluate the quantum Chernoff bound between the output clones generated by the cloning machine and the initial mixed qubit state. Our analysis is illustrated by performing numerical calculation of the quantum Chernoff bound for different scenarios that involves the number of initial qubit...

  10. Optimizing of Bioreactor Heat Supply and Material Feeding by Numerical Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Song, Boyan; Zhu, Likuan; Li, Zuntao; Wang, Yang

    Cell culture at large scale normally uses stirred structure. And the situation of temperature field distribution is very important to the cell culture at large scale. Some cells are very sensitive to the circumstances. The local temperature is too high or too low all influences the cell survival and low the cell quantity at unit volume. This paper simulates the temperature field under three different heating conditions. Then analysis and contrast the simulation results. The mixed situation in bioreactor is extremely significant for nutrition transmit. Usually, use ways to measure the average mixture time in bioreactor, and improve the mixture circumstance in the bioreactor through stirred impeller and bioreactor structure change. This paper adopts numerical calculation method to investigate the flow field in bioreactor. It gets the mixture time of bioreactor through virtual tracer in simulate flow field and detects the tracer density time variation curve in the bioreactor.

  11. Application of a mixed DEA model to evaluate relative efficiency validity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Data envelopment analysis(DEA) model is widely used to evaluate the relative efficiency of producers. It is a kind of objective decision method with multiple indexes. However, the two basic models frequently used at present, the C2R model and the C2GS2 model have limitations when used alone,resulting in evaluations that are often unsatisfactory. In order to solve this problem, a mixed DEA model is built and is used to evaluate the validity of the business efficiency of listed companies. An explanation of how to use this mixed DEA model is offered and its feasibility is verified.

  12. Tapered bed bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  13. A simple method for estimation of coagulation efficiency in mixed aerosols. [environmental pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmick, R. L.; Boyd, A.; Wolochow, H.

    1975-01-01

    Aerosols of KBr and AgNO3 were mixed, exposed to light in a glass tube and collected in the dark. About 15% of the collected material was reduced to silver upon development. Thus, two aerosols of particles that react to form a photo-reducible compound can be used to measure coagulation efficiency.

  14. High cell density and productivity culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells in a fluidized bed bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, D.; Cardak, S.; Chen, M.; Gentz, R; Zhang, J.

    1999-01-01

    A recombinant Chinese hamster ovary clone was cultivated in a 2L Cytopilot Mini fluidized bed bioreactor using Cytoline 1 microcarriers and a 10L B. Braun stirred tank bioreactor with Cytodex 1 microcarriers. Cytoline 1 is a macroporous polyethylene microcarrier and Cytodex 1 is a solid DEAE-dextran microcarrier. Cytoline 1 microcarriers in the fluidized bed bioreactor were gently mixed by an uplifting flow. Circulation and sparging in Cytopilot Mini were separated from the fluidized microcar...

  15. Technical efficiency and organ transplant performance: a mixed-method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Pablos-Heredero, Carmen; Fernández-Renedo, Carlos; Medina-Merodio, Jose-Amelio

    2015-05-01

    Mixed methods research is interesting to understand complex processes. Organ transplants are complex processes in need of improved final performance in times of budgetary restrictions. As the main objective a mixed method approach is used in this article to quantify the technical efficiency and the excellence achieved in organ transplant systems and to prove the influence of organizational structures and internal processes in the observed technical efficiency. The results show that it is possible to implement mechanisms for the measurement of the different components by making use of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The analysis show a positive relationship between the levels related to the Baldrige indicators and the observed technical efficiency in the donation and transplant units of the 11 analyzed hospitals. Therefore it is possible to conclude that high levels in the Baldrige indexes are a necessary condition to reach an increased level of the service offered. PMID:25950653

  16. Materials, geometry, and net energy ratio of tubular photo bioreactors for micro-algal hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G Burgess; K Lovegrove [Department of Engineering, Australian National University Canberra ACT 0200, (Australia); J G Fernandez-Velasco [Photobioenergetics Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University Canberra ACT 0200, (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    We estimate the energy content, the operational energy inputs, and the net energy ratio (NER) of an industrial tubular photo bioreactor used for the photosynthetic production of H{sub 2} by micro-algae. The calculated H{sub 2} output of the photo bioreactor is based on a range of algal photosynthetic H{sub 2} generation efficiencies, and on the application of standard theory for tubular solar collectors. Small diameter reactors have a low NER as the mixing energy becomes large. For a tubular photo bioreactor, low density polyethylene (LDPE) film and glass have significantly higher NERs than rigid polymers such as poly-methyl methyl-acrylate (acrylic). Using a hypothetical improved micro-algal H{sub 2} generation efficiency of 5 %, a NER {approx} 6 can be obtained for LDPE film and for glass. For mechanical and assembly reasons LDPE film is the material of choice. These results show that photo bio-hydrogen could be a viable H{sub 2} generation technology. (authors)

  17. Doping in the Mixed Layer to Achieve High Brightness and Efficiency Organic Light Emitting Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文宝; 杨开霞; 刘宏宇; 冯晶; 刘式墉

    2002-01-01

    Doping in the mixed layer was introduced to fabricate high brightness and high efficiency organic light emitting devices. In these devices, a copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) film acts as the buffer layer, a naphthylphenybiphenyl amine (NPB) film as the hole transport layer and a tris(8-hydroxyquinolinolate)aluminium (Alq3) film as the electron transport layer. The luminescent layer consists of the mixture of NPB, Alq3 (to be called the mixed layer), and an emitting dopant 5,6,11,12-petraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene), where the concentration of NPB declined and the concentration of Alq3 was increased gradually in the deposition process. Adopting this doping mixed layer, the device exhibits the maximum emission of 49300cd/m2 at 35 V and the maximum efficiency of 7.96cd/A at 10.5 V, which have been improved by two times in comparison with conventional doped devices. We attribute this improvement to the effective confinement of carriers in the mixed layer, which leads to the increase of the recombination efficiency of carriers.

  18. Immersed Membrane Bioreactors for Produced Water Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Brookes, Adam

    2005-01-01

    The performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor for the duty of gas field produced water treatment was appraised. The system was operated under steady state conditions at a range of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations and treatment and membrane performance examined. Organics removal (COD and TOC) display removal rates between 90 and 97%. Removal of specific target compounds Benzene, Toulene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene were removed to above 99% in liquid phase...

  19. Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Lousada-Ferreira, M

    2011-01-01

    The Thesis entitled “Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors” aims at explaining the relation between Mixed Liquid Suspended Solids (MLSS) concentration, the amount of solids in the wastewater being treated, also designated as sludge, and filterability, being the ability of the sludge to be filtrated through a membrane, in a wastewater treatment system designated as Membrane Bioreactor (MBR). An MBR is a wastewater treatment system that combines an activated sludge proc...

  20. Characterization of Mixed Wettability at Different Scales and its Impact on Oil Recovery Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mukul M.; Hirasaki, George J.

    2002-01-28

    The objectives of this project was to: (1) quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir, (2) study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states, (3) clarify the effect of mixed - wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods, (4) develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturation's and relative permeabilities, and (5) develop methods for properly incorporating wettability in up-scaling from pore to core to reservoir scales.

  1. Characterization of Mixed Wettability at Different Scales and its Impact on Oil Recovery Efficiency; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this project was to: (1) quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir, (2) study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states, (3) clarify the effect of mixed - wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods, (4) develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturation's and relative permeabilities, and (5) develop methods for properly incorporating wettability in up-scaling from pore to core to reservoir scales

  2. Quantum Chernoff bound as a measure of the efficiency of quantum cloning for mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we investigate the efficiency of quantum cloning of N identical mixed qubits. We employ a recently introduced measure of distinguishability of quantum states called the quantum Chernoff bound. We evaluate the quantum Chernoff bound between the output clones generated by the cloning machine and the initial mixed qubit state. Our analysis is illustrated by performing numerical calculation of the quantum Chernoff bound for different scenarios that involves the number of initial qubits N and the number of output imperfect copies M. (paper)

  3. NASA Classroom Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  4. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. Mixed Ge/Pb perovskite light absorbers with an ascendant efficiency explored from theoretical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping-Ping; Li, Quan-Song; Feng, Shuai; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Organic-inorganic methylammonium lead halide perovskites have recently attracted great interest emerging as promising photovoltaic materials with a high 20.8% efficiency, but lead pollution is still a problem that may hinder the development and wide spread of MAPbI3 perovskites. To reduce the use of lead, we investigated the structures, electronic and optical properties of mixed MAGexPb(1-x)I3 theoretically by using density functional theory methods at different calculation levels. Results show that the mixed Ge/Pb perovskites exhibit a monotonic decrease evolution in band energy to push the band gap deeper in the near-infrared region and have a red shift optical absorption with an increased proportion of Ge. The results also indicate that lattice distortion and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) strength play important roles in the band gap behavior of MAGexPb(1-x)I3 by affecting the bandwidths of CBM and VBM. The calculations for short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, and theoretical power conversion efficiency suggest that mixed Ge/Pb perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with efficiency over 22% are superior to MAPbI3 and MAGeI3. And notably, MAGe0.75Pb0.25I3 is a promising harmless material for solar cells absorber with the highest theoretical efficiency of 24.24%. These findings are expected to be helpful for further rational design of nontoxic light absorption layer for high-performance PSCs. PMID:27171746

  6. Estimating the Effect of Helium and Nitrogen Mixing on Deposition Efficiency in Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ozan C.; Widener, Christian A.; Helfritch, Dennis; Delfanian, Fereidoon

    2016-04-01

    Cold spray is a developing technology that is increasingly finding applications for coating of similar and dissimilar metals, repairing geometric tolerance defects to extend expensive part life and additive manufacturing across a variety of industries. Expensive helium is used to accelerate the particles to higher velocities in order to achieve the highest deposit strengths and to spray hard-to-deposit materials. Minimal information is available in the literature studying the effects of He-N2 mixing on coating deposition efficiency, and how He can potentially be conserved by gas mixing. In this study, a one-dimensional simulation method is presented for estimating the deposition efficiency of aluminum coatings, where He-N2 mixture ratios are varied. The simulation estimations are experimentally validated through velocity measurements and single particle impact tests for Al6061.

  7. High-tech mixed-use buildings: attitudes to energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haughey, D.P.

    1990-03-01

    An overview is given of a market research study of occupiers and providers of high-tech mixed-use office and industrial developments. Attitudes to energy efficiency and environment, and to building labelling for these features, were examined in relation to the process of building selection and development. This information will be of interest to developers, financial institutions, development agencies, architects, building services engineers, owners, tenants and property agents concerned with this type of building. (author).

  8. REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS FROM DAIRY WASTEWATER ANAEROBIC REACTOR WITH CAGE MIXING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Hajduk; Marcin Dębowski; Marcin Zieliński; Agnieszka Ligus

    2016-01-01

    An alternative to aerobic wastewater treatment systems are anaerobic reactors. When designing anaerobic reactors attention is paid to the appropriate filling, pumping systems, or mixing systems, enabling the re-duction of technological limitations, which contribute to the improvement of end effects such as, quantity and quality of the resulting biogas and the quality of treated wastewater. Described experiment related to researches on the evaluation of the efficiency of removing contamina-tio...

  9. Efficient Photocatalytic Activities of TiO2 Hollow Fibers with Mixed Phases and Mesoporous Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huilin; Shang, Minghui; Wang, Lin; Li, Wenge; Tang, Bin; Yang, Weiyou

    2015-10-01

    Currently, Degussa P25, with the typical mixed phases of anatase and rutile TiO2, is widely applied as the commercial photocatalysts. However, there are still some of obstacles for the P25 nanoparticles with totally high photocatalytic activities, especially for the catalytic stability due to their inevitable aggregation of the nanoparticles when used as the photocatalysts. In the present work, we reported the exploration of a novel TiO2 photocatalyst, which could offer an ideal platform for synergetic combination of the mixed-phase composition, hollow architecture and mesoporous walls for the desired excellent photocatalytic efficiency and robust stability. The mesoporous TiO2 hollow nanofibers were fabricated via a facile single capillary electrospinning technique, in which the foaming agents were used for creating mesopores throughout the walls of the hollow fibers. The obtained hollow fibers exhibit a high purity and possess the mixed phases of 94.6% anatase and 5.4% rutile TiO2. As compared to P25, the as-fabricated mesoporous TiO2 hollow fibers exhibited much higher efficient photocatalytic activities and stabilities toward the hydrogen evolution with a rate of ~499.1 μmol g-1·h-1 and ~99.5% degradation Rhodamine B (RhB) in 60 min, suggesting their promising application in efficient photocatalysts.

  10. Efficient schedulability analysis for mixed-criticality systems under deadline-based scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Safety-critical avionics systems which become more complex and tend to integrate multiple functionalities with different levels of criticality for better cost and power efficiency are subject to certifications at various levels of rigorousness. In order to simultaneously guarantee temporal constraints at all different levels of assurance mandated by different criticalities, novel scheduling techniques are in need. In this paper, a mixed-criticality sporadic task model with multiple virtual deadlines is built and a certification-cognizant dynamic scheduling approach referred as earliest virtual-deadline first with mixed-criticality (EVDF-MC is considered, which exploits different relative deadlines of tasks in different criticality modes. As for the corresponding schedulability analysis problem, a sufficient and efficient schedulability test is proposed on the basis of demand-bound functions derived in the mixed-criticality scenario. In addition, a modified simulated annealing (MSA-based heuristic approach is established for virtual deadlines assignment. Experiments performing simulations with randomly generated tasks indicate that the proposed approach is computationally efficient and competes well against the existing approaches.

  11. Performance of pulsed plate bioreactor for biodegradation of phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodegradation of phenol was carried out using Nocardia hydrocarbonoxydans immobilised on glass beads, in a pulsed plate bioreactor. The effect of operating parameters like frequency of pulsation and amplitude of pulsation on the performance of pulsed plate bioreactor for biodegradation of phenol in a synthetic wastewater containing 500 ppm phenol was studied. Axial concentration profile measurements revealed that the pulsed plate bioreactor shows continuous stirred tank behaviour. As the amplitude was increased, percentage degradation increased, reaching 100% at amplitude of 4.7 cm and higher. Introduction of pulsation is found to increase the percentage degradation. Percentage degradation has increased with increase in frequency and 100% degradation was achieved at 0.5 s-1 and above. Biofilms developed in a non-pulsed bioreactor were thicker than those in the pulsed plate bioreactor. But biofilm thickness remained almost constant with increasing frequency. Biofilm density was found to be influenced by pulsation. The time required to reach steady state was more for pulsed reactor than the non-pulsed reactor and this start-up time had increased with increase in frequency of pulsation. The performance studies reveal that the pulsed plate bioreactor with immobilized cells has the potential to be an efficient bioreactor for wastewater treatment

  12. Mixing efficiency of sediment and momentum above rippled beds under oscillatory flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarkey, J.; Magar, V.; Davies, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    While the nature of the suspended load above steep, wave-induced, sand ripples is of practical importance, it also raises intriguing questions about the relative mixing efficiencies of sediment and momentum above the seabed. It has been widely accepted that the mixing efficiency of sediment is substantially greater than that of momentum. But, hitherto, this has not been explained clearly in terms of the underlying, detailed physical mechanisms which revolve around the generation and ejection of sediment-laden vortices at the ripple crest, and their subsequent advection by the flow. A two-dimensional discrete-vortex, particle-tracking research model, with the parameter settings corresponding to a well-documented laboratory experiment, is used here to represent these processes. Both the modelled and also experimental flow and concentration fields are described in detail, together with the horizontally (ripple-) averaged fields, and the cycle-mean, ripple-averaged fields. From these considerations, the ratio (β) of the sediment diffusivity to the eddy viscosity, or the inverse of the Schmidt number, is then determined. It is found that β is larger than unity, in fact between 1.3 and 3.1 for two different computational approaches (based on harmonics and exponential fitting) for the model and data. These values for β agree well with previous results reported in the literature. This research elucidates, from fundamental principles related to spatio-temporal correlations between concentration and velocity, the improved efficiency of sediment mixing compared with momentum mixing in the vortex layer above rippled beds and its key role in determining suspension profiles in such flows.

  13. Engineering skeletal muscle tissue in bioreactor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Yang; Li Dong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) related to skeletal muscle and kinds of bioreactor environment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection A total of 106 articles were selected from several hundred original articles or reviews.The content of selected articles is in accordance with our purpose and the authors are authorized scientists in the study of engineered muscle tissue in bioreactor.Results Skeletal muscle TE is a promising interdisciplinary field which aims at the reconstruction of skeletal muscle loss.Although numerous studies have indicated that engineering skeletal muscle tissue may be of great importance in medicine in the near future,this technique still represents a limited degree of success.Since tissue-engineered muscle constructs require an adequate connection to the vascular system for efficient transport of oxygen,carbon dioxide,nutrients and waste products.Moreover,functional and clinically applicable muscle constructs depend on adequate neuromuscular junctions with neural calls.Third,in order to engineer muscle tissue successfully,it may be beneficial to mimic the in vivo environment of muscle through association with adequate stimuli from bioreactors.Conclusion Vascular system and bioreactors are necessary for development and maintenance of engineered muscle in order to provide circulation within the construct.

  14. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  15. Conversion efficiency in the process of copolarized spontaneous four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the process of copolarized spontaneous four-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers, with an emphasis on an analysis of the conversion efficiency. We consider both the monochromatic-pump and pulsed-pump regimes, as well as both the degenerate-pump and nondegenerate-pump configurations. We present analytical expressions for the conversion efficiency, which are given in terms of double integrals. In the case of pulsed pumps we take these expressions to closed analytical form with the help of certain approximations. We present results of numerical simulations, and compare them to values obtained from our analytical expressions, for the conversion efficiency as a function of several key experimental parameters.

  16. An efficient planar accordion-shaped micromixer: from biochemical mixing to biological application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Armando; Madadi, Hojjat; Vergara, Paola; Vecchione, Raffaele; Causa, Filippo; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Micromixers are the key component that allow lab-on-a-chip and micro total analysis systems to reach the correct level of mixing for any given process. This paper proposes a novel, simple, passive micromixer design characterized by a planar accordion-shape geometry. The geometrical characteristics of the presented design were analyzed numerically in the range of 0.01 experimentally investigated by means of fluorescence microscopy for a range of low diffusion coefficients, 10(-12) structure was fabricated in a simple single-step process using maskless lithography and soft lithography. The experimental results showed a very good agreement with the predicted numerical results. This micromixer design including a single serpentine unit (1-SERP) displayed an efficiency higher than 90% (mixing length = 6.4 mm) creating a pressure drop of about 500 Pa at Re = 0.1 and 60 kPa at Re = 10. A mixing efficiency of almost 100% was readily reached when three serpentine units were included (3-SERP). Finally, the potential diagnostic value of the presented microdevice was validated experimentally for Red Blood Cell (RBC) lysis. PMID:26658848

  17. Efficient removal of disperse dye by mixed culture of ganoderma lucidum and coriolus versicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current study, an attempt was made to check the potential of aerobic mixed culture of two indigenous white rot fungi for the decolorization of different disperse dyes in batch culture mode and optimization of different conditions to enhance the biotransformation of dyes. Initial screening trial with six disperse dyes, viz. (Foron Yellow RD5GL, Foron Red RDRBLS, Foron Rubine RDGFL, Foron Black RD3GRN, Foron Blue RDGLN and Foron Turquoise SBLN), was carried out using mixed culture of Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor. From all the tested dyes, the mixed culture showed better removal efficiency (93 %) with Foron Turquoise SBLN dye after 8 days of incubation period as compared to other tested dyes. Enhanced color removal (98 %) was observed when the medium was amended by ammonium tartarate, maltose, MnSO/sub 4/ at pH 4.5 and 30 degree C with 2 mL fungal culture during 2nd day of incubation period. Enzyme profile showed that the mixed culture produced three liginolytic enzymes like lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and laccase but MnP was found to be the major enzyme. The results indicated that white rot fungi (WRF) could be used to treat wastewater containing disperse dyes. (author)

  18. Sludge Bulking Property of Membrane Bio-reactor in Albumen Wqastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Albumen wastewater was treated by Membrane Bio-reactor. Sludge bulking property of Membrane Bio-Reactor was investigated in this study through contrast research. When the sludge bulking appeared, the removal efficiency of COD in Membrane Bio-reactor increased slightly under the function of filamentous bacteria. However, the negative effects of the higher net water-head differential pressures,the higher block rate of membrane pore and the great quantity of filamentous bacteria at the externalsurface pres...

  19. The Potential for Microalgae as Bioreactors to Produce Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Na; Fan, Chengming; Chen, Yuhong; Hu, Zanmin

    2016-01-01

    As photosynthetic organisms, microalgae can efficiently convert solar energy into biomass. Microalgae are currently used as an important source of valuable natural biologically active molecules, such as carotenoids, chlorophyll, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, phycobiliproteins, carotenoids and enzymes. Significant advances have been achieved in microalgae biotechnology over the last decade, and the use of microalgae as bioreactors for expressing recombinant proteins is receiving increased interest. Compared with the bioreactor systems that are currently in use, microalgae may be an attractive alternative for the production of pharmaceuticals, recombinant proteins and other valuable products. Products synthesized via the genetic engineering of microalgae include vaccines, antibodies, enzymes, blood-clotting factors, immune regulators, growth factors, hormones, and other valuable products, such as the anticancer agent Taxol. In this paper, we briefly compare the currently used bioreactor systems, summarize the progress in genetic engineering of microalgae, and discuss the potential for microalgae as bioreactors to produce pharmaceuticals. PMID:27322258

  20. The Potential for Microalgae as Bioreactors to Produce Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Na; Fan, Chengming; Chen, Yuhong; Hu, Zanmin

    2016-01-01

    As photosynthetic organisms, microalgae can efficiently convert solar energy into biomass. Microalgae are currently used as an important source of valuable natural biologically active molecules, such as carotenoids, chlorophyll, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, phycobiliproteins, carotenoids and enzymes. Significant advances have been achieved in microalgae biotechnology over the last decade, and the use of microalgae as bioreactors for expressing recombinant proteins is receiving increased interest. Compared with the bioreactor systems that are currently in use, microalgae may be an attractive alternative for the production of pharmaceuticals, recombinant proteins and other valuable products. Products synthesized via the genetic engineering of microalgae include vaccines, antibodies, enzymes, blood-clotting factors, immune regulators, growth factors, hormones, and other valuable products, such as the anticancer agent Taxol. In this paper, we briefly compare the currently used bioreactor systems, summarize the progress in genetic engineering of microalgae, and discuss the potential for microalgae as bioreactors to produce pharmaceuticals. PMID:27322258

  1. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  2. Efficient performance and the microbial community changes of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor in treatment of sewage containing cellulose suspended solid at 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ryoya; Nie, Yulun; Takahashi, Shintaro; Wakahara, Shinichiro; Li, Yu-You

    2016-09-01

    Influence of cellulose as suspended solid (SS) on the performance of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) was evaluated at 25°C using two types of synthetic sewage (SS contained or not). During the 110days operation, COD and BOD removal, CH4 gas recovery and cellulose accumulation were investigated in detail. The influence of cellulose as SS in sewage on the SAnMBR performance was not significant at HRT longer than12h and 65-72% of the influent COD was recovered as methane gas at HRT of 12h. At HRT of 6h, the quality of effluent got worse and the accumulation of cellulose was found in reactor. 16S rRNA analysis revealed that the microbial diversity distribution including Archaea and Bacteria changed due to the addition of SS in sewage and specific microbe for cellulose degradation such as Proteobacteria was detected. Sludge in SAnMBR could acclimate to characteristics of sewage by self-adaptation. PMID:27235975

  3. Mathematical model analysis on the enhancement of aeration efficiency using ladder-type flat membrane module forms in the Submerged Membrane Bio-reactor (SMBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; YE MaoSheng; YANG FengLin; MA Hui

    2009-01-01

    The cross-flow shearing action produced from the inferior aeration in the Submerged Membrane Bio-reactor (SMBR) Is an effective way to further improve anti-fouling effects of membrane modules.Based on the widely-applied vertical structure of flat membrane modules, improvements are made that ladder-type flat membrane structure is designed with a certain inclined angle θ so that the cross-flow velocity of bubble near the membrane surface can be held, and the intensity and times of elastic colli-sion between bubbles and membrane surface can be increased. This can improve scouring action ofmembrane surface on aeration and reduce energy consumption of strong aeration in SMBR. By de-ducing and improving the mathematics model of collision between bubble and vertical flat put forward by Vries, the relatively suitable Incline angle θ under certain aeration place and in certain size rang ofbubble can be obtained with the computer iterative calculation technology. Finally, for many groups of ladder-type flat membrane in parallel placement in the practical application of SMBR, some sugges-tions are offered: the interval distance of membrane modules is 8--15 mm, and aeration should be op-erated at 5--7 mm among membrane modules, and the optimal design angle of trapeziform membrane is 1.7°--2.5°.

  4. Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “ni...

  5. Highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on solution-processed small molecular mixed-host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly efficient solution-processed red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices were developed using 4,4′,4″-tris (N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) blended with 4,4′-bis-(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) as a mixed-host for the emitting layer. The performances of the fabricated devices made with different mixing ratios of host materials were investigated, and were found to depend on the mixing ratios. Under the optimal TCTA:CBP ratio (3:7), the maximum luminous efficiency of the device reached 19.9 cd/A, corresponding to external quantum efficiency of 11.1%. Moreover, this device with the mixed-host structure shows over 50% enhanced efficiency compared with the device using CBP as the single host. These improvements were attributed to the mixed-host structure, which effectively enhanced the hole injection/transport properties and gave a good charge carrier balance. - Highlights: • Solution processed high efficiency red phosphorescent OLEDs. • Small molecule mixed host system exhibits good device performances. • A maximum current efficiency of 19.9 cd/A was obtained in the device. • Mixed-host structure was utilized to obtain better charge carrier balance

  6. Highly efficient picosecond degenerate four-wave mixing in a tellurite microstructured optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hoang Tuan, Tong; Kawamura, Harutaka; Nagasaka, Kenshiro; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2016-06-01

    Wavelength-tunable picosecond degenerate four-wave mixing was demonstrated in a tellurite microstructured optical fiber (TMOF). The zero-dispersion wavelength of the TMOF was shifted to 1570 nm by introducing a single ring of air holes in the cladding. The anti-Stokes signal sideband can be generated from 1490 to 1500 nm, and the Stokes idler sideband can emit from 1595 to 1645 nm. Because of the high nonlinearity of the TMOF and the large peak power of the picosecond pump, a maximal signal gain of 31.2 dB and an idler conversion efficiency of +35 dB were achieved.

  7. Testing for Ownership Mix Efficiency: The Case of the Nursing Home Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rexford E. Santerre; John A. Vernon

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers an empirical test of ownership mix efficiency in the U.S. nursing home industry. We test to compare the benefits of quality assurance with the costs from the attenuation of property rights that result from an increased presence of nonprofit organizations. The empirical results suggest that too few nonprofit nursing homes may exist in the typical market area of the U.S. The policy implication is that more quality of care per dollar might be obtained by attracting a greater pe...

  8. Regulatory and Environmental Effects on Public Transit Efficiency. A Mixed DEA-SFA Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Beniamina Buzzo Margari; Fabrizio Erbetta; Carmelo Petraglia; Massimiliano Piacenza

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to account for the impact of statistical noise and exogenous regulatory and environmental factors on the efficiency of public transit systems in a DEA-based framework. To this end, we implement a three-stage DEA-SFA mixed approach based on Fried et al. (2002) using a 1993-1999 panel of 42 Italian public transit companies. This allows us to decompose input-specific DEA inefficiency measures into three components: exogenous effects, pure managerial inefficiency, and sta...

  9. Membrane bioreactor for waste gas treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Reij, M W

    1997-01-01

    SummaryThis thesis describes the design and testing of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for removal of organic pollutants from air. In such a bioreactor for biological gas treatment pollutants are degraded by micro-organisms. The membrane bioreactor is an alternative to other types of bioreactors for waste gas treatment, such as compost biofilters and bioscrubbers. Propene was used as a model pollutant to study the membrane bioreactor.A membrane bioreactor for waste gas treatment consists of a gas...

  10. Hydrodynamic performance of a three-phase airlift bioreactor with an enlarged degassing zone

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, A.A.; Teixeira, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of biotechnological processes is complex. So far, few studies were made with bioreactors of the airlift type with an enlarged degassing zone. In this work, the influence of solids loading, solids specific gravity and draught tube dimensions on mixing and circulation times and critical air flow rate for an internal loop airlift bioreactor with an enlarged sedimentation/degassing zone is studied. The results indicate that the critical air flow rate as well as the mixing ...

  11. Proof-of-concept of a novel micro-bioreactor for fast development of industrial bioprocesses

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, N; C. N. Gonçalves; Vicente, A.A.; Teixeira, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The experimental performance of a novel micro-bioreactor envisaged for parallel screening and development of industrial bioprocesses has been tested in this work. The micro-bioreactor with an internal volume of 4.5mL is operated under oscillatory flow mixing (OFM), where a controllable mixing and mass transfer rates are achieved under batch or continuous laminar flow conditions. Several batch fermentations with a flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain were carried out at initi...

  12. Studies of Four Wave Mixing in a Cold Atomic Ensemble for Efficient Generation of Photon Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Andrew Richard; Luo, Xijie; Becerra, Francisco Elohim

    2016-05-01

    Photon pairs generated by spontaneous four-wave mixing (FWM) in atomic ensembles provide a natural path toward quantum light-matter interfaces due to their intrinsic compatibility with atomic quantum memories. We study the generation of light from a semi-classical FWM process in an elongated ensemble of cold cesium (Cs) atoms. We investigate the generation efficiency as a function of power, detuning, and polarization of the pump fields in the process. This study will allow us to determine the pump-field parameters in our system for the efficient generation of correlated photon pairs from a spontaneous FWM process. This work is supported by AFOSR Grant FA9550-14-1-0300.

  13. Iron-60 evidence for early injection and efficient mixing of stellar debris in the protosolar nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Dauphas, N; Sacarabany, A; Fröhlich, C; Davis, A M; Wadhwa, M; Pourmand, A; Rauscher, T; Gallino, R

    2008-01-01

    Among extinct radioactivities present in meteorites, 60Fe (t1/2 = 1.49 Myr) plays a key role as a high-resolution chronometer, a heat source in planetesimals, and a fingerprint of the astrophysical setting of solar system formation. A critical issue with 60Fe is that it could have been heterogeneously distributed in the protoplanetary disk, calling into question the efficiency of mixing in the solar nebula or the timing of 60Fe injection relative to planetesimal formation. If this were the case, one would expect meteorites that did not incorporate 60Fe (either because of late injection or incomplete mixing) to show 60Ni deficits (from lack of 60Fe decay) and collateral effects on other neutron-rich isotopes of Fe and Ni (coproduced with 60Fe in core-collapse supernovae and AGB-stars). Here, we show that measured iron meteorites and chondrites have Fe and Ni isotopic compositions identical to Earth. This demonstrates that 60Fe must have been injected into the protosolar nebula and mixed to less than 10 % heter...

  14. Efficient gas sensitivity in mixed bismuth ferrite micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Micro (cubes) structure embedded in nano (plates) of bismuth ferrite was prepared by a chemical method. ► These structures were characterized by XRD and SEM. ► LPG, CO2 and NH4 gases were exposed. ► Properties related to gas sensors were measured and reported. -- Abstract: Mixed micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures of bismuth ferrite (BFO) have been synthesized by a simple and cost-effective wet-chemical method. Structural, morphological and phase confirmation characteristics are measured using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. The digital FE-SEM photo-images of BFO sample confirmed an incubation of discrete micro-cubes into thin and regularly placed large number of nano-plates. The bismuth ferrite, with mixed structures, films show considerable performance when used in liquefied petroleum (LPG), carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonium (NH3) gas sensors application. Different chemical entities in LPG have made it more efficient with higher sensitivity, recovery and response times compared to CO2 and NH3 gases. Furthermore, effect of palladium surface treatment on the gas sensitivity and the charge transfer resistances of BFO mixed structures is investigated and reported.

  15. An evaluation of factors influencing the energy efficient operation of well-mixed fluidized bed dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C.G.J. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Efforts to reduce the energy consumption of dryers are often hampered by a limited understanding of the influence of design and operating parameters on energy efficiency. The results of a study of energy consumption calculations performed on a well-mixed fluidized bed dryer simulator were presented. The aim of the study was to determine exhaust air temperature-humidity required in a room to yield a specified outlet moisture content. In addition, the predictions of a well-mixed fluidized bed dryer simulator were compared with those of an ideal adiabatic dryer model developed in previous research. The overall objective of the study was to contribute to the development of a strategy for evaluating the effectiveness of various energy conservation options. Six model drying curves were used to examine the effects of drying rates and hygroscopicity. Results indicated that the specific energy was higher for slow-drying hygroscopic solids and lower for fast-drying non-hygroscopic solids. Specific energy consumption increased with decreasing bed temperature and outlet moisture content, but was independent of solids loading and air flow rate. There was good agreement between zero heat loss data and a single theoretical curve which approximated the performance of the ideal adiabatic dryer. In addition, differences between the behaviour of well-mixed and plug flow fluidized bed dryers were observed. It was concluded that the insights provided by this study confirmed the value of the simulator for design and performance calculations. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. Introducing Textiles as Material of Construction of Ethanol Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osagie A. Osadolor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The conventional materials for constructing bioreactors for ethanol production are stainless and cladded carbon steel because of the corrosive behaviour of the fermenting media. As an alternative and cheaper material of construction, a novel textile bioreactor was developed and examined. The textile, coated with several layers to withstand the pressure, resist the chemicals inside the reactor and to be gas-proof was welded to form a 30 L lab reactor. The reactor had excellent performance for fermentative production of bioethanol from sugar using baker’s yeast. Experiments with temperature and mixing as process parameters were performed. No bacterial contamination was observed. Bioethanol was produced for all conditions considered with the optimum fermentation time of 15 h and ethanol yield of 0.48 g/g sucrose. The need for mixing and temperature control can be eliminated. Using a textile bioreactor at room temperature of 22 °C without mixing required 2.5 times longer retention time to produce bioethanol than at 30 °C with mixing. This will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 26% for an ethanol plant with capacity of 100,000 m3 ethanol/y. Also, replacing one 1300 m3 stainless steel reactor with 1300 m3 of the textile bioreactor in this plant will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 19%.

  17. Mixed-ligand Al complex-a new approach for more high efficient OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, Petia K., E-mail: petia@clf.bas.bg [Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies ' Acad. J. Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G Bonchev st., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tomova, Reni L.; Stoycheva-Topalova, Rumiana T. [Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies ' Acad. J. Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G Bonchev st., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kaloyanova, Stefka S.; Deligeorgiev, Todor G. [Applied Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2012-02-15

    The mixed-ligand Aluminum bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) acetylacetonate (Alq{sub 2}Acac) complex was presented and its performance as electroluminescent and electron transporting layer for OLED was studied. The photophysical properties of the novel complex were investigated and compared with the properties of the parent Alq{sub 3}. Highly efficient OLED based on the mixed-ligand Al complex was developed with two times higher luminescence and efficiency compared to the identical OLED based on the conventional Alq{sub 3} The better performance of the devices make the novel Al complex a very promising material for OLEDs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel electroluminescent Alq{sub 2}Acac complex is presented as material for OLED. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electroluminescent emission of Alq{sub 2}Acac is very similar to that of commercial Alq{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Devices with Alq{sub 2}Acac show better characteristics compared to those with Alq{sub 3}.

  18. Improvement of crud removal efficiency by inverse gradient packing profile of mixed bed resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crud removal of BWR condensate is important in order to reduce the plant radiation field. The removal of ionic impurities as well as insoluble iron (or said crud) is the dual function considered for those condensate polishers without prefilter system. The packing profile of the resins in mixed bed is homogeneous (uniform) on design basis. This profile might tend to be a shape of gradient, of which the anion exchange resin is more in the upper part and the cation exchange resin is more in the bottom part in some actual operations. The crud removal efficiency of this profile will deviate from that of assuming homogeneous packing profile one. Library column tests of different packing profiles showed that the crud removal efficiency of the homogeneous one is superior to that of the gradient one. The inverse gradient one, in which the cation exchange resin is more in the upper part and the anion exchange resin is more in the bottom part, should be the best for crud removal. A comparison of the break-through curves of the three types of mixed beds supported this result. The crud adsorption property which is related to the acidity of local absorption area was proposed to explain the experimental results. (author)

  19. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Slivac; V Gaurina Srček; K Radošević; I Kmetič; Z Kniewald

    2006-09-01

    A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring oxygen was evaluated for BHK 21 C13 cell line growth and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) production. Growth kinetics of BHK 21 C13 cells in the wave bioreactor during 3-day period were determined. At the end of the 3-day culture period and cell density of 1.82 × 106 cells ml–1, the reactor was inoculated with 9 ml of gE- Bartha K-61 strain ADV suspension (105.9 TCID50) with multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01. After a 144 h incubation period, 400 ml of ADV harvest was obtained with titre of 107.0 TCID50 ml–1, which corresponds to 40,000 doses of vaccine against AD. In conclusion, the results obtained with the wave bioreactor using BHK 21 C13 cells showed that this system can be considered as suitable for ADV or BHK 21 C13 cell biomass production.

  20. Materials, geometry, and net energy ratio of tubular photo-bioreactors for micro-algal hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, G.; Lovegrove, K. [Department of Engineering, Australian National University Canberra ACT 0200, (Australia); Fernandez-Velasco, J.G. [Photobioenergetics Group, Research School of Biological Sciences Australian National University Canberra ACT 0200, (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    We estimate the energy content, the operational energy inputs, and the net energy ratio (NER) of an industrial tubular photo-bioreactor used for the photosynthetic production of H{sub 2} by micro-algae. The calculated H{sub 2} output of the photo-bioreactor is based on a range of algal photosynthetic H{sub 2} generation efficiencies, and on the application of standard theory for tubular solar collectors. Small diameter reactors have a low NER as the mixing energy becomes large. For a tubular photo-bioreactor, low density polyethylene (LDPE) film and glass have significantly higher NERs than rigid polymers such as poly-methyl methyl-acrylate (acrylic). Using a hypothetical improved micro-algal H{sub 2} generation efficiency of 5 %, a NER {approx} 6 can be obtained for LDPE film and for glass. For mechanical and assembly reasons LDPE film is the material of choice. These results show that photo-bio-hydrogen could be a viable H{sub 2} generation technology. (authors)

  1. Materials, geometry, and net energy ratio of tubular photo-bioreactors for micro-algal hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the energy content, the operational energy inputs, and the net energy ratio (NER) of an industrial tubular photo-bioreactor used for the photosynthetic production of H2 by micro-algae. The calculated H2 output of the photo-bioreactor is based on a range of algal photosynthetic H2 generation efficiencies, and on the application of standard theory for tubular solar collectors. Small diameter reactors have a low NER as the mixing energy becomes large. For a tubular photo-bioreactor, low density polyethylene (LDPE) film and glass have significantly higher NERs than rigid polymers such as poly-methyl methyl-acrylate (acrylic). Using a hypothetical improved micro-algal H2 generation efficiency of 5 %, a NER ∼ 6 can be obtained for LDPE film and for glass. For mechanical and assembly reasons LDPE film is the material of choice. These results show that photo-bio-hydrogen could be a viable H2 generation technology. (authors)

  2. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in an immobilized cell airlift bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermanshahi Pour, A.; Karamanev, D.; Margaritis, A. [Universityn of Western Ontario, London (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    2005-09-01

    An ''immobilized cell airlift bioreactor'', was used for the aerobic bioremediation of simulated diesel fuel contaminated groundwater and tested with p-xylene and naphthalene in batch and continuous regimes. The innovative design of the experiments consists of two stages. At the first stage ''immobilized soil bioreactor'' (ISBR) was used to develop an efficient microbial consortium from the indigenous microorganisms, which exist in diesel fuel contaminated soil. The concept of ISBR relies on the entrapment of the soil particles into the pores of a semi-permeable membrane, which divides the bioreactor into two aerated and non-aerated portions. The second stage involves inoculating the ''immobilized cell air lift bioreactor'' with the cultivated microbial consortia of the first stage. Immobilized cell airlift bioreactor has the same configuration as ISBR except that in this bioreactor instead of soil, microorganisms were immobilized on the fibers of the membrane. The performance of a 0.83 L immobilized cell airlift bioreactor was investigated at various retention time (0.5-6 h) and concentrations of p-xylene (15, 40 and 77 mg/L) and naphthalene (8, 15 and 22 mg/L) in the continuous operation. In the batch regime, 0.9 L bioreactor was operated at various biodegradation times (15-135 min) and concentrations of p-xylene (13.6, 44.9 and 67.5 mg/L) and naphthalene (1.5 and 3.8 mg/L). Under the conditions of the complete biodegradation of p-xylene and naphthalene, the obtained volumetric biodegradation rates at biomass density of 720 mg/L were 15 and 16 mg/L h, respectively. (author)

  3. Hydrodynamic characterization of a column-type prototype bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Morales-Contreras, Marcos; Robles-Martínez, Fabián; García-Nazariega, Melvin; Lobato-Calleros, Consuelo

    2008-03-01

    Agro-food industrial processes produce a large amount of residues, most of which are organic. One of the possible solutions for the treatment of these residues is anaerobic digestion in bioreactors. A novel 18-L bioreactor for treating waste water was designed based on pneumatic agitation and semispherical baffles. Flow patterns were visualized using the particle tracer technique. Circulation times were measured with the particle tracer and the thermal technique, while mixing times were measured using the thermal technique. Newtonian fluid and two non-Newtonian fluids were used to simulate the operational conditions. The results showed that the change from Newtonian to non-Newtonian properties reduces mixed zones and increases circulation and mixing times. Circulation time was similar when evaluated with the thermal and the tracer particle methods. It was possible to predict dimensionless mixing time (theta (m)) using an equivalent Froude number (Fr (eq)). PMID:18401759

  4. Rapid and efficient filtration-based procedure for separation and safe analysis of CBRN mixed samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bentahir

    Full Text Available Separating CBRN mixed samples that contain both chemical and biological warfare agents (CB mixed sample in liquid and solid matrices remains a very challenging issue. Parameters were set up to assess the performance of a simple filtration-based method first optimized on separate C- and B-agents, and then assessed on a model of CB mixed sample. In this model, MS2 bacteriophage, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis baculovirus (AcNPV, Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores were used as biological agent simulants whereas ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA and pinacolyl methylphophonic acid (PMPA were used as VX and soman (GD nerve agent surrogates, respectively. Nanoseparation centrifugal devices with various pore size cut-off (30 kD up to 0.45 µm and three RNA extraction methods (Invisorb, EZ1 and Nuclisens were compared. RNA (MS2 and DNA (AcNPV quantification was carried out by means of specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCR. Liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS methods was used for quantifying EMPA and PMPA. Culture methods and qPCR demonstrated that membranes with a 30 kD cut-off retain more than 99.99% of biological agents (MS2, AcNPV, Bacillus Atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores tested separately. A rapid and reliable separation of CB mixed sample models (MS2/PEG-400 and MS2/EMPA/PMPA contained in simple liquid or complex matrices such as sand and soil was also successfully achieved on a 30 kD filter with more than 99.99% retention of MS2 on the filter membrane, and up to 99% of PEG-400, EMPA and PMPA recovery in the filtrate. The whole separation process turnaround-time (TAT was less than 10 minutes. The filtration method appears to be rapid, versatile and extremely efficient. The separation method developed in this work constitutes therefore a useful model for further evaluating and comparing additional separation alternative procedures for a safe handling and

  5. Efficient color mixing through étendue conservation using freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgato, Simone; Mohedano, Rubén.; Chaves, Julio; Cvetkovic, Aleksandra; Hernández, Maikel; Benitez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Thienpont, Hugo; Duerr, Fabian

    2015-08-01

    Today's SSL illumination market shows a clear trend to high flux packages with higher efficiency and higher CRI, realized by means of multiple color chips and phosphors. Such light sources require the optics to provide both near- and far-field color mixing. This design problem is particularly challenging for collimated luminaries, since traditional diffusers cannot be employed without enlarging the exit aperture and reducing brightness. Furthermore, diffusers compromise the light output ratio (efficiency) of the lamps to which they are applied. A solution, based on Köhler integration, consisting of a spherical cap comprising spherical microlenses on both its interior and exterior sides was presented in 2012. The diameter of this so-called Shell-Mixer was 3 times that of the chip array footprint. A new version of the Shell-Mixer, based on the Edge Ray Principle and conservation of etendue, where neither the outer shape of the cap nor the surfaces of the lenses are constrained to spheres or 2D Cartesian ovals will be shown in this work. The new shell is freeform, only twice as large as the original chip-array and equals the original model in terms of color uniformity, brightness and efficiency.

  6. Efficient white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes consisting of orange ultrathin and blue mixed host emission layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ren; Zuo, Liangmei; Xue, Kaiwen; Duan, Yu; Chen, Ping; Cheng, Gang; Zhao, Yi

    2016-08-01

    We have successfully demonstrated highly efficient white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by inserting an ultrathin non-doped orange layer within blue mixed host emission layer. The key feature of the novel device is the employment of blue mixed host and orange ultrathin layers, resulting in an extended recombination region and more balanced charge carrier. The maximum efficiencies of 33.8 lm W‑1 and 32.2 cd A‑1 are obtained. Moreover, the resulting white device achieves a slight efficiency roll-off and a high luminance at low operating voltage. Our versatile concept suggests a promising simple method to achieve high performance white OLEDs.

  7. Simultaneous nitrogen and phosphor removal in an aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-wei; WU Zhi-chao; GU Guo-wei; YU Guo-ping; MA Lu-ming

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) effect and phosphor removal were investigated in a one-staged aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor on pilot-scale with mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) 19-20 g/L. The effects of DO concentration, sludge floc size distribution on SND were studied. Test results suggested that SND was successfully performed in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and about 70% total nitrogen removal efficiency was achieved when DO concentration was set to 0.2-0.3 mg/L. The main mechanisms governing SND were the suitable sludge floc size and the low DO concentration which was caused by low oxygen transfer rate with such a high MLSS concentration in the MBR. In the meantime, phosphor removal was also studied with polymer ferric sulfate (PFS) addition and 14 mg/L dosage of PFS was proper for the MBR to remove phosphor. PFS addition also benefited the MBR operation owing to its reduction of extracellular polymer substances (EPS) of mixed liquor.

  8. Removal of nitrogen and organic matter in a submerged-membrane bioreactor operating in a condition of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Major Barbosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the removal of nitrogen and organic matter in a membrane bioreactor system operating in a condition of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification controlled by intermittent aeration. A submerged-membrane system in a bioreactor was used in a pilot scale to treat domestic wastewater. The dissolved oxygen concentration was maintained between 0.5 and 0.8 mg L-1. The concentration of the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS in the system ranged from 1 to 6 g L-1. The system efficiency was evaluated by the removal efficiency of organic matter, quantified by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and Total Organic Carbon (TOC. Nitrogen removal was assessed by quantifying Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN and ammonia nitrogen. During the system start-up, the removal efficiencies of COD and NTK were around 90% and 80%, respectively. After the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND conditions were established, the removal efficiencies of COD and NTK were 70% and 99%, respectively. These results showed that sewage treatment with the membrane bioreactor (MBR system, operating with simultaneous nitrification and denitrification conditions, was able to remove organic matter and promote nitrification and denitrification in a single reactor, producing a high-quality permeate.

  9. MBR工艺处理医院污水的运行效果分析%Analysis on Operation Efficiency of Membrane Bioreactor in Hospital Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀丽; 顾平; 陶亚静; 代玲玲; 朱丹

    2012-01-01

    An immersed membrane bioreactor ( MBR) was used to treat hospital wastewater. High removal rates of COD, ammonia nitrogen, microorganisms and turbidity were achieved in the MBR. The average effluent concentrations of COD and ammonia nitrogen were 17.3 mg/L and 0. 93 mg/L; the corresponding removal rates were 85. 1% and 97. 9% , respectively. The average logarithmic removal rates of the total bacteria, total coliform and fecal coliform were 2. 2, 3.7 and 4.5, respectively. After the effluent was disinfected by chlorine dioxide, the average logarithmic removal rate of total bacteria reached 3.5. Total coliform and fecal coliform were not detected in the effluent. During normal operation, the average effluent turbidity was 0.67 NTU. The effluent of MBR was colorless and odorless. The main indexes could meet the requirements of Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Medical Organization (GB 18466 -2005). The MBR is characterized by simple and stable operation, a small footprint, low sludge discharge and high removal rate of microorganisms. Therefore, the immersed MBR is suitable for hospital wastewater treatment.%采用浸没式膜生物反应器(MBR)处理医院污水,实际运行效果表明,MBR工艺对COD、氨氮、微生物及浊度均具有较高的去除率.膜出水COD和氨氮的平均浓度分别为17.3、0.93mg/L,平均去除率分别为85.1%和97.9%;MBR对菌落总数、总大肠菌群和粪大肠菌群的平均对数去除率分别为2.2、3.7、4.5,膜出水再经二氧化氯消毒后,对菌落总数的平均对数去除率为3.5,总大肠菌群和粪大肠菌群未检出;正常运行期间,MBR出水浊度平均为0.67 NTU.MBR工艺出水无色、无味,主要水质指标均能满足《医疗机构水污染物排放标准》( GB 18466-2005)的要求.该工艺操作简单、运行稳定、占地面积小、排泥少并且对微生物的去除率高,适用于医院类污水的处理.

  10. Oxygen transfer in a pressurized airlift bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campani, Gilson; Ribeiro, Marcelo Perencin Arruda; Horta, Antônio Carlos Luperni; Giordano, Roberto Campos; Badino, Alberto Colli; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Airlift bioreactors (ALBs) offer advantages over conventional systems, such as simplicity of construction, reduced risk of contamination, and efficient gas-liquid dispersion with low power consumption. ALBs are usually operated under atmospheric pressure. However, in bioprocesses with high oxygen demand, such as high cell density cultures, oxygen limitation may occur even when operating with high superficial gas velocity and air enriched with oxygen. One way of overcoming this drawback is to pressurize the reactor. In this configuration, it is important to assess the influence of bioreactor internal pressure on the gas hold-up, volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), and volumetric oxygen transfer rate (OTR). Experiments were carried out in a concentric-tube airlift bioreactor with a 5 dm(3) working volume, equipped with a system for automatic monitoring and control of the pressure, temperature, and inlet gas flow rate. The results showed that, in disagreement with previous published results for bubble column and external loop airlift reactors, overpressure did not significantly affect k(L)a within the studied ranges of pressure (0.1-0.4 MPa) and superficial gas velocity in the riser (0.032-0.065 m s(-1)). Nevertheless, a positive effect on OTR was observed: it increased up to 5.4 times, surpassing by 2.3 times the oxygen transfer in a 4 dm(3) stirred tank reactor operated under standard cultivation conditions. These results contribute to the development of non-conventional reactors, especially pneumatic bioreactors operated using novel strategies for oxygen control. PMID:25903476

  11. Efficient green phosphorescent tandem organic light emitting diodes with solution processable mixed hosts charge generating layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel solution processable charge generating layer (CGL) that consists of 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN6)/Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK): 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) for a tandem green phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (PHOLED) is demonstrated. The use of orthogonal solvent to dissolve HATCN6 and PVK:TAPC is the key to overcome the interface erosion problem for the solution processed CGL. The current efficiency of the 2 wt% TAPC mixed with PVK is the highest at 24.2 cd/A, which is more than three-folds higher than that of the single device at 1000 cd/m2. - Highlights: • A solution processable tandem OLED is built using a novel charge generating layer. • HATCN6 and PVK:TAPC are shown to be effective charge generating layers. • The turn on voltages for tandem devices are almost similar to single unit. • 2 wt% TAPC blended with PVK exhibits three-folds increase in efficiency

  12. Efficient green phosphorescent tandem organic light emitting diodes with solution processable mixed hosts charge generating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, N.A.; Yeoh, K.H.; Ng, C.Y.B [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); ItraMAS Corporation. Sdn. Bhd., 542A-B Mukim 1, Lorong Perusahaan Baru 2, Kawasan Perindustrian, Perai 13600, Penang (Malaysia); Yap, B.K. [Center of Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Engineering (CeMNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jln. Uniten-Ikram, 4300 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Woon, K.L., E-mail: ph7klw76@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-15

    A novel solution processable charge generating layer (CGL) that consists of 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN{sub 6})/Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK): 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) for a tandem green phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (PHOLED) is demonstrated. The use of orthogonal solvent to dissolve HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC is the key to overcome the interface erosion problem for the solution processed CGL. The current efficiency of the 2 wt% TAPC mixed with PVK is the highest at 24.2 cd/A, which is more than three-folds higher than that of the single device at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • A solution processable tandem OLED is built using a novel charge generating layer. • HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC are shown to be effective charge generating layers. • The turn on voltages for tandem devices are almost similar to single unit. • 2 wt% TAPC blended with PVK exhibits three-folds increase in efficiency.

  13. Productivity, utilization efficiency and sward targets for mixed pastures of marandugrass, forage peanut and tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the productivity and utilization efficiency of a mixed marandugrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Mandobi and tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides pasture, rotationally stocked at four daily forage allowance levels (6.6, 10.3, 14.3 and 17.9% of live weight, in order to define sward management targets for these mixtures. In each stocking cycle, dry matter (DM accumulation rates, defoliation intensity (%, grazing depth (% and grazed horizon (cm were evaluated. Sward targets were defined according to the sward condition that best conciliated the grass-legume balance and the equilibrium between forage production and utilization. Pastures submitted to higher forage allowance levels showed higher productivity, but were less efficiently utilized. It was not possible to establish sward management targets for marandugrass-tropical kudzu pastures. For marandugrass-forage peanut pastures the best sward state was set with forage allowance of 10.3% of live weight. Under rotational stocking, the following sward targets were suggested for these pastures in the Western Amazon: pre-grazing height of 30-35 cm (June to September or 45-50 cm (October to May and post-grazing sward height of 20-25 cm (June to September or 25-30 cm (October to May.

  14. Continuous production of manganese peroxidase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized on polyurethane foam in a pulsed packed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, M T; Feijoo, G; Palma, C; Lema, J M

    1997-10-20

    The bottleneck of the application of manganese peroxidase (MnP) on an industrial scale in pulp biobleaching or in degradation of hazardous compounds is the lack of an efficient production system. Three main problems arise for the continuous production of MnP during secondary metabolism of Phanerochaete chrysosporium: enzyme production occurs only under specific physiological conditions corresponding to C or N limitation, high O(2) tension, and adequate Mn(+2) concentration; the enzyme that is produced is destabilized by extracellular proteases; and excessive growth of the mycelium blocks effective oxygen transfer. To overcome these drawbacks, continuous production of MnP was optimized by selecting a suitable bioreactor configuration and the environmental and operating conditions affecting both enzyme production and stability. The combination between a proper feed rate and the application of a pulsation in a packed-bed bioreactor permitted the maintenance of continuous secretion of MnP while limiting mycelial growth and avoiding bed clogging. Environmental factors as an Mn(+2) concentration of 5000 microM and high oxygen tension enhanced MnP production. The hydraulics of the bioreactor corresponding to a plug flow model with partial mixing and an operating hydraulic rentention time of 24 h were optimal to achieve stable operating conditions. This policy allowed long operation periods, obtaining higher productivities than the best reported in the literature. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 56: 130-137, 1997. PMID:18636618

  15. Sensing in tissue bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, P.

    2006-03-01

    Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

  16. Microfluidic conductimetric bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbut, Warakorn; Loyprasert, Suchera; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Asawatreratanakul, Punnee; Limsakul, Chusak; Wongkittisuksa, Booncharoen; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2007-06-15

    A microfluidic conductimetric bioreactor has been developed. Enzyme was immobilized in the microfluidic channel on poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface via covalent binding method. The detection unit consisted of two gold electrodes and a laboratory-built conductimetric transducer to monitor the increase in the conductivity of the solution due to the change of the charges generated by the enzyme-substrate catalytic reaction. Urea-urease was used as a representative analyte-enzyme system. Under optimum conditions urea could be determined with a detection limit of 0.09 mM and linearity in the range of 0.1-10 mM (r=0.9944). The immobilized urease on the microchannel chip provided good stability (>30 days of operation time) and good repeatability with an R.S.D. lower than 2.3%. Good agreement was obtained when urea concentrations of human serum samples determined by the microfluidic flow injection conductimetric bioreactor system were compared to those obtained using the Berthelot reaction (P<0.05). After prolong use the immobilized enzyme could be removed from the PDMS microchannel chip enabling new active enzyme to be immobilized and the chip to be reused. PMID:17289366

  17. Photosynthetic efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana in a turbulently mixed short light-path photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kliphuis, A.M.J.; Winter, de L.; Vejrazka, C.; Martens, D.E.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    To be able to study the effect of mixing as well as any other parameter on productivity of algal cultures, we designed a lab-scale photobioreactor in which a short light path (SLP) of (12 mm) is combined with controlled mixing and aeration. Mixing is provided by rotating an inner tube in the cylindr

  18. Spiral vane bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spiral vane bioreactor of a perfusion type is described in which a vertical chamber, intended for use in a microgravity condition, has a central rotating filter assembly and has flexible membranes disposed to rotate annularly about the filter assembly. The flexible members have end portions disposed angularly with respect to one another. A fluid replenishment medium is input from a closed loop liquid system to a completely liquid filled chamber containing microcarrier beads, cells and a fluid medium. Output of spent medium is to the closed loop. In the closed loop, the output and input parameters are sensed by sensors. A manifold permits recharging of the nutrients and pH adjustment. Oxygen is supplied and carbon dioxide and bubbles are removed and the system is monitored and controlled by a microprocessor.

  19. Membrane Bioreactor With Pressure Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Improved class of multilayer membrane bioreactors uses convention forced by differences in pressure to overcome some of diffusional limitations of prior bioreactors. In reactor of new class, flow of nutrient solution reduces adverse gradients of concentration, keeps cells supplied with fresh nutrient, and sweeps away products faster than diffusion alone. As result, overall yield and rate of reaction increased. Pressures in sweeping gas and nutrient alternated to force nutrient liquid into and out of biocatalyst layer through hyrophilic membrane.

  20. Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

  1. An efficient particle swarm approach for mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy optimization applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability-redundancy optimization problems can involve the selection of components with multiple choices and redundancy levels that produce maximum benefits, and are subject to the cost, weight, and volume constraints. Many classical mathematical methods have failed in handling nonconvexities and nonsmoothness in reliability-redundancy optimization problems. As an alternative to the classical optimization approaches, the meta-heuristics have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solutions. One of these meta-heuristics is the particle swarm optimization (PSO). PSO is a population-based heuristic optimization technique inspired by social behavior of bird flocking and fish schooling. This paper presents an efficient PSO algorithm based on Gaussian distribution and chaotic sequence (PSO-GC) to solve the reliability-redundancy optimization problems. In this context, two examples in reliability-redundancy design problems are evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed PSO-GC is a promising optimization technique. PSO-GC performs well for the two examples of mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy applications considered in this paper. The solutions obtained by the PSO-GC are better than the previously best-known solutions available in the recent literature

  2. Developing a thermophilic hydrogen-producing co-culture for efficient utilization of mixed sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidan, Ahmad A.; Van Niel, Ed W.J. [Department of Applied Microbiology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    Previous studies on the extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus revealed that the organism produces high yields of hydrogen on glucose and xylose, the major components of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Preliminary experiments on mixed sugar substrates, however, indicated that xylose was preferred over glucose. The sugar preference of some other extreme thermophiles, including Caldicellulosiruptor owensensis, Caldicellulosiruptor kristjanssonii and newly enriched, thermophilic compost sludge microflora, was investigated in an attempt to find complementary organisms to C. saccharolyticus for rapid and efficient utilization of lignocellulosic sugars. The behavior of C. owensensis and C. kristjanssonii appeared to be similar to that of C. saccharolyticus, either in pure cultures or in co-cultures with the latter. Co-culturing C. saccharolyticus with the enriched compost microflora resulted in fast, simultaneous consumption of both glucose and xylose in the medium with a relatively high specific hydrogen production rate, 40 mmol (gCDW){sup -1} h{sup -1}, and high volumetric productivity, 22.5 mmol l{sup -1} h{sup -1}. (author)

  3. High efficiency rubrene based inverted top-emission organic light emitting devices with a mixed single layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inverted top-emission organic light emitting devices (TEOLEDs) with a mixed single layer by mixing of electron transport materials (PyPySPyPy and Alq3), hole transport material (α-NPD) and dope material (rubrene) were investigated. Maximum power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W and maximum luminance of 7000 cd/m2 were obtained by optimizing the mixing ratio of PyPySPyPy:Alq3:α-NPD:rubrene=25:50:25:1. Luminance and power efficiency of mixed single layer device were two times improved compared to bi-layer heterojunction device and tri-layer heterojunction device. Lifetime test also shows that the mixed single layer device exhibits longer operational lifetimes of 343 h, which is three times longer than the 109 h for tri-layer device, and two times longer than the 158 h for bi-layer device. In addition, the maximum luminance and power efficiency were obtained at 20,000 cd/m2 and 7.5 lm/W, respectively, when a TPD layer of 45 nm was capped onto the top metal electrode.

  4. Improving wastewater mixing and oxygenation efficiency with solar-powered circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudnell, H.K. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Institute for the Environment, SolarBee, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Green, David [City of Rochester, Public Works Department, Rochester, NH (United States); Vien, Ron [Pittsfield Water Department, Pittsfield, NH (United States); Butler, Scott [Town of Exeter, Water and Sewer Division, Exeter, NH (United States); Rahe, Greg [Public Service of New Hampshire, Engineering Department, PO Box 330, Manchester, NH (United States); Richards, Bruce A. [SolarBee, Inc., Newark, DE (United States); Bleth, Joel [SolarBee, Inc., Dickinson, ND (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Electrical grid-powered aeration is used in most pond-based systems and equalization basins at activated sludge wastewater treatment plants to provide the mixing and oxygenation that enables bacteria to digest organic-matter. Oxygen also is needed in the near-surface water of all ponds and basins to provide an ''odor cap'' by oxidizing malodorous sulfur compounds, preventing their release to air. Much more aeration typically is needed to mix than oxygenate the wastewater. This imbalance causes an operational inefficiency in that grid-power is used to supply more oxygen than needed. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that the use of solar-powered circulation (SPC) technology reduces the need to aerate, operational costs, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with electrical power generation. However, the Agency did not quantify electrical, water quality, or other parameters. The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services directed a 3-site study to quantify the ability of SPC to replace some or all aeration while maintaining good effluent water quality. Water quantity and quality, odor event, and kilowatt-hour consumption and expenditure data were collected 1 year prior to, and 2 years during, SPC treatment at pond-based treatment plants in Pittsfield and Exeter, and at the activated sludge treatment plant in Rochester. Final effluent water quality was maintained, no effluent violations or odor events occurred, and sludge buildup was minimal during the SPC study period. Electricity usage and costs declined by about 38% in Pittsfield and Exeter, and by about 87% in Rochester, resulting in carbon dioxide emission reductions of 273,161, 918,183, and 1,082,509 kg, respectively. Payback periods ranged from 1.9 to 3.7 years. SPC improved operational efficiency at the plants by reducing grid-power consumption while operational objectives were met. The 25-year expected lifetime of SPC units with minimal maintenance requirements

  5. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal in an airlift intermittent circulation membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiyan; Chen, Jiandong; Li, Yun; Feng, Tengteng; Zhang, Shoutong

    2013-12-01

    A new airlift intermittent circulation integrated bioreactor was developed for simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal of wastewater, in which, circulation of mixed liquid between mixing zone and aeration zone was realized by aeration power, alternately anaerobic/anoxic bio-environment in mixing zone was realized by intermittent circulation and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal was obtained through strengthened denitrifying phosphorus removal process. Removal performance of the reactor was investigated and pollutant removal and transfer mechanism in one operation circle was analyzed. The experiment results indicated that under the influent condition of chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 642.1 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) of 87.4 mg/L and PO4(3-)-P of 12.1 mg/L, average removal efficiencies of COD, TN and PO4(3-)-P reached 96.4%, 83.2% and 90.5%, respectively, with the hydraulic residence time of 22 hr and operation circle time of 185 min. Track studies indicated that the separation of aeration and mixing zones and intermittent circulation of mixed liquid between the two zones provided distinct biological environments spatially and temporally, which ensured the occurrence of multifunctional microbial reactions. PMID:25078818

  6. Influence of solid retention time on sludge characteristics and effluent quality in immersed membrane bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO ZhanPing; ZHANG JingLi; ZHANG HongWe

    2008-01-01

    Here the effect of solid retention time (SRT) on the concentration of the mixed liquor suspend solid (MLSS), the sludge characteristics, the content of extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS), the viscosity of mixed liquor and effluent quality in the immersed membrane bioreactor (IMBR) was investigated. The results indicate that the increase of the EPS content is the main reason for the increase of mixed liquor viscosity, the former is positively correlated with the latter (R2 = 0.9751). The size distribution profile of particles in the mixed liquor presents double-peak shape at SRT more than 30 days. The filtration resistance of membrane in IMBR is mainly caused by the tiny particles and the viscosity of the mixed liquor. In this study, the extension of SRT can hardly affect the removal efficiency of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and NH+4-N, and when SRT is below 30 days, silt density index (SDI15) is less than 3, the effluent can be deeply treated by using reverse osmosis system (RO) or nano-filtration system (NF). The method of controlling SRT is put forward by analyzing the relationship between SRT and the minimum generation-time of dominant bacteria (at the maximum specific growth rate under the operation temperature).

  7. Maximizing the solar to H{sub 2} energy conversion efficiency of outdoor photobioreactors using mixed cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berberoglu, Halil [Mechanical Engineering Department, Cockrell School of Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin - Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Pilon, Laurent [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science University of California, Los Angeles - Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    A numerical study is presented aiming to maximize the solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency of a mixed culture containing microorganisms with different radiation characteristics. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC125 and the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphearoides ATCC 49419 are chosen for illustration purposes. The previously measured radiation characteristics of each microorganism are used as input parameters in the radiative transport equation for calculating the local spectral incident radiation within a flat panel photobioreactor. The specific hydrogen production rate for each microorganism as a function of the available incident radiation is recovered from data reported in the literature. The results show that for mono-cultures, the solar to H{sub 2} energy conversion efficiency, for all combinations of microorganism concentrations and photobioreactor thicknesses, fall on a single line with respect to the optical thickness of the system. The maximum solar energy conversion efficiency of mono-cultures of C. reinhardtii and R. spaheroides are 0.061 and 0.054%, respectively, corresponding to optical thicknesses of 200 and 16, respectively. Using mixed cultures, a total conversion efficiency of about 0.075% can be achieved corresponding to an increase of about 23% with respect to that of a mono-culture of C. reinhardtii. It has been shown that the choice of microorganism concentrations for maximum solar energy conversion efficiency in mixed cultures is non-trivial and requires careful radiation transfer analysis coupled with H{sub 2} production kinetics taking into account the photobioreactor thickness. (author)

  8. Statistical efficiency and optimal design for stepped cluster studies under linear mixed effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girling, Alan J; Hemming, Karla

    2016-06-15

    In stepped cluster designs the intervention is introduced into some (or all) clusters at different times and persists until the end of the study. Instances include traditional parallel cluster designs and the more recent stepped-wedge designs. We consider the precision offered by such designs under mixed-effects models with fixed time and random subject and cluster effects (including interactions with time), and explore the optimal choice of uptake times. The results apply both to cross-sectional studies where new subjects are observed at each time-point, and longitudinal studies with repeat observations on the same subjects. The efficiency of the design is expressed in terms of a 'cluster-mean correlation' which carries information about the dependency-structure of the data, and two design coefficients which reflect the pattern of uptake-times. In cross-sectional studies the cluster-mean correlation combines information about the cluster-size and the intra-cluster correlation coefficient. A formula is given for the 'design effect' in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. An algorithm for optimising the choice of uptake times is described and specific results obtained for the best balanced stepped designs. In large studies we show that the best design is a hybrid mixture of parallel and stepped-wedge components, with the proportion of stepped wedge clusters equal to the cluster-mean correlation. The impact of prior uncertainty in the cluster-mean correlation is considered by simulation. Some specific hybrid designs are proposed for consideration when the cluster-mean correlation cannot be reliably estimated, using a minimax principle to ensure acceptable performance across the whole range of unknown values. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26748662

  9. Platelet bioreactor-on-a-chip

    OpenAIRE

    Thon, Jonathan N.; Mazutis, Linas; Wu, Stephen; Sylman, Joanna L.; Ehrlicher, Allen; Machlus, Kellie R.; Feng, Qiang; Lu, Shijiang; Lanza, Robert; Neeves, Keith B.; Weitz, David A; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a biomimetic microfluidic platelet bioreactor that recapitulates bone marrow and blood vessel microenvironments.Application of shear stress in this bioreactor triggers physiological proplatelet production, and platelet release.

  10. The Effects of Bottom Blowing Gas Flow Rate Distribution During the Steelmaking Converter Process on Mixing Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Hsing-Hao; Lai, Po-Han; Wu, Hsuan-Chung; Liu, Yung-Chang; Lin, Chi-Cheng; Lu, Muh-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Featuring the advantages of top-blown and bottom-blown oxygen converters, top and bottom combined blown converters are mainstream devices used in steelmaking converter. This study adopted the FLUENT software to develop a numerical model that simulates 3D multiphase flows of gas (air and argon), liquid steel, and slag. Ten numerical experiments were conducted to analyze the effects that the bottom blowing gas flow rate distribution patterns (uniform, linear fixed total flow rate, linear fixed maximal flow rate, and V-type) and bottom blowing gas flow distribution gradients of combined blown converters exert on slag surface stirring heights, flow field patterns, simulation system dynamic pressures, mixing time, and liquid steel-slag interface velocity. The simulation results indicated that the mixing efficiency was highest for the linear fixed total flow rate, followed by the linear fixed maximal flow rate, V-type, and uniform patterns. The bottom blowing gas flow rate distribution exhibited linear patterns and large gradients, and high bottom blowing total flow rates increased the mixing efficiency substantially. In addition, the results suggested that even when bottom blowing total flow rate was reduced, adopting effective bottom blowing gas flow rate distribution patterns and gradients could improve the mixing efficiency.

  11. Biological treatment and thickening with a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Zsirai, T.; Wang, Z-Z.; Gabarrón, S.; Connery, K.; Fabiyi, M.; Larrea, A.; Judd, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic operation of an immersed hollow fibre membrane bioreactor, treating municipal wastewater supplemented with molasses solution, has been studied across mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations between 8 and 32 g L-1, the higher concentrations being normally associated with thickening operations. Only a marginal loss in membrane permeability was noted between 8 and 18 g L-1 when operation was conducted without clogging. The sustainable operational flux attainable above 18 g L-...

  12. Open Source Software to Control Bioflo Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Burdge, David A.; Libourel, Igor G. L.

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed...

  13. Progress in bioreactors of bioartiifcial livers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Bo Yu; Xiao-Ping Pan; Lan-Juan Li

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioartiifcial liver support systems are becoming an effective therapy for hepatic failure. Bioreactors, as key devices in these systems, can provide a favorable growth and metabolic environment, mass exchange, and immunological isolation as a platform. Currently, stagnancy in bioreactor research is the main factor restricting the development of bioartiifcial liver support systems. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed database search of English-language literature was performed to identify relevant articles using the keywords "bioreactor", "bioartiifcial liver", "hepatocyte", and "liver failure". More than 40 articles related to the bioreactors of bioartiifcial livers were reviewed. RESULTS: Some progress has been made in the improvement of structures, functions, and modiifed macromolecular materials related to bioreactors in recent years. The current data on the improvement of bioreactor conifgurations for bioartiifcial livers or on the potential of the use of certain scaffold materials in bioreactors, combined with the clinical efifcacy and safety evaluation of cultured hepatocytesin vitro, indicate that the AMC (Academic Medical Center) BAL bioreactor and MELS (modular extracorporeal liver support) BAL bioreactor system can partly replace the synthetic and metabolic functions of the liver in phaseⅠ clinical studies. In addition, it has been indicated that the microlfuidic PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) bioreactor, or SlideBioreactor, and the microfabricated grooved bioreactor are appropriate for hepatocyte culture, which is also promising for bioartiifcial livers. Similarly, modiifed scaffolds can promote the adhesion, growth, and function of hepatocytes, and provide reliable materials for bioreactors.CONCLUSIONS: Bioreactors, as key devices in bioartiifcial livers, play an important role in the therapy for liver failure both now and in the future. Bioreactor conifgurations are indispensable for the development of bioartiifcial livers used for liver

  14. Development of thin-film photo-bioreactor and its application to outdoor culture of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Jun; Choi, Seung Phill; Kim, Jaoon Y H; Chang, Won Seok; Sim, Sang Jun

    2013-06-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have received much attention as a microbial source of diverse useful biomaterials through CO(2) fixation and various types of photo-bioreactors have been developed for efficient microalgal cultivation. Herein, we developed a novel thin-film photo-bioreactor, which was made of cast polypropylene film, considering outdoor mass cultivation. To develop optimal design of photo-bioreactor, we tested performance of three shapes of thin-film photo-bioreactors (flat, horizontal and vertical tubular shapes) and various parts in the bioreactor. Collectively, vertical tubular bioreactor with H/D ratio 6:1 and cylindrical stainless steel spargers showed the most outstanding performance. Furthermore, the photo-bioreactor was successfully applied to the cultivation of other microalgae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris. The scalability of photo-bioreactor was confirmed by gradually increasing culture volume from 4 to 25 L and the biomass productivity of each reactor was quite consistent (0.05-0.07 g/L/day) during the cultivation of H. pluvialis under indoor and outdoor conditions. Especially, we also achieved dry cell weight of 4.64 g/L and astaxanthin yield of 218.16 mg/L through long-term cultivation (100 days) under outdoor condition in 15 L photo-bioreactor using Haematococcus pluvialis, which means that the astaxanthin yield from outdoor cultivation is equal or superior to that obtained from controlled indoor condition. Therefore, these results indicate that we can apply this approach to development of optimal photo-bioreactor for the large-scale culture of microalgae and production of useful biomaterials under outdoor condition. PMID:23361185

  15. Biodegradation of the water-soluble gasoline components in a novel hybrid bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De-Jesus, A.; Lara-Rodriguez, A.; Santoyo-Tepole, F.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Cristiani-Urbina, E.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N.; Galindez Mayer, J. [Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, ' ' Centro Operativo Naranjo' ' , Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    A novel hybrid bioreactor was designed to remove volatile organic compounds from water contaminated with water-soluble gasoline components, and the performance of this new bioreactor was investigated. It was composed of two biotrickling filter sections and one biofilter section. The liquid phase pollutants were removed by a mixed culture in the biotrickling filter sections and the gas phase pollutants stripped by air injection in the biofilter section. The specific rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal obtained in the reactor were directly proportional to the pollutant-loading rate. A stable operation of the hybrid bioreactor was attained for long periods of time. The bioreactor had the potential to simultaneously treat a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds, e.g., those present in the water-soluble fraction of gasoline, as well as the capacity to readily adapt to changing operational conditions, such as an increased contaminant loading, and variations in the airflow rate. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Electroflotation clarifier to enhance nitrogen removal in a two-stage alternating aeration bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kangwoo; Chung, Chong Min; Kim, Yun Jung; Hoffmann, Michael R; Chung, Tai Hak

    2013-01-01

    Stringent water treatment criteria and rapidly growing pollutant loads provoke the demand for retrofitting wastewater treatment plants towards a higher capacity. In this study, we assess a two stage alternating aeration (AA) bioreactor equipped with electroflotation (EF) clarifier, for nitrogen removal within a short hydraulic retention time (HRT). The EF under steady solids loading required a minimum unit height and gas: solids ratio of 0.006 for efficient clarification. The separated sludge blanket was further thickened with retaining stability when the cyclic solids loading was smaller than 1.0 kg m(-2). In the continuous operation of the bioreactor, the returned activated sludge concentration increased to more than 18,000 mg L(-1), while the effluent suspended solids concentration was lowered below 5 mg L(-1). Under influent chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) concentration of 300/30 mg L(-1), the TIN removal efficiency was near 70% with cycle time ratios of 0.17 and 0.27. Under higher influent COD concentration of 500mg L(-1), TIN removal efficiency was found to be 73.4% at a carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio of 10 and even higher (80.4%) at a C:N ratio of 16.6. The increased mixed liquor suspended solids concentrations (> 6000 mg L(-1)) under the high COD loading were efficiently maintained by using the EF clarifier. The results of this study demonstrate that an EF clarifier with a HRT of less than 1 h can support reliable nitrogen removal in the AA process that has a HRT of 6 h, even under increasing influent loadings. PMID:24527640

  17. Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  18. Efficient four-wave mixing by usage of resonances in mercury; Effizientes Vierwellenmischen durch Ausnutzen von Resonanzen in Quecksilber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbe, Daniel

    2011-05-05

    A continuous, coherent radiation source in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region is presented. It is based on four-wave-mixing in mercury vapor with fundamental beams at 253.7 nm, 407.9 nm und 545.5 nm wavelength. The fundamental beams are produced by frequency doubling and quadrupling of beams from solid-state laser-systems respectively. Due to the 6{sup 1}S-7{sup 1}S two-photon resonance and additionally the 6{sup 1}S-6{sup 3}P one-photon resonance the efficiency can be increased compared to former sources. A near one-photon resonance reduces the optimal phasematching temperature of the four-wave-mixing process. This leads to smaller Doppler and pressure broadening resulting in a higher four-wave-mixing efficiency. A maximum power of 0.3 nW at 121.56 nm wavelength, the 1S-2P Lyman-{alpha} transition in hydrogen, can be obtained. This Lyman-{alpha} source is needed for future laser cooling of antihydrogen. Apart from the Lyman-{alpha} generation, four-wave-mixing with a slightly different third fundamental wavelength results in radiation near a one-photon resonance in the VUV at the 6{sup 1}S-12{sup 1}P transition in mercury. Due to this additional one-photon resonance the nonlinear susceptibility, responsible for the four-wave-mixing, can be strongly increased without an influence on the phasematching. With such a mixing process the efficiency can be enlarged by three orders of magnitude and powers up to 6 {mu}W in the VUV could be realised. This is an improvement of a factor of 30 to former laser sources in this VUV regime. Furthermore the two-photon resonance of mercury could be investigated in detail. We observed a velocity-selective double resonance at small Rabi frequencies of the fundamental beams, which has the same origin as dark resonances in {lambda}-systems. At high Rabi frequencies excitation to the two-photon level can be high enough to initiate a laser process on the 7{sup 1}S-6{sup 1}P transition. This process could be observed with continuouswave

  19. Radiotracer investigation in a rotary fluidized bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rotary fluidized bioreactor (RFBR) designed for treatment of wastewater was required to be investigated for its hydrodynamic behaviour and validation of design. A radiotracer investigation was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of wastewater in the RFBR using 82Br as a radiotracer. The radiotracer was instantaneously injected into the inlet feed line and monitored at the inlet and outlet of the reactor using collimated scintillation detectors connected to a data acquisition system. The measured RTD data was treated and simulated using a tanks-in-series model and model parameters i.e. number of tanks describing the degree of mixing was obtained. The results of the investigation showed no flow abnormalities and the reactor behaved as an ideal continuously stirred-tank reactor at all the operating conditions. Based on the results, the design of the reactor was validated. (author)

  20. Bioreactor technology for herbal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

  1. A Numerical Study on the Improvement of Suction Performance and Hydraulic Efficiency for a Mixed-Flow Pump Impeller

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Kim; Kyoung-Yong Lee; Jin-Hyuk Kim; Young-Seok Choi

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical study on the improvement of suction performance and hydraulic efficiency of a mixed-flow pump by impellers. The design of these impellers was optimized using a commercial CFD (computational fluid dynamics) code and DOE (design of experiments). The design variables of meridional plane and vane plane development were defined for impeller design. In DOE, variables of inlet part were selected as main design variables in meridional plane, and incidence angle was se...

  2. Efficiency without Sustainable Growth (Mixed Salad Policy of the «Market Fundamentalism» and Pragmatism)

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, David B.

    2007-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the influence of market fundamentalism on the Russian agrarian policy in 1992 - 2006. On the basis of analysis of two stages of economic and agrarian policy is concluded that "mix" of market fundamentalism and some pragmatism has not allowed achieving sustainable growth of agricultural production. Resource potential of the agriculture is reduced by high rates, however there is an essential increase of an economic efficiency: the expenses for unit of gross agricultural ...

  3. Fluidic oscillator-mediated microbubble generation to provide cost effective mass transfer and mixing efficiency to the wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Fahad; Medley, Gareth J D; Bandulasena, Hemaka; Zimmerman, William B J

    2015-02-01

    Aeration is one of the most energy intensive processes in the waste water treatment plants and any improvement in it is likely to enhance the overall efficiency of the overall process. In the current study, a fluidic oscillator has been used to produce microbubbles in the order of 100 μm in diameter by oscillating the inlet gas stream to a pair of membrane diffusers. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient was measured for steady state flow and oscillatory flow in the range of 40-100l/min. The highest improvement of 55% was observed at the flow rates of 60, 90 and 100l/min respectively. Standard oxygen transfer rate and efficiency were also calculated. Both standard oxygen transfer rate and efficiency were found to be considerably higher under oscillatory air flow conditions compared to steady state airflow. The bubble size distributions and bubble densities were measured using an acoustic bubble spectrometer and confirmed production of monodisperse bubbles with approximately 100 μm diameters with fluidic oscillation. The higher number density of microbubbles under oscillatory flow indicated the effect of the fluidic oscillation in microbubble production. Visual observations and dissolved oxygen measurements suggested that the bubble cloud generated by the fluidic oscillator was sufficient enough to provide good mixing and to maintain uniform aerobic conditions. Overall, improved mass transfer coefficients, mixing efficiency and energy efficiency of the novel microbubble generation method could offer significant savings to the water treatment plants as well as reduction in the carbon footprint. PMID:25483415

  4. Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Abdelgadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB, namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT, Organic Loading Rate (OLR, and sludge retention time (SRT were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive.

  5. Dynamic Membrane Formation in Anaerobic Dynamic Membrane Bioreactors: Role of Extracellular Polymeric Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hongguang; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhichao; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic membrane (DM) formation in dynamic membrane bioreactors plays an important role in achieving efficient solid-liquid separation. In order to study the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to DM formation in anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) processes, EPS extraction from and re-addition to bulk sludge were carried out in short-term filtration tests. DM formation behaviors could be well simulated by cake filtration model, and sludge with EPS re-addition ...

  6. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  7. Bioconversion of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur in airlift bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytoon, Mohamed Abdel-Monaem; AlZahrani, Abdulraheem Ahmad; Noweir, Madbuli Hamed; El-Marakby, Fadia Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008 ppm and 31,215 ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113 g H2S m(-3) h(-1) were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5-8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO 500 mg/L at pH values 8.0-8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8-8.5. PMID:25147857

  8. Two-step nitrification in a pure moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment: nitrifying and denitrifying microbial populations and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; González-Martínez, A; Muñío, M M; Poyatos, J M

    2015-12-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBBR-MBR) is a novel solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. In this study, a pure MBBR-MBR was studied. The pure MBBR-MBR mainly had attached biomass. The bioreactor operated with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.5 h. The kinetic parameters for heterotrophic and autotrophic biomasses, mainly nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), were evaluated. The analysis of the bacterial community structure of the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), NOB, and denitrifying bacteria (DeNB) from the pure MBBR-MBR was carried out by means of pyrosequencing to detect and quantify the contribution of the nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in the total bacterial community. The relative abundance of AOB, NOB, and DeNB were 5, 1, and 3%, respectively, in the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), and these percentages were 18, 5, and 2%, respectively, in the biofilm density (BD) attached to carriers. The pure MBBR-MBR had a high efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) removal of 71.81±16.04%, which could reside in the different bacterial assemblages in the fixed biofilm on the carriers. In this regard, the kinetic parameters for autotrophic biomass had values of YA=2.3465 mg O2 mg N(-1), μm, A=0.7169 h(-1), and KNH=2.0748 mg NL(-1). PMID:26264139

  9. Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, A.; Dubini, G.; Tominetti, F.; Raimondi, M.

    mechanical forces. For example, cartilage constructs have been cultured in spinner flasks under mixed or unmixed conditions, in simulated and in real microgravity. In these mixing studies, however, it is difficult to definitively quantify the effects of mixing-induced mechanical forces from those of convection-enhanced transport of nutrients to and of catabolites away from the cells. At the state of the art, the presence of a more controlled mechanical environment may be the condition required in order to study the biochemical and mechanical response of these biological systems. Such a controlled environment could lead to an advanced fluid dynamic design of the culture chamber that could both enhance the local mass transfer phenomena and match the needs of specific macroscopic mechanical effects in tissue development. The bioreactor is an excellent example of how the skills and resources of two distinctly different fields can complement each other. Microgravity can be used to enhance the formation of tissue like aggregates in specially designed bioreactors. Theoretical and experimental projects are under way to improve cell culture techniques using microgravity conditions experienced during space flights. Bioreactors usable under space flight conditions impose constructional principles which are different from those intended solely for ground applications. The Columbus Laboratory as part of the International Space Station (ISS) will be an evolving facility in low Earth orbit. Its mission is to support scientific, technological, and commercial activities in space. A goal of this research is to design a unique bioreactor for use sequentially from ground research to space research. One of the particularities of the simulated microgravity obtained through time averaging of the weight vector is that by varying the rotational velocity the same results can be obtained with a different value of g. One of the first applications of this technique in space biology was in fact the

  10. Comparison of hydraulics and particle removal efficiencies in a mixed cell raceway and Burrows pond rearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the hydrodynamics of replicate experimental mixed cell and replicate standard Burrows pond rearing systems at the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, ID, in an effort to identify methods for improved solids removal. We measured and compared the hydraulic residence time, particle removal efficiency, and measures of velocity using several tools. Computational fluid dynamics was used first to characterize hydraulics in the proposed retrofit that included removal of the traditional Burrows pond dividing wall and establishment of four counter rotating cells with appropriate drains and inlet water jets. Hydraulic residence time was subsequently established in the four full scale test tanks using measures of conductivity of a salt tracer introduced into the systems both with and without fish present. Vertical and horizontal velocities were also measured with acoustic Doppler velocimetry in transects across each of the rearing systems. Finally, we introduced ABS sinking beads that simulated fish solids then followed the kinetics of their removal via the drains to establish relative purge rates. The mixed cell raceway provided higher mean velocities and a more uniform velocity distribution than did the Burrows pond. Vectors revealed well-defined, counter-rotating cells in the mixed cell raceway, and were likely contributing factors in achieving a relatively high particle removal efficiency-88.6% versus 8.0% during the test period. We speculate retrofits of rearing ponds to mixed cell systems will improve both the rearing environments for the fish and solids removal, improving the efficiency and bio-security of fish culture. We recommend further testing in hatchery production trials to evaluate fish physiology and growth.

  11. Aerosol mixing state, hygroscopic growth and cloud activation efficiency during MIRAGE 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lance

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Observations of aerosol hygroscopic growth and CCN activation spectra for submicron particles are reported for the T1 ground site outside of Mexico City during the MIRAGE 2006 campaign. κ-Köhler theory is used to evaluate the characteristic hygroscopicity parameter, κ*, for the CCN active aerosol population using both size-resolved HTMDA and size-resolved CCNc measurements. Organic mass fractions (forg are evaluated from size-resolved aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements, from which predictions of the hygroscopicity parameter are compared against κ*. Strong diurnal changes in aerosol water uptake parameters and aerosol composition are observed. We find that new particle formation (NPF events are correlated with an increased κ* and CCN-active fraction during the daytime, with greater impact on smaller particles. During NPF events, the number concentration of 40 nm particles acting as CCN at 0.51% ± 0.06% supersaturation can surpass by more than a factor of two the corresponding concentrations of 100 nm particles. We also find that at 06:00–08:00 LT throughout the campaign, fresh traffic emissions result in substantial changes to the chemical distribution of the aerosol, with on average 65% externally mixed fraction for 40 nm particles and 30% externally mixed fraction for 100 nm particles, whereas at midday nearly all particles of both sizes can be described as "internally mixed". Average activation spectra and growth factor distributions are analyzed for different time periods characterizing the daytime (with and without NPF events, the early morning "rush hour" and the entire campaign. We show that κ* derived from CCNc measurements decreases as a function of size during all time periods, while the CCN-active fraction increases as a function of size. Size-resolved AMS measurements do not predict the observed trend for κ* versus particle size, which can be attributed to unresolved mixing state and the presence of refractory

  12. Aerosol mixing state, hygroscopic growth and cloud activation efficiency during MIRAGE 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, S.; Raatikainen, T.; Onasch, T. B.; Worsnop, D. R.; Yu, X.-Y.; Alexander, M. L.; Stolzenburg, M. R.; McMurry, P. H.; Smith, J. N.; Nenes, A.

    2013-05-01

    Observations of aerosol hygroscopic growth and CCN activation spectra for submicron particles are reported for the T1 ground site outside of Mexico City during the MIRAGE 2006 campaign. κ-Köhler theory is used to evaluate the characteristic hygroscopicity parameter, κ*, for the CCN active aerosol population using both size-resolved HTMDA and size-resolved CCNc measurements. Organic mass fractions (forg) are evaluated from size-resolved aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements, from which predictions of the hygroscopicity parameter are compared against κ*. Strong diurnal changes in aerosol water uptake parameters and aerosol composition are observed. We find that new particle formation (NPF) events are correlated with an increased κ* and CCN-active fraction during the daytime, with greater impact on smaller particles. During NPF events, the number concentration of 40 nm particles acting as CCN at 0.51% ± 0.06% supersaturation can surpass by more than a factor of two the corresponding concentrations of 100 nm particles. We also find that at 06:00-08:00 LT throughout the campaign, fresh traffic emissions result in substantial changes to the chemical distribution of the aerosol, with on average 65% externally mixed fraction for 40 nm particles and 30% externally mixed fraction for 100 nm particles, whereas at midday nearly all particles of both sizes can be described as "internally mixed". Average activation spectra and growth factor distributions are analyzed for different time periods characterizing the daytime (with and without NPF events), the early morning "rush hour" and the entire campaign. We show that κ* derived from CCNc measurements decreases as a function of size during all time periods, while the CCN-active fraction increases as a function of size. Size-resolved AMS measurements do not predict the observed trend for κ* versus particle size, which can be attributed to unresolved mixing state and the presence of refractory material not measured

  13. Application of an aerobic fixed bed bioreactor for treatment of petroleum refinery wastewaters; Aplicacao de um bio-reator aerobio de leito fixo para tratamento de efluentes do refino de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendramel, Simone M.; Dezzotti, Marcia; Sant' Anna Junior, Geraldo L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The motivation of this work was to investigate a biological treatment system, which requires low installation area and presents high flexibility. Thus, a laboratory scale aerated submerged fixed-film bioreactor was applied to the treatment of a petroleum refinery wastewater and its performance was monitored. The reactor was continuously operated during 260 days and submitted to different organic loadings in the range of 0.5 to 2.4 kgCOD.m{sup -3}.d{sup -1}. The following removal efficiencies were attained: COD (75 - 91%), TSS and TVS (60 - 92%) and DOC (56 - 91%) and turbidity (71 - 95%). The reactor presented a high level of mixing and showed to be stable when submitted to different hydraulic and organic loadings. Loss of biofilm was negligible and medium clogging problems were not observed. The support medium (PVC plates) showed to be very adequate for microbial adhesion and growth, resulting in stable bioreactor operation. (author)

  14. A possible mechanism of metabolic regulation in Gibberella fujikuroi using a mixed carbon source of glucose and corn oil inferred from analysis of the kinetics data obtained in a stirrer tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Iribe, Erika Y; Hernández-Calderón, Oscar M; Reyes-Moreno, C; Contreras-Andrade, I; Flores-Cotera, Luis B; Escamilla-Silva, Eleazar M

    2013-01-01

    A nonstructured model was used to study the dynamics of gibberellic acid production in a stirred tank bioreactor. Experimental data were obtained from submerged batch cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi (CDBB H-984) grown in varying ratios of glucose-corn oil as the carbon source. The nitrogen depletion effect was included in mathematical model by considering the specific kinetic constants as a linear function of the normalized nitrogen consumption rate. The kinetics of biomass growth and consumption of phosphate and nitrogen were based on the logistic model. The traditional first-order kinetic model was used to describe the specific consumption of glucose and corn oil. The nitrogen effect was solely included in the phosphate and corn oil consumption and biomass growth. The model fit was satisfactory, revealing the dependence of the kinetics with respect to the nitrogen assimilation rate. Through simulations, it was possible to make diagrams of specific growth rate and specific rate of substrate consumptions, which was a powerful tool for understanding the metabolic interactions that occurred during the various stages of fermentation process. This kinetic analysis provided the proposal of a possible mechanism of regulation on growth, substrate consumptions, and production of gibberellic acid (GA3 ) in G. fujikuroi. PMID:23825106

  15. Enhanced four-wave mixing efficiency in four-subband semiconductor quantum wells via Fano-type interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaopeng; Yang, Wen-Xing; Chuang, You-Lin; Chen, Ai-Xi; Liu, Ang; Huang, Yan; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2014-11-17

    We propose and analyze an efficient way to enhance four-wave mixing (FWM) signals in a four-subband semiconductor quantum well via Fano-type interference. By using Schrödinger-Maxwell formalism, we derive explicitly analytical expressions for the input probe pulse and the generated FWM field in linear regime under the steady-state condition. With the aid of interference between two excited subbands tunneling to the common continuum, the efficiency to generate FWM field is found to be significantly enhanced, up to 35%. More interestingly, a linear growth rate in the FWM efficiency is demonstrated as the strength of Fano-type interference increases in presence of the continuum states, which can be maintained for a certain propagation distance (i.e., 50μm). PMID:25402157

  16. An Analysis of the Mixing Efficiency of Neutral Protamine Hagedorn Cartridges

    OpenAIRE

    Monte, Scott V.; Comerford, Patrick; Dearing, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    In this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, Kaiser and colleagues conducted an investigation to identify variations in the delivered dose of several different isophane insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn, NPH) brands that use glass and metal bodies (“bullets”) to facilitate mixing. Using a strategy where multiple pens from each of five different NPH insulin products (Insuman Basal, sanofi-aventis, three metal bullets; Humulin N, Lilly, one glass bullet; Berlinsulin H Basal, B...

  17. Efficient Photocatalytic Activities of TiO2 Hollow Fibers with Mixed Phases and Mesoporous Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Huilin Hou; Minghui Shang; Lin Wang; Wenge Li; Bin Tang; Weiyou Yang

    2015-01-01

    Currently, Degussa P25, with the typical mixed phases of anatase and rutile TiO2, is widely applied as the commercial photocatalysts. However, there are still some of obstacles for the P25 nanoparticles with totally high photocatalytic activities, especially for the catalytic stability due to their inevitable aggregation of the nanoparticles when used as the photocatalysts. In the present work, we reported the exploration of a novel TiO2 photocatalyst, which could offer an ideal platform for ...

  18. An Efficient Hierarchical Generalized Linear Mixed Model for Mapping QTL of Ordinal Traits in Crop Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Wang, Shi-Bo; Han, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many important phenotypic traits in plants are ordinal. However, relatively little is known about the methodologies for ordinal trait association studies. In this study, we proposed a hierarchical generalized linear mixed model for mapping quantitative trait locus (QTL) of ordinal traits in crop cultivars. In this model, all the main-effect QTL and QTL-by-environment interaction were treated as random, while population mean, environmental effect and population structure were fixed. In the est...

  19. Numerical simulation of the efficiency of mixing in heterogeneous microchannels with patterned surface potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kai; LIN Jianzhong; LI Huijun

    2006-01-01

    The mixing of samples in heterogeneous microchannels with a periodically stepwise surface potential was analyzed numerically using the control volume method. The equations describing the wall potential and external potential were solved first to get the distribution of wall potential and external potential, respectively, then the momentum equation was solved to get the developed flow field.Finally, the mass transport equation was solved to get the concentration field. The simulation results show that the distribution of samples at the inlet of the microchannel determines its theoretical value of concentration, therefore, the pattern of the distribution of samples at the inlet and its corresponding velocity can be changed to get the desirable concentration of solute. The heterogeneous wall potential almost has no effect on the mixing of samples in two-inlet microfluidic devices. For three-inlet microfluidic devices, the comprehensive ability of transportation and mixing has an optimization when the ratio of periodic length of wall potential to the height of the microchannel is about 4.88.The above conclusions are helpful to the optimization of the design of microfluidic devices.

  20. Biological nitrogen removal using a submerged membrane bioreactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot-scale study was conducted using ZenoGem hollow-fiber microfiltration membrane bioreactor system to investigate the performance of membrane bioreactor process to remove nitrogen from primary effluent at a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Different operating conditions were examined by varying hydraulic retention time (HRT) and sludge retention time (SRT) between 5-8 h and 20-50 days, respectively. In addition, a series of laboratory batch tests were performed to measure the biodegradation kinetic and stoichiometric parameters under the conditions consistent with the pilot testing. The results showed that the process achieved removal efficiencies of 80-98% for COD, 93%-99% for BOD5, and 70-93% for nitrogen. The efficiency and kinetics of COD and nitrogen removal would change greatly from one operating condition to another. However, the measured kinetic parameters still fell within the typical range of those reported in the literature using Activated Sludge Models (ASM)

  1. Biodegradation of high concentrations of benzene vapors in a two phase partition stirred tank bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined the biodegradation rate of benzene vapors in a two phase stirred tank bioreactor by a bacterial consortium obtained from wastewater of an oil industry refinery house. Initially, the ability of the microbial consortium for degrading benzene was evaluated before running the bioreactor. The gaseous samples from inlet and outlet of bioreactor were directly injected into a gas chromatograph to determine benzene concentrations. Carbone oxide concentration at the inlet and outlet of bioreactor were also measured with a CO2 meter to determine the mineralization rate of benzene. Influence of the second non-aqueous phase (silicon oil has been emphasized, so at the first stage the removal efficiency (RE and elimination capacity (EC of benzene vapors were evaluated without any organic phase and in the second stage, 10% of silicon oil was added to bioreactor media as an organic phase. Addition of silicon oil increased the biodegradation performance up to an inlet loading of 5580 mg/m3, a condition at which, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency were 181 g/m3/h and 95% respectively. The elimination rate of benzene increased by 38% in the presence of 10% of silicone oil. The finding of this study demonstrated that two phase partition bioreactors (TPPBs are potentially effective tools for the treatment of gas streams contaminated with high concentrations of poorly water soluble organic contaminant, such as benzene.

  2. Biodegradation of High Concentrations of Benzene Vapors in a Two Phase Partition Stirred Tank Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the biodegradation rate of benzene vapors in a two phase stirred tank bioreactor by a bacterial consortium obtained from wastewater of an oil industry refinery house. Initially, the ability of the microbial consortium for degrading benzene was evaluated before running the bioreactor. The gaseous samples from inlet and outlet of bioreactor were directly injected into a gas chromatograph to determine benzene concentrations. Carbone oxide concentration at the inlet and outlet of bioreactor were also measured with a CO2 meter to determine the mineralization rate of benzene. Influence of the second non-aqueous phase (silicon oil has been emphasized, so at the first stage the removal efficiency (RE and elimination capacity (EC of benzene vapors were evaluated without any organic phase and in the second stage, 10% of silicon oil was added to bioreactor media as an organic phase. Addition of silicon oil increased the biodegradation performance up to an inlet loading of 5580?mg/m3, a condition at which, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency were 181?g/m3/h and 95% respectively. The elimination rate of benzene increased by 38% in the presence of 10% of silicone oil. The finding of this study demonstrated that two phase partition bioreactors (TPPBs are potentially effective tools for the treatment of gas streams contaminated with high concentrations of poorly water soluble organic contaminant, such as benzene.

  3. Salt stress in a membrane bioreactor: Dynamics of sludge properties, membrane fouling and remediation through powdered activated carbon dosing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, De L.; Maere, T.; Temmink, H.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Nopens, I.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors are a well-established technology for wastewater treatment. However, their efficiency is adversely impacted by membrane fouling, primarily inciting very conservative operations of installations that makes them less appealing from an economic perspective. This fouling propensity

  4. The Potential for Microalgae as Bioreactors to Produce Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Na Yan; Chengming Fan; Yuhong Chen; Zanmin Hu

    2016-01-01

    As photosynthetic organisms, microalgae can efficiently convert solar energy into biomass. Microalgae are currently used as an important source of valuable natural biologically active molecules, such as carotenoids, chlorophyll, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, phycobiliproteins, carotenoids and enzymes. Significant advances have been achieved in microalgae biotechnology over the last decade, and the use of microalgae as bioreactors for expressing recombinant proteins is receiving incr...

  5. Mammalian cell retention devices for stirred perfusion bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Woodside, Steven M.; Bowen, Bruce D.; Piret, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Within the spectrum of current applications for cell culture technologies, efficient large-scale mammalian cell production processes are typically carried out in stirred fed-batch or perfusion bioreactors. The specific aspects of each individual process that can be considered when determining the method of choice are presented. A major challenge for perfusion reactor design and operation is the reliability of the cell retention device. Current retention systems include cross-flow membrane fil...

  6. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  7. Aerosol mixing-state, hygroscopic growth and cloud activation efficiency during MIRAGE 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, S.; Raatikainen, T.; Onasch, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Yu, X.-Y.; Alexander, M. L.; Stolzenburg, M. R.; McMurry, P. H.; Smith, J. N.; Nenes, A.

    2012-06-01

    Observations of aerosol hygroscopic growth and CCN activation spectra for submicron particles are reported for the T1 ground site outside of Mexico City during the MIRAGE 2006 campaign. κ-Köhler theory is used to evaluate the characteristic water uptake coefficient, κ*, for the CCN active aerosol population using both size-resolved HTDMA and size-resolved CCNc measurements. Organic mass fractions, forg, are evaluated from size-resolved aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements, from which κAMS is inferred and compared against κ*. Strong diurnal profiles of aerosol water uptake parameters and aerosol composition are observed. We find that new particle formation (NPF) events are correlated with an increased κ* and CCN-active fraction during the daytime, with greater impact on smaller particles. During NPF events, the number concentration of 40 nm particles acting as CCN can surpass by more than a factor of two the concentrations of 100 nm particles acting as CCN, at supersaturations of 0.51% ± 0.06%. We also find that at 06:00-08:00 in the morning throughout the campaign, fresh traffic emissions result in substantial changes to the chemical distribution of the aerosol, with on average 65% externally-mixed fraction for 40 nm particles and 30% externally-mixed fraction for 100 nm particles, whereas at midday nearly all particles of both sizes can be described as internally-mixed. Average activation spectra and growth factor distributions are analyzed for different time periods characterizing the daytime (with and without NPF events), the early morning "rush hour", and the entire campaign. We show that κ* derived from CCNc measurements decreases as a function of size during all time periods, while the CCN-active fraction increases as a function of size. Size-resolved AMS measurements do not predict the observed trend for κ* versus particle size, which can be attributed to unresolved mixing-state and the presence of refractory material not measured by the AMS

  8. Efficient evaluation of Coulomb integrals in a mixed Gaussian and plane-wave basis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čársky, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2007), s. 56-62. ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100400501; GA AV ČR 1ET400400413 Grant ostatní: European Science Foundation (EIPAM)(XE) PESC7-20; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) OISE-0532040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : two-electron integral s * mixed plane-wave and Gaussian basis sets * Coulomb integral s Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.368, year: 2007

  9. Knowledge based decision making method for the selection of mixed refrigerant systems for energy efficient LNG processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Practical method for finding optimum refrigerant composition is proposed for LNG plant. • Knowledge of boiling point differences in refrigerant component is employed. • Implementation of process knowledge notably makes LNG process energy efficient. • Optimization of LNG plant is more transparent using process knowledge. - Abstract: Mixed refrigerant (MR) systems are used in many industrial applications because of their high energy efficiency, compact design and energy-efficient heat transfer compared to other processes operating with pure refrigerants. The performance of MR systems depends strongly on the optimum refrigerant composition, which is difficult to obtain. This paper proposes a simple and practical method for selecting the appropriate refrigerant composition, which was inspired by (i) knowledge of the boiling point difference in MR components, and (ii) their specific refrigeration effect in bringing a MR system close to reversible operation. A feasibility plot and composite curves were used for full enforcement of the approach temperature. The proposed knowledge-based optimization approach was described and applied to a single MR and a propane precooled MR system for natural gas liquefaction. Maximization of the heat exchanger exergy efficiency was considered as the optimization objective to achieve an energy efficient design goal. Several case studies on single MR and propane precooled MR processes were performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The application of the proposed method is not restricted to liquefiers, and can be applied to any refrigerator and cryogenic cooler where a MR is involved

  10. Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency mixing in DPSS Nd:YVO4 laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A J Singh; P K Gupta; S K Sharma; P K Mukhopadhyay; K S Bindra; S M Oak

    2014-02-01

    We present our studies on dual wavelength operation using a single Nd:YVO4 crystal and its intracavity sum frequency generation by considering the influence of the thermal lensing effect on the performance of the laser. A KTP crystal cut for type-II phase matching was used for intracavity sum frequency generation in the cavity at an appropriate location for efficient and stable yellow output power. More than 550 mW of stable CW yellow-orange beam at 593.5 nm with beam quality parameter (2) ∼ 4.3 was obtained. The total pump to yellow beam conversion efficiency was estimated to be 3.83%.

  11. Effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on membrane fouling in anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodi; Koh, Yoong Keat Kelvin; Ng, How Yong

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) have been regarded as a potential solution to achieve energy neutrality in the future wastewater treatment plants. Coupling ceramic membranes into AnMBRs offers great potential as ceramic membranes are resistant to corrosive chemicals such as cleaning reagents and harsh environmental conditions such as high temperature. In this study, ceramic membranes with pore sizes of 80, 200 and 300 nm were individually mounted in three anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating real domestic wastewater to examine the treatment efficiencies and to elucidate the effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on fouling behaviours. The average overall chemical oxygen demands (COD) removal efficiencies could reach around 86-88%. Although CH4 productions were around 0.3 L/g CODutilised, about 67% of CH4 generated was dissolved in the liquid phase and lost in the permeate. When filtering mixed liquor of similar properties, smaller pore-sized membranes fouled slower in long-term operations due to lower occurrence of pore blockages. However, total organic removal efficiencies could not explain the fouling behaviours. Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence and ultra-violet detectors were used to analyse the DOMs in detail. The major foulants were identified to be biopolymers that were produced in microbial activities. One of the main components of biopolymers--proteins--led to different fouling behaviours. It is postulated that the proteins could pass through porous cake layers to create pore blockages in membranes. Hence, concentrations of the DOMs in the soluble fraction of mixed liquor (SML) could not predict membrane fouling because different components in the DOMs might have different interactions with membranes. PMID:26255104

  12. Improvement of four-wave mixing-based wavelength conversion efficiency in dispersion shifted fiber by 40-GHz clock pumping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiying Yang; Yunan Sun

    2008-01-01

    @@ 40-GHz clock modulated signal as a pump to improve the efficiency of four-wave mixing (FWM)-based wavelength conversion in a 26.5-km dispersion shifted fiber (DSF) is investigated. The experimental results demonstrate that the conjugated FWM component has higher intensity with the clock pumping than that with the continuous-wave (CW) light pumping. The improvement of FWM-based wavelength conversion efficiency is negligible when the pump power is less than Brillouin threshold. But when the pump power is greater than Brillouin threshold, the improvement becomes significant and increases with the increment of pump power. The improvement can increase up to 9 dB if pump power reaches 17 dBm.

  13. Optimizing of Culture Conditionin Horizontal Rotating Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionBioreactor is the most important equipment in tissue engineering. It can mimic the micro-environment of cell growth in vitro. At present, horizontal rotating bioreactor is the most advanced equipment for cell culture in the world. 2 Rotating bioreactors2.1 Working principleThere are two kinds of horizontal rotating bioreactor: HARV(high aspect ratio vessel) and RCCS (rotary cell culture system). It is drived by step motor with horizontal rotation, the culture medium and cell is filled between ...

  14. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the mixed-humid climate region.

  15. Filtration characteristics in membrane bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Evenblij, H.

    2006-01-01

    Causes of and remedies for membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors for wastewater treatment are only poorly understood and described in scientific literature. A Filtration Characterisation Installation and a measurement protocol were developed with the aim of a) unequivocally determination and quantification of the filterability of an activated sludge and b) carrying out short term experiments at labscale to determine foulants and/or fouling propensity determining factors. The installation w...

  16. Image Analysis and Multiphase Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, E. C.; Mota, M.; Pons, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    The applications of visualisation and image analysis to bioreactors can be found in two main areas: the characterisation of biomass (fungi, bacteria, yeasts, animal and plant cells, etc), in terms of size, morphology and physiology, that is the far most developed, and the characterisation of the multiphase behaviour of the reactors (flow patterns, velocity fields, bubble size and shape distribution, foaming), that may require sophisticated visualisation techniques.

  17. Denitrification using immersed membrane bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    McAdam, Ewan J.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate is practically ubiquitous in waters abstracted for municipal potable water production in Europe due to decades of intensive agricultural practice. Ion exchange is principally selected to target abstracted waters with elevated nitrate concentrations. However, the cost associated with disposal of the waste stream has re-ignited interest in destructive rather concentrative technologies. This thesis explores the potential of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for the remo...

  18. Mixed-Signal Architectures for High-Efficiency and Low-Distortion Digital Audio Processing and Power Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Terreni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the algorithmic and architectural design of digital input power audio amplifiers. A modelling platform, based on a meet-in-the-middle approach between top-down and bottom-up design strategies, allows a fast but still accurate exploration of the mixed-signal design space. Different amplifier architectures are configured and compared to find optimal trade-offs among different cost-functions: low distortion, high efficiency, low circuit complexity and low sensitivity to parameter changes. A novel amplifier architecture is derived; its prototype implements digital processing IP macrocells (oversampler, interpolating filter, PWM cross-point deriver, noise shaper, multilevel PWM modulator, dead time compensator on a single low-complexity FPGA while off-chip components are used only for the power output stage (LC filter and power MOS bridge; no heatsink is required. The resulting digital input amplifier features a power efficiency higher than 90% and a total harmonic distortion down to 0.13% at power levels of tens of Watts. Discussions towards the full-silicon integration of the mixed-signal amplifier in embedded devices, using BCD technology and targeting power levels of few Watts, are also reported.

  19. Efficient luminescent solar cells based on tailored mixed-cation perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dongqin; Tress, Wolfgang; Dar, M Ibrahim; Gao, Peng; Luo, Jingshan; Renevier, Clémentine; Schenk, Kurt; Abate, Antonio; Giordano, Fabrizio; Correa Baena, Juan-Pablo; Decoppet, Jean-David; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We report on a new metal halide perovskite photovoltaic cell that exhibits both very high solar-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and intense electroluminescence. We produce the perovskite films in a single step from a solution containing a mixture of FAI, PbI2, MABr, and PbBr2 (where FA stands for formamidinium cations and MA stands for methylammonium cations). Using mesoporous TiO2 and Spiro-OMeTAD as electron- and hole-specific contacts, respectively, we fabricate perovskite solar cells that achieve a maximum power-conversion efficiency of 20.8% for a PbI2/FAI molar ratio of 1.05 in the precursor solution. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data reveals that the excess PbI2 content incorporated into such a film is about 3 weight percent. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay measurements show that the small excess of PbI2 suppresses nonradiative charge carrier recombination. This in turn augments the external electroluminescence quantum efficiency to values of about 0.5%, a record for perovskite photovoltaics approaching that of the best silicon solar cells. Correspondingly, the open-circuit photovoltage reaches 1.18 V under AM 1.5 sunlight. PMID:26767196

  20. An evaluation of different bioreactor configurations for continuous bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two bioreactor configurations were constructed and compared. • Continuous bioethanol production was performed in both bioreactors. • Plate heat exchanger bioreactor was the best for solid mash fermentation. • Operational power costs of both bioreactors were different in small scale levels. • Further study needed for both bioreactors with optimized parameters. - Abstract: In this preliminary investigation, a so-called Blenke cascade and plate heat exchanger bioreactor configuration were compared in terms of mixing characteristics, contamination free process, operational power costs and overall performance. At room temperature, fermentation was initially started as batch run and switched to continuous operation, when the residual sugars within the reactor were detected to be C ⩽ 1% (g/L). Samples from both configurations were taken and analyzed for ethanol and residual sugar content, as well as for any infection of the fermentation and lactic acid content, respectively. Mixing characteristics were studied by the residence time distribution method. Both geometries behaved as a finite number n of continuous stirred tanks in series, behaving as a plug flow with superimposed axial dispersion. The number of tanks in series n obtained in the plate heat exchanger configuration was 1.5–3 times larger than those in the Blenke cascade. The average ethanol productivity was Qp = 3.07 (g/L h) and Qp = 2.31 (g/L h) for cascade and plate exchanger configuration, respectively. The analysis of operational power costs indicates relevant differences between the two reactors at laboratory scale; however, systems with different types of pumps and viscosities are compared. From an industrial scale point of view, specific operational costs decrease with scale-up, as no mechanical mixing is needed in the fermenters

  1. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  2. Dechlorination of polychlorinated methanes by a sequential methanogenic-denitrifying bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z; Smith, G B

    2000-04-01

    A two-stage bioreactor has been developed to link dechlorination of halogenated methane compounds to the anaerobic processes of methanogenesis and denitrification. A digester methanogenic consortium was shown to dechlorinate chloroform (CF) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) to dichloromethane (DCM), and DCM was then mineralized by an acclimated denitrifying biological activated carbon consortium. Combining these two processes, a sequential methanogenic-denitrifying bioreactor (SMDB) system that completely degraded polychlorinated methanes including CT, CF, and DCM was developed. More than 95% of the added CT and CF was dechlorinated in the methanogenic bioreactor with methanol as the primary substrate, and the resultant DCM was biodegraded in the denitrifying bioreactor with nitrate as the electron acceptor. In the denitrifying bioreactor, the residual CF was completely removed, and the DCM removal efficiency was more than 95%. This novel bioreactor system eliminates the need for aeration and so avoids the air contamination associated with aerobic biotreatment of volatile chlorinated pollutants. This SMDB system provides an alternative to conventional biotreatment of wastewaters and other matrices contaminated with polychlorinated methanes and is, to our knowledge, the first report on such a sequential anoxic system. PMID:10803908

  3. Bacterial study of the anaerobic bioreactor for distillery effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study relates with anaerobic bioreactors of Habib Sugar Mills, Nawabshah. Bacterial growth was studied through microscope along with its effect on the production of methane gas (Biogas) at all HRTs (Hydraulic Retention Times) between 15 and 28 days. The bacterium has the efficiency to convert 12% glucose within 24 hours to final product and cell mass. The acetogenic organisms also show their maximum growth on glucose in BGP-1 and BPG-2 at both the corks, where as Methanogenic organisms have shown their zero shown their zero growth on glucose. The efforts have been taken to determine the methanogenic, acetogenic and syntrophomonas sp. data of anaerobic bioreactors of BGP (Biogas Plant) I and II, when these samples were cultured on acetate, methanol, formate, butyrate, propionate and glucose. (author)

  4. Study on submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaiyakunjaram, R; Shanmugam, P

    2016-09-01

    This study deals with the treatment of high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater using flat sheet Submerged Anaerobic Membrane (0.4μm) Bioreactor (SAMBR) acclimatized with hypersaline anaerobic seed sludge for recovering biogas. The treatability of SAMBR achieved higher CODremoval efficiency (90%) and biogas yield (0.160L.g(-1) CODremoved) coincided with high r(2) values between permeate flux and TSS (0.95), biogas and COD removed (0.96). The acidification of hypersaline influent wastewater by biogas mixing with high CO2, achieved quadruplet benefit of gas liquid and solid separation, in-situ pH and NH3 control, in-situ CH4 enrichment, and prevention of membrane fouling. The initial high VFA became stable as time elapsed reveals the hydrolysing ability of particulate COD into soluble COD and into biogas, confirms the suitability of SAMBR for high suspended solids tannery wastewater. PMID:27309773

  5. Experimental and numerical analysis of unsteady behaviour of high efficiency mixed-flow pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlář Milan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the experimental and numerical investigation of cavitating and noncavitating flow inside a mixed-flow pump and its influence on performance curves of this pump. The experimental research has been carried out in the closed horizontal loop with the main tank capacity of 35 m3. The loop is equipped with both the compressor and the vacuum pump capable of creating different pressure levels while maintaining constant volume flow rate. Pump investigated in this project has been equipped with transparent windows, which enabled the visualization of flow and cavitation phenomena for a wide range of flow conditions. A comprehensive CFD analysis of tested pump has been done both in the cavitating and noncavitating regimes. The ANSYS CFX commercial CFD package has been used to solve URANS equations together with the Rayleigh-Plesset model and the SST-SAS turbulence model. Both the experimental research and the CFD analysis have provided a good illustration of the flow structures inside the pump and their dynamics for a wide range of flow rates and NPSH values. Flow and cavitation instabilities have been detected at suboptimal flow rates which correspond to increased values of noise and vibrations. The calculated results agree well with the measurements.

  6. An efficient hierarchical generalized linear mixed model for mapping QTL of ordinal traits in crop cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ying Feng

    Full Text Available Many important phenotypic traits in plants are ordinal. However, relatively little is known about the methodologies for ordinal trait association studies. In this study, we proposed a hierarchical generalized linear mixed model for mapping quantitative trait locus (QTL of ordinal traits in crop cultivars. In this model, all the main-effect QTL and QTL-by-environment interaction were treated as random, while population mean, environmental effect and population structure were fixed. In the estimation of parameters, the pseudo data normal approximation of likelihood function and empirical Bayes approach were adopted. A series of Monte Carlo simulation experiments were performed to confirm the reliability of new method. The result showed that new method works well with satisfactory statistical power and precision. The new method was also adopted to dissect the genetic basis of soybean alkaline-salt tolerance in 257 soybean cultivars obtained, by stratified random sampling, from 6 geographic ecotypes in China. As a result, 6 main-effect QTL and 3 QTL-by-environment interactions were identified.

  7. Performance of anaerobic membrane bioreactor during digestion and thickening of aerobic membrane bioreactor excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafuka, Akira; Mimura, Kazuhisa; Ding, Qing; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor in terms of digestion and thickening of excess sludge from an aerobic membrane bioreactor. A digestion reactor equipped with an external polytetrafluoroethylene tubular microfiltration membrane module was operated in semi-batch mode. Solids were concentrated by repeated membrane filtration and sludge feeding, and their concentration reached 25,400mg/L after 92d. A high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, i.e., 98%, was achieved during operation. A hydraulic retention time of 34d and a pulse organic loading rate of 2200mg-COD/(L-reactor) gave a biogas production rate and biogas yield of 1.33L/(reactor d) and 0.08L/g-CODinput, respectively. The external membrane unit worked well without membrane cleaning for 90d. The transmembrane pressure reached 25kPa and the filtration flux decreased by 80% because of membrane fouling after operation for 90d. PMID:27394993

  8. Efficient luminescent solar cells based on tailored mixed-cation perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Dongqin; Tress, Wolfgang; Dar, M. Ibrahim; Gao, Peng; Luo, Jingshan; Renevier, Clémentine; Schenk, Kurt; Abate, Antonio; Giordano, Fabrizio; Correa Baena, Juan-Pablo; Decoppet, Jean-David; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We report on a new metal halide perovskite photovoltaic cell that exhibits both very high solar-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and intense electroluminescence. We produce the perovskite films in a single step from a solution containing a mixture of FAI, PbI2, MABr, and PbBr2 (where FA stands for formamidinium cations and MA stands for methylammonium cations). Using mesoporous TiO2 and Spiro-OMeTAD as electron- and hole-specific contacts, respectively, we fabricate perovskite solar ce...

  9. Efficient breakdown of lignocellulose using mixed-microbe populations for bioethanol production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murton, Jaclyn K.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo

    2009-11-01

    This report documents progress in discovering new catalytic technologies that will support the development of advanced biofuels. The global shift from petroleum-based fuels to advanced biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in biomass deconstruction technologies, because current methods are neither cost effective nor sufficiently efficient or robust for scaleable production. Discovery and characterization of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems adapted to extreme environments will accelerate progress. Obvious extreme environments to mine for novel lignocellulolytic deconstruction technologies include aridland ecosystems (ALEs), such as those of the Sevilleta Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in central New Mexico (NM). ALEs represent at least 40% of the terrestrial biosphere and are classic extreme environments, with low nutrient availability, high ultraviolet radiation flux, limited and erratic precipitation, and extreme variation in temperatures. ALEs are functionally distinct from temperate environments in many respects; one salient distinction is that ALEs do not accumulate soil organic carbon (SOC), in marked contrast to temperate settings, which typically have large pools of SOC. Low productivity ALEs do not accumulate carbon (C) primarily because of extraordinarily efficient extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) that are derived from underlying communities of diverse, largely uncharacterized microbes. Such efficient enzyme activities presumably reflect adaptation to this low productivity ecosystem, with the result that all available organic nutrients are assimilated rapidly. These communities are dominated by ascomycetous fungi, both in terms of abundance and contribution to ecosystem-scale metabolic processes, such as nitrogen and C cycling. To deliver novel, robust, efficient lignocellulolytic enzyme systems that will drive transformational advances in biomass deconstruction, we have: (1) secured an award through the Department of Energy

  10. Biomass effects on oxygen transfer in membrane bioreactors.

    OpenAIRE

    Germain, Eve; Nelles, F.; Drews, A.; Pearce, P; Kraume, M.; Reid, E; Judd, Simon J.; Stephenson, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Ten biomass samples from both municipal and industrial pilot and full scale submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with mixed liquor suspended solids concentrations (MLSS) ranging from 7.2 to 30.2 g L−1 were studied at six air-flow rates (0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3, 4.4 and 6 m3 m−3 h−1). Statistical analyses were applied to identify the relative impacts of the various bulk biomass characteristics on oxygen transfer. Of the biomass characteristics studied, only solids concentration (correlated with visc...

  11. Osmium isotopes suggest fast and efficient mixing in the oceanic upper mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizimis, Michael; Salters, Vincent

    2010-05-01

    The depleted upper mantle (DUM; the source of MORB) is thought to represent the complementary reservoir of continental crust extraction. Previous studies have calculated the "average" DUM composition based on the geochemistry of MORB. However the Nd isotope compositions of abyssal peridotites have been shown to extend to more depleted compositions than associated MORB. While this argues for the presence of both relatively depleted and enriched material within the upper mantle, the extent of compositional variability, length scales of heterogeneity and timescales of mixing in the upper mantle are not well constrained. Model calculations show that 2Ga is a reasonable mean age of depletion for DUM while Hf - Nd isotopes show the persistence of a depleted terrestrial reservoir by the early Archean (3.5-3.8Ga). U/Pb zircon ages of crustal rocks show three distinct peaks at 1.2, 1.9, and 2.7Ga and these are thought to represent the ages of three major crustal growth events. A fundamental question therefore is whether the present day upper mantle retains a memory of multiple ancient depletion events, or has been effectively homogenized. This has important implications for the nature of convection and time scales of survival of heterogeneities in the upper mantle. Here we compare published Os isotope data from abyssal peridotites and ophiolitic Os-Ir alloys with new data from Hawaiian spinel peridotite xenoliths. The Re-Os isotope system has been shown to yield useful depletion age information in peridotites, so we use it here to investigate the distribution of Re-depletion ages (TRD) in these mantle samples as a proxy for the variability of DUM. The probability density functions (PDF) of TRD from osmiridiums, abyssal and Hawaiian peridotites are all remarkably similar and show a distinct peak at 1.2-1.3 Ga (errors for TRD are set at 0.2Ga to suppress statistically spurious age peaks). The Hawaiian peridotites further show a distinct peak at 1.9-2Ga, but no oceanic mantle

  12. A Numerical Study on the Improvement of Suction Performance and Hydraulic Efficiency for a Mixed-Flow Pump Impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a numerical study on the improvement of suction performance and hydraulic efficiency of a mixed-flow pump by impellers. The design of these impellers was optimized using a commercial CFD (computational fluid dynamics code and DOE (design of experiments. The design variables of meridional plane and vane plane development were defined for impeller design. In DOE, variables of inlet part were selected as main design variables in meridional plane, and incidence angle was selected in vane plane development. The verification of the experiment sets that were generated by 2k factorial was done by numerical analysis. The objective functions were defined as the NPSHre (net positive suction head required, total efficiency, and total head of the impellers. The importance of the geometric design variables was analyzed using 2k factorial designs. The interaction between the NPSHre and total efficiency, according to the meridional plane and incidence angle, was discussed by analyzing the 2k factorial design results. The performance of optimally designed model was verified by experiments and numerical analysis and the reliability of the model was retained by comparison of numerical analysis and comparative analysis with the reference model.

  13. Phenanthrene Contaminated Soil Biotreatment Using Slurry Phase Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arbabi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are suspected toxins that accumulate in soils and sediments due to their insolubility in water and lack of volatility. Slurry-phase biological treatment is one of the innovative technologies that involve the controlled treatment of excavated soil in a bioreactor. Due to highly soil contamination from petroleum compounds in crude oil extraction and also oil refinery sites in Iran, this research was designed based on slurry phase biotreatment to find out a solution to decontamination of oil compounds polluted sites. Approach: Soil samples were collected from Tehran oil refinery site and Bushehr oil zones. Two compositions of soils (clay and silt were selected for slurry biotreatment experiment. Soil samples were contaminated with three rates of phenanthrene (a 3 ring PAH, 100, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 and mixed with distilled water in solid concentration of 30% by weight after washing out with strong solvent (hexane and putting in to the oven. Bacterial consortium was revived in culture medium which consisted of Mineral Salt Medium (MSM based on phenanthrene concentrations and ratio of C/N/P in the range of 100/10/2. Prepared soil samples were mixed with distilled water, nutrient and bacterial consortium together in the 250 mL glass Erlenmeyer and putted in the shaker incubator with 200 rpm revolutions and 25°C for 7 weeks (45 days. Samples were analyzed for residual phenanthrene, bacterial population every week. For statistical analysis, general linear model with repeated measures (type III analysis was applied. Results: The concentration of 100 mg Ll of phenanthrene in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 5 and 6 weeks, respectively. While concentration of 500 mg L-1 of phenanthrene both in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 6 weeks. But concentration of 1000 mg L-1both in clayey and silty soil samples has not met this limitation after 7

  14. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.;

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed-batch...... reactor for biomass production is studied using a differential geometry approach. The maximization problem is solved by handling both the optimal filling policy and substrate concentration in the inlet stream. In order to follow the OBBOM, a master–slave synchronization is used. The OBBOM is considered as...... the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor is...

  15. Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

    The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (the ALS NSCORT), a partnership of Alabama A & M, Howard, and Purdue Universities, was established by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that will reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of regenerative processes within future space life-support systems. A key focus area of NSCORT research has been the development of efficient microbial bioreactors for treatment of human, crop, and food-process wastes while enabling resource recovery. The approach emphasizes optimizing the energy-saving advantages of hydrolytic enzymes for biomass degradation, with focus on treatment of solid wastes including crop residue, paper, food, and human metabolic wastes, treatment of greywater, cabin air, off-gases from other treatment systems, and habitat condensate. This summary includes important findings from those projects, status of technology development, and recommendations for next steps. The Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor-Linked Operation (PAABLO) system was developed to reduce crop residue while generating energy and/or food. Plant residues initially were added directly to the bioreactor, and recalcitrant residue was used as a substrate for growing plants or mushrooms. Subsequently, crop residue was first pretreated with fungi to hydrolyze polymers recalcitrant to bacteria, and leachate from the fungal beds was directed to the anaerobic digester. Exoenzymes from the fungi pre-soften fibrous plant materials, improving recovery of materials that are more easily biodegraded to methane that can be used for energy reclamation. An Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) system was developed for biodegradable solid wastes. Objectives were to increase water and nutrient recovery, reduce waste volume, and inactivate pathogens. Operational parameters of the reactor were optimized for degradation and resource recovery while minimizing system requirements and footprint. The start-up behavior

  16. Highly Efficient Four-Wave Mixing in an AlGaAs-On-Insulator (AlGaAsOI) Nano-Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Ottaviano, Luisa; Semenova, Elizaveta; Yvind, Kresten

    2015-01-01

    We propose an AlGaAs-on-insulator platform for nonlinear integrated photonics. We demonstrate highly efficient four-wave mixing in a 3-mm long AlGaAs-on-insulator nanowaveguide. A conversion efficiency of -21.1 dB is obtained with only a 45-mW pump...

  17. Demonstration of a steam jet scrubber off-gas system and the burner efficiency of a mixed incinerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full-scale incinerator system, the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF), is being designed to process solid and liquid low-level radioactive, mixed, and RCRA hazardous waste. This facility will consist of a rotary kiln, secondary combustion chamber (SCC), and a wet of-gas system. A prototype steam jet scrubber wastewater will be immobilized in a cement matrix after assumptions for the CIF. The scrubber wastewater will be immobilized in a cement matrix after the blowdown has been concentrated to a maximum solids concentration in a cross-flow filtration system. A sintered metal inertial filter system has been successfully tested. Burner efficiency was tested in a high intensity vortex burner, which destroyed the hazardous waste streams tested. These tests are detailed by the authors

  18. Mixed-scale channel networks including Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnels for efficient single particle entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjeong; Lim, Yeongjin; Shin, Heungjoo

    2016-06-01

    Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic carbon mold is fabricated by pyrolyzing a polymer mold patterned by photolithography. During pyrolysis, the polymer mold shrinks by ~90%, which enables nanosized carbon molds to be produced without a complex nanofabrication process. Because of the good adhesion between the polymer mold and the Si substrate, non-uniform volume reduction occurs during pyrolysis resulting in the formation of curved carbon mold side walls. These curved side walls and the relatively low surface energy of the mold provide efficient demolding of the PDMS channel networks. In addition, the trigonal prismatic shape of the polymer is converted into to a Kingfisher-beak-shaped carbon structure due to the non-uniform volume reduction. The transformation of this mold architecture produces a PDMS Kingfisher-beak-shaped 3D microfunnel that connects the microchannel and the nanochannel smoothly. The smooth reduction in the cross-sectional area of the 3D microfunnels enables efficient single microparticle trapping at the nanochannel entrance; this is beneficial for studies of cell transfection.Reproducible research results for nanofluidics and their applications require viable fabrication technologies to produce nanochannels integrated with microchannels that can guide fluid flow and analytes into/out of the nanochannels. We present the simple fabrication of mixed-scale polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel networks consisting of nanochannels and microchannels via a single molding process using a monolithic mixed-scale carbon mold. The monolithic

  19. Integrated and Optimized Energy-Efficient Construction Package for a Community of Production Homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Del Bianco, M. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This research high performance home analyzes how a set of advanced technologies can be integrated into a durable and energy-efficient house in the mixed-humid climate while remaining affordable to homeowners. The technical solutions documented in this report are the cornerstone of the builder's entire business model based on delivering high-performance homes on a production basis as a standard product offering to all price segments of the residential market. Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with production builder Nexus EnergyHomes (CZ 4) and they plan to adopt the successful components of the energy solution package for all 55 homes in the community. The research objective was to optimize the builder's energy solution package based on energy performance and construction costs. All of the major construction features, including envelope upgrades, space conditioning system, hot water system, and solar electric system were analyzed.

  20. Electrolytic reduction of mixed solid oxides in molten salts for energy efficient production of the TiNi alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yong; MA Meng; WANG Dihua; JIANG Kai; HU Xiaohong; JIN Xianbo; George Z. CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Direct electrochemical reduction of mixed TiO2 and NiO powders to TiNi alloy has been successfully demonstrated in molten CaCl2 at 900℃ by constant voltage electrolysis. The electrolysis energy consumption was as low as 23.4 kWh/kg-TiNi,although the current efficiency was 20.5% in the preliminary experiments. During the process, NiO was first reduced to Ni at high speed, accompanied by TiO2 being perovskitized to CaTiO3-x which was gradually reduced to Ni3Ti and TiNi, assisted by the depolarization of the preformed Ni. The cell voltage for preparation of the TiNi alloy was lower than that for Ti. Adjusting the cell voltage not only affected the reduction speed, but also offered a convenient access to the preparation of the nickel/perovskite composite.

  1. Synergistic Effect of Combining Titanosilicate and 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Acetate in Mixed Matrix Membranes for Efficient C02 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Del Mar López Guerrero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The separation and capture of CO2 from these sources is becoming important for greenhouse emission. The membrane-based separation process use to remove CO2 takes advantages in energy efficient and environmentally friendly aspects and has been recognized as an important technology for CO2 capture and gas separation. The novel mixed matrix membranes (MMMs were fabricated by incorporating microporous titanosilicate ETS-10 and a highly CO2 absorbent ionic liquid , [EMIM][Ac] into a Chitosan (CS matrix to improve CO2 separation performance, and were prepared, characterized and tested for CO2 and N2. The solubility values show that the CO2 solubility increases upon addition of ETS-10 particles. The N2 solubility in the ETS-10/[EMIM][Ac]/CS was reduced, while CO2 solubility remained constant. FT-IR spectra revealed a good interaction between the components in the MMMs. Subtle differences in the intensity and position of all individual bands, were observed in the region between 3600 and 2700 cm-1 and 1700 and 900 cm-1. These indicated bonding of the components in the film, confirming the good interaction existing among the components, and that may account for the higher flexibility of the hybrid membrane materials imparted to both CS and ETS-10/CS MMMs, , due to the singular interaction between CS and [EMIM][Ac]. Keywords: CO2 solubility, CO2 separation, microporous titanosilicate ETS-10, Chitosan, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs.

  2. Efficient reconstruction method for ground layer adaptive optics with mixed natural and laser guide stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Roland; Helin, Tapio; Obereder, Andreas; Ramlau, Ronny

    2016-02-20

    The imaging quality of modern ground-based telescopes such as the planned European Extremely Large Telescope is affected by atmospheric turbulence. In consequence, they heavily depend on stable and high-performance adaptive optics (AO) systems. Using measurements of incoming light from guide stars, an AO system compensates for the effects of turbulence by adjusting so-called deformable mirror(s) (DMs) in real time. In this paper, we introduce a novel reconstruction method for ground layer adaptive optics. In the literature, a common approach to this problem is to use Bayesian inference in order to model the specific noise structure appearing due to spot elongation. This approach leads to large coupled systems with high computational effort. Recently, fast solvers of linear order, i.e., with computational complexity O(n), where n is the number of DM actuators, have emerged. However, the quality of such methods typically degrades in low flux conditions. Our key contribution is to achieve the high quality of the standard Bayesian approach while at the same time maintaining the linear order speed of the recent solvers. Our method is based on performing a separate preprocessing step before applying the cumulative reconstructor (CuReD). The efficiency and performance of the new reconstructor are demonstrated using the OCTOPUS, the official end-to-end simulation environment of the ESO for extremely large telescopes. For more specific simulations we also use the MOST toolbox. PMID:26906596

  3. Operation of landfill bioreactors, or leachate recirculation landfills in cold climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettiaratchi, J.P.A.; Stein, V.B.; Pokhrel, D.; Chandrakanthi, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The major difference between conventional landfills and bioreactor landfills is that the latter are designed, constructed, and operated to promote rapid waste degradation. This paper presents a critical review of the current design and operation practices of landfill bioreactors in relation to leachate management and gas management. The features of the two concepts were also compared. A variety of methods of mixing leachate with waste are required in leachate recirculation, some of which cannot be applied in cold climates. It is imperative to possess an excellent understanding of leachate hydrology within the waste matrix to avoid generating problems associated with leachate ponding, leachate leakage from side-walls or landfill instability during leachate recirculation. The authors pointed out that gas recovery systems in bioreactors should be designed and installed by carefully considering settlement issues and time-dependent changes to gas permeability from changes to waste density and moisture content. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  4. A re-usable wave bioreactor for protein production in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, J; Suppmann, S

    2016-01-01

    Wave-mixed bioreactors have increasingly replaced stainless steel stirred tank reactors in seed inoculum productions and mammalian cell-based process developments. Pre-sterilized, single-use plastic bags are used for cultivation, eliminating the risk of cross-contamination and cleaning procedures. However, these advantages come with high consumable costs which is the main barrier to more uptakes of the technology by academic institutions. As an academic Core Facility that faces high demand in protein production from insect cells, we have therefore developed a cost-effective alternative to disposable wave bags. In our study we identified: •A re-usable wave shaken polycarbonate bioreactor for protein production in insect cells achieves protein yields comparable to disposable bags.•The advantages of this re-usable bioreactor are low costs, long life cycle, flexible configuration of accessories and convenient handling due to its rigid shape. PMID:27556015

  5. Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

    2004-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ≈ 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water

  6. Development of a floating photobioreactor with internal partitions for efficient utilization of ocean wave into improved mass transfer and algal culture mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Z-Hun; Park, Hanwool; Hong, Seong-Joo; Lim, Sang-Min; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2016-05-01

    Culturing microalgae in the ocean has potentials that may reduce the production cost and provide an option for an economic biofuel production from microalgae. The ocean holds great potentials for mass microalgal cultivation with its high specific heat, mixing energy from waves, and large cultivable area. Suitable photobioreactors (PBRs) that are capable of integrating marine energy into the culture systems need to be developed for the successful ocean cultivation. In this study, prototype floating PBRs were designed and constructed using transparent low-density polyethylene film for microalgal culture in the ocean. To improve the mixing efficiency, various types of internal partitions were introduced within PBRs. Three different types of internal partitions were evaluated for their effects on the mixing efficiency in terms of mass transfer (k L a) and mixing time in the PBRs. The partition type with the best mixing efficiency was selected, and the number of partitions was varied from one to three for investigation of its effect on mixing efficiency. When the number of partitions is increased, mass transfer increased in proportion to the number of partitions. However, mixing time was not directly related to the number of partitions. When a green microalga, Tetraselmis sp. was cultivated using PBRs with the selected partition under semi-continuous mode in the ocean, biomass and fatty acid productivities in the PBRs were increased by up to 50 % and 44 % at high initial cell density, respectively, compared to non-partitioned ones. The results of internally partitioned PBRs demonstrated potentials for culturing microalgae by efficiently utilizing ocean wave energy into culture mixing in the ocean. PMID:26857371

  7. Biological reduction of nitrates in wastewaters from nuclear processing using a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt.% NO3- and as large as 2000 m3/day, in the nuclear fuel cycle. The biological reduction of nitrate in wastewater to gaseous nitrogen, accompanied by the oxidation of a nutrient carbon source to gaseous carbon dioxide, is an ecologically sound and cost-effective method of treating wastewaters containing nitrates. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO3-)/m3 by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The denitrification bacteria are a mixed culture derived from garden soil; the major strain is Pseudomonas. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25- to 0.50-mm-diam coal fluidization particles, which are then fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m3. This paper describes the results of a biodenitrification R and D program based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m3 and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 g N(NO3-) per day per liter of empty bioreactor volume. 4 figures, 7 tables

  8. Correlating oxygen vacancies and phase ratio/interface with efficient photocatalytic activity in mixed phase TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The correlation of interfacial behavior and oxygen vacancies in mixed phase titania nanoparticles on their performance as photocatalyst has been investigated to explain the impact of photoactivity under UV and visible irradiation compared to pristine counterparts. The defects at the junction effectively reduce the band gap as well decrease the carrier recombination to enhance the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Pristine and mixed phases (A/R ratio) TiO2 synthesized by sol gel route. • Photoactivity variation has been correlated with the changes in the phase ratio. • Enhanced UV and visible activity attributable to oxygen vacancy present at the interface. • Role of A/R ratio and oxygen vacancy in the photoactivity of mixed TiO2 depicted through a model. - Abstract: The photocatalytic activity is a result of the synergy of a succession of phenomena-photogeneration, separation, and participation of the charge carriers in redox reaction at the catalyst surface. While the extent of photogeneration is assessable in terms of absorption spectrum (band gap), the redox reaction can be correlated to specific surface area. However the respective change in the photocatalytic activity has not been rationally and consistently correlated with the above mentioned parameters. A satisfactory explanation of suppression of recombination based on separation of carriers due to differential mobility/diffusivity in the material phase(s) and/or intrinsic potential barrier exists but its correlation with common identifiable parameter/characteristics is still elusive. This paper attempts to address this issue by correlating the carrier separation with the phase ratio (phase interface) in mixed phase titania and generalizing it with the presence of oxygen vacancy at the phase interface. It essentially appears to complete the quest for identifiable parameters in the sequence of phenomena, which endow a photocatalyst with an efficient activity level. It has

  9. Performance Verification of Production-Scalable Energy-Efficient Solutions: Winchester/Camberley Homes Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-07-01

    Winchester/Camberley Homes with the Building America program and its NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership collaborated to develop a new set of high performance home designs that could be applicable on a production scale. The new home designs are to be constructed in the mixed humid climate zone four and could eventually apply to all of the builder's home designs to meet or exceed future energy codes or performance-based programs. However, the builder recognized that the combination of new wall framing designs and materials, higher levels of insulation in the wall cavity, and more detailed air sealing to achieve lower infiltration rates changes the moisture characteristics of the wall system. In order to ensure long term durability and repeatable successful implementation with few call-backs, this report demonstrates through measured data that the wall system functions as a dynamic system, responding to changing interior and outdoor environmental conditions within recognized limits of the materials that make up the wall system. A similar investigation was made with respect to the complete redesign of the heating, cooling, air distribution, and ventilation systems intended to optimize the equipment size and configuration to significantly improve efficiency while maintaining indoor comfort. Recognizing the need to demonstrate the benefits of these efficiency features, the builder offered a new house model to serve as a test case to develop framing designs, evaluate material selections and installation requirements, changes to work scopes and contractor learning curves, as well as to compare theoretical performance characteristics with measured results.

  10. Performance Verification of Production-Scalable Energy-Efficient Solutions: Winchester/Camberley Homes Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Winchester/Camberley Homes collaborated with the Building America team Partnership for Home Innovation to develop a new set of high performance home designs that could be applicable on a production scale. The new home designs are to be constructed in the mixed humid climate zone and could eventually apply to all of the builder's home designs to meet or exceed future energy codes or performance-based programs. However, the builder recognized that the combination of new wall framing designs and materials, higher levels of insulation in the wall cavity, and more detailed air sealing to achieve lower infiltration rates changes the moisture characteristics of the wall system. In order to ensure long term durability and repeatable successful implementation with few call-backs, the project team demonstrated through measured data that the wall system functions as a dynamic system, responding to changing interior and outdoor environmental conditions within recognized limits of the materials that make up the wall system. A similar investigation was made with respect to the complete redesign of the HVAC systems to significantly improve efficiency while maintaining indoor comfort. Recognizing the need to demonstrate the benefits of these efficiency features, the builder offered a new house model to serve as a test case to develop framing designs, evaluate material selections and installation requirements, changes to work scopes and contractor learning curves, as well as to compare theoretical performance characteristics with measured results.

  11. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. RWPV bioreactor mass transport: earth-based and in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Cynthia M.; Kleis, Stanley J.

    2002-01-01

    Mass transport and mixing of perfused scalar quantities in the NASA Rotating Wall Perfused Vessel bioreactor are studied using numerical models of the flow field and scalar concentration field. Operating conditions typical of both microgravity and ground-based cell cultures are studied to determine the expected vessel performance for both flight and ground-based control experiments. Results are presented for the transport of oxygen with cell densities and consumption rates typical of colon cancer cells cultured in the RWPV. The transport and mixing characteristics are first investigated with a step change in the perfusion inlet concentration by computing the time histories of the time to exceed 10% inlet concentration. The effects of a uniform cell utilization rate are then investigated with time histories of the outlet concentration, volume average concentration, and volume fraction starved. It is found that the operating conditions used in microgravity produce results that are quite different then those for ground-based conditions. Mixing times for microgravity conditions are significantly shorter than those for ground-based operation. Increasing the differential rotation rates (microgravity) increases the mixing and transport, while increasing the mean rotation rate (ground-based) suppresses both. Increasing perfusion rates enhances mass transport for both microgravity and ground-based cases, however, for the present range of operating conditions, above 5-10 cc/min there are diminishing returns as much of the inlet fluid is transported directly to the perfusion exit. The results show that exit concentration is not a good indicator of the concentration distributions in the vessel. In microgravity conditions, the NASA RWPV bioreactor with the viscous pump has been shown to provide an environment that is well mixed. Even when operated near the theoretical minimum perfusion rates, only a small fraction of the volume provides less than the required oxygen levels

  13. Biogeochemistry of the compost bioreactor components of a composite acid mine drainage passive remediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    revealed new insights into the operation of compost bioreactors used to remediate mine waters and has shown that, when operated under appropriate conditions, they can be highly efficient at generating alkalinity and removing metals from extremely acidic, metal-rich AMD

  14. Integrated and Optimized Energy-Efficient Construction Package for a Community of Production Homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.

    2014-10-01

    Selection and integration of high performance home features are two sides of the same coin in energy efficient sustainable construction. Many advanced technologies are available for selection, but it is in the integration of these technologies into an affordable set of features that can be used on a production basis by builders, that ensures whole-house performance meets expectations. This research high performance home analyzes how a set of advanced technologies can be integrated into a durable and energy efficient house in the mixed-humid climate while remaining affordable to homeowners. The technical solutions documented in this report are the cornerstone of the builder's entire business model based on delivering high-performance homes on a production basis as a standard product offering to all price segments of the residential market. Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with production builder Nexus EnergyHomes (CZ 4). The builder plans to adopt the successful components of the energy solution package for all 55 homes in the community. The research objective was to optimize the builder's energy solution package based on energy performance and construction costs. All of the major construction features, including envelope upgrades, space conditioning system, hot water system, and solar electric system were analyzed. The information in this report can be used by builders and designers to evaluate options, and the integration of options, for increasing the efficiency of home designs in climate zone 4. The data also provide a point of reference for evaluating estimates of energy savings and costs for specific features.

  15. Development of Fundamental Technologies for Micro Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiichi; Kitamori, Takehiko

    This chapter reviews the development of fundamental technologies required for microchip-based bioreactors utilizing living mammalian cells and pressure driven flow. The most important factor in the bioreactor is the cell culture. For proper cell culturing, continuous medium supply from a microfluidic channel and appropriate modification of the channel surface to accommodate cell attachment is required. Moreover, the medium flow rate should be chosen carefully, because shear stress affects cell activity. The techniques presented here could be applied to the development of micro bioreactors such as microlivers, pigment production by plant cells, and artificial insemination.

  16. Spatial Experiment Technologies Suitable for Unreturnable Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Weibo; Tong, Guanghui

    2016-07-01

    The system composition and main function of the bioreactor piggybacked on TZ cargo transport spacecraft are introduced briefly in the paper.The spatial experiment technologies which are suitable for unreturnable bioreactor are described in detail,including multi-channel liquid transportion and management,multi-type animal cells circuit testing,dynamic targets microscopic observation in situ etc..The feasibility and effectiveness of these technologies which will be used in space experiment in bioreactor are verified in tests and experiments on the ground.

  17. A novel fermentation strategy for removing the key inhibitor acetic acid and efficiently utilizing the mixed sugars from lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Eiteman PHD; Elliot Altman Phd

    2009-02-11

    As part of preliminary research efforts, we have completed several experiments which demonstrate 'proof of concept.' These experiments addressed the following three questions: (1) Can a synthetic mixed sugar solution of glucose and xylose be efficiently consumed using the multi-organism approach? (2) Can this approach be used to accumulate a model product? (3) Can this approach be applied to the removal of an inhibitor, acetate, selectively from mixtures of xylose and glucose? To answer the question of whether this multi-organism approach can effectively consume synthetic mixed sugar solutions, we first tested substrate-selective uptake using two strains, one unable to consume glucose and one unable to consume xylose. The xylose-selective strain ALS998 has mutations in the three genes involved in glucose uptake, rendering it unable to consume glucose: ptsG codes for the Enzyme IICB{sup Glc} of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for carbohydrate transport (Postma et al., 1993), manZ codes for the IID{sup Man} domain of the mannose PTS permease (Huber, 1996), glk codes for glucokinase (Curtis and Epstein 1975) We also constructed strain ALS1008 which has a knockout in the xylA gene encoding for xylose isomerase, rendering ALS1008 unable to consume xylose. Two batch experiments and one continuous bioprocess were completed. In the first experiment, each strain was grown separately in a defined medium of 8 g/L xylose and 15 g/L glucose which represented xylose and glucose concentrations that can be generated by actual biomass. In the second experiment, the two strains were grown together in batch in the same defined, mixed-sugar medium. In a third experiment, we grew the strains continuously in a 'chemostat', except that we shifted the concentrations of glucose and xylose periodically to observe how the system would respond. (For example, we shifted the glucose concentration suddenly from 15 g/L to 30 g/L in the feed).

  18. Strategy to Boost the Efficiency of Mixed-Ion Perovskite Solar Cells: Changing Geometry of the Hole Transporting Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbao; Xu, Bo; Johansson, Malin B; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Boschloo, Gerrit; Sun, Licheng; Johansson, Erik M J; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2016-07-26

    The hole transporting material (HTM) is an essential component in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) for efficient extraction and collection of the photoinduced charges. Triphenylamine- and carbazole-based derivatives have extensively been explored as alternative and economical HTMs for PSCs. However, the improvement of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), as well as further investigation of the relationship between the chemical structure of the HTMs and the photovoltaic performance, is imperatively needed. In this respect, a simple carbazole-based HTM X25 was designed on the basis of a reference HTM, triphenylamine-based X2, by simply linking two neighboring phenyl groups in a triphenylamine unit through a carbon-carbon single bond. It was found that a lowered highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level was obtained for X25 compared to that of X2. Besides, the carbazole moiety in X25 improved the molecular planarity as well as conductivity property in comparison with the triphenylamine unit in X2. Utilizing the HTM X25 in a solar cell with mixed-ion perovskite [HC(NH2)2]0.85(CH3NH3)0.15Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3, a highest reported PCE of 17.4% at 1 sun (18.9% under 0.46 sun) for carbazole-based HTM in PSCs was achieved, in comparison of a PCE of 14.7% for triphenylamine-based HTM X2. From the steady-state photoluminescence and transient photocurrent/photovoltage measurements, we conclude that (1) the lowered HOMO level for X25 compared to X2 favored a higher open-circuit voltage (Voc) in PSCs; (2) a more uniform formation of X25 capping layer than X2 on the surface of perovskite resulted in more efficient hole transport and charge extraction in the devices. In addition, the long-term stability of PSCs with X25 is significantly enhanced compared to X2 due to its good uniformity of HTM layer and thus complete coverage on the perovskite. The results provide important information to further develop simple and efficient small molecular HTMs applied in solar cells

  19. Corn forage biological pretreatment by Trametes versicolor in a tray bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinić, Mirela; Zelić, Bruno; Čubel, Ivan; Bucić-Kojić, Ana; Tišma, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Trametes versicolor is a white-rot fungus known to be efficient in lignin removal due to its complex extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymatic system. Therefore, it can be used in the treatment of lignocellulose waste from agro, food, and wood industries. In a first experiment, corn forage treatment with T. versicolor was investigated in laboratory jars. In a second experiment, the process was scaled up to a tray bioreactor. In the tray bioreactor, the process of lignin degradation was improved, resulting in an increase in lignin conversion of up to 71% during seven days' treatment. PMID:27401159

  20. Bio-Gas production from municipal sludge waste using anaerobic membrane bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) system for the bio-methane gas production was operated for 60 days with municipal sludge wastes as a sole carbon source. The AnMRR system utilized the external cross-flow membrane module and was equipped with on-line data acquisition which enables continuous monitoring of the performance of both bioreactor and membrane through the analyses of pH, temperature, gas production; permeate flow rate, and transmembrane pressure (TMP). Such a configuration also provides an efficient tool to study rapid variations of monitoring membrane pressure (TMP). (Author)

  1. Bio-Gas production from municipal sludge waste using anaerobic membrane bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Lee, S.

    2009-07-01

    A laboratory scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) system for the bio-methane gas production was operated for 60 days with municipal sludge wastes as a sole carbon source. The AnMRR system utilized the external cross-flow membrane module and was equipped with on-line data acquisition which enables continuous monitoring of the performance of both bioreactor and membrane through the analyses of pH, temperature, gas production; permeate flow rate, and transmembrane pressure (TMP). Such a configuration also provides an efficient tool to study rapid variations of monitoring membrane pressure (TMP). (Author)

  2. Immobilized yeast in bioreactor for alcohol fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed using a Co-60 source. Cells were immobilized onto sterile, channeled alumina beads and packed into bioreactor column under controlled temperature. Feedstocks containing substrate and nutrients were fed into the bioreactor at specific rates. Beads with greatest porosity and surface area produced the most ethanol. Factors affecting ethanol productivity included: temperature, pH, flow rate, nutrients and substrate in the feedstock

  3. New bioreactors systems for pharmacological screening

    OpenAIRE

    Vozzi, Federico

    2007-01-01

    Bioreactors, biotechnological devices for in vitro cell cultures with dynamic conditions, have the potential to provide information on local cell behavior and function. The development of bioreactors could lead to a multitude of applications from drug testing and development, tissue engineering and basic research to the identification of new and alternative therapies for many disorders. High quality, reliable, in vitro data also provide a shift in focus from large scale animal testing to the ...

  4. Simplified Bioreactor For Growing Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Glenn F.

    1995-01-01

    Improved bioreactor for growing mammalian cell cultures developed. Designed to support growth of dense volumes of mammalian cells by providing ample, well-distributed flows of nutrient solution with minimal turbulence. Cells relatively delicate and, unlike bacteria, cannot withstand shear forces present in turbulent flows. Bioreactor vessel readily made in larger sizes to accommodate greater cell production quantities. Molding equipment presently used makes cylinders up to 30 centimeters long. Alternative sintered plastic techniques used to vary pore size and quantity, as necessary.

  5. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  6. Treatment of mechanically sorted organic waste by bioreactor landfill: Experimental results and preliminary comparative impact assessment with biostabilization and conventional landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sisani, Luciano; Rotondi, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Treatment and disposal of the mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste using a full-scale hybrid bioreactor landfill was experimentally analyzed. A preliminary life cycle assessment was used to compare the hybrid bioreactor landfill with the conventional scheme based on aerobic biostabilization plus landfill. The main findings showed that hybrid bioreactor landfill was able to achieve a dynamic respiration index (DRI)55% v/v started within 140days from MSOF disposal, allowing prompt energy recovery and higher collection efficiency. With the exception of fresh water eutrophication with the bioreactor scenario there was a reduction of the impact categories by about 30% compared to the conventional scheme. Such environmental improvement was mainly a consequence of the reduction of direct and indirect emissions from conventional aerobic biostabilization and of the lower amount of gaseous loses from the bioreactor landfill. PMID:27026496

  7. Moisture Performance of Energy-Efficient and Conventional Wood-Frame Wall Assemblies in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel V. Glass

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term moisture performance is a critical consideration for design and construction of building envelopes in energy-efficient buildings, yet field measurements of moisture characteristics for highly insulated wood-frame walls in mixed-humid climates are lacking. Temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content of wood framing and oriented strand board (OSB structural panel sheathing were measured over a period from mid-November 2011 through March 2013 in both north- and south-facing orientations in test structures near Washington, DC, USA. Wall configurations varied in exterior cladding, water-resistive barrier, level of cavity insulation, presence of exterior continuous insulation, and interior vapor retarder. The combination of high interior humidity and high vapor permeance of painted gypsum board led to significant moisture accumulation in OSB sheathing during winter in walls without a vapor retarder. In contrast, wintertime moisture accumulation was not significant with an interior kraft vapor retarder. Extruded polystyrene exterior insulation had a predictable effect on wall cavity temperature but a marginal impact on OSB moisture content in walls with vinyl siding and interior kraft vapor retarder. Hygrothermal simulations approximately captured the timing of seasonal changes in OSB moisture content, differences between north- and south-facing walls, and differences between walls with and without an interior kraft vapor retarder.

  8. Biosorption of metal ions by attached bacterial cells in a packed-bed bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes a simple method for the immobilization of a biosorbent. An adherent Bacillus sp. strain has been grown attached to an inert support material. This strain had the capacity to bind uranium, copper, cadmium and zinc. The desorption of these metals was quantitative at pH-values lower than 2. To study the attachment of the bacterial biomass, a laboratory-scale packed-bed bioreactor with an appropriate aeration system was developed. The colonization of the support was fast and efficient. In batch culture conditions, the biomass accumulation reached a cuasi-stationary phase after 12 h. Under optimal conditions, the attached biomass comprised around 80% of the total biomass present in the bioreactor. After the colonization phase, the packed-bed bioreactor was continuously operated to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The biosorption capacity of the attached biomass was similar to that of the free bacterial suspension

  9. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor for the treatment of leachates from Jebel Chakir discharge in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayen, Amal; Mnif, Sami; Aloui, Fathi; Fki, Firas; Loukil, Slim; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-05-15

    Landfill leachate (LFL) collected from the controlled discharge of Jebel Chakir in Tunisia was treated without any physical or chemical pretreatment in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). The organic loading rate (OLR) in the AnMBR was gradually increased from 1 g COD l(-1)d(-1) to an average of 6.27 g COD l(-1)d(-1). At the highest OLR, the biogas production was more than 3 volumes of biogas per volume of the bioreactor. The volatile suspended solids (VSSs) reached a value of approximately 3 g l(-1) in the bioreactor. At stable conditions, the treatment efficiency was high with an average COD reduction of 90% and biogas yield of 0.46 l biogas per g COD removed. PMID:20096996

  10. Improving the efficiencies of simultaneous organic substance and nitrogen removal in a multi-stage loop membrane bioreactor-based PWWTP using an on-line Knowledge-Based Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-Bo; Nie, Shu-Kai; Ren, Nan-Qi; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Cui, Min-Hua

    2011-10-15

    The results of the use of an expert system (ES) to control a novel multi-stage loop membrane bioreactor (MLMBR) for the simultaneous removal of organic substances and nutrients are reported. The study was conducted at a bench-scale plant for the purpose of meeting new discharge standards (GB21904-2008) for the treatment of chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater (1200-9600 mg/L COD, 500-2500 mg/L BOD5, 50-200 mg/L NH4+-N and 105-400 mg/L TN in the influent water) by developing a distributed control system. The system allows various expert operational approaches to be deployed with the goal of minimizing organic substances and nitrogen levels in the outlet while using the minimum amount of energy. The proposed distributed control system, which is supervised by a Knowledge-Based Expert System (KBES) constructed with G2 (a tool for expert system development) and a back propagation BP artificial neural network, permits the on-line implementation of every operating strategy of the experimental system. A support vector machine (SVM) is applied to achieve pattern recognition. A set of experiments involving variable sludge retention time (SRT), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and dissolved oxygen (DO) was carried out. Using the proposed system, the amounts of COD, TN and NH4+-N in the effluent decreased by 55%, 62% and 38%, respectively, compared to the usual operating conditions. These improvements were achieved with little energy cost because the performance of the treatment plant was optimized using operating rules implemented in real time. PMID:21862097

  11. Airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 for treatment of lubricants in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sphingobium sp. P2 effectively degraded various lubricant samples. ► Efficiency of Sphingobium sp. P2 increased after immobilization on chitosan. ► High removal efficiency was due to both sorption and degradation processes. ► The immobilized bacteria (4 g L−1) were applied in internal loop airlift bioreactor. ► The bioreactor continuously removed lubricant from emulsified wastewater. - Abstract: An internal loop airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 was applied for the removal of automotive lubricants from emulsified wastewater. The chitosan-immobilized bacteria had higher lubricant removal efficiency than free and killed-immobilized cells because they were able to sorp and degrade the lubricants simultaneously. In a semi-continuous batch experiment, the immobilized bacteria were able to remove 80–90% of the 200 mg L−1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from both synthetic and carwash wastewater. The internal loop airlift bioreactor, containing 4 g L−1 immobilized bacteria, was later designed and operated at 2.0 h HRT (hydraulic retention time) for over 70 days. At a steady state, the reactor continuously removed 85 ± 5% TPH and 73 ± 11% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the carwash wastewater with 25–200 mg L−1 amended lubricant. The internal loop airlift reactor's simple operation and high stability demonstrate its high potential for use in treating lubricants in emulsified wastewater from carwashes and other industries.

  12. Development of an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor to Regenerate Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Barry W.; Strayer, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    Three Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactors were designed, fabricated, and operated. They utilized mixed microbial communities to bio-degrade plant residues. The continuously stirred tank reactors operated at a working volume of 8 L, and the average oxygen mass transfer coefficient, k(sub L)a, was 0.01 s(exp -1). Mixing time was 35 s. An experiment using inedible wheat residues, a replenishment rate of 0.125/day, and a solids loading rate of 20 gdw/day yielded a 48% reduction in biomass. Bioreactor effluent was successfully used to regenerate a wheat hydroponic nutrient solution. Over 80% of available potassium, calcium, and other minerals were recovered and recycled in the 76-day wheat growth experiment.

  13. Study of the effect of mixing approach on cross-linking efficiency of hyaluronic acid-based hydrogel cross-linked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sibani, Mohammed; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2016-08-25

    Regardless of various strategies reported for cross-linking hyaluronic acid (HA) with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE), seeking new strategies that enhance cross-linking efficiency with a low level of cross-linker is essential. In this work, we studied the influence of mixing approach on two cross-linked BDDE-HA hydrogels prepared by two different mixing approaches; the large-batch mixing approach in which the hydrogel quantities were all mixed as a single lump in one container (hydrogel 1), and the small-batches mixing approach in which the hydrogel quantities were divided into smaller batches, mixed separately at various HA/BDDE ratios then combined in one reaction mixture (hydrogel 2). The result showed that the cross-linking reaction was mixing process-dependent. Degradation tests proved that, in relation to hydrogel 1, hydrogel 2 was more stable, and exhibited a higher resistance towards hyaluronidase activity. The swelling ratio of hydrogel 1 was significantly higher than that of hydrogel 2 in distilled water; however, in phosphate buffer saline, both hydrogels showed no significant difference. SEM images demonstrated that hydrogel 2 composite showed a denser network structure and smaller pore-size than hydrogel 1. In comparison to native HA, the occurrence of chemical modification in the cross-linked hydrogels was confirmed by FTIR and NMR distinctive peaks. These peaks also provided evidence that hydrogel 2 exhibited a higher degree of modification than hydrogel 1. In conclusion, the small-batches mixing approach proved to be more effective than large-batch mixing in promoting HA-HA entanglement and increasing the probability of BDDE molecules for binding with HA chains. PMID:27312477

  14. Research on degradation product and reaction kinetics of membrane electro-bioreactor (MEBR) with catalytic electrodes for high concentration phenol wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Huanping; Wang, Hui; Liu, Botan; Li, Chunqing

    2016-07-01

    The membrane electro-bioreactor (MEBR) is a novel technology, it treats wastewater by combining membrane filtration, electrokinetic phenomena, and biological processes in one reactor. This paper aims to deal with hard biodegradation and high concentration phenol wastewater. Investigating the influence factors such as initial concentration, voltage, pH value, temperature and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) toward phenol degradation process in electrocatalytic process and membrane bioreactor (MBR), and then apply the optimum conditions in the MEBR system. Results of continuous flow experiments demonstrated that MEBR increased the quality of the treated wastewater than conventional MBR. The above technics followed the zero-order reaction kinetics. The removal efficiency of MEBR was about 11.1% higher for phenol than the sum of the two individual processes. With the help of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), this qualitative analysis looks at the degradation products of phenol generated in MEBR, through which 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-benzoquinone was confirmed as the main degradation product. PMID:27108366

  15. Two Devices for Removing Sludge From Bioreactor Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Shivaun; Hitchens, G. DUncan; Jabs, Harry; Cross, Jennifer; Pilkinton, Michelle; Taylor, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Two devices a magnetic separator and a special filter denoted a self-regenerating separator (SRS) have been developed for separating sludge from the stream of wastewater from a bioreactor. These devices were originally intended for use in microgravity, but have also been demonstrated to function in normal Earth gravity. The magnetic separator (see Figure 1) includes a thin-walled nonmagnetic, stainless-steel cylindrical drum that rotates within a cylindrical housing. The wastewater enters the separator through a recirculation inlet, and about 80 percent of the wastewater flow leaves through a recirculation outlet. Inside the drum, a magnet holder positions strong permanent magnets stationary and, except near a recirculation outlet, close to the inner drum surface. To enable magnetic separation, magnetite (a ferromagnetic and magnetically soft iron oxide) powder is mixed into the bioreactor wastewater. The magnetite becomes incorporated into the sludge by condensation, onto the powder particles, of microbe flocks that constitute the sludge. As a result, the magnets inside the drum magnetically attract the sludge onto the outer surface of the drum.

  16. Sustainable operation of submerged Anammox membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyin; Xu, Xindi; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, FengLin; Zhang, ShuShen

    2015-12-01

    A submerged anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (Anammox) membrane bioreactor with recycling biogas sparging for alleviating membrane fouling has been successfully operated for 100d. Based on the batch tests, a recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2m(3)h(-1) was fixed as an ultimate value for the sustainable operation. The mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (VSS) of the inoculum for the long operation was around 3000mgL(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate increasing stepwise from 0 to 0.2m(3)h(-1), the reactor reached an influent total nitrogen (TN) up to 1.7gL(-1), a stable TN removal efficiency of 83% and a maximum specific Anammox activity (SAA) of 0.56kg TNkg(-1) VSSd(-1). With recycling biogas sparging rate at 0.2 m(3) h(-1) (corresponding to an aeration intensity of 118m(3)m(-2)h(-1)), the membrane operation circle could prolong by around 20 times compared to that without gas sparging. Furthermore, mechanism of membrane fouling was proposed. And with recycling biogas sparging, the VSS and EPS content increasing rate in cake layer were far less than the ones without biogas sparging. The TN removal performance and sustainable membrane operation of this system showed the appealing potential of the submerged Anammox MBR with recycling biogas sparging in treating high-strength nitrogen-containing wastewaters. PMID:25311769

  17. Evaluation of herbicide (persistent pollutant) removal mechanisms through hybrid membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaratna, Dimuth; Shu, Li; Jegatheesan, Veeriah

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) combined with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption was researched for over seven months to evaluate the removal efficiencies and mechanisms of a moderately persistent s-triazine herbicide (Ametryn), which is commonly used in Australian sugarcane farmlands. Long-term experiments showed that MBR alone (15h hydraulic retention time (HRT)) can remove 65% of Ametryn from its influent which had a concentration of 1-2mg/L. A batch study was carried out to assess the mechanisms of removal of Ametryn through MBR and found that 0.1186mg of Ametryn/g-VSS is adsorbed onto sludge particles when 1mg/L of Ametryn is added to the mixed liquor and showed a 64% removal after 12h. This experiment confirmed that 99%, 92% and 83% removal of Ametryn could be achieved only from biodegradation, if the MBR maintains a HRT of 7.5, 2.5 and 1.5days respectively. PMID:26584228

  18. Optimizing of Culture Condition in Horizontal Rotating Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Fang ZHANG; Huai-Qing CHEN; Hua HUANG

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Bioreactor is the most important equipment in tissue engineering. It can mimic the micro-environment of cell growth in vitro. At present, horizontal rotating bioreactor is the most advanced equipment for cell culture in the world.

  19. Modelling, Optimization and Optimal Control of Small Scale Stirred Tank Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Mitko Petrov; Uldis Viesturs; Stoyan Tzonkov; Tatjana Ilkova

    2004-01-01

    Models of the mass-transfer in a stirred tank bioreactor depending on general indexes of the processes of aeration and mixing in concrete simplifications of the hydrodynamic structure of the flows are developed. The offered combined model after parameters identification is used for optimization of the parameters of the apparatus construction. The optimization problem is solved by using of the fuzzy sets theory and in this way the unspecified as a result of the model simplification are read. I...

  20. A Novel Designed Bioreactor for Recovering Precious Metals from Waste Printed Circuit Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan Jujun; Zheng Jie; Hu Jian; Jianwen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    For recovering precious metals from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs), a novel hybrid technology including physical and biological methods was developed. It consisted of crushing, corona-electrostatic separation, and bioleaching. Bioleaching process is the focus of this paper. A novel bioreactor for bioleaching was designed. Bioleaching was carried out using Pseudomonas chlororaphis. Bioleaching experiments using mixed particles of Au and Cu were performed and leachate contained 0.006 mg/L,...

  1. CFD Simulation of an Anaerobic Membrane BioReactor (AnMBR) to Treat Industrial Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Laura C. Zuluaga; Luz N. Naranjo; Jan Svojitka; Thomas Wintgens; Manuel Rodriguez; Nicolas Ratkovich

    2015-01-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation has been developed for an Anaerobic Membrane BioReactor (AnMBR) to treat industrial wastewater. As the process consists of a side-stream MBR, two separate simulations were created: (i) reactor and (ii) membrane. Different cases were conducted for each one, so the surrounding temperature and the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration were checked. For the reactor, the most important aspects to consider were the dead zones and the mixing, wher...

  2. Treatment of industrial wastewaters by anaerobic membrane bioreactors: implications of substrate characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Dereli, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    The success of anaerobic digestion relies on the presence of highly active methanogenic biomass, requiring effective retention of slow growing anaerobic microorganisms inside bioreactor by decoupling the hydraulic retention time (HRT) from solids residence time (SRT) or the employment of long SRTs in fully mixed systems. So far, flow through systems, i.e. completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) digesters, and granular sludge bed reactors have been commonly applied for anaerobic treatment of sl...

  3. Somatic embryo mediated mass production of Catharanthus roseus in culture vessel (bioreactor) – A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujib, A.; Ali, Muzamil; Isah, Tasiu; Dipti

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the use of liquid and solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in different culture vessels for mass production of Catharanthus roseus, an important source of anticancerous compounds, vincristine and vinblastine. Three media conditions i.e. agar-solidified medium (S), liquid medium in agitated conical flask (L) and growtek bioreactor (B) were used. Rapid propagation was achieved through in vitro somatic embryogenesis pathway. The process of embryogenesis has been categorized into induction, proliferation, maturation and germination stages. All in vitro embryogenesis stages were conducted by withdrawing spent liquid medium and by adding fresh MS medium. In optimized 4.52 μM 2,4-D added MS, the callus biomass growth was low in solid (1.65 g) compared to liquid medium in agitated conical flask (1.95 g) and in bioreactor (2.11 g). The number of normal somatic embryos was more in solid medium (99.75/50 mg of callus mass) compared to liquid medium used in conical flask (83.25/callus mass) and growtek bioreactor (84.88/callus mass). The in vitro raised embryos maturated in GA3 (2.60 μM) added medium; and in bioreactor the embryo growth was high, a maximum length of 9.82 mm was observed at the end of four weeks. These embryos germinated into seedlings in BAP (2.22 μM) added medium and the embryo germination ability was more (59.41%) in bioreactor compared to liquid medium in conical flask (55.5%). Shoot length (11.25 mm) was also high in bioreactor compared to agitated conical flask. The liquid medium used in agitated conical flask and bioreactor increased seedling production efficiency, at the same time it also reduced plant recovery time. The embryo generated plants grew normally in outdoor conditions. The exploitation of medium to large culture vessel or bioreactor may make the process more efficient in getting large number of Catharanthus plant as it is the only source of anti-cancerous alkaloids

  4. Somatic embryo mediated mass production of Catharanthus roseus in culture vessel (bioreactor) - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujib, A; Ali, Muzamil; Isah, Tasiu; Dipti

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the use of liquid and solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in different culture vessels for mass production of Catharanthus roseus, an important source of anticancerous compounds, vincristine and vinblastine. Three media conditions i.e. agar-solidified medium (S), liquid medium in agitated conical flask (L) and growtek bioreactor (B) were used. Rapid propagation was achieved through in vitro somatic embryogenesis pathway. The process of embryogenesis has been categorized into induction, proliferation, maturation and germination stages. All in vitro embryogenesis stages were conducted by withdrawing spent liquid medium and by adding fresh MS medium. In optimized 4.52 μM 2,4-D added MS, the callus biomass growth was low in solid (1.65 g) compared to liquid medium in agitated conical flask (1.95 g) and in bioreactor (2.11 g). The number of normal somatic embryos was more in solid medium (99.75/50 mg of callus mass) compared to liquid medium used in conical flask (83.25/callus mass) and growtek bioreactor (84.88/callus mass). The in vitro raised embryos maturated in GA3 (2.60 μM) added medium; and in bioreactor the embryo growth was high, a maximum length of 9.82 mm was observed at the end of four weeks. These embryos germinated into seedlings in BAP (2.22 μM) added medium and the embryo germination ability was more (59.41%) in bioreactor compared to liquid medium in conical flask (55.5%). Shoot length (11.25 mm) was also high in bioreactor compared to agitated conical flask. The liquid medium used in agitated conical flask and bioreactor increased seedling production efficiency, at the same time it also reduced plant recovery time. The embryo generated plants grew normally in outdoor conditions. The exploitation of medium to large culture vessel or bioreactor may make the process more efficient in getting large number of Catharanthus plant as it is the only source of anti-cancerous alkaloids

  5. Contamination of a high-cell-density continuous bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Lucília; Lima, Nelson; Teixeira, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Continuous fermentations were carried out with a recombinant flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in an airlift bioreactor. Once operating under steady state at a dilution rate of 0.45 h−1, the bioreactor was contaminated with Escherichia coli cells. The faster growing E. coli strain was washed out of the bioreactor and the recombinant, slower growing flocculating S. cerevisiae strain remained as the only species detected in the bioreactor. Flocculation, besides ...

  6. Biotreatment of chlorpyrifos in a bench scale bioreactor using Psychrobacter alimentarius T14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria tolerant to high pesticide concentration could be used for designing an efficient treatment technology. Bacterial strains T14 was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil in mineral salt medium (MSM) and identified as Psychrobacter alimentarius T14 using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Bench scale bioreactor was evaluated for biotreatment of high Chlorpyrifos (CP) concentration using P. alimentarius T14. Effect of various parameters on bioreactor performance was examined and optimum removal was observed at optical density (OD600 nm): 0.8; pH: 7.2; CP concentration: 300 mg L(-1) and hydraulic retention time: 48 h. At optimum conditions, 70.3/79% of CP/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved in batch bioreactors. In addition, P. alimentarius T14 achieved 95/91, 62.3/75, 69.8/64% CP/COD removal efficiency with addition of CS (co-substrates), CS1 (yeast extract + synthetic wastewater), CS2 (glucose + synthetic wastewater) and CS3 (yeast extract), respectively. Addition of CS1 to bioreactor could accelerate CP removal rate up to many cycles with considerable efficiency. However, accumulation of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol affects reactor performance in cyclic mode. First-order rate constant k1 0.062 h(-1) and t1/2 11.1 h demonstrates fast degradation. Change in concentration of total chlorine and nitrogen could be the result of complete mineralization. Photodegradation of CP in commercial product was more than its pure form. Commercial formulation accelerated photodegradation process; however no effect on biodegradation process was observed. After bio-photodegradation, negligible toxicity for seeds of Triticum aestivum was observed. Study suggests an efficient treatment of wastewater containing CP and its metabolites in batch bioreactors could be achieved using P. alimentarius. PMID:26144866

  7. Submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment and energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornare, J B; Adhyapak, U S; Minde, G P; Kalyan Raman, V; Sapkal, V S; Sapkal, R S

    2015-01-01

    Compared with conventional wastewater treatment processes, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) offer several advantages including high biodegradation efficiency, excellent effluent quality and smaller footprint. However, it has some limitations on account of its energy intensive operation. In recent years, there has been growing interest in use of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) due to their potential advantages over aerobic systems, which include low sludge production and energy generation in terms of biogas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a submerged AnMBR for the treatment of synthetic wastewater having 4,759 mg/l chemical oxygen demand (COD). The COD removal efficiency was over 95% during the performance evaluation study. Treated effluent with COD concentration of 231 mg/l was obtained for 25.5 hours hydraulic retention time. The obtained total organic carbon concentrations in feed and permeate were 1,812 mg/l and 89 mg/l, respectively. An average biogas generation and yield were 25.77 l/d and 0.36 m3/kg COD, respectively. Evolution of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) as a function of time was studied and an average TMP of 15 kPa was found suitable to achieve membrane flux of 12.17 l/(m2h). Almost weekly back-flow chemical cleaning of the membrane was found necessary to control TMP within the permissible limit of 20 kPa. PMID:26038930

  8. Efficient algorithms for mixed aleatory-epistemic uncertainty quantification with application to radiation-hardened electronics. Part I, algorithms and benchmark results.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Eldred, Michael Scott

    2009-09-01

    This report documents the results of an FY09 ASC V&V Methods level 2 milestone demonstrating new algorithmic capabilities for mixed aleatory-epistemic uncertainty quantification. Through the combination of stochastic expansions for computing aleatory statistics and interval optimization for computing epistemic bounds, mixed uncertainty analysis studies are shown to be more accurate and efficient than previously achievable. Part I of the report describes the algorithms and presents benchmark performance results. Part II applies these new algorithms to UQ analysis of radiation effects in electronic devices and circuits for the QASPR program.

  9. Nitrate and phosphate removal from agricultural subsurface drainage using laboratory woodchip bioreactors and recycled steel byproduct filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Guanghui; Salo, Morgan W; Schmit, Christopher G; Hay, Christopher H

    2016-10-01

    Woodchip bioreactors have been increasingly used as an edge-of-field treatment technology to reduce the nitrate loadings to surface waters from agricultural subsurface drainage. Recent studies have shown that subsurface drainage can also contribute substantially to the loss of phosphate from agricultural soils. The objective of this study was to investigate nitrate and phosphate removal in subsurface drainage using laboratory woodchip bioreactors and recycled steel byproduct filters. The woodchip bioreactor demonstrated average nitrate removal efficiencies of 53.5-100% and removal rates of 10.1-21.6 g N/m(3)/d for an influent concentration of 20 mg N/L and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6-24 h. When the influent nitrate concentration increased to 50 mg N/L, the bioreactor nitrate removal efficiency and rate averaged 75% and 18.9 g N/m(3)/d at an HRT of 24 h. Nitrate removal by the woodchips followed zero-order kinetics with rate constants of 1.42-1.80 mg N/L/h when nitrate was non-limiting. The steel byproduct filter effectively removed phosphate in the bioreactor effluent and the total phosphate adsorption capacity was 3.70 mg P/g under continuous flow conditions. Nitrite accumulation occurred in the woodchip bioreactor and the effluent nitrite concentrations increased with decreasing HRTs and increasing influent nitrate concentrations. The steel byproduct filter efficiently reduced the level of nitrite in the bioreactor effluent. Overall, the results of this study suggest that woodchip denitrification followed by steel byproduct filtration is an effective treatment technology for nitrate and phosphate removal in subsurface drainage. PMID:27344249

  10. Example study for granular bioreactor stratification: Three-dimensional evaluation of a sulfate-reducing granular bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tian-wei; Luo, Jing-hai; Su, Kui-zu; Wei, Li; Mackey, Hamish R.; Chi, Kun; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Recently, sulfate-reducing granular sludge has been developed for application in sulfate-laden water and wastewater treatment. However, little is known about biomass stratification and its effects on the bioprocesses inside the granular bioreactor. A comprehensive investigation followed by a verification trial was therefore conducted in the present work. The investigation focused on the performance of each sludge layer, the internal hydrodynamics and microbial community structures along the height of the reactor. The reactor substratum (the section below baffle 1) was identified as the main acidification zone based on microbial analysis and reactor performance. Two baffle installations increased mixing intensity but at the same time introduced dead zones. Computational fluid dynamics simulation was employed to visualize the internal hydrodynamics. The 16S rRNA gene of the organisms further revealed that more diverse communities of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and acidogens were detected in the reactor substratum than in the superstratum (the section above baffle 1). The findings of this study shed light on biomass stratification in an SRB granular bioreactor to aid in the design and optimization of such reactors. PMID:27539264

  11. Characterization and Application of a Disposable Rotating Bed Bioreactor for Mesenchymal Stem Cell Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Neumann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC into the field of tissue engineering is a promising development since these cells can be expanded vivo to clinically relevant numbers and, after expansion, retain their ability to differentiate into various cell lineages. Safety requirements and the necessity to obtain high cell numbers without frequent subcultivation of cells raised the question of the possibility of expanding MSC in one-way (single-use disposable bioreactors. In this study, umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC were expanded in a disposable Z 2000 H bioreactor under dynamic conditions. Z was characterized regarding residence time and mixing in order to evaluate the optimal bioreactor settings, enabling optimal mass transfer in the absence of shear stress, allowing an reproducible expansion of MSC, while maintaining their stemness properties. Culture of the UC-MSC in disposable Z 2000 H bioreactor resulted in a reproducible 8-fold increase of cell numbers after 5 days. Cells were shown to maintain specific MSC surface marker expression as well as trilineage differentiation potential and lack stress-induced premature senescence.

  12. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor Produces Anti-Cancer Alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Valluri, Jagan V.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for growing three-dimensional plant tissue models in a hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) has been developed. The methodology is expected to be widely applicable, both on Earth and in outer space, as a means of growing plant cells and aggregates thereof under controlled conditions for diverse purposes, including research on effects of gravitation and other environmental factors upon plant growth and utilization of plant tissue cultures to produce drugs in quantities greater and at costs lower than those of conventional methodologies. The HFB was described in Hydro focus - ing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture (MSC-22358), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 66. To recapitulate: The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear liquid culture environment simultaneously with the herding of suspended cells and tissue assemblies and removal of unwanted air bubbles. The HFB includes a rotating cell-culture vessel with a centrally located sampling port and an internal rotating viscous spinner attached to a rotating base. The vessel and viscous spinner can be made to rotate at the same speed and direction or different speeds and directions to tailor the flow field and the associated hydrodynamic forces in the vessel in order to obtain low-shear suspension of cells and control of the locations of cells and air bubbles. For research and pharmaceutical-production applications, the HFB offers two major benefits: low shear stress, which promotes the assembly of cells into tissue-like three-dimensional constructs; and randomization of gravitational vectors relative to cells, which affects production of medicinal compounds. Presumably, apposition of plant cells in the absence of shear forces promotes cell-cell contacts, cell aggregation, and cell differentiation. Only gentle mixing is necessary for distributing nutrients and oxygen. It has been postulated that inasmuch as cells in the simulated

  13. Application of plant carbon source for denitrification by constructed wetland and bioreactor: review of recent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Qianyu; Wang, Haiyan; Chu, Zhaosheng; Ye, Bibi; Li, Chunmei; Hou, Zeying

    2016-05-01

    Water quality standard for nitrate becomes more and more strict, and the plant carbon source is widely used for denitrification by constructed wetland (CW) and bioreactor. However, the nitrate removal efficiency by different types of plant carbon source are not evaluated comprehensively. Denitrification performance of different plant carbon sources, and the influence of dosing method and pretreatment are thoroughly reviewed in this paper, which aims to investigate the accurate utilization of plant carbon source for nitrogen (as nitrate) removal. It is concluded that plant carbon source addition for all types of CWs and bioreactors can improve the nitrate removal efficiency to some extent, and the dosing method of plant carbon source for denitrification should be further studied and optimized in the future. The popular carbon sources for CW and bioreactor denitrification enhancement are woodchip, chopped macrophytes, crop plants, macrophytes litters, etc. The recommended optimum C:N ratios for CW and bioreactor are 4.0:5.0 and 1.8:3.0, respectively. The physical and biological pretreatments are selected to supply organic carbon for long-term denitrification. PMID:26971521

  14. Characterization of soluble and bound EPS obtained from 2 submerged membrane bioreactors by 3D-EEM and HPSEC

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Chabaliná, Liuba; Rodríguez Pastor, Manuel; Prats Rico, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This research study deals with the quantification and characterization of the EPS obtained from two 25 L bench scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with micro-(MF-MBR) and ultrafiltration (UF-MBR) submerged membranes. Both reactors were fed with synthetic water and operated for 168 days without sludge extraction, increasing their mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration during the experimentation time. The characterization of soluble EPS (EPSs) was achieved by the centrifugation of mixe...

  15. The impact of plasma-wall interaction on the gas mixing efficiency in electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, L; Stiebing, K E; Dobrescu, S

    2012-02-01

    It is generally accepted that different effects are necessary to explain the gas mixing method of increasing the output of highly charged ions from an ECRIS. The two most important effects are the mass effect and the dilution effect. Their relative weights have not been determined experimentally yet, but it is generally assumed that the mass effect is dominant in standard ECRIS installations with stainless steel plasma chambers. In order to gain more insight into the physics of the gas mixing effect and in particular on the relevance of the dilution process, we have carried out a study where we have investigated the role of the plasma-wall interaction on the gas mixing effect. In this contribution, we shall discuss Charge state distributions spectra, measured at the Frankfurt ECRIS using different working gases, pure argon, a mixture of argon and oxygen, and argon mixed with neon. PMID:22380195

  16. Mixing Efficiency, Coarsening, and Self-Compatibilization in Immiscible Polymer Blends Processed via Solid-State Shear Pulverization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, Albert; Khait, Klementina; Torkelson, John

    2000-03-01

    Solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) is a continuous, mechanical alloying process employing simultaneous effects of high pressure and shear deformation to pulverize and mix polymers. Under certain conditions SSSP can result in limited chain scission and polymeric radical formation. In immiscible blends, these radicals may be able to recombine in interfacial regions or regions of high mixing resulting in block copolymer formation and compatibilization. The effects of SSSP on amorphous polyamide (PA)/polystyrene (PS) and PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE) blends have been studied. As compared to melt-mixed blends, SSSP yields blends with enhanced blend morphology refinement or dispersion, and in certain cases enhanced bulk mechanical properties, particularly elongation at break and impact strength. Comparisons of dispersed-phase coarsening during high temperature, liquid-state annealing of the SSSP - processed and conventionally melt-mixed blends will be discussed in terms of the potential for achieving effective compatibilization of particular blends via SSSP.

  17. The impact of plasma-wall interaction on the gas mixing efficiency in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that different effects are necessary to explain the gas mixing method of increasing the output of highly charged ions from an ECRIS. The two most important effects are the mass effect and the dilution effect. Their relative weights have not been determined experimentally yet, but it is generally assumed that the mass effect is dominant in standard ECRIS installations with stainless steel plasma chambers. In order to gain more insight into the physics of the gas mixing effect and in particular on the relevance of the dilution process, we have carried out a study where we have investigated the role of the plasma-wall interaction on the gas mixing effect. In this contribution, we shall discuss Charge state distributions spectra, measured at the Frankfurt ECRIS using different working gases, pure argon, a mixture of argon and oxygen, and argon mixed with neon.

  18. Evolution of Bioreactors for Extracorporeal Liver Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilkova Е.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective extracorporeal liver support systems in acute and chronic hepatic failure for transplantology purposes and in toxic injuries is a promising direction in modern biomedical studies. Widely used techniques are based on physicochemical interactions of biological molecules, and able to perform a detoxification function only (hemodialysis, hemofiltration, hemodiafiltration, sorption, albumin dialysis, plasmapheresis. However, support systems combining both blood/plasma perfusion and cellular technologies to maintain metabolic, synthetic and regulatory hepatic functions — “artificial liver” systems — are being extensively developed in recent decades. The review describes the main types of cell lines cultured to occupy bioreactors, various technological concepts for bioreactor design (dynamic, static, scaffold-carriers as part of bioreactors (structure, biochemical composition. The study gives metabolic characteristics of a cellular component of “bioartificial liver”: nourishment, oxygen saturation. Various types of existing extracorporeal support systems, their evolution, and preclinical and clinical test results are presented.

  19. Performance of bioferric-submerged membrane bioreactor for dyeing wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Haiyan; XI Danli

    2007-01-01

    Adding iron salt or iron hydroxide to sludgemixed liquor in an aeration tank of a conventional activated sludge processes (bioferric process) can simultaneously improve the sludge's filterability and enhance the system's treatment capacity.In view of this,Fe(OH)3 was added to a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) to enhance the removal efficiency and to mitigate membrane fouling.Bioferric process and SMBR were combined to create a novel process called Bioferric-SMBR.A side-by-side comparison study of Bioferric-SMBR and common SMBR dealing with dyeing wastewater was carried out.Bioferric-SMBR showed potential superiority,which could enhance removal efficiency,reduce membrane fouling and improve sludge characteristic.When volumetric loading rate was 25% higher than that of common SMBR,the removal efficiencies of BioferricSMBR on COD,dye,and NH4+-N were 1.0%,9.5%,and 5.2% higher than that of common SMBR,respectively.The trans-membrane pressure of Bioferric-SMBR was only 36% of that in common SMBR while its membrane flux was 25% higher than that of common SMBR.The stable running period in Bioferric-SMBR was 2.5 times of that in common SMBR when there was no surplus sludge discharged.The mixed liquor suspended solids concentration of Bioferric-SMBR was higher than that of common SMBR with more diversified kinds of microorganisms such as protozoans and metazoans.The mean particle diameter and specific oxygen uptake rate of Bioferric-SMBR were 3.10 and 1.23 times the common SMBR,respectively.

  20. Combustion efficiency and emission factors for wildfire-season fires in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, S. P.

    2013-07-01

    In the US, wildfires and prescribed burning present significant challenges to air regulatory agencies attempting to achieve and maintain compliance with air quality regulations. Fire emission factors (EF) are essential input for the emission models used to develop wildland fire emission inventories. Most previous studies quantifying wildland fire EF of temperate ecosystems have focused on emissions from prescribed burning conducted outside of the wildfire season. Little information is available on EF for wildfires in temperate forests of the conterminous US. The goal of this work is to provide information on emissions from wildfire-season forest fires in the northern Rocky Mountains, US. In August 2011, we deployed airborne chemistry instruments and sampled emissions over eight days from three wildfires and a prescribed fire that occurred in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. We measured the combustion efficiency, quantified as the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), and EF for CO2, CO, and CH4. Our study average values for MCE, EFCO2, EFCO, and EFCH4 were 0.883, 1596 g kg-1, 135 g kg-1, 7.30 g kg-1, respectively. Compared with previous field studies of prescribed fires in temperate forests, the fires sampled in our study had significantly lower MCE and EFCO2 and significantly higher EFCO and EFCH4. The fires sampled in this study burned in areas reported to have moderate to heavy components of standing dead trees and down dead wood due to insect activity and previous fire, but fuel consumption data was not available. However, an analysis of MCE and fuel consumption data from 18 prescribed fires reported in the literature indicates that the availability of coarse fuels and conditions favorable for the combustion of these fuels favors low MCE fires. This analysis suggests that fuel composition was an important factor contributing to the low MCE of the fires measured in this study. This study only measured EF for CO2, CO, and CH4; however, we

  1. Combustion efficiency and emission factors for wildfire-season fires in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains, US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Urbanski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the US, wildfires and prescribed burning present significant challenges to air regulatory agencies attempting to achieve and maintain compliance with air quality regulations. Fire emission factors (EF are essential input for the emission models used to develop wildland fire emission inventories. Most previous studies quantifying wildland fire EF of temperate ecosystems have focused on emissions from prescribed burning conducted outside of the wildfire season. Little information is available on EF for wildfires in temperate forests of the conterminous US. The goal of this work is to provide information on emissions from wildfire-season forest fires in the northern Rocky Mountains, US. In August 2011, we deployed airborne chemistry instruments and sampled emissions over eight days from three wildfires and a prescribed fire that occurred in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. We measured the combustion efficiency, quantified as the modified combustion efficiency (MCE, and EF for CO2, CO, and CH4. Our study average values for MCE, EFCO2, EFCO, and EFCH4 were 0.883, 1596 g kg−1, 135 g kg−1, 7.30 g kg−1, respectively. Compared with previous field studies of prescribed fires in temperate forests, the fires sampled in our study had significantly lower MCE and EFCO2 and significantly higher EFCO and EFCH4. The fires sampled in this study burned in areas reported to have moderate to heavy components of standing dead trees and down dead wood due to insect activity and previous fire, but fuel consumption data was not available. However, an analysis of MCE and fuel consumption data from 18 prescribed fires reported in the literature indicates that the availability of coarse fuels and conditions favorable for the combustion of these fuels favors low MCE fires. This analysis suggests that fuel composition was an important factor contributing to the low MCE of the fires measured in this study. This study only measured EF for CO2, CO

  2. Economic study on the feasibility of treating hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in a new slurry phase bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economic viability of a new plug flow slurry process for bioremediation was discussed. Existing slurry bioreactors have shown little commercial use because of high treatment costs. Other decontamination processes such as biopiles are ineffective for decontaminating soils with recalcitrant contaminants. A simulation study was performed to test a new type of bioreactor which was based on the use of venturi jet aerators for mixing and aerating the slurry. The process used less energy, required less maintenance and was less expensive to operate than existing bioreactors. The two specific processes studied were completely stirred reactors (CSTR) and plug flow reactors (PFR). Economic analysis showed that for the viability of the slurry process, the quantity of dry soil to be treated must be greater than 40,000 tonnes. The optimal treatment capacity of the process is about 100 tonnes/day

  3. Bioreactor and methods for producing synchronous cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstetter, Charles E. (Inventor); Thornton, Maureen (Inventor); Gonda, Steve (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are directed to a perfusion culture system in which a rotating bioreactor is used to grow cells in a liquid culture medium, while these cells are attached to an adhesive-treated porous surface. As a result of this arrangement and its rotation, the attached cells divide, with one cell remaining attached to the substrate, while the other cell, a newborn cell is released. These newborn cells are of approximately the same age, that are collected upon leaving the bioreactor. The populations of newborn cells collected are of synchronous and are minimally, if at all, disturbed metabolically.

  4. A Highly Efficient Mixed-culture Biofilm as Anodic Catalyst and Insights into Its Enhancement through Electrochemistry by Comparison with G. sulfurreducens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A mixed-culture biofilm with 68.6% higher current than Geobacter sulfurreducens was firstly reported, while G. sulfurreducens biofilm showed five-time higher apparent affinity than the mixed-culture. • The mixed-culture biofilm showed surface-controlled process, while diffusion-controlled process was obtained for G. sulfurreducens as at certain accelerating scan rates. • When the used medium was replaced with the fresh, decrease percentage of currents for both kinds of biofilms is similar (50%). • A suitable community will be an alternative for improving MFC performance. - Abstract: In this paper an efficient mixed-culture microbial biofilm with increased current density by 68.6% (1020.9 ± 47 μA cm−2) than that on typical culture of Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilm was firstly reported. The insights into the enhanced electricity-producing ability was investigated through evaluating the dependence of limiting current density on electroactive biomass coverage, replacing used growth medium, applying stirring and electron transfer kinetics. It was shown that the enhanced electricity generation ability of the mixed-culture biofilm is from population superiority of active molecules or electron shuttles from the biofilm. This work suggested that the optimized synergistic effect between interspecies in community could significantly improve electricity-producing performance than single strain. This study highlighted the potential synergistic role in special community on electricity generation capability

  5. Energy efficiency of office equipment - Proposal for a policy mix for Germany with an in-depth analysis of labelling strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research under contract with the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) identified a considerable energy saving potential fielding the area of office equipment. In this paper, a proposal for a policy mix is presented with the goal to increase energy efficiency by market-transformation in this sector. This was worked out by order of the UBA. Pending EU legislation like the Procurement Directive and the proposal for Eco-Design Directive have been considered. An in-depth analysis for labelling schemes for office equipment is provided with respect to the future of the Energy Star process, specifically the continuation of the Energy Star-cooperation between the U.S.EPA and the EU. Preliminary results gained after literature enquiry and interviews of experts were discussed during a workshop at the German Federal Environmental Ministry in September 2004. Our proposal for a policy mix includes: public procurement, efficiency labelling, training and education, energy management in public and private institutions, mandatory minimum standards, marketing. The demand for high efficient appliances should initially be boosted by green procurement to trigger market transformation. In the field of efficiency labelling, we first analyse the shortcomings of previous strategies. On this basis, we propose a two level-strategy for Germany: 1. The Energy Star process with improved structures shall act as a widely compliable labelling minimum standard. 2. An information programme about high efficient appliances ('quality-programme') should be established basing on existing structures (Energy Star, GEEA, TopTen) to minimise transaction costs

  6. A novel generation of 3D SAR-based passive micromixer: efficient mixing and low pressure drop at a low Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study introduces a novel generation of 3D splitting and recombination (SAR) passive micromixer with microstructures placed on the top and bottom floors of microchannels called a ‘chain mixer’. Both experimental verification and numerical analysis of the flow structure of this type of passive micromixer have been performed to evaluate the mixing performance and pressure drop of the microchannel, respectively. We propose here two types of chain mixer—chain 1 and chain 2—and compare their mixing performance and pressure drop with other micromixers, T-, o- and tear-drop micromixers. Experimental tests carried out in the laminar flow regime with a low Reynolds number range, 0.083 ≤ Re ≤ 4.166, and image-based techniques are used to evaluate the mixing efficiency. Also, the computational fluid dynamics code, ANSYS FLUENT-13.0 has been used to analyze the flow and pressure drop in the microchannel. Experimental results show that the chain and tear-drop mixer's efficiency is very high because of the SAR process: specifically, an efficiency of up to 98% can be achieved at the tested Reynolds number. The results also show that chain mixers have a lower required pressure drop in comparison with a tear-drop micromixer. (paper)

  7. [Study on biodegradation of 2,4-DCP by anaerobic sludge acclimated by mixed mono-chlorphenols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Chen, Ling; Ji, Jun-Ping; Xia, Si-Qing

    2007-06-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the treatability of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) by anaerobic granular sludge which was acclimated by mixed mono-chlorphenols (2-CP, 4-MCP). The characteristic of degradation of 2,4-DCP by anaerobic sludge acclimated by mixed mono-chlorphenols was investigated through shake flask study and performance of continuous flow anaerobic bioreactors. The difference of degradation of 2,4-DCP by acclimated and unacclimated sludge was also compared. 2,4-DCP was degraded at 50 h and 180 h respectively for acclimated and unacclimated sludge, which testified that acclimated sludge could more effectively degrade 2,4-DCP. Although the intermediate product 4-MCP was present in both reaction system, 4-MCP could be degraded completely after 400 h in the acclimated sludge but accumulated in the unacclimated sludge. Therefore, acclimation by the mixed mono-chlorphenols (2-CP, 4-MCP) could enhance the ability of para- and meta-dechlorination for anaerobic sludge and increase the treatability of 2,4-DCP. The results of continuous anaerobic sludge-suspended carrier bioreactor (ASSCB) indicate that inoculation of the acclimated sludge by mixed mono-chlorphenols can degrade two mono-chlorphenols simultaneously, shorten the setup period, and increase the efficiency of degrading 2,4-DCP. 2-CP was easily degraded with removal rate of over 80% . While the removal rate of 4-MCP was fluctuating within 30% - 80% with changes of its influent concentration. PMID:17674731

  8. A typical flat-panel membrane bioreactor with a composite membrane for sulfur removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian; Xiao, Yuan; Song, Jimin; Miao, Junhe

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to provide a concrete study to understand the effects of operation on biofilm morphology and microstructure and degradation efficiency for the disposal of sulfur dioxide produced by coal-fired power plants. For this purpose, a flat-panel reactor-membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a composite membrane consisting of a dense layer and a support layer was designed; the membrane bioreactors inoculated with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were further conducted for the removal of sulfur dioxide. Dry weight, active biomass, pressure drop, removal efficiency, morphology and structure of the formed biofilms were investigated and analyzed over period of biofilm formation. The results found that the dry weight, biomass, pressure drops and removal efficiency increased rapidly during biofilm formation, remained relatively stable in the stabilization period of biofilm growth, and finally reached 0.085 g, 7.00 μg, 180 Pa, and 78%, respectively. Our results suggested the MBR is available for flue-gas desulfurization.

  9. Effective bio-treatment of fresh leachate from pretreated municipal solid waste in an expanded granular sludge bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianyong; Zhong, Jiangping; Wang, Yilan; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren; Zhong, Liyun; Guo, Rongzhong; Zhang, Peijun; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2010-03-01

    This research investigated the anaerobic biodegradation of fresh leachate from pretreated municipal solid waste (MSW) in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) bioreactor under mesophilic conditions. The observations showed that this bioreactor, inoculated with anaerobic granular sludge, could be readily activated. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency varied between 88% and 97% under normal operation conditions, and was kept at 94-96% under the proposed optimal conditions. We noted that 60-80% of the produced biogas was methane that was yielded at a rate depending on the organic loading rate (OLR) and the liquid up-flow velocity (Vup). Significantly, 80% of loaded COD or 83% of biodegraded COD was converted to methane under the proposed optimal conditions. These findings indicate that the fresh leachate from pretreated MSW can be efficiently treated in the EGSB bioreactor, and moreover, methane, a renewable energy, can be continuously generated. PMID:19640701

  10. Engineering Tendon: Scaffolds, Bioreactors, and Models of Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Youngstrom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendons bridge muscle and bone, translating forces to the skeleton and increasing the safety and efficiency of locomotion. When tendons fail or degenerate, there are no effective pharmacological interventions. The lack of available options to treat damaged tendons has created a need to better understand and improve the repair process, particularly when suitable autologous donor tissue is unavailable for transplantation. Cells within tendon dynamically react to loading conditions and undergo phenotypic changes in response to mechanobiological stimuli. Tenocytes respond to ultrastructural topography and mechanical deformation via a complex set of behaviors involving force-sensitive membrane receptor activity, changes in cytoskeletal contractility, and transcriptional regulation. Effective ex vivo model systems are needed to emulate the native environment of a tissue and to translate cell-matrix forces with high fidelity. While early bioreactor designs have greatly expanded our knowledge of mechanotransduction, traditional scaffolds do not fully model the topography, composition, and mechanical properties of native tendon. Decellularized tendon is an ideal scaffold for cultivating replacement tissue and modeling tendon regeneration. Decellularized tendon scaffolds (DTS possess high clinical relevance, faithfully translate forces to the cellular scale, and have bulk material properties that match natural tissue. This review summarizes progress in tendon tissue engineering, with a focus on DTS and bioreactor systems.

  11. Engineering Tendon: Scaffolds, Bioreactors, and Models of Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstrom, Daniel W; Barrett, Jennifer G

    2016-01-01

    Tendons bridge muscle and bone, translating forces to the skeleton and increasing the safety and efficiency of locomotion. When tendons fail or degenerate, there are no effective pharmacological interventions. The lack of available options to treat damaged tendons has created a need to better understand and improve the repair process, particularly when suitable autologous donor tissue is unavailable for transplantation. Cells within tendon dynamically react to loading conditions and undergo phenotypic changes in response to mechanobiological stimuli. Tenocytes respond to ultrastructural topography and mechanical deformation via a complex set of behaviors involving force-sensitive membrane receptor activity, changes in cytoskeletal contractility, and transcriptional regulation. Effective ex vivo model systems are needed to emulate the native environment of a tissue and to translate cell-matrix forces with high fidelity. While early bioreactor designs have greatly expanded our knowledge of mechanotransduction, traditional scaffolds do not fully model the topography, composition, and mechanical properties of native tendon. Decellularized tendon is an ideal scaffold for cultivating replacement tissue and modeling tendon regeneration. Decellularized tendon scaffolds (DTS) possess high clinical relevance, faithfully translate forces to the cellular scale, and have bulk material properties that match natural tissue. This review summarizes progress in tendon tissue engineering, with a focus on DTS and bioreactor systems. PMID:26839559

  12. Characterization of Microbial Communities Found in Bioreactor Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowe, Candice

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine microbial communities of simulated wastewater effluent from hollow fiber membrane bioreactors collected from the Space Life Science Laboratory and Texas Technical University. Microbes were characterized using quantitative polymerase chain reaction where a total count of bacteria and fungi were determined. The primers that were used to determine the total count of bacteria and fungi were targeted for 16S rDNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer, respectively. PCR products were detected with SYBR Green I fluorescent dye and a melting curve analysis was performed to identify unique melt profiles resulting from DNA sequence variations from each species of the community. Results from both the total bacteria and total fungi count assays showed that distinct populations were present in isolates from these bioreactors. This was exhibited by variation in the number of peaks observed on the melting curve analysis graph. Further analysis of these results using species-specific primers will shed light on exactly which microbes are present in these effluents. Information gained from this study will enable the design of a system that can efficiently monitor microbes that play a role in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in wastewater on the International Space Station to assist in the design of a sustainable system capable of converting this nutrient.

  13. Pulse shear stress for anaerobic membrane bioreactor fouling control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jixiang; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2011-01-01

    Increase of shear stress at membrane surfaces is a generally applied strategy to minimize membrane fouling. It has been reported that a two-phase flow, better known as slug flow, is an effective way to increase shear stress. Hence, slug flow was introduced into an anaerobic membrane bioreactor for membrane fouling control. Anaerobic suspended sludge was cultured in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AMBR) operated with a side stream inside-out tubular membrane unit applying sustainable flux flow regimes. The averaged particle diameter decreased from 20 to 5 microm during operation of the AMBR. However, the COD removal efficiency did not show any significant deterioration, whereas the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) increased from 0.16 to 0.41 gCOD/g VSS/day. Nevertheless, the imposed gas slug appeared to be insufficient for adequate fouling control, resulting in rapidly increasing trans membrane pressures (TMP) operating at a flux exceeding 16 L/m2/h. Addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) enhanced the effect of slug flow on membrane fouling. However, the combined effect was still considered as not being significant. The tubular membrane was subsequently equipped with inert inserts for creating a locally increased shear stress for enhanced fouling control. Results show an increase in the membrane flux from 16 L/m2/h to 34 L/m2/h after the inserts were mounted in the membrane tube. PMID:22097007

  14. Characterization of organic membrane foulants in a forward osmosis membrane bioreactor treating anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In this study, two aerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (MBR) were utilized to treat the effluent of mesophilic (35°C) and atmospheric (25°C) anaerobic MBRs, respectively. The results showed that the FO membrane process could significantly improve the removal efficiencies of N and P. Meanwhile, the flux decline of the FOMBR treating effluent of mesophilic AnMBR (M-FOMBR) was higher than that treating effluent of atmospheric AnMBR (P-FOMBR). The organic membrane foulants in the two FOMBRs were analyzed to understand the membrane fouling behavior in FO processes. It was found that the slightly increased accumulation of protein-like substances into external foulants did not cause faster flux decline in P-FOMBR than that in M-FOMBR. However, the quantity of organic matter tended to deposit or adsorb into FO membrane pores in P-FOMBR was less than that in M-FOMBR, which was accordance with the tendency of membrane fouling indicated by flux decline. PMID:24976492

  15. Design, characterization and application of the Multiple Air-lift Loop bioreactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, W.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A new bioreactor is introduced: the Multiple Air-lift Loop reactor (MAL). The MAL consists of a series of air-lift loop reactors within one vessel. With the MAL, a new type of geometry for air-lift reactors with an internal loop is introduced. This new geometry was characterized with respect to hydrodynamics, mixing and oxygen transfer. The hydrodynamics were described by an existing model. Hydrodynamics, mixing and oxygen transfer in the new reactor configuration were comparable to that in c...

  16. Removal of Cr, Mn, and Co from textile wastewater by horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Rezić, Tonci; Santek, Bozidar; Rezić, Iva; Hann, Stephan; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2012-10-01

    Environmental pollution by industrial wastewaters polluted with toxic heavy metals is of great concern. Various guidelines regulate the quality of water released from industrial plants and of surface waters. In wastewater treatment, bioreactors with microbial biofilms are widely used. A horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB) is a combination of a thin layer and a biodisc reactor with an interior divided by O-ring shaped partition walls as carriers for microbial biomass. Using a biofilm of heavy metal resistant bacteria in combination with this special design provides various advantages for wastewater treatment proven in a pilot study. In the presented study, the applicability of HRTB for removing metals commonly present in textile wastewaters (chromium, manganese, cobalt) was investigated. Artificial wastewaters with a load of 125 mg/L of each metal underwent the bioreactor treatment. Different process parameters (inflow rate, rotation speed) were applied for optimizing the removal efficiency. Samples were drawn along the bioreactor length for monitoring the metal contents on site by UV-vis spectrometry. The metal uptake of the biomass was determined by ICP-MS after acidic microwave assisted digestion. The maximum removal rates obtained for chromium, manganese, and cobalt were: 100%, 94%, and 69%, respectively. PMID:22934685

  17. Application of capillary fluid management techniques to the design of a phase separating microgravity bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Barry W.; Neville, Gale E., Jr.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Manned space missions require the development of compact, efficient, and reliable life support systems. A number of aqueous biological conversion processes are associated with bioregenerative life support systems. Vessels, or bioreactors, capable of supporting these processes in microgravity must be developed. An annular flow bioreactor has been conceived. It has the potential to incorporate containment, phase separation, gas exchange, and illumination into a single vessel. The bioreactor utilizes capillary fluid management techniques and is configured as a cylindrical tube in which a two-phase liquid-gas flow is maintained. Vanes placed around the inner perimeter enhance capillary forces and cause the liquid phase to attach and flow along the interior surface of the tube. No physical barrier is required to complete phase separation. It is shown analytically that liquid film thickness is limited only by vane geometry and that an annular flow bioreactor capable of managing 284 liters would occupy 0.7 cubic m, less than half the volume of a Spacelab experiment rack.

  18. Determination of the kinetic and stoichiometric constant in a conventional bioreactor of activated sludge, to scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activated sludge process is the one of the most efficient process, when it comes to removal of organic matter. Implementing in the lab is quite easy, economic technically feasible, and simultaneously offers the possibility of using the results obtained in the lab to be applied in field by determining the kinetic and stoichiometric constants. The activated sludge system was designed, built and operated in the water quality lab, at the Military University in Bogota, Colombia. The bioreactor has an aeration chamber, a sedimentation tank and a feeding source with wastewater taken from a meat packing plant in Bogota. The research was carried out for 3 months, in two stages as follows: in the first stage and in order to obtain a high concentration of biomass the acclimatizing process was carried out. This step allows the bioreactor to run in a continuous flow. In the second stage, the bioreactor was taken in to operation and fed with the acclimated sludge at different sludge ages. This would allow us to determine the kinetics, and the stoichiometric constants. The bioreactor was run with a hydraulic retention time of 8 hours and for different sludge ages (5, 10, and 15 days). The system was monitored with a daily grab samples, and pH, temperature as well as the DBO5 and suspended volatile solids were terminated

  19. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A

  20. Establishing Liver Bioreactors for In Vitro Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Sofia P; Costa, Rita; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Brito, Catarina; Alves, Paula M

    2015-01-01

    In vitro systems that can effectively model liver function for long periods of time are fundamental tools for preclinical research. Nevertheless, the adoption of in vitro research tools at the earliest stages of drug development has been hampered by the lack of culture systems that offer the robustness, scalability, and flexibility necessary to meet industry's demands. Bioreactor-based technologies, such as stirred tank bioreactors, constitute a feasible approach to aggregate hepatic cells and maintain long-term three-dimensional cultures. These three-dimensional cultures sustain the polarity, differentiated phenotype, and metabolic performance of human hepatocytes. Culture in computer-controlled stirred tank bioreactors allows the maintenance of physiological conditions, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature, with minimal fluctuations. Moreover, by operating in perfusion mode, gradients of soluble factors and metabolic by-products can be established, aiming at resembling the in vivo microenvironment. This chapter provides a protocol for the aggregation and culture of hepatocyte spheroids in stirred tank bioreactors by applying perfusion mode for the long-term culture of human hepatocytes. This in vitro culture system is compatible with feeding high-throughput screening platforms for the assessment of drug elimination pathways, being a useful tool for toxicology research and drug development in the preclinical phase. PMID:26272143

  1. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrenc

  2. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn H. Hjertager

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-dimensional models of flow processes in bioreactors are presented. Particular emphasis is given to models that use the two-fluid technique. The models use a two-equation turbuluence model and a Monod type kinetic reaction model. Predictions are given for both bubble column and mechanically stirred reactors.

  3. Critical Review of Membrane Bioreactor Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naessens, W.; Maere, T.; Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios;

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor technology exists for a couple of decades, but has not yet overwhelmed the market due to some serious drawbacks of which operational cost due to fouling is the major contributor. Knowledge buildup and optimisation for such complex systems can heavily benefit from mathematical...

  4. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  5. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  6. Comparison of hydraulics and particle removal efficiencies in a mixed cell raceway and burrows pond rearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared the hydrodynamics of replicate experimental mixed cell and replicate standard Burrows pond rearing systems at the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, ID, in an effort to identify methods for improved solids removal. We measured and compared the hydraulic residence time, particle removal eff...

  7. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l-1 to 8 mg TPH l-1. Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  8. Application of a continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewater effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Karray, Fatma; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Sayadi, Sami, E-mail: sami.sayadi@cbs.rnrt.tn [Laboratoire des Bioprocedes Environnementaux, Pole d' Excellence Regional AUF-LBPE, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, BP 1117, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15

    A continuously stirred tank bioreactor (CSTR) was used to optimize feasible and reliable bioprocess system in order to treat hydrocarbon-rich industrial wastewaters. A successful bioremediation was developed by an efficient acclimatized microbial consortium. After an experimental period of 225 days, the process was shown to be highly efficient in decontaminating the wastewater. The performance of the bioaugmented reactor was demonstrated by the reduction of COD rates up to 95%. The residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) decreased from 320 mg TPH l{sup -1} to 8 mg TPH l{sup -1}. Analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified 26 hydrocarbons. The use of the mixed cultures demonstrated high degradation performance for hydrocarbons range n-alkanes (C10-C35). Six microbial isolates from the CSTR were characterized and species identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that 5 strains were closely related to Aeromonas punctata (Aeromonas caviae), Bacillus cereus, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Rhodococcus sp. The 6th isolate was affiliated to genera Achromobacter. Besides, the treated wastewater could be considered as non toxic according to the phytotoxicity test since the germination index of Lepidium sativum ranged between 57 and 95%. The treatment provided satisfactory results and presents a feasible technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-rich wastewater from petrochemical industries and petroleum refineries.

  9. Effect of Tetracycline Antibiotics on Performance and Microbial Community of Algal Photo-Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkan, Ergin

    2016-07-01

    Tetracycline antibiotics have been increasingly used in medical applications and have been found in wastewater treatment plants as a result of human and industrial activities. This study investigates the combined effects of tetracycline antibiotics on the performance of an algal photo-bioreactor operated under different antibiotic concentrations in the ranges of 0.25 to 30 mg/L and considers the inhibition of algal growth, carbon and nutrient removal rates, and eukaryotic and cyanobacterial algal community changes. The results indicated that increases in the concentration of tetracycline mixtures have adverse effects on the algal community and the performance of a photo-bioreactor, and the eukaryotic algae species were more sensitive to tetracycline antibiotics than were the cyanobacterial species. Cultivation tests showed that approximately 94 % growth inhibition of mixed algae occurred at 30 mg/L. PMID:26961083

  10. Biomass production from fermented starch wastewater in photo-bioreactor with internal overflow recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachanurak, Pradthana; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamotob, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    A photo-bioreactor with internal overflow recirculation was applied to treat real fermented starch wastewater and convert it to photosynthetic biomass for further utilization. The photo-bioreactor was operated at a hydraulic retention time of 10days by circulating mixed liquor through overflow pipes and penetrating light through infrared transmitting filter. During the operation of 154days, the average BOD and COD removals were 95% and 88%, respectively. Majority of photosynthetic bacteria was found attached on pipes as biofilm contributed to 82% of total biomass production. Photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.51g dried solid/g BOD removed and crude protein content of 0.58g/g dried solid. Rhodopseudomonas palustris was found in the photosynthetic system as the predominant bacterial group by denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing method. PMID:24745900

  11. The effect of enzymatic pre-hydrolysis of dairy wastewater on the granular and immobilized microbial community in anaerobic bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Magali C; Rosa, Daniela R; Duarte, Iolanda C S; Saavedra, Nora K; Varesche, Maria B A; Zaiat, Marcelo; Freire, Denise M G

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a lipase-rich enzyme preparation produced by the fungus Penicillium sp. on solid-state fermentation was evaluated in two anaerobic bioreactors (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB)) treating dairy wastewater with 1200 mg oil and grease/L. The oil and grease hydrolysis step was carried out with 0.1% (w/v) of the solid enzymatic preparation at 30 degrees C for 24 h. This resulted in a final concentration of free acids eight times higher than the initial value. The bioreactors operated at 30 degrees C with hydraulic retention times of 12 h (HAIB) and 20 h (UASB) for a period of 430 days, and had high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies (around 90%) when fed with pre-hydrolyzed wastewater. There was, however, an increase in the effluent oil and grease concentration (from values as low as 17 mg/L to values above 150 mg/L in the UASB bioreactor, and from 38-242 mg/L in the HAIB bioreactor), and oil and grease accumulation in the biomass throughout the operational period (the oil and grease content reached 1.7 times that found in the inoculum of the UASB bioreactor). The HAIB bioreactor gave better results because the support for biomass immobilization acted as a filter, retaining oil and grease at the entry of the bioreactor. The molecular analysis of the Bacteria and Archaea domains revealed significant differences in the microbial profiles in experiments conducted with and without the pre-hydrolysis step. The differences observed in the overall parameters could be related to the microbial diversity of the anaerobic sludge. PMID:23530355

  12. Energy-efficiency instruments in the electricity area; Instrumente fuer Energieeffizienz im Elektrizitaetsbereich. Auslaendische Erfahrungen und Instrumenten-Mix fuer die Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, S.; Oettli, B.; Schneider, Ch.; Iten, R. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Peherstorfer, N. [Oesterreichische Energieagentur, Wien (Austria)

    2007-06-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a mix of instruments that could increase the efficiency of electricity usage in Switzerland. The basis for the development of these instruments - the experience gained in Europe in this area - is discussed. Explicitly not discussed are energy and electricity steering taxes, which could also be part of a future instrument-mix. The measures suggested include the setting of compulsory long-term reduction targets that are to form the basis for strategies and measures to be taken in particular areas and the development of an appropriate instrument-mix for this purpose. These could include regulations and labels, a national fund and certificate trading. Suppliers of electricity could be committed to increasing the efficiency of electricity use and national programmes could also attempt to influence consumer habits. The instruments should, according to the authors, be based on the existing legal framework and use know-how and structures that are already available.

  13. Use of Raman spectroscopy to assess the efficiency of MgAl mixed oxides in removing cyanide from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosano, Daniel; Esquinas, Carlos; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Ruiz, José Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Calcining magnesium/aluminium layered double hydroxides (Mg/Al LDHs) at 450 °C provides excellent sorbents for removing cyanide from aqueous solutions. The process is based on the "memory effect" of LDHs; thus, rehydrating a calcined LDH in an aqueous solution restores its initial structure. The process, which conforms to a first-order kinetics, was examined by Raman spectroscopy. The metal ratio of the LDH was found to have a crucial influence on the adsorption capacity of the resulting mixed oxide. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was for the first time use to monitor the adsorption process. Based on the results, this technique is an effective, expeditious choice for the intended purpose and affords in situ monitoring of the adsorption process. The target solids were characterized by using various instrumental techniques including X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, which confirmed the layered structure of the LDHs and the periclase-like structure of the mixed oxides obtained by calcination.

  14. Optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region as a basis for an efficient electricity supply to europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamwi Alaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable Energy sources are gaining importance in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. The purpose of this study is to quantify the optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region, taking Morocco as a case study. Based on hourly meteorological data and load data, a 100% solar-plus-wind only scenario for Morocco is investigated. For the optimal mix analyses, a mismatch energy modelling approach is adopted with the objective to minimise the required storage capacities. For a hypothetical Moroccan energy supply system which is entirely based on renewable energy sources, our results show that the minimum storage capacity is achieved at a share of 63% solar and 37% wind power generations.

  15. Toward the Standardization of Bioreactors for Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Michel; Nebuloni, Stefano; Dainesi, Paolo; Gass, Samuel

    be implemented which do not require major new and lengthy developments. RUAG believes this is pivotal in facilitating access to life-science research in space and thereby increasing scientific output in this research area. The overview includes a description of technical features such as feasible cultivation volumes in highly biocompatible and transparent culture chambers, cultivation method options (batch vs. continuous), associated feed rates, and chemical fixation methods. Feasible regulation and sensing possibilities (i.e. O2, CO2, temperature, pH, cell concentration), based on technologies already used in laboratory application, are also discussed. Important aspects related to flow homogeneity, mass/gas transfer and mixing methods in micro-gravity are also presented. Lastly, the environmental performance of existing bioreactors is also shown and a particular emphasis is placed on safety design aspects for space hardware.

  16. Incorporation of Fixed Installation Costs into Optimization of Groundwater Remediation with a New Efficient Surrogate Nonlinear Mixed Integer Optimization Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Christine; Wan, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Optimization of nonlinear water resources management issues which have a mixture of fixed (e.g. construction cost for a well) and variable (e.g. cost per gallon of water pumped) costs has been not well addressed because prior algorithms for the resulting nonlinear mixed integer problems have required many groundwater simulations (with different configurations of decision variable), especially when the solution space is multimodal. In particular heuristic methods like genetic algorithms have often been used in the water resources area, but they require so many groundwater simulations that only small systems have been solved. Hence there is a need to have a method that reduces the number of expensive groundwater simulations. A recently published algorithm for nonlinear mixed integer programming using surrogates was shown in this study to greatly reduce the computational effort for obtaining accurate answers to problems involving fixed costs for well construction as well as variable costs for pumping because of a substantial reduction in the number of groundwater simulations required to obtain an accurate answer. Results are presented for a US EPA hazardous waste site. The nonlinear mixed integer surrogate algorithm is general and can be used on other problems arising in hydrology with open source codes in Matlab and python ("pySOT" in Bitbucket).

  17. Biodegradation of azaarenes and creosote in aqueous and organic liquid phase immobilized cell bioreactors by bacteria isolated from creosote contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biodegradation of azaarenes and coal-tar creosote was studied using aerobic bacteria isolated from creosote contaminated soil as inocula in batch cultures and in immobilized cell bioreactors. Biodegradation of quinoline, isoquinoline, and 6-methylquinoline by pure and mixed cultures yielded mono-hydroxylated metabolites as the primary products of azaarene metabolism. All azaarene degrading cultures could degrade quinoline, suggesting a common metabolic pathway based on quinoline metabolism. Mixed cultures attacking creosote degraded 2- and 3-ring polyaromatic hydrocarbons and heterocycles, but were unable to degrade 4- and 5-ring PAH. The degradation rate and loading capacity for quinoline was greatly enhanced in the bioreactors in comparison to batch cultures. The rates of isoquinoline, 6-methylquinoline degrading strain of Pseudomonas putida successfully removed 6-methylquinoline from solution in decane in a water-limited, non-aqueous liquid phase immobilized cell bioreactor. These experiments demonstrate the ability of environmental organisms to biodegrade several biologically active compounds under conditions suitable for bioremediation applications

  18. INFLUENCE OF THE MIXING METHOD ON THE INDICATOR AND EFFECTIVE EFFICIENCY OF THE TWO-STROKE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Korohodskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dependences on the definition of the indicator and effective efficiency of the ICE, taking into account the fuel that is not involved in the combustion process are offered. The transition from the external to the internal mixture formation in the two-stroke engine with spark ignition has allowed at modes of load characteristic when n = 3,000 min-1 to increase the effective efficiency by 45–58 % due to the increase of the indicator efficiency by 28–52 %, and by eliminating the losses of fuel during cylinder purging (14–26 %.

  19. Arsenic removal in a sulfidogenic fixed-bed column bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Muslum, E-mail: muslumaltun@hotmail.com [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Sahinkaya, Erkan [Istanbul Medeniyet University, Bioengineering Department, Goztepe, Istanbul (Turkey); Durukan, Ilknur; Bektas, Sema [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Komnitsas, Kostas [Technical University of Crete, Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Chania (Greece)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulfidogenic treatment of As-containing AMD was investigated. • High rate simultaneous removal of As and Fe was achieved. • As was removed without adding alkalinity or adjusting pH. • As and Fe removal mechanisms were elucidated. - Abstract: In the present study, the bioremoval of arsenic from synthetic acidic wastewater containing arsenate (As{sup 5+}) (0.5–20 mg/L), ferrous iron (Fe{sup 2+}) (100–200 mg/L) and sulfate (2000 mg/L) was investigated in an ethanol fed (780–1560 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD)) anaerobic up-flow fixed bed column bioreactor at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.6 h. Arsenic removal efficiency was low and averaged 8% in case iron was not supplemented to the synthetic wastewater. Neutral to slightly alkaline pH and high sulfide concentration in the bioreactor retarded the precipitation of arsenic. Addition of 100 mg/L Fe{sup 2+} increased arsenic removal efficiency to 63%. Further increase of influent Fe{sup 2+} concentration to 200 mg/L improved arsenic removal to 85%. Decrease of influent COD concentration to its half, 780 mg/L, resulted in further increase of As removal to 96% when Fe{sup 2+} and As{sup 5+} concentrations remained at 200 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. As a result of the sulfidogenic activity in the bioreactor the effluent pH and alkalinity concentration averaged 7.4 ± 0.2 and 1736 ± 239 mg CaCO{sub 3}/L respectively. Electron flow from ethanol to sulfate averaged 72 ± 10%. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were carried out to identify the nature of the precipitate generated by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) activity. Precipitation of arsenic in the form of As{sub 2}S{sub 3} (orpiment) and co-precipitation with ferrous sulfide (FeS), pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) or arsenopyrite (FeAsS) were the main arsenic removal mechanisms.

  20. Arsenic removal in a sulfidogenic fixed-bed column bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sulfidogenic treatment of As-containing AMD was investigated. • High rate simultaneous removal of As and Fe was achieved. • As was removed without adding alkalinity or adjusting pH. • As and Fe removal mechanisms were elucidated. - Abstract: In the present study, the bioremoval of arsenic from synthetic acidic wastewater containing arsenate (As5+) (0.5–20 mg/L), ferrous iron (Fe2+) (100–200 mg/L) and sulfate (2000 mg/L) was investigated in an ethanol fed (780–1560 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD)) anaerobic up-flow fixed bed column bioreactor at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.6 h. Arsenic removal efficiency was low and averaged 8% in case iron was not supplemented to the synthetic wastewater. Neutral to slightly alkaline pH and high sulfide concentration in the bioreactor retarded the precipitation of arsenic. Addition of 100 mg/L Fe2+ increased arsenic removal efficiency to 63%. Further increase of influent Fe2+ concentration to 200 mg/L improved arsenic removal to 85%. Decrease of influent COD concentration to its half, 780 mg/L, resulted in further increase of As removal to 96% when Fe2+ and As5+ concentrations remained at 200 mg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. As a result of the sulfidogenic activity in the bioreactor the effluent pH and alkalinity concentration averaged 7.4 ± 0.2 and 1736 ± 239 mg CaCO3/L respectively. Electron flow from ethanol to sulfate averaged 72 ± 10%. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were carried out to identify the nature of the precipitate generated by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) activity. Precipitation of arsenic in the form of As2S3 (orpiment) and co-precipitation with ferrous sulfide (FeS), pyrite (FeS2) or arsenopyrite (FeAsS) were the main arsenic removal mechanisms

  1. Effect of Dynamic Center Region on the Flow and Mixing Efficiency in a New Tri-Screw Extruder Using 3D Finite Element Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Z. Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional finite element modeling of polymer melt flowing in a new co-rotating tri-screw extruder was established with mesh superposition technique. Based on the particle tracking technology, three typical particle trajectories in the tri-screw extruder were calculated using a 4th-order-Runge-Kutta method to study the dynamic motions of the particles. Then the flow visualizations in the local center region were carried out. Moreover, the dispersive, distributive and stretching mixing efficiencies of the tri-screw and twin-screw extruders were compared, respectively. The results show that when the particles move from one screw to another, there are great abrupt changes in the velocities and displacements, which induce the abrupt change in the stress magnitude. Most of particles, which are initially distributed in the inlet plane of the center region, fast flow out the outlet and don’t pass through any screw. This special phenomenon induces a series of new characteristics in the residence time distribution (RTD, flow number, segregation scale and time averaged efficiency. In comparison with the twin-screw extruder, the tri-screw extruder has better mixing efficiency.

  2. A stable, reusable, and highly active photosynthetic bioreactor by bio-interfacing an individual cyanobacterium with a mesoporous bilayer nanoshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Deng, Zhao; Wang, Li; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Tian, Ge; Ying, Guo-Liang; Shen, Ling; Zhang, Ming-Xi; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-05-01

    An individual cyanobacterium cell is interfaced with a nanoporous biohybrid layer within a mesoporous silica layer. The bio-interface acts as an egg membrane for cell protection and growth of outer shell. The resulting bilayer shell provides efficient functions to create a single cell photosynthetic bioreactor with high stability, reusability, and activity. PMID:25641812

  3. Effects of salinity on the characteristics of biomass and membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, D.; Hwang, Yuhoon; Shin, H.; Lee, W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of high salinity on the performance and membrane fouling of membrane bioreactor (MBR) with saline wastewater. Synthetic wastewaters containing 5-20g/L salts (NaCl) were treated in identical lab-scale (7L) MBRs monitoring removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ammonia. Increase in salt concentrations did not significantly change the removal efficiency of DOC in the MBRs. However, the ammonia removals decreased from 87% to 46% with increasing salt con...

  4. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of a Wastewater Treatment Process Fitted with a Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo Pimentel, Guilherme; Rapaport, Alain; Vande Wouwer, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Submerged membrane bioreactors are increasingly applied for wastewater treamentbut requires a tight control of the membrane fouling so as to ensure safe and efficient operation.The objective of this paper is to design a nonlinear model predictive control to minimize theirreversible resistance while keeping the trans-membrane pressure, which is a good indicatorof membrane fouling, at an acceptable level. To this end, the manipulated variables are thepermeate flow and the air scouring flow, whi...

  5. Combined Industrial Wastewater Treatment in Anaerobic Bioreactor Posttreated in Constructed Wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Bibi Saima Zeb; Qaisar Mahmood; Saima Jadoon; Arshid Pervez; Muhammad Irshad; Muhammad Bilal; Zulfiqar Ahmad Bhatti

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) with monoculture of Arundo donax L. was investigated for the posttreatment of anaerobic bioreactor (ABR) treating combined industrial wastewater. Different dilutions of combined industrial wastewater (20, 40, 60, and 80) and original wastewater were fed into the ABR and then posttreated by the laboratory scale CW. The respective removal efficiencies of COD, BOD, TSS, nitrates, and ammonia were 80%, 78–82%, 91.7%, 88–92%, and 100% for original industrial wastewater tre...

  6. Leachate pretreatment for enhancing organic matter conversion in landfill bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct recycling of leachate from refuse of high food waste content was shown to ineffectively stabilize the refuse. This work aims at evaluating the effects of three pretreatments of leachate on the refuse stabilization efficiency were investigated. Pretreatment of leachate using an anaerobic upflow filtration bioreactor (UFB) or a well-decomposed waste layer could reduce the COD and provide methanogens, both were beneficial to establish early methanogenesis status. Using an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) to pretreat the leachate could reduce its COD to 1000 mg l-1, but the fully developed methanogenesis phase would be built up in a later stage. The organic matters in the effluent leachate inhibited both the hydrolysis/acidogenesis and the methanogenesis steps in the refuse. With the dilution and acid neutralization effects by the recycled leachate, a favorable methanogenetic environment could be produced from the column's top, which moved downward along, and finally made the breakthrough of the column

  7. Bioreactors as a low cost option for tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioreactors are vessels designed for large-scale cell, tissue or organ culture in liquid media. Functionally, plant culture bioreactors can be divided into two broad types: those in which the cultures are immersed partially or temporarily in the medium, and those in which the cultures are continuously submerged. Bioreactors provide more precise control of the plant growth gaseous exchange, illumination, medium agitation, temperature and pH than the conventional culture vessels. Bioreactor-based propagation of plants can increase rate of multiplication and growth of cultures and reduce space, energy and labour requirements in commercial micropropagation. They can therefore be attractive to developing countries as regards new or expanding plant culture facilities, in combination with a conventional laboratory. However, to be cost- effective, use of bioreactors requires indexed plant cultures, and attention to aseptic procedures during handling of plant material. Hence, the integration of bioreactors into production systems should only be attempted by facilities with skilled and experienced propagators. (author)

  8. Micro-joule sub-10-fs VUV pulse generation by MW pump pulse using highly efficient chirped-four-wave mixing in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Song-Jin

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically study chirped four-wave mixing for VUV pulse generation in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers. We predict the generation of sub-10-fs VUV pulses with energy of up to hundreds of microjoule by broad-band chirped idler pulses at 830 nm and MW pump pulses with narrow-band at 277 nm. MW pump could be desirable to reduce the complexity of the laser system or use a high repetition rate-laser system. The energy conversion efficiency from pump pulse to VUV pulse reaches to 30%. This...

  9. Nitrate leaching and energy efficiency of stockless arable systems compared with mixed farming and a non-organic system on fertile soils in Northern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Loges, Ralf; Kelm, Michael; Taube, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies based on either small-scale plot experiments or modelling approaches, indicate a lower risk of nitrate leaching and a higher energy efficiency in organic than in conventional farming systems. Because there is still a lack of data measured at the farm scale, which also take farm type and farming practices into account, a comparison between an N-intensive non-organic, two organic all-arable crop rotations and a typical rotation of a mixed organic farm was carried out over a thr...

  10. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 4; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Z. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steward, H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Palmer, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the mixed-humid climate region. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builders team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  11. Modeling of a membrane bioreactor for production of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the use of an enzymatic catalyst lipase, produced by Candida Antarctica a membrane bioreactor was modeled and simulated to obtain biodiesel from palm oil and ethanol. A conversion of 0.97 was reached for a residence time of 10.64 min. The membrane bioreactor was compared to a CSTR reactor, where a conversion of 0.76 was obtained. It was concluded that the membrane bioreactor is a better way of producing biodiesel than the CSTR

  12. Investigations concerning the use of membrane bioreactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane bioreactor systems are increasingly being used to clean leachates from landfills. Besides being compact they can, especially, be easily combined with further cleaning techniques. The paper first of all gives an overview on landfill leachate cleaning standards in Austria. A combination of processes is applied where the membrane bioreactor forms a preferred element. Finally, results are presented which should help with the dimensioning of membrane bioreactors. (orig.)

  13. Simulation of Temperature Control in Fermentation Bioreactor for Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    MARGINEAN Calin; MARGINEAN Ana-Maria; TRIFA Viorel

    2012-01-01

    Present paper deals with aspects regardingthe simulation of fermentation bioreactor process andfermentation bioreactor control for ethanolproduction. The bioreactor model was implemented inMatlab Simulink and the results of simulation usingdifferent control strategies are presentedcomparatively. Three types of control strategy are usedrespectively, PID, Neural Network Model PredictiveController (NN-MPC) and Nonlinear Auto RegressiveMoving Average(NARMA-L2) control strategy.

  14. Development of energy efficient mixing strategies in egg-shaped anaerobic reactors through 3D CFD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Aguilar, Eduardo; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Osorio-Mirón, Anselmo; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a 3D computational fluid dynamic model, which characterizes the hydrodynamic behavior of a mixing strategy applied to egg-shaped reactors that lack a mechanical stirring device. The model is based on Navier-Stokes and material balance equations without a chemical reaction. To describe the behavior of mixing, initial water feed flows of 6, 7.5 and 9 mL s(-1) were used. An experimental validation was subsequently carried out using a pulse technique, with NaCl as a tracer. The residence time distributions were quantitatively determined. Then, the degradation process of the wastewater sludge was characterized by studying the time dependence of the dynamic viscosity, the concentration of volatile solids and the density of wastewater sludge. The data resulting were introduced into the validated model, and five feed flows from 9 to 13 mL s(-1), the best performance found was with feed flow of 11 mL s(-1). PMID:26950282

  15. Hydrodynamics in external-loop airlift bioreactors with static mixers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilescu, M. [Chemical Pharmaceutical Research Inst., Research Center for Antibiotics, Iasi (Romania); Roman, R.V. [Chemical Pharmaceutical Research Inst., Research Center for Antibiotics, Iasi (Romania); Tudose, R.Z. [Dept. of Transfer Phenomena and Chemical Engineering, Technical Univ. of Iasi (Romania)

    1997-01-01

    Liquid circulation superficial velocity and gas holdup behaviours were investigated in an external-loop airlift bioreactor of 0.170 m{sup 3} liquid volume in gas-induced and forced-circulation-loop operation modes, in the presence of static mixers made of corrugated stainless steel pieces, resulting in packets with the height-to-diameter ratio equal to unity and using non-Newtonian starch solutions as liquid phase. The static mixers were disposed in the riser in three blocks, each with three mixing packets, successively turned 90 to the adjacent mixing element. It was found that in the presence of static mixers and forced-loop operation mode, liquid circulation superficial velocity in the riser section was significantly diminished, while gas holdup increased in a great measure. It was considered that static mixers split the fluid into individual streams and break up the bubbles, resulting in small bubble sizes with a relative homogeneous bubble distribution over riser cross section. They act as supplementary resistances in liquid flow, reducing riser cross sectional area, equivalent with A{sub D}/A{sub R} area ratio diminishing. (orig.). With 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Modeling of Hybrid Growth Wastewater Bio-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attached/suspended growth mixed reactors are considered one of the recently tried approaches to improve the performance of the biological treatment by increasing the volume of the accumulated biomass in terms of attached growth as well as suspended growth. Moreover, the domestic WW can be easily mixed with a high strength non-hazardous industrial wastewater and treated together in these bio-reactors if the need arises. Modeling of Hybrid hybrid growth wastewater reactor addresses the need of understanding the rational of such system in order to achieve better design and operation parameters. This paper aims at developing a heterogeneous mathematical model for hybrid growth system considering the effect of diffusion, external mass transfer, and power input to the system in a rational manner. The model will be based on distinguishing between liquid/solid phase (bio-film and bio-floc). This model would be a step ahead to the fine tuning the design of hybrid systems based on the experimental data of a pilot plant to be implemented in near future

  17. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2004-09-11

    supply and EBCT on compost biofilter performance were also investigated. The bioreactor maintained greater than 95% removal efficiency for over 40 days without an additional supply of nutrients when a 10X concentrated HCMM was mixed with the compost packing at the beginning of the experiments. Results also suggest that an EBCT greater than 30 seconds is required to maintain high BTEX removal efficiencies in the compost biofilter system.

  18. Micro-joule sub-10-fs VUV pulse generation by MW pump pulse using highly efficient chirped-four-wave mixing in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Im, Song-Jin

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically study chirped four-wave mixing for VUV pulse generation in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers. We predict the generation of sub-10-fs VUV pulses with energy of up to hundreds of microjoule by broad-band chirped idler pulses at 830 nm and MW pump pulses with narrow-band at 277 nm. MW pump could be desirable to reduce the complexity of the laser system or use a high repetition rate-laser system. The energy conversion efficiency from pump pulse to VUV pulse reaches to 30%. This generation can be realized in kagome-lattice hollow-core PCF filled with noble gas of high pressure with core-diameter less than 40 micrometers which would enable technically simple or highly efficient coupling to fundamental mode of the fiber.

  19. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates.

  20. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors.

    OpenAIRE

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrence of sulfate reduction was considered to be undesired. However, there are some recent developments in which sulfate reduction is optimized for the removal of sulfur compounds from waste streams. In...

  1. Control of Dissolved Oxygen in Stirred Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Åkesson, Mats; Hagander, Per

    1998-01-01

    This report discusses control of dissolved oxygen in a bioreactor where the oxygen supply is manipulated using the stirrer speed. In batch and fed-batch cultivations the operating conditions change significantly which may cause tuning problems. Analysis using a linearized process model shows that the process dynamics is mainly affected by changes in the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient $K_La$. % To account for the process variations, a control strategy based on PID control and gain sche...

  2. Membrane Bioreactors: Past, Present and Future?

    OpenAIRE

    Hermanowicz, Slav W

    2011-01-01

    A brief description of membrane bioreactor (MBR) historical evolution has been presented with emphasis on continual decline of treatment costs and energy requirements. Although MBR can operate at biomass (MLSS) concentrations 5 to 10 times higher than activated sludge these concentrations are limited in practice by increasing biomass suspension viscosity that in turn increases “reversible” membrane fouling and decreases oxygen transfer rates. “Irreversible” fouling is a major operational chal...

  3. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for municipal wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fawehinmi, Folasade

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment has historically been considered unsuitable for the treatment of domestic wastewaters. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the incorporation of membranes into the anaerobic bioreactor to uncouple solid retention time and hydraulic retention time. This in turn prevents biomass washout and allows sufficient acclimatisation periods for anaerobes. However, the exposure of membranes to anaerobic biomass comes with its own inherent problems namely fouling. Fouling w...

  4. Bioreactor Yields Extracts for Skin Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center researchers created a unique rotating-wall bioreactor that simulates microgravity conditions, spurring innovations in drug development and medical research. Renuèll Int'l Inc., based in Aventure, Florida, licensed the technology and used it to produce a healing skin care product, RE`JUVEL. In a Food and Drug Administration test, RE`JUVEL substantially increased skin moisture and elasticity while reducing dark blotches and wrinkles.

  5. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Van, Lier, G

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A self-forming dynamic membrane only requires a support material over which a cake layer is formed, which determines the rejection properties of the system. The present research studies the applicat...

  6. Efficient three-wave mixing in a three-level atomic medium with an assisting microwave driven field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jia-Hua; Luo Jin-Ming; Yang Wen-Xing; Zhan Zhi-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The potential for nonlinear conversion between two laser pulses in a three-level V-type medium with assistance of an auxiliary microwave resonant radiation is studied. The results show that microwave driven field can lead to the parametric generation of a new laser pulse with high conversion efficiency when a weak pump laser pulse is applied.

  7. Using Small RNA Technology to Efficiently Identify Tomato Viruses and Viroids in Mixed-Infected Field Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) are produced in plants as a defense mechanism against virus or viroid infection. Analysis of a siRNA profile upon virus infection in plants may allow the de novo assembly of the viral genome. In the present study, we were interested in developing an efficient sequenc...

  8. Biodegradation of beet molasses vinasse by a mixed culture of micro organisms: Effect of aeration conditions and pH control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krzysztof Lutoslawski; Agnieszka Ryznar-Luty; Edmund Cibis; Malgorzata Krzywonos; Tadeusz Mi(s)kiewicz

    2011-01-01

    The effect of aeration conditions and pH control on the progress and efficiency of beet molasses vinasse biodegradation was investigated during four batch processes at 38℃ with the mixed microbial culture composed of Bifidobacterium,Lactobacillus,Lactococcus,Streptococcus,Bacillus,Rhodopseudomonas,and Saccharomyces.The four processes were carried out in a shake flask with no pH control,an aerobic bioreactor without mixing with no pH control,and a stirred-tank reactor (STR) with aeration with and without pH control,respectively.All experiments were started with an initial pH 8.0.The highest efficiency of biodegradation was achieved through the processes conducted in the STR,where betaine (an organic pollutant occurring in beet molasses in very large quantities) was completely degraded by the microorganisms.The process with no pH control carried out in the STR produced the highest reduction in the following pollution measures:organic matter expressed as chemical oxygen demand determined by the dichromatic method + theoretical COD of betaine (CODsum,85.5%),total organic carbon (TOC,78.8%) and five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5,98.6%).The process conditions applied in the shake flask experiments,as well as those used in the aerobic bioreactor without mixing,failed to provide complete betaine assimilation.As a consequence,reduction in CODwum,TOC and BOD5 was approximately half that obtained with STR.

  9. Highly ordered mesoporous TiO2-Fe2O3 mixed oxide synthesized by sol-gel pathway: an efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for dehalogenation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Astam K; Dutta, Arghya; Bhaumik, Asim

    2012-09-26

    Highly ordered two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal TiO(2)-Fe(2)O(3) mixed-oxide material MFT-1, which is composed of very tiny nanoparticles, is synthesized using sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as a structure-directing agent. Interestingly, synthesis of an ordered mesophase was not possible using SDS as a template for mesoporous pure Fe(2)O(3) or TiO(2) phases. This mesoporous iron-titanium mixed-oxide material has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), N(2) sorption, ultraviolet-visible light diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) studies. N(2) sorption analysis revealed high surface areas (126-385 m(2) g(-1)) and narrow pore size distributions (3.1-3.4 nm) for different samples. UV-vis DRS spectra and wide-angle powder XRD patterns indicate that the material is composed of α-Fe(2)O(3) and anatase TiO(2) phases. This TiO(2)-Fe(2)O(3) mixed-oxide material can act as a very efficient and reusable catalyst in the dehalogenation of aromatic chloride-, bromide-, and iodide-tolerating -F, -CN, -CH(3), -OCH(3) and -NO(2) functional groups in the aromatic ring using 2-propanol as the dispersion medium. PMID:22939382

  10. Airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 for treatment of lubricants in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khondee, Nichakorn; Tathong, Sitti [International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Bioremediation Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Pinyakong, Onruthai [Bioremediation Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Powtongsook, Sorawit [Center of Excellence for Marine Biotechnology (c/o Department of Marine Science, Chulalongkorn University), National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Pathum Thani (Thailand); Chatchupong, Thawach; Ruangchainikom, Chalermchai [Environmental Research and Management Department, PTT Research and Technology Institute, Ayutthaya (Thailand); Luepromchai, Ekawan, E-mail: ekawan.l@chula.ac.th [Bioremediation Research Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (NCE-EHWM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sphingobium sp. P2 effectively degraded various lubricant samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficiency of Sphingobium sp. P2 increased after immobilization on chitosan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High removal efficiency was due to both sorption and degradation processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The immobilized bacteria (4 g L{sup -1}) were applied in internal loop airlift bioreactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bioreactor continuously removed lubricant from emulsified wastewater. - Abstract: An internal loop airlift bioreactor containing chitosan-immobilized Sphingobium sp. P2 was applied for the removal of automotive lubricants from emulsified wastewater. The chitosan-immobilized bacteria had higher lubricant removal efficiency than free and killed-immobilized cells because they were able to sorp and degrade the lubricants simultaneously. In a semi-continuous batch experiment, the immobilized bacteria were able to remove 80-90% of the 200 mg L{sup -1} total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from both synthetic and carwash wastewater. The internal loop airlift bioreactor, containing 4 g L{sup -1} immobilized bacteria, was later designed and operated at 2.0 h HRT (hydraulic retention time) for over 70 days. At a steady state, the reactor continuously removed 85 {+-} 5% TPH and 73 {+-} 11% chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the carwash wastewater with 25-200 mg L{sup -1} amended lubricant. The internal loop airlift reactor's simple operation and high stability demonstrate its high potential for use in treating lubricants in emulsified wastewater from carwashes and other industries.

  11. Hexavalent chromium reduction in a sulfur reducing packed-bed bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Elemental sulfur can be used as electron acceptor for sulfide production. ► Biogenically produced sulfide reduces Cr(VI) to the much less toxic and immobile form of Cr(III). ► Sulfur packed bioreactor is efficient for Cr(VI) containing wastewater treatment. ► Reduced form of chromium precipitates in the bioreactor. - Abstract: The most commonly used approach for the detoxification of hazardous industrial effluents and wastewaters containing Cr(VI) is its reduction to the much less toxic and immobile form of Cr(III). This study investigates the cleanup of Cr(VI) containing wastewaters using elemental sulfur as electron acceptor, for the production of hydrogen sulfide that induces Cr(VI) reduction. An elemental sulfur reducing packed-bed bioreactor was operated at 28–30 °C for more than 250 days under varying influent Cr(VI) concentrations (5.0–50.0 mg/L) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs, 0.36–1.0 day). Ethanol or acetate (1000 mg/L COD) was used as carbon source and electron donor. The degree of COD oxidation varied between 30% and 85%, depending on the operating conditions and the type of organic carbon source. The oxidation of organic matter was coupled with the production of hydrogen sulfide, which reached a maximum concentration of 750 mg/L. The biologically produced hydrogen sulfide reduced Cr(VI) chemically to Cr(III) that precipitated in the reactor. Reduction of Cr(VI) and removal efficiency of total chromium always exceeded 97% and 85%, respectively, implying that the reduced chromium was retained in the bioreactor. This study showed that sulfur can be used as an electron acceptor to produce hydrogen sulfide that induces efficient reduction and immobilization of Cr(VI), thus enabling decontamination of Cr(VI) polluted wastewaters.

  12. Replaceable Sensor System for Bioreactor Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Mike; Savoy, Steve; Bruno, John

    2006-01-01

    A sensor system was proposed that would monitor spaceflight bioreactor parameters. Not only will this technology be invaluable in the space program for which it was developed, it will find applications in medical science and industrial laboratories as well. Using frequency-domain-based fluorescence lifetime technology, the sensor system will be able to detect changes in fluorescence lifetime quenching that results from displacement of fluorophorelabeled receptors bound to target ligands. This device will be used to monitor and regulate bioreactor parameters including glucose, pH, oxygen pressure (pO2), and carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2). Moreover, these biosensor fluorophore receptor-quenching complexes can be designed to further detect and monitor for potential biohazards, bioproducts, or bioimpurities. Biosensors used to detect biological fluid constituents have already been developed that employ a number of strategies, including invasive microelectrodes (e.g., dark electrodes), optical techniques including fluorescence, and membrane permeable systems based on osmotic pressure. Yet the longevity of any of these sensors does not meet the demands of extended use in spacecraft habitat or bioreactor monitoring. It was therefore necessary to develop a sensor platform that could determine not only fluid variables such as glucose concentration, pO2, pCO2, and pH but can also regulate these fluid variables with controlled feedback loop.

  13. Degradation of Refuse in Hybrid Bioreactor Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN LONG; Yu-YANG LONG; HAI-CHUN LIU; DONG-SHENG SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objectivess To explore the process of refuse decomposition in hybrid bioreactor landfill. Methods The bioreactor landfill was operated in sequencing of facultative-anaerobic and aerobic conditions with leachate recireulation, pH, COD, and ammonia in the leachate and pH, biodegradable organic matter (BDM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in refuse were detected. Results CEC increased gradually with the degradation of refuse, which was negatively correlad, With BDM. COD and ammonia in the leachate was declined to 399.2 mg L-1 and 20.6 mg N L-1, respectively, during the 357-day operation. The respective concentrations of ammonia and COD were below the second and the third levels of current discharge standards in China. Conclusion The refuse is relatively stable at the end of hybrid bioreactor landfill operation. Most of the readily biodegradable organic matter is mineralized in the initial phase of refuse degradation, whereas the hard-biodegradable organic matter is mainly humidified in the maturity phase of refuse degradation.

  14. Submerged membrane bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mediterranean basin (and particularly North African countries) is one of the poorest regions in the world in terms of water resources. In Tunisia, treated municipal wastewater is becoming one of the main alternative sources of water. Indeed, in 2007, 99 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has treated a quantity of 215 millions of m3 from which more than 30 pour cent are reused. The treated volume in 2011 is expected to be 266 millions m3, whereas the reused wastewaters should reach more than 50 pour cent. However, especially in the eastern and northern Mediterranean regions, wastewaters are inefficiently treated and re-used for irrigation or sanitary purposes, serving as a carrier for diseases or causing water pollution when discharged to water bodies. In the last decade, several water treatment technologies have been used in the region with little success in pathogen removal. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very promising alternative to those conventional water treatments as membranes act as a barrier against bacteria and viruses achieving a high degree of water purification. However, most membrane bioreactors currently in use have very high running costs because of the high pressure drop and high air-flushing rate required for their operation. The objective of this PURATREAT FP 6 EU project was to study a new approach to the operation of membrane bioreactors. This study was included a comparison of three leading membrane technologies. The operating procedure to be studied is expected to yield very low energy consumption and reduced maintenance costs. After the start up period, the MBR3 was operated with a MLSS concentration of 4.5 and 9 g/L, respectively. Different fluxes as 16, 18, 20 and 22 Lh-1m-2 were tested. When the flux increase from 16 to 22 Lh-1m-2, the treatment energy consumption decreased from 7 to 5 kWh/m3. However the increases of MLSS concentration from 4.5 and 9 g/L raise the membrane fouling frequency from 1 time every 3

  15. Effect of different leachate/acetate ratios in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskan, Ergin [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey); Hasar, Halil [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey); National Research Center on Membrane Technologies, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-05-15

    Leachate treatment using a membrane bioreactor is an effective method. This study presents a configuration including an anaerobic bioreactor and a membrane module, called submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR), for treating influent with leachate/acetate rations (L/A), that were kept to be 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100% at a constant SRT (100 days). COD removal decreased from 85 to 75% when the L/A ratio increased from 10 to 100. To prevent membrane fouling, a SAnMBR was operated in the case of circulation of mixed liquor under continuous and intermittent suction. The average fluxes were 2.60 and 0.40 L/m{sup 2} h at the periods of intermittent and continuous suction, respectively. The methane production varied between 0.25 and 0.32 L CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub removed}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Start-up of the anammox process from the conventional activated sludge in a hybrid bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiumei Duan; Jiti Zhou; Sen Qiao; Xin Yin; Tian Tian; Fangdi Xu

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process was successfully started up from conventional activated sludge using a hybrid bioreactor within 2 months.The average removal efficiencies of ammonia and nitrite were both over 80%,and the maximum total nitrogen removal rate of 1.85 kg1 N/(m3·day) was obtained on day 362 with the initial sludge concentration of 0.7 g mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)/L.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the granular sludge in the hybrid reactor clearly showed a high degree of compactness and cell sphericity,and the cell size was quite uniform.Transmission electron microscope photos showed that cells were round or oval,the cellular diameter was 0.6-1.0 μm,and the percentage of the anammoxosome compartment was 51%-85% of the whole cell volume.Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) indicated that anammox bacteria became the dominant population in the community (accounting for more than 51% of total bacteria on day 250).Seven planctomycete 16S rRNA gene sequences were present in the 16S rRNA gene clone library generated from the biomass and affiliated to Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis and Candidatus Brocadia sp.,a new anammox species.In addition,the average effluent suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations of outlets Ⅰ (above the non-woven carrier) and Ⅱ (below the non-woven carrier) were 0.0009 and 0.0035 g/L,respectively.This showed that the non-woven carrier could catch the biomass effectively,which increased biomass and improved the nitrogen removal rate in the reactor.

  17. Removal of persistent pharmaceutical micropollutants from sewage by addition of PAC in a sequential membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, D; Suárez, S; Lema, J M; Omil, F

    2011-10-15

    The performance of a membrane bioreactor operating in a sequential mode (SMBR) using an external flat-plate membrane was investigated. After 200 days of operation, a single addition of 1 g L(-1) Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) was added directly into the mixed liquor in order to enhance the simultaneous removal of nutrients and pharmaceutical micropollutants from synthetic urban wastewater. Throughout the entire operation (288 days), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiencies were up to 95%, ammonium nitrogen removal was maintained over 70-80%, whereas phosphorus removal achieved only high values (around 80%) after PAC addition. During the operation of the SMBR without PAC addition, micropollutants which exerted a more recalcitrant behaviour were carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac and trimethoprim, with no significant removal. On the other hand, moderate removals (42-64%) were observed for naproxen and erythromycin, whereas ibuprofen, roxithromycin and fluoxetine were removed in the range of 71-97%. The addition of PAC into the aeration tank was a successful tool to improve the removal of the more recalcitrant compounds up to 85%. The highest removal with PAC was observed for carbamazepine, trimethoprim as well as for roxithromycin, erythromycin and fluoxetine. The latter four compounds have amine groups and pKa in the range 6.7-10.1, thus the interaction between PAC and the positively charged amino groups might be the cause of their comparatively better results. Microbial ecology present in the biomass showed a higher abundance of Accumulibacter phosphatis as well as the ammonium oxidizing bacteria belonging to the genus Nitrosomonas after PAC addition. PMID:21864878

  18. Parallel, AA/BB, AB/BA and Balaam's design: efficient and maximin choices when testing the treatment effect in a mixed effects linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, Math J J M

    2012-01-01

    When examining the effect of treatment A versus B, there may be a choice between a parallel group design, an AA/BB design, an AB/BA cross-over and Balaam's design. In case of a linear mixed effects regression, it is examined, starting from a flexible function of the costs involved and allowing for subject dropout, which design is most efficient in estimating this effect. For no carry-over, the AB/BA cross-over design is most efficient as long as the dropout rate at the second measurement does not exceed 2ρ/(1 + ρ), ρ being the intraclass correlation. For steady-state carry-over, depending on the costs involved, the dropout rate and ρ, either a parallel design or an AA/BB design is most efficient. For types of carry-over that allow for self carry-over, interest is in the direct treatment effect plus the self carry-over effect, with either an AA/BB or Balaam's design being most efficient. In case of insufficient knowledge on the dropout rate or ρ, a maximin strategy is devised: choose the design that minimizes the maximum variance of the treatment estimator. Such maximin designs are derived for each type of carry-over. PMID:22337606

  19. The Joint Dynamics of the Energy Mix, Land Uses and Energy Efficiency Rates During the Transition Toward the Green Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; MOREAUX, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The global economy produces energy from two sources: a polluting nonrenewable resource and a renewable resource. Transforming crude energy into ready-to-use energy services requires costly processes and more efficient energy transformation rates are more costly to achieve. Renewable energy is in competition with food production for land acreage but the food productivity rate of land can also be improved at some cost. The exploitation of non-renewable energy releases polluting emissions in the...

  20. Nitrogen removal via short-cut simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in an intermittently aerated moving bed membrane bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → An intermittently aerated MBMBR was investigated to achieve SND via nitrite. → The intermittent-aeration strategy was an effective approach to achieve nitrition. → The activities of NOBs were inhibited under the intermittently aerated mode. → The intermittently aerated mode had no effect on the activities of AOBs. - Abstract: An intermittently aerated moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR) was developed and crucial parameters affecting nitrogen removal from wastewater by simultaneous nitrification and denitrification via nitrite were investigated, without strict control of solids retention time. Changes in the microbiological community and distribution in the reactor were monitored simultaneously. The intermittent-aeration strategy proved effective in achieving nitrition and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN) ratio was an important factor affecting TN removal. In the MBMBR, the nitrite accumulation rate reached 79.4% and TN removal efficiency averaged at 87.8% with aeration 2 min/mix 4 min and an influent COD/TN ratio of 5. Batch tests indicated that under the intermittently aerated mode, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were not completely washed out from the reactor but NOB activity was inhibited. The intermittently aerated mode had no effect on the activities of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) results also suggested that NOBs remained within the system.

  1. Microbial responses to membrane cleaning using sodium hypochlorite in membrane bioreactors: Cell integrity, key enzymes and intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xueye; Zheng, Xiang; Ma, Jinxing; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is a commonly used reagent for membrane cleaning in membrane bioreactors (MBRs), while it, being a kind of disinfectant (oxidant), may impair viability of microbes or even totally inactivate them upon its diffusion into mixed liquor during membrane cleaning. In this study, we systematically examine the effects of NaClO on microorganisms in terms of microbial cell integrity, metabolism behaviours (key enzymes), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) under various NaClO concentrations. Different proportions of microbial cells in activated sludge were damaged within several minutes dependent on NaClO dosages (5-50 mg/g-SS), and correspondingly organic matters were released to bulk solution. Inhibition of key enzymes involved in organic matter biodegradation, nitrification and denitrification was observed in the presence of NaClO above 1 mg/g-SS, and thus organic matter and nitrogen removal efficiencies were decreased. It was also demonstrated that intracellular ROS production was increased with the NaClO dosage higher than 1 mg/g-SS, which likely induced further damage to microbial cells. PMID:26512807

  2. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: Effect of bioreactor configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel biological technique for gypsum removal from CDD. • CDDS leachate treatment performed using different sulfate reducing bioreactors. • Gypsum in CDD can be used as a source of sulfate for sulfate reducing bacteria. • High calcium concentration (1000 mg L−1) did not affect the bioreactor performance. - Abstract: Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75–85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5 h. A high calcium concentration up to 1000 mg L−1 did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems

  3. Design and evaluation of a bioreactor with application to forensic burial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Melissa A; Weisensee, Katherine E; Mikhailova, Elena A; Harman, Melinda K

    2015-12-01

    Existing forensic taphonomic methods lack specificity in estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in the period following active decomposition. New methods, such as the use of citrate concentration in bone, are currently being considered; however, determining the applicability of these methods in differing environmental contexts is challenging. This research aims to design a forensic bioreactor that can account for environmental factors known to impact decomposition, specifically temperature, moisture, physical damage from animals, burial depth, soil pH, and organic matter content. These forensically relevant environmental variables were characterized in a soil science context. The resulting metrics were soil temperature regime, soil moisture regime, slope, texture, soil horizon, cation exchange capacity, soil pH, and organic matter content. Bioreactor chambers were constructed using sterilized thin-walled polystyrene boxes housed in calibrated temperature units. Gravesoil was represented using mineral soil (Ultisols), and organic soil proxy for Histosols, horticulture mix. Gravesoil depth was determined using mineral soil horizons A and Bt2 to simulate surface scatter and shallow grave burial respectively. A total of fourteen different environmental conditions were created and controlled successfully over a 90-day experiment. These results demonstrate successful implementation and control of forensic bioreactor simulating precise environments in a single research location, rather than site-specific testing occurring in different geographic regions. Bone sections were grossly assessed for weathering characteristics, which revealed notable differences related to exposure to different temperature regimes and soil types. Over the short 90-day duration of this experiment, changes in weathering characteristics were more evident across the different temperature regimes rather than the soil types. Using this methodology, bioreactor systems can be created to replicate many

  4. Treatment of ammonium-rich swine waste in modified porphyritic andesite fixed-bed anaerobic bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Li, Dawei; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a modified porphyritic andesite (WRS) was developed as ammonium adsorbent and bed material for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. The performance in bioreactors with modified WRS, natural WRS, calcium chloride and no additives was investigated. The bioreactor with modified WRS exhibited the best performance, with start-up time on the 7th day, methane yield of 359.71 ml/g-VS, and COD removal of 67.99% during all 44 days of the experiment at 35°C. The effective ammonium adsorption and essential ions dissociation for microorganisms by modified WRS, as well as the immobilization of microbial on the surface of the modified WRS play a great role on the high efficiency anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine waste. PMID:22366608

  5. Osmotic stress on nitrification in an airlift bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Rencun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zheng Ping [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Mahmood, Qaisar [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Hu Baolan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)]. E-mail: blhu@zju.edu.cn

    2007-07-19

    The effect of osmotic pressure on nitrification was studied in a lab-scale internal-loop airlift-nitrifying reactor. The reactor slowly adapted to the escalating osmotic pressure during 270 days operation. The conditions were reversed to the initial stage upon full inhibition of the process. Keeping influent ammonium concentration constant at 420 mg N L{sup -1} and hydraulic retention time at 20.7 h, with gradual increase in osmotic pressure from 4.3 to 18.8 x 10{sup 5} Pa by adding sodium sulphate, the ammonium removal efficiencies of the nitrifying bioreactor were maintained at 93-100%. Further increase in osmotic pressure up to 19.2 x 10{sup 5} Pa resulted in drop of the ammonium conversion to 69.2%. The osmotic pressure caused abrupt inhibition of nitrification without any alarm and the critical osmotic pressure value causing inhibition remained between 18.8 and 19.2 x 10{sup 5} Pa. Nitrite oxidizers were found more sensitive to osmotic stress as compared with ammonia oxidizers, leading to nitrite accumulation up to 61.7% in the reactor. The performance of bioreactor recovered gradually upon lowering the osmotic pressure. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy indicated that osmotic stress resulted in simplification of the nitrifying bacterial populations in the activated sludge as the cellular size reduced; the inner membrane became thinner and some unknown inclusions appeared within the cells. The microbial morphology and cellular structure restored upon relieving the osmotic pressure. Addition of potassium relieved the effect of osmotic pressure upon nitrification. Results demonstrate that the nitrifying reactor possesses the potential to treat ammonium-rich brines after acclimatization.

  6. Osmotic stress on nitrification in an airlift bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of osmotic pressure on nitrification was studied in a lab-scale internal-loop airlift-nitrifying reactor. The reactor slowly adapted to the escalating osmotic pressure during 270 days operation. The conditions were reversed to the initial stage upon full inhibition of the process. Keeping influent ammonium concentration constant at 420 mg N L-1 and hydraulic retention time at 20.7 h, with gradual increase in osmotic pressure from 4.3 to 18.8 x 105 Pa by adding sodium sulphate, the ammonium removal efficiencies of the nitrifying bioreactor were maintained at 93-100%. Further increase in osmotic pressure up to 19.2 x 105 Pa resulted in drop of the ammonium conversion to 69.2%. The osmotic pressure caused abrupt inhibition of nitrification without any alarm and the critical osmotic pressure value causing inhibition remained between 18.8 and 19.2 x 105 Pa. Nitrite oxidizers were found more sensitive to osmotic stress as compared with ammonia oxidizers, leading to nitrite accumulation up to 61.7% in the reactor. The performance of bioreactor recovered gradually upon lowering the osmotic pressure. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy indicated that osmotic stress resulted in simplification of the nitrifying bacterial populations in the activated sludge as the cellular size reduced; the inner membrane became thinner and some unknown inclusions appeared within the cells. The microbial morphology and cellular structure restored upon relieving the osmotic pressure. Addition of potassium relieved the effect of osmotic pressure upon nitrification. Results demonstrate that the nitrifying reactor possesses the potential to treat ammonium-rich brines after acclimatization

  7. Non-disruptive measurement system of cell viability in bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, F.; Nelsen, B. L.; Baselt, T.; Berger, T.; Wiele, M.; Prade, I.; Hartmann, P.

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient and oxygen transport, as well as the removal of metabolic waste are essential processes to support and maintain viable tissue. Current bioreactor technology used to grow tissue cultures in vitro has a fundamental limit to the thickness of tissues. Based on the low diffusion limit of oxygen a maximum tissue thickness of 200 μm is possible. The efficiency of those systems is currently under investigation. During the cultivation process of the artificial tissue in bioreactors, which lasts 28 days or longer, there are no possibilities to investigate the viability of cells. This work is designed to determine the influence of a non-disruptive cell viability measuring system on cellular activity. The measuring system uses a natural cellular marker produced during normal metabolic activity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a coenzyme naturally consumed and produced during cellular metabolic processes and has thoroughly been studied to determine the metabolic state of a cell. Measuring the fluorescence of NADH within the cell represents a non-disruptive marker for cell viability. Since the measurement process is optical in nature, NADH fluorescence also provides a pathway for sampling at different measurement depths within a given tissue sample. The measurement system we are using utilizes a special UV light source, to excite the NADH fluorescence state. However, the high energy potentially alters or harms the cells. To investigate the influence of the excitation signal, the cells were irradiated with a laser operating at a wavelength of 355 nm and examined for cytotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to develop a non-cytotoxic system that is applicable for large-scale operations during drug-tissue interaction testing.

  8. Removals of pharmaceutical compounds from hospital wastewater in membrane bioreactor operated under short hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertkulsak, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Itonaga, T; Yamamoto, K

    2016-05-01

    Pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) was operated at a short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 h for the treatment of hospital wastewater. The removals of eleven pharmaceutical compounds in MBR operated at different mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) level were investigated during which nitrification degree was differed. The results experiments revealed the importance of immediate adsorption onto the colloidal particles in supernatant of MBR sludge and subsequently removed by membrane filtration for the recalcitrant pharmaceutical compounds. Nevertheless, the removals through biodegradation during short HRT were also found significant for some compounds. DGGE profile revealed the development of pharmaceutical degrading microorganisms in MBR. PMID:26852096

  9. Performance of Gas Induction in a Dual ImpellerAgitated Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Safa Abid Al-Rassul; Hassanin Ali Hussen; Alaa K. Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The rate of gas induction was measured in gas-inducing type mechanically agitated contactors provided with two impellers. A reactor of 0.5 m i.d. was used with a working capacity of 60 liters of liquid. Tap water was used as the liquid phase, and air was used as the gas phase. The bioreactor mixing system consists of two equal diameter stirrers; the top impeller is shrouded-disk/curved-blade turbine with six evacuated bending blades, while the bottom impeller was disk turbine. The impeller sp...

  10. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less

  11. STATE OF THE PRACTICE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - SUMMARY OF USEPA WORKSHOP ON BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a summary of the Workshop on Landfill Bioreactors, held 9/6-7/2000 in Arlington, VA. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to EPA, state and local governments, solid waste industry, and academic research representatives to exchange information and ideas on b...

  12. High-efficiency generation of pulsed Lyman-α radiation by resonant laser wave mixing in low pressure Kr-Ar mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norihito; Oishi, Yu; Miyazaki, Koji; Okamura, Kotaro; Nakamura, Jumpei; Louchev, Oleg A; Iwasaki, Masahiko; Wada, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    We report an experimental generation of ns pulsed 121.568 nm Lyman-α radiation by the resonant nonlinear four-wave mixing of 212.556 nm and 845.015 nm radiation pulses providing a high conversion efficiency 1.7x10-3 with the output pulse energy 3.6 μJ achieved using a low pressure Kr-Ar mixture. Theoretical analysis shows that this efficiency is achieved due to the advantage of using (i) the high input laser intensities in combination with (ii) the low gas pressure allowing us to avoid the onset of full-scale discharge in the laser focus. In particular, under our experimental conditions the main mechanism of photoionization caused by the resonant 2-photon 212.556 nm radiation excitation of Kr atoms followed by the 1-photon ionization leads to ≈17% loss of Kr atoms and efficiency loss only by the end of the pulse. The energy of free electrons, generated by 212.556 nm radiation via (2 + 1)-photon ionization and accelerated mainly by 845.015 nm radiation, remains during the pulse below the level sufficient for the onset of full-scale discharge by the electron avalanche. Our analysis also suggests that ≈30-fold increase of 845.015 nm pulse energy can allow one to scale up the L-α radiation pulse energy towards the level of ≈100 μJ. PMID:27137045

  13. Ceria-Based Mixed Oxide Supported Nano-Gold as an Efficient and Durable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Amines to Imines Using Molecular Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Ahmad Dar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work is intended to determine the catalytic activity of Mixed Oxide supported gold for aerobic oxidative dehydrogenation of amines to imines using Ceria as a main constituent of the each support. The model catalysts Au/CeO2:TiO2 Au/CeO2:SiO2, Au/CeO2:ZrO2 and Au/CeO2:Al2Os were prepared by deposition co-precipitation method and deposition of gold was determined by EDEX analysis. The supported nano-gold catalyzes the dehydrogenation of secondary amines to imines without loss of activity. On recycling good amount of product yield is obtained. Oxidation of secondary amines to imines is carried at 100˚C and almost 90 % conversion was obtained with >99% selectivity. © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 26th December 2011; Revised: 7th June 2012; Accepted: 13rd June 2012[How to Cite: B.A. Dar, M. Sharma, B. Singh. (2012. Ceria-Based Mixed Oxide Supported Nano-Gold as an Efficient and Durable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Amines to Imines Using Molecular Oxygen. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(1: 79-84.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1257.79-84][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1257.79-84 ] | View in 

  14. Stellar Boron Abundances near the Main-sequence Turnoff of the Open Cluster NGC 3293 and Implications for the Efficiency of Rotationally Driven Mixing in Stellar Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Lennon, Daniel J.; Langer, Norbert; Brott, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph covering the B iii resonance line have been obtained for 10 early-B stars near the turnoff of the young Galactic open cluster NGC 3293. This is the first sample of boron abundance determinations in a single, clearly defined population of early-B stars that also covers a substantial range of projected rotational velocities. In most of these stars we detect partial depletion of boron at a level consistent with that expected for rotational mixing in single stars, but inconsistent with expectations for depletion from close binary evolution. However, our results do suggest that the efficiency of rotational mixing is at or slightly below the low end of the range predicted by the available theoretical calculations. The two most luminous targets observed have a very large boron depletion and may be the products of either binary interactions or post-main-sequence evolution. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with proposal GO-12520.

  15. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  16. Signal and charge collection efficiency of n-in-p strip detectors after mixed irradiation to HL-LHC fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Susanne; Barber, Thomas; Casse, Gianluigi; Dervan, Paul; Driewer, Adrian; Forshaw, Dean; Huse, Torkjell; Jakobs, Karl; Parzefall, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    For the year 2020, an upgrade of the LHC with a factor ten increase in luminosity is planned. The resulting severe radiation doses for the ATLAS tracker demand extremely radiation tolerant detectors. In this study six planar n-in-p strip sensors produced by Hamamatsu Photonics were irradiated in consecutive irradiation steps with pions of 280 Mev/c, protons of 25 Mev/c and reactor neutrons resulting in a combined fluence of up to 3×1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent particles per square centimeter (neq /cm2). This particle composition and fluence corresponds to the qualification limit specified by the ATLAS experiment for the outer pixel layers (assuming an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1). The 320 μm thick devices are investigated using electrons from a 90Sr source. After each irradiation step both charge collection efficiency and noise measurements have been performed using the ALIBAVA readout system, which is based on analogue Beetle ASICs clocked at 40 MHz. Measurements of the signal and signal-to-noise ratio of detectors will be given after the sensors were exposed to radiation that both in fluence and composition are corresponding to the expectations for the HL-LHC trackers. Conclusions will be drawn on their operation in the ATLAS inner detector upgrade.

  17. MAPbI3-xBrx mixed halide perovskites for fully printable mesoscopic solar cells with enhanced efficiency and less hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kun; Li, Hao; Liu, Shuangshuang; Cui, Jin; Shen, Yan; Wang, Mingkui

    2016-04-01

    Hybrid lead-halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are promising alternatives to silicon-based cells due to their high photovoltaic performance and low cost. We report herein fully printable perovskite solar cells with a mesoporous TiO2/Al2O3/C architecture in combination with mixed-halide MAPbI3-xBrx perovskites. A maximum conversion efficiency of 13.49% can be achieved with an increased open circuit voltage of 1.01 V, which is higher than the MAPbI3-based devices. A reduced anomalous hysteresis in the J-V curve measurement has been demonstrated in perovskite solar cells based on MAPbI2.4Br0.6 perovskite, which is directly linked to the characteristically slow kinetics measured through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.Hybrid lead-halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are promising alternatives to silicon-based cells due to their high photovoltaic performance and low cost. We report herein fully printable perovskite solar cells with a mesoporous TiO2/Al2O3/C architecture in combination with mixed-halide MAPbI3-xBrx perovskites. A maximum conversion efficiency of 13.49% can be achieved with an increased open circuit voltage of 1.01 V, which is higher than the MAPbI3-based devices. A reduced anomalous hysteresis in the J-V curve measurement has been demonstrated in perovskite solar cells based on MAPbI2.4Br0.6 perovskite, which is directly linked to the characteristically slow kinetics measured through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Preparation process and XRD patterns of MAPbI3-xBrx films, photovoltaic performance and EIS analysis of different devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01043a

  18. Signal and charge collection efficiency of n-in-p strip detectors after mixed irradiation to HL-LHC fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.kuehn@cern.ch [Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Barber, Thomas [Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Casse, Gianluigi; Dervan, Paul [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, The Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Oxford Street L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Driewer, Adrian [Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems, Finkenstr. 61, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Forshaw, Dean; Huse, Torkjell [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, The Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Oxford Street L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Parzefall, Ulrich [Institute of Physics, University of Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    For the year 2020, an upgrade of the LHC with a factor ten increase in luminosity is planned. The resulting severe radiation doses for the ATLAS tracker demand extremely radiation tolerant detectors. In this study six planar n-in-p strip sensors produced by Hamamatsu Photonics were irradiated in consecutive irradiation steps with pions of 280 Mev/c, protons of 25 Mev/c and reactor neutrons resulting in a combined fluence of up to 3×10{sup 15} 1 MeV neutron equivalent particles per square centimeter (n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}). This particle composition and fluence corresponds to the qualification limit specified by the ATLAS experiment for the outer pixel layers (assuming an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup −1}). The 320μm thick devices are investigated using electrons from a {sup 90}Sr source. After each irradiation step both charge collection efficiency and noise measurements have been performed using the ALIBAVA readout system, which is based on analogue Beetle ASICs clocked at 40 MHz. Measurements of the signal and signal-to-noise ratio of detectors will be given after the sensors were exposed to radiation that both in fluence and composition are corresponding to the expectations for the HL-LHC trackers. Conclusions will be drawn on their operation in the ATLAS inner detector upgrade. -- Highlights: •Charge collection measurements of n-in-p strip detectors irradiated up to 3E15 n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. •Signal reduced from 25 k electrons before irradiation to 9–11 k electrons at 600 V bias. •Signal-to-noise ratio measured above 10 at 600 V after irradiation with pions, protons and neutrons. •N-in-p strip detectors functional for doses in inner strip layers of ATLAS in the HL-LHC. •Results agreeing to results after single particle irradiation.

  19. Optimizing Hydraulic Retention Times in Denitrifying Woodchip Bioreactors Treating Recirculating Aquaculture System Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepine, Christine; Christianson, Laura; Sharrer, Kata; Summerfelt, Steven

    2016-05-01

    The performance of wood-based denitrifying bioreactors to treat high-nitrate wastewaters from aquaculture systems has not previously been demonstrated. Four pilot-scale woodchip bioreactors (approximately 1:10 scale) were constructed and operated for 268 d to determine the optimal range of design hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for nitrate removal. The bioreactors were operated under HRTs ranging from 6.6 to 55 h with influent nitrate concentrations generally between 20 and 80 mg NO-N L. These combinations resulted in N removal rates >39 g N m d, which is greater than previously reported. These high removal rates were due in large part to the relatively high chemical oxygen demand and warm temperature (∼19°C) of the wastewater. An optimized design HRT may not be the same based on metrics of N removal rate versus N removal efficiency; longer HRTs demonstrated higher removal efficiencies, and shorter HRTs had higher removal rates. When nitrate influent concentrations were approximately 75 mg NO-N L ( = 6 sample events), the shortest HRT (12 h) had the lowest removal efficiency (45%) but a significantly greater removal rate than the two longest HRTs (42 and 55 h), which were N limited. Sulfate reduction was also observed under highly reduced conditions and was exacerbated under prolonged N-limited environments. Balancing the removal rate and removal efficiency for this water chemistry with a design HRT of approximately 24 h would result in a 65% removal efficiency and removal rates of at least 18 g N m d. PMID:27136146

  20. Fermentative hydrogen production from anaerobic bacteria using a membrane bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous H2 production from glucose was studied at short hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 4.69 - 0.79 h using a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a hollow-fiber filtration unit and mixed cells as inoculum. The reactor was inoculated with sewage sludge, which were heat-treated at 90 C for harvesting spore-forming, H2-producing bacteria, and fed with synthetic wastewater containing 1% (w/v) glucose. With decreasing HRT, volumetric H2 production rate increased but the H2 production yield to glucose decreased gradually. The H2 content in biogas was maintained at 50 - 70% (v/v) and no appreciable CH4 was detected during the operation. The maximal volumetric H2 production rate and H2 yield to glucose were 1714 mmol H2/L.d and 1.1 mol H2/mol glucose, respectively. These results indicate that the MBR should be considered as one of the most promising systems for fermentative H2 production. (authors)

  1. Clofibric acid and gemfibrozil removal in membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Macias, Tania; Nacheva, Petia Mijaylova

    2015-01-01

    The removal of two blood lipid regulators, clofibric acid (CLA) and gemfibrozil (GFZ), was evaluated using two identical aerobic membrane bioreactors with 6.5 L effective volume each. Polysulfone ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes were submerged in the reactors. Different operating conditions were tested varying the organic load (F/M), hydraulic residence time (HRT), biomass concentration measured as total suspended solids in the mixed liquor (MLTSS) and the sludge retention time (SRT). Complete GFZ removal was obtained with F/M of 0.21-0.48 kg COD kgTSS⁻¹ d⁻¹, HRT of 4-10 hours, SRT of 10-32 d and MLTSS of 6-10 g L⁻¹. The GFZ removal can be attributed to biodegradation and there was no accumulation of the compound in the biomass. The CLA removals improved with the SRT and HRT increase and F/M decrease. Average removals of 78-79% were obtained with SRT 16-32 d, F/M of 0.21-0.34 kgCOD kgTSS⁻¹ d⁻¹, HRT of 7-10 hours and MLTSS of 6-10 g L⁻¹. Biodegradation was found to be the main removal pathway. PMID:25909723

  2. Mechanism of calcium mitigating membrane fouling in submerged membrane bioreactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hanmin; XIA Jie; YANG Yang; WANG Zixing; YANG Fenglin

    2009-01-01

    Two parallel membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated under different calcium dosages (168.5, 27 mg/L) to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of retarding membrane fouling by the addition of calcium.The results showed that the particle size of sludge flocs increased and the particle size distribution tended to be narrow at the optimum dosage (168.5 mg/L).Calcium was effective in decreasing loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) in microbial flocs and soluble microbial products (SMP) in the supernatant at the dosage of 168.5 mg/L by strengthening the neutralization and bridging of EPS with flocs.Furthermore, the amount of CODS and CODC decreased in both the mixed liquor and the fouling cake layer on the membrane surface.In order to compare the filtration characteristics of cake layers from the MBRs with the two calcium dosages, the specific cake resistance and the compressibility coefficient were measured.The specific cake resistance from the MBR with optimum dosage (168.5 mg/L) was distinctly lower than that with low dosage (27 mg/L).The compressibility coefficient of the cake layers under different dosages were respectively attained as 0.65, 0.91.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-dimensional confocal scanning laser microscope analysis (CLSM) images were utilized to observe the gel layer directly.

  3. Mechanism of calcium mitigating membrane fouling in submerged membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanmin; Xia, Jie; Yang, Yang; Wang, Zixing; Yang, Fenglin

    2009-01-01

    Two parallel membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated under different calcium dosages (168.5, 27 mg/L) to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of retarding membrane fouling by adding calcium. The results showed that the particle size of sludge flocs increased and the particle size distribution tended to be narrow at the optimum dosage (168.5 mg/L). Calcium was effective in decreasing loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) in microbial flocs and soluble microbial products (SMP) in the supernatant at the dosage of 168.5 mg/L by strengthening the neutralization and bridging of EPS with flocs. Furthermore, the amount of CODs and CODc decreased in both the mixed liquor and the fouling cake layer on the membrane surface. In order to compare the filtration characteristics of cake layers from the MBRs with the two calcium dosages, the specific cake resistance and the compressibility coefficient were measured. The specific cake resistance from the MBR with optimum dosage (168.5 mg/L) was distinctly lower than that with low dosage (27 mg/L). The compressibility coefficient of the cake layers under two dosages were respectively attained as 0.65, 0.91. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-dimensional confocal scanning laser microscope analysis (CLSM) images were utilized to observe the gel layer directly. PMID:19862919

  4. Periodically operated bioreactors for the treatment of soils and leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rate and renders solid-phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bioslurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. Periodic aeration during solid-phase bioremediation has the potential to lower treatment costs relative to continuous aeration. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by periodic aeration in solid-phase sequencing batch reactors (SP-SBRs) was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty loam contaminated predominantly with the plasticizer bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP) or (DEHP) and a silty clay loam contaminated with diesel fuel. The first experiment evaluated the effect of water content and mixing time during slurrying on subsequent treatment in continuously aerated solid-phase bioreactors. The second experiment compared treatment of slurried soil in SP-SBRs using three different periodic aeration strategies with continuous aeration

  5. Membrane bioreactor technology: A novel approach to the treatment of compost leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First membrane bioreactor treatment method for compost leachate. • No chemical additive or UV radiation source in this new biological method. • Removal rates of more than 99% for organics and ammonium were achieved. • Heavy metals were reduced by at least 82.7% except copper. - Abstract: Compost leachate forms during the composting process of organic material. It is rich in oxidizable organics, ammonia and metals, which pose a risk to the environment if released without proper treatment. An innovative method based on the membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology was developed to treat compost leachate over 39 days. Water quality parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured daily. Concentrations of caffeine and metals were measured over the course of the experiment using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) respectively. A decrease of more than 99% was achieved for a COD of 116 g/L in the initial leachate. Ammonia was decreased from 2720 mg/L to 0.046 mg/L, while the nitrate concentration in the effluent rose to 710 mg/L. The bacteria in the MBR system adjusted to the presence of the leachate, and increased 4 orders of magnitude. Heavy metals were removed by at least 82.7% except copper. These successful results demonstrated the membrane bioreactor technology is feasible, efficient method for the treatment of compost leachate

  6. Membrane bioreactor technology: A novel approach to the treatment of compost leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kayleigh; Ghoshdastidar, Avik J.; Hanmore, Jillian [Department of Chemistry, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada B4P 2R6 (Canada); Frazee, James [E and Q Consulting and Associates Limited, Wolfville, NS, Canada B4P 2R1 (Canada); Tong, Anthony Z., E-mail: anthony.tong@acadiau.ca [Department of Chemistry, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada B4P 2R6 (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • First membrane bioreactor treatment method for compost leachate. • No chemical additive or UV radiation source in this new biological method. • Removal rates of more than 99% for organics and ammonium were achieved. • Heavy metals were reduced by at least 82.7% except copper. - Abstract: Compost leachate forms during the composting process of organic material. It is rich in oxidizable organics, ammonia and metals, which pose a risk to the environment if released without proper treatment. An innovative method based on the membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology was developed to treat compost leachate over 39 days. Water quality parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured daily. Concentrations of caffeine and metals were measured over the course of the experiment using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (ICP–MS) respectively. A decrease of more than 99% was achieved for a COD of 116 g/L in the initial leachate. Ammonia was decreased from 2720 mg/L to 0.046 mg/L, while the nitrate concentration in the effluent rose to 710 mg/L. The bacteria in the MBR system adjusted to the presence of the leachate, and increased 4 orders of magnitude. Heavy metals were removed by at least 82.7% except copper. These successful results demonstrated the membrane bioreactor technology is feasible, efficient method for the treatment of compost leachate.

  7. PERFORMANCE OF NEWLY CONFIGURED SUBMERGED MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR AEROBIC INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Wenten

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of membrane to replace secondary clarifier of conventional activated sludge, known as membrane bioreactor, has led to a small footprint size of treatment with excellent effluent quality. The use of MBR eliminates almost all disadvantages encountered in conventional wastewater treatment plant such as low biomass concentration and washout of fine suspended solids. However, fouling remains as a main drawback. To minimize membrane fouling, a new configuration of submerged membrane bioreactor for aerobic industrial wastewater treatment has been developed. For the new configuration, a bed of porous particle is applied to cover the submerged ends-free mounted ultrafiltration membrane. Membrane performance was assessed based on flux productivity and selectivity. By using tapioca wastewater containing high organic matter as feed solution, reasonably high and stable fluxes around 11 l/m2.h were achieved with COD removal efficiency of more than 99%. The fouling analysis also shows that the newly configured ends-free membrane bioreactor exhibits lower irreversible resistance compared with the submerged one. In addition, the performance of pilot scale system, using a membrane module  with 10 m2 effective area and reactor tank with 120 L volume, was also assessed. The flux achieved from the pilot scale system around 8 l/m2.h with COD removal of more than 99%. Hence, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of the newly configured submerged ends-free MBR at larger scale.

  8. [Producing Ad-IFN gamma by suspension culture of HEK293 cells in a disposable bioreactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Quande; Huang, Wenlin

    2014-11-01

    Adenovirus vectors are promising delivery systems for gene therapy. We established a new process for clinic trial of recombinant adenovirus vectors using a novel disposable bioreactor. The suspension HEK293 cells were inoculated into a 5 L disposable bioreactor with parameters control of pH, DO, agitation and temperature. After 6 days of a fed-batch culture, the final cell density reached 2.0 x 10(6) cells/mL. The culture was infected with Ad-IFNγ at an MOI of 30. The harvest was performed at approximately 48 h post-infection and crude viral lysate was obtained after 3 freeze/thaw cycles and centrifugation. The maximum titers of crude viral lysate was 1.49 x 10(13) Infectious units (IFU) and the bulk product specific was 3,800 IFU/cell. Purified Ad-IFNγ by anion-exchange chromatography and the final recovery of infectious unit reached 35.9%. The result demonstrates that an efficient and stable process of producing Ad-IFNγ using a disposable fed-batch bioreactor is established. PMID:25985530

  9. Oxygen Mass Transfer in a Sstirred Tank Bioreactor Using Different impeller Configurations for Environmental Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a miniature stirred tank bioreactor was designed for treatment of waste gas containing benzene, toluene and xylene. Oxygen mass transfer characteristics for various twin and single-impeller systems were investigated for 6 configurations in a vessel with 10 cm of inner diameter and working volume of 1.77L. Three types of impellers, namely, Rushton turbine, Pitched 4blades and Pitched 2blades impellers with downward pumping have been used. Deionized water was used as a liquid phase. With respect to other independent variables such as agitation speed, aeration rate, type of sparger, number of impellers, the relative performance of these impellers was assessed by comparing the values of (KLa as a key parameter. Based on the experimental data, empirical correlations as a function of the operational conditions have been proposed, to study the oxygen transfer rates from air bubbles generated in the bioreactor. It was shown that twin Rushton turbine configuration demonstrates superior performance (23% to 77% enhancement in KLa compared with other impeller compositions and that sparger type has negligible effect on oxygen mass transfer rate. Agitation speeds of 400 to 800 rpm were the most efficient speeds for oxygen mass transfer in the stirred bioreactor.

  10. Quantification and control of restrictive ecological factors in acidogenic de-sulfate bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱杰; 任南琪

    2002-01-01

    As an artificial microbial ecosystem, acidogenic de-sulfate bioreactor has high efficiency of sulfate removal. The restrictive ecological factors, including causing ecological factors, such as COD/SO42- ratio and sulfate loading rate (Ns), and following ecological factors, such as pH value, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and alkalinity (ALK) have significant effect on the ability and stability of acidogenic de-sulfate bio-reactor. Continuous flow and batch test were carried out to investigate the quantification and control of COD/SO42- ratio, Ns, pH value, ORP and ALK in acidogenic de-sulfate bioreactor supplied with molasses wastewater as sole organic carbon source and sodium sulfate as electron donor. It was demonstrated that In order to maintain high sulfate removal rate (SRR) of 80% to 90%, the restrictive factors should meet all the requirement as follows: kCOD/ SO42- ratio≥2.0, Ns≤7.5 kg (m3·d)-1,pH=5.7~6.2,ORP=-320~-420 mV and ALK=1 500~2 000 mg/L.

  11. Oxygen mass transfer in a stirred tank bioreactor using different impeller configurations for environmental purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a miniature stirred tank bioreactor was designed for treatment of waste gas containing benzene, toluene and xylene. Oxygen mass transfer characteristics for various twin and single-impeller systems were investigated for 6 configurations in a vessel with 10 cm of inner diameter and working volume of 1.77L. Three types of impellers, namely, Rushton turbine, Pitched 4blades and Pitched 2blades impellers with downward pumping have been used. Deionized water was used as a liquid phase. With respect to other independent variables such as agitation speed, aeration rate, type of sparger, number of impellers, the relative performance of these impellers was assessed by comparing the values of (KLa) as a key parameter. Based on the experimental data, empirical correlations as a function of the operational conditions have been proposed, to study the oxygen transfer rates from air bubbles generated in the bioreactor. It was shown that twin Rushton turbine configuration demonstrates superior performance (23% to 77% enhancement in KLa) compared with other impeller compositions and that sparger type has negligible effect on oxygen mass transfer rate. Agitation speeds of 400 to 800 rpm were the most efficient speeds for oxygen mass transfer in the stirred bioreactor. PMID:23369581

  12. Experimental investigation on feasible bioreactor using mechanism of hydrogen oxidation of natural soil for detritiation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edao, Yuki; Iwai, Yasunori; Sato, Katsumi; Hayashi, Takumi

    2016-08-01

    A passive reactor for tritium oxidation at room temperature has been widely studied in nuclear engineering especially for a detritiation system (DS) of a tritium process facility taking possible extraordinary situation severely into consideration. We have focused on bacterial oxidation of tritium by hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria in natural soil to realize the passive oxidation reactor. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a bioreactor with hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria in soil from a point of view of engineering. The efficiency of the bioreactor was evaluated by kinetics. The bioreactor packed with natural soil shows a relative high conversion rate of tritium under the saturated moisture condition at room temperature, which is obviously superior to that of a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst generally used for tritium oxidation in the existing tritium handling facilities. The order of reaction for tritium oxidation with soil was the pseudo-first order as assessed with Michaelis-Menten kinetics model. Our engineering suggestion to increase the reaction rate is the intentional addition of hydrogen at a small concentration in the feed gas on condition that the oxidation of tritium with soil is expressed by the Michaelis-Menten kinetics model. PMID:27180219

  13. Biological technologies for the removal of sulfur containing compounds from waste streams: bioreactors and microbial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Jingying; Lin, Jian; Liu, Junxin

    2015-10-01

    Waste gases containing sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, thioethers, and mercaptan, produced and emitted from industrial processes, wastewater treatment, and landfill waste may cause undesirable issues in adjacent areas and contribute to atmospheric pollution. Their control has been an area of concern and research for many years. As alternative to conventional physicochemical air pollution control technologies, biological treatment processes which can transform sulfur compounds to harmless products by microbial activity, have gained in popularity due to their efficiency, cost-effectiveness and environmental acceptability. This paper provides an overview of the current biological techniques used for the treatment of air streams contaminated with sulfur compounds as well as the advances made in the past year. The discussion focuses on bioreactor configuration and design, mechanism of operation, insights into the overall biological treatment process, and the characterization of the microbial species present in bioreactors, their populations and their interactions with the environment. Some bioreactor case studies are also introduced. Finally, the perspectives on future research and development needs in this research area were also highlighted. PMID:26250546

  14. In vitro culture of large bone substitutes in a new bioreactor: importance of the flow direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New biomaterials combined with osteogenic cells are now being developed as an alternative to autogeneous bone grafts when the skeletal defect reaches a critical size. Yet, the size issue appears to be a key obstacle in the development of bone tissue engineering. Bioreactors are needed to allow the in vitro expansion of cells inside large bulk materials under appropriate conditions. However, no bioreactor has yet been designed for large-scale 3D structures and custom-made scaffolds. In this study, we evaluate the efficiency of a new bioreactor for the in vitro development of large bone substitutes, ensuring the perfusion of large ceramic scaffolds by the nutritive medium. The survival and proliferation of cells inside the scaffolds after 7 and 28 days in this dynamic culture system and the impact of the direction of the flow circulation are evaluated. The follow-up of glucose consumption, DNA quantification and microscopic evaluation all confirmed cell survival and proliferation for a sample under dynamic culture conditions, whereas static culture leads to the death of cells inside the scaffolds. Two directions of flow perfusion were assayed; the convergent direction leads to enhanced results compared to divergent flow

  15. Enzyme augmentation of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating sewage containing organic particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Chee Wee; Wong, Philip Chuen Yung

    2014-01-01

    Hydrolytic enzymes offer the potential for enhancing the hydrolysis of organic particulates, which tends to be rate limiting in the anaerobic treatment of particulate containing wastewaters. In this study, the effects of enzyme augmentation on the biological performance of a laboratory submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) were investigated. A hydrolytic enzyme blend containing proteases, amylases and lipases was added to the bioreactor daily at doses ranging from 0.9 to 18 mL/g of influent COD to enhance the hydrolysis of organic particulates and soluble macromolecules. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the reduction of total and volatile suspended solids by approximately 19% and 22%, respectively, on the average. Overall COD removal efficiency was unaffected while the average biogas production increased from 0.27 to 0.34 L/g of influent COD. Additionally, the concentrations of bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) decreased and increased respectively, suggesting the enzymatic hydrolysis of EPS to SMP. Low enzymatic activities were detected throughout the entire study, probably due to the instability of free enzymes in the bioreactor environment. Nevertheless, membrane retention of exogenous enzymes within the AnMBR is an inherent feature, as evidenced by size exclusion chromatography. PMID:24139106

  16. In vitro culture of large bone substitutes in a new bioreactor: importance of the flow direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, V [Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Biomateriaux et les Biotechnologies (LR2B, UPRES EA 2603), Universite du Littoral Cote-d' Opale, Boulogne-sur-Mer (France); Hivart, Ph [Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Biomateriaux et les Biotechnologies (LR2B, UPRES EA 2603), Universite du Littoral Cote-d' Opale, Boulogne-sur-Mer (France); Descamps, M [Laboratoire des Materiaux et Procedes, Universite de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis (LMP, UPRES EA 2443), Maubeuge (France); Hardouin, P [Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Biomateriaux et les Biotechnologies (LR2B, UPRES EA 2603), Universite du Littoral Cote-d' Opale, Boulogne-sur-Mer (France)

    2007-09-15

    New biomaterials combined with osteogenic cells are now being developed as an alternative to autogeneous bone grafts when the skeletal defect reaches a critical size. Yet, the size issue appears to be a key obstacle in the development of bone tissue engineering. Bioreactors are needed to allow the in vitro expansion of cells inside large bulk materials under appropriate conditions. However, no bioreactor has yet been designed for large-scale 3D structures and custom-made scaffolds. In this study, we evaluate the efficiency of a new bioreactor for the in vitro development of large bone substitutes, ensuring the perfusion of large ceramic scaffolds by the nutritive medium. The survival and proliferation of cells inside the scaffolds after 7 and 28 days in this dynamic culture system and the impact of the direction of the flow circulation are evaluated. The follow-up of glucose consumption, DNA quantification and microscopic evaluation all confirmed cell survival and proliferation for a sample under dynamic culture conditions, whereas static culture leads to the death of cells inside the scaffolds. Two directions of flow perfusion were assayed; the convergent direction leads to enhanced results compared to divergent flow.

  17. Fecal Bacteria, Bacteriophage, and Nutrient Reductions in a Full-Scale Denitrifying Woodchip Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambags, Femke; Tanner, Chris C; Stott, Rebecca; Schipper, Louis A

    2016-05-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors using woodchips or other slow-release carbon sources can be an effective method for removing nitrate (NO) from wastewater and tile drainage. However, the ability of these systems to remove fecal microbes from wastewater has been largely uninvestigated. In this study, reductions in fecal indicator bacteria () and viruses (F-specific RNA bacteriophage [FRNA phage]) were analyzed by monthly sampling along a longitudinal transect within a full-scale denitrifying woodchip bioreactor receiving secondary-treated septic tank effluent. Nitrogen, phosphorus, 5-d carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD), and total suspended solids (TSS) reduction were also assessed. The bioreactor demonstrated consistent and substantial reduction of (2.9 log reduction) and FRNA phage (3.9 log reduction) despite receiving highly fluctuating inflow concentrations [up to 3.5 × 10 MPN (100 mL) and 1.1 × 10 plaque-forming units (100 mL) , respectively]. Most of the removal of fecal microbial contaminants occurred within the first meter of the system (1.4 log reduction for ; 1.8 log reduction for FRNA phage). The system was also efficient at removing NO (>99.9% reduction) and TSS (89% reduction). There was no evidence of consistent removal of ammonium, organic nitrogen, or phosphorus. Leaching of CBOD occurred during initial operation but decreased and stabilized at lower values (14 g O m) after 9 mo. We present strong evidence for reliable microbial contaminant removal in denitrifying bioreactors, demonstrating their broader versatility for wastewater treatment. Research on the removal mechanisms of microbial contaminants in these systems, together with the assessment of longevity of removal, is warranted. PMID:27136150

  18. The enhancement of 21.2%-power conversion efficiency in polymer photovoltaic cells by using mixed Au nanoparticles with a wide absorption spectrum of 400 nm-1000 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝敬昱; 徐颖; 张玉佩; 陈淑芬; 李兴鳌; 汪联辉; 黄维

    2015-01-01

    Au nanoparticles (NPs) mixed with a majority of bone-like, rod, and cube shapes and a minority of irregu-lar spheres, which can generate a wide absorption spectrum of 400 nm–1000 nm and three localized surface plas-mon resonance peaks, respectively, at 525, 575, and 775 nm, are introduced into the hole extraction layer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to improve optical-to-electrical conversion performances in polymer photovoltaic cells. With the doping concentration of Au NPs optimized, the cell performance is significantly improved: the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency of the poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester cell are increased by 20.54%and 21.2%, reaching 11.15 mA·cm−2 and 4.23%. The variations of optical, electrical, and morphology with the incorporation of Au NPs in the cells are analyzed in detail, and our results demonstrate that the cell performance improvement can be attributed to a synergistic reaction, including:1) both the local-ized surface plasmon resonance-and scattering-induced absorption enhancement of the active layer, 2) Au doping-induced hole transport/extraction ability enhancement, and 3) large interface roughness-induced efficient exciton dissociation and hole collection.

  19. Highly focused and efficient terahertz radiation generation by photo-mixing of lasers in plasma in the presence of magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Anil K., E-mail: anilkmalik@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Multani Mal Modi College Modinagar, C.C.S. University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh 201204 (India); Singh, Kunwar Pal [Singh Simutech Pvt. Ltd., Bharatpur, Rajasthan 321201 (India); Sajal, V. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201307 (India)

    2014-07-15

    A mechanism of efficient and highly focused terahertz (THz) radiation generation by photo-mixing of top-hat like lasers with frequencies ω{sub 1}, ω{sub 2} and wave numbers k{sub 1}, k{sub 2} in pre-formed rippled density (corrugated) plasma is proposed. In this mechanism, intensity variation of lasers offers nonlinear ponderomotive force at frequency ω{sup ′}=ω{sub 1}−ω{sub 2} and wave number k{sup ′}=k{sub 1}−k{sub 2} which couples with density ripples in the plasma and leads to a strong nonlinear oscillatory current that resonantly excites highly focused and intense THz radiation at frequency ω{sub UH}=√((ω{sub p}{sup 2}+ω{sub c}{sup 2})) (where ω{sub c} is electron cyclotron frequency). The efficiency of emitted THz radiation of the order of 15% is obtained under optimum conditions. It is observed that focus and intensity of emitted radiation can be controlled by selecting a proper profile index of the lasers, ripple parameters, and tuning of external magnetic field.

  20. Membrane bioreactor for drinking water denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiros, A.M. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal)]|[Escola Superior de Tecnologia, Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, Rua do Vale de Chaves, Estefanilha, 2900 Setubal (Portugal); Rodrigues, C.M.; Crespo, J.P.S.G.; Reis, M.A.M. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal)

    1998-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of a membrane bioreactor with cell recycle to be used for drinking water denitrification, when operated with a high nitrate load (up to 7.68 kgNO{sub 3}{sup -}/m{sup 3} day) and low hydraulic retention time (down to 0.625 h). Nitrate and nitrite were always completely removed for all the operational conditions used. The effluent`s nitrite concentration kept below 0.1 mg NO{sub 2}{sup -}/l with exception of a short period, during the reactor start-up, when it accumulates. The performance of the membrane bioreactor was also evaluated using a groundwater containing 148 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}/l. Nitrate and nitrite concentration in the effluent were below the recommended values for drinking water when the reactor was controlled at pH 7.0. The membrane flux decreases during operation as a consequence of membrane fouling. The flux decrease was more severe during operation with synthetic medium than with contaminated groundwater due to the existence of molecular complexes in the synthetic broth. A backshock technique was used to reduce the surface fouling of the membrane. Combining this technique with the use of a reserve asymmetric structured membrane it was found that the membrane flux remains nearly unchanged. (orig.) With 7 figs., 14 refs.

  1. LTCC based bioreactors for cell cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, H.; Welker, T.; Welker, K.; Witte, H.; Müller, J.

    2016-01-01

    LTCC multilayers offer a wide range of structural options and flexibility of connections not available in standard thin film technology. Therefore they are considered as material base for cell culture reactors. The integration of microfluidic handling systems and features for optical and electrical capturing of indicators for cell culture growth offers the platform for an open system concept. The present paper assesses different approaches for the creation of microfluidic channels in LTCC multilayers. Basic functions required for the fluid management in bioreactors include temperature and flow control. Both features can be realized with integrated heaters and temperature sensors in LTCC multilayers. Technological conditions for the integration of such elements into bioreactors are analysed. The temperature regulation for the system makes use of NTC thermistor sensors which serve as real value input for the control of the heater. It allows the adjustment of the fluid temperature with an accuracy of 0.2 K. The tempered fluid flows through the cell culture chamber. Inside of this chamber a thick film electrode array monitors the impedance as an indicator for the growth process of 3-dimensional cell cultures. At the system output a flow sensor is arranged to monitor the continual flow. For this purpose a calorimetric sensor is implemented, and its crucial design parameters are discussed. Thus, the work presented gives an overview on the current status of LTCC based fluid management for cell culture reactors, which provides a promising base for the automation of cell culture processes.

  2. Novel Hydrogen Bioreactor and Detection Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Joseph A; Ye, Xinhao; Del Campo, Julia Martin; Adams, Michael W W; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2016-01-01

    In vitro hydrogen generation represents a clear opportunity for novel bioreactor and system design. Hydrogen, already a globally important commodity chemical, has the potential to become the dominant transportation fuel of the future. Technologies such as in vitro synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB)-the use of more than 10 purified enzymes to catalyze unnatural catabolic pathways-enable the storage of hydrogen in the form of carbohydrates. Biohydrogen production from local carbohydrate resources offers a solution to the most pressing challenges to vehicular and bioenergy uses: small-size distributed production, minimization of CO2 emissions, and potential low cost, driven by high yield and volumetric productivity. In this study, we introduce a novel bioreactor that provides the oxygen-free gas phase necessary for enzymatic hydrogen generation while regulating temperature and reactor volume. A variety of techniques are currently used for laboratory detection of biohydrogen, but the most information is provided by a continuous low-cost hydrogen sensor. Most such systems currently use electrolysis for calibration; here an alternative method, flow calibration, is introduced. This system is further demonstrated here with the conversion of glucose to hydrogen at a high rate, and the production of hydrogen from glucose 6-phosphate at a greatly increased reaction rate, 157 mmol/L/h at 60 °C. PMID:25022362

  3. Landfill leachate treatment in assisted landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Pin-jing; QU Xian; SHAO Li-ming; LEE Duu-jong

    2006-01-01

    Landfill is the major disposal route of municipal solid waste(MSW) in most Asian countries. Leachate from landfill presents a strong wastewater that needs intensive treatment before discharge. Direct recycling was proposed as an effective alternative for leachate treatment by taking the landfill as a bioreactor. This process was proved not only considerably reducing the pollution potential of leachate, but also enhancing organic degradation in the landfill. However, as this paper shows, although direct leachate recycling was effective in landfilled MSW with low food waste fraction (3.5%, w/w), it failed in MSW containing 54% food waste, as normally noted in Asian countries. The initial acid stuck would inhibit methanogenesis to build up, hence strong leachate was yielded from landfill to threaten the quality of receiving water body. We demonstrated the feasibility to use an assisted bioreactor landfill, with a well-decomposed refuse layer as ex-situ anaerobic digester to reducing COD loading in leachate. By doing so, the refuse in simulated landfill column (2.3 m high) could be stabilized in 30 weeks while the COD in leachate reduced by 95%(61000 mg/L to 3000 mg/L). Meanwhile, the biogas production was considerably enhanced, signaling by the much greater amount and much higher methane content in the biogas.

  4. Landfill leachate treatment in assisted landfill bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pin-Jing; Qu, Xian; Shao, Li-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2006-01-01

    Landfill is the major disposal route of municipal solid waste (MSW) in most Asian countries. Leachate from landfill presents a strong wastewater that needs intensive treatment before discharge. Direct recycling was proposed as an effective alternative for leachate treatment by taking the landfill as a bioreactor. This process was proved not only considerably reducing the pollution potential of leachate, but also enhancing organic degradation in the landfill. However, as this paper shows, although direct leachate recycling was effective in landfilled MSW with low food waste fraction (3.5%, w/w), it failed in MSW containing 54% food waste, as normally noted in Asian countries. The initial acid stuck would inhibit methanogenesis to build up, hence strong leachate was yielded from landfill to threaten the quality of receiving water body. We demonstrated the feasibility to use an assisted bioreactor landfill, with a well-decomposed refuse layer as ex-situ anaerobic digester to reducing COD loading in leachate. By doing so, the refuse in simulated landfill column (2.3 m high) could be stabilized in 30 weeks while the COD in leachate reduced by 95% (61000 mg/L to 3000 mg/L). Meanwhile, the biogas production was considerably enhanced, signaling by the much greater amount and much higher methane content in the biogas. PMID:20050569

  5. High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-09-01

    Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology. PMID:24996563

  6. Development of an energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactors for 2-chlorophenol-contained wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Pan, Xin-Rong; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Li, Wen-Wei; Shi, Bing-Jing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactor (AnHMBR) with mesh filter, which takes advantage of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and fixed-bed biofilm reactor, is developed for low-strength 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)-contained wastewater treatment. In this system, the anaerobic membrane bioreactor is stuffed with granular activated carbon to construct an anaerobic hybrid fixed-bed biofilm membrane bioreactor. The effluent turbidity from the AnHMBR system was low during most of the operation period, and the chemical oxygen demand and 2-CP removal efficiencies averaged 82.3% and 92.6%, respectively. Furthermore, a low membrane fouling rate was achieved during the operation. During the AnHMBR operation, the only energy consumption was for feed pump. And a low energy demand of 0.0045-0.0063kWhm(-3) was estimated under the current operation conditions. All these results demonstrated that this novel AnHMBR is a sustainable technology for treating 2-CP-contained wastewater. PMID:24880609

  7. Efficiency of legumes to supply nitrogen for the soil/plant/animal system in mixed pastures with particular reference to the role of 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of legumes in supplying nitrogen for the soil/plant/animal system was studied in Queensland as part of a research effort to develop improved legume/grass pastures for the sub-tropics. This efficiency depends on the flow of nitrogen into, within and out of the soil/plant system. Nitrogen-15 has been used in Queensland to estimate these movements and the research carried out is reviewed here with emphasis on the techniques used. Symbiotic fixation, measured by 15N dilution, accounted for 72 to 100% of the nitrogen in sub-tropical legumes. The legumes were grown in mixed pastures in the field. Transfer of fixed nitrogen to associated grass was measured, using 15N, in pots in a glasshouse but the method was invalid in the field. Measurements in Scotland, however, suggested that the method can be reliable if field plots are located to avoid atypical areas of pasture. The fate of nitrogen returned to the pasture in animal urine and in plant litter influences the long-term efficiency of legumes as a source of nitrogen. Losses of nitrogen from such returns can be large. They approached 50% when urine labelled with 15N-urea and when 15N-labelled litter was applied to the surface of sub-tropical pastures. Returned nitrogen that remains in the system can move rapidly into soil organic matter to become unavailable to plants. This movement accounted for 31% of the 15N 2 days after 15N-urine was applied to a sub-tropical pasture. Transformations of nitrogen in soil organic matter under actively growing pastures require detailed study. (author)

  8. Effect of powdered activated carbon on Chinese traditional medicine wastewater treatment in submerged membrane bioreactor with electronic control backwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Lei; Ren, Nan-Qi; Ma, Fang

    2007-01-01

    Chinese traditional medicine wastewater, rich in macromolecule and easy to foam in aerobic biodegradation such as Glycosides, was treated by two identical bench-scale aerobic submerged membrane bioreactors (SMBRs) operated in parallel under the same feed, equipped with the same electronic control backwashing device. One was used as the control SMBR (CSMBR) while the other was dosed with powdered activated carbon (PAC) (PAC-amended SMBR, PSMBR). The backwashing interval was 5 min. One suction period was about 90 min by adjusting preestablished backwashing vacuum and pump frequency. The average flux of CSMBR during a steady periodic state of 24 d (576 h) was 5.87 L/h with average hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 5.97 h and that of PSMBR during a steady periodic state of 30 d (720 h) was 5.85 L/h with average HRT of 5.99 h. The average total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of CSMBR was 89.29% with average organic loading rate (OLR) at 4.16 kg COD/(m3 x d) while that of PSMBR was 89.79% with average OLR at 5.50 kg COD/(m3 x d). COD concentration in the effluent of both SMBRs achieved the second level of the general wastewater effluent standard GB8978-1996 for the raw medicine material industry (300 mg/L). Hence, SMBR with electronic control backwashing was a viable process for medium- strength Chinese traditional medicine wastewater treatment. Moreover, the increasing rates of preestablished backwashing vacuum, pump frequency, and vacuum and flux loss caused by mixed liquor in PSMBR all lagged compared to those in CSMBR; thus the actual operating time of the PSMBR system without membrane cleaning was extended by up to 1.25 times in contrast with the CSMBR system, and the average total COD removal efficiency of PSMBR was enhanced with higher average OLR. PMID:17966506

  9. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and arsenic from drinking water sources utilizing a fixed-bed bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Jackson, Jeff; Clancy, Tara M; Hyun, Sung Pil; Brown, Jess; Hayes, Kim F; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2010-09-01

    A novel bioreactor system, consisting of two biologically active carbon (BAC) reactors in series, was developed for the simultaneous removal of nitrate and arsenic from a synthetic groundwater supplemented with acetic acid. A mixed biofilm microbial community that developed on the BAC was capable of utilizing dissolved oxygen, nitrate, arsenate, and sulfate as the electron acceptors. Nitrate was removed from a concentration of approximately 50 mg/L in the influent to below the detection limit of 0.2 mg/L. Biologically generated sulfides resulted in the precipitation of the iron sulfides mackinawite and greigite, which concomitantly removed arsenic from an influent concentration of approximately 200 ug/L to below 20 ug/L through arsenic sulfide precipitation and surface precipitation on iron sulfides. This study showed for the first time that arsenic and nitrate can be simultaneously removed from drinking water sources utilizing a bioreactor system. PMID:20732708

  10. Nuclear and non-nuclear techniques for area-wide assessment of water use efficiency and ecohydrology outcomes among mixed land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, S. S. O.; Nguyen, M. L.

    2009-04-01

    Managing water use efficiency and ecohydrology is important for providing food, water and essential ecosystem services. Many agricultural, ecological, atmospheric and hydrological processes cannot be meaningfully managed without an area-wide or catchment-level perspective. However a vast number of factors, including mixed land uses are incorporated at such scales. There is a need for integrative, mobile and adaptable techniques to make water related measurements over large areas and mixed land uses. Nuclear techniques and analogous non-nuclear techniques may be deployed in a number of spheres within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (e.g. rhizosphere and above-canopy microclimate) with nuclear techniques having a distinct contribution owing to their unique ability to trace biogeochemical processes including the movement and transformation of water, nutrients and agrochemicals. 1) Soils. Isotopes can be used to trace water sources to understand groundwater dependence, rooting depth, etc. but not at all sites: early success in central USA studies has not always been repeatable in climates which produce more uniform isotopic signatures in various water sources. Soil water resources available to crops can also be studied using neutron moisture meters, but training, transport and safety issues argue for stringent management and inclusion of electrical capacitance probes for routine or automated applications. Results from capacitance probes can benefit from benchmarking against neutron probe measurements, which remain more powerful for sampling larger volumes in cases of heterogenous soils or where salinity levels are problematic. Because interpretation of soil water content in terms of plant available water also requires knowledge of soil organic matter characteristics, 13C and compound specific stable isotopes can help to identify changes in soil organic matter composition and hence water and plant nutrient availability. 2) Plants. Analysis of carbon isotope

  11. CFD Simulation of an Anaerobic Membrane BioReactor (AnMBR to Treat Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Zuluaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation has been developed for an Anaerobic Membrane BioReactor (AnMBR to treat industrial wastewater. As the process consists of a side-stream MBR, two separate simulations were created: (i reactor and (ii membrane. Different cases were conducted for each one, so the surrounding temperature and the total suspended solids (TSS concentration were checked. For the reactor, the most important aspects to consider were the dead zones and the mixing, whereas for the ceramic membrane, it was the shear stress over the membrane surface. Results show that the reactor's mixing process was adequate and that the membrane presented higher shear stress in the 'triangular' channel.

  12. Drinking Water Denitrification using Autotrophic Denitrifying Bacteria in a Fluidized Bed Bioreactor 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmotaleb Seid-mohammadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Contamination of drinking water sources with nitrate may cause adverse effects on human health. Due to operational and maintenance problems of physicochemical nitrate removal processes, using biological denitrification processes have been performed. The aim of this study is to evaluate nitrate removal efficiency from drinking water using autotrophic denitrifying bacteria immobilized on sulfur impregnated activated carbon in a fluidized bed bioreactor. Materials and Methods: After impregnating activated carbon by sulfur as a microorganism carriers and enrichment and inoculation of denitrifying bacteria, a laboratory-scale fluidized bed bioreactor was operated. Nitrate removal efficiency, nitrite, turbidity, hardness and TOC in the effluent were examined during the whole experiment under various conditions including constant influent nitrate concentration as 90 mg NO3--N/l corresponding to different HRT ranging from 5.53 to 1.5 hr. Results: We found that  the denitrification rates was depended on the hydraulic retention time and the nitrate removal efficiency was up to 98%  and nitrite concentration was lower than 1mg/l at optimum HRT=2.4 hr respectively. Moreover, there was no difference in hardness between influent and effluent due to supplying sodium bicarbonate as carbon source for denitrifying bacteria.  However pH, TOC, hardness, and turbidity of the effluent met the W.H.O guidelines for drinking water.  Conclusion: This study demonstrated that an innovative carrier as sulfur impregnated activated carbon could be used as both the biofilm carrier and energy source for treating nitrate contaminated drinking water in the lab-scale fluidized bed bioreactor.

  13. Application of bioreactor system for large-scale production of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus somatic embryos in an air-lift bioreactor and production of eleutherosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohael, A M; Chakrabarty, D; Yu, K W; Hahn, E J; Paek, K Y

    2005-11-01

    Embryogenic callus was induced from leaf explants of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 1 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), while no plant growth regulators were needed for embryo maturation. The addition of 1 mg l(-1) 2,4-D was needed to maintain the embryogenic culture by preventing embryo maturation. Optimal embryo germination and plantlet development was achieved on MS medium with 4 mg l(-1) gibberellic acid (GA(3)). Low-strength MS medium (1/2 and 1/3 strength) was more effective than full-strength MS for the production of normal plantlets with well-developed shoots and roots. The plants were successfully transferred to soil. Embryogenic callus was used to establish a suspension culture for subsequent production of somatic embryos in bioreactor. By inoculating 10 g of embryogenic cells (fresh weight) into a 3l balloon type bubble bioreactor (BTBB) containing 2l MS medium without plant growth regulators, 121.8 g mature somatic embryos at different developmental stages were harvested and could be separated by filtration. Cotyledonary somatic embryos were germinated, and these converted into plantlets following transfer to a 3l BTBB containing 2l MS medium with 4 mg l(-1) GA3. HPLC analysis revealed that the total eleutherosides were significantly higher in leaves of field grown plants as compared to different stages of somatic embryo. However, the content of eleutheroside B was highest in germinated embryos. Germinated embryos also had higher contents of eleutheroside E and eleutheroside E1 as compared to other developmental stages. This result indicates that an efficient protocol for the mass production of E. sessiliflorus biomass can be achieved by bioreactor culture of somatic embryos and can be used as a source of medicinal raw materials. PMID:16095745

  14. Production of monoclonal antibody with Celline-350 bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibodies are protein that are highly specific and sensitive in their reaction with specific sites on target molecules that they have become reagents of central importance in the diagnostic and treatment of human diseases. This paper reports the use of CELLine-350 bioreactor to produce continuous supply of serum-free breast cancer monoclonal antibody. Initial volume of 5ml (1.5 x 106 viable cells/ml) is inoculated into the bioreactor and harvesting is done every 5 days to obtain high yield monoclonal antibody. The serum-free supernatant is precipitated with 50% saturated ammonia sulfate and the antibody is purified by protein-G affinity chromatography. The concentration of monoclonal antibody successfully produced by the bioreactor is 0.91mg/ml respectively and it is measured by the Lowry method. This result shows that bioreactor Celline-350 is easy to handle and cost effective for the continuous production of serum free monoclonal antibody. (Author)

  15. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN - METHANOTROPHIC BIOREACTOR SYSTEM - BIOTROL, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BioTrol's Methanotrophic Bioreactor is an above-ground remedial system for water contaminated with halogenated volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene (ICE) and related chemicals. Its design features circumvent problems peculiar to treatment of this unique class o...

  16. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Spaulding, Glenn F.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Flechsig, Scott; Jones, Leslie; Soehnge, Holly

    2003-01-01

    The hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) is a bioreactor system designed for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue-engineering investigations on orbiting spacecraft and in laboratories on Earth. The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear culture environment simultaneously with the "herding" of suspended cells, tissue assemblies, and air bubbles. Under development for use in the Biotechnology Facility on the International Space Station, the HFB has successfully grown large three-dimensional, tissuelike assemblies from anchorage-dependent cells and grown suspension hybridoma cells to high densities. The HFB, based on the principle of hydrodynamic focusing, provides the capability to control the movement of air bubbles and removes them from the bioreactor without degrading the low-shear culture environment or the suspended three-dimensional tissue assemblies. The HFB also provides unparalleled control over the locations of cells and tissues within its bioreactor vessel during operation and sampling.

  17. Salmonella Typhimurium grown in a rotating wall bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium appears green in on human intestinal tissue (stained red) cultured in a NASA rotating wall bioreactor. Dr. Cheryl Nickerson of Tulane University is studying the effects of simulated low-g on a well-known pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that causes two to four million cases of gastrointestinal illness in the United States each year. While most healthy people recover readily, S. typhimurium can kill people with weakened immune systems. Thus, a simple case of food poisoning could disrupt a space mission. Using the NASA rotating-wall bioreactor, Nickerson cultured S. typhimurium in modeled microgravity. Mice infected with the bacterium died an average of three days faster than the control mice, indicating that S. typhimurium's virulence was enhanced by the bioreactor. Earlier research showed that 3 percent of the genes were altered by exposure to the bioreactor. Nickerson's work earned her a 2001 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

  18. Hairy root culture: bioreactor design and process intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Amanda R; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    The cultivation of hairy roots for the production of secondary metabolites offers numerous advantages; hairy roots have a fast growth rate, are genetically stable, and are relatively simple to maintain in phytohormone free media. Hairy roots provide a continuous source of secondary metabolites, and are useful for the production of chemicals for pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food additives. In order for hairy roots to be utilized on a commercial scale, it is necessary to scale-up their production. Over the last several decades, significant research has been conducted on the cultivation of hairy roots in various types of bioreactor systems. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various bioreactor systems, the major factors related to large-scale bioreactor cultures, process intensification technologies and overview the mathematical models and computer-aided methods that have been utilized for bioreactor design and development. PMID:23604206

  19. Modelling across bioreactor scales: methods, challenges and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    Scale-up and scale-down of bioreactors are very important in industrial biotechnology, especially with the currently available knowledge on the occurrence of gradients in industrial-scale bioreactors. Moreover, it becomes increasingly appealing to model such industrial scale systems, considering...... that it is challenging and expensive to acquire experimental data of good quality that can be used for characterizing gradients occurring inside a large industrial scale bioreactor. But which model building methods are available? And how can one ensure that the parameters in such a model are properly...... estimated? And what are the limitations of different types of mod - els? This paper will provide examples of models that have been published in the literature for use across bioreactor scales, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and population balance models. Furthermore, the importance of good...

  20. Upflow bioreactor with septum and pressure release mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Conly L.; Hansen, Carl S.; Pack, Kevin; Milligan, John; Benefiel, Bradley C.; Tolman, C. Wayne; Tolman, Kenneth W.

    2010-04-20

    An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes means for releasing pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In one configuration, the septum includes a releasable portion having an open position and a closed position. The releasable portion is configured to move to the open position in response to pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In the open position fluid communication between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is increased. Alternatively the lower chamber can include a pressure release line that is selectively actuated by pressure buildup. The pressure release mechanism can prevent the bioreactor from plugging and/or prevent catastrophic damage to the bioreactor caused by high pressures.

  1. Water reuse by membrane bioreactors (MBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows an up-to date overview of the use of membrane bioreactor (MBR) to obtain water treated for reusing it. Considering the existing rules. it has been presented a summary of published studies in which the quality of the effluent is analyzed in terms on physico-chemical and biological parameters. Furthermore, MBR results are compared with the conventional treatment ones. Due to the suitability of MBR technology for removing pathogens, particular attention has been paid to disinfection process and the mechanism that govern it. Results from reviewed studies of MBR have showed equal or better quality of water treated than conventional treatments (activated sludge plus disinfection tertiary treatment by the addition of antibacterial agents). (Author) 32 refs.

  2. Rotating bio-reactor cell culture apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A bioreactor system is described in which a tubular housing contains an internal circularly disposed set of blade members and a central tubular filter all mounted for rotation about a common horizontal axis and each having independent rotational support and rotational drive mechanisms. The housing, blade members and filter preferably are driven at a constant slow speed for placing a fluid culture medium with discrete microbeads and cell cultures in a discrete spatial suspension in the housing. Replacement fluid medium is symmetrically input and fluid medium is symmetrically output from the housing where the input and the output are part of a loop providing a constant or intermittent flow of fluid medium in a closed loop.

  3. Robust Control Methods for a Recycle Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin IONETE

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a robust control design strategy for bioprocesses, which are characterized by strongly nonlinear dynamics. More precisely, we present the H2 methodology in order to compute the controller for a recycle Continuous Stirred Tank Bioreactor (CSTB. We consider a general method of formulating control problem, which makes use of linear fractional transformation as introduced by Doyle (1978. The formulation makes use of the general two-port configuration of the generalized plant with a generalized controller. The H2 norm is the quadratic criterion used in optimal control as LQG. The overall control objective is to minimize the H2 norm of the transfer matrix function from the weighted exogenous inputs to the weighted controlled outputs. The advantage of H2 control technique, which uses the linearized model of the CSTB, is that it is completely automated and very flexible. Finally, we prove that the closed loop control structure has very good inner robustness.

  4. Start-up Strategy for Continuous Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. da Costa

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The start-up of continuous bioreactors is solved as an optimal control problem. The choice of the dilution rate as the control variable reduces the dimension of the system by making the use of the global balance equation unnecessary for the solution of the optimization problem. Therefore, for systems described by four or less mass balance equations, it is always possible to obtain an analytical expression for the singular arc as a function of only the state variables. The steady state conditions are shown to satisfy the singular arc expression and, based on this knowledge, a feeding strategy is proposed which leads the reactor from an initial state to the steady state of maximum productivity

  5. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.

    2015-12-01

    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, Hw, and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as Hw varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small Hw, the AMF effect dominates. As Hw increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors.

  6. The enhancement of 21.2%-power conversion efficiency in polymer photovoltaic cells by using mixed Au nanoparticles with a wide absorption spectrum of 400 nm-1000 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jing-Yu; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Pei; Chen, Shu-Fen; Li, Xing-Ao; Wang, Lian-Hui; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Au nanoparticles (NPs) mixed with a majority of bone-like, rod, and cube shapes and a minority of irregular spheres, which can generate a wide absorption spectrum of 400 nm-1000 nm and three localized surface plasmon resonance peaks, respectively, at 525, 575, and 775 nm, are introduced into the hole extraction layer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to improve optical-to-electrical conversion performances in polymer photovoltaic cells. With the doping concentration of Au NPs optimized, the cell performance is significantly improved: the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency of the poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester cell are increased by 20.54% and 21.2%, reaching 11.15 mA·cm-2 and 4.23%. The variations of optical, electrical, and morphology with the incorporation of Au NPs in the cells are analyzed in detail, and our results demonstrate that the cell performance improvement can be attributed to a synergistic reaction, including: 1) both the localized surface plasmon resonance- and scattering-induced absorption enhancement of the active layer, 2) Au doping-induced hole transport/extraction ability enhancement, and 3) large interface roughness-induced efficient exciton dissociation and hole collection. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015CB932202 and 2012CB933301), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274065, 51173081, 61136003, BZ2010043, 51372119, and 51172110), the Science Fund from the Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. IRT1148), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20113223110005), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Provincial Higher Education Institutions (Grant No. YX03001), and the National Synergistic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials and the Synergetic Innovation Center for Organic Electronics and

  7. The Role of Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering for Musculoskeletal Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Oragui, Emeka; Nannaparaju, Madhusudhan; Khan, Wasim S.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering involves using the principles of biology, chemistry and engineering to design a ‘neotissue’ that augments a malfunctioning in vivo tissue. The main requirements for functional engineered tissue include reparative cellular components that proliferate on a biocompatible scaffold grown within a bioreactor that provides specific biochemical and physical signals to regulate cell differentiation and tissue assembly. We discuss the role of bioreactors in tissue engineering and eva...

  8. Optimisation of a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor for water refuse

    OpenAIRE

    Verrecht, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades, implementation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) has increased due to their superior effluent quality and low plant footprint. However, they are still viewed as a high-cost option, both with regards to capital and operating expenditure (capex and opex). The present thesis extends the understanding of the impact of design and operational parameters of membrane bioreactors on energy demand, and ultimately whole life cost. A simple heuristic aeration model ...

  9. Integrated operation of membrane bioreactors: simulation and experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmau Figueras, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are a combination of common bioreactors and membrane filtration units for biomass retention, presenting unique advantages like high effluent quality and a smaller footprint than the one by conventional wastewater treatment plants. However, fouling and its associated costs are the main drawbacks related to this technology. This thesis presents a step towards the integrated operation of MBRs through experimental and model-based studies. Interactions between the biolog...

  10. Studies on a Novel Bioreactor Design for Chondrocyte Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Harshad; Chandel, Ishan Saurav; Rastogi, Amit K.; Srivastava, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    A bioreactor system plays an important role in tissue engineering and enables reproduction and controlled changes in the environmental factor. The bioreactor provides technical means to perform controlled processes in safe and reduced reproducible generation of time. Cartilage cells were grown in vitro by mimicking the in vivo condition. The basic unit of cartilage, that is, chondrocyte, requires sufficient shear, strain, and hydrodynamic pressure for regular growth as it is nonvascular tissu...

  11. Phosphate Adsorption from Membrane Bioreactor Effluent Using Dowex 21K XLT and Recovery as Struvite and Hydroxyapatite

    OpenAIRE

    Tanjina Nur; Paripurnanda Loganathan; Jaya Kandasamy; Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran

    2016-01-01

    Discharging phosphate through wastewaters into waterways poses a danger to the natural environment due to the serious risks of eutrophication and health of aquatic organisms. However, this phosphate, if economically recovered, can partly overcome the anticipated future scarcity of phosphorus (P) resulting from exhaustion of natural phosphate rock reserves. An experiment was conducted to determine the efficiency of removing phosphate from a membrane bioreactor effluent (pH 7.0–7.5, 20, 35 mg p...

  12. Removal of Pathogens by Membrane Bioreactors: A Review of the Mechanisms, Influencing Factors and Reduction in Chemical Disinfectant Dosing

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal I. Hai; Thomas Riley; Samia Shawkat; Saleh F. Magram; Kazuo Yamamoto

    2014-01-01

    The continued depletion of fresh drinking water resources throughout the world has increased the need for a variety of water treatment and recycling strategies. Conventional wastewater treatment processes rely on extensive chemical post-disinfection to comply with the stringent microbiological safety for water reuse. When well designed and operated, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) can consistently achieve efficient removals of suspended solids, protozoa and coliform bacteria. Under optimal condit...

  13. Scale up of production in a bioreactor of a halotolerant protease from moderately halophilic Bacillus sp. isolated from soil

    OpenAIRE

    Roopa Prasad; Theruvath Koshy Abraham; Ananthakrishnan Jayakumaran Nair

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the production of protease by moderately halophilic Bacillus sp. on agro-industrial waste materials. The bacterium could efficiently use many agro wastes as substrates but wheat bran supported maximum enzyme production. To ascertain the performance of the process in shake flasks and lab scale bioreactor, experiments were conducted to analyse protease activity utilizing wheat bran as cost effective substrate. The studies unveiled that pH 7.0, temperature 30°C and stat...

  14. Performance evaluation of an side-stream anaerobic membrane bioreactor: Synthetic and alcoholic beverage industry wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdan BÜYÜKKAMACI; Yunus AKSOY

    2016-01-01

    The treatment performance of a laboratory-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) using high strength wastewater was evaluated. The AnMBR model system consisted of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) and an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane. Its performance was first examined using molasses based synthetic wastewater at different hydraulic retention times (1-3 days) and organic loading rates (5-15 kg COD/m3.day). As a result of the experimental studies, maximum treatment effici...

  15. Calicivirus Removal in a Membrane Bioreactor Wastewater Treatment Plant▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Laura C.; Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Elimelech, Menachem; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment virus removal, a study was conducted in southwest France. Samples collected from plant influent, an aeration basin, membrane effluent, solid sludge, and effluent biweekly from October 2009 to June 2010 were analyzed for calicivirus (norovirus and sapovirus) by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) using extraction controls to perform quantification. Adenovirus and Escherichia coli also were analyzed to compare removal efficiencies. In the influent, sapovirus was always present, while the norovirus concentration varied temporally, with the highest concentration being detected from February to May. All three human norovirus genogroups (GI, GII, and GIV) were detected in effluent, but GIV was never detected in effluent; GI and GII were detected in 50% of the samples but at low concentrations. In the effluent, sapovirus was identified only once. An adenovirus titer showing temporal variation in influent samples was identified only twice in effluent. E. coli was always below the limit of detection in the effluent. Overall, the removal of calicivirus varied from 3.3 to greater than 6.8 log units, with no difference between the two main genogroups. Our results also demonstrated that the viruses are blocked by the membrane in the treatment plant and are removed from the plant as solid sludge. PMID:21666029

  16. One-stage partial nitritation and anammox in membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowu; Sun, Kaihang; Wei, Qiaoyan; Urata, Kohei; Yamashita, Yuki; Hong, Nian; Hama, Takehide; Kawagoshi, Yasunori

    2016-06-01

    Partial nitritation and anammox (PN/A) was applied in a lab-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) to investigate its technical feasibility for treating ammonium-rich wastewater with low C/N ratio. The bacterial community was analyzed by molecular cloning and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Partial nitritation (PN) was first realized in MBR by seeding aerobic activated sludge. With dissolved oxygen control, a steady effluent mixture with NO2 (-)-N/NH4 (+)-N ratio of 1.13 ± 0.08 was generated from the PN process. Subsequently, the MBR was seeded with anammox biomass on day 59. After running 300 days, the one-stage PN/A achieved a maximum nitrogen removal rate of 1.45 kg N/m(3)/day at the nitrogen removal efficiency of 89.5 %. Microbial community analysis revealed that Nitrosomonas sp. HKU and Nitrosospira sp. YKU corresponded to nitritation; meanwhile, Candidatus Brocadia TKU sp. accounted for nitrogen removal of the PN/A system. Specifically, Nitrosomonas sp. were enriched in the reactor at the PN/A phase and then conquered Nitrosospira sp. to be the predominant ammonia oxidizers. Nitrite oxidizers and denitrifiers were detected in symbiosis with aforementioned microbes. Denitrification promised potential plus nitrogen depletion. The present one-stage PN/A process allows a significant decrease in operational costs compared with classical nitrification/denitrification. PMID:26916267

  17. Control of aromatic-waste air streams by soil bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of groundwater resources is a serious environmental problem which is continuing to increase in occurrence in the United States. It has been reported that leaking underground gasoline storage tanks may pose the most serious threat of all sources of groundwater contamination. Gasolines are comprised of a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The aromatic portion consists primarily of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX compounds). BTEX compounds are also among the most frequency identified substances at Superfund sites. Pump and treat well systems are the most common and frequently used technique for aquifer restoration. Treatment is often in the form of air stripping to remove the volatile components from the contaminated water. Additionally, soil ventilation processes have been used to remove volatile components from the vadose zone. Both air stripping and soil ventilation produce a waste gas stream containing volatile compounds which is normally treated by carbon adsorption or incineration. Both treatment processes require a substantial capital investment and continual operation and maintenance expenditures. The objective of the study was to examine the potential of using soil bioreactors to treat a waste gas stream produced by air stripping or soil ventilation process. Previous studies have shown that various hydrocarbons can be successfully treated with soils. The study examined the removal of BTEX compounds within soil columns and the influence of soil type, inlet concentration, and inlet flow rate on the removal efficiency

  18. High efficiency quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells based on a novel mixed-plasticizer modified polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated with the mixed-plasticizer (MP) modified polymer electrolyte are reported in this paper. The mixture of hydroxyethyl methylacrylate (HEMA) and ethylene glycol (EG) as plasticizer are added into the original composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) based on poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PEO/P(VDF-HFP)) and KI/I2. The olefinic bonds in HEMA and hydroxyl bonds in EG provide strong molecular polarity to effectively reduce the crystallinity of the polymer electrolyte, thus largely improve the ionic conductivity of the CPE. On account of MP, the decrease of crystallinity provides a better photovoltaic performance, the best photon-to-current conversion efficiency is 6.79% with a short current density Jsc of 15.23 mA cm−2 under AM 1.5 illumination. Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ionic conductivity, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are test to analyze superior property of DSSCs assembled with MP-modified CPEs. It shows that the performance of the CPEs can be largely improved by MP

  19. Spectral analysis of the efficiency of vertical mixing in the deep ocean due to interaction of tidal currents with a ridge running down a continental slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, Ranis N.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2014-10-29

    Efficiency of mixing, resulting from the reflection of an internal wave field imposed on the oscillatory background flow with a three-dimensional bottom topography, is investigated using a linear approximation. The radiating wave field is associated with the spectrum of the linear model, which consists of those mode numbers n and slope values α, for which the solution represents the internal waves of frequencies ω = nω0 radiating upwrad of the topography, where ω0 is the fundamental frequency at which internal waves are generated at the topography. The effects of the bottom topography and the earth’s rotation on the spectrum is analyzed analytically and numerically in the vicinity of the critical slope, which is a slope with the same angle to the horizontal as the internal wave characteristic. In this notation, θ is latitude, f is the Coriolis parameter and N is the buoyancy frequency, which is assumed to be a constant, which corresponds to the uniform stratification.

  20. Novel pH control strategy for efficient production of optically active l-lactic acid from kitchen refuse using a mixed culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Yukihiro; Inokuchi, Shota; Poudel, Pramod; Okugawa, Yuki; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Miayamoto, Hisashi; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Uninvestigated control factors of meta-fermentation, the fermentative production of pure chemicals and fuels in a mixed culture system, were examined for production of optically pure l-lactic acid (LA) from food waste. In meta-fermentations by pH swing control, l-LA production with 100% optical purity (OPl-LA) was achieved even using unsterilized model kitchen refuse medium with preferential proliferation of l-LA-producing Bacillus coagulans, a minor member in the seed, whereas agitation decreased OPl-LA drastically. pH constant control shortened the fermentation time but decreased OPl-LA and LA selectivity (SLA) by stimulating growth of heterofermentative Bacillus thermoamylovorans. Deliberately switching from pH swing control to constant control exhibited the best performance for l-LA production: maximum accumulation, 39.2gL(-1); OPl-LA, 100%; SLA, 96.6%; productivity, 1.09gL(-1)h(-1). These results present a novel pH control strategy for efficient l-LA production in meta-fermentation based on a concept different from that of pure culture systems. PMID:27233097

  1. Effect of mixed hole transporting host on the mobility, Gaussian density of states and efficiencies of a heterojunction phosphorescent organic light emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talik, N. A.; Woon, K. L.; Yap, B. K.

    2016-04-01

    We present an in-depth study of the hole transport in poly(vinylcarbazole) PVK films blended with small molecule tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl)amine (TcTa). Doping TcTa in PVK introduces shallow hole traps when the doping concentration is lower than 20 wt%. It becomes percolative at higher concentrations. The energetic disorder σ of the blended system reduces from ~72 meV at 0 wt% TcTa to ~41 meV at 50 wt% TcTa. A correlation between σ and the film morphologies suggests that the blending of TcTa molecules in the film does not only change the film homogeneity and roughness but also the energetic disorder. In addition to the mobility study, we fabricated a red phosphorescent organic light emitting diode with the same blending system. By doping merely 5 wt% of TcTa into PVK as mixed hole-transporting hosts, the efficiency of the deep red heterojunction phosphorescent organic light emitting diode increased from 2 cd A-1 to 4 cd A-1, suggesting that TcTa molecules assist in hole injection.

  2. Jet mixing improving biogas production performance of mesophilic anaerobic fermentation with cow manure%射流搅拌提高牛粪中温厌氧发酵产沼气性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊向峰; 贾丽娟; 宁平; 瞿广飞; 周成

    2015-01-01

    content of the biogas, the microbe species and the colony forming units, the variation of volatile fat acids (VFAs) and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the biogas production process were investigated in the experimental bioreactors with jet mixing. Besides, the efficiency and the mechanism of enhancement on anaerobic fermentation of cow manure were evaluated. The experimental results showed that the total biogas production of non-mixing, impeller mixing, slurry recirculation and jet mixing strategies in 30 days was 52.34, 64.30, 61.97 and 71.22 L, respectively. The biogas production was 0.324 L/g in the jet mixing bioreactor. The jet mixing method improved biogas production by 36.1% compared to the method of non-mixing, and by 13.2% and 17.7% compared to the method of mechanical mixing and single slurry recirculation respectively. The daily biogas production efficiency in the jet mixing bioreactor ascended to the peak quickly on the 6th day, and the peak value was 6.53 L. The highest COD removal efficiency was 60.8% with the jet mixing, about 20% more than the other methods. What was more, the mass transfer was enhanced and the microbial activity was increased in the bioreactor with the jet mixing. The microbial activity would have contributed to the vigorous degradation of organic matter. VFAs were utilized by methanogens for biogas production, which were unable to accumulate during the anaerobic digestion process with the jet mixing, and thus the product inhibition or substrate inhibition was eliminated. The methanogens in the jet mixing bioreactor grew fast since the 10th day, and the peak value was 2.0×108mL-1. During fermentation process in the jet mixing bioreactor, the amount and the activity of hydrolytic bacteria, acetogenic bacteria and methanogens remained at a high level. Meanwhile, the methane content of the biogas increased drastically from about 20% to over 55% before the 10th day, and it ranged between 55% and 65% from the 10th to the 30

  3. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: Effect of bioreactor configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck, E-mail: som_cheng00@hotmail.com [Pollution Prevention and Resource Recovery Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Do, Anh Tien [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Annachhatre, Ajit P. [Environmental Engineering and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Esposito, Giovanni [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy); Yeh, Daniel H. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Lens, Piet N.L. [Pollution Prevention and Resource Recovery Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Novel biological technique for gypsum removal from CDD. • CDDS leachate treatment performed using different sulfate reducing bioreactors. • Gypsum in CDD can be used as a source of sulfate for sulfate reducing bacteria. • High calcium concentration (1000 mg L{sup −1}) did not affect the bioreactor performance. - Abstract: Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75–85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5 h. A high calcium concentration up to 1000 mg L{sup −1} did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems.

  4. Innovative anaerobic/upflow sludge blanket filtration bioreactor for phosphorus removal from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsandi, H; Movahedyan, H; Bina, B; Farrokhzadeh, H

    2011-04-01

    Phosphorus is the key element to remove from aquatic environments to limit the growth of aquatic plants and algae and, thus, to control eutrophication. Because the upflow sludge blanket filtratio' (USBF) process, without addition of metal salts, entails low efficiency for phosphorus removal, we added an anaerobic reactor to the USBF bioreactor in order to promote the simultaneous removal of phosphorus and nitrogen from wastewater. The results revealed that the anaerobic/USBF bioreactor had a phosphorus removal efficiency up to 86%, with a sludge retention time (SRT) of 10 days, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 hours and an optimum COD/N/P ratio of 100/5/1. This ratio also improved the compaction quality of the sludge blanket in the USBF clarifier. The average specific phosphate uptake rate in the aerobic zone and the average specific phosphate release rate in the anaerobic reactor were 0.014 mg PO4-P removed/(g VSS x min) and 0.0525 mg PO4-P released/(g VSS x min), respectively. Secondary phosphorus release in the USBF clarifier was heightened with increasing HRT. Hence, the optimum total HRT can be selected between 16 and 24 hours based on effluent quality. Effluent phosphorus of about 1 mg/L was provided for wastewater with the COD/N/P ratio of 100/5/1 at the sludge age of 10 days and total HRT of 16 hours. This study illustrated that the anaerobic/USBF bioreactor at the optimum operational conditions can be an effective process for phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater. PMID:21877530

  5. Membrane Bioreactors design and operation improvements: The Spanish Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) is a modification of a conventional activated sludge (CAS) plant where the secondary settling ins replaced by a low pressure ultrafiltration (UF) or micro filtration (MF) membranes separation process in order to obtain an effluent almost free of suspended solids and microorganisms. since the first MBR installation in 2002, the number and capacity of these systems have exponentially increased in spain, driven by the high quality of the effluent which allows direct reuse and discharge into environmentally sensitive areas, the compactness and automation of these plants and the possibility of upgrading existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) which no longer reach the required effluent quality levels. There were 45 operating MBR systems in 2011 and the total municipal wastewater treatment capacity by this type of plants will be about 90 hm3 in 204 when the current projects have been implemented. Today, Spain public and private wastewater management agencies consider MBR plants as an alternative of treatment but first they had to face a complex learning period to operate and design this kind of system. A significant progress has been made over the last years, but especially energy efficiency responds to the challenge of continuous improvement. Membrane fouling control consumes most of the energy involved in the process therefore, anti fouling materials and better membrane air-scour systems that allow the frequency and intensity of air flow to be controlled in realtime, are being investigated. This brings MBR closer to the CAS process in terms of energy efficiency. Breakthroughs in the design and operation of MBR plants are being collected in a guide for the implementation of MBR led by CEDEX, in which the main managers and operators are involved. This paper presents some of these improvements. (Author) 9 refs.

  6. Enhanced solution velocity between dark and light areas with horizontal tubes and triangular prism baffles to improve microalgal growth in a flat-panel photo-bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zongbo; Cheng, Jun; Xu, Xiaodan; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-07-01

    Novel horizontal tubes and triangular prism (HTTP) baffles that generate flow vortices were developed to increase solution velocity between dark and light areas and thus improve microalgal growth in a flat-panel photo-bioreactor. Solution velocity, mass-transfer coefficient, and mixing time were measured with a particle-imaging velocimeter, dissolved oxygen probes, and pH probes. The solution mass-transfer coefficient increased by 30% and mixing time decreased by 21% when the HTTP baffles were used. The solution velocity between dark and light areas increased from ∼0.9cm/s to ∼3.5cm/s, resulting in a decreased dark-light cycle period to one-fourth. This enhanced flashing light effect with the HTTP baffles dramatically increased microalgae biomass yield by 70% in the flat-panel photo-bioreactor. PMID:27038260

  7. Performance of Submerged Membrane Bioreactor Combined with Powdered Activated Carbon Addition for the Treatment of an Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widjaja

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Membrane technology is one of the alternative solutions to overcome industrial wastewater treatment developed nowadays. The addition of PAC (Powdered Activated Carbon in the activated sludge using Submerged Membrane Adsorption Hybrid Bioreactor (SMAHBR is expected to increase the organic material removal. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of submerged membrane bioreactor and activated carbon adsorption capacity of organic materials in wastewater. This study used SIER (Surabaya Industrial Estate Rungkut – Surabaya, Indonesia waste as activated sludge operated at Mixed Liquor Suspended Solid (MLSS concentrations of 8000 and 15000 mg/l, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD concentrations of 1500, 2500 mg/l, Sludge Retention Time (SRT of 10;20; and 30 days and activated carbon variables of 0%; 2.5%; 5%; 7.5%; 10%. The results showed that the fouling potential occurred at high MLSS where the COD removal occurred at PAC addition of 10% reaching 91.86%. High Soluble Microbial Product (SMP accumulation (± 10 mg/l occurred in short SRT and high MLSS concentration. PAC addition resulted in decreased microorganisms in the reactor and better effluent of SMAHBR, as a result, the performance of the submerged membrane bioreactor would be restored.

  8. A bioreactor system for the nitrogen loop in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulmon, M. M.; Reardon, K. F.; Sadeh, W. Z.

    1996-01-01

    As space missions become longer in duration, the need to recycle waste into useful compounds rises dramatically. This problem can be addressed by the development of Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) (i.e., Engineered Closed/Controlled Eco-Systems (ECCES)), consisting of human and plant modules. One of the waste streams leaving the human module is urine. In addition to the reclamation of water from urine, recovery of the nitrogen is important because it is an essential nutrient for the plant module. A 3-step biological process for the recycling of nitrogenous waste (urea) is proposed. A packed-bed bioreactor system for this purpose was modeled, and the issues of reaction step segregation, reactor type and volume, support particle size, and pressure drop were addressed. Based on minimization of volume, a bioreactor system consisting of a plug flow immobilized urease reactor, a completely mixed flow immobilized cell reactor to convert ammonia to nitrite, and a plug flow immobilized cell reactor to produce nitrate from nitrite is recommended. It is apparent that this 3-step bioprocess meets the requirements for space applications.

  9. The use of mixed self-assembled monolayers as a strategy to improve the efficiency of carbamate detection in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a simple strategy to obtain an efficient enzymatic bioelectrochemical device, in which the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized on gold electrodes functionalized with mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAMmix) of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) and 2-mercaptoethanol (C2OH). Development of the modified electrodes included the chemical adsorption of SAMmix on gold surface followed by immersion in AChE solution, resulting in the final Au/SAMmix/AChE configuration. For comparison, the electrochemical performance of Au/11-MUA/AChE and Au/C2OH/AChE electrodes were also investigated. The performance of the modified electrodes toward acetylthiocholine hydrolysis was investigated via cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric measurements, revealing a fast increase in anodic current with a well-defined peak upon addition of acetylthiocholine iodide to the electrolytic solution. The anodic currents for Au/SAMmix/AChE electrodes were significantly higher than those for Au/11-MUA/AChE and Au/C2OH/AChE electrodes. The Au/SAMmix/AChE architecture provided by the SAMmix surface promoted a high oxidation current of thiocholine at 0.31 V without the need of electron mediators. The chronoamperometric biosensor developed here provided a linear response to carbaryl in the concentration range of 0 to 1.75 μM. The detection limit and quantification values for carbaryl were found to be 3.45 × 10−10 M and 1.15 × 10−9 M, respectively. Michaelis–Menten kinetics, KMapp, of 0.46 mM was obtained, indicating that the electrode architecture employed is advantageous for fabrication of enzymatic devices via physical adsorption process with improvement of the biocatalytic properties.

  10. Biological efficiency of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor mixed neutron beam estimated from gene mutations in Tradescantia stamen hair cells assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of low energy neutrons for the induction of various abnormalities in Tradescantia stamen hair mutation (Trad-SH) assay was studied using two clones (T-4430 and T-02), heterozygous for flower color. Dose response relationship for gene mutations induced in somatic cells of Trad-SH were investigated after irradiation with a mixed neutron beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR), currently used in a clinical trial of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma. To establish the RBE of the BMRR beam in the induction of various biological end-points in Tradescantia, irradiation with various doses of γ-rays was also performed. After irradiation all plants were cultivated several days at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), then transported to Poland for screening the biological end-points. Due to the post-exposure treatment, all plants showed high levels of lethal events and alteration of the cell cycle. Plants of clone 4430 were more reactive to post-treatment conditions, resulting in decreased blooming efficiency that affected the statistics. Slope coefficients estimated from the dose response curves for gene mutation frequencies allowed the evaluation of ranges for the maximal RBE values of the applied beam vs. γ rays as 6.0 and 5.4 for the cells of T-02 and T-4430, respectively. Estimated fraction of doses from neutrons and corresponding biological effects for the clones T-02 and T-4430 allowed to evaluate the RBE values for neutrons part in the beam as 32.3 and 45.4, respectively. (author)

  11. Case study of an MBT plant producing SRF for cement kiln co-combustion, coupled with a bioreactor landfill for process residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Mario; Dellavedova, Stefano; Rigamonti, Lucia; Scotti, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the performances of the energy recovery pathway from the residual waste based on the production of a Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) to be exploited via co-combustion in a cement kiln. The SRF is produced in a single stream Mechanical-Biological Treatment plant, where bio-drying of the waste is followed by mechanical refining in order to fulfil the quality requirements by the cement kilns. Peculiar of this MBT is the fact that sorting residues are disposed in a nearby landfill, managed according to a bioreactor approach, where landfill gas is collected for electric energy recovery. A detailed mass and energy balance of the system is presented based on one year operational data, followed by its Life Cycle Assessment. Results show that the system is energetically and environmentally effective, with most of the impacts being more than compensated by the savings of materials and energy. Major role in determining such outcome is the displacement of petcoke in the cement kiln, both in terms of its fossil CO2 emissions and of its life cycle impacts, including the trans-oceanic transport. To check the robustness of the results, two sensitivity analyses are performed on the landfill gas collection efficiency and on the avoided electric energy mix. PMID:26601731

  12. Biosorption of Mn (II, Co (II and Cr (VI in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor: experiments and evaluation of the integral bioprocess model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rezić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a multi heavy metals removal process with mixed microbial culture was examined in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB with different combinations of process parameters. Three metals were selected as examples of cations (manganese and cobalt and oxy-anion (hexavalent chromium. Hydrodynamic conditions and biomass sorption capacity in the HRTB had the main impact on the heavy metals removal efficiencies, which were for Mn2+ 87.0-93.6%, Co2+ 89.0-95.7% and Cr6+ 99.7-100%, respectively. For the bioprocess description in the HRTB, the integral bioprocess model that combines hydrodynamics, mass transfer and kinetics was used. This model was evaluated for the new experimental conditions and average variances between experimental and simulated data were in the range of 0.12 - 3.21·10-3. The results obtained clearly show that the integral bioprocess model is able to describe the heavy metal removal process in the HRTB.

  13. Comparison of flat photo-bioreactors for micro-algae culture based on CFD numerical simulation%基于CFD数值模拟的平板式微藻光生物反应器比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐祥明; 崔海龙

    2015-01-01

    为进一步提高微藻光生物反应器的混合与传质性能,在已有多节隔板平板式光生物反应器的基础上设计多级进气,新建立了多级进气多级隔板平板式光生物反应器。构建了普通反应器、多节隔板反应器、多级进气反应器并利用计算流体动力学模拟研究了3种反应器的流动与传质特性。结果表明,模拟结果与相关试验测量值吻合良好,多级进气结构可以带来更明显的级内环流现象,从而使该反应器在液体平均速度、死区比、湍动能、湍动能耗散率、气含率、液相传质系数等性能参数上较前2种反应器均有很大提高。在适合微藻培养的通气率0.4~0.8(每分钟通入反应器的气体体积与反应器实际装液体积之比)内,该反应器的混合及传质性能均表现优异。该工作为平板式生物反应器的设计及优化提供了新的方向。%Algae as potential resources, has attracted increasing interest and attention from many fields such as energy, medicament, food, feed, and environment. However design and optimization of photo-bioreactor for algae production remains a bottleneck in the development of microalgae culturing industry. Recently, flat photo-bioreactor is improved by changing the double-flat into multistage structure. In this study, in order to further increase mass transfer and mixing properties of microalgae photo-bioreactor, a multistage intake structure was fixed into this multistage flat photo-bioreactor. Moreover, for the purpose of exploring more mass transfer and mixing details of the three photo-bioreactors, the ordinary double-flat photo-bioreactor, multistage flat photo-bioreactor, and multistage intake photo-bioreactor were constructed physically and numerically, and their computational fluids dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out. Gas holdups and mass transfer coefficients were measured in physical multistage intake photo-bioreactor and compared

  14. Improving mixing in microbioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Steen, van der G.; Dedum, G.W.K.; Wielen, van der L.A.M.; Leeuwen, van M.; Gulik, van W.M.; Heijnen, J.J.; Krommenhoek, E.E.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Berg, van den A.; Ottens, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a possible active mixing method for a 30 mu l microbioreactor that was designed, simulated and tested. Pressure based recycle flow was investigated in a cylindrical microreactor for mixing efficiency. Based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results and the req

  15. Organic carbon recovery and photosynthetic bacteria population in an anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor treating food processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

    2013-08-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) were cultivated by food industry wastewater in the anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor. Organic removal and biomass production and characteristics were accomplished via an explicit examination of the long term performance of the photo-bioreactor fed with real wastewater. With the support of infra-red light transmitting filter, PNSB could survive and maintain in the system even under the continual fluctuations of influent wastewater characteristics. The average BOD and COD removal efficiencies were found at the moderate range of 51% and 58%, respectively. Observed photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.6g dried solid/g BOD with crude protein content of 0.41 g/g dried solid. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed the presence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and significant changes in the photosynthetic bacterial community within the system. PMID:23489563

  16. One step N-glycosylation by filamentous fungi biofilm in bioreactor of a new phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor tetrazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Souza, Paula L; Arruda, Evilanna L; Pazini, Francine; Menegatti, Ricardo; Vaz, Boniek G; Lião, Luciano M; de Oliveira, Valéria

    2016-07-01

    An efficient and rapid process for N-glycosylation of 5-(1-(3-fluorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2H-tetrazole-LQFM 021 (1), a new synthetic derivative of pyrazole with phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE-3) inhibitory action, vasorelaxant activity and low toxicity catalyzed by filamentous fungi biofilm in bioreactor was successfully developed. A maximum N-glycosyl yield of 68% was obtained with Cunninghamella echinulata ATCC 9244 biofilm in bioreactor with conditions of 25mgml(-1) of 1 in PDSM medium at 28°C for 96h. After extraction with ethyl acetate, the derivative was identified by Ultrahigh Resolution Mass Spectrometry and (1)H-(13)C HSQC/HMBC. PMID:27209234

  17. Bioconversion of High Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur in Airlift Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Abdel-Monaem Zytoon; Abdulraheem Ahmad AlZahrani; Madbuli Hamed Noweir; Fadia Ahmed El-Marakby

    2014-01-01

    Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combinat...

  18. Characteristics of the bioreactor landfill system using an anaerobic-aerobic process for nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Liu, Xin-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2007-09-01

    A sequential upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and air-lift loop sludge blanket (ALSB) treatment was introduced into leachate recirculation to remove organic matter and ammonia from leachate in a lab-scale bioreactor landfill. The results showed that the sequential anaerobic-aerobic process might remove above 90% of COD and near to 100% of NH4+ -N from leachate under the optimum organic loading rate (OLR). The total COD removal efficiency was over 98% as the OLR increased to 6.8-7.7 g/l d, but the effluent COD concentration increased to 2.9-4.8 g/l in the UASB reactor, which inhibited the activity of nitrifying bacteria in the subsequent ALSB reactor. The NO3- -N concentration in recycled leachate reached 270 mg/l after treatment by the sequential anaerobic-aerobic process, but the landfill reactor could efficiently denitrify the nitrate. After 56 days operation, the leachate TN and NH4+ -N concentrations decreased to less than 200 mg/l in the bioreactor landfill system. The COD concentration was about 200 mg/l with less than 8 mg/l BOD in recycled leachate at the late stage. In addition, it was found that nitrate in recycled leachate had a negative effect on waste decomposition. PMID:17071082

  19. Production of transgenic strawberries by temporary immersion bioreactor system and verification by TAIL-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärenlampi Sirpa O

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa is an economically important soft fruit crop with polyploid genome which complicates the breeding of new cultivars. For certain traits, genetic engineering offers a potential alternative to traditional breeding. However, many strawberry varieties are quite recalcitrant for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and a method allowing easy handling of large amounts of starting material is needed. Also the genotyping of putative transformants is challenging since the isolation of DNA for Southern analysis is difficult due to the high amount of phenolic compounds and polysaccharides that complicate efficient extraction of digestable DNA. There is thus a need to apply a screening method that is sensitive and unambiguous in identifying the different transformation events. Results Hygromycin-resistant strawberries were developed in temporary immersion bioreactors by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Putative transformants were screened by TAIL-PCR to verify T-DNA integration and to distinguish between the individual transformation events. Several different types of border sequence arrangements were detected. Conclusion This study demonstrates that temporary immersion bioreactor system suits well for the regeneration of transgenic strawberry plants as a labour-efficient technique. Small amount of DNA required by TAIL-PCR is easily recovered even from a small transformant, which allows rapid verification of T-DNA integration and detection of separate gene transfer events. These techniques combined clearly facilitate the generation of transgenic strawberries but should be applicable to other plants as well.

  20. In situ nitrogen removal from leachate by bioreactor landfill with limited aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a bioreactor landfill with limited aeration was assessed. Three column reactors, simulating bioreactor landfill operations under anaerobic condition (as reference), intermittent forced aeration and enhanced natural aeration were hence established, where aerated columns passed through two phases, i.e., fresh landfill and well-decomposed landfill. The experimental results show that limited aeration decreased nitrogen loadings of leachate distinctly in the fresh landfill. In the well-decomposed landfill, the NH4+-N of the input leachate could be nitrified completely in the aerated landfill columns. The nitrifying loadings of the column cross section reached 7.9 g N/m2 d and 16.9 g N/m2 d in the simulated landfill columns of intermittent forced aeration and enhanced natural aeration, respectively. The denitrification was influenced by oxygen distribution in the landfill column. Intermittent existence of oxygen in the landfill with the intermittent forced aeration was favorable to denitrify the NO2--N and NO3--N, indicated by the high denitrification efficiency (>99%) under the condition of BOD5/TN of more than 5.4 in leachate; locally persistent existence of oxygen in the landfill with enhanced natural aeration could limit the denitrification, indicated by relatively low denitrification efficiency of about 75% even when the BOD5/TN in leachate had an average of 7.1

  1. Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Enzyme Catalysed Batch Bioreactor for the Production of Ethanol from Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Yelebe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the challenge of estimating various kinetic parameters for the design of an optimized enzyme catalysed batch bioreactor of high efficiency and yield. Mathematical models were developed to describe the batch reaction time in relation to the substrate, enzyme and product concentration. The results obtained from the plots generated were: 35.50gmol/l.hr for the velocity of reaction of the enzymes (Vmax, 0.10049hr-1 for the maximum specific growth rate (µmax 826.45gmol/l for the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km, 0.005402577 for maintenance coefficient (Ms, 10.104kgCx/kgCs for yield of cell weight per unit weight of substrate (Ycx/CS, 0.05436kgCp/kgCs for yield of product weight per unit weight of substrate utilized (Ycp/CS and 0.01416 for endogenous decay coefficient (Kd for the design of the batch biochemical reactor. Hence, they are useful parameters for predicting the most appropriate batch reaction conditions and the efficiency of the bioreactor. The mathematical model predictions showed that it can be considered as a good complimentary tool to real system since the simulation results of the mathematical model agrees with experimental data reported in literature.

  2. [Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for treating agricultural and food processing wastewater at high strength].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan-Song; Yu, Da-Wei; Cao, Lei

    2014-04-01

    As the second largest amounts of COD discharged in 41 kinds of industrial wastewater, it is of great urgency for the agricultural and food processing industry to control water pollution and reduce pollutants. Generally the agricultural and food processing industrial wastewater with high strength COD of 8 000-30 000 mg x L(-1), is mainly treated with anaerobic and aerobic processes in series, but which exists some issues of long process, difficult maintenance and high operational costs. Through coupling anaerobic digestion and membrane separation together, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) has typical advantages of high COD removal efficiency (92%-99%), high COD organic loading rate [2.3-19.8 kg x (m3 x d)(-1)], little sludge discharged (SRT > 40 d) and low cost (HRT of 8-12 h). According to COD composition of high strength industrial wastewater, rate-limiting step of methanation could be either hydrolysis and acidification or methanogenesis. Compared with aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR), membrane fouling of AnMBR is more complicated in characterization and more difficult in control. Measures for membrane fouling control of AnMBR are almost the same as those of MBR, including cross flow, air sparging and membrane relaxation. For meeting discharging standard of food processing wastewater with high strength, AnMBR is a promising technology with very short process, by enhancing COD removal efficiency, controlling membrane fouling and improving energy recovery. PMID:24946624

  3. Operation of a fluidized-bed bioreactor for denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two denitrification fluidized-bed bioreactors of the same length (i.e., 5 m) but with different inside diameters (i.e., 5 and 10 cm) have been operated on feed ranging in nitrate concentration from 200 to 2000 g/m3; thus far, good agreement has been obtained. Two 10-cm-ID bioreactors operating in series have also been tested; the results are in accordance with predicted results based on the performance of a 5-cm-ID bioreactor. The overall denitrification rate in the dual 10-cm-ID bioreactor system was found to be 23 kg N(NO3-)/day-m3 using feed with a nitrate concentration of 1800 g/m3. Data obtained in operating-temperature tests indicate that the maximum denitrification rate is achieved between 22 and 300C. These data will form the basis of the design of our mobile pilot plant which consists of dual 20-cm-ID by 7.3-m-long bioreactors

  4. Bioreactor technology for production of valuable algal products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Cai; Cao, Ying

    1998-03-01

    Bioreactor technology has long been employed for the production of various (mostly cheap) food and pharmaceutical products. More recently, research has been mainly focused on the development of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high—value products. This paper reports the employment of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high-value biomass and metabolites by microalgae. These high-value products include microalgal biomass as health foods, pigments including phycocyanin and carotenoids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The processes involved include heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures using organic substrates as the carbon source. We have demonstrated that these bioreactor cultivation systems are particularly suitable for the production of high-value products from various microalgae. These cultivation systems can be further modified to improve cell densities and productivities by using high cell density techniques such as fed-batch and membrane cell recycle systems. For most of the microalgae investigated, the maximum cell concentrations obtained using these bioreactor systems in our laboratories are much higher than any so far reported in the literature.

  5. Osteocytes Mechanosensing in NASA Rotating Wall Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Jordan; Sibonga, Jean; Wu, Honglu; Barry, Kevin; Bouxsein, Mary; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2010-01-01

    Osteocyte cells are the most abundant (90%) yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. However, recent discoveries in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating bone remodeling and phosphate homeostasis. The aim of this project was to characterize gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of MLO-Y4, a very well characterized murine osteocyte-like cell line, to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. To determine mechanistic pathways of the osteocyte's gravity sensing ability, we evaluated in vitro gene and protein expression of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of mechano transduction at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to revolutionary treatment otions to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth.

  6. Hydrodynamics of an Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Kun; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-05-01

    An electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) has recently been developed for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. The hydrodynamics of the EMBR would significantly affect the mass transfers and reaction kinetics, exerting a pronounced effect on reactor performance. However, only scarce information is available to date. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the EMBR were investigated through various approaches. Tracer tests were adopted to generate residence time distribution curves at various hydraulic residence times, and three hydraulic models were developed to simulate the results of tracer studies. In addition, the detailed flow patterns of the EMBR were acquired from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Compared to the tank-in-series and axial dispersion ones, the Martin model could describe hydraulic performance of the EBMR better. CFD simulation results clearly indicated the existence of a preferential or circuitous flow in the EMBR. Moreover, the possible locations of dead zones in the EMBR were visualized through the CFD simulation. Based on these results, the relationship between the reactor performance and the hydrodynamics of EMBR was further elucidated relative to the current generation. The results of this study would benefit the design, operation and optimization of the EMBR for simultaneous energy recovery and wastewater treatment.

  7. Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluski, Marek H.; Manchester, Kenneth R.

    2001-01-01

    A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

  8. An additional simple denitrification bioreactor using packed gel envelopes applicable to industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Masahiko; Uemoto, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2007-08-15

    A simple denitrification bioreactor for nitrate-containing wastewater without organic compounds was developed. This bioreactor consisted of packed gel envelopes in a single tank. Each envelope comprised two plates of gels containing Paracoccus denitrificans cells with an internal space between the plates. As an electron donor for denitrification, ethanol was injected into the internal space and not directly into the wastewater. P. denitrificans cells in the gel reduced nitrate to nitrogen gas by using the injected ethanol. Nitrate-containing desulfurization wastewater derived from a coal-fired thermal power plant was continuously treated with 20 packed gel envelopes (size, 1,000 x 900 x 12 mm; surface area, 1.44 m(2)) in a reactor tank (volume 1.5 m(3)). When the total nitrogen concentration in the inflow was around 150 mg-N x L(-1), the envelopes removed approximately 60-80% of the total nitrogen, and the maximum nitrogen removal rate was 5.0 g-N x day(-1) per square meter of the gel surface. This value corresponded to the volumetric nitrogen removal performance of 0.109 kg-N x m(-3) x day(-1). In each envelope, a high utilization efficiency of the electron donor was attained, although more than the double amount of the electron donor was empirically injected in the present activated sludge system to achieve denitrification when compared with the theoretical value. The bioreactor using the envelopes would be extremely effective as an additional denitrification system because these envelopes can be easily installed in the vacant spaces of preinstalled water treatment systems, without requiring additional facilities for removing surplus ethanol and sludge. PMID:17252606

  9. Toxicity and metal speciation in acid mine drainage treated by passive bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neculita, C.M.; Vigneaul, B.; Zagury, G.J. [Ecole Polytechnic, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    Sulfate-reducing passive bioreactors treat acid mine drainage (AMD) by increasing its pH and alkalinity and by removing metals as metal sulfide precipitates. In addition to discharge limits based on physicochemical parameters, however, treated effluent is required to be nontoxic. Acute and sublethal toxicity was assessed for effluent from 3.5-L column bioreactors filled with mixtures of natural organic carbon sources and operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for the treatment of a highly contaminated AMD. Effluent was first tested for acute (Daphnia magna and Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sublethal (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dabia, and Lemna minor) toxicity. Acute toxicity was observed for D. magna, and a toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedure was then performed to identify potential toxicants. Finally, metal speciation in the effluent was determined using ultrafiltration and geochemical modeling for the interpretation of the toxicity results. The 10-d HRT effluent was nonacutely lethal for 0. mykiss but acutely lethal for D. magna. The toxicity to D. magna, however, was removed by 2 h of aeration, and the TIE procedure suggested iron as a cause of toxicity. Sublethal toxicity of the 10-d HRT effluent was observed for all test species, but it was reduced compared to the raw AMD and to a 7.3-d HRT effluent. Data regarding metal speciation indicated instability of both effluents during aeration and were consistent with the toxicity being caused by iron. Column bioreactors in operation for more than nine months efficiently improved the physicochemical quality of highly contaminated AMD at different HRTs.

  10. Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

  11. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

    2014-08-01

    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  12. Pilot-scale experiment on anaerobic bioreactor landfills in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This paper describes the impacts of leachate recirculation and recirculation loadings on waste stabilization, landfill gas (LFG) generation and leachate characteristics. Four simulated anaerobic columns, R1-R4, were each filled with about 30 tons of waste and recirculated weekly with 1.6, 0.8 and 0.2 m3 leachate and 0.1 m3 tap water. The results indicated that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) half-time of leachate from R1 was about 180 days, which was 8-14 weeks shorter than that of R2-R4. A large amount of LFG was first produced in R1, and its generation rate was positively correlated to the COD or volatile fatty acid concentrations of influent leachates after the 30th week. By the 50th week of recirculation, the waste in R1 was more stabilized, with 931.2 kg COD or 175.6 kg total organic carbon released and with the highest landfill gas production. However, this contributed mainly to washout by leachate, which also resulted in the reduction of LFG generation potential and accumulation of ammonia and/or phosphorus in the early stage. Therefore, the regimes of leachate recirculation should be adjusted to the phases of waste stabilization to enhance efficiency of energy recovery. Integrated with the strategy of in situ leachate management, extra pre-treatment or post-treatment methods to remove the nutrients are recommended

  13. Modelling, Optimization and Optimal Control of Small Scale Stirred Tank Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitko Petrov

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Models of the mass-transfer in a stirred tank bioreactor depending on general indexes of the processes of aeration and mixing in concrete simplifications of the hydrodynamic structure of the flows are developed. The offered combined model after parameters identification is used for optimization of the parameters of the apparatus construction. The optimization problem is solved by using of the fuzzy sets theory and in this way the unspecified as a result of the model simplification are read. In conclusion an optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation process of E. coli is completed by using Neuro-Dynamic programming. The received results after optimization show a considerable improvement of the mass-transfer indexes and the quantity indexes at the end of the process.

  14. Continuous Ethanol Production Using Immobilized-Cell/Enzyme Biocatalysts in Fluidized-Bed Bioreactor (FBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nghiem, NP

    2003-11-16

    The immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Previous studies at ORNL using immobilized Zymomonas mobilis in FBR at both laboratory and demonstration scale (4-in-ID by 20-ft-tall) have shown that the system was more than 50 times as productive as industrial benchmarks (batch and fed-batch free cell fermentations for ethanol production from glucose). Economic analysis showed that a continuous process employing the FBR technology to produce ethanol from corn-derived glucose would offer savings of three to six cents per gallon of ethanol compared to a typical batch process. The application of the FBR technology for ethanol production was extended to investigate more complex feedstocks, which included starch and lignocellulosic-derived mixed sugars. Economic analysis and mathematical modeling of the reactor were included in the investigation. This report summarizes the results of these extensive studies.

  15. Study on performance of submerged membrane bioreactor in proteinaceous wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ying; Ren Nanqi; Liu Xiaolei; Chen Zhaobo

    2005-01-01

    The continuous flowing experiment using a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) in proteinaceous wastewater treatment was studied. The removal rate of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was over 96.0% and the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was above 98.1%,the average removal rate of the total nitrogen (TN) was 61.7%,the removal rate of NH3-N was as high as 99%,but the removal effect of the total phosphorus (TP) was instable. The analysis under the condition of our experiments came to the conclusion that backwashing, waterpower scouring, low-pressure operation and control of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) could lighten the attenuation of filtration flux in SMBR.

  16. Biofouling behavior and performance of forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification in osmotic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Cheng, Qianxun; Tian, Qing; Yang, Bo; Chen, Qianyuan

    2016-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable interest for water and energy related applications in recent years. Biofouling behavior and performance of cellulose triacetate (CTA) forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification via polydopamine (PD) coating and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafting (PD-g-PEG) in a submerged osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) were investigated in this work. The modified membranes exhibited lower flux decline than the pristine one in OMBR, confirming that the bioinspired surface modification improved the antifouling ability of the CTA FO membrane. The result showed that the decline of membrane flux related to the increase of the salinity and MLSS concentration of the mixed liquid. It was concluded that the antifouling ability of modified membranes ascribed to the change of surface morphology in addition to the improvement of membrane hydrophilicity. The bioinspired surface modifications might improve the anti-adhesion for the biopolymers and biocake. PMID:27089532

  17. Optimization of membrane bioreactors by the addition of powdered activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choon Aun; Sun, Darren; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Wai, Soon Han; Wong, Ling Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Wu, Bing; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-06-01

    It was found that with replenishment, powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) would develop biologically activated carbon (BAC) which could enhance filtration performance of a conventional MBR. This paper addresses two issues (i) effect of PAC size on MBR (BAC) performance; and (ii) effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the MBR performance with and without PAC. To interpret the trends, particle/floc size, concentration of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS), total organic carbon (TOC), short-term filtration properties and transmembrane pressure (TMP) versus time are measured. The results showed improved fouling control with fine, rather than coarse, PAC provided the flux did not exceed the deposition flux for the fine PAC. Without PAC, the longer SRT operation gave lower fouling at modest fluxes. With PAC addition, the shorter SRT gave better fouling control, possibly due to greater replenishment of the fresh PAC. PMID:23612160

  18. Streamlined bioreactor-based production of human cartilage tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnarelli, B; Santoro, R; Adelaide Asnaghi, M; Wendt, D

    2016-01-01

    Engineered tissue grafts have been manufactured using methods based predominantly on traditional labour-intensive manual benchtop techniques. These methods impart significant regulatory and economic challenges, hindering the successful translation of engineered tissue products to the clinic. Alternatively, bioreactor-based production systems have the potential to overcome such limitations. In this work, we present an innovative manufacturing approach to engineer cartilage tissue within a single bioreactor system, starting from freshly isolated human primary chondrocytes, through the generation of cartilaginous tissue grafts. The limited number of primary chondrocytes that can be isolated from a small clinically-sized cartilage biopsy could be seeded and extensively expanded directly within a 3D scaffold in our perfusion bioreactor (5.4 ± 0.9 doublings in 2 weeks), bypassing conventional 2D expansion in flasks. Chondrocytes expanded in 3D scaffolds better maintained a chondrogenic phenotype than chondrocytes expanded on plastic flasks (collagen type II mRNA, 18-fold; Sox-9, 11-fold). After this "3D expansion" phase, bioreactor culture conditions were changed to subsequently support chondrogenic differentiation for two weeks. Engineered tissues based on 3D-expanded chondrocytes were more cartilaginous than tissues generated from chondrocytes previously expanded in flasks. We then demonstrated that this streamlined bioreactor-based process could be adapted to effectively generate up-scaled cartilage grafts in a size with clinical relevance (50 mm diameter). Streamlined and robust tissue engineering processes, as the one described here, may be key for the future manufacturing of grafts for clinical applications, as they facilitate the establishment of compact and closed bioreactor-based production systems, with minimal automation requirements, lower operating costs, and increased compliance to regulatory guidelines. PMID:27232665

  19. Biological reduction of nitrate wastewater using fluidized-bed bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt % NO3- and as large as 2000 m3/d, in the nuclear fuel cycle as well as in many commercial processes such as fertilizer production, paper manufacturing, and metal finishing. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO3-)/m3 by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The major strain of denitrification bacteria is Pseudomonas which was derived from garden soil. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25 to 0.50-mm-diam coal particles, which are fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m3. A description is given of the results of two biodenitrification R and D pilot plant programs based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m3 and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 gN(NO3-)/d per liter of empty bioreactor volume. The first of these pilot plant programs consisted of two 0.2-m-diam bioreactors, each with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 208 liters, operating in series. The second pilot plant was used to determine the diameter dependence of the reactors by using a 0.5-m-diam reactor with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 1200 liters. These pilot plants operated for a period of six months and two months respectively, while using both a synthetic waste and the actual waste from a gaseous diffusion plant operated by Goodyear Atomic Corporation

  20. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.