Sample records for biopterin

  1. Neopterin and biopterin as biomarkers of immune system activity associated with crating in broiler chickens. (United States)

    Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Zelinska, G; Blahova, J; Marsalek, P; Chloupek, J


    Neopterin and biopterin belong to a group of unconjugated pterin derivates. These biomolecules are present in many animal species and perform several functions. Pterin concentrations may provide additional information on the effect of stress on immune system activity. This study focused on an investigation of the effect of crating on plasma concentrations of neopterin and biopterin in broilers. The effects of 2 crating periods (2 and 4 h) were monitored in Hubbard broilers (n = 90) aged 42 d. After a given crating period, randomly selected chickens from each group were sampled immediately and the remaining chickens were sampled after 24 h. Plasma corticosterone increased (P chickens. This is corroborated by the increase in plasma biopterin concentrations in broilers immediately after crating and the decrease in plasma neopterin concentrations in broilers 24 h after crating. The correlations were found for widely used indicators of acute and chronic stress in birds [i.e., plasma corticosterone concentrations (biopterin) and the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (neopterin), respectively].

  2. Significance of biopterin induction in rats with postburn Staphylococcus aureus sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongyun; Yao Yongming; Shi Zhiguo; Dong Ning; Yu Yan; Lu Lianrong; Sheng Zhiyong


    Objective: It has been demonstrated that biopterin, an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin-induced shock, yet its biological significance in gram-positive sepsis remains unclear. In this study, we adopted a rat model of postburn Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) sepsis to observe the time course and tissue distribution of biopterin in postburn S. aureus infection, and to investigate its potential role in the pathogenesis of gram-positive sepsis. Wistar rats were inflicted with a 20% total body surface area (TBSA) full-chickness scald injury followed by S. aureus challenge, then guanosine triphosphatecyclohydrolase I (GTP-CHI) mRNA expression and biopterin levels in liver, kidneys, lungs and heart were determined at 0. 5, 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after S. aureus challenge. We found that after S. aureus challenge, GTP-CHI gene expressions and biopterin levels were markedly up-regulated in various tissues, and remained at high values up to 24 hours (P< 0. 05-0.01). Meanwhile, the organ function indexes, including serum alanine amimotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine (Cr), MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), levels and pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities significantly increased at 24 hours postburn, and the multiple organ dysfunction was aggravated by S. aureus challenge. Moreover, it was shown that cardiac GTP-CHI mRNA expression and renal BH4levels were positively correlated with CK-MB and Cr (r=0. 892, P=0. 0012 and r=0. 9423,P=0.0015, respectively). Conclusion: These results suggested that thermal injury combined with S. aureus challenge could induce de novo biosynthesis of biopterin, which acts as the most important cofactor of iNOS, might play a role in the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome secondary to postburn sepsis.

  3. 1H NMR characterization of the intermediate formed upon UV-A excitation of biopterin, neopterin and 6-hydroxymethylpterin in O 2-free aqueous solutions (United States)

    Vignoni, Mariana; Salum, M. Laura; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Thomas, Andres H.; Cabrerizo, Franco M.


    Pterins belong to a family of heterocyclic compounds present in a wide range of living systems and participate in relevant biological functions. Under anaerobic conditions, the unstable red intermediate generated by UV-A irradiation of biopterin, neopterin and 6-hydroxymethylpterin was identified by 1H NMR analysis, in alkaline D 2O solutions, as 5,8-dihydro-6-formylpterin.

  4. Determination of marker pteridins and biopterin reduced forms, tetrahydrobiopterin and dihydrobiopterin, in human urine, using a post-column photoinduced fluorescence liquid chromatographic derivatization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada-Canada, Florentina, E-mail: [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Espinosa-Mansilla, Anunciacion; Munoz de la Pena, Arsenio; Mancha de Llanos, Alicia [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)


    A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous analysis of marker pteridins and biopterin reduced forms, in urine samples is proposed. A Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column was used for the chromatographic separation, using a 98/2 (v/v), citrate buffer (pH 5.5)-acetonitrile mobile phase, in isocratic mode. A post-column photoderivatization was carried out with an on-line photoreactor, located between a diode array detector (DAD) and a fast scanning fluorescence detector (FSFD). Neopterin (NEO), biopterin (BIO), pterin (PT) and dihydrobiopterin (BH2) were determined by measuring native fluorescence, using the photoreactor in OFF-mode, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) was determined by measuring of the induced fluorescence of the generated photoproducts, using the photoreactor in ON-mode. In addition, Creatinine (CREA), as a reference of metabolites excrection in urine, was simultaneously determined using the DAD detector. Detection limits were 0.2, 13.0, 0.3, 0.3 and 3.5 ng mL{sup -1}, for NEO, BH2, BIO, PT and BH4, respectively, and 0.4 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for CREA. Ratio values for NEO/CREA, PT/CREA, BH4/CREA, BH2/CREA, NEO/BIO and BIO{sub total}/CREA, in urine samples, of healthy children and adults, phenylketonuric children and infected mononucleosis children, are reported. A comparative study, about the mean values obtained for each of the compounds, by the present procedure and by the classical iodine oxidation method (Fukushimas method), has been performed, in urine samples belonging to healthy volunteers. The values obtained were BH4/CREA: 0.41, BH2/CREA: 0.31 and BIO{sub total}/CREA: 0.73, by the proposed method, and BH4/CREA: 0.35, BH2/CREA: 0.20 and BIO{sub total}/CREA: 0.48, by iodine oxidation method.

  5. 脓毒症大鼠生物喋呤的组织分布特点和意义%The significance of biopterin synthesis in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芳; 姚咏明; 董宁; 于燕; 陆连荣; 李红云; 施志国


    目的 探讨腹腔感染致脓毒症时重要器官生物喋呤及其合成限速酶基因表达的改变和病理生理意义。方法  腹腔感染致脓毒症模型采用盲肠结扎穿孔法(CLP),用反相高效液相分析法和逆转录-聚合酶链反应方法测定24只大鼠肝、肺、肾等组织生物喋呤含量及三磷酸鸟苷环水解酶I(GTP-CHI)mRNA的表达。结果 脓毒症大鼠2 h时肝、肺、肾组织生物喋呤含量显著增多[分别为(4.18±0.16)、(2.71±0.32)、(2.45±0.27) ng/g蛋白],同时不同组织GTP-CHI mRNA表达亦明显增强,各脏器功能均表现不同程度地损害(P<0.05)。相关分析显示,肝、肺组织生物喋呤与反映相应脏器功能的指标呈高度正相关(分别为r=0.791 6, P<0.001和r=0.800 4, P<0.001)。结论 生物喋呤参与了腹腔感染所致脓毒症的发生、发展过程。%Objective To study the potential role of changes in biopterin (tetrahydrobiopterin and more oxidized species) synthesis and GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTP-CHI) mRNA expression in sepsis induced by intra-abdominal infection in rats. Methods Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), HPLC and RT-PCR were used to detect contents of biopterin and GTP-CHI mRNA expression in liver, lung, and kidney tissues at 2, 8, 16 h following CLP. Results As compared with normal group, tissues biopterin levels were significantly elevated in liver, lung and kidneys at 2 h following CLP (4.18±0.16, 2.71±0.32, and 2.45±0.27 ng/g protein, respectively). Similarly, GTP-CHI mRNA induction in various tissues was significantly increased (P<0.05). Also, contents of tissue biopterin in liver, lungs and kidney were positively correlated with the levels of GTP-CHI mRNA expression (r=0.659 6, P=0.014 2; r=0.795 3, P=0.001 2 and r=0.910 1, P<0.001, respectively). In addition, heptic and pulmonary biopterin levels were positively correlated with glutamic pyruvic

  6. Suppression of eNOS-derived superoxide by caveolin-1: a biopterin-dependent mechanism. (United States)

    Karuppiah, Kanchana; Druhan, Lawrence J; Chen, Chun-an; Smith, Travis; Zweier, Jay L; Sessa, William C; Cardounel, Arturo J


    In the vasculature, nitric oxide (NO) is generated by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in a calcium/calmodulin-dependent reaction. In the absence of the requisite eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), NADPH oxidation is uncoupled from NO generation, leading to the production of superoxide. Although this phenomenon is apparent with purified enzyme, cellular studies suggest that formation of the BH(4) oxidation product, dihydrobiopterin, is the molecular trigger for eNOS uncoupling rather than BH(4) depletion alone. In the current study, we investigated the effects of both BH(4) depletion and oxidation on eNOS-derived superoxide production in endothelial cells in an attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanisms regulating eNOS oxidase activity. Results demonstrated that pharmacological depletion of endothelial BH(4) does not result in eNOS oxidase activity, whereas BH(4) oxidation gave rise to significant eNOS-oxidase activity. These findings suggest that the endothelium possesses regulatory mechanisms, which prevent eNOS oxidase activity from pterin-free eNOS. Using a combination of gene silencing and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that eNOS-caveolin-1 association is increased under conditions of reduced pterin bioavailability and that this sequestration serves to suppress eNOS uncoupling. Using small interfering RNA approaches, we demonstrate that caveolin-1 gene silencing increases eNOS oxidase activity to 85% of that observed under conditions of BH(4) oxidation. Moreover, when caveolin-1 silencing was combined with a pharmacological inhibitor of AKT, BH(4) depletion increased eNOS-derived superoxide to 165% of that observed with BH(4) oxidation. This study identifies a critical role of caveolin-1 in the regulation of eNOS uncoupling and provides new insight into the mechanisms through which disease-associated changes in caveolin-1 expression may contribute to endothelial dysfunction.

  7. Biopterin status in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease is associated with disease severity and cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Maria Josefine; Häggström, J.; Mortensen, Alan


    BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction (ED) has been suggested to be associated with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in dogs. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an important cofactor for production of the endothelium-derived vasodilator nitric oxide (NO). Under conditions of oxidative stress, BH4...

  8. Hyperphenylalaninemia and pterin metabolism in serum and erythrocytes. (United States)

    Ponzone, A; Guardamagna, O; Spada, M; Ponzone, R; Sartore, M; Kierat, L; Heizmann, C W; Blau, N


    The relationship between blood phenylalanine concentrations and serum and erythrocyte biopterin and neopterin concentrations was investigated in 20 phenylketonuric patients with different dietary compliance. At serum phenylalanine concentrations ranging from 43 to 1004 mumol/l, a good correlation was found with serum biopterin (r = 0.76, P < 0.001) and with red blood cell biopterin (r = 0.62, P < 0.001). A similar correlation was found between serum neopterin and phenylalanine (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). The correlation between red blood cell neopterin and serum phenylalanine was less evident, however (r = 0.47, P < 0.005). After oral loading with phenylalanine (100 mg/kg body weight), serum and red blood cell biopterin concentrations increased in patients with classical phenylketonuria as well as in one patient with dihydropteridine reductase deficiency in response to the induced acute hyperphenylalaninemia. One patient suffering from 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency was loaded orally with tetrahydrobiopterin (20 mg/kg body weight). The kinetics of administered cofactor confirmed its rapid absorption, with early increase of serum concentrations followed by its transport into the red blood cells. The half-life of biopterin was approximately 7 h in serum and 15 h in red blood cells. Because both values are less than the half-life of phenylalanine (20-30 h) in serum, biopterin measurement offers no advantage in monitoring dietary control in hyperphenylalaninemic patients.

  9. Tetrahydrobiopterin restores endothelial dysfunction induced by an oral glucose challenge in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Rask-Madsen, Christian; Perner, Anders


    (n = 10) and SNP (n = 8). On different days (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-l-biopterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4; n = 10), the active cofactor of eNOS or its stereoisomer (6S)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-l-biopterin sulfate (6S-BH4; n = 10), which is inactive as a cofactor, was added 10 min (500 microg/min) before...... and during the 1-h postchallenge serotonin dose-response study. In vitro studies showed that 6R-BH4 and 6S-BH4 were equipotent antioxidants. Serotonin response was reduced by 24 +/- 7% (at the highest dose) at 1 h postchallenge compared with fasting (P = 0.001) and was restored 2 h postchallenge...

  10. The role of pterins and related factors in the biology of early postpartum depression. (United States)

    Abou-Saleh, M T; Ghubash, R; Karim, L; Krymski, M; Anderson, D N


    Plasma tryptophan and other putative amino acids, cortisol, folate and vitamin B12 and urinary biopterin (B) and neopterins (N) were measured in three groups of women: 62 women in the early postpartum period, 23 pregnant and 38 non-gravid controls. Sixty-two postpartum women were screened for depression by the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) on day 7 after delivery. Postpartum women had significantly lower tryptophan, vitamin B12 and significantly greater levels of cortisol, folate, neopterins and biopterins than controls. Comparisons between women who were classified on the EPDS as cases and non-cases revealed only a statistically significant difference for lower N:B (Plow tryptophan to increased EPDS which also showed significant correlations with low methionine, low tyrosine, low N:B ratio and high vitamin B12.

  11. Intestinal microbiota as a tetrahydrobiopterin exogenous source in hph-1 mice (United States)

    Belik, Jaques; Shifrin, Yulia; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Pan, Jingyi; Daigneault, Michelle C.; Allen-Vercoe, Emma


    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor of a number of regulatory enzymes. Although there are no known BH4 exogenous sources, the tissue content of this biopterin increases with age in GTP cyclohydrolase 1-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia-1 (hph-1) mice. Since certain bacteria are known to generate BH4, we hypothesize that generation of this biopterin by the intestinal microbiota contributes to its tissue increase in hph-1 adult mice. The goal of this study was to comparatively evaluate hph-1 mice and wild-type C57Bl/6 controls for the presence of intestinal BH4-producing bacteria. Newborn and adult mice fecal material was screened for 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS-2) an enzyme only present in BH4-generating bacteria. Adult, but not newborn, wild-type control and hph-1 mouse fecal material contained PTPS-2 mRNA indicative of the presence of BH4-generating bacteria. Utilizing chemostat-cultured human fecal bacteria, we identified the PTPS-2-producing bacteria as belonging to the Actinobacteria phylum. We further confirmed that at least two PTPS-2-producing species, Aldercreutzia equolifaciens and Microbacterium schleiferi, generate BH4 and are present in hph-1 fecal material. In conclusion, intestinal Actinobacteria generate BH4. This finding has important translational significance, since manipulation of the intestinal flora in individuals with congenital biopterin deficiency may allow for an increase in total body BH4 content. PMID:28079055

  12. The effect of 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxy-pyrimidine on postburn Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongyun; Yao Yongming; Shi ZhiGuo; Dong Ning; Yu Yan; Lu Lianrong; Sheng Zhiyong


    GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GTP-CHI) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme for the de novo biosynthesis of biopterin. The present study was to observe the effect of 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxy-pyrimidine (DAHP),an inhibtor of GTP-CHI, on the development of postburn Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. Methods: 56 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: normal control group (n= 10), scald control group(n= 10),pos tburn sepsis group (n= 20) and DA HP treatment group (n= 16). In the scald control group, rats were subjected to a 20% total body surface area (TBSA) Ⅲ° scald injury, then sacrificed at 24 hrs. In the postburn sepsis group (n=20), rats were inflicted with 20% TBSA Ⅲ° scald followed by Staphylococcus aureus challenge, and they were further divided into 2 and 6 hrs groups. In the DAHP treatment group (n= 16), animals were intraperitoneally injected with a dose of 1g/kg DAHP prior to Staphylococcus aureus challenge, and then further divided into 2, 6 hrs groups. Tissue samples from liver, kidneys, lungs and heart were collected to determine GTP-CHI, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA expression. Meanwhile, biopterin and nitric oxide (NO) levels in these tissues were also measured. Results: After the scald injury followed by Staphylococcus aureus challenge, GTP-CHI mRNA expression and biopterin levels significantly elevated in various tissues such as liver, heart, kidneys and lungs, so did the values of iNOS mRNA expression and NO formation (P<0.01). Pretreatment with DAHP could significantly reduce GTP-CHI/biopterin induction (P<0. 05~0. 01), and the up-regulation of iNOS/NO was also suppressed. Furthermore, DAHP administration could also inhibit the gene expression of TNF-α. 2 hrs after septic challenge, TNF-α mRNA expression in liver, kidneys and lungs in DAHP-treated group were 35.7%, 37.3% and 33.0% of those in postburn septic group, respectively. Additionally, in animals without DAHP

  13. [Neopterin levels and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in pediatric critically ill patients]. (United States)

    Gil-Gómez, Raquel; Blasco-Alonso, Javier; Sánchez-Yáñez, Pilar; Rosa-Camacho, Vanessa; Milano Manso, Guillermo


    Neopterin and biopterin are sub-products of redox reactions, which act as cofactors of enzymes responsible for nitric oxide production. The hypothesis is presented that plasma neopterin and biopterin evolve differently during the first days in a critically ill child. A single-centre prospective observational study was conducted on patients 7 days to 14 years admitted to our Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and that met Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. Neopterin and biopterin levels, as well as other acute phase reactants, were collected at admission and at 24 h. A total of 28 patients were included, of which 78.9% were male, The median age was 5.04 years (interquartile range [IQR] 1.47-10.26), and PRISM II 2.0% (IQR 1.1-5.0). Mechanical ventilation (MV) was used in 90% of patients, with a median duration of 6.0 hrs (IQR 3.7-102.0). The median length of stay in PICU was 5.0 days (IQR 2.7-18.7), maximum VIS mean of 0 (IQR 0-14). Baseline neopterin level was 2.3±1.2 nmol/l and at 24 h it was 2.3±1.4 nmol/l. Baseline biopterin was 1.3±0.5 nmol/l and 1.4±0.4 nmol/l at 24 h. Neopterin levels were significantly higher in patients with PICU length of stay > 6 days (P=.02), patients who needed MV >24 h (P=.023), and those who developed complications (P=.05). Neopterin correlates directly and is statistically significant with the duration of MV (rho=.6, P=.011), PICU length of stay (rho=.75, P<.0001), and VIS (rho=.73, P=.001). Additionally, biopterin directly correlates with the PRISM (rho=.61, P=.008). There is a higher neopterin level when there is a longer PICU stay, higher VIS score, longer time on MV, and occurrence of complications, indicating the involvement of an activation of the cellular immune system. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  14. Physarum nitric oxide synthases: genomic structures and enzymology of recombinant proteins (United States)

    Messner, Simon; Leitner, Stephan; Bommassar, Christian; Golderer, Georg; Gröbner, Peter; Werner, Ernst R.; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele


    Physarum polycephalum expresses two closely related, calcium-independent NOSs (nitric oxide synthases). In our previous work, we showed that both NOSs are induced during starvation and apparently play a functional role in sporulation. In the present study, we characterized the genomic structures of both Physarum NOSs, expressed both enzymes recombinantly in bacteria and characterized their biochemical properties. Whereas the overall genomic organization of Physarum NOS genes is comparable with various animal NOSs, none of the exon–intron boundaries are conserved. Recombinant expression of clones with various N-termini identified N-terminal amino acids essential for enzyme activity, but not required for haem binding or dimerization, and suggests the usage of non-AUG start codons for Physarum NOSs. Biochemical characterization of the two Physarum isoenzymes revealed different affinities for L-arginine, FMN and 6R-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin. PMID:19046139

  15. Pigmentos de Triatomideos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto G. Villela


    Full Text Available Os extratos em metanolºHCL e amônia-mercaptoetanol de conexivos de Triatomídeos examinados apresentaram espectros de absorção no visível com máximo único e nítido em 400 nm. A cromatografia em camada fina de silica-gel e em papel revelou a pesença de pterinas fluorescentes à luz ultravioleta filtrada em 365 nm a julgar pelos Rf comparados com os de pterinas padrões.Some Hemiptera (Triatomidae common in Brazil (Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma brasiliensis, Rhodnius prolixus presented in the external tegument erythropterin, xanthopterin and possibly 3, 4, 7 - trioxypteridine. Most of the coloured extracts showed in the visible a sharp absorption at 400 nm suggesting its anthocyan character. Neither leuco nor biopterin were detected. The Rf was obtained by thin layer chromatography and the absorption measured spectrophotometrically in a Zeiss PQMII apparatus.

  16. Unresponsiveness to tetrahydrobiopterin of phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. (United States)

    Ponzone, Alberto; Porta, Francesco; Mussa, Alessandro; Alluto, Alessandra; Ferraris, Silvio; Spada, Marco


    Conflicting results have been reported concerning the efficacy of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), the cofactor of phenylalanine hydroxylase, for reducing phenylalanine (Phe) concentration in phenylketonuria (PKU). We aimed to test quantitatively the effects of BH4 in PKU patients. Seven fully characterized patients were selected among a population of 130 PKU subjects as harboring PKU mutations predicted as BH4 responsive and previously considered responsive to a cofactor challenge. They received a simple Phe (100 mg/kg) and 2 combined Phe (100 mg/kg) and BH4 (20 mg/kg) oral loading tests. Cofactor was administered either before or after the amino acid. The concentrations of Phe, tyrosine (Tyr), and biopterin were measured over 24 hours after loading. The comparative analysis of the loading tests showed that in all patients plasma Phe concentrations peaked within 3 hours, and fell within 24 hours by about 50% in benign, 20% in mild, and 15% in severe phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency regardless of BH4 administration. A consistent or moderate increase of plasma Tyr, again independent of the cofactor challenge, was observed only in the less severe forms of PAH deficiency. Mean blood biopterin concentration increased 6 times after simple Phe and 34 to 39 times after combined loading tests. The administration of BH4 does not alter Phe and Tyr metabolism in PKU patients. The clearance of plasma Phe after oral loading and, as well as Tyr production, is not related to cofactor challenge but to patient's phenotype. The assessment of BH4 responsiveness by the methods so far used is not reliable, and the occurrence of BH4-responsive forms of PKU still has to be definitely proven.

  17. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) from the lower eukaryote Leishmania major. (United States)

    Lye, Lon-Fye; Kang, Song Ok; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Casadevall, Arturo; Beverley, Stephen M


    Aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAH) typically use tetrahydrobiopterin (H(4)B) as the cofactor. The protozoan parasite Leishmania major requires biopterin for growth and expresses strong salvage and regeneration systems to maintain H(4)B levels. Here we explored the consequences of genetic manipulation of the sole L. major phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) to explore whether it could account for the Leishmania H(4)B requirement. L. major PAH resembles AAAHs of other organisms, bearing eukaryotic-type domain organization, and conservation of key catalytic residues including those implicated in pteridine binding. A pah(-) null mutant and an episomal complemented overexpressing derivative (pah-/+PAH) were readily obtained, and metabolic labeling studies established that PAH was required to hydroxylate Phe to Tyr. Neither WT nor overexpressing lines were able to hydroxylate radiolabeled tyrosine or tryptophan, nor to synthesize catecholamines. WT but not pah(-) parasites showed reactivity with an antibody to melanin when grown with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), although the reactive product is unlikely to be melanin sensu strictu. WT was auxotrophic for Phe, Trp and Tyr, suggesting that PAH activity was insufficient to meet normal Tyr requirements. However, pah(-) showed an increased sensitivity to Tyr deprivation, while the pah(-)/+PAH overexpressor showed increased survival and could be adapted to grow well without added Tyr. pah(-) showed no alterations in H(4)B-dependent differentiation, as established by in vitro metacyclogenesis, or survival in mouse or macrophage infections. Thus Leishmania PAH may mitigate but not alleviate Tyr auxotrophy, but plays no essential role in the steps of the parasite infectious cycle. These findings suggest PAH is unlikely to explain the Leishmania requirement for biopterin.

  18. Mutation in the 4a-carbinolamine dehydratase gene leads to mild hyperphenylalaninemia with defective cofactor metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citron, B.A.; Kaufman, S.; Milstien, S.; Naylor, E.W. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Greene, C.L. (Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States))


    Hyperphenylalaninemias represent a major class of inherited metabolic disorders. They are most often caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene and, less frequently but with usually more serious consequences, in genes necessary for the synthesis and regeneration of the cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin. This cofactor is absolutely required for all aromatic amino acid hydroxylations, and, recently, nitric oxide production from L-arginine has also been found to be dependent on tetrahydrobiopterin. Phenylalanine hydroxylase catalyzes a coupled reaction in which phenylalanine is converted to tyrosine and in which tetrahydrobiopterin is converted to the unstable carbinolamine, 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin. The enzyme, carbinolamine dehydratase, catalyzes the dehydration of the carbinolamine to quinonoid dihydropterin. A decreased rate of dehydration of this compound has been hypothesized to be responsible for the production of 7-biopterin found in certain mildly hyperphenylalaninemic individuals. The authors have now identified nonsense and missense mutations in the 4a-carbinolamine dehydratase gene in a hyperphenylalaninemic child who excretes large amounts of 7-biopterin. This finding is consistent with the role of the carbinolamine dehydratase in the phenylalanine hydroxylation reaction. Together with previously identified inherited disorders in phenylalanine hydroxylase and dihydropteridine reductase, there are now identified mutations in the three enzymes involved in the phenylalanine hydroxylation system. In addition, the genetics of this system may have broader implications, since the product of the dehydratase gene has previously been shown to play an additional role (as dimerization cofactor for hepatocyte nuclear factor-1[alpha]) in the regulation of transcription, through interaction with hepatocyte nuclear factor-1[alpha].

  19. Characterization of the wild-type form of 4a-carbinolamine dehydratase and two naturally occurring mutants associated with hyperphenylalaninemia. (United States)

    Johnen, G; Kowlessur, D; Citron, B A; Kaufman, S


    The characterization of 4a-carbinolamine dehydratase with the enzymatically synthesized natural substrate revealed non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics. A Hill coefficient of 1.8 indicates that the dehydratase exists as a multisubunit enzyme that shows cooperativity. A mild form of hyperphenylalaninemia with high 7-biopterin levels has been linked to mutations in the human 4a-carbinolamine dehydratase gene. We have now cloned and expressed two mutant forms of the protein based on a patient's DNA sequences. The kinetic parameters of the mutant C82R reveal a 60% decrease in Vmax but no change in Km (approximately 5 microM), suggesting that the cysteine residue is not involved in substrate binding. Its replacement by arginine possibly causes a conformational change in the active center. Like the wild-type enzyme, this mutant is heat stable and forms a tetramer. The susceptibility to proteolysis of C82R, however, is markedly increased in vitro compared with the wild-type protein. We have also observed a decrease in the expression levels of C82R protein in transfected mammalian cells, which could be due to proteolytic instability. The 18-amino acid-truncated mutant GLu-87--> termination could not be completely purified and characterized due to minute levels of expression and its extremely low solubility as a fusion protein. No dehydratase activity was detected in crude extracts from transformed bacteria or transfected mammalian cells. Considering the decrease in specific activity and stability of the mutants, we conclude that the patient probably has less than 10% residual dehydratase activity, which could be responsible for the mild hyperphenylalaninemia and the high 7-biopterin levels. PMID:8618906

  20. Impaired systemic tetrahydrobiopterin bioavailability and increased dihydrobiopterin in adult falciparum malaria: association with disease severity, impaired microvascular function and increased endothelial activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsin W Yeo


    Full Text Available Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH₄ is a co-factor required for catalytic activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and amino acid-monooxygenases, including phenylalanine hydroxylase. BH4 is unstable: during oxidative stress it is non-enzymatically oxidized to dihydrobiopterin (BH₂, which inhibits NOS. Depending on BH₄ availability, NOS oscillates between NO synthase and NADPH oxidase: as the BH₄/BH₂ ratio decreases, NO production falls and is replaced by superoxide. In African children and Asian adults with severe malaria, NO bioavailability decreases and plasma phenylalanine increases, together suggesting possible BH₄ deficiency. The primary three biopterin metabolites (BH₄, BH₂ and B₀ [biopterin] and their association with disease severity have not been assessed in falciparum malaria. We measured pterin metabolites in urine of adults with severe falciparum malaria (SM; n=12, moderately-severe malaria (MSM, n=17, severe sepsis (SS; n=5 and healthy subjects (HC; n=20 as controls. In SM, urinary BH₄ was decreased (median 0.16 ¼mol/mmol creatinine compared to MSM (median 0.27, SS (median 0.54, and HC (median 0.34]; p<0.001. Conversely, BH₂ was increased in SM (median 0.91 ¼mol/mmol creatinine, compared to MSM (median 0.67, SS (median 0.39, and HC (median 0.52; p<0.001, suggesting increased oxidative stress and insufficient recycling of BH2 back to BH4 in severe malaria. Overall, the median BH₄/BH₂ ratio was lowest in SM [0.18 (IQR: 0.04-0.32] compared to MSM (0.45, IQR 0.27-61, SS (1.03; IQR 0.54-2.38 and controls (0.66; IQR 0.43-1.07; p<0.001. In malaria, a lower BH₄/BH₂ ratio correlated with decreased microvascular reactivity (r=0.41; p=0.03 and increased ICAM-1 (r=-0.52; p=0.005. Decreased BH4 and increased BH₂ in severe malaria (but not in severe sepsis uncouples NOS, leading to impaired NO bioavailability and potentially increased oxidative stress. Adjunctive therapy to regenerate BH4 may have a role in improving NO

  1. Is tetrahydrobiopterin a therapeutic option in diabetic hypertensive patients? (United States)

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto Francisco; Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Ramos-Brizuela, Luz Maria; Escalante-Acosta, Bruno Alfonso


    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of vascular tone, and is also an antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiatherogenic factor. Endothelial function is altered in patients with coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease, and endothelial dysfunction correlates with the risk factor profile for a patient. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for vascular disease, and are both pathologies characterized by loss of NO activity. Indeed, endothelial dysfunction is usually present in diabetic and/or hypertensive patients. Tetrahydrobiopterin is an essential cofactor for the NO synthase enzyme, and insufficiency of this cofactor leads to uncoupling of the enzyme, release of superoxide, endothelial dysfunction, progression of hypertension, and finally, proatherogenic effects. Tetrahydrobiopterin is also an important mediator of NO synthase regulation in type 2 diabetes and hypertension, and may be a rational therapeutic target to restore endothelial function and prevent vascular disease in these patients. The aim of this paper is to review the rationale for therapeutic strategies directed to biopterins as a target for vascular disease in type 2 diabetic hypertensive patients. PMID:21949628

  2. Is tetrahydrobiopterin a therapeutic option in diabetic hypertensive patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Francisco Rubio-Guerra


    Full Text Available Alberto Francisco Rubio-Guerra1, Hilda Vargas-Robles2, Luz Maria Ramos-Brizuela1, Bruno Alfonso Escalante-Acosta21Metabolic Clinic, Hospital General de Ticomán SS DF, Mexico; 2Department of Molecular Biomedicine, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, MexicoAbstract: Nitric oxide (NO is an important regulator of vascular tone, and is also an antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiatherogenic factor. Endothelial function is altered in patients with coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease, and endothelial dysfunction correlates with the risk factor profile for a patient. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for vascular disease, and are both pathologies characterized by loss of NO activity. Indeed, endothelial dysfunction is usually present in diabetic and/or hypertensive patients. Tetrahydrobiopterin is an essential cofactor for the NO synthase enzyme, and insufficiency of this cofactor leads to uncoupling of the enzyme, release of superoxide, endothelial dysfunction, progression of hypertension, and finally, proatherogenic effects. Tetrahydrobiopterin is also an important mediator of NO synthase regulation in type 2 diabetes and hypertension, and may be a rational therapeutic target to restore endothelial function and prevent vascular disease in these patients. The aim of this paper is to review the rationale for therapeutic strategies directed to biopterins as a target for vascular disease in type 2 diabetic hypertensive patients.Keywords: tetrahydrobiopterin, endothelial dysfunction, diabetes, hypertension, oxidative stress, nitric oxide, eNOS synthase uncoupling

  3. Cell metabolomics reveals the neurotoxicity mechanism of cadmium in PC12 cells. (United States)

    Zong, Li; Xing, Junpeng; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui


    The heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) can induce neurotoxicity. Extensive studies about the effects of Cd on human health have been reported, however, a systematic investigation on the molecular mechanisms of the effects of Cd on central nervous system is still needed. In this paper, the neuronal PC-12 cells were treated with a series of concentrations of CdCl2 for 48h. Then the cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The IC15 value (15% inhibiting concentration) was selected for further mechanism studies. After PC-12 cells incubated with CdCl2 at a dose of IC15 for 48h, the intracellular and extracellular metabolites were profiled using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)-based cell metabolomics approach. As found, the effects of the heavy metal Cd produced on the PC-12 cell viability were dose-dependent. The metabolic changes were involved in the glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, biopterin metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and fatty acids beta-oxidation. These could cause the perturbation of cell membrane, redox balance, energy supply, cellular detoxification, further affecting the cellular proliferation and apoptosis and other cellular activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effect of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroneopterin on the bovine endothelial cell injury induced by cumene hydroperoxide. (United States)

    Kurobane, T; Kojima, S; Yoshimura, M; Icho, T; Kajiwara, Y; Kubota, K


    Neopterin is an 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine derivative and a precursor of biopterin, which is derived from guanosine triphosphate. Previously, we have reported that 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroneopterin (NPH4), a reduced form of neopterin, possesses an antioxidant activity in various systems. In this study, we investigated the activity in more detailed manner and discussed the possible applications of this antioxidant. Analysis by electron spin resonance spectrometry indicated that NPH4 scavenged superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals as well. Moreover, NPH4 protected the rat brain homogenate from autoxidation. Next, we examined the effect of NPH4 on the cell injury induced by cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in cultured bovine artery endothelial cells. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase, a marker enzyme of cell injury, was elevated by CHP in a dose-dependent manner, and this elevation was dose-dependently suppressed by NPH4. The elevation of lipid peroxide content was also inhibited by NPH4 in the same fashion. These data suggest that NPH4 would be effective against various diseases whose pathogenesis is active oxygen-related.

  5. Mechanism of Inhibition of Novel Tryptophan Hydroxylase Inhibitors Revealed by Co-crystal Structures and Kinetic Analysis. (United States)

    Cianchetta, Giovanni; Stouch, Terry; Yu, Wangsheng; Shi, Zhi-Cai; Tari, Leslie W; Swanson, Ronald V; Hunter, Michael J; Hoffman, Isaac D; Liu, Qingyun


    Trytophan Hydroxylase Type I (TPH1), most abundantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, initiates the synthesis of serotonin by catalyzing hydroxylation of tryptophan in the presence of biopterin and oxygen. We have previously described three series of novel, periphery-specific TPH1 inhibitors that selectively deplete serotonin in the gastrointestinal tract. We have now determined co-crystal structures of TPH1 with three of these inhibitors at high resolution. Analysis of the structural data showed that each of the three inhibitors fills the tryptophan binding pocket of TPH1 without reaching into the binding site of the cofactor pterin, and induces major conformational changes of the enzyme. The enzyme-inhibitor complexes assume a compact conformation that is similar to the one in tryptophan complex. Kinetic analysis showed that all three inhibitors are competitive versus the substrate tryptophan, consistent with the structural data that the compounds occupy the tryptophan binding site. On the other hand, all three inhibitors appear to be uncompetitive versus the cofactor 6-methyltetrahydropterin, which is not only consistent with the structural data but also indicate that the hydroxylation reaction follows an ordered binding mechanism in which a productive complex is formed only if tryptophan binds only after pterin, similar to the kinetic mechanisms of tyrosine and phenylalanine hydroxylase.

  6. Radiation-resistant extremophiles and their potential in biotechnology and therapeutics. (United States)

    Gabani, Prashant; Singh, Om V


    Extremophiles are organisms able to thrive in extreme environmental conditions. Microorganisms with the ability to survive high doses of radiation are known as radioresistant or radiation-resistant extremophiles. Excessive or intense exposure to radiation (i.e., gamma rays, X-rays, and particularly UV radiation) can induce a variety of mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions, which can lead to different forms of cancer. However, some populations of microorganisms thrive under different types of radiation due to defensive mechanisms provided by primary and secondary metabolic products, i.e., extremolytes and extremozymes. Extremolytes (including scytonemin, mycosporine-like amino acids, shinorine, porphyra-334, palythine, biopterin, and phlorotannin, among others) are able to absorb a wide spectrum of radiation while protecting the organism's DNA from being damaged. The possible commercial applications of extremolytes include anticancer drugs, antioxidants, cell-cycle-blocking agents, and sunscreens, among others. This article aims to review the strategies by which microorganisms thrive in extreme radiation environments and discuss their potential uses in biotechnology and the therapeutic industry. The major challenges that lie ahead are also discussed.

  7. A long-term study of the excretion of folate and pterins in a human subject after ingestion of 14C folic acid, with observations on the effect of diphenylhydantoin administration. (United States)

    Krumdieck, C L; Fukushima, K; Fukushima, T; Shiota, T; Butterworth, C E


    After the administration of 2-14C folic acid to a human volunteer, urinary and fecal radioactivity, as well as urinary excretion of folate (Lactobacillus casei assay) and biopterin-like material (Crithidia fasciculata assay) were determined at intervals over a 129 day period of observation. From two 24 h urine samples erythroneopterin, bioterin, threoneopterin pterin, isoxanthopterin, and xanthopterin were isolated by chromatographic procedures, quantitated, and their specific activities were determined. The effect on the pattern of elimination of urinary radioactivity and biological activity resulting from the administration of diphenylhydantoin was studied on two occasions. Urinary radioactivity plots suggest the decay of two forms of folates with markedly different biological half lives. One short-lived (t 1/2 approximately 31.5 hr), corresponding to newly absorbed folate, and one long-lived (t 1/2 approximately 100 day) thought to represent the decay of body pools. Diphenylhydantoin does not alter the rate of elimination of the long-lived component but may accelerate losses of newly absorbed folate. The analysis of pterins does not support the hypothesis that diphenylhydantoin increases the breakdown of folates to pterins.

  8. Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blahova


    Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30 mg·L−1 on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96 h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30 mg·L−1. Most experimental groups showed significantly (P<0.05 lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, leukocyte, and lymphocyte and significantly higher values of monocytes, segmented and band neutrophile granulocytes, and also metamyelocytes and myelocytes. A significantly lower (P<0.05 leukocyte count was also recorded in experimental groups (5 and 15 mg·L−1 after recovery period. Statistically significant (P<0.05 alterations in glucose, total protein, lactate, phosphorus, calcium, and biopterin as well as in activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH were found in most experimental groups. These changes were most apparent in the groups exposed to 20 and 30 mg·L−1. Most of the indices were found to be restored after the 7-day recovery period with the exception of LDH, ALT, and lactate in the group exposed to 15 mg·L−1. Our results showed that atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp.

  9. Reduction of drosopterin content caused by a 45-nt insertion in Henna pre-mRNA of Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Phenylalanine hydroxylase is assumed to be a key enzyme in drosopterin metabolism, but direct in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis is still absent.In the present study, we found a new natural reces-sive purple eye mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, Hnbp, which was a 45-nt insertion mutant in the second exon of Henna.The insertion resulted in a predicted protein with 15 additional amino acids as compared to the wild-type protein.Further analysis of protein structure showed that the predicted mutant protein probably had two more β-sheets, which may cause instability of two α-helices near the catalytic centre of the enzyme in the Biopterin-Hydroxyl binding domain.Hnbp mutant showed eye color defect with decrease of mRNA level, as well as drosopterin content reduction.The drosopterin defect could be fully rescued by expression of wild type Henna in the Hnbp background by GMR-GAL4 UAS-Henna/UAS-Henna:Hnbp/Hnbp transgenic line.All taken together, it can be concluded that the mu-tation in Henna is responsible for drosopterin reduction in mutant Hnbp, which provides key in vivo evidence to support the hypothesis that Henna is involved in drosopterin synthesis.

  10. The Role of Folate Transport in Antifolate Drug Action in Trypanosoma brucei* (United States)

    Dewar, Simon; Sienkiewicz, Natasha; Ong, Han B.; Wall, Richard J.; Horn, David


    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize mechanisms of resistance to antifolate drugs in African trypanosomes. Genome-wide RNAi library screens were undertaken in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei exposed to the antifolates methotrexate and raltitrexed. In conjunction with drug susceptibility and folate transport studies, RNAi knockdown was used to validate the functions of the putative folate transporters. The transport kinetics of folate and methotrexate were further characterized in whole cells. RNA interference target sequencing experiments identified a tandem array of genes encoding a folate transporter family, TbFT1–3, as major contributors to antifolate drug uptake. RNAi knockdown of TbFT1–3 substantially reduced folate transport into trypanosomes and reduced the parasite's susceptibly to the classical antifolates methotrexate and raltitrexed. In contrast, knockdown of TbFT1–3 increased susceptibly to the non-classical antifolates pyrimethamine and nolatrexed. Both folate and methotrexate transport were inhibited by classical antifolates but not by non-classical antifolates or biopterin. Thus, TbFT1–3 mediates the uptake of folate and classical antifolates in trypanosomes, and TbFT1–3 loss-of-function is a mechanism of antifolate drug resistance. PMID:27703008

  11. Scallop phenylalanine hydroxylase implicates in immune response and can be induced by human TNF-α. (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Mengqiang; Zhang, Huan; Wu, Tiantian; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng


    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is an important metabolic enzyme of aromatic amino acids, which is responsible for the irreversible oxidation of phenylalanine to tyrosine. In the present study, the full-length cDNA encoding PAH from Chlamys farreri (designated CfPAH) was cloned by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches and expression sequence tag (EST) analysis. The open reading frame of CfPAH encoded a polypeptide of 460 amino acids, and its sequence shared 64.4-74.2% similarity with those of PAHs from other animals. There were an N-terminal regulatory ACT domain and a C-terminal catalytic Biopterin_H domain in the deduced CfPAH protein. The mRNA transcripts of CfPAH could be detected in all the tested tissues, including adductor muscle, mantle, gill, gonad, haemocytes and hepatopancreas. And its expression level in haemocytes was increased significantly during 3-48 h after bacteria Vibrio anguillarum challenge with the highest level (9.1-fold, P phenylalanine to tyrosine within 1 min (nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein) in vitro. These results indicated collectively that CfPAH, as a homologue of phenylalanine hydroxylase in scallop C. farreri, could be induced by cytokine and involved in the immunomodulation of scallops by supplying the starting material tyrosine for the synthesis of melanin and catecholamines.

  12. Muscle-directed gene therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU): Development of transgenic mice with muscle-specific phenylalanine hydroxylase expression

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    Harding, C.O.; Messing, A.; Wolff, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an attractive target for gene therapy because of shortcomings in current therapy including lifelong commitment to a difficult and expensive diet, persistent mild cognitive deficits in some children despite adequate dietary therapy, and maternal PKU syndrome. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is normally expressed only in liver, but we propose to treat PKU by introducing the gene for PAH into muscle. In order to evaluate both the safety and efficacy of this approach, we have a developed a trangenic mouse which expresses PAH in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. The transgene includes promoter and enhancer sequences from the mouse muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene fused to the mouse liver PAH cDNA. Mice which have inherited the transgene are healthy, active, and do not exhibit any signs of muscle weakness or wasting. Ectopic PAH expression in muscle is not detrimental to the health, neurologic function, or reproduction of the mice. Pah{sup enu2} hyperphenylalaninemic mice, a model of human PAH deficiency, bred to carry the transgene have substantial PAH expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle but none in liver. Muscle PAH expression alone does not complement the hyperphenylalaninemic phenotype of Pah{sup enu2} mice. However, administration of reduced tetrahydrobiopterin to transgenic Pah{sup enu2} mice is associated with a 25% mean decrease in serum phenylalanine levels. We predict that ectopic expression of PAH in muscle along with adequate muscle supplies of reduced biopterin cofactor will decrease hyperphenylalaninemia in PKU.

  13. Reduction of drosopterin content caused by a 45-nt insertion in Henna pre-mRNA of Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qin; ZHAO ChunJiang; BAI LiHua; DENG XueMei; WU ChangXin


    Phenylalanine hydroxylase is assumed to be a key enzyme in drosopterin metabolism, but direct in vivo evidence to support this hypothesis is still absent. In the present study, we found a new natural reces-sive purple eye mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, Hnbp, which was a 45-nt insertion mutant in the second exon of Henna. The insertion resulted in a predicted protein with 15 additional amino acids as compared to the wild-type protein. Further analysis of protein structure showed that the predicted mutant protein probably had two more β-sheets, which may cause instability of two α-helices near the catalytic centre of the enzyme in the Biopterin-Hydroxyl binding domain. Hnbp mutant showed eye color defect with decrease of mRNA level, as well as drosopterin content reduction. The drosopterin defect could be fully rescued by expression of wild type Henna in the Hnbp background by GMR-GAL4 UAS-Henna/UAS-Henna:Hn/Hnbptransgenic line. All taken together, it can be concluded that the mu-tation in Henna is responsible for drosopterin reduction in mutant Hnbp, which provides key in vivo evidence to support the hypothesis that Henna is involved in drosopterin synthesis.

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of "dihydrobiopterin synthetase" deficiency, a variant form of phenylketonuria. (United States)

    Niederwieser, A; Shintaku, H; Hasler, T; Curtius, H C; Lehmann, H; Guardamagna, O; Schmidt, H


    Amniocentesis was performed at 19 weeks gestation in a mother who had previously delivered a boy with "dihydrobiopterin synthetase" (DHBS) deficiency. The amniotic fluid contained neopterin in high (136 nmol/l) and biopterin in very low concentrations (1.8 nmol/l). The activity of the phosphate-eliminating enzyme (PEE, also called 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase, substrate: 7,8-dihydroneopterin triphosphate) which is present in liver and erythrocytes and defective in DHBS deficiency, was measured in the erythrocytes of the family members. The fetal sample showed only 2% of the activity of healthy adult controls and was comparable with that of the affected sibling. Obligate heterozygotes had activities around 20% of the controls. Two fetal control samples showed even higher activities than adult erythrocytes, Sepiapterin reductase activities wer normal in all cases. At autopsy, PEE deficiency was confirmed in the liver of the fetus. We concluded that DHBS deficiency (and most probably also GTP cyclohydrolase I deficiency) can be diagnosed by metabolite measurements in amniotic fluid. PEE activity is measurable in erythrocytes, although the assay needs to be improved. Since maternal tetrahydrobiopterin does not cross the placenta, treatment of a tetrahydrobiopterin-deficient fetus with tetrahydrobiopterin in utero is not possible.

  15. Antenatal diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency by quantification of pterins in amniotic fluid and enzyme activity in fetal and extrafetal tissue. (United States)

    Blau, N; Kierat, L; Matasovic, A; Leimbacher, W; Heizmann, C W; Guardamagna, O; Ponzone, A


    Prenatal diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency was undertaken by evaluating the pterin patterns in amniotic fluid and the specific enzyme activities in fetal or extrafetal tissues. This allowed the prenatal diagnosis in 19 pregnancies at risk. In 8 families with a child already affected by dihydropteridine reductase deficiency 4 fetuses were diagnosed as homozygotes and 4 as heterozygotes for the defect. In 11 families with a child affected by 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency 4 fetuses were homozygous, 4 heterozygous and 3 normal. This study also advanced our knowledge of tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism during fetal development. The key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of BH4 are expressed early and allow the fetus to be autotrophous for its cofactor requirement. In a twin pregnancy, both fetuses were diagnosed to be heterozygotes for dihydropteridine reductase deficiency and primapterin (7-biopterin) in amniotic fluid was increased. This indicates that pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase activity seems to be differently expressed during fetal life. As a consequence, pterins detected in amniotic fluid are of fetal origin and 6- and 7-substituted pterins can be present in amniotic fluid in higher proportions when compared with other body fluids.

  16. Nox2-dependent glutathionylation of endothelial NOS leads to uncoupled superoxide production and endothelial barrier dysfunction in acute lung injury. (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Szczepaniak, William S; Shiva, Sruti; Liu, Huanbo; Wang, Yinna; Wang, Ling; Wang, Ying; Kelley, Eric E; Chen, Alex F; Gladwin, Mark T; McVerry, Bryan J


    Microvascular barrier integrity is dependent on bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) produced locally by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Under conditions of limited substrate or cofactor availability or by enzymatic modification, eNOS may become uncoupled, producing superoxide in lieu of NO. This study was designed to investigate how eNOS-dependent superoxide production contributes to endothelial barrier dysfunction in inflammatory lung injury and its regulation. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with intratracheal LPS. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for protein accumulation, and lung tissue homogenate was assayed for endothelial NOS content and function. Human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HLMVEC) monolayers were exposed to LPS in vitro, and barrier integrity and superoxide production were measured. Biopterin species were quantified, and coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays were performed to identify protein interactions with eNOS that putatively drive uncoupling. Mice exposed to LPS demonstrated eNOS-dependent increased alveolar permeability without evidence for altered canonical NO signaling. LPS-induced superoxide production and permeability in HLMVEC were inhibited by the NOS inhibitor nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, eNOS-targeted siRNA, the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, and superoxide dismutase. Co-IP indicated that LPS stimulated the association of eNOS with NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2), which correlated with augmented eNOS S-glutathionylation both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, Nox2-specific inhibition prevented LPS-induced eNOS modification and increases in both superoxide production and permeability. These data indicate that eNOS uncoupling contributes to superoxide production and barrier dysfunction in the lung microvasculature after exposure to LPS. Furthermore, the results implicate Nox2-mediated eNOS-S-glutathionylation as a mechanism underlying LPS-induced eNOS uncoupling in the lung microvasculature.

  17. Applications of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to study interactions of iron proteins in cells with nitric oxide (United States)

    Cammack, R.; Shergill, J. K.; Ananda Inalsingh, V.; Hughes, Martin N.


    Nitric oxide and species derived from it have a wide range of biological functions. Some applications of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy are reviewed, for observing nitrosyl species in biological systems. Nitrite has long been used as a food preservative owing to its bacteriostatic effect on spoilage bacteria. Nitrosyl complexes such as sodium nitroprusside, which are added experimentally as NO-generators, themselves produce paramagnetic nitrosyl species, which may be seen by EPR. We have used this to observe the effects of nitroprusside on clostridial cells. After growth in the presence of sublethal concentrations of nitroprusside, the cells show they have been converted into other, presumably less toxic, nitrosyl complexes such as (RS) 2Fe(NO) 2. Nitric oxide is cytotoxic, partly due to its effects on mitochondria. This is exploited in the destruction of cancer cells by the immune system. The targets include iron-sulfur proteins. It appears that species derived from nitric oxide such as peroxynitrite may be responsible. Addition of peroxynitrite to mitochondria led to depletion of the EPR-detectable iron-sulfur clusters. Paramagnetic complexes are formed in vivo from hemoglobin, in conditions such as experimental endotoxic shock. This has been used to follow the course of production of NO by macrophages. We have examined the effects of suppression of NO synthase using biopterin antagonists. Another method is to use an injected NO-trapping agent, Fe-diethyldithiocarbamate (Fe-DETC) to detect accumulated NO by EPR. In this way we have observed the effects of depletion of serum arginine by arginase. In brains from victims of Parkinson's disease, a nitrosyl species, identified as nitrosyl hemoglobin, has been observed in substantia nigra. This is an indication for the involvement of nitric oxide or a derived species in the damage to this organ.

  18. In vivo and in vitro evidence for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo and its successful removal by a UVB-activated pseudocatalase. (United States)

    Schallreuter, K U; Moore, J; Wood, J M; Beazley, W D; Gaze, D C; Tobin, D J; Marshall, H S; Panske, A; Panzig, E; Hibberts, N A


    To date there is compelling in vitro and in vivo evidence for epidermal H2O2 accumulation in vitiligo. This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on oxidative stress in the epidermal compartment of this disorder. Elevated H2O2 levels can be demonstrated in vivo in patients compared with healthy controls by utilizing Fourier-Transform Raman spectroscopy. H2O2 accumulation is associated with low epidermal catalase levels. So far, four potential sources for epidermal H2O2 generation in vitiligo have been identified: (i) perturbed (6R)-L-erythro 5,6,7,8 tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4) de novo synthesis/recycling/regulation; (ii) impaired catecholamine synthesis with increased monoamine oxidase A activities; (iii) low glutathione peroxidase activities; and (iv) "oxygen burst" via NADPH oxidase from a cellular infiltrate. H2O2 overproduction can cause inactivation of catalase as well as vacuolation in epidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes. Vacuolation was also observed in vitro in melanocytes established from lesional and nonlesional epidermis of patients (n = 10) but was reversible upon addition of catalase. H2O2 can directly oxidize 6BH4 to 6-biopterin, which is cytotoxic to melanocytes in vitro. Therefore, we substituted the impaired catalase with a "pseudocatalase". Pseudocatalase is a bis-manganese III-EDTA-(HCO3-)2 complex activated by UVB or natural sun. This complex has been used in a pilot study on 33 patients, showing remarkable repigmentation even in long lasting disease. Currently this approach is under worldwide clinical investigation in an open trial. In conclusion, there are several lines of evidence that the entire epidermis of patients with vitiligo is involved in the disease process and that correction of the epidermal redox status is mandatory for repigmentation.

  19. Intraplantar injection of tetrahydrobiopterin induces nociception in mice. (United States)

    Nasser, Arafat; Ali, Sawsan; Wilsbech, Signe; Bjerrum, Ole J; Møller, Lisbeth B


    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is implicated in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. After injury/inflammation, the biosynthesis of BH4 is markedly increased in sensory neurons, and the pharmacological and genetic inhibition of BH4 shows analgesic effects in pre-clinical animal pain models. Intrathecal injections of BH4 have been shown to induce and enhance pain-like behaviours in rats, suggesting that under chronic pain conditions BH4 may act by facilitating central sensitisation. So far it is unknown whether BH4 acts on peripheral sites of the somatosensory system or whether BH4 per se provokes nociceptive pain behaviours. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the acute nociceptive effects of intraplantar injection of BH4. BH4 was found to induce dose-dependent licking/biting of the paw lasting 5 min, which was not observed following an injection of biopterin (inactive BH4 metabolite). Paw swelling, measured as paw thickness and weight, was not observed after BH4 injection. To explore possible mechanisms of action of BH4, the effect of local pre-treatment with indomethacin, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, Nω-nitro-L-arginine, capsazepine and ruthenium red was tested. Morphine served as a positive control. Intraplantar pre-injection of morphine dose-dependently inhibited BH4-induced nociception, while none of the other compounds showed any statistical significant antinociception. These results suggest that BH4 exhibits nociceptive properties at peripheral sites of the somatosensory system, proposing an as yet unexplored involvement of BH4 in peripheral nociceptive processes. However, this appears not to be mediated through nitric oxide and prostaglandin release or by activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1.

  20. Cloning and characterization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) from the pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and its expression following pathogen challenge and hypothermal stress. (United States)

    Mapanao, Ratchaneegorn; Cheng, Winton


    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) belongs to the biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylase enzyme family, and it represents the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines that are required for physiological and immune process in invertebrates and vertebrates. Cloned Litopenaeus vannamei TH (LvTH), containing a short alpha helix domain, a catalytic core, a regulatory domain, a phosphorylation site and two potential N-linked glycosylation sites as presented in vertebrate and insect THs without acidic region and signal peptide cleavage sites at the amino-terminal, exhibited a similarity of 60.0-61.2% and 45.0-47.0% to that of invertebrate and vertebrate THs, respectively. Further, LvTH expression was abundant in gill and haemocytes determined by quantitative real-time PCR. L. vannamei challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 10(5) cfu shrimp(-1) revealed significant increase of LvTH mRNA expression in haemocytes within 30-120 min and in brain within 15-30 min followed with recuperation. In addition, shrimps exposed to hypothermal stress at 18 °C significantly increased LvTH expression in haemocytes and brain within 30-60 and 15-60 min, respectively. The TH activity and haemolymph glucose level (haemocytes-free) significantly increased in pathogen challenged shrimp at 120 min and 60 min, and in hypothermal stressed shrimp at 30-60 and 30 min, respectively. These results affirm that stress response initiates in the brain while haemocytes display later response. Further, the significant elevation of TH activity in haemolymph is likely to confer by TH that released from haemocytes. In conclusion, the cloned LvTH in our current study is a neural TH enzyme appears to be involved in the physiological and immune responses of whiteleg shrimp, L. vannamei suffering stressful stimulation.

  1. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection applied for analysis of pteridines in two Graphosoma species (Insecta: Heteroptera). (United States)

    Kozlík, Petr; Krajíček, Jan; Kalíková, Květa; Tesařová, Eva; Cabala, Radomír; Exnerová, Alice; Stys, Pavel; Bosáková, Zuzana


    A new separation method involving hydrophilic interaction chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection has been developed for the analysis of pteridines, namely biopterin, isoxanthopterin, leucopterin, neopterin, xanthopterin and erythropterin in the cuticle of heteropteran insect species. Two columns, Atlantis HILIC Silica and ZIC(®)-HILIC were tested for the separation of these pteridines. The effect of organic modifier content, buffer type, concentration and pH in mobile phase on retention and separation behavior of the selected pteridines was studied and the separation mechanism was also investigated. The optimized conditions for the separation of pteridines consisted of ZIC(®)-HILIC column, mobile phase composed of acetonitrile/5mM ammonium acetate, pH 6.80, 85/15 (v/v), flow rate 0.5mL/min and column temperature 30°C. Detection was performed by tandem mass spectrometry operating in electrospray ionization with Agilent Jet Stream technology using the selected reaction monitoring mode. The optimized method provided a linearity range from 0.3 to 5000ng/mL (r>0.9975) and repeatability with relative standard deviation<8.09% for all the studied pteridines. The method was applied to the analysis of pteridines in the cuticle of larvae and three adult color forms of Graphosoma lineatum and one form of Graphosoma semipunctatum (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). The analysis shows that different forms of Graphosoma species can be characterized by different distribution of individual pteridines, which affects the coloration of various forms. Only isoxanthopterin was found in all the five forms tested.

  2. Hyperphenylalaninemia due to defects in tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism: Molecular characterization of mutations in 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeny, B.; Leimbacher, W.; Blau, N.; Heizmann, C.W. (Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)); Harvie, A.


    A variant type of hyperphenylalaninemia is caused by a deficiency of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH[sub 4]), the obligatory cofactor for phenylalanine hydroxylase. The most frequent form of this cofactor deficiency is due to lack of 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) activity, the second enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway for BH[sub 4]. The human liver cDNA for PTPS was previously isolated, and the recombinant protein was found to be active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The authors now have investigated two patients for their molecular nature of this autosomal recessive disorder. Both patients were diagnosed as PTPS deficient, one with the central and one with the peripheral form, on the basis of an elevated serum phenylalanine concentration concomitant with lowered levels of urinary biopterin and PTPS activity in erythrocytes. Molecular analysis was performed on the patients' cultured primary skin fibroblasts. PTPS activities were found in vitro to be reduced to background activity. Direct cDNA sequence analysis using reverse transcriptase-PCR technology showed for the patient with the central form a homozygous G-to-A transition at codon 25, causing the replacement of an arginine by glutamine (R25Q). Expression of this mutant allele in E.coli revealed 14% activity when compared with the wild-type enzyme. The patient with the peripheral form exhibited compound heteroxygosity, having on one allele a C-to-T transition resulting in the substitution of arginine 16 for cysteine (R16C) in the enzyme and having on the second allele a 14-bp deletion ([Delta]14bp), leading to a frameshift at lysine 120 and a premature stop codon (K120[yields]Stop). Heterologous expression of the enzyme with the single-amino-acid exchange R16C revealed only 7% enzyme activity, whereas expression of the deletion allele [Delta]14bp exhibited no detectable activity. All three mutations result in reduced enzymatic activity when reconstituted in E. coli.

  3. Differential diagnosis of hyperphenylalaninaemia by a combined phenylalanine-tetrahydrobiopterin loading test. (United States)

    Ponzone, A; Guardamagna, O; Spada, M; Ferraris, S; Ponzone, R; Kierat, L; Blau, N


    We describe a new fully reliable method for the differential diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent hyperphenylalaninaemia (HPA). The method comprises the combined phenylalanine (Phe) plus tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) oral loading test and enables the selective screening of BH4 deficiency when pterin analysis is not available or when a clear diagnosis has not been previously made. It should be performed together with the measurement of dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) activity in blood. The new combined loading test was performed in nine patients with primary HPA, three with classical phenylketonuria (PKU), three with DHPR deficiency, and three with 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) deficiency. Three hours after oral Phe loading (100 mg/kg body weight), synthetic BH4 was administered orally at doses of either 7.5 or 20 mg/kg body weight. Amino acid (Phe and tyrosine) and pterin (neopterin and biopterin) metabolism and kinetics were analysed. By exploiting the decrease in serum Phe 4 and 8 h after administration, a clear response was obtained with the higher BH4 dose (20 mg/kg body weight), allowing detection of all cases of BH4 deficiency, as well as differentiation of BH4 synthesis from regeneration defects. Since DHPR deficient patients who were previously shown to be non-responsive to the simple BH4 loading test gave a positive response, the combined Phe plus BH4 loading test can be used as a more reliable tool for the differential diagnosis of HPA in these patients. Moreover, it takes advantage of being performed while patients are on a Phe-restricted diet.

  4. Redox function of tetrahydrobiopterin and effect of L-arginine on oxygen binding in endothelial nitric oxide synthase. (United States)

    Berka, Vladimir; Yeh, Hui-Chun; Gao, De; Kiran, Farheen; Tsai, Ah-Lim


    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), not dihydrobiopterin or biopterin, is a critical element required for NO formation by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). To elucidate how BH(4) affects eNOS activity, we have investigated BH(4) redox functions in the endothelial NOS (eNOS). Redox-state changes of BH(4) in eNOS were examined by chemical quench/HPLC analysis during the autoinactivation of eNOS using oxyhemoglobin oxidation assay for NO formation at room temperature. Loss of NO formation activity linearly correlated with BH(4) oxidation, and was recovered by overnight incubation with fresh BH(4). Thus, thiol reagents commonly added to NOS enzyme preparations, such as dithiothreitol and beta-mercaptoethanol, probably preserve enzyme activity by preventing BH(4) oxidation. It has been shown that conversion of L-arginine to N-hydroxy-L-arginine in the first step of NOS catalysis requires two reducing equivalents. The first electron that reduces ferric to the ferrous heme is derived from flavin oxidation. The issue of whether BH(4) supplies the second reducing equivalent in the monooxygenation of eNOS was investigated by rapid-scan stopped-flow and rapid-freeze-quench EPR kinetic measurements. In the presence of L-arginine, oxygen binding kinetics to ferrous eNOS or to the ferrous eNOS oxygenase domain (eNOS(ox)) followed a sequential mechanism: Fe(II) Fe(II)O(2) --> Fe(III) + O(2)(-). Without L-arginine, little accumulation of the Fe(II)O(2) intermediate occurred and essentially a direct optical transition from the Fe(II) form to the Fe(III) form was observed. Stabilization of the Fe(II)O(2) intermediate by L-arginine has been established convincingly. On the other hand, BH(4) did not have significant effects on the oxygen binding and decay of the oxyferrous intermediate of the eNOS or eNOS oxygenase domain. Rapid-freeze-quench EPR kinetic measurements in the presence of L-arginine showed a direct correlation between BH(4) radical formation and decay of the Fe(II)O(2) intermediate