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Sample records for bioprospecting endophytic bacteria

  1. Isolation and enzyme bioprospection of endophytic bacteria associated with plants of Brazilian mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Renata A; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Lacava, Paulo T; Batista, Bruna D; Luvizotto, Danice M; Marcon, Joelma; Ferreira, Anderson; Melo, Itamar S; Azevedo, João L

    2014-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is a coastal tropical biome located in the transition zone between land and sea that is characterized by periodic flooding, which confers unique and specific environmental conditions on this biome. In these ecosystems, the vegetation is dominated by a particular group of plant species that provide a unique environment harboring diverse groups of microorganisms, including the endophytic microorganisms that are the focus of this study. Because of their intimate association with plants, endophytic microorganisms could be explored for biotechnologically significant products, such as enzymes, proteins, antibiotics and others. Here, we isolated endophytic microorganisms from two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Avicennia nitida, that are found in streams in two mangrove systems in Bertioga and Cananéia, Brazil. Bacillus was the most frequently isolated genus, comprising 42% of the species isolated from Cananéia and 28% of the species from Bertioga. However, other common endophytic genera such as Pantoea, Curtobacterium and Enterobacter were also found. After identifying the isolates, the bacterial communities were evaluated for enzyme production. Protease activity was observed in 75% of the isolates, while endoglucanase activity occurred in 62% of the isolates. Bacillus showed the highest activity rates for amylase and esterase and endoglucanase. To our knowledge, this is the first reported diversity analysis performed on endophytic bacteria obtained from the branches of mangrove trees and the first overview of the specific enzymes produced by different bacterial genera. This work contributes to our knowledge of the microorganisms and enzymes present in mangrove ecosystems.

  2. Isolation and enzyme bioprospection of endophytic bacteria associated with plants of Brazilian mangrove ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Renata A; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Lacava, Paulo T; Batista, Bruna D; Luvizotto, Danice M; Marcon, Joelma; Ferreira, Anderson; Melo, Itamar S; Azevedo, João L

    2014-01-01

    The mangrove ecosystem is a coastal tropical biome located in the transition zone between land and sea that is characterized by periodic flooding, which confers unique and specific environmental conditions on this biome. In these ecosystems, the vegetation is dominated by a particular group of plant species that provide a unique environment harboring diverse groups of microorganisms, including the endophytic microorganisms that are the focus of this study. Because of their intimate associatio...

  3. Bioprospecting endophytic bacteria for biological control of coffee leaf rust Bioprospecção de bactérias endofíticas como agentes de biocontrole da ferrugem do cafeeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Franco Shiomi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Suppression of plant diseases due to the action of endophytic microorganisms has been demonstrated in several pathosystems. Experiments under controlled conditions involving endophytic bacteria isolated from leaves and branches of Coffea arabica L and Coffea robusta L were conducted with the objective of evaluating the inhibition of germination of Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br., race II, urediniospores and the control of coffee leaf rust development in tests with leaf discs, detached leaves, and on potted seedling of cv. Mundo Novo. The endophytic bacterial isolates tested proved to be effective in inhibiting urediniospore germination and/or rust development, with values above 50%, although the results obtained in urediniospore germination tests were inferior to the treatment with fungicide propiconazole. Endophytic isolates TG4-Ia, TF2-IIc, TF9-Ia, TG11-IIa, and TF7-IIa, demonstrated better coffee leaf rust control in leaf discs, detached leaves, and coffee plant tests. The endophytic isolates TG4-Ia and TF9-Ia were identified as Bacillus lentimorbus Dutky and Bacillus cereus Frank. & Frank., respectively. Some endophytic bacterial isolates were effective in controlling the coffee leaf rust, although some increased the severity of the disease. Even though a relatively small number of endophytic bacteria were tested, promising results were obtained regarding the efficiency of coffee leaf rust biocontrol. These selected agents appears to be an alternative for future replacement of chemical fungicide.Supressão de doenças de plantas por microrganismos endofíticos tem sido demonstrada em diversos patossistemas. Neste trabalho foram selecionados isolados de bactérias endofíticas de folhas e ramos de cafeeiro com potencial para o controle biológico da ferrugem do cafeeiro, pois é conhecido que esses microrganismos podem possuir essa característica. Bactérias endofíticas isoladas previamente de folhas e ramos de Coffea arabica L e Coffea

  4. Endophyte bioprospecting in South Asian medicinal plants: an attractive resource for biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Javeed, Aqeel; Bajwa, Aamir Ghafoor

    2017-03-01

    From the last several years, there has been an increasing interest in plant-associated bacteria commonly referred to as endophytes that reside asymptomatically in the internal plant tissues. This interest peaked since the last two decades due to the recognition that endophytes within medicinal plants have the capability to mimic and produce the bioactive metabolites of the host plant. A number of medicinal plants have been used for centuries by the people of South Asia to cure various diseases and this has led to abundant usage experience. Relating to prior ethanopharmacological experiences, scientists have searched for medicinal plants that could be valued sources for endophytes yielding novel metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. This review is therefore an effort to encompass the most recent efforts in the exploration of medicinal plants of South Asia and their endophytes.

  5. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant-bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2. produce...

  6. Do foliar endophytic bacteria fix nitrogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, L. M.; Moyes, A. B.; Frank, C.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Carper, D.; Vandehey, N.; O'Neil, J.; Dekas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic microorganisms - bacteria and fungi that live inside healthy plant tissue - are a relatively unexplored source of functional diversity in natural ecosystems. Prior to modern sequencing technology, detecting uncultured endophytic bacteria and assessing their putative functions was challenging. However, recent work has revealed a remarkable diversity of as yet non-culturable endophytic taxa and is beginning to identify functional roles within plant microbiomes. We recently examined bacterial communities in the foliage of a long-lived, high-elevation conifer species, limber pine (Pinus flexilis), and discovered a community strongly dominated by acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacteraceae), with several taxa closely related to known nitrogen fixers. Given limber pine's status as a pioneer species that is able to grow in low fertility soils, we hypothesized that this bacterial community has a potential functional role in fixing atmospheric nitrogen, providing a source of this limiting nutrient to the host tree. We used the radioisotope 13N2 to confirm that N2 rapidly diffuses into pine needles, where it could potentially be fixed. With an acetylene reduction assay we confirmed nitrogenase enzyme activity inside excised twigs 4 times over a growing season, and estimate potential rates of N2 fixation at 0.1 nmol N2 g needle-1 hr-1. Scaled to the stand level, this N input could be on the order of ~20 mg N m-2 d-1 over a growing season. While these rates are low, the long lifespan of individual trees (~1000 years) makes them biologically meaningful. Still, measured rates of acetylene reduction and bulk 15N2 incorporation are quite variable in space and time. Much work remains to better characterize the plant-microbial interactions in this system, including the rates of nitrogen fixation and their variability over the growing season, across edaphic conditions, among host species, and through plant development; and to determine which community members are responsible

  7. Bioprospecting endophytic diazotrophicLysinibacillus sphaericusas biocontrol agents of rice sheath blight disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanamol, S; Sreekumar, J; Jisha, M S

    2017-10-01

    The present study tried to explore the possible in vitro biocontrol mechanisms of Lysinibacillus sphaericus , a diazotrophic endophyte from rice against the rice sheath blight pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The in vivo biocontrol potential of the isolate and the induction of systemic resistance under greenhouse conditions have also been experimented employing different treatments with positive control carbendazim, the chemical fungicide. The endophytic isolate showed 100% growth inhibition of the fungal pathogen via volatile organic compound production and was positive for the production of siderophores, biosurfactants, HCN, and ammonia. Under greenhouse conditions, foliar and soil application of L. sphaericus significantly decreased the percentage of disease incidence. All bacterized treatments are superior to chemical fungicide treatment. Application of L. sphaericus in single and combination treatments induces systemic resistance as evident from the significant accumulation of defense enzymes such as peroxides, polyphenol oxides and phenylalanine ammonia in addition to the increase of phenolic compounds. The results biologically prospect endophytic diazotroph L. sphaericus as a potent plant growth promoter with excellent biocontrol efficiency.

  8. Influence of Culturing Conditions on Bioprospecting and the Antimicrobial Potential of Endophytic Fungi from Schinus terebinthifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonial, Fabiana; Maia, Beatriz H L N S; Gomes-Figueiredo, Josiane A; Sobottka, Andrea M; Bertol, Charise D; Nepel, Angelita; Savi, Daiani C; Vicente, Vânia A; Gomes, Renata R; Glienke, Chirlei

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial activity of extracts harvested from 17 endophytic fungi isolated from the medicinal plant Schinus terebinthifolius. Morphological and molecular analyses indicated that these fungal species belonged to the genera Alternaria, Bjerkandera, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Penicillium, and Xylaria. Of the endophytes analyzed, 64.7 % produced antimicrobial compounds under at least one of the fermentation conditions tested. Nine isolates produced compounds that inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus, four produced compounds that inhibited Candida albicans, and two that inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The fermentation conditions of the following endophytes were optimized: Alternaria sp. Sect. Alternata-LGMF626, Xylaria sp.-LGMF673, and Bjerkandera sp.-LGMF713. Specifically, the carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH, temperature, and length of incubation were varied. In general, production of antimicrobial compounds was greatest when galactose was used as a carbon source, and acidification of the growth medium enhanced the production of compounds that inhibited C. albicans. Upon large-scale fermentation, Alternaria sp. Sect. Alternata-LGMF626 produced an extract containing two fractions that were active against methicillin-resistant S. aureus. One of the extracts exhibited high activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 18.52 µg/mL), and the other exhibited moderate activity (minimum inhibitory concentration of 55.55 µg/mL). The compounds E-2-hexyl-cinnamaldehyde and two compounds of the pyrrolopyrazine alkaloids class were identified in the active fractions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  9. Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J; White, James F; Prado, Fernanda M; Prieto, Katia R; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Torres, Monica S; Kato, Massuo J; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-11-06

    Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from (15)N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with (15)NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of (15)N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes.

  10. Endophytic bacteria with potential for bioremediation of petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endophytic microorganisms live inside plants and show no apparent damage for the host. They often assist in plants' survival and facilitate their growth, or they can metabolize organic contaminants. This study aimed to isolate and identify the endophytic bacteria of plants present in impacted areas, as well as to test their ...

  11. Plant growth promoting potential of endophytic bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endophytic microorganisms are able to promote plant growth through various mechanisms, such as production of plant hormones and antimicrobial substances, as well as to provide the soil with nutrients, for instance, inorganic phosphate. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of endophytic bacteria isolated from ...

  12. Endophytic bacteria with plant growth promoting and biocontrol abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malfanova, Natalia V.

    2013-01-01

    Since global food insecurity is one of the major problems faced by humanity, there is a necessity to increase plant productivity. For this, biofungicides and biofertilizers present an ecologically friendly alternative to their chemical counterparts. Among these bioinoculants, endophytic bacteria

  13. Inner Plant Values: Diversity, Colonization and Benefits from Endophytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most exciting scientific advances in recent decades has been the realization that the diverse and immensely active microbial communities are not only ‘passengers’ with plants, but instead play an important role in plant growth, development and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. A picture is emerging where plant roots act as ‘gatekeepers’ to screen soil bacteria from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. This typically results in root endophytic microbiome dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and to a lesser extent Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes being almost depleted. A synthesis of available data suggest that motility, plant cell-wall degradation ability and reactive oxygen species scavenging seem to be crucial traits for successful endophytic colonization and establishment of bacteria. Recent studies provide solid evidence that these bacteria serve host functions such as improving of plant nutrients through acquisition of nutrients from soil and nitrogen fixation in leaves. Additionally, some endophytes can engage ‘priming’ plants which elicit a faster and stronger plant defense once pathogens attack. Due to these plant growth-promoting effects, endophytic bacteria are being widely explored for their use in the improvement of crop performance. Updating the insights into the mechanism of endophytic bacterial colonization and interactions with plants is an important step in potentially manipulating endophytic bacteria/microbiome for viable strategies to improve agricultural production.

  14. Inner Plant Values: Diversity, Colonization and Benefits from Endophytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Carvalhais, Lilia C; Crawford, Mark; Singh, Eugenie; Dennis, Paul G; Pieterse, Corné M J; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-01-01

    One of the most exciting scientific advances in recent decades has been the realization that the diverse and immensely active microbial communities are not only 'passengers' with plants, but instead play an important role in plant growth, development and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. A picture is emerging where plant roots act as 'gatekeepers' to screen soil bacteria from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. This typically results in root endophytic microbiome dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and to a lesser extent Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes being almost depleted. A synthesis of available data suggest that motility, plant cell-wall degradation ability and reactive oxygen species scavenging seem to be crucial traits for successful endophytic colonization and establishment of bacteria. Recent studies provide solid evidence that these bacteria serve host functions such as improving of plant nutrients through acquisition of nutrients from soil and nitrogen fixation in leaves. Additionally, some endophytes can engage 'priming' plants which elicit a faster and stronger plant defense once pathogens attack. Due to these plant growth-promoting effects, endophytic bacteria are being widely explored for their use in the improvement of crop performance. Updating the insights into the mechanism of endophytic bacterial colonization and interactions with plants is an important step in potentially manipulating endophytic bacteria/microbiome for viable strategies to improve agricultural production.

  15. Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: effects and potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, W M M S; Seneviratne, Gamini; Kulasooriya, S A

    2006-12-01

    Plants benefit extensively by harbouring endophytic microbes. They promote plant growth and confer enhanced resistance to various pathogens. However, the way the interactions among endophytes influence the plant productivity has not been explained. Present study experimentally showed that endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa) used as the test plant produced two types of interactions; biofilms (bacteria attached to mycelia) and mixed cultures with no such attachments. Acidity, as measured by pH in cultures with biofilms was higher than that of fungi alone, bacteria alone or the mixed cultures. Production of indoleacetic acid like substances (IAAS) of biofilms was higher than that of mixed cultures, fungi or bacteria. Bacteria and fungi produced higher quantities of IAAS than mixed cultures. In mixed cultures, the potential of IAAS production of resident microbes was reduced considerably. There was a negative relationship between IAAS and pH of the biofilms, indicating that IAAS was the main contributor to the acidity. However, such a relationship was not observed in mixed cultures. Microbial acid production is important for suppressing plant pathogens. Thus the biofilm formation in endophytic environment seems to be very important for healthy and improved plant growth. However, it is unlikely that an interaction among endophytes takes place naturally in the endophytic environment, due to physical barriers of plant tissues. Further, critical cell density dependant quorum sensing that leads to biofilm formation may not occur in the endophytic environment as there is a limited space. As such in vitro production and application of beneficial biofilmed inocula of endophytes are important for improved plant production in any agro-ecosystem. The conventional practice of plant inoculation with monocultures or mixed cultures of effective microbes may not give the highest microbial effect, which may only be achieved by biofilm formation.

  16. Antibiotic oxylipins from Alternanthera brasiliana and its endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Marília Almeida; Kai, Marco; Mithöfer, Axel; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

    2015-02-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Alternanthera brasiliana stem extracts resulted in the isolation of an antibiotically active fraction. Five human pathogenic bacteria were used to guide the fractionation process for the isolation of antimicrobial compounds. Finally, 17 linoleate oxylipins were identified by LC-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Five of the isolated compounds present in A. brasiliana tissues were also detected to be synthesized by endophytic bacteria of the genus Bacillus that were isolated from A. brasiliana. It is speculated that the antibiotic oxylipins from A. brasiliana might derive from bacteria and be involved in an ecological relationship between this plant and its endophytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution of culturable endophytic bacteria in lemon grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endophytic bacteria are currently being harnessed as potential sources of bioactive compounds, potential biofertilizers, and as tools for bioremediation. This therefore stresses the importance of searching for these noble bacteria in various plants. In the present study, fresh and apparently healthy leaves and roots of lemon ...

  18. Seed-vectored endophytic bacteria modulate development of rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Kingsley, K; Irizarry, I; Bergen, M; Kharwar, R N; White, J F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the removal of indigenous bacteria from rice seeds on seedling growth and development. Here we report the presence of three indigenous endophytic bacteria in rice seeds that play important roles in modulating seedling development (shoot and root lengths, and formation of root hairs and secondary roots) and defence against pathogens. Seed-associated bacteria were removed using surface sterilization with NaOCl (bleach) followed by antibiotic treatment. When bacteria were absent, growth of seedlings in terms of root hair development and overall seedling size was less than that of seedlings that contained bacteria. Reactive oxygen staining of seedlings showed that endophytic bacteria became intracellular in root parenchyma cells and root hairs. Roots containing endophytic bacteria were seen to stain densely for reactive oxygen, while roots free of bacteria stained lightly for reactive oxygen. Bacteria were isolated and identified as Enterobacter asburiae (VWB1), Pantoea dispersa (VWB2) and Pseudomonas putida (VWB3) by 16S rDNA sequencing. Bacteria were found to produce indole acetic acid (auxins), inhibited the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and solubilized phosphate. Reinoculation of bacteria onto seedlings derived from surface-disinfected rice and Bermuda grass seeds significantly restored seedling growth and development. Rice seeds harbour indigenous bacterial endophytes that greatly influence seedling growth and development, including root and shoot lengths, root hair formation and disease susceptibility of rice seedlings. This study shows that seeds of rice naturally harbour bacterial endophytes that play key roles in modulation of seedling development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Endophytes as sources of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Klimova, Elena; Rodríguez-Peña, Karol; Sánchez, Sergio

    2017-06-15

    Until a viable alternative can be accessible, the emergence of resistance to antimicrobials requires the constant development of new antibiotics. Recent scientific efforts have been aimed at the bioprospecting of microorganisms' secondary metabolites, with special emphasis on the search for antimicrobial natural products derived from endophytes. Endophytes are microorganisms that inhabit the internal tissues of plants without causing apparent harm to the plant. The present review article compiles recent (2006-2016) literature to provide an update on endophyte research aimed at finding metabolites with antibiotic activities. We have included exclusively information on endophytes that produce metabolites capable of inhibiting the growth of bacterial, fungal and protozoan pathogens of humans, animals and plants. Where available, the identified metabolites have been listed. In this review, we have also compiled a list of the bacterial and fungal phyla that have been isolated as endophytes as well as the plant families from which the endophytes were isolated. The majority of endophytes that produce antibiotic metabolites belong to either phylum Ascomycota (kingdom Fungi) or to phylum Actinobacteria (superkingdom Bacteria). Endophytes that produce antibiotic metabolites were predominant, but certainly not exclusively, from the plant families Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Araceae, suggesting that endophytes that produce antimicrobial metabolites are not restricted to a reduced number of plant families. The locations where plants (and inhabiting endophytes) were collected from, according to the literature, have been mapped, showing that endophytes that produce bioactive compounds have been collected globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  1. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhu Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp. and P3 (Pseudomonas sp., which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP, PHE, fluorene (FLR, pyrene (PYR, and benzo(apyrene (B(aP as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(aP, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(aP. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days. Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria.

  2. Identification of lead-resistant endophytic bacteria isolated from rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Cordero, Alexander; Barraza-Roman, Zafiro; Martinez-Pacheco, Dalila

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of endophytic bacteria in vitro was evaluated at different lead concentrations. The tissue samples of commercial rice varieties at tillering stage were collected during the first half of 2013, in Monteria, Cordoba, Colombia. Each tissue was subjected to surface cleaning. Endophytic bacteria were isolated in agar R 2 A medium. The population density (CFU/g tissue) was determined from each tissue by direct counting of R 2 A medium surface. Morphotypes were classified by shape, color, size and appearance. A total of 168 morphotypes were isolated from root, tillers and leaf of different commercial varieties of rice. The lead resistance test is performed in vitro, The lead resistance test was performed in vitro, by the suspensions of endophytic bacteria in log phase and inoculation in minimal medium with five concentrations of lead as Pb (NO 3 ) 2 . The experiment was incubated at 32 degrees celsius and agitated at 150 rpm for five days. The measure of turbidimetry at 600 nm was conduced every hour afterstarting the test. Endophytic bacteria showed the ability to grow at concentrations of 100% of Pb as Pb (NO 3 ) 2 . The presence of Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas putida, which showed resistance to differents lead concentration was confirmed as result of the identification with kit API20E. (author) [es

  3. Identification of lead- resistant endophytic bacteria isolated from rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pérez-Cordero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the endophytic bacteria resistance to different lead concentrations. The sampling was undertaken in the first half of 2013, when tissue samples of commercial varieties of rice at tillering stage were collected in Montería, Cordoba, Colombia. Each tissue was subjected to surface cleaning. Endophytic bacteria in agar R2A medium were isolated. Population density (CFU/g tissue was determined from each tissue, by direct counting of R2A medium surface. morphotypes were classified by shape, color, size, and appearance. A total of 168 morphotypes were isolated from root, tillers, and leaf of different commercial varieties of rice. The lead resistance test was performed in vitro, to do that, suspensions of endophytic bacteria in log phase were prepared and inoculated in minimal medium with five concentrations of lead as Pb(NO32. The experiment was incubated at 32 °C and agitated at 150 rpm, for five days. Every hour afterstarting the test, turbidimetry measuring at 600 nm was conducted. Results showed the ability of endophytic bacteria to grow at concentrations of 100% of Pb as Pb(NO32. The results of the identification with kit API20E confirmed the presence of Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas putida, which showed resistance to different lead concentrations.

  4. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Endophytic Bacteria From Rambutan Fruits (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Cultivar Binjai

    OpenAIRE

    Sony Suhandono; Meirina Kartika Kusumawardhani; Pingkan Aditiawati

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between plants and endophytic bacteria are mutualistic. Plant provides nutrient for bacteria, and bacteria will protect the plant from pathogen, help the phytohormone synthesis and nitrogen fixation, and also increase absorption of minerals. These bacteria called plant growth-promoting bacteria. The aim for this study is to identify endophytic bacteria on rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) cultivar Binjai with 16S rRNA. Sequencing results showed that the bacteria is derived from g...

  5. Diversity of endophytic bacteria in medicinally important Nepenthes species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhore, Subhash J; Komathi, Vijayan; Kandasamy, Kodi I

    2013-07-01

    Nepenthes species are used in traditional medicines to treat various health ailments. However, we do not know which types of endophytic bacteria (EB) are associated with Nepenthes spp. The objective of this study was to isolate and to identify EB associated with Nepenthes spp. Surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissues from nine Nepenthes spp. collected from Peninsular Malaysia were used to isolate EB. Isolates were identified using the polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence similarity based method. Cultivable, 96 isolates were analyzed; and the 16S rDNA sequences analysis suggest that diverse bacterial species are associated with Nepenthes spp. Majority (55.2%) of the isolates were from Bacillus genus, and Bacillus cereus was the most dominant (14.6%) among isolates. Nepenthes spp. do harbor a wide array of cultivable endophytic bacteria.

  6. Microgravity effect on endophytic bacteria communities of Triticum aestivum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Youcai; Fu, Yuming; Chen, Huiwen; Liu, Hong; Sun, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Under normal gravity conditions, endophytic bacteria, one of the key bacterial community that inhabit in plant tissues, are well-known in promoting the plant growth and health, which are essential for long-term and long-distance manned microgravity space exploration. Here, we report how the Triticum aestivum endophytic bacterial communities behave differently under the simulated microgravity conditions. We demonstrate that, under simulated microgravity conditions, the microbial diversity in wheat seedling leaf increases while that in root decreases, compared to that cultivated under normal gravity conditions. We found that the dominant bacteria genus such as Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus and Bacillus significantly changes with gravity. The findings of this study provide important insight for space research, especially in terms of the Triticum aestivum cultivation in space.

  7. Molecular Phylogeny, Diversity, and Bioprospecting of Endophytic Fungi Associated with wild Ethnomedicinal North American Plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Camila R; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-07-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, of which Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium, and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 are the most frequent colonizers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis. The compounds (-)-5-methylmellein and (-)-(3R)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterraneaEPU38CA crude extract. (-)-5-Methylmellein showed weak activity against Phomopsis obscurans, P. viticola, and Fusarium oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botrytis cinerea. (-)-(3R)-8-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5-methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  8. Sunflower growth according to seed inoculation with endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fernandes dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower crop has a great importance worldwide, due to the oil of excellent quality extracted from its seeds and in natura grains that are consumed in various ways. However, drought is one of the main environmental factors that limit its yield. An experiment was carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions, in a completely randomized experimental design, in order to determine the effect of endophytic bacteria inoculation (Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter cloacae on the growth and contents of nutrients and organic solutes, in sunflower leaves and roots under water deficit. Plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry biomass of shoot and roots, as well as contents of N, P, K, soluble carbohydrates, free proline, free amino acids and soluble proteins, were determined at 35 days after the plant emergence. The water deficit reduced plant growth regardless inoculation. However, under optimum conditions of soil moisture, the combination of both endophytic bacteria increased the sunflower growth. The water deficit also increased the N and K contents in leaves, as well as the organic solutes content in shoots, especially in inoculated plants. These results suggest that the inoculation of endophytic bacteria may increase the capacity of drought stressed plants to perform the osmotic adjustment through a higher accumulation of organic solutes, when compared to plants not inoculated.

  9. Bioaugmentation with engineered endophytic bacteria improves contaminant fate in phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Artois, T.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-12-01

    Phytoremediation of volatile organic contaminants often proves not ideal because plants and their rhizosphere microbes only partially degrade these compounds. Consequently, plants undergo evapotranspiration that contaminates the ambient air and, thus, undermines the merits of phytoremediation. Under laboratory conditions, endophytic bacteria equipped with the appropriate degradation pathways can improve in plant degradation of volatile organic contaminants. However, several obstacles must be overcome before engineered endophytes will be successful in field-scale phytoremediation projects. Here we report the first in situ inoculation of poplar trees, growing on a TCE-contaminated site, with the TCE-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE. In situ bioaugmentation with strain W619-TCE reduced TCE evapotranspiration by 90% under field conditions. This encouraging result was achieved after the establishment and enrichment of P. putida W619-TCE as a poplar root endophyte and by further horizontal gene transfer of TCE metabolic activity to members of the poplar's endogenous endophytic population. Since P. putida W619-TCE was engineered via horizontal gene transfer, its deliberate release is not restricted under European genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulations.

  10. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from heavy metal(loid)-tolerant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Ponce, Brenda; Ramos-Garza, Juan; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Rivera-Orduña, Flor Nohemí; Chen, Wen Feng; Yan, Jun; Estrada-de Los Santos, Paulina; Wang, En Tao

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the interactions among endophytes, plants and heavy metal/arsenic contamination, root endophytic bacteria of Prosopis laevigata (Humb and Bonpl. ex Willd) and Sphaeralcea angustifolia grown in a heavy metal(loid)-contaminated zone in San Luis Potosi, Mexico, were isolated and characterized. Greater abundance and species richness were found in Prosopis than in Sphaeralcea and in the nutrient Pb-Zn-rich hill than in the poor nutrient and As-Cu-rich mine tailing. The 25 species identified among the 60 isolates formed three groups in the correspondence analysis, relating to Prosopis/hill (11 species), Prosopis/mine tailing (4 species) and Sphaeralcea/hill (4 species), with six species ungrouped. Most of the isolates showed high or extremely high resistance to arsenic, such as ≥100 mM for As(V) and ≥20 mM for As(III), in mineral medium. These results demonstrated that the abundance and community composition of root endophytic bacteria were strongly affected by the concentration and type of the heavy metals and metalloids (arsenic), as well as the plant species.

  11. Growth and photosynthetic efficiency promotion of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yingwu; Lou, Kai; Li, Chun

    2010-07-01

    Very little is known about the physiological interactions between plants and endophytic bacteria. We investigated the impact of three endophytic bacteria, Bacillus pumilus 2-1, Chryseobacterium indologene 2-2, and Acinetobacter johnsonii 3-1, on the photosynthetic capacity and growth of sugar beet. Endophyte-free plants were obtained first and infected with the bacteria. Measurements of total chlorophyll content revealed very significant differences between endophyte-free beet plants and some infected by endophytic bacteria. The maximum photochemical yield (Fv/Fm) was used to determine any photosynthetic effect on plants caused by biotic or abiotic factors. After 30 days of growth, there was significantly higher Fv/Fm for endophyte-infected than endophyte-free plants. The light response curves of beet showed that photosynthetic capacity was significantly increased in endophyte-infected plants. Photosynthesis of endophyte-free plants was saturated at 1,300 micromol m(-2) s(-1), whereas endophyte-infected plants were not saturated at the irradiance used. The effect seemed to be due to promotion of electron transport in the thylakoid membranes. Promotion of photosynthetic capacity in sugar beet was due to increased chlorophyll content, leading to a consequent increased carbohydrate synthesis. It is possible that the increased maximum yield of photosynthesis in sugar beet was promoted by phytohormones and produced by the bacteria.

  12. Specific and functional diversity of endophytic bacteria from pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus with different virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Qin; Yuan, Wei-Min; Tian, Xiao-Jing; Fan, Ben; Fang, Xin; Ye, Jian-Ren; Ding, Xiao-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the most devastating diseases of Pinus spp. The PWN was therefore listed as one of the most dangerous forest pests in China meriting quarantine. Virulence of the PWN is closely linked with the spread of PWD. However, main factors responsible for the virulence of PWNs are still unclear. Recently epiphytic bacteria carried by PWNs have drawn much attention. But little is known about the relationship between endophytic bacteria and virulence of B. xylophilus. In this research, virulence of ten strains of B. xylophilus from different geographical areas in six provinces of China and four pine species were tested with 2-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from PWNs with different virulence to investigate the relationship between the bacteria and PWN virulence. Meanwhile, the carbon metabolism of endophytic bacteria from highly and low virulent B. xylophilus was analyzed using Biolog plates (ECO). The results indicated that ten strains of PWNs showed a wide range of virulence. Simultaneously, endophytic bacteria were isolated from 90% of the B. xylophilus strains. The dominant endophytic bacteria in the nematodes were identified as species of Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Ewingella, Leifsonia, Rhizobium, and Pseudomonas using molecular and biochemical methods. Moreover, S. maltophilia, and A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans were the predominant strains. Most of the strains (80%) from P. massoniana contained either S. maltophilia, A. xylosoxidans, or both species. There was a difference between the abilities of the endophytic bacteria to utilize carbon sources. Endophytic bacteria from highly virulent B. xylophilus had a relatively high utilization rate of carbohydrate and carboxylic acids, while bacteria from low virulent B. xylophilus made better use of amino acids. In conclusion, endophytic bacteria widely exist in B. xylophilus

  13. Diversity of cultivated endophytic bacteria from sugarcane: genetic and biochemical characterization of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, R.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A.A.; Araujo, W.L.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere and from inside the roots and stems of sugarcane plants grown in the field in Brazil. Endophytic bacteria were found in both the roots and the stems of sugarcane plants, with a significantly higher density in the roots. Many of the cultivated endophytic

  14. Metagenomics workflow analysis of endophytic bacteria from oil palm fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjung, Z. A.; Aditama, R.; Sudania, W. M.; Utomo, C.; Liwang, T.

    2017-05-01

    Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has become a powerful sequencing tool for microbial study especially to lead the establishment of the field area of metagenomics. This study described a workflow to analyze metagenomics data of a Sequence Read Archive (SRA) file under accession ERP004286 deposited by University of Sao Paulo. It was a direct sequencing data generated by 454 pyrosequencing platform originated from oil palm fruits endophytic bacteria which were cultured using oil-palm enriched medium. This workflow used SortMeRNA to split ribosomal reads sequence, Newbler (GS Assembler and GS Mapper) to assemble and map reads into genome reference, BLAST package to identify and annotate contigs sequence, and QualiMap for statistical analysis. Eight bacterial species were identified in this study. Enterobacter cloacae was the most abundant species followed by Citrobacter koseri, Seratia marcescens, Latococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter amalonaticus, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Pseudomonas sp. respectively. All of these species have been reported as endophyte bacteria in various plant species and each has potential as plant growth promoting bacteria or another application in agricultural industries.

  15. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Endophytic Bacteria From Rambutan Fruits (Nephelium lappaceum L. Cultivar Binjai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Suhandono

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between plants and endophytic bacteria are mutualistic. Plant provides nutrient for bacteria, and bacteria will protect the plant from pathogen, help the phytohormone synthesis and nitrogen fixation, and also increase absorption of minerals. These bacteria called plant growth-promoting bacteria. The aim for this study is to identify endophytic bacteria on rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. cultivar Binjai with 16S rRNA. Sequencing results showed that the bacteria is derived from genus Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Chryseobacterium, Staphylococcus and Curtobacterium, which suspected play a role as plant growth-promoting bacteria.

  16. Diversity and characterization of bioactive compounds of endophytic bacteria from medicinal plants

    OpenAIRE

    Akinsanya, Mushafau Adewale

    2017-01-01

    Endophytes are believed to produce a number of beneficial bioactive compounds of pharmacological importance. The aims of this study are to evaluate the diversity and characterize the bioactive compounds of bacterial endophytes from selected local medicinal plants. Eighty-seven species of endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface sterilized tissues of six local medicinal plants of which 29 were isolated from Aloe vera, 15 from Mentha spicata, eight from Ocimum basilicum, 16 from Cymbopogo...

  17. Endophytic bacteria in cacti seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant-bacterium association between the giant cardon cactus Pachycereus pringlei and endophytic bacteria help seedlings establish and grow on barren rock, This cactus, together with other desert plants, is responsible for weathering ancient lava flows in the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico.When cardon seeds are inoculated with endophytic...

  18. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C; De la Mora-Amutio, Marcela; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  19. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia del C. Martínez-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI. Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  20. Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: effects and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plants benefit extensively by harbouring endophytic microbes. They promote plant growth and confer enhanced resistance to various pathogens. However, the way the interactions among endophytes influence the plant productivity has not been explained. Present study experimentally showed that endophytes isolated from ...

  1. Maize seed endophytic bacteria: dominance of antagonistic, lytic enzyme-producing Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodhankar, Shrey; Grover, Minakshi; Hemanth, Sunaina; Reddy, Gopal; Rasul, Shaik; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Desai, Suseelendra; Mallappa, Manjunath; Mandapaka, Maheswari; Srinivasarao, Ch

    2017-08-01

    Beneficial aspects of endophytic microorganisms have motivated researchers to explore plant endophytic world. The present study was aimed to isolate and characterize the seed-borne endophytic bacteria from diverse maize genotypes. Eighty maize seed endophytic bacteria (MSEB), isolated from 30 maize genotypes, were characterized using polyphasic approach. The dendrograms and phylogenetic tree generated on the basis of ARDRA analysis and metabolic profiling of endophytic bacteria revealed genotypic and biochemical diversity among MSEB. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed Bacillus as the most dominant encountered genus affiliated with Phylum Firmicutes. Few isolates belonged to genus Staphylococcus, whereas one isolate was identified as Corynebacterium sp. under Phylum Actinobacteria. Majority of the MSEB isolates exhibited antagonism against phytopathogenic fungi, production of ammonia, and secretion of lytic enzymes; some isolates also exhibited indole acetic acid production, the traits of which can be helpful in endophytic establishment and advantageous to the host plant. Besides, many MSEB exhibited tolerance to salinity (10%), osmotic stress (40% PEG6000), and temperature (60 °C), indicating their possible application under stress conditions. Endophytic nature of the selected MSEB isolates was confirmed by tracking their presence in shoots, leaves, and roots of the host seedlings with the help of biochemical marker (rifampicin resistance). Thus, the MSEB identified in the present study can be explored as potential bioinputs for improving plant growth and productivity under stressed conditions, besides helping in understanding the plant-endophyte interactions.

  2. Natural Medium for Growing of Endophytic Bacteria from Solanaceae in Malang-Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Purnawati Arika; Harijani Wiwik Sri; Windriyanti Wiwin

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are important microorganisms having potential as biocontrol agents for many pathogens. Until now, the growth of it always uses semi-synthetic or synthetic medium so it was difficult to be used by farmers in the field and it was expensive to have its propagation as biocontrol agents. Based on the problem, this research will study the natural medium as propagation medium of Endophytic bacteria. It had natural ingredients such as soybean, chicken broth, egg, worms, snail, sor...

  3. The diversity of citrus endophytic bacteria and their interactions with Xylella fastidiosa and host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Lúcio Azevedo

    Full Text Available Abstract The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC and has been associated with important losses in commercial orchards of all sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.] cultivars. The development of this disease depends on the environmental conditions, including the endophytic microbial community associated with the host plant. Previous studies have shown that X. fastidiosa interacts with the endophytic community in xylem vessels as well as in the insect vector, resulting in a lower bacterial population and reduced CVC symptoms. The citrus endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum can trigger X. fastidiosa response in vitro, which results in reduced growth and induction of genes associated with energy production, stress, transport, and motility, indicating that X. fastidiosa has an adaptive response to M. mesophilicum. Although this response may result in reduced CVC symptoms, the colonization rate of the endophytic bacteria should be considered in studies that intend to use this endophyte to suppress CVC disease. Symbiotic control is a new strategy that uses symbiotic endophytes as biological control agents to antagonize or displace pathogens. Candidate endophytes for symbiotic control of CVC must occupy the xylem of host plants and attach to the precibarium of sharpshooter insects to access the pathogen. In the present review, we focus on interactions between endophytic bacteria from sweet orange plants and X. fastidiosa, especially those that may be candidates for control of CVC.

  4. The diversity of citrus endophytic bacteria and their interactions with Xylella fastidiosa and host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, João Lúcio; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and has been associated with important losses in commercial orchards of all sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.)] cultivars. The development of this disease depends on the environmental conditions, including the endophytic microbial community associated with the host plant. Previous studies have shown that X. fastidiosa interacts with the endophytic community in xylem vessels as well as in the insect vector, resulting in a lower bacterial population and reduced CVC symptoms. The citrus endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum can trigger X. fastidiosa response in vitro, which results in reduced growth and induction of genes associated with energy production, stress, transport, and motility, indicating that X. fastidiosa has an adaptive response to M. mesophilicum. Although this response may result in reduced CVC symptoms, the colonization rate of the endophytic bacteria should be considered in studies that intend to use this endophyte to suppress CVC disease. Symbiotic control is a new strategy that uses symbiotic endophytes as biological control agents to antagonize or displace pathogens. Candidate endophytes for symbiotic control of CVC must occupy the xylem of host plants and attach to the precibarium of sharpshooter insects to access the pathogen. In the present review, we focus on interactions between endophytic bacteria from sweet orange plants and X. fastidiosa, especially those that may be candidates for control of CVC. PMID:27727362

  5. Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: effects and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    The colonization of plants by putative endophytes has been visualized by using laser scanning confocal microscope (Coombs and Franco 2003). Endophytes promote the growth of plants in various ways, for example through secretion of plant growth regulators;. e.g. indole-acetic acid (Lee et al 2004), via phosphate-.

  6. Pesticide Degrading Bacteria in Aquatic Environment: Bioprospecting and Evaluation of Biotechnological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodrigues dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides play an important role in the increase of productivity in agro-industry and the extensive use of these substances cause environmental, economic and social damage in time. Microbial activity is an essential part in the dynamics and the destination of pesticides in the environment. This research focuses in prospecting and characterizing bacterial strains which are potentially able to degrade/tolerate Atrazine, Chlorpyrifos, Methyl parathion and Picloram. Bacteria were isolated from water samples collected according to the degree of salinity along the Pacoti River's estuary (Ceara, located in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. A total of 49 bacterial strains were isolated, all of which tolerated/ downgraded concentrations up to 200mg/L of picloram, atrazine and methyl parathion. Tested in pesticide mixtures, the percentage and tolerance level showed that 73% grew in concentrations up to 200mg/L, 17,4% tolerated/ downgraded up to 150ml/L and the remainder only grew in concentrations under 100ml/L. The strains which had the best performance against pesticides, by points, were P1 (13Db e 14D; P2 (10E; P3 (2M, 9M, 10M, 12Mb, 14M, 17M 18Mp 19M e 20M. A high percentage of isolates (67% expressed luminescence when exposed to the pesticides atrazine and methyl parathion in concentrations between 150 and 200ml/L. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i4.748

  7. Endophytic Fungi Associated With Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. Can Inhibit Histamine-Forming Bacteria in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eris Septiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. is a medicinal plant that is commonly used as spice and preservative. Many types of endophytic fungi have been reported as being associated with medicinal plants and able to synthesize secondary metabolites. In this study, endophytic fungi were isolated from all plant parts of turmeric plants. Identification of the endophytic fungi was done using morphological characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of ribosomal DNA. The dual culture method was used for screening antibacterial activity of the endophytic fungi against Morganella morganii, a common histamine-producing bacteria. The disc diffusion method was used to test the ability of water fractions of selected endophytic fungi to inhibit M. morganii growth. Two-dimensional thin layer chromatography was used to determine the fungal extract inhibition activity on histamine formation. In total, 11 endophytic fungi were successfully isolated and identified as Arthrobotrys foliicola, Cochliobolus kusanoi, Daldinia eschscholzii, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium verticillioides, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Phaeosphaeria ammophilae. Five isolates showed inhibition activity against M. morganii in the dual culture tests. Based on the disc diffusion assay, A. foliicola and F. verticillioides inhibited the growth of M. morganii as a histamine-producing bacteria, and inhibiting histamine formation in fish. The best effects in inhibiting growth of the histamine-producing bacteria and histamine formation inhibition in fish were produced with F. verticillioides water fraction at 0°C incubation.

  8. Bioprospecting arsenite oxidizing bacteria in the soil of the Comarca Lagunera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelweiss A. Rangel-Montoya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El arsénico es uno de los metaloides más tóxicos presente en el ambiente y la exposición prolongada a este metal causa efectos crónicos en la salud. Por ello, la búsqueda de alternativas amigables con el medio ambiente, para el tratamiento de agua y suelos contaminados con arsénico es importante. En este trabajo se aislaron cepas bacterianas de suelos con presencia de arsénico en la Comarca Lagunera, para analizar aquellas con capacidad oxidante de arsenito. Las cepas 04-SP1qa y 14-SP1qh de metabolismo quimiolitoautotrófico y quimioheterotrófico, respectivamente, tuvieron mayor actividad de la enzima arsenito oxidasa. Las condiciones óptimas de crecimiento y la actividad enzimática de dichas cepas se investigaron. La cepa 04-SP1qa presentó actividad enzimática específica de 0.162 μmol·min- 1 ·mg-1, constante de Michaelis-Menten (Km de 3.37 μM y velocidad máxima (Vmax de 5.20 μM·min-1·mg-1 en condiciones óptimas de pH 8.0 y 40 °C. La cepa 14-SP1qh presentó actividad enzimática específica de 0.16 μmol·min-1·mg-1, Km de 3.70 μM y Vmax de 14.39 μM·min-1·mg-1 a pH 7.0 y 40 °C. Los resultados demostraron la presencia de bacterias oxidantes de arsenito con actividad enzimática en suelos de la Comarca Lagunera, identificando potencial para desarrollar nuevas tecnologías de biorremediación de aguas y suelos contaminados con arsénico en la región.

  9. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiang Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1 non-treated; (2 chicken manure-treated and (3 organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.

  10. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-06-30

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.

  11. Natural Medium for Growing of Endophytic Bacteria from Solanaceae in Malang-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnawati Arika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria are important microorganisms having potential as biocontrol agents for many pathogens. Until now, the growth of it always uses semi-synthetic or synthetic medium so it was difficult to be used by farmers in the field and it was expensive to have its propagation as biocontrol agents. Based on the problem, this research will study the natural medium as propagation medium of Endophytic bacteria. It had natural ingredients such as soybean, chicken broth, egg, worms, snail, sorghum and they were easy to get by farmers. This study used endophytic bacteria from Solanaceae in Malang- Indonesia. Four isolates of endophytic bacteria were grown in agar and liquid medium with ingredients of corn flour, soybean flour, sorghum flour, snail flour, and worm flour. There is no difference in the incubation period, color, shape, and surface colony. The population in medium with snail flour ingredients at a concentration of 107 cfu/ml is the highest and snail flour is the best medium for growing endophytic bacteria.

  12. Potential use of endophytic bacteria to promote the plant growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Débora

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... immersion periods (30 and 60 min), eight isolates (endophytic bacteria) plus control (saline solution;. 0.85% sodium chloride) .... saline solution were used for immersion of the banana roots. Two root immersion periods .... bacteria observed in this work, in the conditions in which they were isolated, could ...

  13. Bioprospecting of Diaporthe terebinthifolii LGMF907 for antimicrobial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Aliandra G; Savi, Daiani C; Mitra, Prithiba; Shaaban, Khaled A; Jha, Amit K; Thorson, Jon S; Rohr, Jürgen; Glienke, Chirlei

    2018-03-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been observed with increasing frequency over the past decades, driving the search for new drugs and stimulating the interest in natural products sources. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants represent a great source of novel bioactive compounds useful to pharmaceutical and agronomical purposes. Diaporthe terebinthifolii is an endophytic species isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius, a plant used in popular medicine for several health problems. The strain D. terebinthifolii LGMF907 was previously reported by our group to produce secondary metabolites with biological activity against phytopathogens. Based on these data, strain LGMF907 was chosen for bioprospecting against microorganisms of clinical importance and for characterization of major secondary metabolites. In this study, different culture conditions were evaluated and the biological activity of this strain was expanded. The crude extracts demonstrated high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The compounds diaporthin and orthosporin were characterized and also showed activity against the clinical microorganisms evaluated. This study discloses the first isolation of diaporthin and orthosporin from D. terebinthifolii, and revealed the potential of this endophytic fungus to produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity.

  14. The Genetic Diversity of Endophytic and Phyllosphere Bacteria from Several Indonesian Herbal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Rachelia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal plants have been believed by Indonesians to be an alternative medicine to treat illnesses. The bioactivecompounds in the plant can be derived from secondary metabolites or from endophytic and phyllosphere bacteria whichcoexist within medicinal plants. A total of 18 endophytic bacteria and 32 phyllosphere bacteria were isolated from theherbal plants of Citrus sp., Pluchea indica, Curcuma longa, Nothopanax scuttelarium, Piper crocatum, andAndrographis paniculata. About 72% of endophytic bacteria isolates have proteolytic activity and about 11% havelipolytic activity. On the other hand, about 59% of phyllosphere bacteria isolates have proteolytic activity and about19% have lipolytic activity. Phylogenetic diversity analysis was conducted by using the amplified ribosomal DNArestriction analysis (ARDRA method and the sequence of 16S rDNA was digested with endonuclease restrictionenzymes: MspI, RsaI, and Sau961. The diversity of endophytic and phyllosphere bacterium from the samples of herbalplants was high. Bacteria isolated from the same herbal plant does not always have a close genetic relationship exceptfor the bacteria isolated from the P. indica plant which showed a close genetic relationship with each other.

  15. Evaluation of the plant-growth-promoting abilities of endophytic bacteria from the psammophyte Ammodendron bifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanlei; She, Xiaoping

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the plant-growth-promoting abilities of 45 endophytic bacterial isolates from Ammodendron bifolium through physiological characteristics detection and endophytic bacteria-plant interaction. Each of these isolates exhibited 1 or more plant-growth-promoting traits, but only 11 isolates belonging to the genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Kocuria were capable of promoting seed germination and radicle growth. These results together with the results of the correlation analysis revealed that the completion of seed germination may not be due to IAA production, phosphate solubilization, pellicle formation, and ACC deaminase, protease and lipase production by endophytic bacteria, but may be closely related to amylase and cellulase production. Further, endophytic bacterial isolates with plant-growth-promoting traits may also provide beneficial effects to host plants at different growth stages. Thus, these results are of value for understanding the ecological roles of endophytic bacteria in host plant habitats and can serve as a foundation for further studies of their potential in plant regeneration.

  16. EFFICACY OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA IN REDUCING PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODE Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Harni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pratylenchus brachyurus is a major parasitic nematode on patchouli that reduces plant production up to 85%. The use of endophytic bacteria is promising for controlling nematode and promoting plant growth through production of phytohormones and enhancing the availability of soil nutrients. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of endophytic bacteria to control P. brachyurus on patchouli plant and its influence on plant productions (plant fresh weight and patchouli oil. The study was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Garden and Laboratory of the Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMECRI, Bogor, West Java. The experi-ment was designed in a randomized block with seven treatments and eight replications; each replication consisted of 10 plants. The treatments evaluated were five isolates of endophytic bacteria (Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2, Alcaligenes faecalis NJ16, Pseudomonas putida EH11, Bacillus cereus MSK and Bacillus subtilis NJ57, synthetic nematicide as a reference, and non-treated plant as a control.  Four-week old patchouli plants of cv. Sidikalang were treated by soaking the roots in suspension of endophytic bacteria (109 cfu  ml-1 for one hour before trans-planting to the field. At one month after planting, the plants were drenched with the bacterial suspension as much as 100 ml per plant. The results showed that applications of the endophytic bacteria could suppress the nematode populations (52.8-80% and increased plant weight (23.62-57.48% compared to the control. The isolate of endophytic bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans TT2 was the best and comparable with carbofuran.

  17. [Population dynamics and antagonism toward Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. Vasinfectum. and Verticillium dahliae Kleb of endophytic bacteria from cotton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhong; Deng, Yuanyu; Zhao, Mingwen; Tang, Canming; Li, Shunpeng; Lv, Haiwei

    2009-09-01

    To explore population dynamics of endophytic bacteria and obtain antagonistic endophytic bacteria toward Verticillium dahliae Kleb (Vd), Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. Vasinfectum (Fov) from cotton. Root, stem and leaf samples were surface-disinfested, and subsequently used to isolate endophytic bacteria by diluting plate counting method. We assayed antagonism of the isolated endophytic bacteria toward three pathogens: Vd (V107, which is a highly virulent defoliating isolate and V396, which is a mildly virulent non-defoliating isolate), Fov (F108) using a dual culture method, and analyzed the 16S rDNA sequence of doubly antagonistic endophytic bacteria (DAEB) isolates toward both Vd and Fov. The population size of endophytic bacteria in root was significantly larger than that in leaf and stem. The populations at seedling stage were generally lower than those at the flowering/maturing stage in root, the populations in stem and leaf were fluctuant at different development stages, but variation law was not observed obviously. Furthermore, although no significant differences of the population densities in root were found among 6 cotton cultivars, the population densities in stem and leaf showed cultivar differences. The proportion of endophytic bacteria antagonizing Vd (V107, V396) and Fov (F108) in root was higher than that in stem/leaf, moreover, the amount of endophytic bacteria antagonizing toward V107 was less than that toward V396/F108. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, all 44 DAEB isolates consisted of two phyla, i.e., Bacteroidetes (1 out of 44) and Proteobacteria (43 out of 44), and fell into 8 genera. The genus enterobacter (18 out of 44) and Pantoea (15 out of 44) were predominant. Notably, ten DAEB isolates demonstrated bacteria. We discovered that DAEB with predominant and various genus existed in cotton. Endophytic bacteria in cotton could serve as a pool for discovering biocontrol agent toward cotton pathogens.

  18. Potential use of endophytic bacteria to promote the plant growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential use of endophytic bacteria to promote the plant growth of micropropagated banana cultivar Prata Anã. Thiago Prates Fernandes, Silvia Nietsche, Márcia Regina Costa, Adelica Aparecida Xavier, Débora Francine Gomes Silva Pereira, Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira ...

  19. Sustainable control of pea bacterial blight : approaches for durable genetic resistance and biocontrol by endophytic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elvira-Recuenco, M.

    2000-01-01

    Key-words: bacterial blight, biological control, biodiversity, endophytic bacteria, L-form, pea, PDRl retrotransposon, Pisum sativum, Pisum abyssinicum, Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi, race specific resistance, race non-specific resistance, Spanish landraces.

    Pea bacterial blight

  20. Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: effects and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    sensing that leads to biofilm formation may not occur in the endophytic environment as there is a limited space. As such in vitro ... of effective microbes may not give the highest microbial effect, which may only be achieved by biofilm formation. [Bandara W M M S ... inoculants (Barraquio et al 2000). The colonization of plants.

  1. Metabolic response induced by endophytic fungi and bacteria in H. marrubioides Epling in vitro microplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina Vitorino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis marrubioides Epling is a native plant from Brazilian Cerrado. In this paper, the response of in vitro microplants of this species to inoculation with bacterial and fungal endophytic isolates is evaluated. HPLC-DAD analysis showed the presence of 3,4-O-(Z-dicaffeoylquinic acid and quercetin-7-O-glucoside as the main components. GC/MS analysis demonstrated that the sesquiterpenes τ-cadinol and caryophyllene oxide were only produced in microplants inoculated with endophytic bacteria, while methyl hexadecanoate, methyl heptadecanoate and methyl (Z,Z,Z 9,12,15-octadecatrienoate and the triterpene methyl 3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oate were overexpressed only when the microplant was treated with endophytic fungi.

  2. Metabolic response induced by endophytic fungi and bacteria in H. marrubioides Epling in vitro micro plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitorino, Luciana Cristina; Silva, Fabiano Guimaraes, E-mail: fabianocefetrv@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Goiano, Rio Verde, GO (Brazil); Lima, William Cardoso; Soares, Marcos Antonio [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica e Ecologia; Pedroso, Rita Cassia Nascimento; Silva, Maroli Rodrigues; Dias, Herbert Junior; Crotti, Antonio Eduardo Miller; Silva, Marcio Luis Andrade e; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Pauletti, Patricia Mendonca; Januario, Ana Helena [Universidade de Franca, SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas

    2013-10-01

    Hyptis marrubioides Epling is a native plant from Brazilian Cerrado. In this paper, the response of in vitro micro plants of this species to inoculation with bacterial and fungal endophytic isolates is evaluated. HPLC-DAD analysis showed the presence of 3,4-O-(Z)-dicaffeoylquinic acid and quercetin-7-O-glucoside as the main components. GC/MS analysis demonstrated that the sesquiterpenes Greek-Small-Letter-Tau -cadinol and caryophyllene oxide were only produced in micro plants inoculated with endophytic bacteria, while methyl hexadecanoate, methyl heptadecanoate and methyl (Z,Z,Z) 9,12,15-octadecatrienoate and the triterpene methyl 3{beta}-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oate were over expressed only when the micro plant was treated with endophytic fungi. (author)

  3. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Costa, Leonardo Emanuel; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; de Moraes, Celia Alencar; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes

    2012-10-01

    The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro) grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 10(2) to 2.8 x 10(3) CFU g(-1) of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology.

  4. Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The common bean is one of the most important legumes in the human diet, but little is known about the endophytic bacteria associated with the leaves of this plant. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic bacteria of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. leaves from three different cultivars (Vermelhinho, Talismã, and Ouro Negro grown under the same field conditions. The density of endophytic populations varied from 4.5 x 10² to 2.8 x 10³ CFU g-1 of fresh weight. Of the 158 total isolates, 36.7% belonged to the Proteobacteria, 32.9% to Firmicutes, 29.7% to Actinobacteria, and 0.6% to Bacteroidetes. The three P. vulgaris cultivars showed class distribution differences among Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Bacilli. Based on 16S rDNA sequences, 23 different genera were isolated comprising bacteria commonly associated with soil and plants. The genera Bacillus, Delftia, Methylobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas were isolated from all three cultivars. To access and compare the community structure, diversity indices were calculated. The isolates from the Talismã cultivar were less diverse than the isolates derived from the other two cultivars. The results of this work indicate that the cultivar of the plant may contribute to the structure of the endophytic community associated with the common bean. This is the first report of endophytic bacteria from the leaves of P. vulgaris cultivars. Future studies will determine the potential application of these isolates in biological control, growth promotion and enzyme production for biotechnology.

  5. The communities of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) leaf endophytic bacteria, analyzed by 16S-ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Fernando M; Marina, María; Pieckenstain, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    Endophytic bacterial communities of tomato leaves were analyzed by 16S-rRNA gene pyrosequencing and compared to rhizosphere communities. Leaf endophytes mainly comprised five phyla, among which Proteobacteria was the most represented (90%), followed by Actinobacteria (1,5%), Planctomycetes (1,4%), Verrucomicrobia (1,1%), and Acidobacteria (0,5%). Gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant class of Proteobacteria (84%), while Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria represented 12% and 4% of this phylum, respectively. Rarefaction curves for endophytic bacteria saturated at 80 OTUs, indicating a lower diversity as compared to rhizosphere samples (> 1700 OTUs). Hierarchical clustering also revealed that leaf endophytic communities strongly differed from rhizospheric ones. Some OTUs assigned to Bacillus, Stenotrophomonas, and Acinetobacter, as well as some unclassified Enterobacteriaceae were specific for the endophytic community, probably representing bacteria specialized in colonizing this niche. On the other hand, some OTUs detected in the leaf endophytic community were also present in the rhizosphere, probably representing soil bacteria that endophytically colonize leaves. As a whole, this study describes the composition of the endophytic bacterial communities of tomato leaves, identifying a variety of genera that could exert multiple effects on growth and health of tomato plants. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Biodiversity of phosphate-dissolving and plant growth--promoting endophytic bacteria of two crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Sheng, Xiafang; He, Linyan

    2010-06-01

    We isolated and characterized phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria from two commonly cultivated crops. Phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria were isolated by plating and screening from interior tissues of rape and maize plants on NBRIP medium with tricalcium phosphate as sole phosphate source. Bacteria were characterized regarding characteristics that may be relevant for a beneficial plant-microbe interaction-indoleacetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase production,and further classified by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA. Eleven typical strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thirty-two phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria were isolated from maize and rape plants and classified by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA in 8 different taxonomic groups at the similarity level of 76%. All the isolates could release phosphate from tricalcium phosphate and decrease the pH of the medium. The maximum phosphate content (537.6 mg/L) in the solution was obtained with strain M1L5. Thirteen isolates isolated from rape produced indoleacetic acid and siderophore, 68.4% and 63.2% of the strains isolated from maize produced indoleacetic acid and siderophore,respectively. 63.2% of the strains isolated from maize were able to grow on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as the sole nitrogen source. The eleven strains belonged to five different genera including Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Acinetobacter and Ralstonia. Phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria isolated from rape and maize plants have abundant characteristics relative to promoting plant growth and genetic diversity.

  7. Distribution of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. from soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anping Peng

    Full Text Available The distributions of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. grown in soils contaminated with different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated with polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology (PCR-DGGE and cultivation methods. Twelve types of PAHs, at concentrations varying from 0.16 to 180 mg·kg(-1, were observed in the roots and shoots of the two plants. The total PAH concentrations in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol obtained from three different PAH-contaminated stations were 184, 197, and 304 mg·kg(-1, and the total PAH concentrations in Oxalis corniculata L. were 251, 346, and 600 mg·kg(-1, respectively. The PCR-DGGE results showed that the endophytic bacterial communities in the roots and shoots of the two plants were quite different, although most bacteria belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A total of 68 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from different tissues of the two plants and classified into three phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In both plants, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant cultivable populations. With an increase in the PAH pollution level, the diversity and distribution of endophytic bacteria in the two plants changed correspondingly, and the number of cultivable endophytic bacterial strains decreased rapidly. Testing of the isolated endophytic bacteria for tolerance to each type of PAH showed that most isolates could grow well on Luria-Bertani media in the presence of different PAHs, and some isolates were able to grow rapidly on a mineral salt medium with a single PAH as the sole carbon and energy source, indicating that these strains may have the potential to degrade PAHs in plants. This research provides the first insight into the characteristics of endophytic bacterial populations under different PAH pollution levels and provides a

  8. Distribution of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. from soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Anping; Liu, Juan; Gao, Yanzheng; Chen, Zeyou

    2013-01-01

    The distributions of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. grown in soils contaminated with different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated with polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology (PCR-DGGE) and cultivation methods. Twelve types of PAHs, at concentrations varying from 0.16 to 180 mg·kg(-1), were observed in the roots and shoots of the two plants. The total PAH concentrations in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol obtained from three different PAH-contaminated stations were 184, 197, and 304 mg·kg(-1), and the total PAH concentrations in Oxalis corniculata L. were 251, 346, and 600 mg·kg(-1), respectively. The PCR-DGGE results showed that the endophytic bacterial communities in the roots and shoots of the two plants were quite different, although most bacteria belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A total of 68 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from different tissues of the two plants and classified into three phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In both plants, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant cultivable populations. With an increase in the PAH pollution level, the diversity and distribution of endophytic bacteria in the two plants changed correspondingly, and the number of cultivable endophytic bacterial strains decreased rapidly. Testing of the isolated endophytic bacteria for tolerance to each type of PAH showed that most isolates could grow well on Luria-Bertani media in the presence of different PAHs, and some isolates were able to grow rapidly on a mineral salt medium with a single PAH as the sole carbon and energy source, indicating that these strains may have the potential to degrade PAHs in plants. This research provides the first insight into the characteristics of endophytic bacterial populations under different PAH pollution levels and provides a species

  9. Distribution of Endophytic Bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. from Soils Contaminated by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Anping; Liu, Juan; Gao, Yanzheng; Chen, Zeyou

    2013-01-01

    The distributions of endophytic bacteria in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol and Oxalis corniculata L. grown in soils contaminated with different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated with polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology (PCR-DGGE) and cultivation methods. Twelve types of PAHs, at concentrations varying from 0.16 to 180 mg·kg−1, were observed in the roots and shoots of the two plants. The total PAH concentrations in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol obtained from three different PAH-contaminated stations were 184, 197, and 304 mg·kg−1, and the total PAH concentrations in Oxalis corniculata L. were 251, 346, and 600 mg·kg−1, respectively. The PCR-DGGE results showed that the endophytic bacterial communities in the roots and shoots of the two plants were quite different, although most bacteria belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. A total of 68 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from different tissues of the two plants and classified into three phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In both plants, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant cultivable populations. With an increase in the PAH pollution level, the diversity and distribution of endophytic bacteria in the two plants changed correspondingly, and the number of cultivable endophytic bacterial strains decreased rapidly. Testing of the isolated endophytic bacteria for tolerance to each type of PAH showed that most isolates could grow well on Luria-Bertani media in the presence of different PAHs, and some isolates were able to grow rapidly on a mineral salt medium with a single PAH as the sole carbon and energy source, indicating that these strains may have the potential to degrade PAHs in plants. This research provides the first insight into the characteristics of endophytic bacterial populations under different PAH pollution levels and provides a species

  10. Screening of endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotic bacteria, inhabiting the endosphere of plants, presents a major opportunity to develop cheap and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic agrochemicals. Using standard microbiological procedures, culturable bacteria were isolated from the endosphere (root, stem and leaf) of two Nigerian rice varieties (Ofada and ITA ...

  11. Metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera using next-generation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushafau Adewale Akinsanya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS enables rapid analysis of the composition and diversity of microbial communities in several habitats. We applied the high throughput techniques of NGS to the metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera plant, by assessing its PCR amplicon of 16S rDNA sequences (V3–V4 regions with the Illumina metagenomics technique used to generate a total of 5,199,102 reads from the samples. The analyses revealed Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteriodetes as the predominant genera. The roots have the largest composition with 23% not present in other tissues. The stems have more of the genus—Pseudomonas and the unclassified Pseudomonadaceae. The α-diversity analysis indicated the richness and inverse Simpson diversity index of the bacterial endophyte communities for the leaf, root and stem tissues to be 2.221, 6.603 and 1.491 respectively. In a similar study on culturable endophytic bacteria in the same A. vera plants (unpublished work, the dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera was similar, with equal proportion of four species each in root, stem and leaf tissues. It is evident that NGS technology captured effectively the metagenomics of microbiota in plant tissues and this can improve our understanding of the microbial–plant host interactions.

  12. Selection and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Tomato Bacterial Wilt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDJAD ASIH NAWANGSIH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of bacterial wilt pathogen (Ralstonia solanacearum of tomato using endophytic bacteria is one of the alternative control methods to support sustainable agriculture. This study was conducted to select and characterize endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy tomato stems and to test their ability to promote plant growth and suppress bacterial wilt disease. Among 49 isolates successfully isolated, 41 were non-plant pathogenic. Green house test on six selected isolates based on antagonistic effect on R. solanacearum or ability to suppress R. solanacearum population in dual culture assays obtained BC4 and BL10 isolates as promising biocontrol agents. At six weeks after transplanting, plants treated with BC4 isolate showed significantly lower disease incidence (33% than that of control (83%. Plants height was not significantly affected by endophytic bacterial treatments. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, BC4 isolate had 97% similarity with Staphylococcus epidermidis (accession number EU834240.1, while isolate BL10 had 98% similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain JK-SD002 (accession number AB547229.1.

  13. Culturable endophytic bacteria associated with medicinal plant Ferula songorica: molecular phylogeny, distribution and screening for industrially important traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Hong; Guo, Jian-Wei; Salam, Nimaichand; Li, Li; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Han, Jian; Mohamad, Osama Abdalla; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Xinjiang, a region of high salinity and drought, is a host to many arid and semi-arid plants. Many of these plants including Ferula spp. have indigenous pharmaceutical histories. As many of the medicinal properties of plants are in tandem with the associated microorganisms residing within the plant tissues, it is advisable to explore the endophytic potential of such plants. In the present study, diversity of culturable bacteria isolated from medicinal plants Ferula songorica collected from Hebukesaier, Xinjiang were analyzed. A total of 170 endophytic bacteria belonging to three phyla, 15 orders, 20 families and 27 genera were isolated and characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The phylum Actinobacteria constitutes a major portion of the endophytic microbes isolated from the plant Ferula songorica (107 isolates). Overall endophytic species richness of the sample was 58 taxa while the sample has statistical values of 4.02, 0.97, 0.65 and 16.55 with Shannon's, Simpson, Species evenness and Margalef, respectively. Root tissues were found to be more suitable host for endophytes as compared to leaf and stem tissues. Among these endophytic strains, 88 % can grow on nitrogen-free media, 19 % solubilize phosphate, while 26 and 40 % are positive for production of protease and cellulase, respectively. The results confirm that the medicinal plant Ferula songorica represents an extremely rich reservoir for the isolation of diverged bacteria with potential for growth promoting factors and biologically active compounds including enzymes.

  14. [Production of auxins by the endophytic bacteria of winter rye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzaeva, O V; Shirokikh, I G

    2010-01-01

    The ability of the actinomycetes and coryneform bacteria isolated from the root tissues of winter rye to produce auxin in a liquid culture was studied. The isolates of coryneform bacteria produced indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA) into the medium in the amount of 9.0-95.0 microg/ml and the isolates of actinomycetes in the amount of 39.5-83.0 microg/ml. The maximal IAA accumulation in culture liquid of actinomycetes coincided, in general, with the beginning of the stationary growth phase. The dependences of IAA synthesis by actinomycetes on the composition and pH of nutrient medium, tryptophan concentration, and aeration conditions were determined. Biological activity of the bacterial IAA was assessed. Treatment of winter rye seeds with coryneform auxin-producing bacteria increased the germination capacity and enhanced an intensive seedling growth in vitro.

  15. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant.

  16. Oasis desert farming selects environment-specific date palm root endophytic communities and cultivable bacteria that promote resistance to drought

    KAUST Repository

    Cherif, Hanene

    2015-07-21

    Oases are desert-farming agro-ecosystems, where date palm (Phoenix dactyliferaL.) plays a keystone role in offsetting the effects of drought and maintaining a suitable microclimate for agriculture. At present, abundance, diversity and plant growth promotion (PGP) of date palm root-associated bacteria remain unknown. Considering the environmental pressure determined by the water scarcity in the desert environments, we hypothesized that bacteria associated with date palm roots improve plant resistance to drought. Here, the ecology of date palm root endophytes from oases in the Tunisian Sahara was studied with emphasis on their capacity to promote growth under drought. Endophytic communities segregated along a north-south gradient in correlation with geo-climatic parameters. Screening of 120 endophytes indicated that date palm roots select for bacteria with multiple PGP traits. Bacteria rapidly cross-colonized the root tissues of different species of plants, including the original Tunisian date palm cultivar, Saudi Arabian cultivars and Arabidopsis. Selected endophytes significantly increased the biomass of date palms exposed to repeated drought stress periods during a 9-month greenhouse experiment. Overall, results indicate that date palm roots shape endophytic communities that are capable to promote plant growth under drought conditions, thereby contributing an essential ecological service to the entire oasis ecosystem. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Feasibility Analysis for Mitigating the Contamination of POPs in Crops Through Inoculation with Functional Endophytic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Kai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of food-crops with persistent organic pollutants(POPsposes a great concern to food safety because of their toxicity, persistence, long-range transport and potential to bioaccumulate. Thus, how to avoid the residual of POPs in food -crops grown in POPcontaminated areas is essential for ensuring the safety of agricultural products and human health. Plant-endophytic bacteria(EBsymbioses are ubiquitous and have attained increasing acceptance as viable cleanup technologies to remove POPs in planta due to its low cost and being environment-friendly. It has been indicated that functional EB can enhance plant growth, reduce plant disease, and stimulate plant resistance to harsh external environments. Notably, certain functional EB can also lessen POPs accumulation in plants. However, the information is limited regarding the impact of functional endophytic colonization on POPs biodegradation and biotransformation in food-crops. Aimed at the problems, this paper reviewed the situation of crop contaminated by POPs in agroecosystems and its regulatory role in the transformation of POPs. More importantly, the influence of endophytic colonization on the biodegradation and biotransformation of POPs in crop cells were systematically estimated. The effectiveness of POPs biodegradation mainly depended on the abundance and activity of inoculated functional EB in plant compartments. Additionally, the advances, challenges, and existing issues of functional EB for reducing the risk of food-crops POP contamination were also prospected. These findings can be applied for utilizing endophytes to treat POPs in food -crops at POP-contaminated matrices, with ultimate goal of protecting food security and human health.

  18. Characterization of endophytic bacteria from cucurbit fruits with potential benefits to agriculture in melons (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, Hanoch; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Compant, Stéphane; Sessitsch, Angela; Katzir, Nurit; Portnoy, Vitaly; Yaron, Sima

    2015-07-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that mainly colonize vegetative parts, but are also found in reproductive and disseminating organs, and may have beneficial characteristics. To identify microorganisms associated with the agriculturally important family, Cucurbitaceae, endophytes were initially determined in fruits of Cucumis melo Reticulatus Group 'Dulce' by a cultivation-independent approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization using double labeling of oligonucleotide probes. Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were localized inside the fruits. Culturable bacteria were further isolated and identified from fruit tissues of 'Dulce', from fruits of other cultivated and wild-field-grown Cucurbitaceae, and from wild fruits growing under natural conditions. Low densities of culturable bacteria were detected in the investigated fruits, especially in four out of the five wild species, regardless of their growing environment. Substantial differences were observed between the wild and cultivated cucurbit taxa in regard to the number of colonized fruits as well as the type of endophytes. Bacillus was the most dominant genus of endophytes colonizing fruits of Cucurbitaceae. The antagonistic effects of isolated endophytes were assessed against cucurbit disease agents in dual-culture assays. Several bacterial isolates exhibited antagonistic properties against the tested plant pathogens. The identified bacteria may be useful for protecting plants not only in the field, but also for post-harvest. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Investigation of Endophytic Bacterial Community in Supposedly Axenic Cultures of Pineapple and Orchids with Evidence on Abundant Intracellular Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito-Polesi, Natalia Pimentel; de Abreu-Tarazi, Monita Fiori; de Almeida, Cristina Vieira; Tsai, Siu Mui; de Almeida, Marcílio

    2017-01-01

    Asepsis, defined as the absence of microbial contamination, is one of the most important requirements of plant micropropagation. In long-term micropropagated cultures, there may occasionally occur scattered microorganism growth in the culture medium. These microorganisms are common plant components and are known as latent endophytes. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the presence of endophytic bacteria in asymptomatic pineapple and orchid microplants, which were cultivated in three laboratories for 1 year. Isolation and characterization of bacterial isolates, PCR-DGGE from total genomic DNA of microplants and ultrastructural analysis of leaves were performed. In the culture-dependent technique, it was only possible to obtain bacterial isolates from pineapple microplants. In this case, the bacteria genera identified in the isolation technique were Bacillus, Acinetobacter, and Methylobacterium. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) analyses revealed the presence of endophytic bacteria in intracellular spaces in the leaves of pineapple and orchid microplants, independent of the laboratory or cultivation protocol. Our results strongly indicate that there are endophytic bacterial communities inhabiting the microplants before initiation of the in vitro culture and that some of these endophytes persist in their latent form and can also grow in the culture medium even after long-term micropropagation, thus discarding the concept of "truly axenic plants."

  20. Endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria associated with Silene paradoxa grown on metal-contaminated soils are selected and transferred to the next generation of plants as seed endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Chiellini, Carolina; Gori, Giulia; Gonnelli, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that bacteria are commonly associated to the plants, either on the outer surfaces (epiphytes) that inside the plant tissues (endophytes). These bacteria mainly derived from soil and reach the various organs of the plant throughout the root system. Despite recent works have shown that endophytic bacteria can have an important role in the physiology of the plant, little is known of their possible involvement in the resistance and tolerance mechanisms of plants to heavy metals. Furthermore, until now only limited research has been conducted to unravel the exact role and possible applications of seed endophytes. The aim of this work was to characterize the plant-associated bacterial communities present at both the rhizosphere and inside the seeds, roots and aerial parts of plants of Silene paradoxa, a plant highly well-adapted to extreme environments, such as metal-contaminated soils. Thus, soil samples and plants of S. paradoxa were collected from i) the landfill of a Cu mine at Fenice Capanne (Grosseto, Italy); ii) a serpentine soil (with a high Ni content) at Pieve Santo Stefano (Arezzo, Italy); iii) a limestone uncontaminated soil in Colle Val d'Elsa (Siena, Italy). Bacterial communities associated with the three different plant organs have been then characterized by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes (microbiota). Bacteria were also isolated from seeds and soil and the colony forming units (CFU) was determined on plates containing different concentrations of Ni and Cu (5, 10 and 15 mM). The results showed a greater bacterial diversity among the three soils compared to plants. In particular, even though some phyla occurred in all the three soils (Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chlorflexi and Acidobacteria), in general the bacterial community structure of the three soils was quite different from each other. Interestingly, the endophytic composition within each plant compartment was observed to be strongly affected by the soil of

  1. Culturable Endophytic Bacteria of Ginger Rhizome and their Remarkable Multi-trait Plant Growth-Promoting Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohini, Sabu; Aswani, R; Kannan, M; Sylas, V P; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2018-04-01

    Functional contribution of endophytic bacteria towards plant growth is highly impressive due to their species diversity and array of probiotic mechanisms. In the study, 96 endophytic bacteria isolated from rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were screened for phosphate solubilisation, 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, nitrogen fixation, ammonia and IAA production. Among these, sixteen endophytes with multiple plant growth-promoting activities were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and all of them showed growth enhancement in Vigna unguiculata var Lola which make the study remarkably significant. The result was a clear indication of consistent, reliable and broad spectrum plant probiotic features of all the selected isolates. However, strain-specific effects on soil parameters represent the unique and distinguishable role of each of the selected isolates in the chemobiology of ginger rhizome. The study provided deeper insight into microbiomics of ginger rhizome with its agricultural promises.

  2. The interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and endophytic bacteria enhances plant growth of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Hashem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbes living symbiotically in plant tissues mutually cooperate with each other by providing nutrients for proliferation of the partner organism and have a beneficial effect on plant growth. However, few studies thus far have examined the interactive effect of endophytic bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in hostile conditions and their potential to improve plant stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated how the synergistic interactions of endophytic bacteria and AMF affect plant growth, nodulation, nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress. Plant growth varied between the treatments with both single inoculants and was higher in plants inoculated with the endophytic B. subtilis strain than with AMF. Co-inoculated A. gerrardii had a significantly greater shoot and root dry weight, nodule number, and leghemoglobin content than those inoculated with AMF or B. subtilis alone under salt stress. The endophytic B. subtilis could alleviate the adverse effect of salt on AMF colonization. The differences in nitrate and nitrite reductase and nitrogenase activities between uninoculated plants and those inoculated with AMF and B. subtilis together under stress were significant. Both inoculation treatments, either B. subtilis alone or combined with AMF, enhanced the N, P, K, Mg and Ca contents and phosphatase activities in salt-stressed A. gerrardii tissues and reduced Na and Cl concentration, thereby protecting salt-stressed plants from ionic and osmotic stress-induced changes. In conclusion, our results indicate that endophytic bacteria and AMF contribute to a tripartite mutualistic symbiosis in A. gerrardii and are coordinately involved in the plant adaptation to salt stress tolerance.Key words: AMF, endophyte, Acacia gerrardii, salinity, nutrition

  3. The Endophytic Bacteria, Salicylic Acid, and Their Combination as Inducers of Rice Resistance Against Xanthomonas Oryzae Pv. Oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Leiwakabessy, Christoffol; Sinaga, Meity Suradji; Mutaqien, Kikin H; Trikoesoemaningtyas, Trikoesoemaningtyas; Giyanto, Giyanto

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial leaf damage or blight brought by bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (X. oryzae pv. oryzae) is considered as an extremely serious disease of rice worldwide, including Indonesia. Induced resistance using chemical and biological agents was considered as a method to control the disease. The objectives of this research were to analyze of endophytic bacteria (Lysinibacillus sphaericus/L.sphaericus) and salicylic acid as the inducers of rice resistance against X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Thi...

  4. Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria that promote growth of ethnomedicinal plants in the subtropical forests of Meghalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    Fenella Mary War Nongkhlaw; S. R. Joshi

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the endophytic and epiphytic bacteria associated with selected ethnomedicinal plants from the pristine subtropical forests of Meghalaya and analyse them for plant growth promotion and antagonistic ability. This study is an attempt to explore plant associated bacteria which are beneficial to host plants, and thus aid in the conservation of ethnomedicinal plants of the studied subtropical forests, which are dwindling due to exploitation. The plant grow...

  5. Cultivation Versus Molecular Analysis of Banana (Musa sp.) Shoot-Tip Tissue Reveals Enormous Diversity of Normally Uncultivable Endophytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Sekhar, Aparna Chandra

    2017-05-01

    The interior of plants constitutes a unique environment for microorganisms with various organisms inhabiting as endophytes. Unlike subterranean plant parts, aboveground parts are relatively less explored for endophytic microbial diversity. We employed a combination of cultivation and molecular approaches to study the endophytic bacterial diversity in banana shoot-tips. Cultivable bacteria from 20 sucker shoot-tips of cv. Grand Naine included 37 strains under 16 genera and three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes). 16S rRNA gene-ribotyping approach on 799f and 1492r PCR-amplicons to avoid plant organelle sequences was ineffective showing limited bacterial diversity. 16S rRNA metagene profiling targeting the V3-V4 hypervariable region after filtering out the chloroplast (74.2 %), mitochondrial (22.9 %), and unknown sequences (1.1 %) revealed enormous bacterial diversity. Proteobacteria formed the predominant phylum (64 %) succeeded by Firmicutes (12.1 %), Actinobacteria (9.5 %), Bacteroidetes (6.4 %), Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, and minor shares (banana shoot-tips (20 phyla, 46 classes) with about 2.6 % of the deciphered 269 genera and 1.5 % of the 656 observed species from the same source of shoot-tips attained through cultivation. The predominant genera included several agriculturally important bacteria. The study reveals an immense ecosystem of endophytic bacteria in banana shoot tissues endorsing the earlier documentation of intracellular "Cytobacts" and "Peribacts" with possible roles in plant holobiome and hologenome.

  6. Antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of endophytic alternaria species from cupressaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S

    2014-09-01

    Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported.

  7. Who is in there? Exploration of endophytic bacteria within the siphonous green seaweed Bryopsis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke Hollants

    Full Text Available Associations between marine seaweeds and bacteria are widespread, with endobiotic bacterial-algal interactions being described for over 40 years. Also within the siphonous marine green alga Bryopsis, intracellular bacteria have been visualized by electron microscopy in the early '70s, but were up to now never molecularly analyzed. To study this partnership, we examined the presence and phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities within the cytoplasm of two Bryopsis species by combining fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Sequencing results revealed the presence of Arcobacter, Bacteroidetes, Flavobacteriaceae, Mycoplasma, Labrenzia, Phyllobacteriaceae and Xanthomonadaceae species. Although the total diversity of the endobiotic communities was unique to each Bryopsis culture, Bacteroidetes, Mycoplasma, Phyllobacteriaceae, and in particular Flavobacteriaceae bacteria, were detected in several Bryopsis samples collected hundreds of kilometres apart. This suggests that Bryopsis closely associates with well-defined endophytic bacterial communities of which some members possibly maintain an endosymbiotic relationship with the algal host.

  8. High taxonomic diversity of cultivation-recalcitrant endophytic bacteria in grapevine field shoots, their in vitro introduction, and unsuspected persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Sekhar, Aparna C; Shaik, Sadiq Pasha

    2017-11-01

    Molecular and microscopic analyses reveal enormous non-cultivable endophytic bacteria in grapevine field shoots with functional significance. Diverse bacteria enter tissue cultures through surface-sterilized tissues and survive surreptitiously with varying taxonomic realignments. The study was envisaged to assess the extent of endophytic bacterial association with field shoot tissues of grapevine and the likelihood of introduction of such internally colonizing bacteria in vitro adopting molecular techniques targeting the non-cultivable bacterial community. PowerFood ® -kit derived DNA from surface-sterilized field shoot tips of grapevine Flame Seedless was employed in a preliminary bacterial class-specific PCR screening proving positive for major prokaryotic taxa including Archaea. Taxonomic and functional diversity were analyzed through whole metagenome profiling (WMG) which revealed predominantly phylum Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and minor shares of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Deinococcus-Thermus with varying functional roles ascribable to the whole bacterial community. Field shoot tip tissues and callus derived from stem segments were further employed in 16S rRNA V3-V4 amplicon taxonomic profiling. This revealed elevated taxonomic diversity in field shoots over WMG, predominantly Proteobacteria succeeded by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and 15 other phyla including several candidate phyla (135 families, 179 genera). Callus stocks also displayed broad bacterial diversity (16 phyla; 96 families; 141 genera) bearing resemblance to field tissues with Proteobacterial dominance but a reduction in its share, enrichment of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, disappearance of some field-associated phyla and detection of a few additional taxonomic groups over field community. Similar results were documented during 16S V3-V4 amplicon taxonomic profiling on Thompson Seedless field shoot tip and callus tissues. Video microscopy on tissue homogenates

  9. Uptake of carbamazepine by rhizomes and endophytic bacteria of Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvêtre, Andrés; Schröder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic and mood-stabilizing drug which is used widely in Europe and North America. In the environment, it is found as a persistent and recalcitrant contaminant, being one of the most prominent hazardous pharmaceuticals and personal care products in effluents of wastewater treatment plants. Phragmites australis is one of the species with both, the highest potential of detoxification and phytoremediation. It has been used successfully in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Recently, the identification of endophytic microorganisms from different plant species growing in contaminated sites has provided a list of candidates which could be used as bio-inoculants for bioremediation of difficult compounds. In this study, Phragmites australis plants were exposed to 5 mg/L of carbamazepine. After 9 days the plants had removed 90% of the initial concentration. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from these plants and further characterized. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the majority of these isolates belong to three groups: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Carbamazepine uptake and plant growth promoting (PGP) traits were analyzed among the isolates. Ninety percent of the isolates produce indole acetic acid (IAA) and all of them possess at least one of the PGP traits tested. One isolate identified as Chryseobacterium taeanense combines good carbamazepine uptake and all of the PGP traits. Rhizobium daejeonense can remove carbamazepine and produces 23 μg/mL of IAA. Diaphorobacter nitroreducens and Achromobacter mucicolens are suitable for carbamazepine removal while both, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas lini show high siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Alone or in combination, these isolates might be applied as inoculates in constructed wetlands in order to enhance the phytoremediation of carbamazepine during wastewater treatment. PMID:25750647

  10. Uptake of Carbamazepine by rhizomes and endophytic bacteria of Phragmites australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres eSauvetre

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic and mood-stabilizing drug which is used widely in Europe and North America. In the environment, it is found as a persistent and recalcitrant conta¬mi-nant, being one of the most prominent hazardous pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. Phragmites australis is one of the species with both, the highest potential of detoxification and phytoremediation. It has been used successfully in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Recently, the identification of endophytic micro¬organisms from different plant species growing in contaminated sites has provided a list of candidates which could be used as bio-inoculants for bioremediation of difficult compounds. In this study, Phragmites australis plants were exposed to 5 mg/L of carbamazepine. After 9 days the plants had removed 90% of the initial concentration. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from these plants and further characterized. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the majority of these isolates belong to three groups: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Carbamazepine uptake and plant growth promoting (PGP traits were analyzed among the isolates. Ninety percent of the isolates produce indole acetic acid (IAA and all of them possess at least one of the PGP traits tested. One isolate identified as Chryseobacterium taeanense combines good carbamazepine uptake and all of the PGP traits. Rhizobium daejeonense can remove carbamazepine and produces 23 µg/mL of IAA. Diaphorobacter nitroreducens and Achromobacter mucicolens are suitable for carbamazepine removal while both, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas lini show high siderophore production and phosphate solubilization. Alone or in combination, these isolates might be applied as inoculates in constructed wetlands in order to enhance the phyto-remediation of carbamazepine during wastewater

  11. Understanding pine wilt disease: roles of the pine endophytic bacteria and of the bacteria carried by the disease-causing pinewood nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Diogo N; Grass, Gregor; Morais, Paula V

    2017-04-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) is one of the most destructive diseases in trees of the genus Pinus and is responsible for environmental and economic losses around the world. The only known causal agent of the disease is the pinewood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Despite that, bacteria belonging to several different genera have been found associated with PWN and their roles in the development of PWD have been suggested. Molecular methodologies and the new era of genomics have revealed different perspectives to the problem, recognizing the manifold interactions between different organisms involved in the disease. Here, we reviewed the possible roles of nematode-carried bacteria in PWD, what could be the definition of this group of microorganisms and questioned their origin as possible endophytes, discussing their relation within the endophytic community of pine trees. The diversity of the nematode-carried bacteria and the diversity of pine tree endophytes, reported until now, is revised in detail in this review. What could signify a synergetic effect with PWN harming the plant, or what could equip bacteria with functions to control the presence of nematodes inside the tree, is outlined as two possible roles of the microbial community in the etiology of this disease. An emphasis is put on the potential revealed by the genomic data of isolated organisms in their potential activities as effective tools in PWD management. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Culturable endophytic bacteria associated with medicinal plant Ferula songorica: molecular phylogeny, distribution and screening for industrially important traits

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yong-Hong; Guo, Jian-Wei; Salam, Nimaichand; Li, Li; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Han, Jian; Mohamad, Osama Abdalla; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Xinjiang, a region of high salinity and drought, is a host to many arid and semi-arid plants. Many of these plants including Ferula spp. have indigenous pharmaceutical histories. As many of the medicinal properties of plants are in tandem with the associated microorganisms residing within the plant tissues, it is advisable to explore the endophytic potential of such plants. In the present study, diversity of culturable bacteria isolated from medicinal plants Ferula songorica collected from He...

  13. Antagonistic endophytic bacteria associated with nodules of soybean (Glycine max L.) and plant growth-promoting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, LongFei; Xu, YaJun; Lai, XinHe

    2017-10-13

    A total of 276 endophytic bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in 14 sites in Henan Province, China. The inhibitory activity of these bacteria against pathogenic fungus Phytophthora sojae 01 was screened in vitro. Six strains with more than 63% inhibitory activities were further characterized through optical epifluorescence microscopic observation, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene, potential plant growth-promoting properties analysis, and plant inoculation assay. On the basis of the phylogeny of 16S rRNA genes, the six endophytic antagonists were identified as belonging to five genera: Enterobacter, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Ochrobactrum, and Bacillus. The strain Acinetobacter calcoaceticus DD161 had the strongest inhibitory activity (71.14%) against the P. sojae 01, which caused morphological abnormal changes of fungal mycelia; such changes include fracture, lysis, formation of a protoplast ball at the end of hyphae, and split ends. Except for Ochrobactrum haematophilum DD234, other antagonistic strains showed the capacity to produce siderophore, indole acetic acid, and nitrogen fixation activity. Regression analysis suggested a significant positive correlation between siderophore production and inhibition ratio against P. sojae 01. This study demonstrated that nodule endophytic bacteria are important resources for searching for inhibitors specific to the fungi and for promoting effects for soybean seedlings. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria as a vector to express the cry3A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles Joana Falcão

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria as a vector to express a cry gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, envisaging the control of pests that attack sugarcane plants. The endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain BR11281 and Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain BR11335 were used as models. The cry3A gene was transferred by conjugation using a suicide plasmid and the recombinant strains were selected by their ability to fix nitrogen in semi-solid N-free medium. The presence of the cry gene was detected by Southern-blot using an internal fragment of 1.0 kb as a probe. The production of delta-endotoxin by the recombinant H. seropedicae strain was detected by dot blot while for G. diazotrophicus the Western-blot technique was used. In both cases, a specific antibody raised against the B. thuringiensis toxin was applied. The delta-endotoxin production showed by the G. diazotrophicus recombinant strain was dependent on the nitrogen fixing conditions since the cry3A gene was fused to a nif promoter. In the case of H. seropedicae the delta-endotoxin expression was not affected by the promoter (rhi used. These results suggest that endophytic diazotrophic bacteria can be used as vectors to express entomopathogenic genes envisaging control of sugarcane pests.

  15. Fungi and bacteria boost resistance to pests and diseases : endophytes a useful addition to pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.

    2017-01-01

    More and more research is revealing that endophytes – microorganisms that live in the plant without harming it – can significantly boost a plant’s resistance to pests. These findings prompted researchers to investigate the potential of endophytes in pest control in greenhouse horticulture.

  16. In silico analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of endophytic bacteria, isolated from the aerial parts and seeds of important agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredow, C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A; Mangolin, C A; Rhoden, S A

    2015-08-19

    Because of human population growth, increased food production and alternatives to conventional methods of biocontrol and development of plants such as the use of endophytic bacteria and fungi are required. One of the methods used to study microorganism diversity is sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, which has several advantages, including universality, size, and availability of databases for comparison. The objective of this study was to analyze endophytic bacterial diversity in agricultural crops using published papers, sequence databases, and phylogenetic analysis. Fourteen papers were selected in which the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene was used to identify endophytic bacteria, in important agricultural crops, such as coffee, sugar cane, beans, corn, soybean, tomatoes, and grapes, located in different geographical regions (America, Europe, and Asia). The corresponding 16S rRNA gene sequences were selected from the NCBI database, aligned using the Mega 5.2 program, and phylogenetic analysis was undertaken. The most common orders present in the analyzed cultures were Bacillales, Enterobacteriales, and Actinomycetales and the most frequently observed genera were Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Microbacterium. Phylogenetic analysis showed that only approximately 1.56% of the total sequences were not properly grouped, demonstrating reliability in the identification of microorganisms. This study identified the main genera found in endophytic bacterial cultures from plants, providing data for future studies on improving plant agriculture, biotechnology, endophytic bacterium prospecting, and to help understand relationships between endophytic bacteria and their interactions with plants.

  17. Hydrocarbon degradation potential and plant growth-promoting activity of culturable endophytic bacteria of Lotus corniculatus and Oenothera biennis from a long-term polluted site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Małgorzata; Cania, Barbara; Thijs, Sofie; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2017-08-01

    Many endophytic bacteria exert beneficial effects on their host, but still little is known about the bacteria associated with plants growing in areas heavily polluted by hydrocarbons. The aim of the study was characterization of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading endophytic bacteria associated with Lotus corniculatus L. and Oenothera biennis L. collected in long-term petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted site using culture-dependent and molecular approaches. A total of 26 hydrocarbon-degrading endophytes from these plants were isolated. Phylogenetic analyses classified the isolates into the phyla Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The majority of strains belonged to the genera Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Rhodococcus. More than 90% of the isolates could grow on medium with diesel oil, approximately 20% could use n-hexadecane as a sole carbon and energy source. PCR analysis revealed that 40% of the isolates possessed the P450 gene encoding for cytochrome P450-type alkane hydroxylase (CYP153). In in vitro tests, all endophytic strains demonstrated a wide range of plant growth-promoting traits such as production of indole-3-acetic acid, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, and phosphate solubilization. More than 40% of the bacteria carried the gene encoding for the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (acdS). Our study shows that the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities in tested plants was different. The results revealed also that the investigated plants were colonized by endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting features and a clear potential to degrade hydrocarbons. The properties of isolated endophytes indicate that they have the high potential to improve phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted soils.

  18. Diversity of endophytic bacteria of Dendrobium officinale based on culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were compared and evaluated in the study of the endophytic diversity of Dendrobium officinale. Culture-independent methods consisted of polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE and metagenome methods. According to the results, differences were found between the three methods. Three phyla, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria, were detected using the culture-dependent method, and two phyla, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, were detected by the DGGE method. Using the metagenome method, four major phyla were determined, including Proteobacteria (76.54%, Actinobacteria (18.56%, Firmicutes (2.27%, and Bacteroidetes (1.56%. A distinct trend was obtained at the genus level in terms of the method and the corresponding number of genera determined. There were 449 genera and 16 genera obtained from the metagenome and DGGE methods, respectively, and only 7 genera were obtained through the culture-dependent method. By comparison, all the genera from the culture-dependent and DGGE methods were contained in the members determined using the metagenome method. Overall, culture-dependent methods are limited to ‘finding’ endophytic bacteria in plants. DGGE is an alternative to investigating primary diversity patterns; however, the metagenome method is still the best choice for determining the endophytic profile in plants. It is essential to use multiphasic approaches to study cultured and uncultured microbes.

  19. Endophytic cultivable bacteria of the metal bioaccumulator Spartina maritima improve plant growth but not metal uptake in polluted marshes soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer eMesa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacterial population was isolated from Spartina maritima tissues, a heavy metal bioaccumulator cordgrass growing in the estuaries of Tinto, Odiel and Piedras River (south west Spain, one of the most polluted areas in the world. Strains were identified and ability to tolerate salt and heavy metals along with plant growth promoting and enzymatic properties were analysed. A high proportion of these bacteria were resistant towards one or several heavy metals and metalloids including As, Cu and Zn, the most abundant in plant tissues and soil. These strains also exhibited multiple enzymatic properties as amylase, cellulase, chitinase, protease and lipase, as well as plant growth promoting properties, including nitrogen fixation, phosphates solubilisation and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase. The best performing strains (Micrococcus yunnanensis SMJ12, Vibrio sagamiensis SMJ18 and Salinicola peritrichatus SMJ30 were selected and tested as a consortium by inoculating S. maritima wild plantlets in greenhouse conditions along with wild polluted soil. After 30 days, bacterial inoculation improved plant photosynthetic traits and favoured intrinsic water use efficiency. However, far from stimulating plant metal uptake, endophytic inoculation lessened metal accumulation in above and belowground tissues. These results suggest that inoculation of S. maritima with indigenous metal-resistant endophytes could mean a useful approach in order to accelerate both adaption and growth of this indigenous cordgrass in polluted estuaries in restorative operations, but may not be suitable for rhizoaccumulation purposes.

  20. Diversity of culturable root-associated/endophytic bacteria and their chitinolytic and aflatoxin inhibition activity of peanut plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yan, Pei-Sheng; Ding, Qing-Long; Wu, Qin-Xi; Wang, Zhong-Bo; Peng, Jie

    2013-01-01

    A total of 72 isolates of root-associated/endophytic (RAE) bacteria were isolated from peanut plants grown in the main producing areas of 6 provinces in China. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates were determined and phylogenetic analyses revealed that 72 isolates belonged to the classes Bacilli (49 isolates) and Gammaproteobacteria (23 isolates). The majority of RAE bacteria in Bacilli belonged to 2 genera, Bacillus and Lysinibacillus (48 and 1) while those in Gammaproteobacteria belonged to the genera Enterobacter, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas (7, 11, 3 and 2 isolates, respectively). This is the first report of Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus isolate as biocontrol agent against AFs. All of the selected RAE bacteria showed inhibitory activities against Aspergillus parasiticus (A. parasiticus) growth and/or aflatoxins (AFs) production by visual agar plate assay and tip culture method. Most of the RAE bacteria strains (96 % strains) were determined to have decreased mycelia growth or AFs production levels by >50 % (p chitinolytic activity and 22 strains (30 % strains) of identified RAE bacteria degraded colloidal chitin on the chitin medium plate. Ten selected chitinolytic RAE bacteria were tested for antifungal activity on peanuts and most of them significantly decreased mycelial growth and AFs production levels by >90 %. These results showed a wide distribution of biological control bacteria against AFs in Chinese peanut main producing areas and the selected RAE bacteria could potentially be utilized for the biocontrol of toxicogenic fungi.

  1. Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria that promote growth of ethnomedicinal plants in the subtropical forests of Meghalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongkhlaw, Fenella Mary War; Joshi, S R

    2014-12-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the endophytic and epiphytic bacteria associated with selected ethnomedicinal plants from the pristine subtropical forests of Meghalaya and analyse them for plant growth promotion and antagonistic ability. This study is an attempt to explore plant associated bacteria which are beneficial to host plants, and thus aid in the conservation of ethnomedicinal plants of the studied subtropical forests, which are dwindling due to exploitation. The plant growth promotion parameters like indole acetic acid (IAA) production, mineral phosphate solubilisation, acid phosphatase activity, presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (ACC) gene, nitrogen fixation, cellulose digestion, chitin and pectin degrada- tion were screened among the isolates. The study revealed significant differences in bacterial population not only between the epiphytic and endophytic microhabitats, but also amongst the host plants. Out of the 70 isolated plant associated bacteria, Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Pantoea sp., and Lysinibacillus sp. showed potent plant growth promotion properties. Bacillus siamensis C53 and B. subtilis cenB showed significant antagonistic activity against the tested pathogens. This study indicated the isolates inhabiting the plants prevalent in the subtropical sacred forests could be explored for use as plant growth promoters while practising the cultiva- tion and conservation of ethnomedicinal plants.

  2. Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria that promote growth of ethnomedicinal plants in the subtropical forests of Meghalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenella Mary War Nongkhlaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the endophytic and epiphytic bacteria associated with selected ethnomedicinal plants from the pristine subtropical forests of Meghalaya and analyse them for plant growth promotion and antagonistic ability. This study is an attempt to explore plant associated bacteria which are beneficial to host plants, and thus aid in the conservation of ethnomedicinal plants of the studied subtropical forests, which are dwindling due to exploitation. The plant growth promotion parameters like indole acetic acid (IAA production, mineral phosphate solubilisation, acid phosphatase activity, presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase (ACC gene, nitrogen fixation, cellulose digestion, chitin and pectin degradation were screened among the isolates. The study revealed significant differences in bacterial population not only between the epiphytic and endophytic microhabitats, but also amongst the host plants. Out of the 70 isolated plant associated bacteria, Bacillus sp., Serratia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Pantoea sp., and Lysinibacillus sp. showed potent plant growth promotion properties. Bacillus siamensis C53 and B. subtilis cenB showed significant antagonistic activity against the tested pathogens. This study indicated the isolates inhabiting the plants prevalent in the subtropical sacred forests could be explored for use as plant growth promoters while practising the cultivation and conservation of ethnomedicinal plants. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4: 1295-1308. Epub 2014 December 01.

  3. Isolation of endophytic bacteria from arboreal species of the Amazon and identification by sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza M. Coêlho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria from three arboreal species native to the Amazon (Carapa guianenses, Ceiba pentandra, and Swietenia macrophylla, were isolated and identified, through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA encoding gene. From these, 16 isolates were obtained, although, when compared to sequences deposited in GenBank, only seven had produced identifiable fragments. Bacillus, Pantoea and two non-culturable samples were identified. Results obtained through sequence analysis revealed low genetic diversity across the isolates, even when analyzing different species and plant structures. This is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria in these plant species.

  4. Isolation, diversity, and biotechnological potential of rhizo- and endophytic bacteria associated with mangrove plants from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, F; Ullah, I; Alvi, S A; Bakhsh, S A; Yasir, M; Al-Ghamdi, A A K; Azhar, E I

    2017-06-20

    Marine bacteria have been exceptional sources of halotolerant enzymes since decades. The aim of the present study was to isolate bacteria producing hydrolytic enzymes from seven different mangroves collected from the coastal area of Thuwal, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and to further screen them for other enzymatic and antifungal activities. We have isolated 46 different rhizo- and endophytic bacteria from the soil, roots, and leaves of the mangroves using different enzymatic media. These bacterial strains were capable of producing industrially important enzymes (cellulase, protease, lipase, and amylase). The bacteria were screened further for antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens. Finally, these bacterial strains were identified on the basis of the16S rDNA sequence. Taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis revealed 95.9-100% sequence identity to type strains of related species. The dominant phylum was Gammaproteobacteria (γ-Proteobacteria), which comprised 10 different genera - Erwinia, Vibrio, Psychrobacter, Aidingimonas, Marinobacter, Chromohalobacter, Halomonas, Microbulbifer, and Alteromonas. Firmicutes was the second dominant phylum, which contained only the genus Bacillus. Similarly, only Isoptericola belonged to Actinobacteria. Further these enzyme-producing bacteria were tested for the production of other enzymes. Most of the active strains showed cellulytic and lipolytic activities. Several were also active against fungal pathogens. Our results demonstrated that the mangroves represent an important source of potentially active bacteria producing enzymes and antifungal metabolites (bioactive products). These bacteria are a source of novel halophilic enzymes and antibiotics that can find industrial and medicinal use.

  5. [Colonization characteristics of endophytic bacteria NJ13 in Panax ginseng and its biocontrol efficiency against Alternaria leaf spot of ginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Li, Tong; Li, Xin-Lian; Jiang, Yun; Tian, Lei; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    To reveal the colonization characteristics in host of endophytic biocontrol bacteria NJ13 isolated from Panax ginseng, this study obtained the marked strain NJ13-R which was double antibiotic resistant to rifampicin and streptomycin through enhancing the method of inducing antibiotic. The colonization characteristics in ginseng and its biocontrol efficiency against Alternaria spot of ginseng in the field were studied. The results showed that the strain could colonize in root, stem and leaf of ginseng and the colonization amount was positive correlated with inoculation concentration. Meanwhile, the strain could infect and then transfer in different tissues of ginseng The colonization amount of strain in roots and leaves of ginseng increased first and then decreased. However, the tendency of colonization amount of strain in stems was ascend at first and then descend slowly, and was more than that in roots and leaves along with time, which had a preference to specific tissue of its host. In field experiment, the endophytic bacteria NJ13 was proved to be effective in controlling Alternaria leaf spot of ginseng. The biocontrol efficiency of fermentation broth at the concentration of 0.76 x 10(8) cfu x mL(-1) reached 75.62%, which was close to the controlling level (73.06%) of 0.67 mg x L(-1) 50% cyprodinil WG.

  6. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Five morphologically distinct isolates from tissue culture material were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To detect and analyze the uncultivable fraction of endophytic bacteria, a clone library was established from the amplified 16S rDNA of total plant extract. Bacterial diversity within the clone libraries was analyzed by amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis and by sequencing a clone for each identified operational taxonomic unit. The most abundant bacterial group was Mycobacterium sp., which was identified in the clone libraries of all analyzed Prunus genotypes. Other dominant bacterial genera identified in the easy-to-propagate genotypes were Rhodopseudomonas sp. and Microbacterium sp. Thus, the community structures in the easy- and difficult-to-propagate cherry genotypes differed significantly. The bacterial genera, which were previously reported to have plant growth-promoting effects, were detected only in genotypes with high propagation success, indicating a possible positive impact of these bacteria on in vitro propagation of P. avium, which was proven in an inoculation experiment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of Endophytic and Rhizosphere Bacteria To Improve Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Industrial Soils by Autochthonous Betula celtiberica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazas, Alejandro; González-Gil, Ricardo; González, Aida; Weyens, Nele; Lauga, Béatrice; Gallego, Jose Luis R.; Sánchez, Jesús; Peláez, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of indigenous arsenic-tolerant bacteria to enhance arsenic phytoremediation by the autochthonous pseudometallophyte Betula celtiberica. The first goal was to perform an initial analysis of the entire rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities of the above-named accumulator plant, including the cultivable bacterial species. B. celtiberica's microbiome was dominated by taxa related to Flavobacteriales, Burkholderiales, and Pseudomonadales, especially the Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium genera. A total of 54 cultivable rhizobacteria and 41 root endophytes, mainly affiliated with the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, were isolated and characterized with respect to several potentially useful features for metal plant accumulation, such as the ability to promote plant growth, metal chelation, and/or mitigation of heavy-metal stress. Seven bacterial isolates were further selected and tested for in vitro accumulation of arsenic in plants; four of them were finally assayed in field-scale bioaugmentation experiments. The exposure to arsenic in vitro caused an increase in the total nonprotein thiol compound content in roots, suggesting a detoxification mechanism through phytochelatin complexation. In the contaminated field, the siderophore and indole-3-acetic acid producers of the endophytic bacterial consortium enhanced arsenic accumulation in the leaves and roots of Betula celtiberica, whereas the rhizosphere isolate Ensifer adhaerens strain 91R mainly promoted plant growth. Field experimentation showed that additional factors, such as soil arsenic content and pH, influenced arsenic uptake in the plant, attesting to the relevance of field conditions in the success of phytoextraction strategies. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms and plants have developed several ways of dealing with arsenic, allowing them to resist and metabolize this metalloid. These properties form the basis of

  8. Use of Endophytic and Rhizosphere Bacteria To Improve Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Industrial Soils by Autochthonous Betula celtiberica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Victoria; Navazas, Alejandro; González-Gil, Ricardo; González, Aida; Weyens, Nele; Lauga, Béatrice; Gallego, Jose Luis R; Sánchez, Jesús; Peláez, Ana Isabel

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of indigenous arsenic-tolerant bacteria to enhance arsenic phytoremediation by the autochthonous pseudometallophyte Betula celtiberica The first goal was to perform an initial analysis of the entire rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities of the above-named accumulator plant, including the cultivable bacterial species. B. celtiberica 's microbiome was dominated by taxa related to Flavobacteriales , Burkholderiales , and Pseudomonadales , especially the Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium genera. A total of 54 cultivable rhizobacteria and 41 root endophytes, mainly affiliated with the phyla Proteobacteria , Bacteroidetes , Firmicutes , and Actinobacteria , were isolated and characterized with respect to several potentially useful features for metal plant accumulation, such as the ability to promote plant growth, metal chelation, and/or mitigation of heavy-metal stress. Seven bacterial isolates were further selected and tested for in vitro accumulation of arsenic in plants; four of them were finally assayed in field-scale bioaugmentation experiments. The exposure to arsenic in vitro caused an increase in the total nonprotein thiol compound content in roots, suggesting a detoxification mechanism through phytochelatin complexation. In the contaminated field, the siderophore and indole-3-acetic acid producers of the endophytic bacterial consortium enhanced arsenic accumulation in the leaves and roots of Betula celtiberica , whereas the rhizosphere isolate Ensifer adhaerens strain 91R mainly promoted plant growth. Field experimentation showed that additional factors, such as soil arsenic content and pH, influenced arsenic uptake in the plant, attesting to the relevance of field conditions in the success of phytoextraction strategies. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms and plants have developed several ways of dealing with arsenic, allowing them to resist and metabolize this metalloid. These properties form the basis of

  9. Bacteria in oral secretions of an endophytic insect inhibit antagonistic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin J. Cardoza; Kier D. Klepzig; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2006-01-01

    1. Colonisation of host trees by an endophytic herbivore, the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis , is accompanied by invasion of its galleries by a number of fungal species. Four of these associated species were identified as Leptographium abietinum , Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus nomius , and ...

  10. Melatonin-producing endophytic bacteria from grapevine roots promote the abiotic stress-induced production of endogenous melatonin in their hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes form symbiotic relationships with plants and constitute an important source of phytohormones and bioactive secondary metabolites for their hosts. To date, most studies of endophytes have focused on the influence of these microorganisms on plant growth and physiology and their role in plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stressors; however, to the best of our knowledge, the ability of endophytes to produce melatonin has not been reported. In the present study, we isolated and identified root-dwelling bacteria from three grapevine varieties and found that, when cultured under laboratory conditions, some of the bacteria strains secreted melatonin and tryptophan-ethyl ester. The endophytic bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SB-9 exhibited the highest level of in vitro melatonin secretion and also produced three intermediates of the melatonin biosynthesis pathway: 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin. After B. amyloliquefaciens SB-9 colonization, the plantlets exhibited increased plant growth. Additionally, we found that, in grapevine plantlets exposed to salt or drought stress, colonization by B. amyloliquefaciens SB-9 increased the upregulation of melatonin synthesis, as well as that of its intermediates, but reduced the upregulation of grapevine tryptophan decaboxylase genes (VvTDCs and a serotonin N-acetyltransferase gene (VvSNAT transcription, when compared to the un-inoculated control. Colonization by B. amyloliquefaciens SB-9 was also able to counteract the adverse effects of salt- and drought-induced stress by reducing the production of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2− in roots. Therefore, our findings demonstrate the occurrence of melatonin biosynthesis in endophytic bacteria and provide evidence for a novel form of communication between beneficial endophytes and host plants via melatonin.

  11. Changes in the species composition of the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of sugar beet under the impact of biological preparations based on endophytic bacteria and their metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusenkova, L. I.; Il'yasova, E. Yu.; Lastochkina, O. V.; Maksimov, I. V.; Leonova, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    The species structure of the mycobiota in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of sugar beet in ontogenesis was studied. The treatment of the plants with biopreparations based on endophytic bacteria and their metabolites (Phytosporin-M, Vitaplan, and Albit) were shown to create conditions for the colonization of the plant rhizosphere and phyllosphere by bacteria-antagonists displacing phytopathogenic microorganisms and stimulating plant growth, which induces the transformation of the microbial cenosis.

  12. Analysis of chemical constituents, antimicrobial and anticancer activities of dichloromethane extracts of Sordariomycetes sp. endophytic fungi isolated from Strobilanthes crispus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinfeng, Elaine Chin; Mohamad Rafi, Mohamed Ikhtifar; Chai Hoon, Khoo; Kok Lian, Ho; Yoke Kqueen, Cheah

    2017-01-01

    Plants are primary source of natural product drugs. However, with every new bioactive molecule reported from a plant source, there follows reports of endangered status or even extinction of a medicinally important plant due to over-harvesting. Hence, the attention turned towards fungi namely the endophytes, which reside within medicinally important plants and thus may have acquired their medicinal properties. Strobilanthes crispus is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used traditionally to treat kidney stones, diabetes, hypertension and cancer as well as having antimicrobial activities. In our efforts to bioprospect for anticancer and antimicrobial metabolites, two fungal endophytes most closely related to the Sordariomycetes sp. showed promising results. Sample (PDA)BL3 showed highest significant antimicrobial activity against 6 bacteria at 200 µg/disc whereas sample (PDA)BL5 has highest significant anticancer activity against all 5 cancer cell lines at concentrations ranging from 30 to 300 μg/ml. As for the gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results, a total of 20 volatile metabolites identified from sample (PDA)BL3 and 21 volatile metabolites identified from sample (PDA)BL5 having more than 1% abundance. Both GC-MS analysis showed that compound Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-3-(2-methylpropyl) has the highest abundance at 15.10% abundance for sample (PDA)BL3 and 19.00% abundance for sample (PDA)BL5 respectively. In conclusion, these results have shown bio-prospecting potential of endophytic fungi having antimicrobial and anticancer activities as well as its potential secondary metabolites of interest. Therefore, this work has further indicated the medicinal and industrial potential of endophytic fungi.

  13. Cultivar and Metal-Specific Effects of Endophytic Bacteria in Helianthus tuberosus Exposed to Cd and Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Montalbán

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPB isolated from Brassica napus were inoculated in two cultivars of Helianthus tuberosus (VR and D19 growing on sand supplemented with 0.1 mM Cd or 1 mM Zn. Plant growth, concentrations of metals and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reactive compounds were determined. Colonization of roots of H. tuberosus D19 by Pseudomonas sp. 262 was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Pseudomonas sp. 228, Serratia sp. 246 and Pseudomonas sp. 262 significantly enhanced growth of H. tuberosus D19 exposed to Cd or Zn. Pseudomonas sp. 228 significantly increased Cd concentrations in roots. Serratia sp. 246, and Pseudomonas sp. 256 and 228 resulted in significantly decreased contents of TBA reactive compounds in roots of Zn exposed D19 plants. Growth improvement and decrease of metal-induced stress were more pronounced in D19 than in VR. Pseudomonas sp. 262-green fluorescent protein (GFP colonized the root epidermis/exodermis and also inside root hairs, indicating that an endophytic interaction was established. H. tuberosus D19 inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. 228, Serratia sp. 246 and Pseudomonas sp. 262 holds promise for sustainable biomass production in combination with phytoremediation on Cd and Zn contaminated soils.

  14. Nice to meet you: genetic, epigenetic and metabolic controls of plant perception of beneficial associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in non-leguminous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, T L G; Ballesteros, H G F; Thiebaut, F; Ferreira, P C G; Hemerly, A S

    2016-04-01

    A wide range of rhizosphere diazotrophic bacteria are able to establish beneficial associations with plants, being able to associate to root surfaces or even endophytically colonize plant tissues. In common, both associative and endophytic types of colonization can result in beneficial outcomes to the plant leading to plant growth promotion, as well as increase in tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. An intriguing question in such associations is how plant cell surface perceives signals from other living organisms, thus sorting pathogens from beneficial ones, to transduce this information and activate proper responses that will finally culminate in plant adaptations to optimize their growth rates. This review focuses on the recent advances in the understanding of genetic and epigenetic controls of plant-bacteria signaling and recognition during beneficial associations with associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. Finally, we propose that "soil-rhizosphere-rhizoplane-endophytes-plant" could be considered as a single coordinated unit with dynamic components that integrate the plant with the environment to generate adaptive responses in plants to improve growth. The homeostasis of the whole system should recruit different levels of regulation, and recognition between the parties in a given environment might be one of the crucial factors coordinating these adaptive plant responses.

  15. Endophytic bacteria improve phytoremediation of Ni and TCE co-contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Croes, S.; Dupae, J.; Newman, L.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate if engineered endophytes can improve phytoremediation of co-contaminations by organic pollutants and toxic metals. As a model system, yellow lupine was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468 possessing (a) the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid, coding for constitutive trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation, and (b) the ncc-nre Ni resistance/sequestration system. Plants were exposed to Ni and TCE and (a) Ni and TCE phytotoxicity, (b) TCE degradation and evapotranspiration, and (c) Ni concentrations in the roots and shoots were determined. Inoculation with B. cepacia VM1468 resulted in decreased Ni and TCE phytotoxicity, as measured by 30% increased root biomass and up to 50% decreased activities of enzymes involved in anti-oxidative defence in the roots. In addition, TCE evapotranspiration showed a decreasing trend and a 5 times higher Ni uptake was observed after inoculation. Engineered endophytes can improve phytoremediation of mixed contaminations via enhanced degradation of organic contaminants and improved metal uptake and translocation.

  16. Identification and characterization of endophytic bacteria from corn (Zea mays L.) roots with biotechnological potential in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi-Zecchin, Vivian Jaskiw; Ikeda, Angela Cristina; Hungria, Mariangela; Adamoski, Douglas; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Glienke, Chirlei; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia Vitória

    2014-01-01

    Six endophytic bacteria of corn roots were identified as Bacillus sp. and as Enterobacter sp, by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Four of the strains, CNPSo 2476, CNPSo 2477, CNPSo 2478 and CNPSo 2480 were positive for the nitrogen fixation ability evaluated through the acetylene reduction assay and amplification of nifH gene. Two Bacillus strains (CNPSo 2477 and CNPSo 2478) showed outstanding skills for the production of IAA, siderophores and lytic enzymes, but were not good candidates as growth promoters, because they reduced seed germination. However, the same strains were antagonists against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum graminicola, Bipolaris maydis and Cercospora zea-maydis. As an indication of favorable bacterial action, Enterobacter sp. CNPSo 2480 and Bacillus sp. CNPSo 2481 increased the root volume by 44% and 39%, respectively, and the seed germination by 47% and 56%, respectively. Therefore, these two strains are good candidates for future testing as biological inoculants for corn.

  17. Endophytic Bacteria Suppress Bacterial Wilt of Tomato Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Activate Defense-related Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Safdarpour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phytopathogenic microorganisms affect plant health and burden a major threat to food production and ecosystem stability. Increasing the use of chemical pesticides for plant diseases control causes several negative effects on human and environment health. Furthermore, increasing public awareness about the side effects of them led to a research to find alternatives for these products. One of the alternative methods is bio-control utilizing plant associated antagonistic microorganisms. Materials and methods: In this study, 80 endophytic bacteria were isolated from tomato tissues. Their antagonistic activity screened based on agar diffusion test, against tomato bacterial wilt disease (Ralstonia solanacearum. They were identified based on the morphological, biochemical properties and 16s rRNA sequence analyses. These strains were evaluated in greenhouse and tested for their ability to induce the production of defense-related enzymes in plants e.g. Peroxidase (PO, polyphenoloxidase (PPO and phenolics based on spectrophotometer method. Results: Results showed FS67, FS167 and FS184 strains had maximum inhibition zone forming. They identified as Pseudomonas mossellii, P. fuorescence and P. brassicacearum respectively. FS67 and FS167 strains significantly reduced disease in greenhouse. There was a significant increase in the activity of PO, PPO and phenolics in tomato plants treated with FS67, FS167 and pathogen. Discussion and conclusion: The present study has shown that P. mosselli and P. fuorescence might have the potential to control R. solanacearum. However, the good results obtained in vitro cannot be gained the same as those in greenhouse or field conditions. So, further experiments are needed to determine the effectiveness of these isolates under field conditions.This work support the view that increased defense enzymes activities could be involved, at least in part, in the beneficial effects of endophytic bacteria on plants growth

  18. Characterization of Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria from Mn-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana and their impact on Mn accumulation of hybrid penisetum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Wei; He, Lin-Yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Three hundred Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Mn-hyperaccumulator, Phytolacca americana, grown at different levels of Mn (0, 1, and 10mM) stress. Under no Mn stress, 90%, 92%, and 11% of the bacteria produced indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, respectively. Under Mn stress, 68-94%, 91-92%, and 21-81% of the bacteria produced IAA, siderophore, and ACC deaminase, respectively. Greater percentages of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria were found in the Mn-treated P. americana. Furthermore, the ratios of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria were significantly higher in the Mn treated plant leaves, while the ratio of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria was significantly higher in the Mn treated-roots. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, Mn-resistant bacteria were affiliated with 10 genera. In experiments involving hybrid penisetum grown in soils treated with 0 and 1000mgkg(-1) of Mn, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the root (ranging from 6.4% to 18.3%) and above-ground tissue (ranging from 19.3% to 70.2%) mass and total Mn uptake of above-ground tissues (64%) compared to the control. Furthermore, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the ratio of IAA-producing bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of hybrid penisetum grown in Mn-added soils. The results showed the effect of Mn stress on the ratio of the plant growth-promoting factor-producing endophytic bacteria of P. americana and highlighted the potential of endophytic bacterium as an inoculum for enhanced phytoremediation of Mn-polluted soils by hybrid penisetum plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Panax ginseng Improves Ginsenoside Accumulation in Adventitious Ginseng Root Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolin; Wu, Hao; Yin, Zhenhao; Lian, Meilan; Yin, Chengri

    2017-05-23

    Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite of ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture could reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of ginsenosides is fewer and their contents are lower in adventitious roots of ginseng than that in ginseng cultivated in the field. In this study, we investigated the effects of endophytic bacterial elicitors on biomass and ginsenoside production in adventitious roots cultures of Panax ginseng . Endophyte LB 5-3 as an elicitor could increase biomass and ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng adventitious root culture. After 6 days elicitation with a 10.0 mL of strain LB 5-3, the content of total ginsenoside was 2.026 mg g -1 which was four times more than that in unchallenged roots. The combination of methyl jasmonate and strain LB 5-3 had a negative effect on ginseng adventitious root growth and ginsenoside production. The genomic DNA of strain LB 5-3 was sequenced, and was found to be most closely related to Bacillus altitudinis (KX230132.1). The challenged ginseng adventitious root extracts exerted inhibitory effect against the HepG2 cells, which IC 50 value was 0.94 mg mL -1 .

  20. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Panax ginseng Improves Ginsenoside Accumulation in Adventitious Ginseng Root Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite of ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture could reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of ginsenosides is fewer and their contents are lower in adventitious roots of ginseng than that in ginseng cultivated in the field. In this study, we investigated the effects of endophytic bacterial elicitors on biomass and ginsenoside production in adventitious roots cultures of Panax ginseng. Endophyte LB 5-3 as an elicitor could increase biomass and ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng adventitious root culture. After 6 days elicitation with a 10.0 mL of strain LB 5-3, the content of total ginsenoside was 2.026 mg g−1 which was four times more than that in unchallenged roots. The combination of methyl jasmonate and strain LB 5-3 had a negative effect on ginseng adventitious root growth and ginsenoside production. The genomic DNA of strain LB 5-3 was sequenced, and was found to be most closely related to Bacillus altitudinis (KX230132.1. The challenged ginseng adventitious root extracts exerted inhibitory effect against the HepG2 cells, which IC50 value was 0.94 mg mL−1.

  1. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Durum Wheat Flour Are Endophytic Components of the Plant during Its Entire Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; Tedone, Luigi; De Mastro, Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at assessing the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria and other Firmicutes associated with durum wheat organs and processed products. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Lactococcus were the main epiphytic and endophytic genera among lactic acid bacteria. Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Paenibacillus, and Staphylococcus completed the picture of the core genus microbiome. The relative abundance of each lactic acid bacterium genus was affected by cultivars, phenological stages, other Firmicutes genera, environmental temperature, and water activity (aw) of plant organs. Lactobacilli, showing the highest sensitivity to aw, markedly decreased during milk development (Odisseo) and physiological maturity (Saragolla). At these stages, Lactobacillus was mainly replaced by Streptococcus, Lactococcus, and Enterococcus. However, a key sourdough species, Lactobacillus plantarum, was associated with plant organs during the life cycle of Odisseo and Saragolla wheat. The composition of the sourdough microbiota and the overall quality of leavened baked goods are also determined throughout the phenological stages of wheat cultivation, with variations depending on environmental and agronomic factors. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Isolation of vanilla-endophytic bacteria (Vanilla planifolia with in vitro biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vanillae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Jiménez-Quesada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla sp. genus belongs to Orchidaceae family, and V. planifolia, V. pompona and V. tahitensis. are species of commercial interest. The quality classification of vanilla is made according to the length of the capsule and vanillin content, which is used to make food and beverage, as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry and for the production of cosmetics and perfumes, among others. Currently, root rot caused by the fungus Fusarium oxyporum f. sp. Vanillae is considered to be the biggest problem facing vanilla production, causing 30 to 52% of plant death, attacking adventitious roots and preventing this plant is able to absorb water and nutrients. The fungus cannot be eradicated by the action of chemicals that damage the viability of the plants, and because the cultivation of vanilla in agroforestry systems without the application of agrochemicals is an activity that is gaining interest among small producers country. It is for this reason why was studied the ability of control of vanilla endophytic bacteria isolated from samples from Corcovado, Puriscal, Dota and Guápiles, by testing in vitro antagonism between asylee bacteria and fungus F. oxysporum, giving results about promising candidate B1M11 to respond to pathogen attack, which was corroborated by the appearance of a halo of inhibition of fungal growth on plate.

  3. Culturable endophytic bacteria from the salt marsh plant Halimione portulacoides: phylogenetic diversity, functional characterization, and influence of metal(loid) contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Cátia; Henriques, Isabel; Rocha, Jaqueline; Tacão, Marta; Alves, Artur

    2016-05-01

    Halimione portulacoides is abundant in salt marshes, accumulates mercury (Hg), and was proposed as useful for phytoremediation and pollution biomonitoring. Endophytic bacteria promote plant growth and provide compounds with industrial applications. Nevertheless, information about endophytic bacteria from H. portulacoides is scarce. Endophytic isolates (n = 665) were obtained from aboveground and belowground plant tissues, from two Hg-contaminated sites (sites E and B) and a noncontaminated site (site C), in the estuary Ria de Aveiro. Representative isolates (n = 467) were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and subjected to functional assays. Isolates affiliated with Proteobacteria (64 %), Actinobacteria (23 %), Firmicutes (10 %), and Bacteroidetes (3 %). Altererythrobacter (7.4 %), Marinilactibacillus (6.4 %), Microbacterium (10.2 %), Salinicola (8.8 %), and Vibrio (7.8 %) were the most abundant genera. Notably, Salinicola (n = 58) were only isolated from site C; Hoeflea (17), Labrenzia (22), and Microbacterium (67) only from belowground tissues. This is the first report of Marinilactibacillus in the endosphere. Principal coordinate analysis showed that community composition changes with the contamination gradient and tissue. Our results suggest that the endosphere of H. portulacoides represents a diverse bacterial hotspot including putative novel species. Many isolates, particularly those affiliated to Altererythrobacter, Marinilactibacillus, Microbacterium, and Vibrio, tested positive for enzymatic activities and plant growth promoters, exposing H. portulacoides as a source of bacteria and compounds with biotechnological applications.

  4. Acetobixan, an inhibitor of cellulose synthesis identified by microbial bioprospecting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xia

    Full Text Available In plants, cellulose biosynthesis is an essential process for anisotropic growth and therefore is an ideal target for inhibition. Based on the documented utility of small-molecule inhibitors to dissect complex cellular processes we identified a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI, named acetobixan, by bio-prospecting among compounds secreted by endophytic microorganisms. Acetobixan was identified using a drug-gene interaction screen to sift through hundreds of endophytic microbial secretions for one that caused synergistic reduction in root expansion of the leaky AtcesA6prc1-1 mutant. We then mined this microbial secretion for compounds that were differentially abundant compared with Bacilli that failed to mimic CBI action to isolate a lead pharmacophore. Analogs of this lead compound were screened for CBI activity, and the most potent analog was named acetobixan. In living Arabidopsis cells visualized by confocal microscopy, acetobixan treatment caused CESA particles localized at the plasma membrane (PM to rapidly re-localize to cytoplasmic vesicles. Acetobixan inhibited 14C-Glc uptake into crystalline cellulose. Moreover, cortical microtubule dynamics were not disrupted by acetobixan, suggesting specific activity towards cellulose synthesis. Previous CBI resistant mutants such as ixr1-2, ixr2-1 or aegeus were not cross resistant to acetobixan indicating that acetobixan targets a different aspect of cellulose biosynthesis.

  5. Diversity of indigenous endophytic bacteria associated with the roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) cultivars and their antagonism towards pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Azizul; Yun, Han Dae; Cho, Kye Man

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to reveal the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the roots of Chinese cabbage (CC) cultivated in two areas in Korea, namely, Seosang-gun (SS) and Haenam-gun (HN), and also in a transgenic plant (TP) from the laboratory. A total of 653 colonies were isolated from the interior of CC roots, comprising 118, 302, and 233 isolates from SS, HN, and TP samples, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates belonged to four major phylogenetic groups: high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (HGC-GPB), low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (LGC-GPB), Proteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. The most dominant groups in the roots of the SS, HN, and TP cultivars were LGC-GPB (48.3%), Proteobacteria (50.2%), and HGC-GPB (38.2%), respectively. Importantly, most of the isolates that produced cell-walldegrading enzymes belonged to the genus Bacillus. Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, TPR07), and Bacillus subtilis (TPR03) showed high antagonism against the tested food-borne pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, HNR17, TPR11), Microbacterium oxidans (SSR09, TPR04), Bacillus cereus HNR10, Pseudomonas sp. HNR13, and Bacillus subtilis (TPR02, TPR03) showed strong antagonistic activity against the fungi Phythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The endophytes isolated from the TP cultivar showed the strongest antagonistic reactions against pathogens. This study is the first report on endophytic bacteria from Chinese cabbage roots.

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles against Staphylococcus warneri Synthesized Using Endophytic Bacteria by Photo-irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou-Yan Dong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by Staphylococcus warneri have a significant impact on human health. We evaluated the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (synthesized using the endophytic strain SYSU 333150 against S. warneri. The strain SYSU 333150 was isolated from the roots of Borszczowia aralocaspica Bunge. The 16S rRNA sequence results suggest that SYSU 333150 belongs to the genus Isoptericola and is likely a new species. Photo-irradiation was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles, which were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The nanoparticles were spherical and measured to be11 to 40 nm. X-ray diffraction revealed four peaks corresponding to the 111, 200, 220, and 311 planes of the face-centered cubic lattice, indicating a crystalline nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that the metabolites in the culture supernatant were likely reducing and capping agents. The silver nanoparticles possessed antimicrobial activity (14 mm zone of inhibition against S. warneri, which was likely a result of DNA cleavage. The synthesized silver nanoparticles have potent antibacterial activity against S. warneri and can be used to control infection.

  7. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bowler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics.

  9. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Bioprospection of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 11. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Bioprospection of Bioresources: Land to Lab Approach. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 11 November 2017 pp 1101-1101 ...

  10. Bioprospecting Archaea: Focus on Extreme Halophiles

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, André

    2016-12-12

    In 1990, Woese et al. divided the Tree of Life into three separate domains: Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. Archaea were originally perceived as little more than “odd bacteria” restricted to extreme environmental niches, but later discoveries challenged this assumption. Members of this domain populate a variety of unexpected environments (e.g. soils, seawater, and human bodies), and we currently witness ongoing massive expansions of the archaeal branch of the Tree of Life. Archaea are now recognized as major players in the biosphere and constitute a significant fraction of the earth’s biomass, yet they remain underexplored. An ongoing surge in exploration efforts is leading to an increase in the (a) number of isolated strains, (b) associated knowledge, and (c) utilization of Archaea in biotechnology. They are increasingly employed in fields as diverse as biocatalysis, biocomputing, bioplastic production, bioremediation, bioengineering, food, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. This chapter provides a general overview on bioprospecting Archaea, with a particular focus on extreme halophiles. We explore aspects such as diversity, ecology, screening techniques and biotechnology. Current and future trends in mining for applications are discussed.

  11. Isolation and characterization of beneficial indigenous endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-associated bacteria that live inside plant tissues without causing any damage to plants are defined as endophytic bacteria. The present study was carried out to analyze the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of endophytic bacteria associated with Amaranthus hybridus, Solanum lycopersicum and Cucurbita maxima.

  12. Pseudomonas tarimensis sp. nov., an endophytic bacteria isolated from Populus euphratica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Nusratgul; Rozahon, Manziram; Zayadan, Bolatkhan; Mamtimin, Hormathan; Abdurahman, Mehfuzem; Kurban, Marygul; Abdurusul, Mihribangul; Mamtimin, Tursunay; Abdukerim, Muhtar; Rahman, Erkin

    2017-11-01

    An endophytic bacterium, MA-69 T , was isolated from the storage liquid in the stems of Populuseuphratica trees at the ancient Ugan River in Xinjiang, PR China. Strain MA-69 T was found to be short rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, aerobic and motile by means of a monopolar flagellum. According to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain MA-69 T was assigned to the genus Pseudomonas with highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.5 % to Pseudomonas azotifigens JCM 12708 T , followed by Pseudomonas matsuisoli JCM 30078 T (97.5 %), Pseudomonas balearica DSM 6083 T (97.1 %), Azotobacter salinestris ATCC 49674 T (96.1 %) and Pseudomonas indica DSM 14015 T (95.9 %). Analysis of strain MA-69 T based on the three housekeeping genes, rpoB, rpoD and gyrB, further confirmed the isolate to be distinctly delineated from species of the genus Pseudomonas. The DNA G+C content of strain MA-69 T was 64.1 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization with Pseudomonas azotifigens JCM 12708 T , Pseudomonas matsuisoli JCM 30078 T and Pseudomonas balearica DSM 6083 T revealed 62.9, 60.1 and 49.0 % relatedness, respectively. The major fatty acids in strain MA-69 T were summed feature 3 (25.7 %), summed feature 8 (24.0 %), C19 : 0cyclo ω8c (19.9 %), C16 : 0 (14.6 %) and C12 : 0 (6.3 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. Q-9 was the major quinone in strain MA-69 T . Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain MA-69 T represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas tarimensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MA-69 T (=CCTCC AB 2013065 T =KCTC 42447 T ).

  13. Plant-bacteria interactions: identification, characterization and localization of beneficial bacterial endophytes isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera

    OpenAIRE

    Nigris, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reports the results obtained during the three years PhD course focused on the study of culturable bacterial endophytes of Vitis vinifera Glera and their beneficial activities. The study, part of a large project named “EndoFlorVit project” (FEARS-UE and Regione Del Veneto), aims at investigate the biodiversity and the plant growth promoting activities of culturable endophytes isolated from Glera grapevine in vineyards of Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG production area. This thesis re...

  14. Endophytic and epiphytic hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules of legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, N.; Khanafer, M.; Radwan, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    During their withdrawal from Kuwait in 1991, the Iraqi forces damaged and set fire to approximately 700 oil wells. Oil gushed from the wells for a period of 7 months, resulting in oil lakes which covered about 50 square km of the Kuwaiti desert and posing an environmental problem. Most of the crude oil has been pumped out, leaving the lake bottoms polluted with oil to depths reaching 20 to 25 cm. The oily areas have been mediated through indigenous hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms, but recovery is slow. Rhizospheres of crop plants, including legumes, are rich in oil-utilizing bacteria. Cultivation of broad beans in oily desert samples has enhanced oil biodegradation. This paper discussed the evidence that rhizobium strains inside the nodules on roots of broad beans are active in hydrocarbon utilization, and that the nodules are also colonized on their entire surfaces with oil-utilizing bacteria. Nodule-associated hydrocarbon utilizers appear to contribute together with rhizospheric hydrocarbon utilizers to the phytoremediation of oily soil. Broad beans were removed from soil and their root surfaces were sterilized to eliminate rhizospheric microorganisms. Plants with intact nodules were tested for their potential of attenuating to crude oil in water. Plants were divided into 2 groups: control plants in which all nodules were removed; and experimental plants which were used directly without further treatment. To isolate rhizobium from inside the nodules, fresh nodules were washed, sterilized and homogenized in sterile water. Bacterial strains were tested for their hydrocarbon utilization potential by streaking cell suspensions on the surface of sterile inorganic mediums containing 1 per cent of crude oil or of individual pure aliphatic and aromatic test hydrocarbons. All bacterial isolates were tested for growth on a solid Ashbery's nitrogen free medium. Results indicated that hydrocarbons were more efficiently eliminated from water supporting disinfected

  15. [Population distribution and antimicrobial activities of endophytes in Toddalia asiatica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Benshou; Yang, Benshou; Miao, Cuiping; Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Guoyin; Yang, De; Yu, Hong

    2014-03-04

    To study the population composition and antimicrobial activities of endophytes in medicinal plant Toddalia asiatica. Endophytes were isolated from T. asiatica by using an exterior sterilization method, in combination with adding antimicrobial agents. Endophytes were classified and identified by morphological and molecular characters. Antimicrobial activities of endophytes were measured by using paper disc diffusion method. Three strains of endophytic bacteria, one strain of endophytic actinomyces and 82 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from T. asiatica. Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, and Aspergillus were the dominant populations in T. asiatica. Antimicrobial activities of these endophytes were measured against 30 pathogenic microbes, and 18 strains possess substantial inhibitory activities, of which 16 strains were endophytic fungi belonging to 11 genera. Endophytic strains with antimicrobial activities were obtained to explore the application of endophytic resources from T. asiatica.

  16. Frost-related dieback of willows. Comparison of epiphytically and endophytically isolated bacteria from different Salix clones, with emphasis on ice nucleation activity, pathogenic properties and seasonal variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P.; Ramstedt, M. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Plant Pathology and Biocontrol Unit; Granhall, U. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Department of Microbiology

    2005-01-01

    Swedish Salix plantation for biomass production have been suffering severe dieback during the past 10 years, possibly due to the combination of frost and bacterial disease. As opposed to summer and winter, spring and autumn are periods when epiphytic populations of ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria are generally high. The culturable bacterial floras from stems of diseased plant of four Salix viminalis clones were compared in spring and autumn. Both epiphytic and endophytic bacteria were isolated (i.e. from plant surface and from tissues beneath the bark, respectively), characterised and tested for ice nucleating activity and pathogenicity. Some strains were also identified with BIOLOG and 16S rRNA. Endophytically isolated communities were generally more stable than epiphytes, both in number of isolates and type of bacteria. More types were found in autumn than in spring the same year, although the total number of strains isolated was rather constant. In contrast, more strains (and a higher percentage of the total community) expressed ice nucleating activity in spring than in autumn. The overall number of pathogenic strains remained stable but their proportion among the community tested on plants increased. A close relationship was observed between the dieback rates in the field and the percentage of pathogenic strains found in the different clones. The dominating bacterial type isolated, Sphingomonas spp., also contained the highest percentage of ice nucleation active pathogenic strains. (author)

  17. Enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by five strains of endophytic bacteria and their plant growth promotional ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fayun; Ge, Jing; Li, Yisong; He, Shuang; Zhong, Jianfeng; Liu, Xianjing; Yu, Xiangyang

    2017-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria reside in plant tissues, such as roots, stems, leaves and seeds. Most of them can stimulate plant growth or alleviate phytotoxicity of pollutants. There are handful species with dual functions stimulating plant growth and degrading pollutants have been reported. Five endophytic bacteria were isolated from chlorpyrifos (CP) treated rice plants and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRA, Bacillus megaterium strain RRB, Sphingobacterium siyangensis strain RSA, Stenotrophomonas pavanii strain RSB and Curtobacterium plantarum strain RSC according to morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA phylogeny. All of them possessed some plant growth promotional traits, including indole acetic acid and siderophore production, secretion of phosphate solubilization and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. The bacteria were marked with the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene and successfully colonized into rice plants. All isolates were able to degrade CP in vitro and in vivo. The five isolates degraded more than 90% of CP in 24 h when the initial concentration was lower than 5 mg/L. CP degradation was significantly enhanced in the infested rice plants and rice grains. The final CP residual was reduced up to 80% in the infested rice grains compared to the controls. The results indicate that these isolates are promising bio-inoculants for the removal or detoxification of CP residues in rice plants and grains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Xiafang; Xia Juanjuan; Jiang Chunyu; He Linyan; Qian Meng

    2008-01-01

    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape

  19. Endophytic Bacteria Improve Plant Growth, Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Induce Suppression of Root Rot Caused by Fusarium solani under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza Egamberdieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity causes disturbance in symbiotic performance of plants, and increases susceptibility of plants to soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria are an essential determinant of cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study was to isolate non–rhizobial endophytic bacteria from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., and to assess their ability to improve plant growth and symbiotic performance, and to control root rot in chickpea under saline soil conditions. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from internal root tissues of chickpea grown in salinated soil were isolated. Four bacterial isolates, namely Bacillus cereus NUU1, Achromobacter xylosoxidans NUU2, Bacillus thuringiensis NUU3, and Bacillus subtilis NUU4 colonizing root tissue demonstrated plant beneficial traits and/or antagonistic activity against F. solani and thus were characterized in more detail. The strain B. subtilis NUU4 proved significant plant growth promotion capabilities, improved symbiotic performance of host plant with rhizobia, and promoted yield under saline soil as compared to untreated control plants under field conditions. A combined inoculation of chickpea with M. ciceri IC53 and B. subtilis NUU4 decreased H2O2 concentrations and increased proline contents compared to the un-inoculated plants indicating an alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress. Furthermore, the bacterial isolate was capable to reduce the infection rate of root rot in chickpea caused by F. solani. This is the first report of F. solani causing root rot of chickpea in a salinated soil of Uzbekistan. Our findings demonstrated that the endophytic B. subtilis strain NUU4 provides high potentials as a stimulator for plant growth and as biological control agent of chickpea root rot under saline soil conditions. These multiple relationships could provide promising practical approaches to increase the productivity of legumes under salt stress.

  20. Study in vitro of the impact of endophytic bacteria isolated from Centella asiatica on the disease incidence caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniriana, Erick Francisco; Rafamantanana, Mamy; Randriamampionona, Denis; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Urveg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; El Jaziri, Mondher; Munaut, Françoise; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Declerck, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-one endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of Centella asiatica were screened in vitro for their ability to reduce the growth rate and disease incidence of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of anthracnose. Isolates of Cohnella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Pantoea sp. significantly stimulated the growth rate of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, while isolates of Achromobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas putida had no influence on this plant pathogen. By contrast, Bacillus subtilis BCA31 and Pseudomonas fluorescens BCA08 caused a marked inhibition of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 growth by 46 and 82 %, respectively. Cell-free culture filtrates of B. subtilis BCA31 and P. fluorescens BCA08 were found to contain antifungal compounds against C. higginsianum MUCL 44942. Inoculation assays on in vitro-cultured plants of C. asiatica showed that foliar application of B. subtilis BCA31, three days before inoculation with C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, significantly reduced incidence and severity of the disease. The role of endophytic bacteria in maintaining the apparent inactivity of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 in C. asiatica grown in the wild is discussed.

  1. Isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria from date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and their potential role in salinity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaish, Mahmoud W; Antony, Irin; Glick, Bernard R

    2015-06-01

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seedling roots, characterized and tested for their ability to help plants grow under saline conditions. Molecular characterization showed that the majority of these strains belonged to the genera Bacillus and Enterobacter and had different degrees of resistance to various antibiotics. Some of these strains were able to produce the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase and the plant growth regulatory hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Some strains were also able to chelate ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and solubilize potassium (K(+)), phosphorus (PO 4 (3-) ) and zinc (Zn(2+)), and produce ammonia. The results also showed that ACC deaminase activity and IAA production was slightly increased in some strains in response to an increase in NaCl concentration in the growth media. Consistent with these results, selected strains such as PD-R6 (Paenibacillus xylanexedens) and PD-P6 (Enterobacter cloacae) were able to enhance canola root elongation when grown under normal and saline conditions as demonstrated by a gnotobiotic root elongation assay. These results suggest that the isolated and characterized endophytic bacteria can alter ethylene and IAA levels and also facilitate nutrient uptake in roots and therefore have the potential role to promote the growth and development of date palm trees growing under salinity stress.

  2. Endophytes as in vitro production platforms of high value plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Aarthi; Srivastava, Smita

    2015-11-01

    Many reports have been published on bioprospecting of endophytic fungi capable of producing high value bioactive molecules like, paclitaxel, vincristine, vinblastine, camptothecin and podophyllotoxin. However, commercial exploitation of endophytes for high value-low volume plant secondary metabolites remains elusive due to widely reported genomic instability of endophytes in the axenic culture. While most of the endophyte research focuses on screening endophytes for novel or existing high value biomolecules, very few reports seek to explore the possible mechanisms of production of host-plant associated or novel secondary metabolites in these organisms. With an overview of host-endophyte relationship and its possible impact on the secondary metabolite production potential of endophytes, the review highlights the evidence reported for and against the presence of host-independent biosynthetic machinery in endophytes. The review aims to address the question, why should and how can endophytes be exploited for large scale in vitro production of high value phytochemicals? In this regard, various bioprocess optimization strategies that have been applied to sustain and enhance the product yield from the endophytes have also been described in detail. Further, techniques like mixed fermentation/co-cultivation and use of epigenetic modifiers have also been discussed as potential strategies to activate cryptic gene clusters in endophytes, thereby aiding in novel metabolite discovery and overcoming the limitations associated with axenic culture of endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation and characterization of putative endophytic bacteria antagonistic to Phoma tracheiphila and Verticillium albo-atrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai-Grami, Leila; Saidi, Sabrine; Bachkouel, Sarra; Ben Slimene, Imen; Mnari-Hattab, Monia; Hajlaoui, Mohamed Rebah; Limam, Ferid

    2014-09-01

    A collection of 200 bacterial isolates recovered from citrus plants (Citrus limon, Citrus sinensis, and Citrus reticulata), Medicago truncatula and Laurus nobilis, was established. In vitro screening indicated that 28 isolates exhibited an inhibitory activity against the vascular pathogens Phoma tracheiphila and Verticillium albo-atrum. Isolates were screened according to their hydrolytic activities, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) abilities, as well as for the presence of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes responsible of the lipopeptide biosynthesis. The results were positive for 16 isolates which exhibited at least two PGPB activities and a single NRPS gene. Genetic diversity of the selected isolates was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive element PCR (REP) tools that showed clustering of strains into three major groups (I, II, and III) (i, ii, and iii), respectively. Clustering was further confirmed by the 16S rDNA sequencing that assigned nine isolates to Bacillus velezensis, four isolates to Bacillus methyltrophicus, one isolate to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and two isolates to Bacillus mojavensis. Organ-bacterial genotype interaction as well as positive correlation with NRPS genes are discussed.

  4. SELEKSI DAN IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI ENDOFIT POTENSIAL PENGHASIL ENZIM PROTEASE DARI TAMAN NASIONAL GUNUNG HALIMUN - (The Selection and Identification of Potential Endophyte Bacteria as Protease Enzyme Producer from Halimun Mount National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Melliawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria have an equal chance to bacteria that live outside the plant tissue as potential bacteria. The selection has done towards 326 bacterial endophyte isolates. This research aimed to find and identify proteolytic potential isolates. The proteolytic selection of endophytic bacteria had done using solid skim milk. The capability of endophytic bacteria to agglomerate milk was tested using liquid skim milk which incubated for 7 days at room temperature. Enzyme production of four selected isolates was made through fermentation in GYS medium. The results showed that 86 isolates have proteolytic potential. Isolate HL.29B.63 had highest protease enzymes activity (65.918 U/mL. Medium optimization was able to increase the enzyme activity into 89.94% (125.04 U/mL. The analysis used 16s rDNA showed that isolate HL.29B.63 was Bacillus amyloliquefacient subs. plantarum strain FZB42.Keywords: endophytic bacteria, fermentation, identification, protease, selection ABSTRAKBakteri endofit mempunyai peluang yang sama dengan bakteri yang hidup diluar jaringan tanaman sebagai bakteri potensial. Seleksi dilakukan terhadap 326 isolat bakteri endofit. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mencari isolat yang berpotensi proteolitik dan mengidentifikasinya. Seleksi proteolitik terhadap bakteri endofitik menggunakan skim milk padat. Uji kemampuan bakteri endofitik dalam menggumpalkan susu menggunakan medium skim milk cair yang diinkubasi selama 7 hari pada suhu ruang. Produksi enzim terhadap empat isolat terseleksi dilakukan melalui fermentasi dalam medium GYS. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa 86 isolat mempunyai potensi proteolitik. Isolat HL.29B.63 mempunyai aktif enzim protease tertinggi (65,918 U/mL. Optimasi medium dapat meningkatkan aktivitas enzim sebesar 89,94% (125,04 U/mL. Analisis menggunakan 16s rDNA menunjukkan bahwa isolat HL.29B.63 adalah Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subs. plantarum strain FZB42.Kata kunci: bakteri endofit, fermentasi, identifikasi, protease

  5. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-07-06

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region.

  6. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses.

  7. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses. PMID:28124841

  8. Endophytic Bacteria from Pinus taeda L. as Biocontrol Agents of Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O'Donnell Bacterias Endófitas de Pinus taeda L. como Agentes de control Biológico de Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O'Donnell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Soria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O'Donnell, the pitch canker fungus, has been recently reported in Uruguay affecting Pinus taeda L. seedlings. The spread of this pathogen to plantations constitute a risk to forestry production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of live bacteria and their thermostable metabolites on F. circinatum growth in vitro. Four Bacillus subtilis strains and one of Burkholderia sp. isolated as P. taeda endophytes were evaluated as biological control agents of F. circinatum. Dual cultures between live bacteria and pathogen were performed. Furthermore, bacteria metabolites obtained from liquid cultures were sterilized and added to the culture media where fungus was grown. In this study all bacteria showed an antagonist effect on the pathogen growth arresting the mycelia at one cm of the edge of the bacteria colony. Bacteria thermostable metabolites reduced over 50% fungal growth. These results demonstrates that endophytic bacteria, well adapted to live in host tissues, constitute a good alternative to control F. circinatum affecting Pinus seedlings.La presencia de Fusarium circinatum Niremberg & O'Donnell, agente causal del cancro resinoso en pino, ha sido detectada recientemente en plántulas de Pinus taeda L. en Uruguay. La propagación de este patógeno en las plantaciones constituye un riesgo para la producción forestal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la capacidad inhibitoria de bacterias vivas y de sus metabolitos termoestables sobre el crecimiento de F. circinatum in vitro. Cuatro cepas de Bacillus subtilis y una de Burkholderia sp. aisladas como endófitas de P. taeda, fueron evaluadas como potenciales agentes de control biológico sobre F. circinatum. Para ello, se realizaron enfrentamientos directos entre las bacterias vivas y el micelio del patógeno. Por otra parte, los metabolitos bacterianos obtenidos de cultivos líquidos fueron esterilizados en autoclave y se incorporaron al

  9. Bioprospecting the lat gene in soil samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the Western Ghats and one from the northeast Assam forests. Eighteen actinomycete isolates from the 7 positive soils showed the presence of the lat gene. Only 9 isolates actually produced an antibiotic. These results are discussed. [Dharwadkar A, Gupta V and Pant A 2003 Bioprospecting the lat gene in soil samples; ...

  10. Fungal disease prevention in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa) and other grasses by growth-promoting seed-associated endophytic bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Satish K.; Kingsley, Kathryn L.; Bergen, Marshall S.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; White, James F.

    2018-01-01

    Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium, Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusariumblights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), or annual bluegrass (Poa annua) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. We found that three bacteria belonging to genus Pseudomonas spp. (SLB4-P. fluorescens, SLB6-Pseudomonas sp. and SY1-Pseudomonassp.) promoted seedling development, including enhancement of root and shoot growth, and stimulation of root hair formation. These bacteria were also found to increase phosphate solubilization in in vitro experiments. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) significantly protected grass seedlings from Fusarium infection. In co-culture experiments, strain SY1 strongly inhibited fungal pathogens with 85.71% growth inhibition of F. oxysporum, 86.33% growth inhibition of Curvularia sp. and 82.14% growth inhibition of Alternaria sp. Seedlings previously treated with bacteria were found much less infected by F. oxysporum in comparison to non-treated controls. On microscopic observation we found that bacteria appeared to degrade fungal mycelia actively. Metabolite products of strain SY1 in agar were also found to inhibit fungal growth on nutrient media. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) was found to produce antifungal volatiles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using specific primers for pyrrolnitirin synthesis and HCN (hydrogen cyanide) production

  11. Use of Plant Preservative Mixture™ for establishing in vitro cultures from field plants: Experience with papaya reveals several PPM™ tolerant endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Agrawal, Mukta; Bharathkumar, C B

    2017-11-01

    Prevalence of diverse PPM™-tolerant endophytic bacteria in papaya, the broad-spectrum microbicide specified for use in plant tissue cultures, capable of surviving covertly in MS-based medium, with implications in contamination management. Plant Preservative Mixture™ was employed for establishing papaya (Carica papaya) tissue cultures from field explants. Comparing three recommended practices for controlling endogenous microbial contaminants, axillary shoot tips (1.0-1.5 cm) from cv. Arka Prabhath were treated with PPM™ 5% for 4 h (T1), 50% for 10 min (T2) or 100% for 10 min (T3) and cultured in MS-based papaya establishment medium (PEM). By 4-6 weeks, all treatments proved non-rewarding with cultures succumbing either to microbial contamination (80% in T1) or phytotoxicity effect/contamination (90% in T2 and 95% in T3). Another trial adopting a multi-step surface sterilization treatment (carbendazim-cetrimide-HgCl 2 ) followed by culturing in 0.05% PPM-supplemented PEM showed 35% obvious bacterial contamination compared with 40% in control. Single colonies from pooled bacterial growths were tested on 0.1% PPM-incorporated nutrient agar (NA) registering 60% isolates as PPM sensitive. Twenty PPM-surviving isolates were selected and identified. This showed 85% Gram-positive bacteria including 80% under phylum Firmicutes (55% spore-forming Bacillaceae and 25% Staphylococcaceae) and 5% Actinobacteria, and 15% Gram-negative Proteobacteria. About 50% isolates remained wholly non-obvious upon culturing on PEM while the rest showed slow growth with many displaying growth enhancement upon host tissue extract supplementation. Culturing the isolates on PPM-supplemented NA indicated 90-95% as tolerating 0.05-0.1% PPM and 65% overriding 0.2% PPM. The isolates, however, did not display obvious growth in PPM-supplemented PEM where the spore formers survived. The results indicate the prevalence of diverse PPM™-tolerant endophytic bacteria in papaya most of which

  12. Anticancer and antibacterial secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. CAM64 against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Tamokou, Jean-de-Dieu; Mbazoa, Céline Djama; Sarkar, Prodipta; Bag, Prasanta Kumar; Wandji, Jean

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of multiple-drug resistance bacteria has become a major threat and thus calls for an urgent need to search for new effective and safe anti-bacterial agents. This study aims to evaluate the anticancer and antibacterial activities of secondary metabolites from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus associated with leaves of Garcinia nobilis. The culture filtrate from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. was extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the major metabolites were isolated and identified by spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with published data. The antibacterial activity of the compounds was assessed by broth microdilution method while the anticancer activity was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The fractionation of the crude extract afforded penialidin A-C (1-3), citromycetin (4), p-hydroxyphenylglyoxalaldoxime (5) and brefelfin A (6). All of the compounds tested here showed antibacterial activity (MIC = 0.50 - 128 µg/mL) against Gramnegative multi-drug resistance bacteria, Vibrio cholerae (causative agent of dreadful disease cholera) and Shigella flexneri (causative agent of shigellosis), as well as the significant anticancer activity (LC 50 = 0.88 - 9.21 µg/mL) against HeLa cells. The results obtained indicate that compounds 1-6 showed good antibacterial and anticancer activities with no toxicity to human red blood cells and normal Vero cells.

  13. Poplar and its bacterial endophytes: coexistence and harmony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Monchy, S.; Schwender, J.; Miller, L.; Ferrieri, R.; Rogers, A.; Zhu, W.; Weyens, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.

    2009-09-01

    Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an improved understanding of the interaction between poplar and its endophytic bacteria has the potential to provide major breakthroughs that will improve the productivity of poplar. Endophytic bacteria can improve plant growth and development in a direct or indirect way. Direct plant growth promoting mechanisms may involve nitrogen fixation, production of plant growth regulators such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, and suppression of stress ethylene synthesis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Endophytic bacteria can indirectly benefit the plant by preventing the growth or activity of plant pathogens through competition for space and nutrients, antibiosis, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of pathogen-produced enzymes or toxins, and through systemic induction of plant defense mechanisms. Examples of applications for custom endophyte-host partnerships include improved productivity and establishment of poplar trees on marginal soils and the phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. A systems biology approach to understand the synergistic interactions between poplar and its beneficial endophytic bacteria represents an important field of research, which is facilitated by the recent sequencing of the genomes of poplar and several of its endophytic bacteria.

  14. Isolation of Endophytic Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Associated with the Halophyte Salicornia europaea and Evaluation of their Promoting Activity Under Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Zhou, Na; Zhao, Zheng-Yong; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Guo-Hua; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Several reports have highlighted that many plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPE) can assist their host plants in coping with various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information about the PGPE colonizing in the halophytes is still scarce. This study was designed to isolate and characterize PGPE from salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea grown under extreme salinity and to evaluate in vitro the bacterial mechanisms related to plant growth promotion. A total of 105 isolates were obtained from the surface-sterilized roots, stems, and assimilation twigs of S. europaea. Thirty-two isolates were initially selected for their ability to produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase as well as other properties such as production of indole-3-acetic acid and phosphate-solubilizing activities. The 16S rRNA gene-sequencing analysis revealed that these isolates belong to 13 different genera and 19 bacterial species. For these 32 strains, seed germination and seedling growth in axenically grown S. europaea seedlings at different NaCl concentrations (50-500 mM) were quantified. Five isolates possessing significant stimulation of the host plant growth were obtained. The five isolates were identified as Bacillus endophyticus, Bacillus tequilensis, Planococcus rifietoensis, Variovorax paradoxus, and Arthrobacter agilis. All the five strains could colonize and can be reisolated from the host plant interior tissues. These results demonstrate that habitat-adapted PGPE isolated from halophyte could enhance plant growth under saline stress conditions.

  15. Characterization of cellulases of fungal endophytes isolated from Espeletia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Luisa; Calderon, Carolina; Medina, Luis Miguel; Bahamon, Isabela; Cardenas, Martha; Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Gonzalez, Andrés; Restrepo, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that asymptomatically invade plant tissues. They can stimulate plant growth and/or provide defense against pathogen attacks through the production of secondary metabolites. Most endophyte species are still unknown, and because they may have several applications, the study of their metabolic capabilities is essential. We characterized 100 endophytes isolated from Espeletia spp., a genus unique to the paramo ecosystem, an extreme environment in the Andean mountain range. We evaluated the cellulolytic potential of these endophytes on the saccharification of the oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). The total cellulolytic activity was measured for each endophyte on filter paper (FPA). In addition, the specific carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase activities were determined. We found four fungi positive for cellulases. Of these fungi, Penicillium glabrum had the highest cellulolytic activity after partial purification, with maximal CMCase, exoglucanase and β-glucosidase enzyme activities of 44.5, 48.3, and 0.45 U/ml, respectively. Our data showed that the bioprospection of fungi and the characterization of their enzymes may facilitate the process of biofuel production.

  16. Bacterial Endophyte Colonization and Distribution within Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam L. Kandel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The plant endosphere contains a diverse group of microbial communities. There is general consensus that these microbial communities make significant contributions to plant health. Both recently adopted genomic approaches and classical microbiology techniques continue to develop the science of plant-microbe interactions. Endophytes are microbial symbionts residing within the plant for the majority of their life cycle without any detrimental impact to the host plant. The use of these natural symbionts offers an opportunity to maximize crop productivity while reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture. Endophytes promote plant growth through nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, nutrient acquisition, and by conferring tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Colonization by endophytes is crucial for providing these benefits to the host plant. Endophytic colonization refers to the entry, growth and multiplication of endophyte populations within the host plant. Lately, plant microbiome research has gained considerable attention but the mechanism allowing plants to recruit endophytes is largely unknown. This review summarizes currently available knowledge about endophytic colonization by bacteria in various plant species, and specifically discusses the colonization of maize plants by Populus endophytes.

  17. Bioprospecting and Functional Analysis of Neglected Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Josef Korbinian

    on Biological Diversity (explained in Chapter 3). Proteolytic enzymes – described in Chapter 4 – are the target for bioprospecting due to their high market value. Section II describes methods used for the analysis of metagenomic and RNA-seq datasets, including Manuscript I, which includes the taxonomic...... annotation of a late Pleistocene horse metagenome and the functional annotation of the donkey genome. The functional analysis and the identification of novel proteolytic enzymes in the polar marine environment and the full transcriptome analysis of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula is also presented...... of arctic marine metagenomes reveals bacterial strategies for deep sea persistence (Manuscript II). Furthermore, this extreme environment is a fertile ground to mine for novel proteolytic enzymes. Manuscript III presents a bioinformatics approach to identify sequences for potential commercialization...

  18. Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophyt...

  19. Unearthing Bacillus endophytes from desert plants that enhance growth of Arabidopsis thaliana under abiotic stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Bokhari, Ameerah M

    2018-04-01

    Here, we embarked a bioprospecting project that focuses on the isolation and characterization of plant root endophytes, collected from the Thar Desert. A total of 381 endophytes were isolated and based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, genus Bacillus (58 strains) was identified as the major taxon and only endophytes from this genus were isolated from all plant types. Of the 58 Bacillus strains, only 16 strains were selected for screening of plant growth promotion traits such as P and Zn solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid and siderophore production, and antimicrobial activity. Based on the presence of specific plant growth promotion traits 10 strains were shortlisted for further in vitro screening with A. thaliana; to confirm that these bacteria can confer resilience to plants under salt stress conditions. B. circulans (PK3-15 and PK3-109), B. cereus (PK6-15) B. subtilis (PK3-9) and B. licheniformis (PK5-26) displayed the ability to increased the fresh weight of A. thaliana under salt stress conditions by more than 50 % compared to the uninoculated control. An interesting observation was that B. circulans (PK3-109) (shown to produce IAA exopolysaccharide) and B. circulans (PK3-138) (shown to produce IAA) in vitro results were substantially different as B. circulans (PK3-138) decreased the total fresh weight of A. thaliana by 47 %, whilst B. circulans (PK3-109) was one of the best performing strains. Thus, the genomes of these two strains were sequences to unravel the molecular versatility of B. circulans strains, specifically with respect to their interaction with plants. Most of the genome of these strains is identical but the most interesting feature was the presence of 1/ the DegS–DegU two-component system that is known to mediate the salt stress response and DegU also represses toxin wapA similar to antitoxin wapI, and 2/ YxiG, a gene in the unique orthogroup of PK3-109 was found to be linked to WapI. Thus, PK3-138 substantially decreasing the total fresh

  20. Molecular detection of TasA gene in endophytic Bacillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TasA, the gene which play an important role in bacteria development, physiology and bacteria biofilm formation in Bacillus species was detected in the endophytic bacteria by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. In ten endophytic Bacillus strains tested, TasA gene was readily detected in Bacillus ...

  1. Screening mycotoxins for quorum inhibition in a biocontrol bacterial endophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial endophytes are used as biocontrol organisms for plant pathogens such as the maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides and its production of fumonisin mycotoxins. However, such applications are not always predictable and efficient. Bacteria communicate via cell-dependent signals, which are r...

  2. Bioprospecting as a possible development mechanism for Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melgarejo, Luz Marina

    2013-01-01

    Bioprospecting has been on the agenda for discussion by the government, the academic community, businesses and other pertinent actors for many years now; it is an integral topic representing a potential approach to exploit biodiversity to the fullest. This document presents some definitions of what bioprospecting is (some restrictive, others with a broader perspective, depending on different approaches, actors, target markets and countries) in the context of a mechanism for development and cooperation concerning the construction of capacities, advantages and disadvantages. it was found that bioprospecting in Colombia has been developing from a broad perspective (systematic study of biological-genetic resources, transformation into a product which has led to strengthening some value chains, small- and/or large-scale marketing and some advances in intellectual property rights and the distribution of benefits) in order to provide greater benefits for the nation.

  3. BIOPROSPECTING AS A POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM FOR COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Melgarejo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioprospecting has been on the agenda for discussion by the government, the academic community, businesses and other pertinent actors for many years now; it is an integral topic representing a potential approach to exploit biodiversity to the fullest. This document presents some definitions of what bioprospecting is (some restrictive, others with a broader perspective, depending on different approaches, actors, target markets and countries in the context of a mechanism for development and cooperation concerning the construction of capacities, advantages and disadvantages. It was found that bioprospecting in Colombia has been developing from a broad perspective (systematic study of biological-genetic resources, transformation into a product which has led to strengthening some value chains, small- and/or large-scale marketing and some advances in intellectual property rights and the distribution of benefits in order to provide greater benefits for the nation.

  4. Beyond the Thumbrule Approach: Regulatory Innovations for Bioprospecting in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Sanjay Bavikatte and Morten Walløe Tvedt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS, there is unprecedented attention on good Green Governance, which implies the development of resource efficient, rights based and effective domestic frameworks to regulate bioprospecting. India has been pioneering in this regard due to its ABS legislation in 2002 that long preceded the Nagoya Protocol. However much has changed since 2002 and while India has learnt a great deal from its ‘learning by doing’ method, there are valuable lessons that can be learnt from innovations in the ABS frameworks of other countries. The innovations of these countries are a great resource for National Biodiversity Authority (NBA in India that is seeking to make the processing of the bioprospecting applications in India more optimal. The current paper highlights the challenges faced by the NBA in processing the high volumes of bioprospecting applications, analyses the reasons for such challenges and proposes solutions for the same.

  5. Bioprospecting metagenomes: glycosyl hydrolases for converting biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monchy Sebastien

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Throughout immeasurable time, microorganisms evolved and accumulated remarkable physiological and functional heterogeneity, and now constitute the major reserve for genetic diversity on earth. Using metagenomics, namely genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples, this biogenetic diversification can be accessed without the need to cultivate cells. Accordingly, microbial communities and their metagenomes, isolated from biotopes with high turnover rates of recalcitrant biomass, such as lignocellulosic plant cell walls, have become a major resource for bioprospecting; furthermore, this material is a major asset in the search for new biocatalytics (enzymes for various industrial processes, including the production of biofuels from plant feedstocks. However, despite the contributions from metagenomics technologies consequent upon the discovery of novel enzymes, this relatively new enterprise requires major improvements. In this review, we compare function-based metagenome screening and sequence-based metagenome data mining, discussing the advantages and limitations of both methods. We also describe the unusual enzymes discovered via metagenomics approaches, and discuss the future prospects for metagenome technologies.

  6. Red Sea as a source for bioprospecting

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2015-12-12

    King-Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is located on the shores of the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia. The Red Sea is well known for its unique environment, harboring various microbes capable of surviving in salty brines. We collected sediment samples from brine pool adjacent to the Thuwal cold seeps in the Red Sea. The taxonomic analysis showed the diversity and abundance of bacterial and archaeal operational taxonomic units (OUT). Recently we established in the laboratory a microdroplet technology to encapsulate single cells. This technology enables us to analyze single-cell genomes and perform the high-throughput screening. The genomes of both cultivable and uncultivable organisms can be analyzed. We envision the collection of complimentary data, obtained by various techniques, such as single-cell genomics, metagenomics, and transcriptomics. That will enable us not only to understand the environment and microorganism communities but also will allow to discover the previously unknown genes, pathways, and whole genomes. These data will facilitate the enhancement of biological and chemical producers, and pave the way for bioprospecting.

  7. Plants and endophytes: equal partners in secondary metabolite production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-07-01

    Well known plant production systems should be re-evaluated due to findings that the interesting metabolite might actually be produced by microbes intimately associated with the plant, so-called endophytes. Endophytes can be bacteria or fungi and they are characterized usually by the feature that they do not cause any harm to the host. Indeed, in some cases, such as mycorrhizal fungi or other growth promoting endophytes, they can be beneficial for the plant. Here some examples are reviewed where the host plant and/or endophyte metabolism can be induced by the other partner. Also, partial or complete biosynthesis pathways for plant secondary metabolites can be attributed to such endophytes. In other cases the host plant is able to metabolize substances from fungal origin. The question of the natural role of such metabolic changes for the endophyte will be briefly touched. Finally, the consequences for the use of plant cultures for secondary metabolite production is discussed.

  8. Marine Algicolous Endophytic Fungi - A Promising Drug Resource of the Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasan, Manomi; Puthumana, Jayesh; Job, Neema; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Philip, Rosamma

    2017-06-28

    Endophytic fungi have currently been acknowledged as the most promising source of bioactive compounds for drug discovery, and considerable progress has been made in exploring their diversity, species richness, and bioprospecting. Fungal endophytes from unique environmental settings offer a pool of potentially useful medicinal entities. Owing to the constant stresses imposed on macroalgae by marine environments, it is believed that algae and their associated endophytic symbionts represent a good source of structurally diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. Despite the proven significance of active metabolites of algal endophytes, little have been exploited. This review highlights the latest discoveries in algicolous endophytic research, with particular focus on the bioactive metabolites from algal endophytes. Compounds are classified according to their reported biological activities, like anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant properties. Present experimental evidence suggests that a majority of the bioactive metabolites were reported from Phaeophyceae followed by Rhodophyceae and Chlorophyceae. An intensive search for newer and more effective bioactive metabolites has generated a treasure trove of publications, and this review partially covers the literature published up to 2016.

  9. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria versus pathogenic infections: an example of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Shahzad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro. Further to this, we inoculated tomato plants with RWL-1 and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the root zone. The results showed that the growth attributes and biomass were significantly enhanced by endophytic-inoculation during disease incidence as compared to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infected plants. Under pathogenic infection, the RWL-1-applied plants showed increased amino acid metabolism of cell wall related (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine (Ser, and proline (Pro as compared to diseased plants. In case of endogenous phytohormones, significantly lower amount of jasmonic acid (JA and higher amount of salicylic acid (SA contents was recorded in RWL-1-treated diseased plants. The phytohormones regulation in disease incidences might be correlated with the ability of RWL-1 to produce organic acids (e.g., succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and citric acid during the inoculation and infection of tomato plants. The current findings suggest that RWL-1 inoculation promoted and rescued plant growth by modulating defense hormones and regulating amino acids. This suggests that bacterial endophytes could be used for possible control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in an eco-friendly way.

  10. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria versus pathogenic infections: an example of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Khan, Abdul Latif; Bilal, Saqib

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro. Further to this, we inoculated tomato plants with RWL-1 and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the root zone. The results showed that the growth attributes and biomass were significantly enhanced by endophytic-inoculation during disease incidence as compared to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infected plants. Under pathogenic infection, the RWL-1-applied plants showed increased amino acid metabolism of cell wall related (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine (Ser), and proline (Pro)) as compared to diseased plants. In case of endogenous phytohormones, significantly lower amount of jasmonic acid (JA) and higher amount of salicylic acid (SA) contents was recorded in RWL-1-treated diseased plants. The phytohormones regulation in disease incidences might be correlated with the ability of RWL-1 to produce organic acids (e.g., succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and citric acid) during the inoculation and infection of tomato plants. The current findings suggest that RWL-1 inoculation promoted and rescued plant growth by modulating defense hormones and regulating amino acids. This suggests that bacterial endophytes could be used for possible control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in an eco-friendly way. PMID:28321368

  11. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria versus pathogenic infections: an example ofBacillus amyloliquefaciensRWL-1 andFusarium oxysporumf. sp.lycopersiciin tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Khan, Abdul Latif; Bilal, Saqib; Asaf, Sajjad; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici . The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro. Further to this, we inoculated tomato plants with RWL-1 and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the root zone. The results showed that the growth attributes and biomass were significantly enhanced by endophytic-inoculation during disease incidence as compared to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infected plants. Under pathogenic infection, the RWL-1-applied plants showed increased amino acid metabolism of cell wall related (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine (Ser), and proline (Pro)) as compared to diseased plants. In case of endogenous phytohormones, significantly lower amount of jasmonic acid (JA) and higher amount of salicylic acid (SA) contents was recorded in RWL-1-treated diseased plants. The phytohormones regulation in disease incidences might be correlated with the ability of RWL-1 to produce organic acids (e.g., succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and citric acid) during the inoculation and infection of tomato plants. The current findings suggest that RWL-1 inoculation promoted and rescued plant growth by modulating defense hormones and regulating amino acids. This suggests that bacterial endophytes could be used for possible control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in an eco-friendly way.

  12. Endophytic bacterial communities in three arctic plants from low arctic fell tundra are cold-adapted and host-plant specific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nissinen, Riitta M.; Mannisto, Minna K.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria inhabit internal plant tissues, and have been isolated from a large diversity of plants, where they form nonpathogenic relationships with their hosts. This study combines molecular and culture-dependent approaches to characterize endophytic bacterial communities of three

  13. Endophytic fungi in elms

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenstein, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    Integrated pest management calls for new biocontrol solutions in management of forest diseases. Endophytic fungi that are commonly found in tree tissue may have potential in biocontrol. However, the links between endophyte status and disease tolerance are still unclear, and we know little about the mechanisms by which the endophytes can influence tree pathogens. The first goal of the thesis was to compare the endophyte status in elm (Ulmus spp.) trees with low vs. high susceptibility t...

  14. Characterization of an endophytic bacterial community associated with Eucalyptus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, R E L; Araújo, W L; Maccheroni, W; Azevedo, J L

    2009-11-24

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from stems of Eucalyptus spp (Eucalyptus citriodora, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. torelliana, E. pellita, and a hybrid of E. grandis and E. urophylla) cultivated at two sites; they were characterized by RAPD and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Endophytic bacteria were more frequently isolated from E. grandis and E. pellita. The 76 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Erwinia/Pantoea (45%), Agrobacterium sp (21%), Curtobacterium sp (9%), Brevibacillus sp (8%), Pseudomonas sp (8%), Acinetobacter sp (4%), Burkholderia cepacia (2.6%), and Lactococcus lactis (2.6%). Genetic characterization of these endophytic bacteria isolates showed at least eight ARDRA haplotypes. The genetic diversity of 32 Erwinia/Pantoea and 16 Agrobacterium sp isolates was assessed with the RAPD technique. There was a high level of genetic polymorphism among all the isolates and there was positive correlation between the clusters and the geographic origin of the strains. These endophytic bacteria were further analyzed for in vitro interaction with endophytic fungi from Eucalyptus spp. We found that metabolites secreted by Erwinia/Pantoea and B. cepacia isolates had an inhibitory growth effect on some endophytic fungi, suggesting that these metabolites play a role in bacterial-fungal interactions inside the host plant. Apparently, these bacteria could have an important role in plant development; in the future they may be useful for biological control of diseases and plant growth promotion, as well as for the production of new metabolites and enzymes.

  15. Bioprospecting and characterization of poly-bhydroxyalkanoate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organisms was carried out in sugarcane growing areas of Colombia. They were isolated in unbalanced culture medium (high carbon/nitrogen ratio) with sucrose, fructose and glucose used as carbon source. PHAs producing bacteria were identified by ...

  16. Metagenomics as a preliminary screen for antimicrobial bioprospecting

    KAUST Repository

    Al Amoudi, Soha

    2016-09-16

    Since the composition of soil directs the diversity of the contained microbiome and its potential to produce bioactive compounds, many studies has been focused on sediment types with unique features characteristic of extreme environments. However, not much is known about the potential of microbiomes that inhabit the highly saline and hot Red Sea lagoons. This case study explores mangrove mud and the microbial mat of sediments collected from the Rabigh harbor lagoon and Al Kharrar lagoon for antimicrobial bioprospecting. Rabigh harbor lagoon appears the better location, and the best sediment type for this purpose is mangrove mud. On the other hand, Al Kharrar lagoon displayed increased anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation and an abundance of bacterial DNA associated with antibiotic resistance. Moreover, our findings show an identical shift in phyla associated with historic hydrocarbon contamination exposure reported in previous studies (that is, enrichment of Gamma-and Delta-proteobacteria), but we also report that bacterial DNA sequences associated with antibiotic synthesis enzymes are derived from Gamma-, Delta-and Alpha-proteobacteria. This suggests that selection pressure associated with hydrocarbon contamination tend to enrich the bacterial classes DNA associated with antibiotic synthesis enzymes. Although Actinobacteria tends to be the common target for research when it comes to antimicrobial bioprospecting, our study suggests that Firmicutes (Bacilli and Clostridia), Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Proteobacteria should be antimicrobial bioprospecting targets as well. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first metagenomic study that analyzed the microbiomes in Red Sea lagoons for antimicrobial bioprospecting. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Patents on Endophytic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, M; Gupta, D; Gupta, U; Faraz, R; Sandhu, S S

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are taxonomically and ecologically heterogeneous group of organisms, mainly belonging to the Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Endophytes usually produce the enzymes necessary for the colonization of plant tissues. Endophytes are able to utilize components of plant cells without disturbing host metabolism, which is confirmed by isozyme analysis and studies on substrate utilization. The patents related to enzymes and metabolites produced by endophytic fungi are associated with their ecological significance. Application of metabolites and growth promoting factors produced from endophytic fungi, in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries, is now well established. The patents on secretion of extracellular enzymes in vitro by endophytic fungi needed for cell wall degradation, support the hypothesis that fungal endophytes represent a group of organisms specialized to live within plant tissue. This review presents the patents granted on different aspects of endophytic fungi for the last 11 years. This expresses the scenario and impact of these patents regarding significance in human society. In the last few years, research and inventions regarding the different aspects of endophytic fungi beneficial for host plant as well as for human beings have been carried out, which is supported by the increasing number of patents granted on endophytic fungi. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus eGarcias-Bonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes and leaves by DGGE. A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (α, γ and δ subclasses and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types.

  19. Effect of maize root exudates on indole-3-acetic acid production by rice endophytic bacteria under influence of L-tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnwal, Arun; Dohroo, Aradhana

    2018-01-01

    Background : It is assumed that plant growth regulators produced by beneficial bacterial species could also influence plant growth. IAA is a major plant growth regulator responsible for stimulation of plant growth. There are several microorganisms which are naturally responsible for L- tryptophan metabolism. Methods : In total, 56 indigenous morphologically distinct isolates from rice roots were selected and subsequently characterized with biochemical tests, 16S rRNA sequencing and plant growth promoting activities. Pseudomonas fluorescens RE1 (GenBank: MF102882.1) and RE17 (GenBank: MF103672.1) endophytes resulted in better PGP activity against the other 54 isolates. Both endophytes were tested to screen indole-3-acetic acid production ability in pure culture conditions with L-tryptophan at 0, 50, 100, 200 and 500µg/ml concentrations. Results : P. fluorescens RE1 was recorded efficient for indole production in comparison to P. fluorescens RE17 at various L-tryptophan concentrations. P. fluorescens RE1 was shown to produce between 0.8 µg/ml and 11.5µg/ml of indole at various tryptophan concentrations, while RE17 produced between 1.2µg/ml and 10.2µg/ml. At 200 and 500µg/ml tryptophan concentration, P. fluorescens RE17 produced 7.4pmol/ml and 9.3pmol/ml IAA, respectively.  Conclusions : Inoculation of maize seed with P. fluorescens RE1 and RE17 showed a significantly higher level of IAA production in comparison to non-inoculated seeds. Current study outcomes proved that plant growth regulators produced by Pseudomonas species could also play a critical role in plant growth promotion.

  20. Improved cultivation and metagenomics as new tools for bioprospecting in cold environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Stougaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    be limited as few hosts are available for expression of genes with extremophilic properties. This review summarizes the methods developed for improved cultivation as well as the metagenomic approaches for bioprospecting with focus on the challenges faced by bioprospecting in cold environments....

  1. Bioprospecting for culturable actinobacteria with antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these results, 257 isolates were able to inhibit pigment production in C. violaceum without altering the growth of bacteria, which represents an enormous potential, representing an alternative to the use of antibiotics and their induced resistance [22]. In this area,. Actinobacteria are of interest due to their capacity to produce ...

  2. Terpenoids from Endophytic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucimar Jorgeane de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews the production of terpenoids by endophytic fungi and their biological activities, in period of 2006 to 2010. Sixty five sesquiterpenes, 45 diterpenes, five meroterpenes and 12 other terpenes, amounting to 127 terpenoids were isolated from endophytic fungi.

  3. Bioprospecting Potential of the Soil Metagenome: Novel Enzymes and Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Hwan Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The microbial diversity in soil ecosystems is higher than in any other microbial ecosystem. The majority of soil microorganisms has not been characterized, because the dominant members have not been readily culturable on standard cultivation media; therefore, the soil ecosystem is a great reservoir for the discovery of novel microbial enzymes and bioactivities. The soil metagenome, the collective microbial genome, could be cloned and sequenced directly from soils to search for novel microbial resources. This review summarizes the microbial diversity in soils and the efforts to search for microbial resources from the soil metagenome, with more emphasis on the potential of bioprospecting metagenomics and recent discoveries.

  4. Sponge-microbial interactions: Ecological implications and bioprospecting avenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvin, Joseph; Ninawe, A S; Kiran, G Seghal; Lipton, A P

    2010-01-01

    Sponges are closely associated with microorganisms that occur either intracellularly and extracellularly. Sponges are soft-bodied sessile organisms appear to be defenseless in facing predation. Microbial symbionts supposed to have a functional role in the host defense against pathogens, predation and microfouling processes. Recently, the ubiquitous defense enzyme, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) detected in the sponge associated bacterium envisaged the possible functional role in the ecological succession of host sponge against predatory / fouling pressure in the habitat. In present review, we highlighted the possible functional interactions between associated microbes and host sponges and its potentials in bioprospecting approaches.

  5. Evidence for an Opportunistic and Endophytic Lifestyle of the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus-Associated Bacteria Serratia marcescens PWN146 Isolated from Wilting Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Cláudia S L; Nascimento, Francisco X; Barbosa, Pedro; Ke, Huei-Mien; Tsai, Isheng J; Hirao, Tomonori; Cock, Peter J A; Kikuchi, Taisei; Hasegawa, Koichi; Mota, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Pine wilt disease (PWD) results from the interaction of three elements: the pathogenic nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; the insect-vector, Monochamus sp.; and the host tree, mostly Pinus species. Bacteria isolated from B. xylophilus may be a fourth element in this complex disease. However, the precise role of bacteria in this interaction is unclear as both plant-beneficial and as plant-pathogenic bacteria may be associated with PWD. Using whole genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization, we were able to investigate in more detail the genetic repertoire of Serratia marcescens PWN146, a bacterium associated with B. xylophilus. We show clear evidence that S. marcescens PWN146 is able to withstand and colonize the plant environment, without having any deleterious effects towards a susceptible host (Pinus thunbergii), B. xylophilus nor to the nematode model C. elegans. This bacterium is able to tolerate growth in presence of xenobiotic/organic compounds, and use phenylacetic acid as carbon source. Furthermore, we present a detailed list of S. marcescens PWN146 potentials to interfere with plant metabolism via hormonal pathways and/or nutritional acquisition, and to be competitive against other bacteria and/or fungi in terms of resource acquisition or production of antimicrobial compounds. Further investigation is required to understand the role of bacteria in PWD. We have now reinforced the theory that B. xylophilus-associated bacteria may have a plant origin.

  6. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yi eShen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons. The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp.. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia and Sanguibacter spp.. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests investigations of the studies ofendophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly.

  7. Molecular dynamics in germinating, endophyte-colonized quinoa seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Aims The pseudo-cereal quinoa has an outstanding nutritional value. Seed germination is unusually fast, and plant tolerance to salt stress exceptionally high. Seemingly all seeds harbor bacterial endophytes. This work examines mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities during early development. It evaluates possible contribution of endophytes to rapid germination and plant robustness. Methods MAPK activities were monitored in water- and NaCl-imbibed seeds over a 4-h-period using an immunoblot-based approach. Cellulolytic and pectinolytic abilities of bacteria were assessed biochemically, and cellular movement, biofilm, elicitor and antimicrobial compound synthesis genes sequenced. GyrA-based, cultivation-independent studies provided first insight into endophyte diversity. Results Quinoa seeds and seedlings exhibit remarkably complex and dynamic MAPK activity profiles. Depending on seed origin, variances exist in MAPK patterns and probably also in endophyte assemblages. Mucilage-degrading activities enable endophytes to colonize seed surfaces of a non-host species, chia, without apparent adverse effects. Conclusions Owing to their motility, cell wall-loosening and elicitor-generating abilities, quinoa endophytes have the potential to drive cell expansion, move across cell walls, generate damage-associated molecular patterns and activate MAPKs in their host. Bacteria may thus facilitate rapid germination and confer a primed state directly upon seed rehydration. Transfer into non-native crops appears both desirable and feasible. PMID:29416180

  8. Ten years of bioprospecting activities at the CSIR: BP4 as a model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fouché, Gerda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The bioprospecting group of CSIR Biosciences, focuses on the transformation of African traditional medicines into minimally-processed, scientifically-validated herbal medicines and remedies; the discovery of new pharmaceutical active ingredients...

  9. Bio-Prospecting Laccases in the Bacterial Diversity of Activated Sludge From Pulp and Paper Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijaya; Capalash, Neena; Gupta, Naveen; Sharma, Prince

    2017-03-01

    Activated sludge is an artificial ecosystem known to harbor complex microbial communities. Bacterial diversity in activated sludge from pulp and paper industry was studied to bioprospect for laccase, the multicopper oxidase applicable in a large number of industries due to its ability to utilize a wide range of substrates. Bacterial diversity using 454 pyrosequencing and laccase diversity using degenerate primers specific to conserved copper binding domain of laccase like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) genes were investigated. 1231 OTUs out of 11,425 sequence reads for bacterial diversity and 11 OTUs out of 15 reads for LMCO diversity were formed. Phylum Proteobacteria (64.95 %) with genus Thauera (13.65 %) was most abundant followed by phylum Bacteriodetes (11.46 %) that included the dominant genera Paludibacter (1.93 %) and Lacibacter (1.32 %). In case of LMCOs, 40 % sequences showed affiliation with Proteobacteria and 46.6 % with unculturable bacteria, indicating considerable novelty, and 13.3 % with Bacteroidetes. LMCOs belonged to H and J families.

  10. Bacterial endophytes enhance competition by invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Marnie E; Chrzanowski, Thomas H; Westlie, Tara K; DeLuca, Thomas H; Callaway, Ragan M; Holben, William E

    2013-09-01

    Invasive plants can alter soil microbial communities and profoundly alter ecosystem processes. In the invasive grass Sorghum halepense, these disruptions are consequences of rhizome-associated bacterial endophytes. We describe the effects of N2-fixing bacterial strains from S. halepense (Rout and Chrzanowski, 2009) on plant growth and show that bacteria interact with the plant to alter soil nutrient cycles, enabling persistence of the invasive. • We assessed fluxes in soil nutrients for ∼4 yr across a site invaded by S. halepense. We assayed the N2-fixing bacteria in vitro for phosphate solubilization, iron chelation, and production of the plant-growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We assessed the plant's ability to recruit bacterial partners from substrates and vertically transmit endophytes to seeds and used an antibiotic approach to inhibit bacterial activity in planta and assess microbial contributions to plant growth. • We found persistent alterations to eight biogeochemical cycles (including nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron) in soils invaded by S. halepense. In this context, three bacterial isolates solubilized phosphate, and all produced iron siderophores and IAA in vitro. In growth chamber experiments, bacteria were transmitted vertically, and molecular analysis of bacterial community fingerprints from rhizomes indicated that endophytes are also horizontally recruited. Inhibiting bacterial activity with antibiotics resulted in significant declines in plant growth rate and biomass, with pronounced rhizome reductions. • This work suggests a major role of endophytes on growth and resource allocation of an invasive plant. Indeed, bacterial isolate physiology is correlated with invader effects on biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphate, and iron.

  11. Analyse of The Legal Framework in Colombia for implementation of Bioprospecting Practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Oscar; Velho Lea

    2008-01-01

    The practice of bioprospecting is inherently linked with traditional knowledge and practices of local communities in the South as well as with the commercial activities of industries (e.g., pharmaceutics sector, agriculture) in the North. A series of actors operate at this interface, such as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Research Centers, Universities, Science and Technology sponsor institutions and the State. As these actors have divergent interests and powers of negotiation, an appropriate regulatory framework is necessary to regulate their interaction. This paper analyzes the existing legal framework in a mega-diverse country, like Colombia, for implementation of bioprospecting practices. The research consisted of two key components: (i) A review of the state of art of bioprospecting; (ii) A work in situ in Colombia, which consisted of analysis of information and genetic resources related to bioprospecting, participation in the implementation of a legal frame for bioprospecting practices and interviews with Colombian professionals in the field of biodiversity conservation. Our research determined that: (i) national authorities encounter a multitude of difficulties to implement a legal framework in Colombia, especially the Andean regional normativity; (ii) the execution of research projects related to bioprospecting in Colombia faces numerous challenges

  12. Ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology and mass bioprospecting: issues on intellectual property and benefit-sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejarto, D D; Fong, H H S; Tan, G T; Zhang, H J; Ma, C Y; Franzblau, S G; Gyllenhaal, C; Riley, M C; Kadushin, M R; Pezzuto, J M; Xuan, L T; Hiep, N T; Hung, N V; Vu, B M; Loc, P K; Dac, L X; Binh, L T; Chien, N Q; Hai, N V; Bich, T Q; Cuong, N M; Southavong, B; Sydara, K; Bouamanivong, S; Ly, H M; Thuy, Tran Van; Rose, W C; Dietzman, G R

    2005-08-22

    Ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology has contributed to the discovery of many important plant-derived drugs. Field explorations to seek and document indigenous/traditional medical knowledge (IMK/TMK), and/or the biodiversity with which the IMK/TMK is attached, and its conversion into a commercialized product is known as bioprospecting or biodiversity prospecting. When performed in a large-scale operation, the effort is referred to as mass bioprospecting. Experiences from the mass bioprospecting efforts undertaken by the United States National Cancer Institute, the National Cooperative Drug Discovery Groups (NCDDG) and the International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) programs demonstrate that mass bioprospecting is a complex process, involving expertise from diverse areas of human endeavors, but central to it is the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) that recognizes issues on genetic access, prior informed consent, intellectual property and the sharing of benefits that may arise as a result of the effort. Future mass bioprospecting endeavors must take heed of the lessons learned from past and present experiences in the planning for a successful mass bioprospecting venture.

  13. Endophytic bacterial effects on seed germination and mobilization of reserves in ammodendron biofolium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.; She, X.P.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyze the mobilization of storage reserves during seed germination of Ammodendron bifolium by host plant-endophytic bacteria interaction and to determine the contribution of endophytic bacteria in plant establishment. The seeds were inoculated with three different endophytic bacteria from A. bifolium, Staphylococcus sp. AY3, Kocuria sp. AY9 and Bacillus sp. AG18, and they were germinated in the dark. Fresh weight changes and early seedling growth were assessed, and the content of storage compounds was quantified using biochemical assays in all germinated and non-germinated seeds. To understand the mechanism promoting seed germination, the activities of extracellular enzymes of bacterial isolates were also analyzed by the plate assay method. The results showed that treatment with endophytic bacteria accelerated seed germination; promoted further water absorption and radicle growth; and also promoted degradation of sucrose, protein and lipids during the germination process. At the same time, our results also showed that strain AG18 was able to produce protease and amylase, strain AY9 had only amylase activity, and strain AY3 had no extracellular enzyme activity. In summary, our current study showed that (i) endophytic bacteria improved seed germination and post-germination seedling growth of A. bifolium; (ii) inoculation with endophytic bacteria could promote storage reserve mobilization during or following germination; (iii) the degradation of protein, lipids and sucrose could provide essential energy for post-germination growth; and (iv) three bacterial isolates might have different action mechanisms on seed germination. (author)

  14. Endophytic population of Pantoea agglomerans in citrus plants and development of a cloning vector for endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreote, Fernando D; Rossetto, Priscilla B; Souza, Leonardo C A; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Azevedo, João L; Araújo, Welington L

    2008-10-01

    Harmless bacteria inhabiting inner plant tissues are termed endophytes. Population fluctuations in the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans associated with two species of field cultured citrus plants were monitored over a two-year period. The results demonstrated that populations of P. agglomerans fluctuated in Citrus reticulata but not C. sinensis. A cryptic plasmid pPA3.0 (2.9 kb) was identified in 35 out of 44 endophytic isolates of P. agglomerans and was subsequently sequenced. The origins of replication were identified and nine out of 18 open reading frames (ORFs) revealed homology with described proteins. Notably, two ORFs were related to cellular transport systems and plasmid maintenance. Plasmid pPA3.0 was cloned and the gfp gene inserted to generate the pPAGFP vector. The vector was introduced into P. agglomerans isolates and revealed stability was dependent on the isolate genotype, ninety-percent stability values were reached after 60 hours of bacterial cultivation in most evaluated isolates. In order to definitively establish P. agglomerans as an endophyte, the non-transformed bacterium was reintroduced into in vitro cultivated seedlings and the density of inner tissue colonization in inoculated plants was estimated by bacterium re-isolation, while the tissue niches preferred by the bacterium were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Cells from P. agglomerans (strain ARB18) at similar densities were re-isolated from roots, stems and leaves and colonization of parenchyma and xylem tissues were observed. Data suggested that P. agglomerans is a ubiquitous citrus endophyte harboring cryptic plasmids. These characteristics suggest the potential to use the bacterium as a vehicle to introduce new genes in host plants via endophytic bacterial transformation. (c) 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A Culture-Independent Approach to Enrich Endophytic Bacterial Cells from Sugarcane Stems for Community Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos-Santos, Carlos M; de Souza, Daniel G; Balsanelli, Eduardo; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães; de Souza, Emanuel M; Baldani, José I; Schwab, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial endophytes constitute a very diverse community and they confer important benefits which help to improve agricultural yield. Some of these benefits remain underexplored or little understood, mainly due to the bottlenecks associated with the plant feature, a low number of endophytic bacterial cells in relation to the plant, and difficulties in accessing these bacteria using cultivation-independent methods. Enriching endophytic bacterial cells from plant tissues, based on a non-biased, cultivation-independent physical enrichment method, may help to circumvent those problems, especially in the case of sugarcane stems, which have a high degree of interfering factors, such as polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, nucleases, and fibers. In the present study, an enrichment approach for endophytic bacterial cells from sugarcane lower stems is described. The results demonstrate that the enriched bacterial cells are suitable for endophytic community characterization. A community analysis revealed the presence of previously well-described but also novel endophytic bacteria in sugarcane tissues which may exert functions such as plant growth promotion and biological control, with a predominance of the Proteobacterial phylum, but also Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, among others. In addition, by comparing the present and literature data, it was possible to list the most frequently detected bacterial endophyte genera in sugarcane tissues. The presented enrichment approach paves the way for improved future research toward the assessment of endophytic bacterial community in sugarcane and other biofuel crops.

  16. Fungal Endophytes: an Alternative Source for Production of Volatile Compounds from Agarwood Oil of Aquilaria subintegra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monggoot, Sakon; Popluechai, Siam; Gentekaki, Eleni; Pripdeevech, Patcharee

    2017-07-01

    Fungal endophytes are microorganisms that are well-known for producing a diverse array of secondary metabolites. Recent studies have uncovered the bioprospecting potential of several plant endophytic fungi. Here, we demonstrate the presence of highly bioactive fungal endophytic species in Aquilaria subintegra, a fragrant wood plant collected from Thailand. Thirty-three fungal endophytic strains were isolated and further identified to genus level based on morphological characteristics. These genera included Colletotrichum, Pestalotiopsis, Fusarium, Russula, Arthrinium, Diaporthe and Cladosporium. All strains were cultured on potato dextrose broth for 30 days prior to partitioning with ethyl acetate. The volatile compounds of all extracts were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Four strains-Arthrinium sp. MFLUCC16-0042, Colletotrichum sp. MFLUCC16-0047, Colletotrichum sp. MFLUCC16-0048 and Diaporthe sp. MFLUCC16-0051-produced a broad spectrum of volatile compounds, including β-agarofuran, α-agarofuran, δ-eudesmol, oxo-agarospirol, and β-dihydro agarofuran. These compounds are especially important, because they greatly resemble those originating from the host-produced agarwood oil. Our findings demonstrate the potential of endophytic fungi to produce bioactive compounds with applications in perfumery and cosmetic industries. Antioxidant activity of all extracts was also evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays. The ethyl acetate extract of Diaporthe sp. MFLUCC16-0051 demonstrated superior antioxidant capacity, which was comparable to that of the gallic acid standard. Our results indicate that the MFLUCC16-0051 strain is a resource of natural antioxidant with potential medicinal applications.

  17. Detection of siderophores in endophytic bacteria Methylobacterium spp. associated with Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca Detecção de sideróforos nas bactérias endofíticas Methylobacterium spp. associadas com Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Teixeira Lacava

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the production of siderophores by endophytic bacteria Methylobacterium spp., which occupy the same ecological niche as Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (Xfp in citrus plants. The siderophore production of Methylobacterium strains was tested according to chromeazurol agar assay test (CAS, Csáky test (hydroxamate-type and Arnow test (catechol-type. In addition, the ability of Xfp to use siderophores, in vitro, produced by endophytic bacteria as source of iron, was evaluated. All 37 strains of Methylobacterium spp. tested were CAS-positive for siderophore production. Methylobacterium spp. produced hydroxamate-type, but not catechol-type siderophores. In vitro growth of Xfp was stimulated by the presence of supernatant siderophores of endophytic Methylobacterium mesophilicum.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a produção de sideróforos pelas bactérias endofíticas Methylobacterium spp., que ocupam o mesmo nicho ecológico que Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (Xfp, em plantas cítricas. A produção de sideróforos, pelas linhagens de Methylobacterium, foi testada por meio do ensaio de cromoazarol-ágar (chromeazurol agar assay-CAS, teste de Csáky (tipo hidroxamato e do teste de Arnow (tipo catecol. Além disso, a habilidade de Xfp em utilizar sideróforos produzidos por bactérias endofíticas, como fonte de ferro, in vitro, foi avaliada. Todas as 37 linhagens de Methylobacterium spp. testadas foram positivas para a produção de sideróforos, pelo teste CAS-ágar. Methylobacterium spp. foram capazes de produzir sideróforos do tipo hidroxamato, mas não do tipo catecol. O crescimento in vitro de Xfp foi estimulado pela presença de sideróforos no sobrenadante de Methylobacterium mesophilicum endofítica.

  18. Quorum signaling mycotoxins: A new risk strategy for bacterial biocontrol of Fusarium verticillioides and other endophytic fungal species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial endophytes are used as biocontrol organisms for plant pathogens such as the maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides and its production of fumonisin mycotoxins. However, such applications are not always predictable and efficient. All bacteria communicate via cell-dependent signals, which...

  19. Biocontrol of potato wilt by selective rhizospheric and endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of wilt disease in plants, which constitutes a severe problem to agricultural crops, particularly for potato production in Madagascar. The present study focuses on the isolation, in vitro and in vivo assays of potential rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria associated with healthy ...

  20. Antagonistic bioactivity of endophytic strains isolated from Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibiotic-producing potential of endophytic populations from medical plant of Salvia miltiorrhiza was examined. A total of 63 isolates was screened against five fungal and three bacterial species for the production of antimicrobial compounds. It showed that more isolates was antagonistic to fungi than to bacteria.

  1. Study Bioprospecting of Medicinal Plant Extracts of the Semiarid Northeast: Contribution to the Control of Oral Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Suênia P. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pathologies can be caused by plaque-forming bacteria and yeast, which reside in the oral cavity. The bacteria growing in dental plaque, a naturally occurring biofilm, display increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. The objective was the evaluation of a preclinical assay of medicinal plants of the semiarid region from the northeast against oral pathogenic microorganism, aiming at bioprospecting a new product. The selection of plant material for this study was based on the ethnobotanical data on the traditional use of plants from the semiarid region. The thirty extracts were subjected to the determination of antibiofilm activity against gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and yeast. The hydroalcoholic extract which showed positive antibiofilm activity against most of the microorganisms tested in agar diffusion assay was further tested for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and Bioassay with Artemia salina. Plant samples tested in this study exhibited good antibiofilm activity for the treatment of oral problems. The Schinopsis brasiliensis showed greater activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, but toxicity against Artemia salina.

  2. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FENOTÍPICA DE BACTÉRIAS DIAZOTRÓFICAS ENDOFÍTICAS ISOLADAS DE CANA DE AÇÚCAR PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIAS ISOLATED OF SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Cavalcante de Lima

    2011-06-01

    without added nitrogen. Five strains were isolated native diazotrophs which were evaluated microscopically by Gram stain, the intrinsic resistance to antibiotics, fungicide Furadan (i.a. carbofuran and insecticide Regent (i.a. fipronil and ability to fix nitrogen in greenhouse and field conditions. All isolates were characteristic of Gram-negative, and for the intrinsic resistance to antibiotics showed widespread resistance. A native UCCBc5 strain showed resistance to the fungicide Furadan and the insecticide Regente. Bacteria isolated UCCBc1 and UCCBc5 present capacity and efficiency of fixing atmospheric nitrogen under conditions of greenhouse. It was found that the strain UCCBc5 resistant to the fungicide Furadan and the insecticide Regente has capacity of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in field conditions. In the evaluation of doses of inoculation was observed that there is a dose of inoculant / efficiency of nitrogen fixation. These results indicate that endophytic bacteria can be used, in some cases as a substitute for nitrogen in sugarcane.

  3. Bioprospecting and evolving alternative xylose and arabinose pathway enzymes for use in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Jellison, Taylor; Alper, Hal S

    2016-03-01

    Bioprospecting is an effective way to find novel enzymes from strains with desirable phenotypes. Such bioprospecting has enabled organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize nonnative pentose sugars. Yet, the efficiency of this pentose catabolism (especially for the case of arabinose) remains suboptimal. Thus, further pathway optimization or identification of novel, optimal pathways is needed. Previously, we identified a novel set of xylan catabolic pathway enzymes from a superior pentose-utilizing strain of Ustilago bevomyces. These enzymes were used to successfully engineer a xylan-utilizing S. cerevisiae through a blended approach of bioprospecting and evolutionary engineering. Here, we expanded this approach to xylose and arabinose catabolic pathway engineering and demonstrated that bioprospected xylose and arabinose catabolic pathways from U. bevomyces offer alternative choices for enabling efficient pentose catabolism in S. cerevisiae. By introducing a novel set of xylose catabolic genes from U. bevomyces, growth rates were improved up to 85 % over a set of traditional Scheffersomyces stipitis pathway genes. In addition, we suggested an alternative arabinose catabolic pathway which, after directed evolution and pathway engineering, enabled S. cerevisiae to grow on arabinose as a sole carbon source in minimal medium with growth rates upwards of 0.05 h(-1). This pathway represents the most efficient growth of yeast on pure arabinose minimal medium. These pathways provide great starting points for further strain development and demonstrate the utility of bioprospecting from U. bevomyces.

  4. Bioprospection of marine microorganisms: biotechnological applications and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe M Dionisi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental microorganisms constitute an almost inexhaustible reserve of genetic and functional diversity, accumulated during millions of years of adaptive evolution to various selective pressures. In particular, the extent of microbial biodiversity in marine habitats seems to grow larger as new techniques emerge to measure it. This has resulted in novel and more complex approaches for the screening of molecules and activities of biotechnological interest in these environments. In this review, we explore the different partially overlapping biotechnological fields that make use of microorganisms and we describe the different marine habitats that are particularly attractive for bioprospection. In addition, we review the methodological approaches currently used for microbial bioprospection, from the traditional cultivation techniques to state of the art metagenomic approaches, with emphasis in the marine environment.Bioprospección de microorganismos marinos: aplicaciones biotecnológicas y métodos. Los microorganismos ambientales constituyen una reserva prácticamente inagotable de diversidad genética, acumulada durante millones de años de evolución adaptativa a varias presiones selectivas. En particular, la magnitud de la biodiversidad microbiana en hábitats marinos parece crecer al emerger nuevas técnicas para medirla. Como resultado, se han comenzado a utilizar enfoques novedosos y más complejos para la búsqueda de moléculas y actividades de interés biotecnológico en estos ambientes. En este artículo de revisión, nosotros exploramos los diferentes campos de la biotecnología que utilizan microorganismos, los cuales se superponen parcialmente, y describimos los diferentes hábitats marinos que resultan particularmente atractivos para la bioprospección. Además, revisamos los enfoques metodológicos actualmente utilizados para la bioprospección microbiana, desde las técnicas de cultivo tradicionales hasta modernos enfoques

  5. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, I C P; Santin, R C M; Guimarães, A M; Rosa, O P P; Dias, A C F; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Matsumura, A T S

    2012-10-11

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone. These isolates were also evaluated for indole acetic acid production and their potential for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The isolates were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Bacillus subtilis was the most prevalent species. Several Bacillus species, including B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, were found for the first time as endophytes of eucalyptus. Bacillus sp strain EUCB 10 significantly increased the growth of the root and aerial parts of eucalyptus plantlets under greenhouse conditions, during the summer and winter seasons.

  6. Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, Giovanni; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Chiellini, Carolina; Fondi, Marco; Gallo, Eugenia; Gori, Luigi; Maggini, Valentina; Vannacci, Alfredo; Biffi, Sauro; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.—a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties—since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves' endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i) the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii) its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii) a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health. PMID:24971151

  7. Linking Bacterial Endophytic Communities to Essential Oils: Clues from Lavandula angustifolia Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Emiliani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria play a crucial role in plant life and are also drawing much attention for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds of relevant biotechnological interest. Here we present the characterisation of the cultivable endophytic bacteria of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.—a species used since antiquity for its therapeutic properties—since the production of bioactive metabolites from medical plants may reside also in the activity of bacterial endophytes through their direct production, PGPR activity on host, and/or elicitation of plant metabolism. Lavender tissues are inhabited by a tissue specific endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highlighting also their difference from the rhizosphere environment where Actinobacteria and Firmicutes are also found. Leaves’ endophytic community resulted as the most diverse from the other ecological niches. Overall, the findings reported here suggest: (i the existence of different entry points for the endophytic community, (ii its differentiation on the basis of the ecological niche variability, and (iii a two-step colonization process for roots endophytes. Lastly, many isolates showed a strong inhibition potential against human pathogens and the molecular characterization demonstrated also the presence of not previously described isolates that may constitute a reservoir of bioactive compounds relevant in the field of pathogen control, phytoremediation, and human health.

  8. Selenium hyperaccumulators harbor a diverse endophytic bacterial community characterized by high selenium resistance and plant growth promoting properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sura-de Jong, M.; Reynolds, R.B.J.; Richterová, K.; Musilová, L.; Staicu, L. C.; Chocholatá, I.; Cappa, J. J.; Taghavi, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Frantík, Tomáš; Dolinová, I.; Strejček, M.; Cochran, A. T.; Lovecká, P.; Pilon-Smits, E. A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 113 (2015), s. 1-17 ISSN 1664-462X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : endophyte * bacteria * phytoremediation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.495, year: 2015

  9. Bioprospecting of Red Sea Sponges for Novel Antiviral Pharmacophores

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie

    2015-05-01

    Natural products offer many possibilities for the treatment of disease. More than 70% of the Earth’s surface is ocean, and recent exploration and access has allowed for new additions to this catalog of natural treasures. The Central Red Sea off the coast of Saudi Arabia serves as a newly accessible location, which provides the opportunity to bioprospect marine sponges with the purpose of identifying novel antiviral scaffolds. Antivirals are underrepresented in present day clinical trials, as well as in the academic screens of marine natural product libraries. Here a high-throughput pipeline was initiated by prefacing the antiviral screen with an Image-based High-Content Screening (HCS) technique in order to identify candidates with antiviral potential. Prospective candidates were tested in a biochemical or cell-based assay for the ability to inhibit the NS3 protease of the West Nile Virus (WNV NS protease) as well as replication and reverse transcription of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1). The analytical chemistry techniques of High-Performance Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) where used in order to identify the compounds responsible for the characteristic antiviral activity of the selected sponge fractions. We have identified a 3-alkyl pyridinium from Amphimedon chloros as the causative agent of the observed WNV NS3 protease inhibition in vitro. Additionally, we identified debromohymenialdisine, hymenialdisine, and oroidin from Stylissa carteri as prospective scaffolds capable of HIV-1 inhibition.

  10. Bioprospecting potential of halogenases from Arctic marine actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Li; Chen, Ruiqin; Jiang, Ming; Tian, Xiaoqing; Liu, Huan; Yu, Yong; Fan, Chenqi; Chen, Bo

    2016-03-10

    Halometabolites, an important group of natural products, generally require halogenases for their biosynthesis. Actinomycetes from the Arctic Ocean have rarely been investigated for halogenases and their gene clusters associated, albeit great potential of halometabolite production has been predicted. Therefore, we initiated this research on the screening of halogenases from Arctic marine actinomycetes isolates to explore their genetic potential of halometabolite biosynthesis. Nine halogenase genes were discovered from sixty Arctic marine actinomycetes using in-house designed or previously reported PCR primers. Four representative genotypes were further cloned to obtain full coding regions through genome walking. The resulting halogenases were predicted to be involved in halogenation of indole groups, antitumor agent ansamitocin-like substrates, or unknown peptide-like compounds. Genome sequencing revealed a potential gene cluster containing the halogenase predicted to catalyze peptide-like compounds. However, the gene cluster was probably silent under the current conditions. PCR-based screening of halogenase genes is a powerful and efficient tool to conduct bioprospecting of halometabolite-producing actinomycetes from the Arctic. Genome sequencing can also identify cryptic gene clusters potentially producing new halometabolites, which might be easily missed by traditional isolation and chemical characterization. In addition, our study indicates that great genetic potential of new halometabolites can be expected from mostly untapped actinomycetes from the polar regions.

  11. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hanqiao; Xing, Yongmei; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Dawei; Guo, Shunxing; Wang, Chunlan

    2012-11-28

    Drug resistance in bacteria has become a global concern and the search for new antibacterial agents is urgent and ongoing. Endophytes provide an abundant reservoir of bioactive metabolites for medicinal exploitation, and an increasing number of novel compounds are being isolated from endophytic fungi. Ophiopogon japonicus, containing compounds with antibacterial activity, is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for eliminating phlegm, relieving coughs, latent heat in the lungs, and alleviating diabetes mellitus. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of 30 strains of O. japonicus. Fungal endophytes were isolated from roots and stems of O. japonicus collected from Chongqing City, southwestern China. Mycelial extracts (MC) and fermentation broth (FB) were tested for antimicrobial activity using peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibition fluorescence assays and MTT cell proliferation assays. A total of 30 endophytic strains were isolated from O. japonicus; 22 from roots and eight from stems. 53.33% of the mycelial extracts (MC) and 33.33% of the fermentation broths (FB) displayed potent inhibition of PDF. 80% of MC and 33.33% of FB significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. 70% of MC and 36.67% of FB showed strong activities against Cryptococcus neoformans. None showed influence on Escherichia coli. The secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi from O. japonicus are potential antimicrobial agents.

  12. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hanqiao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug resistance in bacteria has become a global concern and the search for new antibacterial agents is urgent and ongoing. Endophytes provide an abundant reservoir of bioactive metabolites for medicinal exploitation, and an increasing number of novel compounds are being isolated from endophytic fungi. Ophiopogon japonicus, containing compounds with antibacterial activity, is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant used for eliminating phlegm, relieving coughs, latent heat in the lungs, and alleviating diabetes mellitus. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of 30 strains of O. japonicus. Methods Fungal endophytes were isolated from roots and stems of O. japonicus collected from Chongqing City, southwestern China. Mycelial extracts (MC and fermentation broth (FB were tested for antimicrobial activity using peptide deformylase (PDF inhibition fluorescence assays and MTT cell proliferation assays. Results A total of 30 endophytic strains were isolated from O. japonicus; 22 from roots and eight from stems. 53.33% of the mycelial extracts (MC and 33.33% of the fermentation broths (FB displayed potent inhibition of PDF. 80% of MC and 33.33% of FB significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. 70% of MC and 36.67% of FB showed strong activities against Cryptococcus neoformans. None showed influence on Escherichia coli. Conclusion The secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi from O. japonicus are potential antimicrobial agents.

  13. [Identification and antagonistic activities of an endophytic bacterium MGP3 isolated from papaya fruit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingying; Liu, Aiyuan; Li, Xueping; Chen, Weixin

    2011-09-01

    Postharvest decay resulted from anthracnose caused by pathogens Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and blight diseases caused by Phytophthora nicotianae leads to significant loss of papaya fruits. In order to reduce such loss, we isolated endophytic bacteria that may possess powerful antagonistic activities toward these pathogens for effective biological control of anthracnose and blight diseases. The methods of dilution and inhibition circle were used for isolating and screening endophytic bacteria from papaya fruit. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and homology analysis of the partial sequence of 16S rDNA, an endophytic bacterium was identified. The colonization of the antagonistic endophyte in papaya was detected by inoculating suspension of strains in caudices of papaya plant after Rifampicin-resistant mutants (rif(r)) induction. The effects on diseases caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Phytophthora nicotianae were tested by preharvest and postharvest experiments. One of the endophytic bacteria named MGP3 was selected from the papaya pericarp and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Accession No. JF708186). This bacterium was able to colonize in the laminae, leafstalk or pericarp of papaya, and strongly inhibit 10 phytopathogens. In the postharvest experiment, MGP3 inhibited 50% anthracnose and 71% blight of harvested papaya fruits. The application of MGP3 at five preharvest stages of papaya significantly reduced latent infection rate of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and disease index of anthracnose. Antagonistic endophytic bacterium MGP3 isolated from papaya fruit had potential application value as a biological control agent.

  14. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  15. Plant Growth Promotion Induced by Phosphate Solubilizing Endophytic Pseudomonas Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eOtieno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilisers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilisation is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilise the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilisation. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacterial isolates to produce gluconic acid, solubilise insoluble phosphate and stimulate the growth of Pea plants (Pisum sativum. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte isolates thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilising abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic isolates produced gluconic acid (14-169 mM and have moderate to high phosphate solubilisation capacities (~ 400-1300 mg L-1. When inoculated to Pea plants grown in sand/soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophyte isolates that produced medium to high levels of gluconic acid also displayed enhanced plant growth promotion effects.

  16. Culturable endophytic bacterial communities associated with field-grown soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, K B; Carpentieri-Pipolo, V; Oro, T H; Stefani Pagliosa, E; Degrassi, G

    2016-03-01

    Assess the diversity of the culturable endophytic bacterial population associated with transgenic and nontransgenic soybean grown in field trial sites in Brazil and characterize them phenotypically and genotypically focusing on characteristics related to plant growth promotion. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of soybean cultivars (nontransgenic (C) and glyphosate-resistant (GR) transgenic soybean), including the isogenic BRS133 and BRS245RR. Significant differences were observed in bacterial densities in relation to genotype and tissue from which the isolates were obtained. The highest number of bacteria was observed in roots and in GR soybean. Based on characteristics related to plant growth promotion, 54 strains were identified by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the species Enterobacter ludwigii and Variovorax paradoxus. Among the isolates, 44·4% were able to either produce indoleacetic acid (IAA) or solubilize phosphates, and 9·2% (all from GR soybean) presented both plant growth-promoting activities. The results from this study indicate that the abundance of endophytic bacterial communities of soybean differs between cultivars and in general it was higher in the transgenic cultivars than in nontransgenic cultivars. BRS 245 RR exhibited no significant difference in abundance compared to nontransgenic BRS133. This suggests that the impact of the management used in the GR soybean fields was comparable with the impacts of some enviromental factors. However, the bacterial endophytes associated to GR and nontransgenic soybean were different. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the species Pantoea agglomerans and Variovorax paradoxus. Our study demonstrated differences concerning compostion of culturable endophytic bacterial population in nontransgenic and transgenic soybean. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  17. Multispectral sorter for rapid, nondestructive optical bioprospecting for algae biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan W.; Wu, Hauwen; Singh, Seema

    2014-03-01

    Microalgal biotechnology is a nascent yet burgeoning field for developing the next generation of sustainable feeds, fuels, and specialty chemicals. Among the issues facing the algae bioproducts industry, the lack of efficient means of cultivar screening and phenotype selection represents a critical hurdle for rapid development and diversification. To address this challenge, we have developed a multi-modal and label-free optical tool which simultaneously assesses the photosynthetic productivity and biochemical composition of single microalgal cells, and provides a means for actively sorting attractive specimen (bioprospecting) based on the spectral readout. The device integrates laser-trapping micro-Raman spectroscopy and pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry of microalgal cells in a flow cell. Specifically, the instrument employs a dual-purpose epi-configured IR laser for single-cell trapping and Raman spectroscopy, and a high-intensity VISNIR trans-illumination LED bank for detection of variable photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence. Micro-Raman scatter of single algae cells revealed vibrational modes corresponding to the speciation and total lipid content, as well as other major biochemical pools, including total protein, carbohydrates, and carotenoids. PSII fluorescence dynamics provide a quantitative estimate of maximum photosynthetic efficiency and regulated and non-regulated non-photochemical quenching processes. The combined spectroscopic readouts provide a set of metrics for subsequent optical sorting of the cells by the laser trap for desirable biomass properties, e.g. the combination of high lipid productivity and high photosynthetic yield. Thus the device provides means for rapid evaluation and sorting of algae cultures and environmental samples for biofuels development.

  18. Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-07-01

    Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophytes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of endophytic bacteria from mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) for their efficacy in promoting seedling growth in rice. Eight endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) isolated from twig and petiole tissues of the mangrove were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence homology. Separately, surface sterilized paddy seeds were treated with cell-free broth and cell suspension of the EBIs. Rice seedlings were analyzed by various bioassays and data was recorded. The gene sequences of the isolates were closely related to two genera namely, Bacillus and Pantoea. Inoculation of EBIs from R. apiculata with rice seeds resulted in accelerated root and shoot growth with significant increase in chlorophyll content. Among the isolates, Pantoea ananatis (1MSE1) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (3MPE1) had shown predominance of activity. Endophytic invasion was recognized by the non-host by rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was counteracted by the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxide. The results demonstrated that EBIs from mangrove tree can increase the fitness of the rice seedlings under controlled conditions. These research findings could be useful to enhance the seedling growth and could serve as foundation in further research on enhancing the growth of the rice crop using endophytic bacteria.

  19. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Fungi From Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashgari, Rukaia; Gherbawy, Youssuf; Ameen, Fuad; Alsharari, Salam

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi, which have been reported in numerous plant species, are important components of the forest community and contribute significantly to the diversity of natural ecosystems. The current study aimed to evaluate and characterize, at the molecular level, the diversity and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia. Fungi growing on plant segments were isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The isolates were grouped into 35 distinct operational taxonomic units, based on the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer regions in the rRNA gene. The colonization frequency and the dominant fungi percentage of these endophytic fungi were calculated. A dual culture technique was adopted to investigate the antifungal activity of these endophytes. Tamarix nilotica showed the highest endophytic diversity with a relative frequency of 27.27%, followed by Cressa cretica with a relative frequency of 19.27%. The most frequently isolated species was Penicillium chrysogenum with an overall colonization rate of 98.57%. Seven out of 35 endophytic fungi exhibited strong antifungal activity to all plant fungal pathogens tested. P. chrysogenum, Fusarium oxysporum, and F. nygamai exhibited the highest inhibition against the human pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Aspergillus sydowii, P. chrysogenum, and Eupenicillium crustaceum showed strong antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. The antimicrobial activity of these endophytic microorganisms could be exploited in biotechnology, medicine, and agriculture.

  20. Isolation and identification of resveratrol-producing endophytes from wine grape Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Nan, Lijun; Liu, Junchao; Yan, Haiyan; Zhang, Dianpeng; Han, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    Obtain endophyte strains with effective resveratrol production from superior grapevine variety Cabernet Sauvignon in Xinjiang and determine related taxonomic position of the strain. Seventy-three strains of endophytes, including 23 strains of bacteria, 14 ones of actinomycetes, 24 fungus and 12 yeasts, were isolated, respectively. The distribution law of endophytes was spring (30.14 %) = summer (30.14 %) < autumn (39.73 %) in different seasons, while the fruit (12.33 %) < leaf (20.55 %) < stem (32.88 %) < root (34.25 %) in different tissues and organs. From the 36 strains of endophytic fungi isolated, seven strains producing polyphenols were screened by ferric chloride-potassium ferricyanide color reaction. C2J6, stable genetic properties producing highly 1.48 mg L(-1) of resveratrol, was identified as Aspergillus niger by 26S rDNA-ITS sequence analysis after thin-layer chromatography sieve analysis, ultra violet wavelength scanning and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. There were the certain number and kinds of endophytes in the various tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon, which, to a certain extent, reflected the biological diversity of plant endophytes. The fact that the fungus C2J6 producing resveratrol in grape was acquired attested the special ability of the endophytes to produce the same or similar bioactive substances as the host plants.

  1. Endophytic Fungi: A Reservoir of Antibacterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Deshmukh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug drug resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly problematic particularly in the undeveloped countries of the world. The most important microorganisms that have seen a geometric rise in are Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium, Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumonia and multiple drug resistant tubercule bacteria to name a just few. New drug scaffolds are essential to tackle this every increasing problem. These scaffolds can be sourced from nature itself. Endophytic fungi are an important reservoir of therapeutically active compounds. This review attempts to present some data relavent to the problem. New, very specific and effective antibiotics are needed but also at the affordable price!!!. Herculean task for researcher all over the world. In the Asian subcontinent indigenous therapeutics that has been practiced over the centuries such as Ayurveda that has been effective as ‘handed down data’ in family generations. May need a second, third and more in-depth investigations?

  2. Endophytic fungi: a reservoir of antibacterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Sunil K.; Verekar, Shilpa A.; Bhave, Sarita V.

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug drug resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly problematic particularly in the under developed countries of the world. The most important microorganisms that have seen a geometric rise in numbers are Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium, Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumonia and multiple drug resistant tubercule bacteria to name a just few. New drug scaffolds are essential to tackle this every increasing problem. These scaffolds can be sourced from nature itself. Endophytic fungi are an important reservoir of therapeutically active compounds. This review attempts to present some data relevant to the problem. New, very specific and effective antibiotics are needed but also at an affordable price! A Herculean task for researchers all over the world! In the Asian subcontinent indigenous therapeutics that has been practiced over the centuries such as Ayurveda have been effective as “handed down data” in family generations. May need a second, third and more “in-depth investigations?” PMID:25620957

  3. Azoarcus sp. CIB, an anaerobic biodegrader of aromatic compounds shows an endophytic lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endophytic bacteria that have plant growth promoting traits are of great interest in green biotechnology. The previous thought that the Azoarcus genus comprises bacteria that fit into one of two major eco-physiological groups, either free-living anaerobic biodegraders of aromatic compounds or obligate endophytes unable to degrade aromatics under anaerobic conditions, is revisited here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Light, confocal and electron microscopy reveal that Azoarcus sp. CIB, a facultative anaerobe β-proteobacterium able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions, is also able to colonize the intercellular spaces of the rice roots. In addition, the strain CIB displays plant growth promoting traits such nitrogen fixation, uptake of insoluble phosphorus and production of indoleacetic acid. Therefore, this work demonstrates by the first time that a free-living bacterium able to degrade aromatic compounds under aerobic and anoxic conditions can share also an endophytic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rDNA and nifH genes confirmed that obligate endophytes of the Azoarcus genus and facultative endophytes, such as Azoarcus sp. CIB, locate into different evolutionary branches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of a bacterium, Azoarcus sp. CIB, able to degrade anaerobically a significant number of aromatic compounds, some of them of great environmental concern, and to colonize the rice as a facultative endophyte. Thus, Azoarcus sp. CIB becomes a suitable candidate for a more sustainable agricultural practice and phytoremediation technology.

  4. Ecology and Genomic Insights into Plant-Pathogenic and Plant-Nonpathogenic Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brader, Günter; Compant, Stéphane; Vescio, Kathryn; Mitter, Birgit; Trognitz, Friederike; Ma, Li-Jun; Sessitsch, Angela

    2017-08-04

    Plants are colonized on their surfaces and in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere by a multitude of different microorganisms and are inhabited internally by endophytes. Most endophytes act as commensals without any known effect on their plant host, but multiple bacteria and fungi establish a mutualistic relationship with plants, and some act as pathogens. The outcome of these plant-microbe interactions depends on biotic and abiotic environmental factors and on the genotype of the host and the interacting microorganism. In addition, endophytic microbiota and the manifold interactions between members, including pathogens, have a profound influence on the function of the system plant and the development of pathobiomes. In this review, we elaborate on the differences and similarities between nonpathogenic and pathogenic endophytes in terms of host plant response, colonization strategy, and genome content. We furthermore discuss environmental effects and biotic interactions within plant microbiota that influence pathogenesis and the pathobiome.

  5. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla) growth

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Renata Assis; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Almeida, Jaqueline Raquel de; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Nave, André; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Azevedo, João Lucio de; Quecine, Maria Carolina

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for th...

  6. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla) growth

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Renata Assis; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Almeida, Jaqueline Raquel de; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Nave, André; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Azevedo, João Lucio de; Quecine, Maria Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their abili...

  7. Diversity and distribution of the endophytic bacterial community at different stages of Eucalyptus growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Paulo Sérgio Balbino; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Delvaux, Júlio César; de Jesus, Guilherme Luiz; Borges, Arnaldo Chaer; Tótola, Marcos Rogério; Neves, Júlio César Lima; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between plants and endophytic bacteria significantly contribute to plant health and yield. However, the microbial diversity in leaves of Eucalyptus spp. is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the endophytic diversity in leaves of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla (Eucalyptus "urograndis") by using culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches, to better understand their ecology in leaves at different stages of Eucalyptus development, including bacteria with N2 fixation potential. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (classes alpha-, beta- and gamma-) and Actinobacteria were identified in the Eucalyptus "urograndis" endophytic bacterial community. Within this community, the species Novosphingobium barchaimii, Rhizobium grahamii, Stenotrophomonas panacihumi, Paenibacillus terrigena, P. darwinianus and Terrabacter lapilli represent the first report these bacteria as endophytes. The diversity of the total endophytic bacteria was higher in the leaves from the 'field' (the Shannon-Wiener index, 2.99), followed by the indices obtained in the 'clonal garden' (2.78), the 'recently out from under shade (2.68), 'under shade' (2.63) and 'plants for dispatch' (2.51). In contrast, for diazotrophic bacteria, the highest means of these indices were obtained from the leaves of plants in the 'under shade' (2.56), 'recently out from under shade (2.52)' and 'field' stages (2.54). The distribution of the endophytic bacterial species in Eucalyptus was distinct and specific to the development stages under study, and many of the species had the potential for nitrogen fixation, raising the question of whether these bacteria could contribute to overall nitrogen metabolism of Eucalyptus.

  8. High-yielding Wheat Varieties Harbour Superior Plant Growth Promoting-Bacterial Endophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish Yousaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the endophytic microbial flora of different wheat varieties to check whether a better yielding variety also harbours superior plant growth promoting bacteria. Such bacteria are helpful in food biotechnology as their application can enhance the yield of the crop.Material and Methods: Three wheat varieties (Seher, Faisalabad and Lasani were selected, Seher being the most superior variety. endophytic bacteria were isolated from the histosphere of the leaves and roots at different growth phases of the plants. The isolates were analyzed for plant growth promoting activities. Isolates giving best results were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2013. All the experiments were conducted in triplicates.Results and Conclusion: The endophytes of Seher variety showed maximum plant growth promoting abilities. Among the shoot endophytes, the highest auxin production was shown by Seher isolate SHHP1-3 up to 51.9μg ml-1, whereas in the case of root endophytes, the highest auxin was produced by SHHR1-5 up to 36 μg ml-1. The bacteria showing significant plant growth promoting abilities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacillus, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria species were the dominant bacteria showing all the traits of plant growth promotion. It can be concluded that Seher variety harbours superior plant growth promoting endophytes that must be one of the reasons for its better growth and yield as compared to the other two varieties. The investigated results support possible utilization of the selected isolates in wheat growth promotion with respect to increase in agro-productivity. The application of such bacteria could be useful to enhance wheat yield and can help in food biotechnology.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  9. Influences of Plant Species, Season and Location on Leaf Endophytic Bacterial Communities of Non-Cultivated Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Melcher, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria are known to be associated endophytically with plants. Research on endophytic bacteria has identified their importance in food safety, agricultural production and phytoremediation. However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities and the forces that shape their compositions in non-cultivated plants are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of endophytic bacteria in different plant species in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northern Oklahoma, USA. High throughput sequencing of amplified segments of bacterial rDNA from 81 samples collected at four sampling times from five plant species at four locations identified 335 distinct OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, representing 16 phyla. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the communities, followed by the phyla Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Bacteria from four classes of Proteobacteria were detected with Alphaproteobacteria as the dominant class. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that host plant species and collecting date had significant influences on the compositions of the leaf endophytic bacterial communities. The proportion of Alphaproteobacteria was much higher in the communities from Asclepias viridis than from other plant species and differed from month to month. The most dominant bacterial groups identified in LDA Effect Size analysis showed host-specific patterns, indicating mutual selection between host plants and endophytic bacteria and that leaf endophytic bacterial compositions were dynamic, varying with the host plant's growing season in three distinct patterns. In summary, next generation sequencing has revealed variations in the taxonomic compositions of leaf endophytic bacterial communities dependent primarily on the nature of the plant host species.

  10. Influences of Plant Species, Season and Location on Leaf Endophytic Bacterial Communities of Non-Cultivated Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ding

    Full Text Available Bacteria are known to be associated endophytically with plants. Research on endophytic bacteria has identified their importance in food safety, agricultural production and phytoremediation. However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial communities and the forces that shape their compositions in non-cultivated plants are largely uncharacterized. In this study, we explored the diversity, community structure, and dynamics of endophytic bacteria in different plant species in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve of northern Oklahoma, USA. High throughput sequencing of amplified segments of bacterial rDNA from 81 samples collected at four sampling times from five plant species at four locations identified 335 distinct OTUs at 97% sequence similarity, representing 16 phyla. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in the communities, followed by the phyla Bacteriodetes and Actinobacteria. Bacteria from four classes of Proteobacteria were detected with Alphaproteobacteria as the dominant class. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that host plant species and collecting date had significant influences on the compositions of the leaf endophytic bacterial communities. The proportion of Alphaproteobacteria was much higher in the communities from Asclepias viridis than from other plant species and differed from month to month. The most dominant bacterial groups identified in LDA Effect Size analysis showed host-specific patterns, indicating mutual selection between host plants and endophytic bacteria and that leaf endophytic bacterial compositions were dynamic, varying with the host plant's growing season in three distinct patterns. In summary, next generation sequencing has revealed variations in the taxonomic compositions of leaf endophytic bacterial communities dependent primarily on the nature of the plant host species.

  11. [Endophytic bacterial diversity of wild soybean (Glycine soja) varieties with different resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunpeng; Shi, Fengyu; Hamid, M Imran; Zhu, Yingbo

    2014-08-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate endophytic bacterial diversity of wild soybean varieties with different resistance to soybean cyst nematode(Heterodera glycines) , for deciphering the interactions of soybean cyst nematode with endophytic bacteria. After screening wild soybean varieties against race 3 of H. glycines, we investigated endophytic bacterial diversity in root tissues of wild soybean varieties with different resistance to H. glycines using 16S rDNA cloning library and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Endophytic bacteria of wild soybean root belonged to 6 bacterial groups, the clones belonging to group Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the endophyte dominants in wild soybean with 46.8% and 13.6% of total clones, respectively. Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Deincoccus-Thermus and Archaea were less represented. 18.8% of clone sequences were similar to those of uncultured bacteria in the environment. The bacterial diversity was higher in H. glycines-Resistant than -Susceptible wild soybean varieties, and the dominant group was different between H. glycines-Resistant and -Susceptible wild soybean varieties. Mesorhizobium tamadayense, Enterobacter ludwigii and Bacillus megaterium were the main bacterial groups in special operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of H. glycines-Resistant wild soybean variety. By 16S rDNA cloning library and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, the diversity of dominant group of endophytic bacteria in root tissues has difference among H. glycines-Resistant and -Susceptible wild soybean varieties.

  12. Isolation and screening of endophytes from the rhizomes of some Zingiberaceae plants for L-asparaginase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnapura, Prajna Rao; Belur, Prasanna D

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are described as microorganisms that colonize the internal tissues of healthy plants without causing any disease. Endophytes isolated from medicinal plants have been attracting considerable attention due to their high biodiversity and their predicted potential to produce a plethora of novel compounds. In this study, an attempt was made to isolate endophytes from rhizomes of five medicinal plants of Zingiberaceae family, and to screen the endophytes for L-asparaginase activity. In total, 50 endophytes (14 bacteria, 22 actinomycetes, and 14 fungi) were isolated from Alpinia galanga, Curcuma amada, Curcuma longa, Hedychium coronarium, and Zingiber officinale; of these, 31 endophytes evidenced positive for L-asparaginase production. All the L-asparaginase-positive isolates showed L-asparaginase activity in the range of 54.17-155.93 U/mL in unoptimized medium. An endophytic fungus isolated from Curcuma amada, identified as Talaromyces pinophilus, was used for further experiments involving studies on the effect of certain nutritional and nonnutritional factors on L-asparaginase production in submerged fermentation. Talaromyces pinophilus initially gave an enzyme activity of 108.95 U/mL, but gradually reduced to 80 U/mL due to strain degeneration. Perhaps this is the first report ever on the production of L-asparaginase from endophytes isolated from medicinal plants of Zingiberaceae family.

  13. Impact of Endophytic Microorganisms on Plants, Environment and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Dhanya N.; Padmavathy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms (bacteria or fungi or actinomycetes) that dwell within robust plant tissues by having a symbiotic association. They are ubiquitously associated with almost all plants studied till date. Some commonly found endophytes are those belonging to the genera Enterobacter sp., Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Phyllosticta sp., Cladosporium sp., and so forth. Endophytic population is greatly affected by climatic conditions and location where the host plant grows. They produce a wide range of compounds useful for plants for their growth, protection to environmental conditions, and sustainability, in favour of a good dwelling place within the hosts. They protect plants from herbivory by producing certain compounds which will prevent animals from further grazing on the same plant and sometimes act as biocontrol agents. A large amount of bioactive compounds produced by them not only are useful for plants but also are of economical importance to humans. They serve as antibiotics, drugs or medicines, or the compounds of high relevance in research or as compounds useful to food industry. They are also found to have some important role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation, and bioremediation. In this review, we have tried to comprehend different roles of endophytes in plants and their significance and impacts on man and environment. PMID:24587715

  14. Endophytic microorganisms--promising applications in bioremediation of greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępniewska, Z; Kuźniar, A

    2013-11-01

    Bioremediation is a technique that uses microbial metabolism to remove pollutants. Various techniques and strategies of bioremediation (e.g., phytoremediation enhanced by endophytic microorganisms, rhizoremediation) can mainly be used to remove hazardous waste from the biosphere. During the last decade, this specific technique has emerged as a potential cleanup tool only for metal pollutants. This situation has changed recently as a possibility has appeared for bioremediation of other pollutants, for instance, volatile organic compounds, crude oils, and radionuclides. The mechanisms of bioremediation depend on the mobility, solubility, degradability, and bioavailability of contaminants. Biodegradation of pollutions is associated with microbial growth and metabolism, i.e., factors that have an impact on the process. Moreover, these factors have a great influence on degradation. As a result, recognition of natural microbial processes is indispensable for understanding the mechanisms of effective bioremediation. In this review, we have emphasized the occurrence of endophytic microorganisms and colonization of plants by endophytes. In addition, the role of enhanced bioremediation by endophytic bacteria and especially of phytoremediation is presented.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi from olive tree leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhadas, Cynthia; Malheiro, Ricardo; Pereira, José Alberto; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Baptista, Paula

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial potential of three fungal endophytes from leaves of Olea europaea L. was evaluated and the host plant extract effect in the antimicrobial activity was examined. The volatile compounds produced by endophytes were identified by GC/MS and further correlated with the antimicrobial activity. In potato dextrose agar, both Penicillium commune and Penicillium canescens were the most effective inhibiting Gram-positive and -negative bacteria (up to 2.7-fold compared to 30 µg/mL chloramphenicol), whereas Alternaria alternata was most effective inhibiting yeasts (up to 8.0-fold compared to 25 μg/mL fluconazole). The presence of aqueous leaf extract in culture medium showed to induce or repress the antimicrobial activity, depending on the endophytic species. In the next step, various organic extracts from both A. alternata mycelium and cultured broth were prepared; being ethyl acetate extracts displayed the widest spectrum of anti-microorganisms at a minimum inhibitory concentration ≤0.095 mg/mL. The volatile composition of the fungi that displayed the highest (A. alternata) and the lowest (P. canescens) antimicrobial activity against yeasts revealed the presence of six volatiles, being the most abundant components (3-methyl-1-butanol and phenylethyl alcohol) ascribed with antimicrobial potentialities. Overall the results highlighted for the first time the antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi from O. europaea and the possibility to be exploited for their antimicrobial agents.

  16. Pseudomonas moraviensis subsp. stanleyae, a bacterial endophyte of hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata, is capable of efficient selenite reduction to elemental selenium under aerobic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staicu, L. C.; Ackerson, C. J.; Cornelis, P.; Ye, L.; Berendsen, R. L.; Hunter, W. J.; Noblitt, S. D.; Henry, C. S.; Cappa, J. J.; Montenieri, R. L.; Wong, A. O.; Musilova, L.; Sura-de Jong, M.; van Hullebusch, E. D.; Lens, P. N L; Reynolds, R. J B; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To identify bacteria with high selenium tolerance and reduction capacity for bioremediation of wastewater and nanoselenium particle production. Methods and Results: A bacterial endophyte was isolated from the selenium hyperaccumulator Stanleya pinnata (Brassicaceae) growing on seleniferous

  17. Endophytes in commercial micropropagation - friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödel, Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal and aromatic plants are superorganisms like all plant species- naturally colonized by bacteria, fungi and protists. Micropropagated plants are facing different challenges under in vitro and ex vitro conditions: Mixotrophic growth under low light conditions on artificial nutrient media, poor gas exchange in small vessels, abiotic stress, bad rooting, transplanting stress, low survival rate during acclimatization in greenhouse. The use of endophytes in micropropagation can improve plant growth, yield, and health and induce tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. A tool for the use of competent endophytes in micropropagation under in vitro and ex vitro conditions is “biotization” of plantlets with useful bacterial and fungal inocula. Fungal inocula which are used commercially are e.g. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in form of spores and extraradical mycelium on different carrier materials like expanded clay, vermiculite, sand or peat. Furthermore representatives of the root fungal genus Trichoderma are applied as spores formulated in powder. Plantgrowth promoting rhizobacteria of the important genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Azospirillum and Azotobacter in form of lyophilised endospores/bacterial cells in powder or liquid formulation are also available on the market.

  18. Antimycobacterial and antimalarial activities of endophytic fungi associated with the ancient and narrowly endemic neotropical plant Vellozia gigantea from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana C; Cantrell, Charles L; Wedge, David E; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2017-10-01

    Endophytic fungi, present mainly in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla, are associated with different plants and represent important producers of bioactive natural products. Brazil has a rich biodiversity of plant species, including those reported as being endemic. Among the endemic Brazilian plant species, Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae) is threatened by extinction and is a promising target to recover endophytic fungi. The present study focused on bioprospecting of bioactive compounds of the endophytic fungi associated with V. gigantea, an endemic, ancient, and endangered plant species that occurs only in the rupestrian grasslands of Brazil. The capability of 285 fungal isolates to produce antimicrobial and antimalarial activities was examined. Fungi were grown at solid-state fermentation to recover their crude extracts in dichloromethane. Bioactive extracts were analysed by chromatographic fractionation and NMR and displayed compounds with antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, and antimalarial activities. Five fungi produced antimicrobial and antimalarial compounds. Extracts of Diaporthe miriciae showed antifungal, antibacterial, and antimalarial activities; Trichoderma effusum displayed selective antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare; and three Penicillium species showed antibacterial activity. D. miriciae extract contained highly functionalised secondary metabolites, yielding the compound epoxycytochalasin H with high antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum, with an IC50 approximately 3.5-fold lower than that with chloroquine. Our results indicate that V. gigantea may represent a microhabitat repository hotspot of potential fungi producers of bioactive compounds and suggest that endophytic fungal communities might be an important biological component contributing to the fitness of the plants living in the rupestrian grassland.

  19. Antimycobacterial and antimalarial activities of endophytic fungi associated with the ancient and narrowly endemic neotropical plant Vellozia gigantea from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Endophytic fungi, present mainly in the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla, are associated with different plants and represent important producers of bioactive natural products. Brazil has a rich biodiversity of plant species, including those reported as being endemic. Among the endemic Brazilian plant species, Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae is threatened by extinction and is a promising target to recover endophytic fungi. OBJECTIVE The present study focused on bioprospecting of bioactive compounds of the endophytic fungi associated with V. gigantea, an endemic, ancient, and endangered plant species that occurs only in the rupestrian grasslands of Brazil. METHODS The capability of 285 fungal isolates to produce antimicrobial and antimalarial activities was examined. Fungi were grown at solid-state fermentation to recover their crude extracts in dichloromethane. Bioactive extracts were analysed by chromatographic fractionation and NMR and displayed compounds with antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, and antimalarial activities. FINDINGS Five fungi produced antimicrobial and antimalarial compounds. Extracts of Diaporthe miriciae showed antifungal, antibacterial, and antimalarial activities; Trichoderma effusum displayed selective antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare; and three Penicillium species showed antibacterial activity. D. miriciae extract contained highly functionalised secondary metabolites, yielding the compound epoxycytochalasin H with high antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum, with an IC50 approximately 3.5-fold lower than that with chloroquine. MAIN CONCLUSION Our results indicate that V. gigantea may represent a microhabitat repository hotspot of potential fungi producers of bioactive compounds and suggest that endophytic fungal communities might be an important biological component contributing to the

  20. Promising medicinal plants for bioprospection in a Cerrado area of Chapada do Araripe, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daiany Alves; Oliveira, Liana Geraldo Souza de; Macêdo, Delmacia Gonçalves de; Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar de; Costa, José Galberto Martins da; Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa da; Lacerda, Sírleis Rodrigues; Souza, Marta Maria de Almeida

    2014-09-29

    Traditional medical systems represent an important source of knowledge about the use of biodiversity. Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies can encourage bioprospecting in the pursuit and selection of promising medicinal plants. This study investigated the diversity of medicinal plants in a disjunct area of cerrado in Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Brazil, and assessed the species of interest for bioprospecting. Structured and semi-structured interviews were conducted through free listing, and the informants were recruited using the "snowball" technique. The relative importance and informant consensus factor were analyzed for the selection of plant species with therapeutic potential. A total of 68 species were recorded and cited for 91 therapeutic purposes. Of these, 10 species showed great versatility of use, including Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Caryocar coriaceum Wittn., Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel, Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart., and Dimorphandra garderiana Tull. The therapeutic citations were grouped into 16 categories of body systems, of which Injuries, Poisonings and Other Consequences of External Causes, and Neoplasias showed the highest agreement of use. Regarding the diversity of the species, some including Tocoyena Formosa (Cham. & Schlecht.) Schum., Himatanthus drasticus, Caryocar coriaceum, Roupala montana Aubl. and Stryphnodendron rotundifolium showed both high relative importance and strong consensus among informants, and although many have already been investigated scientifically, others are almost unknown with respect to their medicinal properties and can be targets for bioprospecting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Xylan catabolism is improved by blending bioprospecting and metabolic pathway engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Jellison, Taylor; Alper, Hal S

    2015-04-01

    Complete utilization of all available carbon sources in lignocellulosic biomass still remains a challenge in engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even with efficient heterologous xylose catabolic pathways, S. cerevisiae is unable to utilize xylose in lignocellulosic biomass unless xylan is depolymerized to xylose. Here we demonstrate that a blended bioprospecting approach along with pathway engineering and evolutionary engineering can be used to improve xylan catabolism in S. cerevisiae. Specifically, we perform whole genome sequencing-based bioprospecting of a strain with remarkable pentose catabolic potential that we isolated and named Ustilago bevomyces. The heterologous expression of xylan catabolic genes enabled S. cerevisiae to grow on xylan as a single carbon source in minimal medium. A combination of bioprospecting and metabolic pathway evolution demonstrated that the xylan catabolic pathway could be further improved. Ultimately, engineering efforts were able to achieve xylan conversion into ethanol of up to 0.22 g/L on minimal medium compositions with xylan. This pathway provides a novel starting point for improving lignocellulosic conversion by yeast. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High-Throughput Sequencing Analysis of the Endophytic Bacterial Diversity and Dynamics in Roots of the Halophyte Salicornia europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Zhou, Na; Zhao, Zheng-Yong; Zhang, Ke; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2016-05-01

    Endophytic bacterial communities of halophyte Salicornia europaea roots were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 20,151 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained. These sequences revealed huge amounts of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), that is, 747-1405 OTUs in a root sample, at 3 % cut-off level. Root endophytes mainly comprised four phyla, among which Proteobacteria was the most represented, followed by Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant class of Proteobacteria, followed by Betaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. Genera Pantoea, Halomonas, Azomonas, Serpens, and Pseudomonas were shared by all growth periods. A marked difference in endophytic bacterial communities was evident in roots from different host life-history stages. Gammaproteobacteria increased during the five periods, while Betaproteobacteria decreased. The richest endophytic bacteria diversity was detected in the seedling stage. Endophytic bacteria diversity was reduced during the flowering stage and fruiting stage. The five libraries contained 2321 different OTUs with 41 OTUs in common. As a whole, this study first surveys communities of endophytic bacteria by tracing crucial stages in the process of halophyte growth using high-throughput sequencing methods.

  3. A Phloem-Feeding Insect Transfers Bacterial Endophytic Communities between Grapevine Plants

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    Sebastiàn Lòpez-Fernàndez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes colonize the inner tissues of host plants through the roots or through discontinuities on the plant surface, including wounds and stomata. Little is known regarding a possible role of insects in acquiring and transmitting non-phytopathogenic microorganisms from plant to plant, especially those endophytes that are beneficial symbionts providing plant protection properties and homeostatic stability to the host. To understand the ecological role of insects in the transmission of endophytic bacteria, we used freshly hatched nymphs of the American sap-feeding leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus (vector to transfer microorganisms across grapevine plants. After contact with the vector, sink plants were colonized by a complex endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highly similar to that present in source plants. A similar bacterial community, but with a higher ratio of Firmicutes, was found on S. titanus. Insects feeding only on sink plants transferred an entirely different bacterial community dominated by Actinobacteria, where Mycobacterium sp., played a major role. Despite the fact that insects dwelled mostly on plant stems, the bacterial communities in plant roots resembled more closely those inside and on insects, when compared to those of above-ground plant organs. We prove here the potential of insect vectors to transfer entire endophytic bacterial communities between plants. We also describe the role of plants and bacterial endophytes in establishing microbial communities in plant-feeding insects.

  4. A Phloem-Feeding Insect Transfers Bacterial Endophytic Communities between Grapevine Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lòpez-Fernàndez, Sebastiàn; Mazzoni, Valerio; Pedrazzoli, Federico; Pertot, Ilaria; Campisano, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes colonize the inner tissues of host plants through the roots or through discontinuities on the plant surface, including wounds and stomata. Little is known regarding a possible role of insects in acquiring and transmitting non-phytopathogenic microorganisms from plant to plant, especially those endophytes that are beneficial symbionts providing plant protection properties and homeostatic stability to the host. To understand the ecological role of insects in the transmission of endophytic bacteria, we used freshly hatched nymphs of the American sap-feeding leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus (vector) to transfer microorganisms across grapevine plants. After contact with the vector, sink plants were colonized by a complex endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highly similar to that present in source plants. A similar bacterial community, but with a higher ratio of Firmicutes, was found on S. titanus. Insects feeding only on sink plants transferred an entirely different bacterial community dominated by Actinobacteria, where Mycobacterium sp., played a major role. Despite the fact that insects dwelled mostly on plant stems, the bacterial communities in plant roots resembled more closely those inside and on insects, when compared to those of above-ground plant organs. We prove here the potential of insect vectors to transfer entire endophytic bacterial communities between plants. We also describe the role of plants and bacterial endophytes in establishing microbial communities in plant-feeding insects. PMID:28555131

  5. Effects of growth stage and fulvic acid on the diversity and dynamics of endophytic bacterial community in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuejian; Yang, Jinshui; Wang, Entao; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn the interactions among the endophytic bacteria, the plant growth, the foliar spray of fulvic acid, and the accumulation of steviol glycosides in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the Stevia leaves at different growth stages with or without the fulvic acid treatment; and the diversity of endophytic bacteria in Stevia leaves was estimated by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. As results, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were found to be the dominant phyla despite the growth stages and fulvic acid application. Stevia growth stages strongly regulated composition of endophytic community. The genera Agrobacterium (12.3%) and Erwinia (7.2%) dominated in seedling stage were apparently declined in the vegetable and initial flowering stages, while Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium increased in mature leaves at harvest time, which showed that the mature leaves of Stevia preferred to accumulate some certain endophytic bacteria. Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium constituted an important part of the core endophytic community and were positively correlated with the stevioside content and UGT74G1 gene expression, respectively; while Erwinia, Agrobacterium, and Bacillus were negatively correlated with the stevioside accumulation. Fulvic acid treatment accelerated the variation of endophytes along the growth stages and increased the steviol glycosides content. This is the first study to reveal the community composition of endophytic bacteria in the Stevia leaves, to evidence the strong effects of growth stage and fulvic acid application on the endophytes of Stevia, and to demonstrate the correlation between the endophytic bacteria and the steviol glycosides accumulation.

  6. Effects of growth stage and fulvic acid on the diversity and dynamics of endophytic bacterial community in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuejian; Yang, Jinshui; Wang, Entao; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn the interactions among the endophytic bacteria, the plant growth, the foliar spray of fulvic acid, and the accumulation of steviol glycosides in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the Stevia leaves at different growth stages with or without the fulvic acid treatment; and the diversity of endophytic bacteria in Stevia leaves was estimated by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. As results, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were found to be the dominant phyla despite the growth stages and fulvic acid application. Stevia growth stages strongly regulated composition of endophytic community. The genera Agrobacterium (12.3%) and Erwinia (7.2%) dominated in seedling stage were apparently declined in the vegetable and initial flowering stages, while Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium increased in mature leaves at harvest time, which showed that the mature leaves of Stevia preferred to accumulate some certain endophytic bacteria. Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium constituted an important part of the core endophytic community and were positively correlated with the stevioside content and UGT74G1 gene expression, respectively; while Erwinia, Agrobacterium, and Bacillus were negatively correlated with the stevioside accumulation. Fulvic acid treatment accelerated the variation of endophytes along the growth stages and increased the steviol glycosides content. This is the first study to reveal the community composition of endophytic bacteria in the Stevia leaves, to evidence the strong effects of growth stage and fulvic acid application on the endophytes of Stevia, and to demonstrate the correlation between the endophytic bacteria and the steviol glycosides accumulation. PMID:26379644

  7. Endophytic Fungi in a Hordeum Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; S.L. Clement; W.J. Kaiser

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in a Hordeum spp. germplasm collection is reported. The potential application of endophytes as biocontrol agents against pests of cereal crops is recognized. Suggestions are proposed to modify existing germplasm maintenance procedures to ensure that both seed viability and endophyte viability...

  8. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Assis Castro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10 had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48. We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth.

  9. [Isolation, identification and insecticidal activity of endophyte from Achnatherum inebrians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuebing; Shi, Yingwu; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wei; Lou, Kai

    2010-04-01

    To study endophyte species of Achnatherum inebrians and to screen strains with insecticidal activity against cotton insect. We isolated endophytic from roots,stems,leaves and seeds of health A. inebrians by grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rDNA gene (for bacteria) and ITS sequence (for fungi) based molecular identification. Then,those endophytes were inoculated into liquid media for fermentation and the crude extracts were used to test insecticidal activities by slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. We isolated bacteria species classified into 8 genera of Bacillus, Streptomyces, Corynebacterium, Phyllobacterium, sphingomonnas, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and 2 fungi of Claviceps purpure and Claviceps Chaetomium. Of them, the strain Streptomyces rochei (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (PF-2) had more than 85% of mortality to cotton aphis. Two strains of PF-2 and GA associated within the A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activity to cotton aphis (Aphis gossypii), which may provide a new biological resource to explore new microbial insecticide.

  10. Conservation and Diversity of Seed Associated Endophytes in Zea across Boundaries of Evolution, Ethnography and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston-Monje, David; Raizada, Manish N.

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte) to modern maize (corn) and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) of 16S rDNA. Principle component analysis of TRFLP data showed that seed endophyte community composition varied in relation to plant host phylogeny. However, there was a core microbiota of endophytes that was conserved in Zea seeds across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology. The majority of seed endophytes in the wild ancestor persist today in domesticated maize, though ancient selection against the hard fruitcase surrounding seeds may have altered the abundance of endophytes. Four TRFLP signals including two predicted to represent Clostridium and Paenibacillus species were conserved across all Zea genotypes, while culturing showed that Enterobacter, Methylobacteria, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species were widespread, with γ-proteobacteria being the prevalent class. Twenty-six different genera were cultured, and these were evaluated for their ability to stimulate plant growth, grow on nitrogen-free media, solubilize phosphate, sequester iron, secrete RNAse, antagonize pathogens, catabolize the precursor of ethylene, produce auxin and acetoin/butanediol. Of these traits, phosphate solubilization and production of acetoin/butanediol were the most commonly observed. An isolate from the giant Mexican landrace Mixteco, with 100% identity to Burkholderia phytofirmans, significantly promoted shoot potato biomass. GFP tagging and maize stem injection confirmed that several seed endophytes could spread systemically through the plant. One seed isolate

  11. Conservation and diversity of seed associated endophytes in Zea across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Johnston-Monje

    Full Text Available Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes living inside plants. We asked whether endophytic species were conserved in the agriculturally important plant genus Zea as it became domesticated from its wild ancestors (teosinte to modern maize (corn and moved from Mexico to Canada. Kernels from populations of four different teosintes and 10 different maize varieties were screened for endophytic bacteria by culturing, cloning and DNA fingerprinting using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP of 16S rDNA. Principle component analysis of TRFLP data showed that seed endophyte community composition varied in relation to plant host phylogeny. However, there was a core microbiota of endophytes that was conserved in Zea seeds across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology. The majority of seed endophytes in the wild ancestor persist today in domesticated maize, though ancient selection against the hard fruitcase surrounding seeds may have altered the abundance of endophytes. Four TRFLP signals including two predicted to represent Clostridium and Paenibacillus species were conserved across all Zea genotypes, while culturing showed that Enterobacter, Methylobacteria, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species were widespread, with γ-proteobacteria being the prevalent class. Twenty-six different genera were cultured, and these were evaluated for their ability to stimulate plant growth, grow on nitrogen-free media, solubilize phosphate, sequester iron, secrete RNAse, antagonize pathogens, catabolize the precursor of ethylene, produce auxin and acetoin/butanediol. Of these traits, phosphate solubilization and production of acetoin/butanediol were the most commonly observed. An isolate from the giant Mexican landrace Mixteco, with 100% identity to Burkholderia phytofirmans, significantly promoted shoot potato biomass. GFP tagging and maize stem injection confirmed that several seed endophytes could spread systemically through the plant. One seed

  12. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi obtained from the arid zone invasive plant Opuntia dillenii and the isolation of equisetin, from endophytic Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaweera, Pamoda B; de Silva, E Dilip; Williams, David E; Andersen, Raymond J

    2015-07-10

    Opuntia dillenii is an invasive plant well established in the harsh South-Eastern arid zone of Sri Lanka. Evidence suggests it is likely that the endophytic fungal populations of O. dillenii assist the host in overcoming biotic and abiotic stress by producing biologically active metabolites. With this in mind there is potential to discover novel natural products with useful biological activities from this hitherto poorly investigated source. Consequently, an investigation of the antimicrobial activities of the endophytes of O. dillenii, that occupies a unique ecological niche, may well provide useful leads in the discovery of new pharmaceuticals. Endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface sterilized cladodes and flowers of O. dillenii using several nutrient media and the antimicrobial activities were evaluated against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. The two most bioactive fungi were identified by colony morphology and DNA sequencing. The secondary metabolite of the endophyte Fusarium sp. exhibiting the best activity was isolated via bioassay guided chromatography. The chemical structure was elucidated from the ESIMS and NMR spectroscopic data obtained for the active metabolite. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the active compound were determined. Eight endophytic fungi were isolated from O. dillenii and all except one showed antibacterial activities against at least one of the test bacteria. All extracts were inactive against C. albicans. The most bioactive fungus was identified as Fusarium sp. and the second most active as Aspergillus niger. The structure of the major antibacterial compound of the Fusarium sp. was shown to be the tetramic acid derivative, equisetin. The MIC's for equisetin were 8 μg mL(-1) against Bacillus subtilis, 16 μg mL(-1) against Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). O. dillenii, harbors several endophytic fungi capable of producing

  13. Fungal endophytes and their interactions with plants in phytoremediation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zujun; Cao, Lixiang

    2017-02-01

    Endophytic microorganisms (including bacteria and fungi) are likely to interact closely with their hosts and are more protected from adverse changes in the environment. The microbiota contribute to plant growth, productivity, carbon sequestration, and phytoremediation. Elevated levels of contaminants (i.e. metals) are toxic to most plants, the plant's metabolism and growth were impaired and their potential for metal phytoextraction is highly restricted. Exploiting endophytic microorganisms to reduce metal toxicity to plants have been investigated to improve phytoremediation efficiencies. Fungi play an important role in organic and inorganic transformation, element cycling, rock and mineral transformations, bioweathering, mycogenic mineral formation, fungal-clay interactions, and metal-fungal interactions. Endophytic fungi also showed potentials to enhance phytoremediation. Compared to bacteria, most fungi exhibit a filamentous growth habit, which provides the ability to adopt both explorative or exploitative growth strategies and form linear organs of aggregated hyphae to protect fungal translocation. However, the information regarding the role of endophytic fungi in phytoremediation are incomplete, this review highlights the taxa, physiological properties, and interaction of endophytic fungi with plants in phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioprospecting sponge-associated microbes for antimicrobial compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review

  15. Life without a cell membrane: Challenging the specificity of bacterial endophytes within Bryopsis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta

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    Hollants Joke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The siphonous green macroalga Bryopsis has some remarkable characteristics. Besides hosting a rich endophytic bacterial flora, Bryopsis also displays extraordinary wound repair and propagation mechanisms. This latter feature includes the formation of protoplasts which can survive in the absence of a cell membrane for several minutes before regenerating into new individuals. This transient 'life without a membrane' state, however, challenges the specificity of the endophytic bacterial communities present and raises the question whether these bacteria are generalists, which are repeatedly acquired from the environment, or if there is some specificity towards the Bryopsis host. Results To answer this question, we examined the temporal stability and the uniqueness of endobiotic bacterial communities within Bryopsis samples from the Mexican west coast after prolonged cultivation. DGGE analysis revealed that Bryopsis endophytic bacterial communities are rather stable and clearly distinct from the epiphytic and surrounding cultivation water bacterial communities. Although these endogenous communities consist of both facultative and obligate bacteria, results suggest that Bryopsis owns some intrinsic mechanisms to selectively maintain and/or attract specific bacteria after repeated wounding events in culture. Conclusions This suggests that Bryopsis algae seem to master transient stages of life without a cell membrane well as they harbor specific - and possibly ecological significant - endophytic bacteria.

  16. Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas

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    Jeane E de Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7. Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de

  17. Fungal Endophytes: Beyond Herbivore Management

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    Bamisope S. Bamisile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents into Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs without doubt, has been highly effective. The ability of these fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to exist as endophytes in plants and protect their colonized host plants against the primary herbivore pests has widely been reported. Aside this sole role of pest management that has been traditionally ascribed to fungal endophytes, recent findings provided evidence of other possible functions as plant yield promoter, soil nutrient distributor, abiotic stress and drought tolerance enhancer in plants. However, reports on these additional important effects of fungal endophytes on the colonized plants remain scanty. In this review, we discussed the various beneficial effects of endophytic fungi on the host plants and their primary herbivore pests; as well as some negative effects that are relatively unknown. We also highlighted the prospects of our findings in further increasing the acceptance of fungal endophytes as an integral part of pest management programs for optimized crop production.

  18. Fungal Endophytes: Beyond Herbivore Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamisile, Bamisope S.; Dash, Chandra K.; Akutse, Komivi S.; Keppanan, Ravindran; Wang, Liande

    2018-01-01

    The incorporation of entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents into Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs without doubt, has been highly effective. The ability of these fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to exist as endophytes in plants and protect their colonized host plants against the primary herbivore pests has widely been reported. Aside this sole role of pest management that has been traditionally ascribed to fungal endophytes, recent findings provided evidence of other possible functions as plant yield promoter, soil nutrient distributor, abiotic stress and drought tolerance enhancer in plants. However, reports on these additional important effects of fungal endophytes on the colonized plants remain scanty. In this review, we discussed the various beneficial effects of endophytic fungi on the host plants and their primary herbivore pests; as well as some negative effects that are relatively unknown. We also highlighted the prospects of our findings in further increasing the acceptance of fungal endophytes as an integral part of pest management programs for optimized crop production.

  19. [Research advances in endophytic fungi of mangrove].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ai-Rong; Wu, Xiao-Peng; Xu, Tong

    2007-04-01

    Mangrove, a kind of special host plants, is a resource of abundant endophytic fungi. More than 200 species of endophytic fungi are isolated and identified from mangrove, being the second largest community of marine fungi. The reported endophytic fungi of mangrove are mainly Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta and Trichoderma. Most endophytic fungi have wide range of hosts, and a few only have single host. However, the composition and dominant species on each mangrove plant are different. The colonization of endophytic fungi always varies with different parts (leaves, twigs, stems) and age of host plants and with seasons. The endophytic fungi of mangrove can produce many kinds of metabolites with great potential for anti-microbial and anti-tumor medicinal use. In this paper, the research advances in biodiversity of endophytic fungi in mangrove, their distribution, biological and ecological function, and secondary metabolites were reviewed.

  20. Hidden fungi, emergent properties: endophytes and microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Bayman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing symptoms of disease. They are important components of plant microbiomes. Endophytes interact with, and overlap in function with, other core microbial groups that colonize plant tissues, e.g., mycorrhizal fungi, pathogens, epiphytes, and saprotrophs. Some fungal endophytes affect plant growth and plant responses to pathogens, herbivores, and environmental change; others produce useful or interesting secondary metabolites. Here, we focus on new techniques and approaches that can provide an integrative understanding of the role of fungal endophytes in the plant microbiome. Clavicipitaceous endophytes of grasses are not considered because they have unique properties distinct from other endophytes. Hidden from view and often overlooked, endophytes are emerging as their diversity, importance for plant growth and survival, and interactions with other organisms are revealed. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacterial endophyte communities in the foliage of coast redwood and giant sequoia

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    Alyssa Ann Carrell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic bacterial microbiome, with an emerging role in plant nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance, is much less studied in natural plant populations than in agricultural crops. In a previous study, we found consistent associations between trees in the pine family and acetic acid bacteria (AAB occurring at high relative abundance inside their needles. Our objective here was to determine if that pattern may be general to conifers, or alternatively, is more likely restricted to pines, or conifers growing in nutrient limited and exposed environments. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to characterize the foliar endophyte communities of two conifers in the Cupressaceae family: Two coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens populations and one giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum population were sampled. Similar to the pines, the endophyte communities of the giant trees were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria. However, although some major OTUs occurred at a high relative abundance of 10-40% in multiple samples, no specific group of bacteria dominated the endophyte community to the extent previously observed in high-elevation pines. Several of the dominating bacterial groups in the coast redwood and giant sequoia foliage (e.g. Bacillus, Burkholderia, Actinomycetes are known for disease- and pest suppression, raising the possibility that the endophytic microbiome protects the giant trees against biotic stress. Many of the most common and abundant OTUs in our dataset were most similar to 16S rRNA sequences from bacteria isolated from lichens or arctic plants. For example, an OTU belonging to the uncultured Rhizobiales LAR1 lineage, which is commonly associated with lichens, was observed at high relative abundance in many of the coast redwood samples. The taxa shared between the giant trees, arctic plants, and lichens may be part of a broadly defined endophyte microbiome common to temperate, boreal, and tundra

  2. Morphological, Physiological, and Taxonomic Characterization of Actinobacterial Isolates Living as Endophytes of Cacao Pods and Cacao Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchinda, Romaric Armel Mouafo; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Lerat, Sylvain; Tsala, Éric; Monga, Ernest; Beaulieu, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Vascular plants are commonly colonized by endophytic actinobacteria. However, very little is known about the relationship between these microorganisms and cacao fruits. In order to determine the physiological and taxonomic relationships between the members of this community, actinobacteria were isolated from cacao fruits and seeds. Among the 49 isolates recovered, 11 morphologically distinct isolates were selected for further characterization. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed the partition of the selected isolates into three phylogenetic clades. Most of the selected endophytic isolates belonged to the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade. Physiological characterization was carried out and a similarity index was used to cluster the isolates. However, clustering based on physiological properties did not match phylogenetic lineages. Isolates were also characterized for traits commonly associated with plant growth-promoting bacteria, including antibiosis and auxin biosynthesis. All isolates exhibited resistance to geldanamycin, whereas only two isolates were shown to produce this antibiotic. Endophytes were inoculated on radish seedlings and most isolates were found to possess plant growth-promoting abilities. These endophytic actinobacteria inhibited the growth of various plant pathogenic fungi and/or bacteria. The present study showed that S. violaceusniger clade members represent a significant part of the actinobacterial community living as endophytes in cacao fruits and seeds. While several members of this clade are known to be geldanamycin producers and efficient biocontrol agents of plant diseases, we herein established the endophytic lifestyle of some of these microorganisms, demonstrating their potential as plant health agents.

  3. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents

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    GREICE H.S. PEIL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r. Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  4. Using Molecular Networking for Microbial Secondary Metabolite Bioprospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Kevin; Macintyre, Lynsey; Brennan, Debra; Hreggviðsson, Guðmundur Ó.; Kuttner, Eva; Ásgeirsdóttir, Margrét E.; Young, Louise C.; Green, David H.; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; Duncan, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    The oceans represent an understudied resource for the isolation of bacteria with the potential to produce novel secondary metabolites. In particular, actinomyces are well known to produce chemically diverse metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. This study characterised spore-forming bacteria from both Scottish and Antarctic sediments to assess the influence of isolation location on secondary metabolite production. Due to the selective isolation method used, all 85 isolates belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, with the majority of isolates belonging to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. Based on morphology, thirty-eight isolates were chosen for chemical investigation. Molecular networking based on chemical profiles (HR-MS/MS) of fermentation extracts was used to compare complex metabolite extracts. The results revealed 40% and 42% of parent ions were produced by Antarctic and Scottish isolated bacteria, respectively, and only 8% of networked metabolites were shared between these locations, implying a high degree of biogeographic influence upon secondary metabolite production. The resulting molecular network contained over 3500 parent ions with a mass range of m/z 149–2558 illustrating the wealth of metabolites produced. Furthermore, seven fermentation extracts showed bioactivity against epithelial colon adenocarcinoma cells, demonstrating the potential for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds from these understudied locations. PMID:26761036

  5. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-05-02

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed.

  6. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Gede Indraningrat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B; influenza A (H1N1 virus (truncateol M; nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin; Escherichia coli (sydonic acid, Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2; Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1; Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin; Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine; Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204. Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed.

  7. Anti-colon cancer activity of endophytic fungal strains from Terminalia chebula Rezt

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    Mohammad Shoeb

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms are fungi or bacteria that live inside the healthy tissues of the host plants causing no apparent symptoms of diseases. Five endophytic fungal strains labeled as IR-1, IR-2, IR-4, IR-6 and IR-7 (identified as Penicillium thiomii were isolated from the medicinal plant of Terminalia chebula Retz by culture and sub-culture. The ethyl acetate extract of fungal strains, IR-4, IR-6 and IR-7 inhibited the growth of CaCo-2 colon cancer cell lines in MTT assay with IC50 values of 55, 44 and 67 µg/mL, respectively.

  8. Diversity of endophytic and rhizoplane bacterial communities associated with exotic Spartina alterniflora and native mangrove using Illumina amplicon sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Liao, Dan; Hu, Anyi; Wang, Han; Chen, Jinsheng; Khan, Sardar; Su, Jianqiang; Li, Hu

    2015-10-01

    Root-associated microbial communities are very important for biogeochemical cycles in wetland ecosystems and help to elaborate the mechanisms of plant invasions. In the estuary of Jiulong River (China), Spartina alterniflora has widely invaded Kandelia obovata-dominated habitats, offering an opportunity to study the influence of root-associated bacteria. The community structures of endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria associated with selected plant species were investigated using the barcoded Illumina paired-end sequencing technique. The diversity indices of bacteria associated with the roots of S. alterniflora were higher than those of the transition stands and K. obovata monoculture. Using principal coordinate analysis with UniFrac metrics, the comparison of β-diversity showed that all samples could be significantly clustered into 3 major groups, according to the bacteria communities of origin. Four phyla, namely Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes, were enriched in the rhizoplane of both salt marsh plants, while they shared higher abundances of Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria among endophytic bacteria. Members of the phyla Spirochaetes and Chloroflexi were found among the endophytic bacteria of S. alterniflora and K. obovata, respectively. One of the interesting findings was that endophytes were more sensitive in response to plant invasion than were rhizosphere bacteria. With linear discriminate analysis, we found some predominant rhizoplane and endophytic bacteria, including Methylococcales, Pseudoalteromonadacea, Clostridium, Vibrio, and Desulfovibrio, which have the potential to affect the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles. Thus, the results provide clues to the isolation of functional bacteria and the effects of root-associated microbial groups on S. alterniflora invasions.

  9. Bioprospecting Sediments from Red Sea Coastal Lagoons for Microorganisms and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Amoudi, Soha

    2016-12-08

    Since the soils nutrient composition along with the associated biotic and abiotic factors direct the diversity of the contained microbiome and its potential to produce bioactive compounds, many studies have been focused on sediment types with unique features characteristic of extreme environments. Red Sea lagoon ecosystems are environments with such unique features as they are highly saline. However, not much is known about the potential of their microbiomes to produce bioactive compounds. Here, we explored sediment types such as mangrove mud, microbial mat, and barren soil collected from Rabigh harbor lagoon (RHL) and Al-Kharrar lagoon (AKL) as sources for antibiotic bioprospecting. Our antibiotic bioprospecting process started with a metagenomic study that provides a more precise view of the microbial community inhabiting these sites and serves as a preliminary screen for potential antibiotics. Taking the outcomes of the metagenomic screening into account, the next step we established a library of culturable strains from the analyzed samples. We screened each strain from that library for antibiotic activity against four target strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli dh5 α, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato dc3000 and Salmonella typhimurium dt2) and for the presence of polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes known to support synthesis of secondary metabolites that act like antimicrobial agents. The metagenomics study showed a shift in dominant phyla consistent with a historical exposure to hydrocarbon contamination and that AKL unexpectedly displayed more contamination than RHL. This may be due to dominant phyla in AKL being consistent with early hydrocarbon exposure (when contamination levels are still high) and the dominant phyla in RHL being consistent with late hydrocarbon exposure (when contamination levels are lower as a result of an extended period of hydrocarbon degradation). Additionally, RHL samples

  10. Pinus flexilis and Picea engelmannii share a simple and consistent needle endophyte microbiota with a potential role in nitrogen fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Alyssa A.; Frank, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    Conifers predominantly occur on soils or in climates that are suboptimal for plant growth. This is generally attributed to symbioses with mycorrhizal fungi and to conifer adaptations, but recent experiments suggest that aboveground endophytic bacteria in conifers fix nitrogen (N) and affect host shoot tissue growth. Because most bacteria cannot be grown in the laboratory very little is known about conifer–endophyte associations in the wild. Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce) growing in a subalpine, nutrient-limited environment are potential candidates for hosting endophytes with roles in N2 fixation and abiotic stress tolerance. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to ask whether these conifers host a core of bacterial species that are consistently associated with conifer individuals and therefore potential mutualists. We found that while overall the endophyte communities clustered according to host species, both conifers were consistently dominated by the same phylotype, which made up 19–53% and 14–39% of the sequences in P. flexilis and P. engelmannii, respectively. This phylotype is related to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and other N2 fixing acetic acid bacterial endophytes. The pattern observed for the P. flexilis and P. engelmannii needle microbiota—a small number of major species that are consistently associated with the host across individuals and species—is unprecedented for an endophyte community, and suggests a specialized beneficial endophyte function. One possibility is endophytic N fixation, which could help explain how conifers can grow in severely nitrogen-limited soil, and why some forest ecosystems accumulate more N than can be accounted for by known nitrogen input pathways. PMID:25071746

  11. Pinus flexilis and Piceae engelmannii share a simple and consistent needle endophyte microbiota with a potential role in nitrogen fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Ann Carrell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conifers predominantly occur on soils or in climates that are suboptimal for plant growth. This is generally attributed to symbioses with mycorrhizal fungi and to conifer adaptations, but recent experiments suggest that aboveground endophytic bacteria in conifers fix nitrogen (N and affect host shoot tissue growth. Because most bacteria cannot be grown in the laboratory very little is known about conifer-endophyte associations in the wild. Pinus flexilis (limber pine and Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce growing in a subalpine, nutrient-limited environment are potential candidates for hosting endophytes with roles in N2 fixation and abiotic stress tolerance. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to ask whether these conifers host a core of bacterial species that are consistently associated with conifer individuals and therefore potential mutualists. We found that while overall the endophyte communities clustered according to host species, both conifers were consistently dominated by the same phylotype, which made up 19-53% and 14-39% of the sequences in P. flexilis and P. engelmannii respectively. This phylotype is related to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and other N2 fixing acetic acid bacterial endophytes. The pattern observed for the P. flexilis and P. engelmannii needle microbiota—a small number of major species that are consistently associated with the host across individuals and species—is unprecedented for an endophyte community, and suggests a specialized beneficial endophyte function. One possibility is endophytic N fixation, which could help explain how conifers can grow in severely nitrogen-limited soil, and why some forest ecosystems accumulate more N than can be accounted for by known nitrogen input pathways.

  12. Promoção de enraizamento de microtoletes de cana-de-açúcar pelo uso conjunto de substâncias húmicas e bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas Rooting of micro seed pieces by combined use of humic substances and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Batista Marques Júnior

    2008-06-01

    éficos da inoculação de estirpes selecionadas de H. seropedicae, já para ácidos húmicos, as respostas positivas independem da termoterapia. A promoção do crescimento radicular por AH e a fixação biológica de N2 podem representar uma estratégia inovadora para produção sustentada em sistemas agrícolas.Besides the direct nutritional effect of mineralization of organic matter or by biological nitrogen fixation activity, the humic substances and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria can directly influence plant metabolism, modifying plant growth and development patterns. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combined use of humic acid (HA and Herbaspirillum seropedicae, an endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, on the root growth of seed pieces - heat-treated or not - of the sugarcane variety RB 72 454. After hot water treatment, the cane cuttings were immersed for 12 hours as follows: in water (control plant, in HA solution (20 mg L-1 of C from vermicompost, in bacterial inoculant of H. seropedicae, strain HRC54 (10(8 cells mL-1, and in a combination of bacteria and HA. Root growth was improved by 60 to 118 % in length and from 33 % to 233 % in surface area on sugarcane plant treatments compared to control, with more pronounced effect in plants under heat treatment. Likewise, the positive effect of the combinded treatment (bacteria inoculation and humic acid on shoot and root biomass was significant compared to the control with heat-treated cuts. For non-heated seed pieces, bacteria inoculation did not result in a positive plant growth effect, but only in the presence of humic acid. The combined or isolated use of both HA and bacteria did not significantly modify the bacteria population in the root tissue of heat-untreated sugarcane. For heat-treated cuts, bacteria inoculation, combined or not with HA, increased the size of diazotrophic bacteria population on roots. The results highlight the importance of thermotherapy to increase the positive

  13. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  14. Optimization of isolation and cultivation of bacterial endophytes through addition of plant extract to nutrient media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Gielen, M; Sánchez-López, A; Jaspers, S; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2015-07-01

    Many endophytes have beneficial effects on plants and can be exploited in biotechnological applications. Studies hypothesize that only 0.001-1% of all plant-associated bacteria are cultivable. Moreover, even after successful isolations, many endophytic bacteria often show reduced regrowth capacity. This research aimed to optimize isolation processes and culturing these bacteria afterwards. We compared several minimal and complex media in a screening. Beside the media themselves, two gelling agents and adding plant extract to media were investigated to enhance the number and diversity of endophytes as well as the growth capacity when regrown after isolation. In this work, 869 medium delivered the highest numbers of cultivable bacteria, as well as the highest diversity. When comparing gelling agents, no differences were observed in the numbers of bacteria. Adding plant extract to the media lead to a slight increase in diversity. However, when adding plant extract to improve the regrowth capacity, sharp increases of viable bacteria occurred in both rich and minimal media. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Wood decomposition and fungal community dynamics mediated by temperature and endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z.; Schilling, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Wood decomposition is primarily fulfilled by brown rot and white rot fungi in temperate and boreal forests. The competition balance between these fungi determines the patterns of wood decomposition and carbon cycle in forests. But this balance may shift in a warmer future, especially in high latitude forests. Additionally, endophytes may assert influence over the fungal competition through priority effect and interact with the effect of climate change. In this study, we use paper birch and two common fungi to answer two questions 1) How does increased temperature affect the competition between brown rot and white rot fungi? 2) How do endophytes interact with fungi from the soil and influence wood decomposition? A microcosm system was used to simulate competition between Piptoporus betulinus (brown rot fungi) and Fomes fomentarius (white rot fungi) on small birch stem on the effect of increased temperature and endophytes. Activity of P. betulinus was slower in higher temperature, but F. fomentarius was not affected. Character of residue showed that when both fungi were present, wood tend to have white rot in higher temperature. Presence of endophytes significantly reduced the decay rate when they were competing with external fungi, indicating that part of their energy was allocated to interspecies antagonism from metabolizing wood. In the absence of external fungus, endophytes alone caused significant amount of wood decay. Higher temperature also tends to shift the community of endophyte toward more white rot fungi. Our results highlighted the role of endophytes in wood decomposition. Major wood decomposers, not just plant pathogen, may remain dormant in live trees and regain their activity right after tree death. The endophytes could be an important part of assembly history in forming microbial community in dead wood and may have complex interactions with fungi and bacteria in soil. An increased temperature obviously favors white rot fungi, which is in accordance

  16. ANTIMALARIAL COMPOUNDS FROM ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI OF BROTOWALI (Tinaspora crispa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfita Elfita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The term endophytic refers to a bacteria or a fungi microorganism that colonizes interior organs of plants, but does not have pathogenic effects on its host. In their symbiotic association, the host plant protects and feeds the endophytic, which ";in return"; produces bioactive metabolites to enhance the growth and compotitiveness of the host and to protect it from herbivores and plant pathogens. Plants with ethnobotanical history, for example brotowali (Tinaspora crispa L, are likely candidates to find bioactive compounds. Two alkaloids have been isolated from endophytic fungi of brotowali. The molecular structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on spectroscopic data, including UV, IR, NMR 1D and 2D spectrum. The compounds were determined as: 7- hydroxy-3,4,5-trimethyl-6-on-2,3,4,6-tetrahydroisoquinoline-8-carboxylic acid (1 and 2,5-dihydroxy-1-(hydroxymethylpyridin-4-on (2. The compound has antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7, with IC50 values 0,129 µM and 0,127 µM.

  17. Effects of colonization of a bacterial endophyte, Azospirillum sp. B510, on disease resistance in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Moeka; Kusajima, Miyuki; Okumura, Yasuko; Nakajima, Masami; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Nakashita, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacteria, Azospirillum sp. B510, isolated from rice, can enhance growth and yield and induce disease resistance against various types of diseases in rice. Because little is known about the interaction between other plant species and this strain, we have investigated the effect of its colonization on disease resistance in tomato plants. Treatment with this strain by soil-drenching method established endophytic colonization in root tissues in tomato plant. The endophytic colonization with this strain-induced disease resistance in tomato plant against bacterial leaf spot caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. In Azospirillum-treated plants, neither the accumulation of SA nor the expression of defense-related genes was observed. These indicate that endophytic colonization with Azospirillum sp. B510 is able to activate the innate immune system also in tomato, which does not seem to be systemic acquired resistance.

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi from Camptotheca acuminata (Nyssaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, T; Jiang, T; Zhou, J; Xu, L; Gao, Z M

    2010-10-26

    Agricultural research of plant-derived endophytic fungi has grown in recent decades. We isolated 26 endophytic fungi from the leaves, stems and fruits of "the tree of life", Camptotheca acuminata, and tested them for antimicrobial activities based on growth inhibition measurements in a modified agar diffusion method. Fermentation broths from most of the isolates exhibited antifungal activity and 50% exhibited antibacterial activity; some of them also exhibited strong broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The strongest antimicrobial activity was exhibited by strains XSY10 and XSY15 against Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, with 75% and 67% inhibition, respectively. Strain XSJ01 gave strong activity against pathogenic bacteria, with inhibition zones more than 20 mm in diameter. The isolates were identified by molecular methods as belonging to nine taxa: Nigrospora, Diaporthe, Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Pestalotiopsis, Sordariomycete, Guignardiai, Penicillium, and Zythia. Based on these results, we conclude that the endophytic fungi of C. acuminata are promising sources of novel bioactive compounds.

  19. Antibiotic Properties of the endophytic Streptomyces Spp. Isolated from the Leaves of Myanmar Medicinal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Pe; Mar Mar Nyein; Win Maung

    2002-02-01

    Three medicinal plants of Myanmar are selected in the study of endophytic microorganisms and are taxonomically classified and identified to be Sa-ba-lin (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.), Shazaungtinga- neah (Euphorbia splendens Bojer. ex Hooker) and Ma-shaw (Sauropus grandifolius Pax. and Hoffm.). The screening of endophytic microorganisms is performed according to the ISP method (International Streptomyces Projects 1993). The morphological and physicochemical properties of isolated strains are studied and identified to be the Genus Streptomyces. The test of apparent antimicrobial activity of isolated Streptomyces is done on 18 strains of pathogenic bacteria. It is found that the isolated endophytic Sireptomyces showed the significant antibacterial activity on most of the test organisms. (author)

  20. Endophytic nitrogen fixation in sugarcane: Present knowledge and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddey, Robert M.; Urquiaga, Segundo; Alves, Bruno J.R.; Reis, Veronica

    2001-01-01

    In Brazil the long-term continuous cultivation of sugarcane with low N fertiliser inputs, without apparent depletion of soil-N reserves, led to the suggestion that N 2 -fixing bacteria associated with the plants may be the source of agronomically significant N inputs to this crop. From the 1950s to 1970s, considerable numbers of N 2 -fixing bacteria were found to be associated with the crop, but it was not until the late 1980s that evidence from N balance and 15 N dilution experiments showed that some Brazilian varieties of sugarcane were able to obtain significant contributions from this source. The results of these studies renewed the efforts to search for N 2 -fixing bacteria, but this time the emphasis was on those diazotrophs that infected the interior of the plants. Within a few years several species of such 'endophytic diazotrophs' were discovered including Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, H. rubrisubalbicans and Burkholderia sp. Work has continued on these endophytes within sugarcane plants, but to date little success has been attained in elucidating which endophyte is responsible for the observed BNF and in what site, or sites, within the cane plants the N 2 fixation mainly occurs. Until such important questions are answered further developments or extension of this novel N 2 -fixing system to other economically important non-legumes (e.g. cereals) will be seriously hindered. As far as application of present knowledge to maximise BNF with sugarcane is concerned, molybdenum is an essential micronutrient. An abundant water supply favours high BNF inputs, and the best medium term strategy to increase BNF would appear to be based on cultivar selection on irrigated N deficient soils fertilised with Mo. (author)

  1. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eevers, N.; Hawthorne, J.R.; White, J.C.; Vangronsveld, J.; Weyens, N.

    2016-01-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. - Highlights: • Cucurbita pepo accumulates DDE and can be used for phytoremediation. • Phytoremediation capacity might be enhanced with endophytic bacteria. • The differences in bacterial communities without and with DDE are investigated. • Several DDE-tolerant bacteria are discovered and might be used in phytoremediation. - DDE-exposure and DDE-uptake of Cucurbita pepo lead to increases in both diversity

  2. Endophytic bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere of Amazon Paullinia cupana associated with asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogas, Andréa Cristina; Ferreira, Almir José; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Kitajima, Elliot Watanabe; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes colonize an ecological niche similar to that of phytopathogens, which make them candidate for disease suppression. Anthracnose is a disease caused by Colletotrichum spp., a phytopathogen that can infect guarana (Paullinia cupana), an important commercial crop in the Brazilian Amazon. We investigated the diversity of endophytic bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of asymptomatic and symptomatic anthracnose guarana plants. The PCR-denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints revealed differences in the structure of the evaluated communities. Detailed analysis of endophytic bacteria composition using culture-dependent and 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed the presence of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria phyla. Firmicutes comprised the majority of isolates in asymptomatic plants (2.40E(-4)). However, cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed differences at the genus level for Neisseria (1.4E(-4)), Haemophilus (2.1E(-3)) and Arsenophonus (3.6E(-5)) in asymptomatic plants, Aquicella (3.5E(-3)) in symptomatic anthracnose plants, and Pseudomonas (1.1E(-3)), which was mainly identified in asymptomatic plants. In cross-comparisons of the endophytic bacterial communities as a whole, symptomatic anthracnose plants contained higher diversity, as reflected in the Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices estimation (P endophytic bacterial communities. These data are in agreement with the NMSD and ANOSIM analysis of DGGE profiles. Our results suggest that anthracnose can restructure endophytic bacterial communities by selecting certain strains in the phyllosphere of P. cupana. The understanding of these interactions is important for the development of strategies of biocontrol for Colletotrichum.

  3. Efeito dos ácidos húmicos na inoculação de bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas em sementes de milho Effect of the humic acids in endophytic diazotrophic bacteria inoculation in corn seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Marluci da Conceição

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os ácidos húmicos podem atuar no aumento da população de bactérias diazotróficas introduzidas no interior da planta e, consequentemente, no incremento dos efeitos benéficos sobre a planta hospedeira. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos ácidos húmicos na inoculação de bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas, em sementes de milho. Foi utilizada a estirpe Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 BR 11175. A inoculação das sementes com as bactérias e a adição de ácidos húmicos foram realizadas pelo recobrimento das sementes de milho UENF 506-8, com a mistura de calcário, meio de cultura semisólido, água e cimentante. As sementes recobertas foram semeadas em vasos Leonard. Aos 40 dias após a semeadura, as plântulas foram coletadas, e foi realizada a contagem de bactérias nas raízes pela técnica do Número Mais Provável. Os resultados deste trabalho mostram que os ácidos húmicos não interferem negativamente no crescimento das bactérias e estimulam a colonização da microbiota nativa. No entanto, nas condições avaliadas, a aplicação conjunta de bactérias + ácidos húmicos não estimulou o crescimento da população de bactérias inoculadas nas plântulas de milho.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the humic acids in the inoculation of endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in corn seeds. It was used the bacteria Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 BR 11175. The inoculation of the seeds with the bacteria and the addition of humic acids were accomplished by the coating of the corn seeds UENF 506-8. The coating was accomplished with a mixture of lime, semi-solid middle culture, water and cement. The seeds covered were sown in Leonard vases. Forty days after sowing the plants were collected and the bacteria couting was accomplished in the roots by the Most probable Number technique. The results showed that the humic acids doesn't interfere negatively in the bacteria growth of and they stimulate the

  4. Effects of growth stage and fulvic acid on the diversity and dynamics of endophytic bacterial community in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejian eYu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to learn the interactions among the endophytic bacteria, the plant growth, the foliar spray of fulvic acid, and the accumulation of steviol glycosides in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the Stevia leaves at different growth stages with or without the fulvic acid treatment; and the diversity of endophytic bacteria in Stevia leaves was estimated by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. As results, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were found to be the dominant phyla despite the growth stages and fulvic acid application. Stevia growth stages strongly regulated composition of endophytic community. The genera Agrobacterium (12.3 % and Erwinia (7.2 % dominated in seedling stage were apparently declined in the vegetable and initial flowering stages, while Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium increased in mature leaves at harvest time, which showed that the mature leaves of Stevia preferred to accumulate some certain endophytic bacteria. Sphingomonas and Methylobacterium constituted an important part of the core endophytic community and were positively correlated with the stevioside content and UGT74G1 gene expression, respectively; while Erwinia, Agrobacterium and Bacillus were negatively correlated with the stevioside accumulation. Fulvic acid treatment accelerated the variation of endophytes along the growth stages.

  5. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li, a well-known medicinal plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H R; Hu, X P; Jiang, C J; Qi, J; Wu, Y C; Li, W; Zeng, Y J; Li, C F; Liu, S X

    2015-11-01

    About 1051 endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves, branches, barks and stems of Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li from four sites in Hainan, China. The fungi were identified as 21 genera by morphology and ITS sequences. One dominant species was Phomopsis quercella in Hainan Tropical Botanical Garden and Bawangling Nature Reserve, with relative frequency of 42·06 and 34·88% respectively. Another dominant species was Colletotrichum boninense in Wuzhishan and Jianfengling Nature Reserves, with relative frequency of 36·84 and 46·97% respectively. Among the selected 21 endophytic fungi, 17 strains (80·95%) had activity against at least one pathogenic bacteria, and 14 strains (66·67%) exhibited activity against at least one fungal pathogens. Neonectria macroconidialis showed strong inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone being 20 mm), Bacillus subtilis (14 mm) and Streptococcus agalactiae (28 mm). Xylaria sp. showed strong inhibition against Escherichia coli (20 mm), Rhizoctonia solani (20 mm) and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (17 mm). Verticillium bulbillosum showed great activity against Strep. agalactiae (32 mm) and Fusarium oxysporum (22 mm). These endophytic fungi showed potentials in medicine development. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants are an important source of novel and viable drugs. Cephalotaxus hainanensis Li is well known for leukaemia treatment and its endophytic fungi were isolated to investigate the diversity and antimicrobial activity. It was found that Ce. hainanensis Li had rich endophytic fungi, and some fungi showed strong antimicrobial activity against certain pathogens. These fungi can be used in medicine development. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. [Isolation of endophytic fungi from medicinal plant Brucea javanica and their microbial inhibition activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zi-Ning; Zhu, Hua; Lai, Kai-Ping; Chen, Long

    2014-04-01

    To isolate and identify endophytic fungi from Brucea javanica, and to detect the antimicrobial activity of these strains. Endophytic fungi were isolated by tissue inoculation culture and identified by conventional morphological characteristic method. Seven kinds of pathogenic fungi and three kinds of bacteria were used as targeting microbes to test microbial inhibition activities by agar plate antagonistic action and modified agar gel diffusion methods, respectively. A total of 83 endophytic fungi strains were isolated from the root, stem, leaf and fruit of Brucea javanica. 34 strains were obtained from the stem, 32 strains were obtained from the leaf, 15 strains were isolated from the root and 2 strains came from the fruit. These 73 strains which had been identified attribute to 5 orders, 6 families and 12 genera. For the isolated strains, 14 strains had antifungal activities against at least one pathogenic fungi, 9 strains showed antibacterial activities against one or more bacteria. Especially, the strain YJ-17 which belonged to Phomopsis genus showed the best inhibitory effect on the targeting microbes. The endophytic fungi from Brucea javanica show diversity and microbial inhibition activity, and are worthy for further study on plant disease controlling.

  7. Isolation of endophytic diazotroph Pantoea agglomerans and nondiazotroph Enterobacter asburiae from sweetpotato stem in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asis, C A; Adachi, K

    2004-01-01

    To isolate and identify diazotrophic endophytes in the stem of Japanese sweetpotato cv. Koganesengan. Surface-sterilized and thinly sliced (1-2 mm) sweetpotato stem samples were incubated in test tubes with semi-solid modified Rennie (MR) medium. The test tubes were assayed for acetylene reduction activity (ARA) 5 days after incubation at 30 degrees C. Twelve isolates were obtained from MR plates inoculated with a loop of semi-solid MR medium from ARA+ tubes. However, ARA test showed that only nine isolates were diazotrophic and three were nondiazotrophic strains. Using the API 20E diagnostic kit, four diazotrophic isolates were identified as strains of Pantoea spp. and five isolates as Klebsiella spp. The nondiazotrophic bacteria were strains of Enterobacter spp. A diazotrophic isolate Pantoea sp. MY1 and nondiazotrophic isolate Enterobacter sp. MY2 were identified to the species level by full sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene. The results showed that MY1 had 99.2% similarity to Pantoea agglomerans ATCC 27155 and MY2 had 99.5% similarity to Enterobacter asburiae ATCC 35953. The stem of sweetpotato cv. Koganesengan was colonized by diazotrophic endophyte P. agglomerans and nondiazotrophic endophyte E. asburiae. This study is an essential step toward understanding the ecology and interaction between endophytic bacteria and sweetpotato.

  8. Identification of a New Uncompetitive Inhibitor of Adenosine Deaminase from Endophyte Aspergillus niger sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Guo; Liu, Jin-Wen; Tang, Peng; Liu, Zi-Yu; Guo, Guang-Jun; Sun, Qiao-Yun; Yin, Jian-Jun

    2018-05-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme widely distributed from bacteria to humans. ADA is known as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders and cancer. Endophytes are endosymbionts, often bacteria or fungi, which live within plant tissues and internal organs or intercellular space. Endophytes have a broad variety of bioactive metabolites that are used for the identification of novel natural compounds. Here, 54 morphologically distinct endophyte strains were isolated from six plants such as Peganum harmala Linn., Rheum officinale Baill., Gentiana macrophylla Pall., Radix stephaniae tetrandrae, Myrrha, and Equisetum hyemale Linn. The isolated strains were used for the search of ADA inhibitors that resulted in the identification of the strain with the highest inhibition activity, Aspergillus niger sp. Four compounds were isolated from this strain using three-step chromatography procedure, and compound 2 was determined as the compound with the highest inhibition activity of ADA. Based on the results of 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopies, compound 2 was identified as 3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl isoxazole. We showed that compound 2 was a new uncompetitive inhibitor of ADA with high cytotoxic effect on HepG2 and SMCC-7721 cells (the IC 50 values were 0.347 and 0.380 mM, respectively). These results suggest that endophyte strains serve as promising sources for the identification of ADA inhibitors, and compound 2 could be an effective drug in the cancer treatment.

  9. Selective isolation and characterization of agriculturally beneficial endopytic bacteria from wild hemp using canola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, I.; Iqrar, I.

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria can provide a useful alternative to synthetic fertilizers to improve plant growth. Wild plants are little investigated as a source of growth promoting endophytic bacteria for commercial application to crops. In present study, endophytic bacteria were isolated from Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) using two different methods to examine their ability to promote canola growth. Besides direct isolation from the roots, endophytic bacteria were also selectively isolated from the rhizosphere of C. sativa using canola. Under gnotobiotic conditions, six bacteria from the selective isolation significantly improved canola root growth, as compared to the two bacteria isolated from direct method. Overall, three isolates performed distinctly well, namely, Pantoea vagans MOSEL-t13, Pseudomonas geniculata MOSEL-tnc1, and Serratia marcescens MOSEL-w2. These bacteria tolerated high salt concentrations and promoted canola growth under salt stress. Further, the isolated bacteria possessed plant growth promoting traits like IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. Most isolates produced plant cell-wall degrading enzymes, cellulase and pectinase. Some isolates were also effective in hindering the growth of two phytopathogenic fungi in dual culture assay, and displayed chitinase and protease activity. Paenibacillus sp. MOSEL-w13 displayed the greatest antifungal activity among all the isolates. Present findings conclude that wild plants can be a good source for isolating beneficial microbes, and validates the employed selective isolation for improved isolation of plant-beneficial endophytic bacteria. (author)

  10. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Renata Assis; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Almeida, Jaqueline Raquel de; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Nave, André; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Azevedo, João Lucio de; Quecine, Maria Carolina

    Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000km 2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10) had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48). We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for endophytic hilar tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pierro, G B; Tartaglia, N; Aresu, L

    2014-01-01

    To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients.......To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients....

  12. Bioactive alkaloids in vertically transmitted fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants form mutualistic symbioses with a variety of microorganisms, including endophytic fungi that live inside the plant and cause no symptoms of infection. Some endophytic fungi form defensive mutualisms based on the production of bioactive metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores in exc...

  13. The isolation and characterization of endophytic microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi were identified by distinguishing between reproductive structures using a microculture technique. While observing diaphanized root fragments, we found arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi in the fine and coarse roots of H. marrubioides. The endophytic CR was more ...

  14. A endophytic fungus, Ramichloridium cerophilum , promotes growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fungal endophyte, Ramichloridium cerophilum, was identified as a Class 2 endophytes species obtained from the leaf of common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L). This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of Chinese cabbage seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized Chinese cabbage ...

  15. Molecular Approaches to Screen Bioactive Compounds from Endophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Vasundhara, M.; Kumar, Anil; Reddy, M. Sudhakara

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are capable of producing plant associated metabolites and their analogs with therapeutic value. In order to identify the potential endophytic isolates producing bioactive compounds, one need to screen all isolated endophytes, which may run into hundreds. Isolation of endophytic fungi is relatively a simple process; but screening of the isolated fungi for required metabolite production is a cumbersome process. Endophytic fungi producing plant associated metabolites may contain...

  16. A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine

    OpenAIRE

    Ganley, Rebecca J.; Brunsfeld, Steven J.; Newcombe, George

    2004-01-01

    The endophytic fungi of woody plants may be diverse as often claimed, and likewise, they may be functionally novel as demonstrated in a few studies. However, the endophyte taxa that are most frequently reported tend to belong to fungal groups composed of morphologically similar endophytes and parasites. Thus, it is plausible that endophytes are known (i.e., described) parasites in a latent phase within the host. If this null hypothesis were true, endophytes would represent neither additional ...

  17. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Korean Ginseng Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Choi, Min-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the diversity of the foliar endophytes of Korean ginseng. Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG) and field-cultivated ginseng (FCG) at 4 sites in Chungbuk Province. A total of 24 species of fungal endophytes were identified using molecular approaches. Additionally, the diversity of these endophytic fungi was compared between MCG and FCG. The major isolated endophytes were Edenia gomezpompae and Gibberella moniliformis in the MCG...

  18. A primary assessment of the endophytic bacterial community in a xerophilous moss (Grimmia montana using molecular method and cultivated isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Lei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the endophytic bacterial community in special moss species is fundamental to understanding the microbial-plant interactions and discovering the bacteria with stresses tolerance. Thus, the community structure of endophytic bacteria in the xerophilous moss Grimmia montana were estimated using a 16S rDNA library and traditional cultivation methods. In total, 212 sequences derived from the 16S rDNA library were used to assess the bacterial diversity. Sequence alignment showed that the endophytes were assigned to 54 genera in 4 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroids. Of them, the dominant phyla were Proteobacteria (45.9% and Firmicutes (27.6%, the most abundant genera included Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacter, Leclercia, Microvirga, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Planococcus, Paenisporosarcina and Planomicrobium. In addition, a total of 14 species belonging to 8 genera in 3 phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria were isolated, Curtobacterium, Massilia, Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas were the dominant genera. Although some of the genera isolated were inconsistent with those detected by molecular method, both of two methods proved that many different endophytic bacteria coexist in G. montana. According to the potential functional analyses of these bacteria, some species are known to have possible beneficial effects on hosts, but whether this is the case in G. montana needs to be confirmed.

  19. Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; White, J.F.; Arnold, A.E.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    All plants in natural ecosystems appear to be symbiotic with fungal endophytes. This highly diverse group of fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities through increasing fitness by conferring abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, increasing biomass and decreasing water consumption, or decreasing fitness by altering resource allocation. Despite more than 100 yr of research resulting in thousands of journal articles, the ecological significance of these fungi remains poorly characterized. Historically, two endophytic groups (clavicipitaceous (C) and nonclavicipitaceous (NC)) have been discriminated based on phylogeny and life history traits. Here, we show that NC-endophytes represent three distinct functional groups based on host colonization and transmission, in planta biodiversity and fitness benefits conferred to hosts. Using this framework, we contrast the life histories, interactions with hosts and potential roles in plant ecophysiology of C- and NC-endophytes, and highlight several key questions for future work in endophyte biology.

  20. A comparative analysis of endophytic bacterial communities associated with hyperaccumulators growing in mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Luo, Shenglian; Chen, Jueliang; Wan, Yong; Li, Xiaojie; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Interactions between endophytic bacterial communities and hyperaccumulators in heavy metal-polluted sites are not fully understood. In this study, the diversity of stem-associated endophytic bacterial communities of two hyperaccumulators (Solanum nigrum L. and Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.) growing in mine soils was investigated using molecular-based methods. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the endophytic bacterial community structures were affected by both the level of heavy metal pollution and the plant species. Heavy metal in contaminated soil determined, to a large extent, the composition of the different endophytic bacterial communities in S. nigrum growing across soil series (five sampling spots, and the concentration of Cd is from 0.2 to 35.5 mg/kg). Detailed analysis of endophytic bacterial populations by cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from the stems of the two plants at the same site revealed a different composition. A total of 51 taxa at the genus level that included α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria (68.8% of the two libraries clones), Bacteroidetes (9.0% of the two libraries clones), Firmicutes (2.0% of the two libraries clones), Actinobacteria (16.4% of the two libraries clones), and unclassified bacteria (3.8% of the two libraries clones) were found in the two clone libraries. The most abundant genus in S. nigrum was Sphingomonas (23.35%), while Pseudomonas prevailed in P. acinosa (21.40%). These results suggest that both heavy metal pollution and plant species contribute to the shaping of the dynamic endophytic bacterial communities associated with stems of hyperaccumulators.

  1. Friend or foe: genetic and functional characterization of plant endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Munder, A; Aravind, R; Eapen, S J; Tümmler, B; Raaijmakers, J M

    2013-03-01

    Endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BP35 was originally isolated from black pepper grown in the rain forest in Kerala, India. Strain PaBP35 was shown to provide significant protection to black pepper against infections by Phytophthora capsici and Radopholus similis. For registration and implementation in disease management programmes, several traits of PaBP35 were investigated including its endophytic behaviour, biocontrol activity, phylogeny and toxicity to mammals. The results showed that PaBP35 efficiently colonized black pepper shoots and displayed a typical spatiotemporal pattern in its endophytic movement with concomitant suppression of Phytophthora rot. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed high populations of PaBP35::gfp2 inside tomato plantlets, supporting its endophytic behaviour in other plant species. Polyphasic approaches to genotype PaBP35, including BOX-PCR, recN sequence analysis, multilocus sequence typing and comparative genome hybridization analysis, revealed its uniqueness among P. aeruginosa strains representing clinical habitats. However, like other P. aeruginosa strains, PaBP35 exhibited resistance to antibiotics, grew at 25-41°C and produced rhamnolipids and phenazines. PaBP35 displayed strong type II secretion effectors-mediated cytotoxicity on mammalian A549 cells. Coupled with pathogenicity in a murine airway infection model, we conclude that this plant endophytic strain is as virulent as clinical P. aeruginosa strains. Safety issues related to the selection of plant endophytic bacteria for crop protection are discussed. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Densidade e diversidade fenotípica de bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas em solos de mineração de bauxita, em reabilitação Density and phenotypic diversity of endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria in soils under rehabilitation after bauxite mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Melloni

    2004-02-01

    diversidade fenotípica no ambiente estudado.Diazotrophic endophytic bacteria enhance plant growth through biological nitrogen fixation and production and release of plant growth regulating substances, which facilitate the revegetation of areas degraded by human activities. However, little is known about populations of such bacteria in soils or plants of mining areas. Aiming to study the effects of different vegetation types and rehabilitation periods on some endophytic diazotrophic bacteria species, soil samples were collected under two environmental conditions ("Campo" and "Serra" in bauxite mined areas undergoing different rehabilitation processes. Population densities were evaluated by the most probable number method in media (NFb, JNFb, and Fam for Azospirillum brasilense and A. lipoferum, Herbaspirillum spp. and A. amazonense, respectively and ranged from 0 to 2.0 x 10(4 bacteria g-1 soil. The vegetation types affected the diazotrophic populations. Highest densities were found in mined soils revegetated with the grass species brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens, rye grass (Lolium multiflorum and capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora. However, these densities are considered low compared to those found in agricultural soils. No relationship was found between the rehabilitation time and population density. Thirty-six cultural phenotypes were found on potato medium among 72 isolates out of all three culture media. At a similarity of at least 63 %, these isolates formed seven great groups, five of which (comprising 62.5 % of the total isolates contained the type strains of Burkholderia brasilensis, Herbaspirillum seropedicae, and Azospirillum spp. (A. brasilense, A. amazonense, A. lipoferum, A. irakense. In spite of its low density, this group of bacteria presented a high phenotypic diversity in the studied environment.

  3. Marine Vibrionaceae as a reservoir for bioprospecting and ecology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giubergia, Sonia

    emerged as an untapped source of biodiversity, and this study investigated the marine bacterial family Vibrionaceae (“vibrios”) for its potential as reservoir of novel biodiversity and of species relevant for the ecology of the marine environment. The characterization of a novel species, Vibrio galatheae...... is required to elucidate whether they are produced to antagonize competitors or to communicate with other colonizers and/or a potential host. In conclusion, this PhD study adds to the knowledge of Vibrionaceae as an untapped reservoir of biodiversity and important players in the ecology of the marine...... environment. Studying microbial eco-physiology is important not only for the development of ecological models, but also as foundation for bioprospecting studies, where this knowledge may be used, for example, to elicit silent biosynthetic gene clusters during natural product discovery....

  4. Medicinal plants with bioprospecting potential used in semi-arid northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartaxo, Sarahbelle Leitte; Souza, Marta Maria de Almeida; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2010-09-15

    Many species of the Caatinga flora are used as medicines in local communities. In recent decades, the knowledge and use of these species has been expanding within this region. We attempted to record the local diversity of medicinal plants used to treat various diseases in a rural community in the state of Ceará, Brazil, and to evaluate the promising medicinal species for bioprospecting studies. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted using free list and semi-structured interviews. To indicate medicinal plants that stood out, the relative importance (RI) of species mentioned by key-informants (20), by general informants in the community (71) and by all informants (91), was analyzed. The group of species that stood out for human body systems based on the informant consensus factor (ICF) was also evaluated. A total of 119 species were recorded that were associated with 92 health problems. Of these species, 100 were cited by key-informants and 86 were cited by general informants. Nineteen species showed a great versatility of use, including the following: Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Bauhinia cheilanta (Bong.) Steud., Hymenaea courbaril L., Mentha x villosa Huds., Ziziphus joazeiro Mart., and Ruta graveolens L. Key-informants cited 33 exclusive species, from which nine presented greater relative importance. General informants cited 19 exclusive species, 2 with greatest relative importance. The therapeutic properties were grouped into 16 body system categories. These grouping categories included skin diseases and diseases of the subcutaneous tissue; sensory system (ears) disorders; respiratory disorders; and injuries, poisoning and other external symptoms. The great diversity of medicinal plants used in the community is evident. Some species had both high relative importance and high consensus factors among the informants; these particular species are recommended for bioprospecting studies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Endophytic bacterial communities in three arctic plants from low arctic fell tundra are cold-adapted and host-plant specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissinen, Riitta M; Männistö, Minna K; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-11-01

    Endophytic bacteria inhabit internal plant tissues, and have been isolated from a large diversity of plants, where they form nonpathogenic relationships with their hosts. This study combines molecular and culture-dependent approaches to characterize endophytic bacterial communities of three arcto-alpine plant species (Oxyria digyna, Diapensia lapponica and Juncus trifidus) sampled in the low Arctic (69°03'N). Analyses of a 325 bacterial endophyte isolates, as well as seven clone libraries, revealed a high diversity. In particular, members of the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria were found. The compositions of the endophytic bacterial communities were dependent on host-plant species as well as on snow cover at sampling sites. Several bacterial genera were found to be associated tightly with specific host-plant species. In particular, Sphingomonas spp. were characteristic for D. lapponica and O. digyna, and their phylogenetic grouping corresponded to the host plant. Most of the endophyte isolates grew well and retained activity at +4 °C, and isolate as well as clone library sequences were often highly similar to sequences from bacteria from cold environments. Taken together, this study shows that arctic plants harbour a diverse community of bacterial endophytes, a portion of which seems to be tightly associated with specific plant species. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Does the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. (pepper-rosmarin) affect its endophytic microbial community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thais Freitas; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-02-07

    Lippia sidoides Cham., also known as pepper-rosmarin, produces an essential oil in its leaves that is currently used by the pharmaceutical, perfumery and cosmetic industries for its antimicrobial and aromatic properties. Because of the antimicrobial compounds (mainly thymol and carvacrol) found in the essential oil, we believe that the endophytic microorganisms found in L. sidoides are selected to live in different parts of the plant. In this study, the endophytic microbial communities from the stems and leaves of four L. sidoides genotypes were determined using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches. In total, 145 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated and further grouped using either ERIC-PCR or BOX-PCR, resulting in 76 groups composed of different genera predominantly belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria. The endophytic microbial diversity was also analyzed by PCR-DGGE using 16S rRNA-based universal and group-specific primers for total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria and 18S rRNA-based primers for fungi. PCR-DGGE profile analysis and principal component analysis showed that the total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and fungi were influenced not only by the location within the plant (leaf vs. stem) but also by the presence of the main components of the L. sidoides essential oil (thymol and/or carvacrol) in the leaves. However, the same could not be observed within the Actinobacteria. The data presented here are the first step to begin shedding light on the impact of the essential oil in the endophytic microorganisms in pepper-rosmarin.

  7. A new biphenyl derivative from the mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis longicolla HL-2232.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Bao; Chen, Guang-Ying; Liu, Rui-Jie; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Song, Xin-Ming; Han, Chang-Ri

    2017-10-01

    A new biphenyl derivative 5,5'-dimethoxybiphenyl-2,2'-diol (1), together with five known compounds (2-5), was isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis longicolla HL-2232. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of 4 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction for the first time. The inhibitory activities of all compounds against two Vibrio bacteria were evaluated.

  8. Illumina-based analysis of endophytic bacterial diversity and space-time dynamics in sugar beet on the north slope of Tianshan mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YingWu; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Jian; Lou, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Plants harbors complex and variable microbial communities. Endophytic bacteria play an important function and potential role more effectively in developing sustainable systems of crop production. To examine how endophytic bacteria in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) vary across both host growth period and location, PCR-based Illumina was applied to revealed the diversity and stability of endophytic bacteria in sugar beet on the north slope of Tianshan mountain, China. A total of 60.84 M effective sequences of 16S rRNA gene V3 region were obtained from sugar beet samples. These sequences revealed huge amount of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in sugar beet, that is, 19-121 OTUs in a beet sample, at 3 % cutoff level and sequencing depth of 30,000 sequences. We identified 13 classes from the resulting 449,585 sequences. Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant class in all sugar beets, followed by Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria. A marked difference in the diversity of endophytic bacteria in sugar beet for different growth periods was evident. The greatest number of OTUs was detected during rossette formation (109 OTUs) and tuber growth (146 OTUs). Endophytic bacteria diversity was reduced during seedling growth (66 OTUs) and sucrose accumulation (95 OTUs). Forty-three OTUs were common to all four periods. There were more tags of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in Shihezi than in Changji. The dynamics of endophytic bacteria communities were influenced by plant genotype and plant growth stage. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first application of PCR-based Illumina pyrosequencing to characterize and compare multiple sugar beet samples.

  9. Fungal endophytes for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Caradus, John R; Johnson, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    This minireview highlights the importance of endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and horticulture production. Fungal endophytes play a key role in habitat adaptation of plants resulting in improved plant performance and plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. They encode a vast variety of novel secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds. In addition to protecting plants against pathogens and pests, selected fungal endophytes have been used to remove animal toxicities associated with fungal endophytes in temperate grasses, to create corn and rice plants that are tolerant to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses, and for improved management of post-harvest control. We argue that practices used in plant breeding, seed treatments and agriculture, often caused by poor knowledge of the importance of fungal endophytes, are among the reasons for the loss of fungal endophyte diversity in domesticated plants and also accounts for the reduced effectiveness of some endophyte strains to confer plant benefits. We provide recommendations on how to mitigate against these negative impacts in modern agriculture. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Biocontrole da mancha-aquosa do melão pelo tratamento de sementes com bactérias epifíticas e endofíticas Biocontrol of bacterial blotch of melon by seed treatment with epiphytic and endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldenir de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias epifíticas e endofíticas (96 isolados e fungos endofíticos (69 isolados foram obtidos de plantas de meloeiro sadios e testados no controle da mancha-aquosa, em condições de casa de vegetação, pelo tratamento de sementes pré-inoculadas com Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli ou pelo tratamento de sementes sadias visando a proteção da planta a posterior inoculação com o patógeno. As sementes de melão foram microbiolizadas por imersão nas suspensões (A570= 0,7, semeadas e avaliadas quanto ao período de incubação (PI, incidência (INC, severidade da doença (SEV e redução da severidade da doença (RSD. Apenas a microbiolização de sementes artificialmente infectadas, utilizando os endofíticos ENM5 (não identificado, ENM9 (Bacillus cereus, ENM13 (Bacillus sp., ENM16 (Bacillus cereus, ENM32 (Bacillus subtilis e ENM43 (Bacillus sp., revelou potencial para o controle da mancha-aquosa. Esses isolados, após o teste de compatibilidade in vitro, foram reavaliados isoladamente e em misturas dois a dois quanto ao PI, INC, SEV e RSD, além do índice de doença (IDO e área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. Todos os tratamentos diferiram significativamente (P= 0,05 da testemunha, com RSD de até 93,6%, destacando-se os isolados ENM13 e ENM9 com PI de 7,5 e 7,25 dias, SEV de 0,22 e 0,22, IDO de 2,59 e 2,59, e AACPD de 0,22 e 0,39, respectivamente. Ensaios foram realizados in vitro para a determinação dos possíveis mecanismos de ação envolvidos no controle biológico. Os isolados ENM13 e ENM9 solubilizaram fosfato, ENM5 apresentou antibiose contra A. avenae subsp. citrulli, ENM43 produziu HCN enquanto ENM16 e ENM32 não apresentaram nenhum dos mecanismos testados.Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria (96 strains and endophytic fungi (69 strains were isolated from symptomless melon plants and tested for control of fruit blotch under greenhouse conditions, by treating seeds previously inoculated with Acidovorax

  11. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic bacterial populations isolated from medical plants of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, Maryam; Amin, Mansour; Hashemi-Shahraki, Abdolrazag; Romani, Bizhan; Yaghoubi, Sajad; Sadeghi, Parisa

    2017-02-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria colonize inside the plant tissues without causing damages to the host plant. Since these microorganisms colonize in the different parts of plants and can stop plant disease, they have been applied as biological agents for controlling human diseases. The aim of this study was molecular identification and measuring the antimicrobial activity of endophytic Actinomycete s isolated from medicinal plants of Iran. The total of 23 medicinal plant samples were collected, sterilized, and crushed. Small pieces of the crushed samples were then cultured directly on three selective media. Grown colonies were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. Each isolate was cultured in TSB medium and then antimicrobial compound was extracted using ethyl acetate and tested against the target bacteria. Sixteen out of 23 bacterial isolates (69%) exhibited antimicrobial activity against the selected pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Our Study showed a high phylogenetic diversity and the potent antibiotic activity of endophytic bacteria in medicinal plants of Iran.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic bacterial populations isolated from medical plants of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, Maryam; Amin, Mansour; Hashemi-Shahraki, Abdolrazag; Romani, Bizhan; Yaghoubi, Sajad; Sadeghi, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Endophytic actinobacteria colonize inside the plant tissues without causing damages to the host plant. Since these microorganisms colonize in the different parts of plants and can stop plant disease, they have been applied as biological agents for controlling human diseases. The aim of this study was molecular identification and measuring the antimicrobial activity of endophytic Actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants of Iran. Materials and Methods: The total of 23 medicinal plant samples were collected, sterilized, and crushed. Small pieces of the crushed samples were then cultured directly on three selective media. Grown colonies were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. Each isolate was cultured in TSB medium and then antimicrobial compound was extracted using ethyl acetate and tested against the target bacteria. Results: Sixteen out of 23 bacterial isolates (69%) exhibited antimicrobial activity against the selected pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: Our Study showed a high phylogenetic diversity and the potent antibiotic activity of endophytic bacteria in medicinal plants of Iran. PMID:28775818

  13. Isolation, taxonomic analysis, and phenotypic characterization of bacterial endophytes present in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, José Luis; Alvarez, Florencia; Príncipe, Analía; Salas, María Eugenia; Lozano, Mauricio Javier; Draghi, Walter Omar; Jofré, Edgardo; Lagares, Antonio

    2018-02-10

    A growing body of evidence has reinforced the central role of microbiomes in the life of sound multicellular eukaryotes, thus more properly described as true holobionts. Though soil was considered a main source of plant microbiomes, seeds have been shown to be endophytically colonized by microorganisms thus representing natural carriers of a selected microbial inoculum to the young seedlings. In this work we have investigated the type of culturable endophytic bacteria that are carried within surface-sterilized alfalfa seeds. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the presence of bacteria that belonged to 40 separate genera, distributed within four taxa (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes). Nonsymbiotic members of the Rhizobiaceae family were also found. The evaluation of nine different in-vitro biochemical activities demonstrated isolates with complex combinations of traits that, upon a Principal-Component-Analysis, could be classified into four phenotypic groups. That isolates from nearly half of the genera identified had been able to colonize alfalfa plants grown under axenic conditions was remarkable. Further analyses should be addressed to investigating the colonization mechanisms of the alfalfa seeds, the evolutionary significance of the alfalfa-seed endophytes, and also how after germination the seed microbiome competes with spermospheric and rhizospheric soil bacteria to colonize newly emerging seedlings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploitation of endophytes for sustainable agricultural intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cocq, Kate; Gurr, Sarah J; Hirsch, Penny R; Mauchline, Tim H

    2017-04-01

    Intensive agriculture, which depends on unsustainable levels of agrochemical inputs, is environmentally harmful, and the expansion of these practices to meet future needs is not economically feasible. Other options should be considered to meet the global food security challenge. The plant microbiome has been linked to improved plant productivity and, in this microreview, we consider the endosphere - a subdivision of the plant microbiome. We suggest a new definition of microbial endophyte status, the need for synergy between fungal and bacterial endophyte research efforts, as well as potential strategies for endophyte application to agricultural systems. © 2016 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY PUBLISHED BY BRITISH SOCIETY FOR PLANT PATHOLOGY AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. Functional role of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in enhancing growth and disease protection of invasive English ivy (Hedera helix L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marcos Antonio; Li, Jai-Yan; Bergen, Marshall; da Silva, Joaquim Manoel; Kowalski, Kurt P.; White, James Francis

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundWe hypothesize that invasive English ivy (Hedera helix) harbors endophytic microbes that promote plant growth and survival. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined endophytic bacteria in English ivy and evaluated effects on the host plant.MethodsEndophytic bacteria were isolated from multiple populations of English ivy in New Brunswick, NJ. Bacteria were identified as a single species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. One strain of B. amyloliquefaciens, strain C6c, was characterized for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis against pathogens. PCR was used to amplify lipopeptide genes and their secretion into culture media was detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Capability to promote growth of English ivy was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The capacity of C6c to protect plants from disease was evaluated by exposing B+ (bacterium inoculated) and B− (non-inoculated) plants to the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria tenuissima.ResultsB. amyloliquefaciens C6c systemically colonized leaves, petioles, and seeds of English ivy. C6c synthesized IAA and inhibited plant pathogens. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis revealed secretion of antifungal lipopeptides surfactin, iturin, bacillomycin, and fengycin. C6c promoted the growth of English ivy in low and high soil nitrogen conditions. This endophytic bacterium efficiently controlled disease caused by Alternaria tenuissima.ConclusionsThis study suggests that B. amyloliquefaciens plays an important role in enhancing growth and disease protection of English ivy.

  16. Implications of endophyte-plant crosstalk in light of quorum responses for plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, Parijat; Kusari, Souvik; Spiteller, Michael; Kayser, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    Quorum sensing, the cell-to-cell communication system mediated by autoinducers, is responsible for regulation of virulence factors, infections, invasion, colonization, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance within bacterial populations. Concomitantly, quorum quenching is a process that involves attenuation of virulence factors by inhibiting or degrading quorum signaling autoinducers. Survival of endophytic microorganisms, commonly known as endophytes, in planta is a continuous mêlée with invading pathogens and pests. In order to survive in their microhabitats inside plants, endophytes have co-evolved to not only utilize an arsenal of biologically active defense compounds but also impede communication between invading pathogens. Such antivirulence strategies prevent pathogens from communicating with or recognizing each other and thus, colonizing plants. The quenching phenomena often involves microbial crosstalk within single or mixed population(s) vis-à-vis gene expression, and production/modulation of quenching enzymes coupled to various antagonistic and synergistic interactions. This concept is particularly interesting because it can be biotechnologically translated in the future to quorum inhibiting antivirulence therapies without triggering resistance in bacteria, which is currently a major problem worldwide that cannot be tackled only with antimicrobial therapies. In this mini-review, we highlight the quorum quenching capacity of endophytes with respect to attenuation of virulence factors and aiding in plant defense response. Further, benefits and potential challenges of using such systems in biotechnology are discussed.

  17. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of endophytic penicillium species isolated from salvadora species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korejo, F.; Shafique, H.A.; Haque, S.E.; Ali, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Salvadora persica and S. S.oleoides are facultative holophytic plants, well known as miswak, are traditionally used to ensure oral hygiene among Muslim people in Asian and African counties. Species of Salvadora have a number of proven pharmacological importance. Besides, terrestrial fungi endophytic fungi are also gaining importance for the isolation of bioactive compounds. In this study 74 samples (root, shoot and leaves) from S. persica and S. oleoides were examined for endophytic fungi, 22 samples showed presence of Penicillium spp., 48 were found positive for aspergilli, whereas 10 samples showed infection of Fusarium solani, 4 were found infected with Macrophomina phaseolina and one with Rhizoctonia solani. Most of the Penicillium isolated were identified as P. restrictum, P. citrinum and P. canescens. In dual culture plate assay out of four Penicillium isolates tested, P. citrinum and one isolate of P. restrictum caused growth inhibition of all four test root rotting fungi, Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. Culture filtrates of Penicillium spp., were also evaluated against four common laboratory bacteria namely Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli and above mentioned root rotting fungi. Culture filtrates of endophytic Penicillium spp., also showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. Secondary metabolites of endophytic Penicillium spp., offer an exciting area of research for the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds. (author)

  18. Priming effects of the endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari on soil mineral N transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Yang, Bo; Peng, Yao; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a crucial nutrient for soil biota, and its cycling is determined by the organic carbon decomposing process. Some endophytic fungi are latent saprotrophs that trigger their saprotrophic metabolism to promote litter organic matter cycling as soon as the host tissue senesces or dies. However, the effects of endophytic fungi on litter and soil N dynamics in vitro have rarely been investigated. In this study, we investigated N dynamics (total and mineral N) in both litter and soil in incubations of a pure culture of an endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari with litter and following soil burial of the litter. Soil enzymes and microbial communities participating in the N transformations were also investigated. A pure culture of P. liquidambari released litter NH (4) (+) -N in the initial stages (10 days) of the incubation. However, following soil burial, the presence of both P. liquidambari and soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) resulted in an increase in soil NO (3) (-) -N. These results indicate that the endophytic fungus P. liquidambari in vitro stimulates organic mineralization and promote NH (4) (+) -N release. Such effects triggered soil AOB-driven nitrification process.

  19. Effects of fungicides on endophytic fungi and photosynthesis in seedlings of a tropical tree, guarea guidonia (meliaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa Gaitan, Miguel A; Wen, Shiyun; Fetcher, Ned; Bayman, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that live within healthy plant tissues, and include fungi and bacteria. They can be mutualists, comensals or even latent pathogens. Presence of these endosymbionts may affect host physiology, for example by consuming products of photosynthesis (endophytes are heterotrophs) or producing toxic metabolites. In this work two fungicides were used to eliminate fungal endophytes from seedlings of guarea guidonia. light saturated photosynthesis (Amax) was measured in endophytefree plants and compared with control plants. Each fungicide killed different fungal endosymbionts. phomopsis was more susceptible to benomyl while colletotrichum was more susceptible to propiconazole. Although suggestive, values of Amax were not significantly different for each treatment compared with control plants. No prediction can be made at this point about the final outcome of a given plantendophytic fungi interaction

  20. Biocontrol of verticillium wilt and colonization of cotton plants by an endophytic bacterial isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C-H; Shi, L; Han, Q; Hu, H-L; Zhao, M-W; Tang, C-M; Li, S-P

    2012-09-01

    To explore biocontrol potential of 39 DAEB isolates (doubly antagonistic towards both Verticillium dahliae Kleb and Fusarium oxysporum) against verticillium wilt of cotton and to elucidate colonization and category characteristics of an endophytic bacterium with significant biocontrol activity. Thirty-nine antagonistic endophytic bacteria strains were tested for their ability to control verticillium wilt in cotton plants caused by a defoliating pathotype of V. dahliae 107 in cotton under controlled conditions. The biocontrol trial revealed that an endophytic bacterium, designated HA02, showed a significant biocontrol activity to V. dahliae 107. After cotton seedlings were inoculated with a gfp gene-tagged HA02 (HA02-gfp), HA02-gfp populations were higher in the root than in the stem; in addition, the HA02-gfp was distributed in the maturation zone of cotton root. Furthermore, HA02-gfp also colonized seedlings of maize, rape and soybean after the bacteria inoculation. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rDNA sequences combined with morphological, physiological and identification showed that the bacterium belongs to the Enterobacter genus. Our results showed that only 1 of 39 DAEB isolates demonstrated more efficient biocontrol potential towards V. dahliae 107 in greenhouse and field trials. HA02-gfp mainly colonized cotton in roots. In addition, we quantitatively observed HA02 colonization in other hosts. HA02 belongs to the Enterobacter genus. This is the first study on biocontrol to defoliating pathotype of V. dahliae Kleb by endophytic bacteria. The HA02 showed effective biocontrol to V. dahliae 107 in greenhouse and field trials. Furthermore, we assessed the quantitative and qualitative colonization of HA02 in cotton seedlings. Our study provides basic information to further explore managing strategies to control this critical disease. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  2. The role of endophyte in determining swainsonine concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locoweeds contain the toxic indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine, which is produced by the endophytic fungi Undifilum species. Previously we reported that swainsonine concentrations differ between populations of Oxytropis sericea. We hypothesized that the genotype of the plant, endophyte, or an inter...

  3. (MDR) Bacterial Activity of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MDR) bacterial potential of culturable endophytes from A. corniculatum in Beibu Gulf, China. Methods: The plant parts were collected from healthy-looking A. corniculatum. The endophytes were isolated and identified by colonial morphology and ...

  4. Illumina-based analysis of endophytic bacterial diversity of tree peony (Paeonia Sect. Moutan roots and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixian Yang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Diverse communities of bacteria inhabit plant tissues and those bacteria play a crucial role for plant health and growth. Tree peony (Paeonia Sect. Moutan is known for its excellent ornamental and medicinal values as Chinese traditional plant, but little is known about its associated bacterial community under natural conditions. To examine how endophytic bacteria in tree peony vary across tissues and cultivars, PCR-based Illumina was applied to reveal the diversity of endophytic bacteria in tree peony. A total of 149,842 sequences and 21,463 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained. The OTU abundance of roots was higher than leaves across other three cultivars except for ‘Kinkaku’ and ‘Luoyanghong’. The community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria in all samples. Endophytic bacteria community structures had changed in leaves and roots. Sequences of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae were prevalent in root samples, whereas Succinivibrio and Acinetobacter were the dominant genus in leaf samples. Otherwise, the distribution of each dominant genus among the 5 cultivars was either varied. These findings suggested that both plant genotype and tissues contribute to the shaping of the bacterial communities associated with tree peony.

  5. Illumina-based analysis of endophytic bacterial diversity of tree peony (Paeonia Sect. Moutan) roots and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruixian; Liu, Ping; Ye, Wenyu

    Diverse communities of bacteria inhabit plant tissues and those bacteria play a crucial role for plant health and growth. Tree peony (Paeonia Sect. Moutan) is known for its excellent ornamental and medicinal values as Chinese traditional plant, but little is known about its associated bacterial community under natural conditions. To examine how endophytic bacteria in tree peony vary across tissues and cultivars, PCR-based Illumina was applied to reveal the diversity of endophytic bacteria in tree peony. A total of 149,842 sequences and 21,463 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained. The OTU abundance of roots was higher than leaves across other three cultivars except for 'Kinkaku' and 'Luoyanghong'. The community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria) in all samples. Endophytic bacteria community structures had changed in leaves and roots. Sequences of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae were prevalent in root samples, whereas Succinivibrio and Acinetobacter were the dominant genus in leaf samples. Otherwise, the distribution of each dominant genus among the 5 cultivars was either varied. These findings suggested that both plant genotype and tissues contribute to the shaping of the bacterial communities associated with tree peony. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from conifer needles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi, in particular endophytes are a promising source of new antimicrobial compounds. The aim of this study was to screen the extracts of conifer needle fungal endophytes for antimicrobial activity and taxonomically place fungi producing ones to determined active metabolites. Seventy three strains of endophytic fungi ...

  7. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Hawthorne, J R; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioprospective of Sorbus aucuparia leaf extract in development of silver and gold nanocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shashi Prabha; Lahtinen, Manu; Särkkä, Heikki; Sillanpää, Mika

    2010-10-01

    At the present time the bioprospective field is a dynamic area of research. The rapid biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles without using toxic chemicals is reported here. Sorbus aucuparia is omnipresent in Europe. The aqueous leaves extract of the plant were used as reducing agent for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from their salt solutions. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical, triangular and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 16 and 18nm for silver and gold, respectively. Different extract quantities, metal concentrations, temperatures and contact times were investigated to find their effect on nanoparticles synthesis. The resulting silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The concentration of residual silver and gold ions was measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. Silver and gold nanoparticle suspensions gave maximum UV-vis absorbance at 446 and 560nm, respectively. The XRD data illustrated characteristic diffraction patterns of the elemental silver and gold phases and the average size of the crystallites were estimated from the peak profiles by Scherrer method. FTIR spectra of the leaf extract before and after the development of nanoparticles were determined to allow identification of possible functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles.

  9. Bioactive alkaloids of frog skin: combinatorial bioprospecting reveals that pumiliotoxins have an arthropod source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, John W; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Wilham, Jason; Garraffo, H Martin; Spande, Thomas F; Espinosa, Alex; Donnelly, Maureen A

    2002-10-29

    Nearly 500 alkaloids have been detected in skin extracts from frogs of the family Dendrobatidae. All seem to have been sequestered unchanged into skin glands from alkaloid-containing arthropods. Ants, beetles, and millipedes seem to be the source of decahydroquinolines, certain izidines, coccinellines, and spiropyrrolizidine oximes. But the dietary source for a major group of frog-skin alkaloids, namely the pumiliotoxins (PTXs), alloPTXs, and homoPTXs, remained a mystery. In hopes of revealing an arthropod source for the PTX group, small arthropods were collected from eight different sites on a Panamanian island, where the dendrobatid frog (Dendrobates pumilio) was known to contain high levels of two PTXs. The mixed arthropod collections from several sites, each representing up to 20 arthropod taxa, contained PTX 307A and/or alloPTX 323B. In addition, the mixed arthropod collections from several sites contained a 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine (205A or 235B), representing another class of alkaloids previously unknown from an arthropod. An ant alkaloid, decahydroquinoline 195A, was detected in the mixed arthropod collections from several sites. Thus, "combinatorial bioprospecting" demonstrates that further collection and analysis of individual taxa of leaf-litter arthropods should reveal the taxa from which PTXs, alloPTXs, and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines are derived.

  10. Inducible secretion of phytate-degrading enzymes from bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 320 bacteria were isolated from the soil (Rhizosphere, endophyte, flowers and leaves) of Rosa damascena cv. Taifi and screened for phytase activity. Phytase activity was checked for 24 isolates in Bacillus broth media supplemented with and without rice bran. Twelve (12) isolates were found with detectable ...

  11. Genome features of the endophytic actinobacterium Micromonospora lupini strain Lupac 08: on the process of adaptation to an endophytic life style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E Trujillo

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms live inside plants for at least part of their life cycle. According to their life strategies, bacterial endophytes can be classified as "obligate" or "facultative". Reports that members of the genus Micromonospora, Gram-positive Actinobacteria, are normal occupants of nitrogen-fixing nodules has opened up a question as to what is the ecological role of these bacteria in interactions with nitrogen-fixing plants and whether it is in a process of adaptation from a terrestrial to a facultative endophytic life. The aim of this work was to analyse the genome sequence of Micromonospora lupini Lupac 08 isolated from a nitrogen fixing nodule of the legume Lupinus angustifolius and to identify genomic traits that provide information on this new plant-microbe interaction. The genome of M. lupini contains a diverse array of genes that may help its survival in soil or in plant tissues, while the high number of putative plant degrading enzyme genes identified is quite surprising since this bacterium is not considered a plant-pathogen. Functionality of several of these genes was demonstrated in vitro, showing that Lupac 08 degraded carboxymethylcellulose, starch and xylan. In addition, the production of chitinases detected in vitro, indicates that strain Lupac 08 may also confer protection to the plant. Micromonospora species appears as new candidates in plant-microbe interactions with an important potential in agriculture and biotechnology. The current data strongly suggests that a beneficial effect is produced on the host-plant.

  12. Genome features of the endophytic actinobacterium Micromonospora lupini strain Lupac 08: on the process of adaptation to an endophytic life style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Martha E; Bacigalupe, Rodrigo; Pujic, Petar; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Benito, Patricia; Riesco, Raúl; Médigue, Claudine; Normand, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms live inside plants for at least part of their life cycle. According to their life strategies, bacterial endophytes can be classified as "obligate" or "facultative". Reports that members of the genus Micromonospora, Gram-positive Actinobacteria, are normal occupants of nitrogen-fixing nodules has opened up a question as to what is the ecological role of these bacteria in interactions with nitrogen-fixing plants and whether it is in a process of adaptation from a terrestrial to a facultative endophytic life. The aim of this work was to analyse the genome sequence of Micromonospora lupini Lupac 08 isolated from a nitrogen fixing nodule of the legume Lupinus angustifolius and to identify genomic traits that provide information on this new plant-microbe interaction. The genome of M. lupini contains a diverse array of genes that may help its survival in soil or in plant tissues, while the high number of putative plant degrading enzyme genes identified is quite surprising since this bacterium is not considered a plant-pathogen. Functionality of several of these genes was demonstrated in vitro, showing that Lupac 08 degraded carboxymethylcellulose, starch and xylan. In addition, the production of chitinases detected in vitro, indicates that strain Lupac 08 may also confer protection to the plant. Micromonospora species appears as new candidates in plant-microbe interactions with an important potential in agriculture and biotechnology. The current data strongly suggests that a beneficial effect is produced on the host-plant.

  13. Isolation and characterization of culturable endophytic actinobacteria associated with Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Huang, Hai-Yu; Qin, Sheng; Zhu, Wen-Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun; Strobel, Gary

    2012-03-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria isolated from Artemisia annua were characterized and evaluated for their bioactivities. A total of 228 isolates representing at least 19 different genera of actinobacteria were obtained and several of them seemed to be novel taxa. An evaluation of antimicrobial activity showed that more isolates possessed activity towards plant pathogens than activity against other pathogenic bacteria or yeasts. High frequencies of PCR amplification were obtained for type I polyketide synthases (PKS-I, 21.1%), type II polyketide synthases (PKS-II, 45.2%) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS, 32.5%). The results of herbicidal activity screening indicated that 19 out of 117 samples of fermentation broths completely inhibited the germination of Echinochloa crusgalli. This study indicated that endophytic actinobacteria associated with A. annua are abundant and have potentially beneficial and diverse bioactivities which should be pursued for their biotechnical promise.

  14. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices.

  15. Diversity of endophytic fungal and bacterial communities in Ilex paraguariensis grown under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Laura; Collavino, Mónica Mariana; Sansberro, Pedro Alfonso; Mroginski, Luis Amado; Galdeano, Ernestina

    2016-04-01

    The composition and diversity of the endophytic community associated with yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) was investigated using culture-depending methods. Fungi were identified based on their micromorphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis; for bacteria 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used. Fungal and bacterial diversity did not show significant differences between organ age. The highest fungal diversity was registered during fall season and the lowest in winter. Bacterial diversity was higher in stems and increased from summer to winter, in contrast with leaves, which decreased. The most frequently isolated fungus was Fusarium, followed by Colletotrichum; they were both present in all the sampling seasons and organ types assayed. Actinobacteria represented 57.5 % of all bacterial isolates. The most dominant bacterial taxa were Curtobacterium and Microbacterium. Other bacteria frequently found were Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, Herbiconiux and Bacillus. Nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization activity, ACC deaminase production and antagonism against plant fungal pathogens were assayed in endophytic bacterial strains. In the case of fungi, strains of Trichoderma, Penicillium and Aspergillus were assayed for antagonism against pathogenic Fusarium sp. All microbial isolates assayed showed at least one growth promoting activity. Strains of Bacillus, Pantoea, Curtobacterium, Methylobacterium, Brevundimonas and Paenibacillus had at least two growth-promoting activities, and Bacillus, Paenibacillus and the three endophytic fungi showed high antagonistic activity against Fusarium sp. In this work we have made a wide study of the culturable endophytic community within yerba mate plants and found that several microbial isolates could be considered as potential inoculants useful for improving yerba mate production.

  16. Structural interaction between GFP-labeled diazotrophic endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae RAM10 and pineapple plantlets 'Vitória'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The events involved in the structural interaction between the diazotrophic endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae, strain RAM10, labeled with green fluorescent protein, and pineapple plantlets 'Vitória' were evaluated by means of bright-field and fluorescence microscopy, combined with scanning electron microscopy for 28 days after inoculation. After 6 hours of inoculation, H. seropedicae was already adhered to the roots, colonizing mainly root hair surface and bases, followed by epidermal cell wall junctions. Bacteria adherence in the initial periods occurred mainly in the form of solitary cells and small aggregates with pleomorphic cells. Bacteria infection of root tissue occurred through the cavities caused by the disruption of epidermal cells during the emergence of lateral roots and the endophytic establishment by the colonization of intercellular spaces of the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, within 1 day after inoculation the bacteria were colonizing the shoots. In this region, the preferred sites of epiphytic colonization were epidermal cell wall junctions, peltate scutiform trichomes and non-glandular trichomes. Subsequently, the bacteria occupied the outer periclinal walls of epidermal cells and stomata. The penetration into the shoot occurred passively through stoma aperture followed by the endophytic establishment on the substomatal chambers and spread to the intercellular spaces of spongy chlorenchyma. After 21 days of inoculation, bacterial biofilm were seen at the root hair base and on epidermal cell wall surface of root and leaf, also confirming the epiphytic nature of H. seropedicae.

  17. Effect of bacterial inoculation, plant genotype and developmental stage on root-associated and endophytic bacterial communities in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreote, F.D.; Rocha, da U.N.; Araujo, W.L.; Azevedo, J.L.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial bacteria interact with plants by colonizing the rhizosphere and roots followed by further spread through the inner tissues, resulting in endophytic colonization. The major factors contributing to these interactions are not always well understood for most bacterial and plant species. It is

  18. Inner Plant Values : Diversity, Colonization and Benefits from Endophytic Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Hongwei; Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Crawford, Mark; Singh, Eugenie; Dennis, Paul G.; Pieterse, Corné M. J.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most exciting scientific advances in recent decades has been the realization that the diverse and immensely active microbial communities are not only ‘passengers’ with plants, but instead play an important role in plant growth, development and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. A

  19. Endophytic degrader bacteria for improving phytoremediation of organic xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, U.; Trapp, Stefan; Lelie, D, van der

    2003-01-01

    , and confirmed the somewhat daring project hypothesis, for which there had been only scarce evidence at the time the project was conceived. As an unexpected result of the project, now we better understand the limitations of phytoremediation: ■ TBT does not get taken up by plants, ■ TCE and toluene do not get...

  20. Insect Pathogenic Fungi as Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonjely, S; Barelli, L; Bidochka, M J

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore some of the evolutionary, ecological, molecular genetics, and applied aspects of a subset of insect pathogenic fungi that also have a lifestyle as endophytes and we term endophytic insect pathogenic fungi (EIPF). We focus particularly on Metarhizium spp. and Beauveria bassiana as EIPF. The discussion of the evolution of EIPF challenges a view that these fungi were first and foremost insect pathogens that eventually evolved to colonize plants. Phylogenetic evidence shows that the lineages of EIPF are most closely related to grass endophytes that diverged c. 100MYA. We discuss the relationship between genes involved in "insect pathogenesis" and those involved in "endophytism" and provide examples of genes with potential importance in lifestyle transitions toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been coopted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. The interactions of EIPF with their host plants are discussed in some detail. The genetic basis for rhizospheric competence, plant communication, and nutrient exchange is examined and we highlight, with examples, the benefits of EIPF to plants, and the potential reservoir of secondary metabolites hidden within these beneficial symbioses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Root-associated bacterial endophytes from Ralstonia solanacearum resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars and their pathogen antagonistic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi eUpreti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess if the root-associated native bacterial endophytes in tomato have any bearing in governing the host resistance to the wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Internal colonization of roots by bacterial endophytes was confirmed through confocal imaging after SYTO-9 staining. Endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilized roots of 4-week old seedlings of known wilt resistant (R tomato cultivar Arka Abha and susceptible (S cv. Arka Vikas on nutrient agar after plating the tissue homogenate. Arka Abha displayed more diversity with nine distinct organisms while Arka Vikas showed five species with two common organisms (Pseudomonas oleovorans and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Screening for general indicators of biocontrol potential showed more isolates from Arka Abha positive for siderophore, HCN and antibiotic biosynthesis than from Arka Vikas. Direct challenge against the pathogen indicated strong antagonism by three Arka Abha isolates (P. oleovorans, Pantoea ananatis and Enterobacter cloacae and moderate activity by three others, while just one isolate from Arka Vikas (P. oleovorans showed strong antagonism. Validation for the presence of bacterial endophytes on three R cultivars (Arka Alok, Arka Ananya, Arka Samrat showed 8-9 antagonistic bacteria in them in comparison with four species in the three S cultivars (Arka Ashish, Arka Meghali, Arka Saurabhav. Altogether 34 isolates belonging to five classes, 16 genera and 27 species with 23 of them exhibiting pathogen antagonism were isolated from the four R cultivars against 17 isolates under three classes, seven genera and 13 species from the four S cultivars with eight isolates displaying antagonistic effects. The prevalence of higher endophytic bacterial diversity and more antagonistic organisms associated with the seedling roots of resistant cultivars over susceptible genotypes suggest a possible role by the root-associated endophytes in natural defense against the

  2. Diversity, molecular phylogeny, and bioactive potential of fungal endophytes associated with the Himalayan blue pine (Pinus wallichiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Masroor; Rajput, Roopali; Abdin, Malik Z; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the diversity of fungal endophytes associated with Pinus wallichiana from the Western Himalayas, with emphasis on comparison of endophytic communities harbored by the stem and needle tissues of the host and their antimicrobial potential. A total number of 130 isolates, comprising of 38 different genera, were recovered from 210 fragments of the plant. Among the isolated fungi, only a single isolate, Tritirachium oryzae, belonged to the Phylum Basidiomycota whereas the rest belonged to Ascomycota. Dothideomycetes was the dominant class with the highest isolation frequency of 49.2 %. The most frequent colonizers of the host were Alternaria spp., Pestalotiopsis spp., Preussia spp., and Sclerostagonospora spp. The diversity and species richness were higher in needle tissues than in the stems. Antimicrobial activities were displayed by extracts from a total number of 22 endophytes against one or more pathogens. Endophytes designated as P1N13 (Coniothyrium carteri), P2N8 (Thielavia subthermophila), P4S6b (Truncatella betulae), P7N10 (Cochliobolus australiensis), and P8S4 (Tritirachium oryzae) were highly active against Candida albicans. Broad spectrum antimicrobial activities were obtained with the extracts of P8-S4 (Tritirachium oryzae) and P5-N26 (Coniochaeta gigantospora) that were potentially active against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as the fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. The most prominent antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens was shown by P8-S4 (Tritirachium oryzae), P5-N31a (Truncatella spadicea), and P5-N20 (Fusarium larvarum). Our findings indicate that Pinus wallichiana harbors a rich endophytic fungal community with potential antimicrobial activities. Further studies are needed to understand the ecology and evolutionary context of the associations between the Himalayan pine and its endophytes.

  3. Endophytic fungi: resource for gibberellins and crop abiotic stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-03-01

    The beneficial effects of endophytes on plant growth are important for agricultural ecosystems because they reduce the need for fertilizers and decrease soil and water pollution while compensating for environmental perturbations. Endophytic fungi are a novel source of bioactive secondary metabolites; moreover, recently they have been found to produce physiologically active gibberellins as well. The symbiosis of gibberellins producing endophytic fungi with crops can be a promising strategy to overcome the adverse effects of abiotic stresses. The association of such endophytes has not only increased plant biomass but also ameliorated plant-growth during extreme environmental conditions. Endophytic fungi represent a trove of unexplored biodiversity and a frequently overlooked component of crop ecology. The present review describes the role of gibberellins producing endophytic fungi, suggests putative mechanisms involved in plant endophyte stress interactions and discusses future prospects in this field.

  4. Phytohormones in plant-endophyte interactions: investigating the role of these compounds in the recruitment of tomato root fungal endophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzotti, Andrea; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Collinge, David B.

    Endophytes are microbes capable of colonizing the inner part of different plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. In some cases, they have beneficial effects for the host plant. The role of endophytes in biological control of plant pathogens, in induction of plant abiotic stress tolerance...... and in enhancement of plant growth has strongly increased the focus on the isolation of novel endophytic species. In order to implement the use of specific endophytes in agriculture, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in the plant-endophyte interactions. Phytohormones play a significant role...... in this interaction, but little is known about the specific way by which they influence the recruitment and the colonization of the host tissues. The aim of the current project is to go deeper into the role of these signalling compounds in plant-endophyte interactions. The isolation of endophytic fungi from tomato...

  5. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  6. Bioaugmentation with endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii enhances metal rhizoaccumulation in host Sedum plumbizincicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eMa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of hyperaccumulator–endophyte symbiotic systems is a potential approach to improve phytoremediation efficiency, since some beneficial endophytic bacteria are able to detoxify heavy metals, alter metal solubility in soil and facilitate plant growth. The objective of this study was to isolate multi-metal resistant and plant beneficial endophytic bacteria and to evaluate their role in enhancing plant growth and metal accumulation/translocation. The metal resistant endophytic bacterial strain E6S was isolated from stems of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator plant Sedum plumbizincicola growing in metalliferous mine soils using Dworkin and Foster salts minimal agar medium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC as the sole nitrogen source, and identified as homologous to Achromobacter piechaudii based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, partial 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. Strain E6S showed high level of resistance to various metals (Cd, Zn and Pb. Besides utilizing ACC, strain E6S exhibited plant beneficial traits, such as solubilization of phosphate and production of indole-3-acetic acid. Inoculation with E6S significantly increased the bioavailability of Cd, Zn and Pb in soil. In addition, bacterial cells bound considerable amounts of metal ions in the following order: Zn ˃ Cd ˃ Pb. Inoculation of E6S significantly stimulated plant biomass, uptake and bioaccumulation of Cd, Zn and Pb. However, E6S greatly reduced the root to shoot translocation of Cd and Zn, indicating that bacterial inoculation assisted the host plant to uptake and store heavy metals in its root system. Inoculation with the endophytic bacterium E6S homologous to A. piechaudii can improve phytostabilization of metalliferous soils due to its effective ability to enhance in situ metal rhizoaccumulation in plants.

  7. Soil Inoculation with Bacillus spp. Modifies Root Endophytic Bacterial Diversity, Evenness, and Community Composition in a Context-Specific Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhave, Kiran R; Devlin, Paul F; Ebertz, Andreas; Ross, Arabella; Gange, Alan C

    2018-03-06

    The use of microbial inoculants containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as a promoter of plant fitness and health is becoming increasingly popular in agriculture. However, whether and how these bacteria affect indigenous bacterial communities in field conditions is sparsely explored. We studied the effects of seed inoculation and field soil application of ubiquitous soil bacteria, B. cereus, B. subtilis, and B. amyloliquefaciens, on the diversity, evenness, and richness of endophytic bacterial communities in sprouting broccoli roots using high-throughput metagenome sequencing. The multiple operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to different bacterial taxa clearly showed changes in ecological measures and relative abundances of certain taxa between control and treatment groups. The Bacillus inocula, themselves, failed to flourish as endophytes; however, the effects they extended on the endophytic bacterial community were both generic as well as species specific. In each case, Pseudomonadales, Rhizobiales, Xanthomonadales, and Burkholderiales were the most abundant orders in the endosphere. B. amyloliquefaciens drastically reduced the most abundant genus, Pseudomonas, while increasing the relative abundance of a range of minor taxa. The Shannon-Weiner diversity and Buzas and Gibson's evenness indices showed that the diversity and evenness were increased in both B. amyloliquefaciens and mixed treated plants. The UniFrac measurement of beta diversity showed that all treatments affected the specific composition of the endophytic bacterial community, with an apparent interspecies competition in the mixed treatment. Taken together, Bacillus species influenced the diversity, evenness, and composition of the endophytic bacterial community. However, these effects varied between different Bacillus spp. in a context-specific manner.

  8. Molecular Approaches to Screen Bioactive Compounds from Endophytic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasundhara, M; Kumar, Anil; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are capable of producing plant associated metabolites and their analogs with therapeutic value. In order to identify the potential endophytic isolates producing bioactive compounds, one need to screen all isolated endophytes, which may run into hundreds. Isolation of endophytic fungi is relatively a simple process; but screening of the isolated fungi for required metabolite production is a cumbersome process. Endophytic fungi producing plant associated metabolites may contain genes involved in the entire biosynthetic pathway(s). Therefore, ascertaining the presence of key enzymes of a particular biosynthetic pathway could serve as a molecular marker for screening of these endophytes to produce that metabolite. In absence of entire biosynthetic pathways in endophytic fungi, plant genes associated with that metabolic pathway could serve as markers. This review focuses on the impact of molecular approaches to screen the endophytic fungi for the production of bioactive compounds. An attempt has been made on screening of anticancer compounds like taxol (paclitaxel), podophyllotoxin, and camptothecin using molecular markers. The advantages of molecular approaches over conventional methods to screen endophytic fungi and also identification of endophytic fungi are discussed.

  9. Molecular approaches to screen bioactive compounds from endophytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vasundhara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are capable of producing plant associated metabolites and their analogs with therapeutic value. In order to identify the potential endophytic isolates producing bioactive compounds, one need to screen all isolated endophytes, which may run into hundreds. Isolation of endophytic fungi is relatively a simple process; but screening of the isolated fungi for required metabolite production is a cumbersome process. Endophytic fungi producing plant associated metabolites may contain genes involved in the entire biosynthetic pathway(s. Therefore, ascertaining the presence of key enzymes of a particular biosynthetic pathway could serve as a molecular marker for screening of these endophytes to produce that metabolite. In absence of entire biosynthetic pathways in endophytic fungi, plant genes associated with that metabolic pathway could serve as markers. This review focuses on the impact of molecular approaches to screen the endophytic fungi for the production of bioactive compounds. An attempt has been made on screening of anticancer compounds like taxol (paclitaxel, podophyllotoxin and camptothecin using molecular markers. The advantages of molecular approaches over conventional methods to screen endophytic fungi and also identification of endophytic fungi are also discussed.

  10. Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi from leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller (Fabaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Irailton Prazeres; da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; de Araújo, Janete Magali; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller, a medicinal plant found in Brazil which is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. Among 65 endophytic fungi isolated, 18 fungi showed activity against at least one tested microorganism in preliminary screening, and the best results were obtained with Nigrospora sphaerica (URM-6060) and Pestalotiopsis maculans (URM-6061). After fermentation in liquid media and in semisolid media, only N. sphaerica demonstrated antibacterial activity (in Potato Dextrose Broth-PDB and in semisolid rice culture medium). In the next step, a methanolic extract from rice culture medium (NsME) and an ethyl acetate extract (NsEAE) from the supernatant of PDB were prepared and both exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The best result was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 1.56 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively, for NsME and MIC and MBC values of 0.39 mg/mL and 3.12 mg/mL, respectively, for NsEAE. This study is the first report about the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi residing in I. suffruticosa leaves, in which the fungus N. sphaerica demonstrated the ability to produce bioactive agents with pharmaceutical potential, and may provide a new lead in the pursuit of new biological sources of drug candidates. PMID:25999918

  11. Production of proteasome inhibitor syringolin A by the endophyte Rhizobium sp. strain AP16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, Alexey; Bigler, Laurent; Dudler, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Syringolin A, the product of a mixed nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthase encoded by the syl gene cluster, is a virulence factor secreted by certain Pseudomonas syringae strains. Together with the glidobactins produced by a number of beta- and gammaproteobacterial human and animal pathogens, it belongs to the syrbactins, a structurally novel class of proteasome inhibitors. In plants, proteasome inhibition by syringolin A-producing P. syringae strains leads to the suppression of host defense pathways requiring proteasome activity, such as the ones mediated by salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Here we report the discovery of a syl-like gene cluster with some unusual features in the alphaproteobacterial endophyte Rhizobium sp. strain AP16 that encodes a putative syringolin A-like synthetase whose components share 55% to 65% sequence identity (72% to 79% similarity) at the amino acid level. As revealed by average nucleotide identity (ANI) calculations, this strain likely belongs to the same species as biocontrol strain R. rhizogenes K84 (formely known as Agrobacterium radiobacter K84), which, however, carries a nonfunctional deletion remnant of the syl-like gene cluster. Here we present a functional analysis of the syl-like gene cluster of Rhizobium sp. strain AP16 and demonstrate that this endophyte synthesizes syringolin A and some related minor variants, suggesting that proteasome inhibition by syrbactin production can be important not only for pathogens but also for endophytic bacteria in the interaction with their hosts. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Isolation and molecular identification of endophytic diazotrophs from seeds and stems of three cereal crops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Liu

    Full Text Available Ten strains of endophytic diazotroph were isolated and identified from the plants collected from three different agricultural crop species, wheat, rice and maize, using the nitrogen-free selective isolation conditions. The nitrogen-fixing ability of endophytic diazotroph was verified by the nifH-PCR assay that showed positive nitrogen fixation ability. These identified strains were classified by 879F-RAPD and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. RAPD analyses revealed that the 10 strains were clustered into seven 879F-RAPD groups, suggesting a clonal origin. 16S rRNA sequencing analyses allowed the assignment of the 10 strains to known groups of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, including organisms from the genera Paenibacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Pantoea. These representative genus are not endophytic diazotrophs in the conventional sense. They may have obtained nitrogen fixation ability through lateral gene transfer, however, the evolutionary forces of lateral gene transfer are not well known. Molecular identification results from 16S rRNA analyses were also confirmed by morphological and biochemical data. The test strains SH6A and MZB showed positive effect on the growth of plants.

  13. Characterization of New Bioactive Enzyme Inhibitors from Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Shahzad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria are known to produce a wide array of bioactive secondary metabolites with beneficial effects on human health. In the current study, a novel endophytic bacterial strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1, was isolated from the seeds of Oryza sativa. Initially, the crude extract of RWL-1 was assessed for potential biological effects of enzyme inhibition and cytotoxicity and was found to exhibit a broad spectrum inhibition for α-glucosidase (37 ± 0.09% and urease (49.4 ± 0.53%. The screening results were followed by bioassay-guided isolation of secondary metabolite(s from RWL-1. Extensive chromatographic and spectrophotometry analyses revealed the presence of compound 1 (S-2-hydroxy-N-((S-1-((S-8-hydroxy-1-oxoisochroman-3-yl-3-methylbutyl-2-((S-5-oxo-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-ylacetamide. Further bioassays of compound 1 showed significant inhibition of α-glucosidase (52.98 ± 0.8% and urease (51.27 ± 1.0%, compared with positive control values of 79.14 ± 1.9% and 88.24 ± 2.2%, and negative controls (0.08 ± 0.1% and 0.05 ± 0.01%, respectively. The current study suggests that bacterial endophytes are a rich source of novel bioactive compounds with high therapeutic value.

  14. Endophytic Actinomycetes: A Novel Source of Potential Acyl Homoserine Lactone Degrading Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surang Chankhamhaengdecha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria employ N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (HSL quorum sensing (QS system to control their virulence traits. Degradation of acyl-HSL signal molecules by quorum quenching enzyme (QQE results in a loss of pathogenicity in QS-dependent organisms. The QQE activity of actinomycetes in rhizospheric soil and inside plant tissue was explored in order to obtain novel strains with high HSL-degrading activity. Among 344 rhizospheric and 132 endophytic isolates, 127 (36.9% and 68 (51.5% of them, respectively, possessed the QQE activity. The highest HSL-degrading activity was at 151.30±3.1 nmole/h/mL from an endophytic actinomycetes isolate, LPC029. The isolate was identified as Streptomyces based on 16S  rRNA gene sequence similarity. The QQE from LPC029 revealed HSL-acylase activity that was able to cleave an amide bond of acyl-side chain in HSL substrate as determined by HPLC. LPC029 HSL-acylase showed broad substrate specificity from C6- to C12-HSL in which C10HSL is the most favorable substrate for this enzyme. In an in vitro pathogenicity assay, the partially purified HSL-acylase efficiently suppressed soft rot of potato caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum as demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HSL-acylase activity derived from an endophytic Streptomyces.

  15. Bacterial endophytes enhance phytostabilization in soils contaminated with uranium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Muhammad Tayyab; Najam-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Idrees, Muhammad; Ullah, Inayat; Afzal, Muhammad

    2017-10-03

    The combined use of plants and bacteria is a promising approach for the remediation of polluted soil. In the current study, the potential of bacterial endophytes in partnership with Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth was evaluated for the remediation of uranium (U)- and lead (Pb)-contaminated soil. L. fusca was vegetated in contaminated soil and inoculated with three different endophytic bacterial strains, Pantoea stewartii ASI11, Enterobacter sp. HU38, and Microbacterium arborescens HU33, individually as well as in combination. The results showed that the L. fusca can grow in the contaminated soil. Bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and phytoremediation capacity: this manifested in the form of a 22-51% increase in root length, 25-62% increase in shoot height, 10-21% increase in chlorophyll content, and 17-59% more plant biomass in U- and Pb-contaminated soils as compared to plants without bacterial inoculation. Although L. fusca plants showed potential to accumulate U and Pb in their root and shoot on their own, bacterial consortia further enhanced metal uptake capacity by 53-88% for U and 58-97% for Pb. Our results indicate that the combination of L. fusca and endophytic bacterial consortia can effectively be used for the phytostabilization of both U- and Pb-contaminated soils.

  16. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghavi, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Hoffman, A.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Walla, M. D.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.; Monchy, S.

    2010-05-13

    improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar as an energy feedstock on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria as growth promoting agents. Poplar is considered as the model tree species for the production of lignocellulosic biomass destined for biofuel production. The plant growth promoting endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638 can improve the growth of poplar on marginal soils by as much as 40%. This prompted us to sequence the genome of this strain and, via comparative genomics, identify functions essential for the successful colonization and endophytic association with its poplar host. Analysis of the genome sequence, combined with metabolite analysis and quantitative PCR, pointed to a remarkable interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host with the endophyte responsible for the production of a phytohormone, and a precursor for another that poplar is unable to synthesize, and where the production of the plant growth promoting compounds depended on the presence of plant synthesized compounds, such as sucrose, in the growth medium. Our results provide the basis to better understanding the synergistic interactions between poplar and Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria such as Enterobacter sp. 638 as growth promoting agents.

  17. Clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in Hordeum germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes, non-choke inducing endosymbiotic fungi of the genus Neotyphodium that systemically infect grasses, in eighteen Hordeum species from the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System was examined using light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Seventeen plant inventory accessions...

  18. Acid protease production in fungal root endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhofer, Michael S; Fraser, Erica; Kernaghan, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous in healthy root tissue, but little is known about their ecosystem functions, including their ability to utilize organic nutrient sources such as proteins. Root-associated fungi may secrete proteases to access the carbon and mineral nutrients within proteins in the soil or in the cells of their plant host. We compared the protein utilization patterns of multiple isolates of the root endophytes Phialocephala fortinii s.l., Meliniomyces variabilis and Umbelopsis isabellina with those of two ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Hebeloma incarnatulum and Laccaria bicolor, and the wood-decay fungus Irpex lacteus at pH values of 2-9 on liquid BSA media. We also assessed protease activity using a fluorescently labeled casein assay and gelatin zymography and characterized proteases using specific protease inhibitors. I. lacteus and U. isabellina utilized protein efficiently, while the ECM fungi exhibited poor protein utilization. ECM fungi secreted metallo-proteases and had pH optima above 4, while other fungi produced aspartic proteases with lower pH optima. The ascomycetous root endophytes M. variabilis and P. fortinii exhibited intermediate levels of protein utilization and M. variabilis exhibited a very low pH optimum. Comparing proteolytic profiles between fungal root endophytes and fungi with well defined ecological roles provides insight into the ecology of these cryptic root associates. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  19. Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi, isolated from macrophytes in the Negro River in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. ... Solms and Cyperus ligularis L., macrophytes collected from oil-contaminated waters, were studied to assess their potential for producing biosurfactants; the most promising ones ...

  20. Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, M.; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, S.; Riess, K.; Martos, F.; Krause, C.; Oberwinkler, F.; Bauer, R.; Redecker, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2011), s. 1-7 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Sebacinales * endophytes * mycorrhiza Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  1. Isolation, quantity distribution and characterization of endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was undertaken in order to document the spectrum of endophytes colonizing healthy leaves of sugar beet cultivars in Xinjiang Province (China) and to determine the degree of colonization at three growth stages. From the 360 sugar beet leaf and root segments incubated, 221 bacterial isolates, ...

  2. Phyllosticta capitalensis, a widespread endophyte of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wikee, S.; Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.; Nakashima, C.; Motohashi, K.; Chukeatirote, E.; Alias, S.A.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Hyde, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    Phyllosticta capitalensis is an endophyte and weak plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution presently known from 70 plant families. This study isolated P. capitalensis from different host plants in northern Thailand, and determined their different life modes. Thirty strains of P. capitalensis

  3. Botrallin from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the mycelia from the endophytic fungus. Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L., led to the isolation of one compound coded as P12-1 which was identified as botrallin (1,7-.

  4. Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    João Marcelo Lima

    Endophytic and epiphytic fungi isolated from Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms and Cyperus ligularis. L., macrophytes collected from oil-contaminated waters, were studied to assess their potential for producing biosurfactants; the most promising ones were identified by means of the rDNA region sequencing.

  5. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Hoffman, Adam; Zhang, Yian-Biao; Walla, Michael D.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Newman, Lee; Monchy, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    improve establishment and sustainable production of poplar as an energy feedstock on marginal, non-agricultural soils using endophytic bacteria as growth promoting agents. PMID:20485560

  6. Identification of Endophytic Fungi of Medicinal Herbs of Lauraceae and Rutaceae with Antimicrobial Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yuan Ho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine taxonomical features and antimicrobial activities of 156 isolates of endophytic fungi collected from twigs of medicinal plants of Lauraceae (67 isolates and Rutaceae (89 isolates in central and northern Taiwan. The 156 isolates of fungi were classified into 35 genera in 19 families based on morphological characteristics of mycelia and asexual/sexual spores, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis of rDNA LSU D1/D2 and ITS regions. The most common endophytes were in the taxa of Colletotrichum, Guignardia, Hypoxylon, Nigrospora, Phomopsis and Xylaria, and the most common hosts were Citrus and Zanthoxylum of Rutaceae and Cinnamomum of Lauraceae. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that xylariaceous isolates could be separated into Xylaria and Hypoxylon groups based on rDNA of LSU D1/D2 and ITS regions. Four isolates of endophytic fungi including Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10, Ophioceras tenuisporum isolate CI02, Xylaria cubensis isolate LA04 and Cyanodermella sp. isolate TR09 were tested for antimicrobial activities using a dual culture method and Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 and Cyanodermella sp. isolate TR09 showed better antimicrobial activity against 12 plant pathogens including 9 fungi and 3 bacteria. Spraying Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa plants with culture filtrates of the endophytic fungus Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 significantly reduced severity of anthracnose of Chinese cabbage caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum under greenhouse conditions. This study suggests that the Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 may be of potential for management of anthracnose of Chinese cabbage.

  7. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Alexander

    2016-08-04

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood but most likely multifactorial. This knowledge gap obstructs the progress regarding the development of endophytes or endophyte-derived constituents into biocontrol agents. In part, this may be caused by the fact that endophytic fungi form a rather heterogeneous group. By combining the knowledge of the currently characterized antagonistic endophytic fungi and their effects on nematode behavior and biology with the knowledge of microbial competition and induced plant defenses, the various mechanisms by which this nematode antagonism operates or may operate are discussed. Now that new technologies are becoming available and more accessible, the currently unresolved mechanisms can be studied in greater detail than ever before.

  8. Genomic DNA extraction and barcoding of endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Patricia L; Hennell, James R; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2012-01-01

    Endophytes live inter- and/or intracellularly inside healthy aboveground tissues of plants without causing disease. Endophytic fungi are found in virtually every vascular plant species examined. The origins of this symbiotic relationship between endophytes go back to the emergence of vascular plants. Endophytic fungi receive nutrition and protection from their hosts while the plants benefit from the production of fungal secondary metabolites, which enhance the host plants' resistance to herbivores, pathogens, and various abiotic stresses. Endophytic fungi have attracted increased interest as potential sources of secondary metabolites with agricultural, industrial, and medicinal use. This chapter provides detailed protocols for isolation of genomic DNA from fungal endophytes and its use in polymerase chain reaction-based amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region between the conserved flanking regions of the small and large subunit of ribosomal RNA for barcoding purposes.

  9. Endophytic bacterial diversity in banana 'Prata Anã' (Musa spp. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane A. Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of endophytic bacteria in banana 'Prata Anã' roots was characterized. Two hundred and one endophytic bacteria were isolated, 151 of which were classified as Gram-positive and 50 as Gram-negative. No hypersensitivity response was observed in any of the isolates. The rep-PCR technique generated different molecular profiles for each primer set (REP, ERIC and BOX. Fifty readable loci were obtained and all of the fragments were polymorphic. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA of the isolates based on cleavage with four restriction enzymes yielded 45 polymorphic bands and no monomorphic bands. PCR amplified the nifH gene in 24 isolates. 16S rDNA sequencing of the 201 bacterial isolates yielded 102 high-quality sequences. Sequence analyses revealed that the isolates were distributed among ten bacterial genera (Agrobacterium, Aneurinibacillus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Rhizobium and Sporolactobacillus and included 15 species. The greatest number of isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus. The bacteria identified in this study may be involved in promoting growth, phosphate solubilization, biological control and nitrogen fixation in bananas.

  10. Plant Cell Protolytic Enzymes Activity under Exposure to Lectins of Endophytic and Epiphytic Azospirillum Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Alen’kina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ability of lectins isolated from the surface of the two strains of nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria of the genus Azospirillum, A. brasilense Sp7 (epiphytic and A. brasilense Sp245 (endophytic, to show have a regulating effect on the activity of pectinolytic enzymes in the roots of wheat seedlings. Research results showed that the lectins under study can cause the induction of the activity of polygalacturonase, pectinesterase, pectatlyase from the plant cell wall, thereby ensuring the bacteria penetration in the plant tissues, as well as the induction of plants responses which, being combined with growth-stimulating effect of bacteria, contributes to the formation of plants stability and productivity.

  11. Two new stemphol sulfates from the mangrove endophytic fungus Stemphylium sp. 33231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue-Ming; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Chen, Guang-Ying; Song, Xiao-Ping; Han, Chang-Ri; Tang, Xiong-Zhao; Liu, Rui-Jie; Ren, Li-Lian

    2015-08-01

    Two new stemphol sulfates, stemphol A (1) and stemphol B (2), along with known compound stemphol (3) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fermentation of an endophytic Stemphylium sp. 33231. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The isolated compounds exhibited potent antibacterial activities against six terrestrial pathogenic bacteria with MIC values of 0.6-10 μg ml(-1). The inhibitory activities of all compounds against five cancer cell lines were evaluated.

  12. Bioprospecting finds the toughest biological material: extraordinary silk from a giant riverine orb spider.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingi Agnarsson

    into the river. This hypothesis predicts that rapid change in material properties of silk co-occurred with ecological shifts within the genus, and can thus be tested by combining material science, behavioral observations, and phylogenetics. Our findings highlight the potential benefits of natural history-informed bioprospecting to discover silks, as well as other materials, with novel and exceptional properties to serve as models in biomimicry.

  13. Bio-prospecting of Plants and Marine Organisms in Saudi Arabia for New Potential Bioactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjar, Dina A.

    2016-12-08

    The natural resources offer a unique opportunity for the discovery of active compounds, due to the complexity and biodiversity of their chemical structures. Natural resources have been used as medicines throughout human history. Saudi Arabia’s natural resources, for instance its terrestrial medicinal plants and the Red Sea sponges, have not been extensively investigated with regard to their biological activities. To better identify the diversity of compounds with bioactive potential, new techniques are also necessary in order to improve the drug discovery path. This study comprises three sections. The first section examines Juniperus phoenicea (Arar), Anastatica hierochuntica (Kaff Maryam) and Citrullus colocynthis (Hanzal); these herbal plants were screened for potential bioactivity using a newly developed pipeline based on a high-content screening technique. We report a new cell-based high-throughput phenotypic screening for the bio-prospecting of unknown natural products from Saudi Arabian plants, in order to reveal their biological activities. The second section investigates Avicennia marina plants, screened for reverse transcriptase anti-HIV bioactivity using biochemical assay. Image-based high-content screening with a set of cellular stains was used to investigate the phenotypic results of toxicity and cell cycle arrest. The third section considers the isolation of Actinomycetes from Red Sea Sponges. Actinomycetes bacterial isolates were tested for bioactivity against West Nile Virus NS3 Protease. Analytical chemical techniques such as liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to gain more understanding of the possible chemical compounds responsible for this bioactivity. Overall, the aim of this work is to investigate the potential bioactive effect of several Saudi Arabian plants and Red Sea sponges against cancer cells and viral infections. Our study

  14. Mycoleptodiscus terrestris: An Endophyte Turned Latent Pathogen of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of grasses: Coevolution and the change from parasitism to mutualism. In Co-evolution of fungi with plants and animals, ed...Recovery of endophytic fungi from Myriophyllum spicatum. APCRP Technical Notes Collection. ERDC TN-APCRP-BC-03. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer...ERDC/TN APCRP-BC-11 March 2009 1 Mycoleptodiscus terrestris: An Endophyte Turned Latent Pathogen of Eurasian Watermilfoil by Judy F

  15. Fungal endophytes - secret producers of bioactive plant metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, A H; Debbab, A; Proksch, P

    2013-07-01

    The potential of endophytic fungi as promising sources of bioactive natural products continues to attract broad attention. Endophytic fungi are defined as fungi that live asymptomatically within the tissues of higher plants. This overview will highlight the uniqueness of endophytic fungi as alternative sources of pharmaceutically valuable compounds originally isolated from higher plants, e.g. paclitaxel, camptothecin and podophyllotoxin. In addition, it will shed light on the fungal biosynthesis of plant associated metabolites as well as new approaches developed to improve the production of commercially important plant derived compounds with the involvement of endophytic fungi.

  16. Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi from the angiosperm Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Juthatip Jeenkeawpieam, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Jariya Sakayaroj ...

  17. Elimination of ergovaline from a grass-Neotyphodium endophyte symbiosis by genetic modification of the endophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaccione, D G; Johnson, R D; Wang, J; Young, C A; Damrongkool, P; Scott, B; Schardl, C L

    2001-10-23

    The fungal endophytes Neotyphodium lolii and Neotyphodium sp. Lp1 from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and related endophytes in other grasses, produce the ergopeptine toxin ergovaline, among other alkaloids, while also increasing plant fitness and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. In the related fungus, Claviceps purpurea, the biosynthesis of ergopeptines requires the activities of two peptide synthetases, LPS1 and LPS2. A peptide synthetase gene hypothesized to be important for ergopeptine biosynthesis was identified in C. purpurea by its clustering with another ergot alkaloid biosynthetic gene, dmaW. Sequence analysis conducted independently of the research presented here indicates that this gene encodes LPS1 [Tudzynski, P., Holter, K., Correia, T., Arntz, C., Grammel, N. & Keller, U. (1999) Mol. Gen. Genet. 261, 133-141]. We have cloned a similar peptide synthetase gene from Neotyphodium lolii and inactivated it by gene knockout in Neotyphodium sp. Lp1. The resulting strain retained full compatibility with its perennial ryegrass host plant as assessed by immunoblotting of tillers and quantitative PCR. However, grass-endophyte associations containing the knockout strain did not produce detectable quantities of ergovaline as analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Disruption of this gene provides a means to manipulate the accumulation of ergovaline in endophyte-infected grasses for the purpose of determining the roles of ergovaline in endophyte-associated traits and, potentially, for ameliorating toxicoses in livestock.

  18. Response of leaf endophytic bacterial community to elevated CO2 at different growth stages of rice plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaidi eRen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant endophytic bacteria play an important role in plant growth and health. In the context of climate change, the response of plant endophytic bacterial communities to elevated CO2 at different rice growing stages is poorly understood. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we investigated the response of leaf endophytic bacterial communities to elevated CO2 (eCO2 at the tillering, filling and maturity stages of the rice plant under different nitrogen fertilization conditions (low nitrogen fertilization (LN and high nitrogen fertilization (HN. The results revealed that the leaf endophytic bacterial community was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria-affiliated families, such as Enterobacteriaceae and Xanthomonadaceae, which represent 28.7-86.8% and 2.14-42.6% of the total sequence reads, respectively, at all tested growth stages. The difference in the bacterial community structure between the different growth stages was greater than the difference resulting from the CO2 and nitrogen fertilization treatments. The eCO2 effect on the bacterial communities differed greatly under different nitrogen application conditions and at different growth stages. Specifically, eCO2 revealed a significant effect on the community structure under both LN and HN levels at the tillering stage; however, the significant effect of eCO2 was only observed under HN, rather than under the LN condition at the filling stage; no significant effect of eCO2 on the community structure at both the LN and HN fertilization levels was found at the maturity stage. These results provide useful insights into the response of leaf endophytic bacterial communities to elevated CO2 across rice growth stages.

  19. Screening and characterization of endophytic Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains from medicinal plant Lonicera japonica for use as potential plant growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 48 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues of the medicinal plant Lonicera japonica, which is grown in eastern China; six strains were selected for further study based on their potential ability to promote plant growth in vitro (siderophore and indoleacetic acid production. The bacteria were characterized by phylogenetically analyzing their 16S rRNA gene similarity, by examining their effect on the mycelial development of pathogenic fungi, by testing their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics, and by measuring wheat growth parameters after inoculation. Results showed that the number of endophytic bacteria in L. japonica varied among different tissues, but it remained relatively stable in the same tissues from four different plantation locations. Among the three endophytic strains, strains 122 and 124 both had high siderophore production, with the latter showing the highest phosphate solubilization activity (45.6 mg/L and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (47.3 nmol/mg/h. Strain 170 had the highest indoleacetic acid (IAA production (49.2 mg/L and cellulase and pectinase activities. After inoculation, most of the six selected isolates showed a strong capacity to promote wheat growth. Compared with the controls, the increase in the shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content was most remarkable in wheat seedlings inoculated with strain 130. The positive correlation between enzyme (cellulose and pectinase activity and inhibition rate on Fusarium oxysporum, the IAA production, and the root length of wheat seedlings inoculated with each tested endophytic strain was significant in regression analysis. Deformity of pathogenic fungal mycelia was observed under a microscope after the interaction with the endophytic isolates. Such deformity may be directly related to the production of hydrolytic bacterial enzymes (cellulose and pectinase. The six

  20. Bioprospection in Brazil and Mexico, a new El Dorado?: Between the Instability of Practices and the Permanence of Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffroy Filoche

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of their exceptional biodiversity, Brazil and Mexico seemed to be the ideal candidates for the valorization of their genetic resources, as promoted by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. But almost twenty years after the Rio Conference, the actual results of this valorization are disappointing. It can be explained either by the slowness in adopting domestic laws translating the CBD or by the difficulties in controlling and regulating very complex and unstable practices and objects. This leads to put into question the pertinence of the CDB framework, along with its categories and mechanisms. In spite of the relative obsolescence of this framework and the emergence of new environmental issues, which appear as more important, the question of the access to genetic resources and their exploitation through contracts of bioprospection is still being debated because of the various symbolic issues at stake, such as national sovereignty and the defense of biological and cultural diversity.

  1. Variation in endophytic fungi from roots and leaves of Lepanthes (Orchidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAUL BAYMAN; LIGIA L. LEBRO; RAYMOND L. TREMBLAY; JEAN D. LODGE

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about non-mycorrhizal endophytic fungi in tropical orchids; still less is known about how endophytes vary within and between individual orchid plants. Fungal endophytes were isolated from roots and leaves of epiphytic and lithophytic orchids in the genus Lepanthes; seven species, from rainforests in Puerto Rico, were sampled. The endophytes observed...

  2. Behavior Performance of Diuraphis noxia (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Fungal Endophyte-Infected and Uninfected Perennial Ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Clement; D.G. Lester; A. Dan Wilson; K.S. Pike

    1992-01-01

    The behavior and performance of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), on fungal endophyte-infected and endophyte-free perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., was investigated in the laboratory and field. Aphids did not select endophyte-free over endophyte-infected leaf sheaths and stem segments in petri dish preference tests....

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of the Endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN Indicates Sensing of the Plant Environment and Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani-Tezerji, Raheleh; Rattei, Thomas; Sessitsch, Angela; Trognitz, Friederike; Mitter, Birgit

    2015-09-08

    It is widely accepted that bacterial endophytes actively colonize plants, interact with their host, and frequently show beneficial effects on plant growth and health. However, the mechanisms of plant-endophyte communication and bacterial adaption to the plant environment are still poorly understood. Here, whole-transcriptome sequencing of B. phytofirmans PsJN colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants was used to analyze in planta gene activity and the response of strain PsJN to plant stress. The transcriptome of PsJN colonizing in vitro potato plants showed a broad array of functionalities encoded in the genome of strain PsJN. Transcripts upregulated in response to plant drought stress were mainly involved in transcriptional regulation, cellular homeostasis, and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, indicating an oxidative stress response in PsJN. Genes with modulated expression included genes for extracytoplasmatic function (ECF) group IV sigma factors. These cell surface signaling elements allow bacteria to sense changing environmental conditions and to adjust their metabolism accordingly. TaqMan quantitative PCR (TaqMan-qPCR) was performed to identify ECF sigma factors in PsJN that were activated in response to plant stress. Six ECF sigma factor genes were expressed in PsJN colonizing potato plants. The expression of one ECF sigma factor was upregulated whereas that of another one was downregulated in a plant genotype-specific manner when the plants were stressed. Collectively, our study results indicate that endophytic B. phytofirmans PsJN cells are active inside plants. Moreover, the activity of strain PsJN is affected by plant drought stress; it senses plant stress signals and adjusts its gene expression accordingly. In recent years, plant growth-promoting endophytes have received steadily growing interest as an inexpensive alternative to resource-consuming agrochemicals in sustainable agriculture. Even though promising effects are

  4. A Comparative biochemical study on two marine endophytes, Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS, Isolated from red sea algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eman Fadl; Hassan, Hossam Mokhtar; Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat; Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Sameer, Somayah; Aly Taie, Hanan Anwar; Abdel-Hameed, Mohammed Sayed; Hammouda, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Two marine endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Red Sea algae; a red alga; Acanthophora dendroides and the brown alga Sargassum sabrepandum. The isolates were identified based on their 16SrRNA sequences as Bacterium SRCnm and Bacillus sp. JS. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-microbial and antioxidant activities of the extracts of the isolated bacteria grown in different nutrient conditions. Compared to amoxicillin (25μg/disk) and erythromycin (15μg/disk), the extracts of Bacterium SRCn min media II, III, IV and V were potent inhibitors of the gram-positive bacterium Sarcina maxima even at low concentrations. Also, the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) was more sensitive to the metabolites produced in medium (II) of the same endophyte than erythromycin (15μg/disk). A moderate activity of the Bacillus sp. JS extracts of media I and II was obtained against the same pathogen. The total compounds (500ug/ml) of both isolated endophytes showed moderate antioxidant activities (48.9% and 46.1%, respectively). LC/MS analysis of the bacterial extracts was carried out to investigate the likely natural products produced. Cyclo(D-cis-Hyp-L-Leu), dihydrosphingosine and 2-Amino-1,3-hexadecanediol were identified in the fermentation medium of Bacterium SRCnm, whereas cyclo (D-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo (L-Leu-L-Pro) were the suggested compounds of Bacillus sp. JS.

  5. Endophytic bacterial flora in root and stem tissues of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) genotype: isolation, identification and evaluation against Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, R; Kumar, A; Eapen, S J; Ramana, K V

    2009-01-01

    To isolate and identify black pepper (Piper nigrum L) associated endophytic bacteria antagonistic to Phytophthora capsici causing foot rot disease. Endophytic bacteria (74) were isolated, characterized and evaluated against P. capsici. Six genera belong to Pseudomonas spp (20 strains), Serratia (1 strain), Bacillus spp. (22 strains), Arthrobacter spp. (15 strains), Micrococcus spp. (7 strains), Curtobacterium sp. (1 strain) and eight unidentified strains were isolated from internal tissues of root and stem. Three isolates, IISRBP 35, IISRBP 25 and IISRBP 17 were found effective for Phytophthora suppression in multilevel screening assays which recorded over 70% disease suppression in greenhouse trials. A species closest match (99% similarity) of IISRBP 35 was established as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas EF568931), IISRBP 25 as P. putida (Pseudomonas EF568932), and IISRBP 17 as Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium EU071712) based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Black pepper associated P. aeruginosa, P. putida and B. megaterium were identified as effective antagonistic endophytes for biological control of Phytophthora foot rot in black pepper. This work provides the first evidence for endophytic bacterial diversity in black pepper stem and roots, with biocontrol potential against P. capsici infection.

  6. Interactive effect of biochar and plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes on ameliorating salinity stress in maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Naveed, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the interactive effect of biochar and plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and exopolysaccharide activity on mitigating salinity stress in maize (Zea mays L.). The plants were grown in a greenhouse...... under controlled conditions, and were subjected to separate or combined treatments of biochar (0% and 5%, w/w) and two endophytic bacterial strains (Burkholderia phytofirmans (PsJN) and Enterobacter sp. (FD17)) and salinity stress. The results indicated that salinity significantly decreased the growth...... of maize, whereas both biochar and inoculation mitigated the negative effects of salinity on maize performance either by decreasing the xylem Na+ concentration ([Na+]xylem) uptake or by maintaining nutrient balance within the plant, especially when the two treatments were applied in combination. Moreover...

  7. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  8. Identification and phytochemical screening of Endophytic fungi from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify some endophytic fungi, which were associated with the stems of Phragmanthera capitata (Loranthaceae), and to determine the phytochemical composition of their extracts. Methodology and results: The isolation of endophytic fungi was made on PDA medium (Potato ...

  9. Screening of endophytic fungi that promote the growth of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored a strategy to use endophytic fungi for promoting the growth of the medicinal plant, Euphorbia pekinensis. The growth of E. pekinensis was examined in pot culture following inoculation of. E. pekinensis with endophytic fungal strains (Fusarium spp.) from E. pekinensis (E4 and E5) and those not from E.

  10. Culture and Identification of Endophytic Fungi from Oxytropis glabra DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Oxytropis glabra DC. is an important poisonous plant species in Inner Mongolia steppe. In this research the endophytic fungi from O. glabra DC. were studied both by microbiological and molecular biological techniques. The results showed as follows: The in vitro cultured endophytic fungi displ...

  11. Plant-derived bioactive compounds produced by endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Shan, T; Mou, Y; Zhou, L

    2011-02-01

    Plant endophytic fungi are an important and novel resource of natural bioactive compounds with their potential applications in agriculture, medicine and food industry. In the past two decades, many valuable bioactive compounds with antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and anticancer activities have been successfully discovered from endophytic fungi. During the long period of co-evolution, a friendly relationship was formed between each endophyte and its host plant. Some endophytes have the ability to produce the same or similar bioactive compounds as those originated from their host plants. This review mainly deals with the research progress on endophytic fungi for producing plant-derived bioactive compounds such as paclitaxel, podophyllotoxin, camptothecine, vinblastine, hypericin, and diosgenin. The relations between endophytic fungi and their host plants, biological activities and action mechanisms of these compounds from endophytic fungi, some available strategies for efficiently promoting production of these bioactive compounds, as well as their potential applications in the future will also be discussed. It is beneficial for us to better understand and take advantage of plant endophytic fungi.

  12. First report of clavicipitaceous anamorphic endophytes in hordeum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Wilson; S.L. Clement; W.J. Kaiser; D.G. Lester

    1991-01-01

    Clavicipitaceous endophytes systemically infect many grass species and produce alkaloids that confer resistance to insects (2) and toxicity to mammals (1). The mutualistic anamorphic forms (e.g., Acremonium spp.) do not sporulate or cause symptoms, but they produce distinctive mycelium in their hosts. The incidence of anamorphic endophytes in a portion of the U.S....

  13. Comparative study of in vitro antioxidant activity of foliar endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endophytic fungi that reside in plant tissues are a potential source of secondary metabolites with biological activities. In our study, we investigated the detection of the antioxidant activity of the crude fungal extract of the genera Cladosporium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium: endophytic fungi isolated from the leaves of ...

  14. Mechanisms Involved in Nematode Control by Endophytic Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of plants by particular endophytic fungi can provide plants with improved defenses toward nematodes. Evidently, such endophytes can be important in developing more sustainable agricultural practices. The mechanisms playing a role in this quantitative antagonism are poorly understood

  15. Isolation of fungal endophytes from Garcinia mangostana and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to screen the antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from surface sterilized leaves and small branches of Garcinia mangostana plant found in Indonesia. The crude extracts of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) of the 24 fermentation broths from 24 endophytic fungi were tested for their antibacterial ...

  16. Endophytic Fungi as Novel Resources of natural Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari Rajamanikyam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fungal endophytes constitute a major part of the unexplored fungal diversity. Endophytic fungi (EF are an important source for novel, potential and active metabolites. Plant-endophyte interaction and endophyte -endophyte interactions study provide insights into mutualism and metabolite production by fungi. Bioactive compounds produced by endophytes main function are helping the host plants to resist external biotic and abiotic stress, which benefit the host survival in return. These organisms mainly consist of members of the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Oomycota. Recently, the genome sequencing technology has emerged as one of the most efficient tools that can provide whole information of a genome in a small period of time. Endophytes are fertile ground for drug discovery. EFare considered as the hidden members of the microbial world and represent an underutilized resource for new therapeutics and compounds. Endophytes are rich source of natural products displaying broad spectrum of biological activities like anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-arthritis and anti-inflammatory.

  17. Does fire maintain symbiotic, fungal endophyte infections in native grasses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. H. Faeth; S. M.  Haase; S. S. Sackett; T. J. Sullivan; R. H.  Remington; C. E.  Hamilton

    2002-01-01

    Systemic endophytic fungi in agronomic and turf grasses are well known for conferring increased resistance to herbivores and to abiotic stresses, such as drought, and increasing competitive abilities. Many native grasses also harbor high frequencies of the asexual and vertically-transmitted endophyte, Neotyphodium. In Festuca arizonica...

  18. Endophytic fungi with antitumor activities: Their occurrence and anticancer compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Jia, Min; Ming, Qian-Liang; Yue, Wei; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting

    2016-05-01

    Plant endophytic fungi have been recognized as an important and novel resource of natural bioactive products, especially in anticancer application. This review mainly deals with the research progress on the production of anticancer compounds by endophytic fungi between 1990 and 2013. Anticancer activity is generally associated with the cytotoxicity of the compounds present in the endophytic fungi. All strains of endophytes producing antitumor chemicals were classified taxonomically and the genera of Pestalotiopsis and Aspergillus as well as the taxol producing endophytes were focused on. Classification of endophytic fungi producing antitumor compounds has received more attention from mycologists, and it can also lead to the discovery of novel compounds with antitumor activity due to phylogenetic relationships. In this review, the structures of the anticancer compounds isolated from the newly reported endophytes between 2010 and 2013 are discussed including strategies for the efficient production of the desired compounds. The purpose of this review is to provide new directions in endophytic fungi research including integrated information relating to its anticancer compounds.

  19. Growth promotion mediated by endophytic fungi in cloned seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the understanding that the development of tree species such as Eucalyptus sp. can be influenced by endophytic fungi that act directly as plant growth-promoting species, cloned seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrids grown from minicuttings we stimulated with three species of endophytic ...

  20. Endophyte status of tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) affects seed predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a preliminary study seed of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) variety ‘Jesup’ without endophyte were consumed at a slightly higher rate by common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.) in a standard feeding trial than the same fescue variety with the endophyte. Although, the preference for the...

  1. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Specian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of ¹H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl-ethanol (Tyrosol. Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential.

  2. Developmental Peculiarities and Seed-Borne Endophytes in Quinoa: Omnipresent, Robust Bacilli Contribute to Plant Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by diverse members of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are motile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their high catalase activities and superoxide contents the bacteria potentially manipulate the host’s redox status. Superoxide-driven cell expansion enables quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment. Quinoa’s immediate confrontation with “foreign” reactive oxygen species and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase) and cosmetics (catalase) industry. This work also discusses the potential of transferring quinoa’s microbiome to improve stress resistance in other plant species. PMID:26834724

  3. Identification of a novel endophytic Bacillus sp. from Capsicum annuum with highly efficient and broad spectrum plant probiotic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, B; Mathew, J; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2016-10-01

    The study mainly aimed the isolation and characterization of plant probiotic endophytic bacteria from Capsicum annuum to explore its multipotent agricultural applications. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the surface sterilized fruit tissue. The isolates were then subjected to PCR-based screening for the presence of potential biosynthetic gene clusters. The PCR positive isolate was then analysed for its inhibitory effect towards fungal and bacterial pathogens. The compounds responsible for the antimicrobial activity was purified from large scale culture and subjected to identification by LC-MS/MS. The ability of the selected isolate in plant growth enhancement was also done using Vigna radiata seedlings. In this study, an endophytic bacterium isolated from C. annuum was found to have the phenotypic and genetic basis for broad antimicrobial property. PCR-based sequence analysis has resulted in the identification of nonribosomal peptide synthases, PKS Type I, Iturin, surfactin, DAPG and gacA genes in the selected isolate CaB 5. The bioactivity-guided fractionation using column and HPLC purification of active fraction followed by LC-MS/MS analysis has proved the presence of surfactin derivatives (M+H(+) - 1008 & 1036) and iturin (M+H(+) - 1058) as the basis of antimicrobial activity of CaB 5. The isolate was identified as a novel Bacillus sp. because of its low (76%) identity to the reported sequences. Endophytes are considered to have the genetic basis for a diverse array of bioactive metabolites which can have significant applications in both pharmaceutical industry and agriculture. The identification of CaB 5 with broad bioactivity and excellent plant growth enhancement on taxonomically distinct plant species as explained in current study and our previous reports highlights its plant probiotic applicability. This proves the potential of the isolate obtained in the study to be an excellent plant probiotic. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Endophytic actinobacteria of medicinal plants: diversity and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Agarkar, Gauravi; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-08-01

    Endophytes are the microorganisms that exist inside the plant tissues without having any negative impact on the host plant. Medicinal plants constitute the huge diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of economical importance. These microbes have huge potential to synthesis of numerous novel compounds that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. It is of prime importance to focus the present research on practical utilization of this microbial group in order to find out the solutions to the problems related to health, environment and agriculture. An extensive characterization of diverse population of endophytic actinobacteria associated with medicinal plants can provide a greater insight into the plant-endophyte interactions and evolution of mutualism. In the present review, we have discussed the diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of from medicinal plants their multiple bioactivities.

  5. Phytoremediation: plant-endophyte partnerships take the challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-04-01

    A promising field to exploit plant-endophyte partnerships is the remediation of contaminated soils and (ground) water. Many plant growth promoting endophytes can assist their host plant to overcome contaminant-induced stress responses, thus providing improved plant growth. During phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants can further benefit from endophytes possessing appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic capabilities, leading to more efficient contaminant degradation and reduction of both phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of volatile contaminants. For phytoremediation of toxic metals, endophytes possessing a metal-resistance/sequestration system can lower metal phytotoxicity and affect metal translocation to the above-ground plant parts. Furthermore, endophytes that can degrade organic contaminants and deal with or, even better, improve extraction of the metals offer promising ways to improve phytoremediation of mixed pollution.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim

    2014-02-01

    The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties.

  7. Rethinking production of Taxol® (paclitaxel) using endophyte biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, Souvik; Singh, Satpal; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2014-06-01

    Taxol® (generic name paclitaxel) represents one of the most clinically valuable natural products known to mankind in the recent past. More than two decades have elapsed since the notable discovery of the first Taxol®-producing endophytic fungus, which was followed by a plethora of reports on other endophytes possessing similar biosynthetic potential. However, industrial-scale Taxol® production using fungal endophytes, although seemingly promising, has not seen the light of the day. In this opinion article, we embark on the current state of knowledge on Taxol® biosynthesis focusing on the chemical ecology of its producers, and ask whether it is actually possible to produce Taxol® using endophyte biotechnology. The key problems that have prevented the exploitation of potent endophytic fungi by industrial bioprocesses for sustained production of Taxol® are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinnon, Aimee C.; Saari, Susanna Talvikki; Moran-Diez, Maria E.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade there has been increased focus on the potential of endophytic Beauveria bassiana for the biocontrol of insect herbivores. Generally, detection of endophytes is acknowledged to be problematic and recovery method-dependent. Herein, we critically analyse the methodology reported...... for the detection of B. bassiana as endophytes following experimental inoculation. In light of the methodology, we further review the effects of endophytic B. bassiana on insect herbivores. Our review indicated the need for stringent protocols for surface sterilisation including thorough experimental controls....... For molecular detection protocols by PCR, residual DNA from surface inocula must also be considered. The biocontrol potential of B. bassiana endophytes appears promising although both negative and neutral effects on insect herbivores were reported and there remains ambiguity with respect to the location...

  9. Trends in the Discovery of New Marine Natural Products from Invertebrates over the Last Two Decades – Where and What Are We Bioprospecting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Puga, João; Serôdio, João; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Calado, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990–2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no commercial value

  10. Natural Endophytic Occurrence of Acetobacter diazotrophicus in Pineapple Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Hernández; Bustillos-Cristales; Jiménez-Salgado; Caballero-Mellado; Fuentes-Ramírez

    2000-01-01

    The presence of endophytic Acetobacter diazotrophicus was tested for pineapple plants (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) grown in the field. Diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from the inner tissues of surface sterilized roots, stems, and leaves of pineapple plants. Phenotypic tests permitted the selection of presumptive nitrogen-fixing A. diazotrophicus isolates. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of small subunit (SSU) rDNA using total DNA digested with endonuclease SphI and with endonuclease NcoI, hybridizations of RNA with an A. diazotrophicus large subunit (LSU) rRNA specific probe, as well as patterns in denaturing protein electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and multilocus enzyme tests allowed the identification of A. diazotrophicus isolates. High frequencies of isolation were obtained from propagative buds that had not been nitrogen-fertilized, and lower frequencies from 3-month-old plants that had been nitrogen-fertilized. No isolates were recovered from 5- to 7-month-old nitrogen-fertilized plants. All the A. diazotrophicus isolates recovered from pineapple plants belonged to the multilocus genotype which shows the most extensive distribution among all host species previously analyzed.

  11. Prevalence of plant beneficial and human pathogenic bacteria isolated from salad vegetables in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, Angamuthu; Babu, Subramanian

    2017-03-14

    The study aimed at enumerating, identifying and categorizing the endophytic cultivable bacterial community in selected salad vegetables (carrot, cucumber, tomato and onion). Vegetable samples were collected from markets of two vegetable hot spot growing areas, during two different crop harvest seasons. Crude and diluted vegetable extracts were plated and the population of endophytic bacteria was assessed based on morphologically distinguishable colonies. The bacterial isolates were identified by growth in selective media, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The endophytic population was found to be comparably higher in cucumber and tomato in both of the sampling locations, whereas lower in carrot and onion. Bacterial isolates belonged to 5 classes covering 46 distinct species belonging to 19 genera. Human opportunistic pathogens were predominant in carrot and onion, whereas plant beneficial bacteria dominated in cucumber and tomato. Out of the 104 isolates, 16.25% are human pathogens and 26.5% are human opportunistic pathogens. Existence of a high population of plant beneficial bacteria was found to have suppressed the population of plant and human pathogens. There is a greater potential to study the native endophytic plant beneficial bacteria for developing them as biocontrol agents against human pathogens that are harboured by plants.

  12. Effects of endophytic fungi on the ash dieback pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Markus; Dubach, Vivanne; von Buol, Larissa; Sieber, Thomas N

    2016-09-01

    While Hymenoscyphus fraxineus causes dieback of the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior), flowering ash (F. ornus) appears resistant to the pathogen. To date, contributions of endophytic fungi to host resistance are unknown. The following hypotheses were tested: (i) endophytic fungi enhance the resistance of F. excelsior to the pathogen; (ii) resistance of F. ornus relies on its community of endophytic fungi. Two experiments were performed. (i) The effect of exudates of ash endophytes on the germination rate of H. fraxineus ascospores was studied in vitro Isolates of abundant Fraxinus leaf endophytes, such as Venturia fraxini, Paraconiothyrium sp., Boeremia exigua, Kretzschmaria deusta and Neofabraea alba inhibited ascospore germination. (ii) Ash seedlings inoculated in a climate chamber, with fungi sporulating on the previous year's leaf litter, were exposed to natural infections by the pathogen present in the forest. Non-inoculated seedlings were used as controls. Venturia spp. dominated the inoculated endophyte 'communities'. Subsequent exposure to H. fraxineus led to infection of F. excelsior leaves by the pathogen, but no differences in health status between pre-inoculated and non-inoculated seedlings were detected. Fraxinus ornus leaves experienced a low infection rate, independent of their colonization by endophytic fungi. These results did not support either hypothesis. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Endophytic Fungal Diversity in Medicinal Plants of Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnanda Somaiah Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes constitute an important component of microbial diversity, and in the present investigation, seven plant species with rich ethnobotanical uses representing six families were analyzed for the presence of endophytic fungi from their natural habitats during monsoon (May/June and winter (November/December seasons of 2007. Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy plant parts such as stem, root, rhizome, and inflorescence employing standard isolation methods. One thousand five hundred and twenty-nine fungal isolates were obtained from 5200 fragments. Stem fragments harbored more endophytes (80.37% than roots (19.22%. 31 fungal taxa comprised of coelomycetes (65%, hyphomycetes (32%, and ascomycetes (3%. Fusarium, Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Chaetomium, Myrothecium, Phomopsis, and Pestalotiopsis spp. were commonly isolated. Diversity indices differed significantly between the seasons (P<0.001. Species richness was greater for monsoon isolations than winter. Host specificity was observed for few fungal endophytes. UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the endophytes into distinct clusters on the basis of genetic distance. This study is the first report on the diversity and host-specificity of endophytic fungal taxa were from the semi evergreen forest type in Talacauvery subcluster of Western Ghats.

  14. Dark septate endophyte decreases stress on rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Gomes dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Abiotic stress is one of the major limiting factors for plant development and productivity, which makes it important to identify microorganisms capable of increasing plant tolerance to stress. Dark septate endophytes can be symbionts of plants. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of dark septate endophytes isolates to reduce the effects of water stress in the rice varieties Nipponbare and Piauí. The experiments were performed under gnotobiotic conditions, and the water stress was induced with PEG. Four dark septate endophytes were isolated from the roots of wild rice (Oryza glumaepatula collected from the Brazilian Amazon. Plant height as well as shoot and root fresh and dry matter were measured. Leaf protein concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity were also estimated. The dark septate endophytes were grown in vitro in Petri dishes containing culture medium; they exhibited different levels of tolerance to salinity and water stress. The two rice varieties tested responded differently to inoculation with dark septate endophytes. Endophytes promoted rice plant growth both in the presence and in the absence of a water deficit. Decreased oxidative stress in plants in response to inoculation was observed in nearly all inoculated treatments, as indicated by the decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Dark septate endophytes fungi were shown to increase the tolerance of rice plants to stress caused by water deficiency.

  15. [Isolation and physiological characteristics of endophytic actinobacteria from medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huijing; Su, Jing; Yu, Liyan; Zhang, Yuqin

    2013-01-04

    To isolate, incubate and characterize cultivable endophytic antinobacteria from medicinal plants, and analyze the diversity of the endophytic antinobacteria, then explore the novel microbial resources. Ten media were used to isolate endophytic antinobacteria from 37 fresh medicinal plant tissue samples. The optimal cultivation conditions for endophytic antinobacteria were determined by comparison. Based on the morphology of the colonies and cells of the new isolates, we chose 174 isolates to analyze their 16S rRNA gene sequences and the diversity of the medicinal plant endophytic antinobacteria. The physiological characteristics of 27 representative strains were studied using Biolog GEN III MicroPlates, API 50CH and API ZYM kits. In total 940 endophytics affiliated to 47 genera of 30 families were isolated, among which more than 600 actinobacteria belonged to 34 genera and 7 unknown taxa. Good growth of the endophytic antinobacteria on PYG (peptone-yeast-glycerol) medium with pH 7.2 at 28-32 degrees C was observed. Physiological characteristics differences of these isolates related to their phylogenetic relationships. Greater differences were shown among the strains from the same host plants than those from differ,ent plants grown in the same area. There are great diverse endophytic actinobacteria inside the medicinal plants. No direct relationship of the endophytic actinobacteria from medicinal plants with the host plants in the sole carbon source utilization, fermentation of carbon sources to produce acid and the enzyme activities was found, while it seemed that the physiological characteristics of the isolates related to the geographical distribution of their host.

  16. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable endophytic fungi isolated from moso bamboo seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ye Shen

    Full Text Available Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0% and Basidiomycota (2.0%, including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp., B34 (Curvularia sp., B35 (undefined genus 1, B38 (Penicillium sp. and zzz816 (Shiraia sp. displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816 could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which

  17. Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable endophytic fungi isolated from moso bamboo seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Ye; Cheng, Yan-Lin; Cai, Chun-Ju; Fan, Li; Gao, Jian; Hou, Cheng-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Bamboos, regarded as therapeutic agents in ethnomedicine, have been used to inhibit inflammation and enhance natural immunity for a long time in Asia, and there are many bamboo associated fungi with medical and edible value. In the present study, a total of 350 fungal strains were isolated from the uncommon moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) seeds for the first time. The molecular diversity of these endophytic fungi was investigated and bioactive compound producers were screened for the first time. All the fungal endophytes were categorized into 69 morphotypes according to culturable characteristics and their internal transcriber spacer (ITS) regions were analyzed by BLAST search with the NCBI database. The fungal isolates showed high diversity and were divided in Ascomycota (98.0%) and Basidiomycota (2.0%), including at least 19 genera in nine orders. Four particular genera were considered to be newly recorded bambusicolous fungi, including Leptosphaerulina, Simplicillium, Sebacina and an unknown genus in Basidiomycetes. Furthermore, inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens were screened preliminarily and strains B09 (Cladosporium sp.), B34 (Curvularia sp.), B35 (undefined genus 1), B38 (Penicillium sp.) and zzz816 (Shiraia sp.) displayed broad-spectrum activity against clinical bacteria and yeasts by the agar diffusion method. The crude extracts of isolates B09, B34, B35, B38 and zzz816 under submerged fermentation, also demonstrated various levels of bioactivities against bambusicolous pathogenic fungi. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with moso bamboo seeds, and the results show that they could be exploited as a potential source of bioactive compounds and plant defense activators. In addition, it is the first time that strains of Shiraia sp. have been isolated and cultured from moso bamboo seeds, and one of them (zzz816) could produce hypocrellin A at high yield, which is

  18. Native bacterial endophytes promote host growth in a species-specific manner; phytohormone manipulations do not result in common growth responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Hoa Long

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All plants in nature harbor a diverse community of endophytic bacteria which can positively affect host plant growth. Changes in plant growth frequently reflect alterations in phytohormone homoeostasis by plant-growth-promoting (PGP rhizobacteria which can decrease ethylene (ET levels enzymatically by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase or produce indole acetic acid (IAA. Whether these common PGP mechanisms work similarly for different plant species has not been rigorously tested. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated bacterial endophytes from field-grown Solanum nigrum; characterized PGP traits (ACC deaminase activity, IAA production, phosphate solubilization and seedling colonization; and determined their effects on their host, S. nigrum, as well as on another Solanaceous native plant, Nicotiana attenuata. In S. nigrum, a majority of isolates that promoted root growth were associated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. However, in N. attenuata, IAA but not ACC deaminase activity was associated with root growth. Inoculating N. attenuata and S. nigrum with known PGP bacteria from a culture collection (DSMZ reinforced the conclusion that the PGP effects are not highly conserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that natural endophytic bacteria with PGP traits do not have general and predictable effects on the growth and fitness of all host plants, although the underlying mechanisms are conserved.

  19. Characterization of lead resistant endophytic Bacillus sp. MN3-4 and its potential for promoting lead accumulation in metal hyperaccumulator Alnus firma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Mi-Na; Shim, Jaehong; You, Youngnam; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Cho, Min; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Endophytic Bacillus spp. have reduced the lead toxicity in Alnus firma plants. ► The bacteria have sequestered the Pb molecules extracellularly. ► The bacteria have increased the growth rate of plants in the presence of Pb. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from the roots of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Alnus firma. A total of 14 bacterial endophytes were isolated from root samples and assayed for tolerance to heavy metals. Isolate MN3-4 exhibited maximum bioremoval of Pb and was subsequently identified as Bacillus sp. based on 16S rRNA sequences. The pH and initial metal concentration highly influenced the Pb bioremoval rate. The growth of isolate MN3-4 was moderately altered in the presence of metals. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, biological-transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that isolate MN3-4 had extracellularly sequestered the Pb molecules with little intracellular accumulation. Isolate MN3-4 did not harbor pbrA and pbrT genes. Moreover, isolate MN3-4 had the capacity to produce siderophores and indoleacetic acid. A root elongation assay demonstrated an increase (46.25%) in the root elongation of inoculated Brassica napus seedlings compared to that of the control plants. Obtained results pointed out that isolate MN3-4 could potentially reduce heavy metal phytotoxicity and increase Pb accumulation in A. firma plants.

  20. Evaluation of the endophytic nature of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain GYL4 and its efficacy in the control of anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Do; Jeon, Byeong Jun; Han, Jae Woo; Park, Min Young; Kang, Sin Ae; Kim, Beom Seok

    2016-08-01

    Endophytic bacteria are viewed as a potential new source of biofungicides because they have beneficial characteristics as control agents for plant disease. This study was performed to examine the endophytic feature and disease control efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain GYL4 and to identify the antifungal compounds produced by this strain. B. amyloliquefaciens strain GYL4 was isolated from leaf tissue of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.). Anthracnose symptoms were markedly reduced in the leaves of pepper plants colonised by GYL4. An egfp-expressing strain of GYL4 (GYL4-egfp) was constructed and reintroduced into pepper plants, which confirmed its ability to colonise the internal tissues of pepper plants. GYL4-egfp was observed in the root and stem tissues 4 days after treatment and abundantly found in the internal leaf tissue 9 days after treatment. Bacillomycin derivatives purified from the culture extract of GYL4 displayed control efficacy on anthracnose development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chunsim). The present study is the first report on evaluation of the endophytic and systemic nature of B. amyloliquefaciens strain GYL4 and its potential as a biocontrol agent for anthracnose management. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Sesquiterpenes from the Endophyte Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Li, Yong; Liu, Zhen; Li, Li; Qu, Jing; Ma, Shuanggang; Chen, Ridao; Dai, Jungui; Yu, Shishan

    2017-10-27

    From the cultured endophytic fungus Glomerella cingulata isolated from a toxic plant, Gelsemium elegans, one new phenanthrene (1), four new sesquiterpenes (2-5), and three known sesquiterpenes (6-8) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Based on the ECD calculations, the absolute configurations of the new compounds were determined. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in BV2 cells by 50.6, 36.1, and 29.4%, respectively, at 1 μM (positive control curcumin, IC 50 = 4.0 μM).

  2. [Volatile metabolites analysis and molecular identification of endophytic fungi bn12 from Cinnamomum camphora chvar. borneol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilan; Yang, Li; Li, Qin; Shen, Ye; Shao, Aijuan; Lin, Shufang; Huang, Luqi

    2011-12-01

    To identify endophytic fungi bn12 from Cinnamomum camphora chvar, borneol and analysis its volatile metabolites. The endophytic fungi bn12 was identified by morphological observation. volatile metabolites of endophytic fungi bn12 was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrography (GC-MS). Volatile metabolites of endophytic fungi bn12 contain borneol and much indoles. The ITS sequence of endophytic fungi bnl2 is most similar to the ITS sequence of pleosporaceae fungus, particularly C. nisikadoi. Endophytic fungi bn12 is belong to pleosporaceae fungus. It has the ability of producing broneol.

  3. Anti-MRSA activity of oxysporone and xylitol from the endophytic fungus Pestalotia sp. growing on the Sundarbans mangrove plant Heritiera fomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurunnabi, Tauhidur Rahman; Nahar, Lutfun; Al-Majmaie, Shaymaa; Rahman, S M Mahbubur; Sohrab, Md Hossain; Billah, Md Morsaline; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Rahman, M Mukhlesur; Sharples, George P; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2018-02-01

    Heritiera fomes Buch.-Ham., a mangrove plant from the Sundarbans, has adapted to a unique habitat, muddy saline water, anaerobic soil, brackish tidal activities, and high microbial competition. Endophytic fungal association protects this plant from adverse environmental conditions. This plant is used in Bangladeshi folk medicine, but it has not been extensively studied phytochemically, and there is hardly any report on investigation on endophytic fungi growing on this plant. In this study, endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface sterilized cladodes and leaves of H. fomes. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and the fungal strain, Candida albicans. Extracts of Pestalotia sp. showed activities against all test bacterial strains, except that the ethyl acetate extract was inactive against Escherichia coli. The structures of the purified compounds, oxysporone and xylitol, were elucidated by spectroscopic means. The anti-MRSA potential of the isolated compounds were determined against various MRSA strains, that is, ATCC 25923, SA-1199B, RN4220, XU212, EMRSA-15, and EMRSA-16, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 32 to 128 μg/ml. This paper, for the first time, reports on the anti-MRSA property of oxysporone and xylitol, isolation of the endophyte Pestalotia sp. from H. fomes, and isolation of xylitol from a Pestalotia sp. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Inoculation of hybrid poplar with the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638 increases biomass but does not impact leaf level physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, A.; McDonald, K.; Muehlbauer, M. F.; Hoffman, A.; Koenig, K.; Newman, L.; Taghavi, S.; Van Der Lelie, D.

    2011-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria have been shown to provide several advantages to their host, including enhanced growth. Inoculating biofuel species with endophytic bacteria is therefore an attractive option to increase the productivity of biofuel feedstocks. Here, we investigated the effect of inoculating hard wood cuttings of Populus deltoides Bartr. x Populus. nigra L. clone OP367 with Enterobacter sp. 638. After 17 weeks, plants inoculated with Enterobacter sp. 638 had 55% greater total biomass than un-inoculated control plants. Study of gas exchange and fluorescence in developing and mature leaves over a diurnal cycle and over a 5 week measurement campaign revealed no effects of inoculation on photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic water use efficiency or the maximum and operating efficiency of photosystem II. However, plants inoculated with Enterobacter sp. 638 had a canopy that was 39% larger than control plants indicating that the enhanced growth was fueled by increased leaf area, not by improved physiology. Leaf nitrogen content was determined at two stages over the 5 week measurement period. No effect of Enterobacter sp. 638 on leaf nitrogen content was found indicating that the larger plants were acquiring sufficient nitrogen. Enterobacter sp. 638 lacks the genes for N{sub 2} fixation, therefore the increased availability of nitrogen likely resulted from enhanced nitrogen acquisition by the 84% larger root system. These data show that Enterobacter sp. 638 has the potential to dramatically increase productivity in poplar. If fully realized in the production environment, these results indicate that an increase in the environmental and economic viability of poplar as a biofuel feedstock is possible when inoculated with endophytic bacteria like Enterobacter sp. 638.

  5. Illumina-Based Analysis of Endophytic and Rhizosphere Bacterial Diversity of the Coastal Halophyte Messerschmidia sibirica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Ying Tian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes play important roles in coastal ecosystems. However, few reports have described bacterial communities related to halophytes, and the distribution patterns of these bacteria in different plant tissues have been rarely compared. This paper mainly studied the diversity and community structure of endophytic and rhizosphere (Rh bacteria related to the halophyte Messerschmidia sibirica, a dominant species in the coastal zone of Shandong Peninsula, China. We collected leaf (Lf, stem (Sm, root (Rt, Rh, and bulk (Bl control soil samples, and sequenced the V5–V7 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina HiSeq platform to identify bacterial communities originating from different plant habitats. We found that the bacterial richness and diversity in Rh were significantly higher than those in the leaves, Sm, and Rt, but lower than those of the Bl control soil. In total, 37 phyla and 438 genera were identified. Microbial-diversity analysis showed that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla and that Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Sphingomonas, Streptomyces, Microbacterium, Rhizobium, and Nocardioides were the dominant genera. However, there were clear differences in community diversity and structure among the samples. Endophytic bacteria community in Lf, Sm, and Rt shared more similarity than those in Rh and Bl control soil. The numbers of operational taxonomic units exclusive to the Lf, stem, Rt, Rh, and Bl control soil samples were 51, 43, 122, 139, and 922, respectively, implying habitat-specific patterns. Principal coordinate analysis demonstrated differences were apparent in the bacterial communities associated with habitats. On the whole, M. sibirica affected bacterial diversity and structured the bacterial community. This study provides insight into the complex microbial compositions of coastal halophytes.

  6. Full-length RecE enhances linear-linear homologous recombination and facilitates direct cloning for bioprospecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jun; Bian, Xiaoying; Hu, Shengbaio; Wang, Hailong; Huang, Fan; Seibert, Philipp M; Plaza, Alberto; Xia, Liqiu; Müller, Rolf; Stewart, A Francis; Zhang, Youming

    2012-05-01

    Functional analysis of genome sequences requires methods for cloning DNA of interest. However, existing methods, such as library cloning and screening, are too demanding or inefficient for high-throughput application to the wealth of genomic data being delivered by massively parallel sequencing. Here we describe direct DNA cloning based on the discovery that the full-length Rac prophage protein RecE and its partner RecT mediate highly efficient linear-linear homologous recombination mechanistically distinct from conventional recombineering mediated by Redαβ from lambda phage or truncated versions of RecET. We directly cloned all ten megasynthetase gene clusters (each 10–52 kb in length) from Photorhabdus luminescens into expression vectors and expressed two of them in a heterologous host to identify the metabolites luminmycin A and luminmide A/B. We also directly cloned cDNAs and exactly defined segments from bacterial artificial chromosomes. Direct cloning with full-length RecE expands the DNA engineering toolbox and will facilitate bioprospecting for natural products.

  7. Characterization of rhizosphere and endophytic bacterial communities from leaves, stems and roots of medicinal Stellera chamaejasme L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Yan, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Quan; Li, Xiu-Zhuang; Chen, Ji-Xiang; Zhang, Deng-Hong; Zeng, Li-Ming; Qin, Bo

    2014-07-01

    A diverse array of bacteria that inhabit the rhizosphere and different plant organs play a crucial role in plant health and growth. Therefore, a general understanding of these bacterial communities and their diversity is necessary. Using the 16S rRNA gene clone library technique, the bacterial community structure and diversity of the rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria in Stellera chamaejasme compartments were compared and clarified for the first time. Grouping of the sequences obtained showed that members of the Proteobacteria (43.2%), Firmicutes (36.5%) and Actinobacteria (14.1%) were dominant in both samples. Other groups that were consistently found, albeit at lower abundance, were Bacteroidetes (2.1%), Chloroflexi (1.9%), and Cyanobacteria (1.7%). The habitats (rhizosphere vs endophytes) and organs (leaf, stem and root) structured the community, since the Wilcoxon signed rank test indicated that more varied bacteria inhabited the rhizosphere compared to the organs of the plant. In addition, correspondence analysis also showed that differences were apparent in the bacterial communities associated with these distinct habitats. Moreover, principal component analysis revealed that the profiles obtained from the rhizosphere and roots were similar, whereas leaf and stem samples clustered together on the opposite side of the plot from the rhizosphere and roots. Taken together, these results suggested that, although the communities associated with the rhizosphere and organs shared some bacterial species, the associated communities differed in structure and diversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Some endophytes of Juncus trifidus from Tatra Mts. in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a first part of work devoted highland rush endophytes: Penicillium expansum, Cladosporium oxysporum, Arthrinium state of Apiospora montagnei and Aureobasidium pullulans. The basidiomycete strain, possibly Lagarobasidium detriticum was also isolated.

  9. Characterization of indole acetic acid endophyte producers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued Acer Customer

    2015-02-18

    academicjournals.org/AJB. African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Characterization of indole acetic acid endophyte producers in authoctonus Lemna gibba plants from. Xochimilco Lake. Orlando Ortega-Acosta.

  10. Botrytis species: relentless necrotrophic thugs or endophytes gone rogue?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, van J.A.L.; Shaw, M.W.; Grant-Downton, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathology has a long-standing tradition of classifying microbes as pathogens, endophytes or saprophytes. Lifestyles of pathogens are categorized as biotrophic, necrotrophic or hemibiotrophic. Botrytis species are considered by many to be archetypal examples of necrotrophic fungi, with

  11. Endophytes – characteristics and possibilities of application in forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilszczańska Dorota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are organisms that live within the plant tissue without usually causing any symptoms. In plants of natural ecosystems, endophytic fungi are in fact ubiquitous. This review summarizes research carried out on their biology emphasizing their functionality in terms of the host range, the colonization extent, the way of transmission between hosts and their influence on host fitness. The main focus will be on two classes of fungal endophytes, class 2 and 4 (Dark Septate Fungi, due to their potential for practical application in forestry. Raising awareness of the potential of endophytes to enhance the host’s resistance to pathogens, insects and anthropogenic disturbances is a key factor in developing applications for forest management.

  12. Assessment of Plant-Probiotic Performance of Novel Endophytic Bacillus sp. in Talc-Based Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Jasim; Ravi, Aswani; Mathew, Jyothis; Krishnankutty, Radhakrishnan Edayileveettil

    2018-01-25

    Endophytic bacteria are considered to have a plethora of plant growth promoting and anti-phytopathogenic traits to live within the plants. Hence, they have immense promises for plant probiotic development. In the current study, plant probiotic endophytic Bacillus sp. CaB5 which has been previously isolated from Capsicum annuum was investigated for its performance in talc-based formulation. For this, CaB5 was made into formulation with sterile talc, calcium carbonate, and carboxymethyl cellulose. The viability analysis of the formulation by standard plate count and fluorescence methods has confirmed the stable microbial count up to 45 days. Plant probiotic performance of the prepared formulation was analyzed on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and lady's finger (Abelmoschus esculentus). The results showed the formulation treatment to have enhancement effect on seed germination as well as plant growth in both selected plants. The results highlight the potential of CaB5-based formulation for field application to enhance growth of economically important plants.

  13. Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousaf, Sohail [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Afzal, Muhammad [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad (Pakistan); Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Environmental Resources and Technologies Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Brady, Carrie L. [Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa); Sessitsch, Angela, E-mail: angela.sessitsch@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    The genus Enterobacter comprises a range of beneficial plant-associated bacteria showing plant growth promotion. Enterobacter ludwigii belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex and has been reported to include human pathogens but also plant-associated strains with plant beneficial capacities. To assess the role of Enterobacter endophytes in hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization, abundance and expression of CYP153 genes in different plant compartments, three plant species (Italian ryegrass, birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa) were grown in sterile soil spiked with 1% diesel and inoculated with three endophytic E. ludwigii strains. Results showed that all strains were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and efficiently colonized the rhizosphere and plant interior. Two strains, ISI10-3 and BRI10-9, showed highest degradation rates of diesel fuel up to 68% and performed best in combination with Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. All strains expressed the CYP153 gene in all plant compartments, indicating an active role in degradation of diesel in association with plants. - Highlights: > E. ludwigii strains efficiently colonized plants in a non-sterile soil environment. > E. ludwigii strains efficiently expressed alkane degradation genes in plants. > E. ludwigii efficiently degraded alkane contaminations and promoted plant growth. > E. ludwigii interacted more effectively with Italian ryegrass than with other plants. > Degradation activity varied with plant and microbial genotype as well as with time. - Enterobacter ludwigii strains belonging to the E. cloacae complex are able to efficiently degrade alkanes when associated with plants and to promote plant growth.

  14. In vivo antimalarial activity of the endophytic actinobacteria, Streptomyces SUK 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Mohd Shukri; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad; Hassan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Latip, Jalifah; Pethick, Florence; Hunter, Iain S; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Herron, Paul R

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic bacteria, such as Streptomyces, have the potential to act as a source for novel bioactive molecules with medicinal properties. The present study was aimed at assessing the antimalarial activity of crude extract isolated from various strains of actinobacteria living endophytically in some Malaysian medicinal plants. Using the four day suppression test method on male ICR strain mice, compounds produced from three strains of Streptomyces (SUK8, SUK10, and SUK27) were tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei PZZ1/100 in an antimalarial screen using crude extracts at four different concentrations. One of these extracts, isolated from Streptomyces SUK10 obtained from the bark of Shorea ovalis tree, showed inhibition of the test organism and was further tested against P. berghei-infected mice for antimalarial activity at different concentrations. There was a positive relationship between the survival of the infected mouse group treated with 50 µg/kg body weight (bw) of ethyl acetate-SUK10 crude extract and the ability to inhibit the parasites growth. The parasite inhibition percentage for this group showed that 50% of the mice survived for more than 90 days after infection with the parasite. The nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic tree suggested that Streptomyces SUK10 may constitute a new species within the Streptomyces genus. As part of the drug discovery process, these promising finding may contribute to the medicinal and pharmaceutical field for malarial treatment.

  15. Fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari affects nitrogen transformation processes and related microorganisms in the rice rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eYang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari performs an important ecosystem service by assisting its host with acquiring soil nitrogen (N, but little is known regarding how this fungus influences soil N nutrient properties and microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. liquidambari on N dynamics,the abundance and composition of N cycling genes in rhizosphere soil treated with three levels of N (urea. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and diazotrophs were assayed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis at four rice growing stages (S0: before planting, S1: tillering stage, S2: grain filling stage, and S3: ripening stage. A significant increase in the available nitrate and ammonium contents was found in the rhizosphere soil of endophyte-infected rice under low N conditions. Moreover, P. liquidambari significantly increased the potential nitrification rates (PNR, affected the abundance and community structure of AOA, AOB and diazotrophs under low N conditions in the S1 and S2 stages. The root exudates were determined due to their important role in rhizosphere interactions. P. liquidambari colonization altered the exudation of organic compounds by rice roots and P. liquidambari increased the concentration of soluble saccharides, total free amino acids and organic acids

  16. Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, Sohail; Afzal, Muhammad; Reichenauer, Thomas G.; Brady, Carrie L.; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The genus Enterobacter comprises a range of beneficial plant-associated bacteria showing plant growth promotion. Enterobacter ludwigii belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex and has been reported to include human pathogens but also plant-associated strains with plant beneficial capacities. To assess the role of Enterobacter endophytes in hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization, abundance and expression of CYP153 genes in different plant compartments, three plant species (Italian ryegrass, birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa) were grown in sterile soil spiked with 1% diesel and inoculated with three endophytic E. ludwigii strains. Results showed that all strains were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and efficiently colonized the rhizosphere and plant interior. Two strains, ISI10-3 and BRI10-9, showed highest degradation rates of diesel fuel up to 68% and performed best in combination with Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. All strains expressed the CYP153 gene in all plant compartments, indicating an active role in degradation of diesel in association with plants. - Highlights: → E. ludwigii strains efficiently colonized plants in a non-sterile soil environment. → E. ludwigii strains efficiently expressed alkane degradation genes in plants. → E. ludwigii efficiently degraded alkane contaminations and promoted plant growth. → E. ludwigii interacted more effectively with Italian ryegrass than with other plants. → Degradation activity varied with plant and microbial genotype as well as with time. - Enterobacter ludwigii strains belonging to the E. cloacae complex are able to efficiently degrade alkanes when associated with plants and to promote plant growth.

  17. Inoculating plants with the endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas sp. Ph6-gfp to reduce phenanthrene contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Liu, Juan; Gao, Yanzheng; Sheng, Yuehui; Kang, Fuxing; Waigi, Michael Gatheru

    2015-12-01

    Plant organic contamination poses a serious threat to the safety of agricultural products and human health worldwide, and the association of endophytic bacteria with host plants may decrease organic pollutants in planta. In this study, we firstly determined the growth response and biofilm formation of endophytic Pseudomonas sp. Ph6-gfp, and then systematically evaluated the performance of different plant colonization methods (seed soaking (SS), root soaking (RS), leaf painting (LP)) for circumventing the risk of plant phenanthrene (PHE) contamination. After inoculation for 48 h, strain Ph6-gfp grew efficiently with PHE, oxalic acid, or malic acid as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, strain Ph6-gfp could form robust biofilms in LB medium. In greenhouse hydroponic experiments, strain Ph6-gfp could actively colonize inoculated plants internally, and plants colonized with Ph6-gfp showed a higher capacity for PHE removal. Compared with the Ph6-gfp-free treatment, the accumulations of PHE in Ph6-gfp-colonized plants via SS, RS, and LP were 20.1, 33.1, and 7.1 %, respectively, lower. Our results indicate that inoculating plants with Ph6-gfp could lower the risk of plant PHE contamination. RS was most efficient for improving PHE removal in whole plant bodies by increasing the cell numbers of Ph6-gfp in plant roots. The findings in this study provide an optimized method to strain Ph6-gfp reduce plant PAH residues, which may be applied to agricultural production in PAH-contaminated soil.

  18. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingfeng; Yu, Ruiting; Wang, Xiaohan; Mao, Ziling; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75μg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27μg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18μg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17μg/mL and 74.62μg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Puji Astuti; Sudarsono Sudarsono; Khoirun Nisak; Giri Wisnu Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatograp...

  20. Endophytic actinobacteria of medicinal plants: diversity and bioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Agarkar, Gauravi; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes are the microorganisms that exist inside the plant tissues without having any negative impact on the host plant. Medicinal plants constitute the huge diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of economical importance. These microbes have huge potential to synthesis of numerous novel compounds that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. It is of prime importance to focus the present research on practical utilization of this microbial group in order to fi...

  1. Endophyte communities vary in the needles of Norway spruce clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Tiina; Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Tuomivirta, Tero; Haapanen, Matti; Müller, Michael; Pennanen, Taina

    2013-03-01

    Endophytic fungi show no symptoms of their presence but can influence the performance and vitality of host trees. The potential use of endophytes to indicate vitality has been previously realized, but a standard protocol has yet to be developed due to an incomplete understanding of the factors that regulate endophyte communities. Using a culture-free molecular approach, we examined the extent to which host genotype influences the abundance, species richness, and community composition of endophytic fungi in Norway spruce needles. Briefly, total DNA was extracted from the surface-sterilized needles of 30 clones grown in a nursery field and the copy number of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA was estimated by quantitative PCR. Fungal species richness and community composition were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. We found that community structure and ITS copy number varied among spruce clones, whereas species richness did not. Host traits interacting with endophyte communities included needle surface area and the location of cuttings in the experimental area. Although Lophodermium piceae is considered the dominant needle endophyte of Norway spruce, we detected this species in only 33% of samples. The most frequently observed fungus (66%) was the potentially pathogenic Phoma herbarum. Interestingly, ITS copy number of endophytic fungi correlated negatively with the richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi and thus potential interactions between fungal communities and their influence on the host tree are discussed. Our results suggest that in addition to environmental factors, endophyte communities of spruce needles are determined by host tree identity and needle surface area. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on the factors modulating indole-3-acetic acid production in endophytic bacterial isolates from Piper nigrum and molecular analysis of ipdc gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, B; Jimtha John, C; Shimil, V; Jyothis, M; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-09-01

    The study mainly aimed quantitative analysis of IAA produced by endophytic bacteria under various conditions including the presence of extract from Piper nigrum. Analysis of genetic basis of IAA production was also conducted by studying the presence and diversity of the ipdc gene among the selected isolates. Five endophytic bacteria isolated previously from P. nigrum were used for the study. The effect of temperature, pH, agitation, tryptophan concentration and plant extract on modulating IAA production of selected isolates was analysed by colorimetric method. Comparative and quantitative analysis of IAA production by colorimetric isolates under optimal culture condition was analysed by HPTLC method. Presence of ipdc gene and thereby biosynthetic basis of IAA production among the selected isolates were studied by PCR-based amplification and subsequent insilico analysis of sequence obtained. Among the selected bacterial isolates from P. nigrum, isolate PnB 8 (Klebsiella pneumoniae) was found to have the maximum yield of IAA under various conditions optimized and was confirmed by colorimetric, HPLC and HPTLC analysis. Very interestingly, the study showed stimulating effect of phytochemicals from P. nigrum on IAA production by endophytic bacteria isolated from same plant. This study is unique because of the selection of endophytes from same source for comparative and quantitative analysis of IAA production under various conditions. Study on stimulatory effect of phytochemicals on bacterial IAA production as explained in the study is a novel approach. Studies on molecular basis of IAA production which was confirmed by sequence analysis of ipdc gene make the study scientifically attractive. Even though microbial production of IAA is well known, current report on detailed optimization, effect of plant extract and molecular confirmation of IAA biosynthesis is comparatively novel in its approach. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. [Distribution of endophytic fungi in Oxytropis glabra DC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiwu; Lu, Hao; He, Ping; Yan, Dujian; Zhao, Baoyu; Zhang, Liang; Wen, Weili; Yang, Xiaowen

    2013-05-04

    Endophytic fungi were detected and isolated from the stems, leaves, petioles and seeds of Oxytropis glabra DC sampled from Alashan of Inner Mongolia to investigate the infection rate and species distribution in different tissues. The endophytic fungi infection rate and distribution of species in different tissues were investigated by making temporary slides, staining, isolation and identification. Endophytic fungi were detected and observed from all parts (stems, leaves, petioles and seeds) of the plant by temporary slides staining. A total of 79 isolates were cultivated from 4 different tissues by common separation methods, which belonged to 10 genera after identification. The infection rate and separation rate were seeds > leaves > stems > petioles. Undifilum oxytropis, Embellisia sp. L12 and Fusarium equiseti were the dominant species in this plant with the relative isolate frequency 77.32%, 64.00% and 50.00%, respectively. Endophytic fungi were commonly found in the all parts of Oxytropis glabra DC. There was an obviously difference in quantity, species and distribution of the endophytic fungi between different parts of plant. Seeds and leaves were the most vulnerable to infection and colonization by the endophytic fungi.

  4. Antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the botanical medicine goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Joseph M; Kaur, Amninder; Raja, Huzefa A; Kellogg, Joshua J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2016-09-01

    The potential of fungal endophytes to alter or contribute to plant chemistry and biology has been the topic of a great deal of recent interest. For plants that are used medicinally, it has been proposed that endophytes might play an important role in biological activity. With this study, we sought to identify antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the medicinal plant goldenseal ( Hydrastis canadensis L., Ranunculaceae), a plant used in traditional medicine to treat infection. A total of 23 fungal cultures were obtained from surface-sterilized samples of H. canadensis roots, leaves and seeds. Eleven secondary metabolites were isolated from these fungal endophytes, five of which had reported antimicrobial activity. Hydrastis canadensis plant material was then analyzed for the presence of fungal metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolving power mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial compound alternariol monomethyl ether was detected both as a metabolite of the fungal endophyte Alternaria spp. isolated from H. canadensis seeds, and as a component of an extract from the H. canadensis seed material. Notably, fungi of the Alternaria genus were isolated from three separate accessions of H. canadensis plant material collected in a time period spanning 5 years. The concentration of alternariol monomethyl ether (991 mg/kg in dry seed material) was in a similar range to that previously reported for metabolites of ecologically important fungal endophytes. The seed extracts themselves, however, did not possess antimicrobial activity.

  5. Distribution of the Endophytic Fungi in Apple Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminudin Afandhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi have roles to protect the plant from herbivorous insects and diseases, and to support the absorption process of nutrients needed by plants for photosynthesis. Related to the important role of endophytic fungi, research was aimed to identify fungal endophytes associated with young, mature and old leaves on apple and to evaluate the effect of leaf ages on the abundance and diversity of endophytic fungi. The research was conducted in Biological Control Laboratory, Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya from May to September 2016. Apple leaves sampling was done diagonally, and taken from nine apple trees. Based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, 38 isolates were identified. In the old apple leaves, it obtained 17 isolates that consisted of 5 genera, mature leaves obtained 14 isolates consisted of 6 genera, and young leaves 7 isolates obtained consists of 2 genera. The mature leaves have highest abundance and diversity of endophytic fungi compared to young and old leaves. Endophytic fungi apple leaf dominated by Aspergillus. Mature and young leaves were different from old one based on Bray-Curtis similarity.

  6. Exploring Arabidopsis thaliana Root Endophytes via Single-Cell Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Derek; Woyke, Tanja; Tringe, Susannah; Dangl, Jeff

    2014-03-19

    Land plants grow in association with microbial communities both on their surfaces and inside the plant (endophytes). The relationships between microbes and their host can vary from pathogenic to mutualistic. Colonization of the endophyte compartment occurs in the presence of a sophisticated plant immune system, implying finely tuned discrimination of pathogens from mutualists and commensals. Despite the importance of the microbiome to the plant, relatively little is known about the specific interactions between plants and microbes, especially in the case of endophytes. The vast majority of microbes have not been grown in the lab, and thus one of the few ways of studying them is by examining their DNA. Although metagenomics is a powerful tool for examining microbial communities, its application to endophyte samples is technically difficult due to the presence of large amounts of host plant DNA in the sample. One method to address these difficulties is single-cell genomics where a single microbial cell is isolated from a sample, lysed, and its genome amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) to produce enough DNA for genome sequencing. This produces a single-cell amplified genome (SAG). We have applied this technology to study the endophytic microbes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Extensive 16S gene profiling of the microbial communities in the roots of multiple inbred A. thaliana strains has identified 164 OTUs as being significantly enriched in all the root endophyte samples compared to their presence in bulk soil.

  7. Differential methods of localisation of fungal endophytes in the seagrasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sections of three seagrass species (Halophila ovalis, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule pinifolia were assessed for endophytes based on differential staining using light and fluorescence microscopy method. Acridine orange and aniline blue detected endophytic fungi in 20% and 10% of the segments, respectively, whereas lactophenol cotton blue was more sensitive to detect the fungal hyphae in 70% of the segments. Hyphae were the principal fungal structures generally observed under the cuticle, within the epidermal cells, mesophyll (Parenchyma cells and occasionally within the vascular tissue that varied in type, size and location within the leaf tissue. Present study also recorded the sporulation for the first time from the seagrass endophytes. Successfully amplified products of the ITS region of endophytic fungal DNA, directly from seagrass tissue and also from culture-dependent fungal DNA clearly depicted the presence of endophytic fungi in H. ovalis with two banding patterns (903 and 1381 bp confirming the presence of two dominant fungal genera. The fingerprinting of endophytic fungal community within the seagrass tissue was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE that derived with multiple bands that clarified the presence of more than one taxon within the seagrass tissue.

  8. Endophytes : Exploiting biodiversity for the improvement of natural product-based drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, Agata; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Endophytes, microorganisms that colonize internal tissues of all plant species, create a huge biodiversity with yet unknown novel natural products, presumed to push forward the frontiers of drug discovery. Next to the clinically acknowledged antineoplastic agent, paclitaxel, endophyte research has

  9. Diversity, Phylogeny, anticancer and antimicrobial potential of fungal endophytes associated with Monarda citriodora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Meenu; Phull, Shipra; Vaid, Shagun; Singh, Shashank

    2017-03-07

    Present study focuses on diversity and distribution analysis of endophytic fungi associated with different tissues of the Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag. (Lamiaceae/Labiatae). Anticancer and antimicrobial potential of isolated endophytes have also been investigated. A total of twenty eight fungal endophytes belonging to 11 different genera were isolated from this plant. All the endophytic fungi belonged to the Ascomycota phylum. The leaves were immensely rich in fungal species, while roots showed the highest tissue specific fungal dominance. Out of 28 fungal species, 72% endophytic extracts were found cytotoxic against one or more human cancer cell lines. The most prominent anticancer activity (IC 50 value endophytic community with anticancer and antimicrobial activities. The isolated endophyte MC-24 L (C. tenuissimum) has the potential to be a source of novel cytotoxic/antimicrobial compounds. This is the first report of diversity of fungal endophytes isolated from M. citriodora.

  10. Dynamics of Seed-Borne Rice Endophytes on Early Plant Growth Stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, P.R.; Hardoim, C.C.P.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However,

  11. Dynamics of seed-borne rice endophytes on early plant growth stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, Pablo R.; Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; van Overbeek, Leonard S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are ubiquitous to virtually all terrestrial plants. With the increasing appreciation of studies that unravel the mutualistic interactions between plant and microbes, we increasingly value the beneficial functions of endophytes that improve plant growth and development. However,

  12. Antibacterial Inhibition Test of Endophytic Fungi on Lime Peel (Citrus Aurantifolia) Against Staphylococcus Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Muhammad Azdar; Hasnawati, Hasnawati; Sernita, Sernita; Sulistia, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi is fungi that lives within plant tissue and it is not harm to the plant it self. Endophytic fungi can produce a substance potencial to be antibacteria. This research aimed to test the antibacterial effect of endophytic fungi that has been isolated from lime skin Citrus auranti folia of Staphylococcus aureus. The methods that has been used to test antibacterial effect was paper disc method, done by gluing paper disc containing of endophytic fungi in agar combination media that...

  13. Bioactivity of fungal endophytes as a function of endophyte taxonomy and the taxonomy and distribution of their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Sarah J; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Ibañez, Alicia; Spadafora, Carmenza; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytes--fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease--are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG) against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets.

  14. Bioactivity of fungal endophytes as a function of endophyte taxonomy and the taxonomy and distribution of their host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Higginbotham

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes--fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease--are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets.

  15. Controlling Myzus persicae with recombinant endophytic fungi Chaetomium globosum expressing Pinellia ternata agglutinin: using recombinant endophytic fungi to control aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, G; Lan, N; Ma, X; Yu, Z; Zhao, X

    2011-05-01

    Sap-sucking insect pests have become the major threats to many crops in recent years; however, only a few biopesticides have been developed for controlling those pests. Here, we developed a novel pest management strategy, which uses endophytes to express anti-pest plant lectins. The fungal endophyte of Chaetomium globosum YY-11 with anti-fungal activities was isolated from rape seedlings. Pinellia ternata agglutinin (pta) gene was cloned into YY-11 mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The positive transformants, as selected by antibiotic resistance, were evaluated using PCR and Western blot assay. We found that the recombinant endophytes colonized most of the crops, and the resistance of rape inoculated with recombinant endophytic fungi significantly inhibited the growth and reproduction of Myzus persicae. Our results showed that the recombinant endophytes expressing Pinellia ernata agglutinin (PTA) may endow hosts with resistance against sap-sucking pests. This research may have important implications for using endophytes to deliver insecticidal plant lectin proteins to control sap-sucking pests for crop protection. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Isolation and identification of fungal endophytes from grasses on the Oregon coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes have been shown to improve abiotic and biotic stress response in plants. Grasses growing along the Oregon coast are exposed to harsh conditions and may harbor endophytes that enable them to survive and grow under these conditions. Endophytic fungi were isolated from thirty-four gra...

  17. Properties of bacterial endophytes and their proposed role in plant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, Pablo R.; van Overbeek, Leo S.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes live inside plants for at least part of their life cycle. Studies of the interaction of endophytes with their host plants and their function within their hosts are important to address the ecological relevance of endophytes. The modulation of ethylene levels in plants by

  18. Endophyte mediated plant-herbivore interactions or cross resistance to fungi and insect herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari Saikkonen; Marjo Helander

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are generally considered to be plant mutualists that protect the host plant from pathogens and herbivores. Defensive mutualism appears to hold true particularly for seed-transmitted, alkaloid producing, grass endophytes. However, we propose that the mutualistic nature of plant-endophyte interactions via enhanced plant resistance to pathogens and...

  19. New phenyl derivatives from endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes AIL8 derived of mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Xiuping; Wang, Yizhu; Wang, Junfeng; Zhou, Xuefeng; Yang, Bin; Liu, Juan; Yang, Xianwen; Wang, Yi; Liu, Yonghong

    2014-06-01

    Two new aromatic butyrolactones, flavipesins A (1) and B (2), two new natural products (3 and 4), and a known phenyl dioxolanone (5) were isolated from marine-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes. The structures of compounds 1-5 were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS analysis, the absolute configurations were assigned by optical rotation and CD data, and the stereochemistry of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallography analysis. 1 demonstrated lower MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus (8.0 μg/mL) and Bacillus subtillis (0.25 μg/mL). 1 also showed the unique antibiofilm activity of penetration through the biofilm matrix and kills live bacteria inside mature S. aureus biofilm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using an endophytic fungal supernatant of Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs from supernatant of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from the healthy leaves of Raphanus sativus is studied. The synthesized AgNPs are characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The structural analysis is done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The stability of AgNPs is studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS method. The size and shape of AgNPs are observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM and found to be spherical with an average particles size of 4–30 nm. Further, these AgNPs have been found to be highly toxic against human pathogenic bacteria, suggesting the possibility of using AgNPs as efficient antibacterial agents.

  1. Developmental peculiarities and seed-borne endophytes in quinoa: Omnipresent, robust bacilli contribute to plant fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea ePitzschke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. A seed-borne microbiome was discovered and its potential role in early development and stress resistance investigated.Methods involved germination and drought exposure assays, histochemical detection of reactive oxygen species, and diverse tests with seed(ling material to assess microbial occurrence, release and proliferation. Quinoa´s microbial partners were biochemically, microscopically and taxonomically characterized.Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by bacteria of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are mobile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their strong catalase activity and high superoxide contents they can modify host redox properties. One outcome is cell expansion, enabling quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment.Quinoa´s immediate confrontation with foreign ROS and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase and cosmetics (catalase industry. An exciting question arising from this work is: Can quinoa´s microbiome be transferred to improve stress resistance in other plant species?

  2. Endophytic fungus-vascular plant-insect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, A; Wheatley, W; Popay, A

    2012-06-01

    Insect association with fungi has a long history. Theories dealing with the evolution of insect herbivory indicate that insects used microbes including fungi as their principal food materials before flowering plants evolved. Subtlety and the level of intricacy in the interactions between insects and fungi indicate symbiosis as the predominant ecological pattern. The nature of the symbiotic interaction that occurs between two organisms (the insect and the fungus), may be either mutualistic or parasitic, or between these two extremes. However, the triangular relationship involving three organisms, viz., an insect, a fungus, and a vascular plant is a relationship that is more complicated than what can be described as either mutualism or parasitism, and may represent facets of both. Recent research has revealed such a complex relationship in the vertically transmitted type-I endophytes living within agriculturally important grasses and the pestiferous insects that attack them. The intricacy of the association depends on the endophytic fungus-grass association and the insect present. Secondary compounds produced in the endophytic fungus-grass association can provide grasses with resistance to herbivores resulting in mutualistic relationship between the fungus and the plant that has negative consequences for herbivorous insects. The horizontally transmitted nongrass type-II endophytes are far less well studied and as such their ecological roles are not fully understood. This forum article explores the intricacy of dependence in such complex triangular relationships drawing from well-established examples from the fungi that live as endophytes in vascular plants and how they impact on the biology and evolution of free-living as well as concealed (e.g., gall-inducing, gall-inhabiting) insects. Recent developments with the inoculation of strains of type-I fungal endophytes into grasses and their commercialization are discussed, along with the possible roles the endophytic

  3. Molecular identification of aiiA homologous gene from endophytic Enterobacter species and in silico analysis of putative tertiary structure of AHL-lactonase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, P S; Rai, V Ravishankar

    2014-01-03

    The aiiA homologous gene known to encode AHL- lactonase enzyme which hydrolyze the N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing signaling molecules produced by Gram negative bacteria. In this study, the degradation of AHL molecules was determined by cell-free lysate of endophytic Enterobacter species. The percentage of quorum quenching was confirmed and quantified by HPLC method (pEnterobacter asburiae VT65, Enterobacter aerogenes VT66 and Enterobacter ludwigii VT70 strains. Sequence alignment analysis revealed the presence of two zinc binding sites, "HXHXDH" motif as well as tyrosine residue at the position 194. Based on known template available at Swiss-Model, putative tertiary structure of AHL-lactonase was constructed. The result showed that novel endophytic strains of Enterobacter genera encode the novel aiiA homologous gene and its structural importance for future study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Beneficial Bacteria Isolated from Grapevine Inner Tissues Shape Arabidopsis thaliana Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldan, Enrico; Nigris, Sebastiano; Romualdi, Chiara; D’Alessandro, Stefano; Clocchiatti, Anna; Zottini, Michela; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Squartini, Andrea; Baldan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA-like molecule biosynthesis, siderophore and lytic enzyme secretion. Many of the isolates were able to mobilize phosphate (33%), release ammonium (39%), secrete siderophores (38%) and a limited part of them synthetized IAA and IAA-like molecules (5%). Effects of each of the 377 grapevine beneficial bacteria on Arabidopsis thaliana root development were also analyzed to discern plant growth-promoting abilities (PGP) of the different strains, that often exhibit more than one PGP trait. A supervised model-based clustering analysis highlighted six different classes of PGP effects on root architecture. A. thaliana DR5::GUS plantlets, inoculated with IAA-producing endophytes, resulted in altered root growth and enhanced auxin response. Overall, the results indicate that the Glera PGP endospheric culturable microbiome could contribute, by structural root changes, to obtain water and nutrients increasing plant adaptation and survival. From the complete cultivable collection, twelve promising endophytes mainly belonging to the Bacillus but also to Micrococcus and Pantoea genera, were selected for further investigations in the grapevine host plants towards future application in sustainable management of vineyards. PMID:26473358

  5. Plant growth-promoting activities for bacterial and fungal endophytes isolated from medicinal plant of Teucrium polium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Saad El-Din

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal endophytes are widespread inhabitants inside plant tissues and have been shown to assist plant growth and health. However, little is known about plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) of medicinal plants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify bacterial and fungal endophytes of Teucrium polium and to characterize plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of these endophytes. Seven bacterial endophytes were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillu...

  6. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) roots

    KAUST Repository

    Garcias Bonet, Neus

    2016-03-09

    Biological nitrogen fixation by diazotrophic bacteria in seagrass rhizosphere and leaf epiphytic community is an important source of nitrogen required for plant growth. However, the presence of endophytic diazotrophs remains unclear in seagrass tissues. Here, we assess the presence, diversity and taxonomy of nitrogen-fixing bacteria within surface-sterilized roots of Posidonia oceanica. Moreover, we analyze the nitrogen isotopic signature of seagrass tissues in order to notice atmospheric nitrogen fixation. We detected nitrogen-fixing bacteria by nifH gene amplification in 13 out of the 78 roots sampled, corresponding to 9 locations out of 26 meadows. We detected two different types of bacterial nifH sequences associated with P. oceanica roots, which were closely related to sequences previously isolated from the rhizosphere of a salt marsh cord grass and a putative anaerobe. Nitrogen content of seagrass tissues showed low isotopic signatures in all the sampled meadows, pointing out the atmospheric origin of the assimilated nitrogen by seagrasses. However, this was not related with the presence of endophytic nitrogen fixers, suggesting the nitrogen fixation occurring in rhizosphere and in the epiphytic community could be an important source of nitrogen for P. oceanica. The low diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria reported here suggests species-specific relationships between diazotrophs and P. oceanica, revealing possible symbiotic interactions that could play a major role in nitrogen acquisition by seagrasses in oligotrophic environments where they form lush meadows.

  7. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

    2014-12-01

    Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  8. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Astuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  9. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

  10. Solamargine production by a fungal endophyte of Solanum nigrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawary, S S; Mohammed, R; AbouZid, S F; Bakeer, W; Ebel, R; Sayed, A M; Rateb, M E

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to isolate, identify and characterize endophytes from Solanum nigrum L. as a new source of the cytotoxic steroidal alkaloid solamargine. Three endophytic fungi; SNFSt, SNFL and SNFF were isolated from S. nigrum and identified by molecular methods. Preliminary TLC screening showed a common metabolite between the plant and one of these fungi, SNFSt which was identified as Aspergillus flavus based on the phylogenetic analysis of its ITS sequence. Subsequent LC-HRESIMS analysis unambiguously established the identity of the compound based on its molecular formula and its characteristic MS(2) fragmentation pattern as solamargine. To ascertain its identity, fungal solamargine was isolated using preparative TLC and its structure was fully characterized using NMR spectroscopic techniques and high-resolution mass spectrometric analysis. Solamargine production could be followed and quantified for a total of 11 generations of this fungus with a titer of ~250-300 μg l(-1) . This study represents one of the first examples where host plant-derived compounds have been demonstrated to be steadily produced by an endophytic fungi in sizeable quantities. The production of solamargine (found in the host plant) by a cultivable fungal endophyte at a significant yield is a new observation. Further experiments such as media optimization, OSMAC (One Strain Many Compounds) or epigenetic modifiers could be applied to enhance the fungal solamargine production. The endophytic fungus SNFSt isolated from S. nigrum may be utilized for quantitative production of the potent cytotoxic metabolite solamargine. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Exploitation of endophytic fungus as a potential source of biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawed Anjum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel demand is unquestionable in order to reduce greenhouse gaseous emission which can lead to climatic changes and global warming effect. Finding sufficient supply of clean energy for the upcoming is one of the society’s most daunting challenges and is directly linked with global stability, economic prosperity and quality of life. Endophytic microbes reside in the healthy part of the plant without causing any symptoms of disease. It is well known that the endophytic microbes produces wide variety of bioactive compound having, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, immunosuppressive drugs, and volatile organic compounds having similarity with conventional diesel fuel. Now the endophytic fungi, have also been known to possess a suitable lipid matrix at high concentrations and volatile organic compounds having similarity with conventional diesel fuel that make them promising sources for next generation biofuels. This would be more efficient and having lesser number of biosynthetic steps in production, can be brought to immediate use in the existing internal combustion engines without taking about any major modification in automobile design. The present article therefore aims to review the current status of research in the field of alternative source of energy emphasizing endophytic fungi as a source of biofuel precursor, in order to encourage and generate interest among research groups across India and the world for initiating and undertaking more enthusiastic and intensive research activity on endophytic fungi from the Indian subcontinent having the potential to make fuel-related hydrocarbons.

  12. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-02-03

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement.

  13. Bioprospecting Red Sea Coastal Ecosystems for Culturable Microorganisms and Their Antimicrobial Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amoudi, Soha; Essack, Magbubah; Simões, Marta F; Bougouffa, Salim; Soloviev, Irina; Archer, John A C; Lafi, Feras F; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2016-09-10

    Microorganisms that inhabit unchartered unique soil such as in the highly saline and hot Red Sea lagoons on the Saudi Arabian coastline, represent untapped sources of potentially new bioactive compounds. In this study, a culture-dependent approach was applied to three types of sediments: mangrove mud (MN), microbial mat (MM), and barren soil (BS), collected from Rabigh harbor lagoon (RHL) and Al-Kharrar lagoon (AKL). The isolated bacteria were evaluated for their potential to produce bioactive compounds. The phylogenetic characterization of 251 bacterial isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, supported their assignment to five different phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. Fifteen putative novel species were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other strain sequences in the NCBI database, being ≤98%. We demonstrate that 49 of the 251 isolates exhibit the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds. Additionally, at least one type of biosynthetic gene sequence, responsible for the synthesis of secondary metabolites, was recovered from 25 of the 49 isolates. Moreover, 10 of the isolates had a growth inhibition effect towards Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas syringae. We report the previously unknown antimicrobial activity of B. borstelensis, P. dendritiformis and M. salipaludis against all three indicator pathogens. Our study demonstrates the evidence of diverse cultured microbes associated with the Red Sea harbor/lagoon environments and their potential to produce antimicrobial compounds.

  14. Bioprospecting Red Sea Coastal Ecosystems for Culturable Microorganisms and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha Al-Amoudi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms that inhabit unchartered unique soil such as in the highly saline and hot Red Sea lagoons on the Saudi Arabian coastline, represent untapped sources of potentially new bioactive compounds. In this study, a culture-dependent approach was applied to three types of sediments: mangrove mud (MN, microbial mat (MM, and barren soil (BS, collected from Rabigh harbor lagoon (RHL and Al-Kharrar lagoon (AKL. The isolated bacteria were evaluated for their potential to produce bioactive compounds. The phylogenetic characterization of 251 bacterial isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, supported their assignment to five different phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. Fifteen putative novel species were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other strain sequences in the NCBI database, being ≤98%. We demonstrate that 49 of the 251 isolates exhibit the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds. Additionally, at least one type of biosynthetic gene sequence, responsible for the synthesis of secondary metabolites, was recovered from 25 of the 49 isolates. Moreover, 10 of the isolates had a growth inhibition effect towards Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas syringae. We report the previously unknown antimicrobial activity of B. borstelensis, P. dendritiformis and M. salipaludis against all three indicator pathogens. Our study demonstrates the evidence of diverse cultured microbes associated with the Red Sea harbor/lagoon environments and their potential to produce antimicrobial compounds.

  15. Bioprospecting Red Sea Coastal Ecosystems for Culturable Microorganisms and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    KAUST Repository

    Al Amoudi, Soha

    2016-09-10

    Microorganisms that inhabit unchartered unique soil such as in the highly saline and hot Red Sea lagoons on the Saudi Arabian coastline, represent untapped sources of potentially new bioactive compounds. In this study, a culture-dependent approach was applied to three types of sediments: mangrove mud (MN), microbial mat (MM), and barren soil (BS), collected from Rabigh harbor lagoon (RHL) and Al-Kharrar lagoon (AKL). The isolated bacteria were evaluated for their potential to produce bioactive compounds. The phylogenetic characterization of 251 bacterial isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, supported their assignment to five different phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. Fifteen putative novel species were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other strain sequences in the NCBI database, being ≤98%. We demonstrate that 49 of the 251 isolates exhibit the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds. Additionally, at least one type of biosynthetic gene sequence, responsible for the synthesis of secondary metabolites, was recovered from 25 of the 49 isolates. Moreover, 10 of the isolates had a growth inhibition effect towards Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas syringae. We report the previously unknown antimicrobial activity of B. borstelensis, P. dendritiformis and M. salipaludis against all three indicator pathogens. Our study demonstrates the evidence of diverse cultured microbes associated with the Red Sea harbor/lagoon environments and their potential to produce antimicrobial compounds.

  16. Bioprospecting for β-lactam resistance genes using a metagenomics-guided strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Yang, Ying; Che, You; Xia, Yu; Li, Liguan; Xiong, Wenguang; Zhang, Tong

    2017-08-01

    Emergence of new antibiotic resistance bacteria poses a serious threat to human health, which is largely attributed to the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this work, a metagenomics-guided strategy consisting of metagenomic analysis and function validation was proposed for rapidly identifying novel ARGs from hot spots of ARG dissemination, such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and animal feces. We used an antibiotic resistance gene database to annotate 76 putative β-lactam resistance genes from the metagenomes of sludge and chicken feces. Among these 76 candidate genes, 25 target genes that shared 40~70% amino acid identity to known β-lactamases were cloned by PCR from the metagenomes. Their resistances to four β-lactam antibiotics were further demonstrated. Furthermore, the validated ARGs were used as the reference sequences to identify novel ARGs in eight environmental samples, suggesting the necessity of re-examining the profiles of ARGs in environmental samples using the validated novel ARG sequences. This metagenomics-guided pipeline does not rely on the activity of ARGs during the initial screening process and may specifically select novel ARG sequences for function validation, which make it suitable for the high-throughput screening of novel ARGs from environmental metagenomes.

  17. Fungal endophytes as prolific source of phytochemicals and other bioactive natural products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisa, Humeera; Kamili, Azra N; Nawchoo, Irshad A; Shafi, Sana; Shameem, Nowsheen; Bandh, Suhaib A

    2015-05-01

    Endophytic fungi are those that live internally in apparently healthy and asymptomatic hosts. Endophytic fungi appear to be ubiquitous; indeed, no study has yet shown the existence of a plant species without endophytes. High species diversity is another characteristic of endophytic mycobiota which is depicted by the fact that it is quite common for endophyte surveys to find assemblages consisting of more than 30 fungal species per host plant species. Medicinal plants had been used to isolate and characterize directly the bioactive metabolites. However, the discovery of fungal endophytes inside these plants with capacity to produce the same compounds shifted the focus of new drug sources from plants to fungi. Bioactive natural products from endophytic fungi, isolated from different plant species, are attracting considerable attention from natural product chemists and biologists alike which is clearly depicted by the steady increase of publications devoted to this topic during the recent years. This review will highlight the chemical potential of endophytic fungi with focus on the detection of pharmaceutically valuable plant constituents as products of fungal biosynthesis. In addition, it will cover newly discovered endophytic fungi and also new bioactive metabolites reported in recent years from fungal endophytes. It summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information on bioactive compounds from endophytic fungi by having done a thorough survey of literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibacterial Inhibition Test of Endophytic Fungi on Lime Peel (Citrus aurantifolia Against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azdar Setiawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi is fungi that lives within plant tissue and it is not harm to the plant it self. Endophytic fungi can produce a substance potencial to be antibacteria. This research aimed to test the antibacterial effect of endophytic fungi that has been isolated from lime skin Citrus auranti folia of Staphylococcus aureus. The methods that has been used to test antibacterial effect was paper disc method, done by gluing paper disc containing of endophytic fungi in agar combination media that has been smear with Staphylococcus aureus. The result of this researh is both endophytic fungi has effect as antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus, but the type II of endophytic fungi has more effective and stronger antibacterial effect compare to endophytic fungi type I.

  19. Endophytic fungi in Scots pine needles: Spatial variation and consequences of simulated acid rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helander, M.L.; Neuvonen, S. (Turku Univ., Turku (F)); Sieber, T.N.; Petrini, O. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1994-01-01

    Within- and among-tree variation in assemblages of endophytic fungi in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles were studied in a subarctic area where background pollution values are low; the effects of tree density and prolonged simulated acid rain on the occurrence of endophytic fungi were investigated. The needle endophyte most frequently isolated was Cenangium ferruginosum, accounting for 64% of all fungal individuals, followed by Cyclaneusma minus (12% of all individuals). Old needles were colonized more frequently by endophytes than young ones. In young needles the colonization by endophytes increased during the summer, whereas in old ones no seasonal variation was detected. Endophyte colonization was positively correlated with stand density and was reduced on pines treated with spring water acidified with either sulphuric acid alone or in combination with nitric acid. In contrast, nitric acid alone did not affect endophyte colonization. 37 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF PLANT-ASSOCIATED BACTERIA AND THEIR POTENTIAL IN ENHANCING PHYTOREMEDIATION EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Piński

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants in order to cleanup pollutants including xenobiotics and heavy metals from soil, water and air. Inoculation of plants with plant growth promoting endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria can enhance efficiency of phytoremediation. Genomic analysis of four plant-associated strains belonging to the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia species revealed the presence of genes encoding proteins involved in plant growth promotion, biocontrol of phytopathogens, biodegradation of xenobiotics, heavy metals resistance and plant-bacteria-environment interaction. The results of this analysis suggest great potential of bacteria belonging to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia species in enhancing phytoremediation efficiency.

  1. Magnetic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Describes the history of Richard Blakemore's discovery of magnetotaxic organisms. Discusses possible reasons why the magnetic response in bacteria developed. Proposes research experiments integrating biology and physics in which students investigate problems using cultures of magnetotaxic organisms. (MDH)

  2. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)