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Sample records for biophysics lab simulation

  1. Precision and Stability Issues in VBL, the Virtual Biophysics Lab simulation program

    CERN Document Server

    Milotti, Edoardo; Farina, Marcello; Liberati, Diego; Chignola, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The network of biochemical reactions inside living organisms is characterized by an overwhelming complexity which stems from the sheer number of reactions and from the complicated topology of biochemical cycles. However the high speed of computers and the sophisticated computational methods that are available today are powerful tools that allow the numerical exploration of these exceedingly interesting dynamical systems. We are now developing a program, the Virtual Biophysics Lab (VBL), that simulates tumor spheroids, and which includes a reduced - but still quite complex - description of the biochemistry of individual cells, plus many diffusion processes that bring oxygen and nutrients into cells and metabolites into the environment. Each simulation step requires the integration of nonlinear differential equations that describe the individual cell's clockwork and the integration of the diffusion equations. These integrations are carried out under widely different conditions, in a changing environment, and fo...

  2. Numerical integration methods for large-scale biophysical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Chignola, Roberto; Milotti, Edoardo

    2009-01-01

    Simulations of biophysical systems inevitably include steps that correspond to time integrations of ordinary differential equations. These equations are often related to enzyme action in the synthesis and destruction of molecular species, and in the regulation of transport of molecules into and out of the cell or cellular compartments. Enzyme action is almost invariably modeled with the quasi-steady-state Michaelis-Menten formula or its close relative, the Hill formula: this description leads to systems of equations that may be stiff and hard to integrate, and poses unusual computational challenges in simulations where a smooth evolution is interrupted by the discrete events that mark the cells' lives. This is the case of a numerical model (Virtual Biophysics Lab - VBL) that we are developing to simulate the growth of three-dimensional tumor cell aggregates (spheroids). The program must be robust and stable, and must be able to accept frequent changes in the underlying theoretical model: here we study the app...

  3. Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaser, Roland

    1999-01-01

    The message of this book is that biophysics is the science of physical principles underlying the "phenomenon life" on all levels of organization. Rather than teaching "physics for biologists" or "physical methods applied to biology", it regards its subject as a defined discipline with its own network of ideas and approaches. The book starts by explaining molecular structures of biological systems, various kinds of atomic, molecular and ionic interactions, movements, energy transfer, self organization of supramolecular structures and dynamic properties of biological membranes. It then goes on to introduce the biological organism as a non-equilibrium system, before treating thermodynamic concepts of osmotic and electrolyte equilibria as well as currents and potential profiles. It continues with topics of environmental biophysics and such medical aspects as the influence of electromagnetic fields or radiation on living systems and the biophysics of hearing and noice protection. The book concludes with a discussi...

  4. Learner performance and attitudes in traditional versus simulated lab experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatt, Kevin A.

    The expository laboratory, a type of physical laboratory that has prescribed outcomes, was initially designed to address learning environments and laboratory environments of the 20th century. Evidence suggests that it has lost its instructional value. Emerging technologies such as simulations have a multitude of instructional benefits which can serve as robust replacements for the expository lab. There is evidence that the expository lab is being redefined and may need to be redesigned for the online world. These changes have not been realized, however, due to the current accreditation process which does not recognize the simulated lab as a legitimate alternative to expository labs. This study investigated whether simulated laboratories can achieve the goals of contemporary lab instruction as successfully as the expository lab paradigm. This study addressed the differences and similarities in student attitudes toward using a simulated lab and an expository lab. The methodology used in this study was experimental and quantitative in nature. Two experiments were carried out, each of which comprised the completion of a lab activity by participants who were assigned to a control group (expository lab) or an experimental group (simulated lab). This study found that there were significant differences between the assessment means of the simulated lab groups and the expository lab groups. The assessment means for the simulated lab groups were significantly higher than the assessment means of the expository lab groups. In terms of learner attitude, it was found that simulated labs were perceived to be more open-ended, easier to use, and easier to generate usable data, than expository labs. Moreover, students preferred using simulated labs over expository labs, and the time to complete simulated lab activities was significantly less than the time to complete expository lab activities. This study showed that the simulated lab can serve as a legitimate alternative to the

  5. Constraining canopy biophysical simulations with MODIS reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D. T.; Duveiller, G.

    2013-05-01

    Modern vegetation models incorporate ecophysiological details that allow for accurate estimates of carbon dioxide uptake, water use and energy exchange, but require knowledge of dynamic structural and biochemical traits. Variations in these traits are controlled by genetic factors as well as growth stage and nutrient and moisture availability, making them difficult to predict and prone to significant error. Here we explore the use of MODIS optical reflectance data for constraining key canopy- and leaf-level traits required by forward biophysical models. A multi-objective optimization algorithm is used to invert the PROSAIL canopy radiation transfer model, which accounts for the effects of leaf-level optical properties, foliage distribution and orientation on canopy reflectance across the optical range. Inversions are conducted for several growing seasons for both soybean and maize at several sites in the Central US agro-ecosystem. These inversions provide estimates of seasonal variations, and associated uncertainty, of variables such as leaf area index (LAI) that are then used as inputs into the MLCan biophysical model to conduct forward simulations. MLCan characterizes the ecophysiological functioning of a plant canopy at a half-hourly timestep, and has been rigorously validated for both C3 and C4 crops against observations of canopy CO2 uptake, evapotranspiration and sensible heat exchange across a wide range of meteorological conditions. The inversion-derived canopy properties are used to examine the ability of MODIS data to characterize seasonal variations in canopy properties in the context of a detailed forward canopy biophysical model, and the uncertainty induced in forward model estimates as a function of the uncertainty in the inverted parameters. Special care is made to ensure that the satellite observations match adequately, in both time and space, with the coupled model simulations. To do so, daily MODIS observations are used and a validated model of

  6. Mathematical biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This book presents concise descriptions and analysis of the classical and modern models used in mathematical biophysics. The authors ask the question "what new information can be provided by the models that cannot be obtained directly from experimental data?" Actively developing fields such as regulatory mechanisms in cells and subcellular systems and electron transport and energy transport in membranes are addressed together with more classical topics such as metabolic processes, nerve conduction and heart activity, chemical kinetics, population dynamics, and photosynthesis. The main approach is to describe biological processes using different mathematical approaches necessary to reveal characteristic features and properties of simulated systems. With the emergence of powerful mathematics software packages such as MAPLE, Mathematica, Mathcad, and MatLab, these methodologies are now accessible to a wide audience. Provides succinct but authoritative coverage of a broad array of biophysical topics and models Wr...

  7. VPPD Lab - The Chemical Product Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the development of a systematic model-based framework for product design, implemented in the new product design software called VPPD-Lab is presented. This framework employs its in-house knowledge-based system to design and evaluate chemical products. The built-in libraries of prod...... is highlighted for the case study of tailor made design of jet-fuels. VPPD-Lab works in the same way as a typical process simulator. It enhances the future development of chemical product design....... of product performance models and product-chemical property models are used to evaluate different classes of product. The product classes are single molecular structure chemicals (lipids, solvents, aroma, etc.), blended products (gasoline, jet-fuels, lubricants, etc.), and emulsified product (hand wash...

  8. Flow lab.: flow visualization and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chung Kyun; Cho, Won Jin; Hahn, Pil Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    The experimental setups for flow visualization and processes identification in laboratory scale (so called Flow Lab.) has developed to get ideas and answer fundamental questions of flow and migration in geologic media. The setup was made of a granite block of 50x50cm scale and a transparent acrylate plate. The tracers used in this experiments were tritiated water, anions, and sorbing cations as well as an organic dye, eosine, to visualize migration paths. The migration plumes were taken with a digital camera as a function of time and stored as digital images. A migration model was also developed to describe and identify the transport processes. Computer simulation was carried out not only for the hydraulic behavior such as distributions of pressure and flow vectors in the fracture but also for the migration plume and the elution curves.

  9. Chapter 3 – VPPD-Lab: The Chemical Product Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, L.

    2017-01-01

    as property calculations and property model consistency tests) for specific product property prediction, design, and/or analysis tasks. The application of VPPD-Lab is highlighted through case studies involving solvent mixture stability check, lubricant blend design, jet fuel blend design, and insect repellent......Computer-aided methods and tools for current and future product–process design and development need to manage problems requiring efficient handling of models, data, and knowledge from different sources and at different times and size scales. In this chapter, a systematic model-based framework...... for computer-aided chemical product design and evaluation, implemented in the software called VPPD-Lab, is presented. In the same way a typical process simulator works, the VPPD-Lab allows users to: (1) analyze chemical-based products by performing virtual experiments (product property and performance...

  10. Simulators, Remote Labs and Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folhas, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    There is an increasing gap between students of the twenty-first century and the teaching methodology still stuck in the past century. The myriad stimuli that involve our students, immediate consumption of information, and the availability of resources, should cast the teacher in search methodologies that encourage the student to learn. The simulators, virtual laboratories and remote controlled robotic equipment are examples of high didactic potential resources, created by scientific organizations and universities, to be used in education, providing a direct interaction with science and motivating our students to a future career in science. It is up to us to take advantage of that work, and those resources, to light the sparkle in the eyes of our students. In Astronomy Club I've developed with high school students some practical projects in science, using, over the web, the robotic telescopes through which the students are studying and photographing deep sky objects; or the European network of radio telescope, measuring the speed of the arms of our galaxy in our galactic dance, their temperatures showing where it is more likely to form new stars. Students use these tools, engaging in their own knowledge construction, and forego their Friday afternoons without a hurry to go home for the weekend. That's the spirit we want for the school.

  11. Using LabVIEW: Simulation Exciter of Devices Jamming

    OpenAIRE

    Elan Djaelani; Nina Siti Aminah; Ridodi Anantaprama

    2012-01-01

    It has been made exciter of devices jamming, by using component voltage controled oscilator (vco). It has been done measurements: signal noise,signal sawtooth and level DC voltage at those signals. Being wanted those devices jamming could be raised it’s performance. With helping software LabVIEW being made exciter. Result Simulation are graphic and table relation between input exciter and it’s output. Input exciter are: signal sawtooth, signal noise and level DC voltage that could be changing...

  12. Using LabVIEW: Simulation Exciter of Devices Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan Djaelani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been made exciter of devices jamming, by using component voltage controled oscilator (vco. It has been done measurements: signal noise,signal sawtooth and level DC voltage at those signals. Being wanted those devices jamming could be raised it’s performance. With helping software LabVIEW being made exciter. Result Simulation are graphic and table relation between input exciter and it’s output. Input exciter are: signal sawtooth, signal noise and level DC voltage that could be changing it’s amplitude. Output exciter are frequency RF, sweeping from frequency f1 to f2 with frequency medium f0. Result simulation could be used for development device jamming.

  13. Mesoscale simulations of two model systems in biophysics: from red blood cells to DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Chen, Yeng-Long; Lu, Huijie; Pan, Zehao; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2015-12-01

    Computational modeling has become increasingly important in biophysics, but the great challenge in numerical simulations due to the multiscale feature of biological systems limits the capability of modeling in making discoveries in biology. Innovative multiscale modeling approaches are desired to bridge different scales from nucleic acids and proteins to cells and tissues. Although all-atom molecular dynamics has been successfully applied in many microscale biological processes such as protein folding, it is still prohibitively expensive for studying macroscale problems such as biophysics of cells and tissues. On the other hand, continuum-based modeling has become a mature procedure for analysis and design in many engineering fields, but new insights for biological systems in the microscale are limited when molecular details are missing in continuum-based modeling. In this context, mesoscale modeling approaches such as Langevin dynamics, lattice Boltzmann method, and dissipative particle dynamics have become popular by simultaneously incorporating molecular interactions and long-range hydrodynamic interactions, providing insights to properties on longer time and length scales than molecular dynamics. In this review, we summarized several mesoscale simulation approaches for studying two model systems in biophysics: red blood cells (RBCs) and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs). The RBC is a model system for cell mechanics and biological membranes, while the DNA represents a model system for biopolymers. We introduced the motivations of studying these problems and presented the key features of different mesoscale methods. Furthermore, we described the latest progresses in these methods and highlighted the major findings for modeling RBCs and DNAs. Finally, we also discussed the challenges and potential issues of different approaches.

  14. Publicly Releasing a Large Simulation Dataset with NDS Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Nathan

    2016-03-01

    Optimally, all publicly funded research should be accompanied by the tools, code, and data necessary to fully reproduce the analysis performed in journal articles describing the research. This ideal can be difficult to attain, particularly when dealing with large (>10 TB) simulation datasets. In this lightning talk, we describe the process of publicly releasing a large simulation dataset to accompany the submission of a journal article. The simulation was performed using Enzo, an open source, community-developed N-body/hydrodynamics code and was analyzed using a wide range of community- developed tools in the scientific Python ecosystem. Although the simulation was performed and analyzed using an ecosystem of sustainably developed tools, we enable sustainable science using our data by making it publicly available. Combining the data release with the NDS Labs infrastructure allows a substantial amount of added value, including web-based access to analysis and visualization using the yt analysis package through an IPython notebook interface. In addition, we are able to accompany the paper submission to the arXiv preprint server with links to the raw simulation data as well as interactive real-time data visualizations that readers can explore on their own or share with colleagues during journal club discussions. It is our hope that the value added by these services will substantially increase the impact and readership of the paper.

  15. Simulation of Tillage Systems Impact on Soil Biophysical Properties Using the SALUS Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Sartori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable land management has been defined as the management system that allows for production, while minimizing risk, maintaining quality of soil and water. Tillage systems can significantly decrease soil carbon storage and influence the soil environment of a crop. Crop growth models can be useful tools in evaluating the impact of different tillage systems on soil biophysical properties and on the growth and final yield of the crops. The objectives of this paper were i to illustrate the SALUS model and its tillage component; ii to evaluate the effects of different tillage systems on water infiltration and time to ponding, iii to simulate the effect of tillage systems on some soil biophysical properties. The SALUS (System Approach to Land Use Sustainability model is designed to simulate continuous crop, soil, water and nutrient conditions under different tillage and crop residues management strategies for multiple years. Predictions of changes in surface residue, bulk density, runoff, drainage and evaporation were consistent with expected behaviours of these parameters as described in the literature. The experiment to estimate the time to ponding curve under different tillage system confirmed the theory and showed the beneficial effects of the residue on soil surface with respect to water infiltration. It also showed that the no-tillage system is a more appropriate system to adopt in areas characterized by high intensity rainfall.

  16. Online simulation of classical inorganic analysis - interactive, self instructive simulations give more lab-time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    (and in university programmes it often isn’t), but rather to give them experience with chemicals and methods, a computer-based laboratory simulation may function as a cheap and fast extension of student lab time. Virtual investigations seem to be a promising kind of tool [6,7,8] for several reasons...

  17. Computer Simulation and Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Biophysics An Introduction Using R

    CERN Document Server

    Bloomfield, Victor

    2009-01-01

    This book provides an introduction, suitable for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students, to two important aspects of molecular biology and biophysics: computer simulation and data analysis. It introduces tools to enable readers to learn and use fundamental methods for constructing quantitative models of biological mechanisms, both deterministic and with some elements of randomness, including complex reaction equilibria and kinetics, population models, and regulation of metabolism and development; to understand how concepts of probability can help in explaining important features of DNA sequences; and to apply a useful set of statistical methods to analysis of experimental data from spectroscopic, genomic, and proteomic sources. These quantitative tools are implemented using the free, open source software program R. R provides an excellent environment for general numerical and statistical computing and graphics, with capabilities similar to Matlab®. Since R is increasingly used in bioinformat...

  18. Constraining canopy biophysical simulations with daily MODIS reflectance data ensuring pixel-target adequacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D.; Duveiller, G.

    2013-12-01

    Modern vegetation models incorporate ecophysiological details that allow for accurate estimates of carbon dioxide uptake, water use and energy exchange, but require knowledge of dynamic structural and biochemical traits. Variations in these traits are controlled by genetic factors as well as growth stage and nutrient and moisture availability, making them difficult to predict and prone to significant error. Here we explore the use of daily MODIS optical reflectance data for constraining key canopy- and leaf-level traits required by forward biophysical models. A multi-objective optimization algorithm is used to invert the PROSAIL canopy radiation transfer model against MODIS optical reflectance observations. PROSAIL accounts for the effects of leaf-level optical properties, foliage distribution and orientation on canopy reflectance across the optical range. Inversions are conducted for several growing seasons for both soybean and maize at multiple sites across the Central US agro-ecosystem. These inversions provide estimates of seasonal variations, and associated uncertainty, of variables such as leaf area index (LAI). The inversion-derived canopy properties are used to examine the ability of MODIS data to characterize seasonal variations in these states relative to field observations. The canopy properties are then used as inputs into the MLCan biophysical model to conduct forward simulations. MLCan characterizes the ecophysiological functioning of a plant canopy at a half-hourly timestep, and has been rigorously validated for both C3 and C4 crops against observations of canopy CO2 uptake, evapotranspiration and sensible heat exchange. By utilizing the inverted canopy states to drive MLCan over several growing seasons, we are able to assess the impact of uncertainty in the MODIS inversion procedure on uncertainties in forward model flux estimates. This work requires the use of instant (non-composited) observations obtained at a daily frequency from both Terra and

  19. Simulation for Proton Charge Radius (PRad) Experiment at Jefferson Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; PRad Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The ``Proton Charge Radius Puzzle'' refers to 7 σ discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurements and that from the atomic hydrogen Lamb shift and e-p elastic scattering measurements. In order to get a better understanding of this puzzle, the PRad experiment (E12-11-106) was proposed and recently performed with 1.1 and 2.2 GeV unpolarized electron beam in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. The experiment aims to extract the electric form factor and the charge radius of proton by simultaneously measuring the e - p elastic scattering cross section and the Møller cross section at very low Q2(2 × 10-4 10-1(GeV / c) 2) region, with sub-percent precision. A windowless hydrogen gas flow target was used to better control the background. A high-efficiency and high-resolution calorimeter (HyCal) and a pair of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers were used in the experiment. This talk will focus on comparing the detailed simulation of PRad experiment and its background with preliminary spectra from the data. This work is supported in part by NSF MRI Award PHY-1229153, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contacts No. DE-FG02-07ER41528, Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Mississippi State University and PRad collaboration.

  20. The Virtual Genetics Lab II: Improvements to a Freely Available Software Simulation of Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    The Virtual Genetics Lab II (VGLII) is an improved version of the highly successful genetics simulation software, the Virtual Genetics Lab (VGL). The software allows students to use the techniques of genetic analysis to design crosses and interpret data to solve realistic genetics problems involving a hypothetical diploid insect. This is a brief…

  1. Comparison between simulations and lab results on the ASSIST test-bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louarn, Miska; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Kolb, Johann; Paufique, Jerome; Oberti, Sylvain; La Penna, Paolo; Arsenault, Robin

    2016-07-01

    We present the latest comparison results between laboratory tests carried out on the ASSIST test bench and Octopus end-to end simulations. We simulated, as closely to the lab conditions as possible, the different AOF modes (Maintenance and commissioning mode (SCAO), GRAAL (GLAO in the near IR), Galacsi Wide Field mode (GLAO in the visible) and Galacsi narrow field mode (LTAO in the visible)). We then compared the simulation results to the ones obtained on the lab bench. Several aspects were investigated, like number of corrected modes, turbulence wind speeds, LGS photon flux etc. The agreement between simulations and lab is remarkably good for all investigated parameters, giving great confidence in both simulation tool and performance of the AO system in the lab.

  2. Biophysically realistic filament bending dynamics in agent-based biological simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Jonathan B

    2009-01-01

    An appealing tool for study of the complex biological behaviors that can emerge from networks of simple molecular interactions is an agent-based, computational simulation that explicitly tracks small-scale local interactions--following thousands to millions of states through time. For many critical cell processes (e.g. cytokinetic furrow specification, nuclear centration, cytokinesis), the flexible nature of cytoskeletal filaments is likely to be critical. Any computer model that hopes to explain the complex emergent behaviors in these processes therefore needs to encode filament flexibility in a realistic manner. Here I present a numerically convenient and biophysically realistic method for modeling cytoskeletal filament flexibility in silico. Each cytoskeletal filament is represented by a series of rigid segments linked end-to-end in series with a variable attachment point for the translational elastic element. This connection scheme allows an empirically tuning, for a wide range of segment sizes, viscosities, and time-steps, that endows any filament species with the experimentally observed (or theoretically expected) static force deflection, relaxation time-constant, and thermal writhing motions. I additionally employ a unique pair of elastic elements--one representing the axial and the other the bending rigidity- that formulate the restoring force in terms of single time-step constraint resolution. This method is highly local -adjacent rigid segments of a filament only interact with one another through constraint forces-and is thus well-suited to simulations in which arbitrary additional forces (e.g. those representing interactions of a filament with other bodies or cross-links / entanglements between filaments) may be present. Implementation in code is straightforward; Java source code is available at www.celldynamics.org.

  3. Biophysically realistic filament bending dynamics in agent-based biological simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Alberts

    Full Text Available An appealing tool for study of the complex biological behaviors that can emerge from networks of simple molecular interactions is an agent-based, computational simulation that explicitly tracks small-scale local interactions--following thousands to millions of states through time. For many critical cell processes (e.g. cytokinetic furrow specification, nuclear centration, cytokinesis, the flexible nature of cytoskeletal filaments is likely to be critical. Any computer model that hopes to explain the complex emergent behaviors in these processes therefore needs to encode filament flexibility in a realistic manner. Here I present a numerically convenient and biophysically realistic method for modeling cytoskeletal filament flexibility in silico. Each cytoskeletal filament is represented by a series of rigid segments linked end-to-end in series with a variable attachment point for the translational elastic element. This connection scheme allows an empirically tuning, for a wide range of segment sizes, viscosities, and time-steps, that endows any filament species with the experimentally observed (or theoretically expected static force deflection, relaxation time-constant, and thermal writhing motions. I additionally employ a unique pair of elastic elements--one representing the axial and the other the bending rigidity- that formulate the restoring force in terms of single time-step constraint resolution. This method is highly local -adjacent rigid segments of a filament only interact with one another through constraint forces-and is thus well-suited to simulations in which arbitrary additional forces (e.g. those representing interactions of a filament with other bodies or cross-links / entanglements between filaments may be present. Implementation in code is straightforward; Java source code is available at www.celldynamics.org.

  4. Simulations, Games, and Virtual Labs for Science Education: a Compendium and Some Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    We have assembled a list of computer-based simulations, games, and virtual labs for science education. This list, with links to the sources of these resources, is available online. The entries span a broad range of science, math, and engineering topics. They also span a range of target student ages, from elementary school to university students. We will provide a brief overview of this web site and the resources found on it. We will also briefly demonstrate some of our own educational simulations, including the "Very, Very Simple Climate Model", and report on formative evaluations of these resources. Computer-based simulations and virtual labs are valuable resources for science educators in various settings, allowing learners to experiment and explore "what if" scenarios. Educational computer games can motivate learners in both formal and informal settings, encouraging them to spend much more time exploring a topic than they might otherwise be inclined to do. Part of this presentation is effectively a "literature review" of numerous sources of simulations, games, and virtual labs. Although we have encountered several nice collections of such resources, those collections seem to be restricted in scope. They either represent materials developed by a specific group or agency (e.g. NOAA's games web site) or are restricted to a specific discipline (e.g. geology simulations and virtual labs). This presentation directs viewers to games, simulations, and virtual labs from many different sources and spanning a broad range of STEM disciplines.

  5. Games, Simulations and Virtual Labs for Science Education: a Compendium and Some Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    We have assembled a list of computer-based simulations, games, and virtual labs for science education. This list, with links to the sources of these resources, is available online. The entries span a broad range of science, math, and engineering topics. They also span a range of target student ages, from elementary school to university students. We will provide a brief overview of this web site and the resources found on it. We will also briefly demonstrate some of our own educational simulations and games. Computer-based simulations and virtual labs are valuable resources for science educators in various settings, allowing learners to experiment and explore "what if" scenarios. Educational computer games can motivate learners in both formal and informal settings, encouraging them to spend much more time exploring a topic than they might otherwise be inclined to do. Part of this presentation is effectively a "literature review" of numerous sources of simulations, games, and virtual labs. Although we have encountered several nice collections of such resources, those collections seem to be restricted in scope. They either represent materials developed by a specific group or agency (e.g. NOAA's games web site) or are restricted to a specific discipline (e.g. geology simulations and virtual labs). This presentation directs viewers to games, simulations, and virtual labs from many different sources and spanning a broad range of STEM disciplines.

  6. Bus.py: A GridLAB-D Communication Interface for Smart Distribution Grid Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Timothy M.; Palmintier, Bryan; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Maciejewski, Anthony A.; Siegel, Howard Jay

    2015-07-03

    As more Smart Grid technologies (e.g., distributed photovoltaic, spatially distributed electric vehicle charging) are integrated into distribution grids, static distribution simulations are no longer sufficient for performing modeling and analysis. GridLAB-D is an agent-based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. A problem exists in that, without outside intervention, once the GridLAB-D simulation begins execution, it will run to completion without allowing the real-time interaction of Smart Grid controls, such as home energy management systems and aggregator control. We address this lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator. This work describes the design and implementation of Bus.py, discusses its usefulness in terms of some Smart Grid scenarios, and provides an example of an aggregator-based residential demand response system interacting with GridLAB-D through Bus.py. The small scale example demonstrates the validity of the interface and shows that an aggregator using said interface is able to control residential loads in GridLAB-D during runtime to cause a reduction in the peak load on the distribution system in (a) peak reduction and (b) time-of-use pricing cases.

  7. Perspectives in radiation biophysics: From radiation track structure simulation to mechanistic models of DNA damage and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjoo, H.; Taleei, R.; Liamsuwan, T.; Liljequist, D.; Emfietzoglou, D.

    2016-11-01

    In radiation targeted therapy and genetic risk estimation of low dose radiation protection there is a crucial need for full description of DNA damage response and repair (DDR) leading to cell death and cell mutation. We propose such a description can be arrived through realistic track-structure simulations together with mechanistic mathematical formulation of DDR and the availability of experimental data for testing the proof of principle. In this paper we review briefly first the state of the art in DNA damage and repair, and then the recent advances in the physics of track structure which represents an essential tool in radiation biophysics.

  8. Simulation of a Process Control System with LabVIEW SIT%基于LabVIEW SIT的过程控制系统仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向学军; 刘平; 杨盛

    2006-01-01

    首先介绍了虚拟仪器软件LabVIEW 及simulation interface toolkit(SIT),利用LabVIEW的可视化技术,直观、生动地模拟工业系统的运行状况,可以使仿真具有更好的效果.LabVIEW SIT可以快速地将LabVIEW与Matlab/Simulink结合进行系统的仿真.以一个二阶液位过程控制系统为例介绍了基于LabVIEW SIT的过程控制系统仿真的设计.

  9. Selection and Implementation of a Simulated Electronic Medical Record (EMR) in a Nursing Skills Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, David G.

    2011-01-01

    SUNY Plattsburgh has a baccalaureate nursing program that has been active in integrating technology in nursing education for many years. Recently, the faculty implemented human simulation (Laerdal's SimMan) in the Nursing Skills Lab (NSL) to provide some uniform clinical experiences (high frequency or high risk scenarios) not always available in…

  10. GridLAB-D: An Agent-Based Simulation Framework for Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Chassin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of smart grid technologies requires a fundamentally new approach to integrated modeling of power systems, energy markets, building technologies, and the plethora of other resources and assets that are becoming part of modern electricity production, delivery, and consumption systems. As a result, the US Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity commissioned the development of a new type of power system simulation tool called GridLAB-D that uses an agent-based approach to simulating smart grids. This paper presents the numerical methods and approach to time-series simulation used by GridLAB-D and reviews applications in power system studies, market design, building control system design, and integration of wind power in a smart grid.

  11. Do Computer Simulations Allow a Better Understanding of Basic Electrical Circuits than Real Lab Experiments?

    CERN Document Server

    Schmekel, Bjoern S

    2010-01-01

    Several Authors have demonstrated that substituting computer simulations for real experiments conducted in a lab may help to improve students' understanding of the material. In the present work we try to understand the reasons for this intriguing finding and investigate possible prerequisites necessary to achieve this outcome. The study was conducted in an introductory college-level physics class in Germany. All simulations were performed using PSPICE.

  12. Development of an Android Application in the Form of a Simulation Lab as Learning Media for Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astra, I Made; Nasbey, Hadi; Nugraha, Aditiya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to create learning media for senior high school students through an android application in the form of a simulation lab. The method employed in the study is research and development. A simulation lab which has been made subsequently validated by concept and media experts, further empirical testing by teachers and…

  13. Encyclopedia of biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Biophysics is envisioned both as an easily accessible source of information and as an introductory guide to the scientific literature. It includes entries describing both Techniques and Systems.  In the Techniques entries, each of the wide range of methods which fall under the heading of Biophysics are explained in detail, together with the value and the limitations of the information each provides. Techniques covered range from diffraction (X-ray, electron and neutron) through a wide range of spectroscopic methods (X-ray, optical, EPR, NMR) to imaging (from electron microscopy to live cell imaging and MRI), as well as computational and simulation approaches. In the Systems entries, biophysical approaches to specific biological systems or problems – from protein and nucleic acid structure to membranes, ion channels and receptors – are described. These sections, which place emphasis on the integration of the different techniques, therefore provide an inroad into Biophysics from a biolo...

  14. Strategic planning for skills and simulation labs in colleges of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Laura T

    2010-01-01

    While simulation laboratories for clinical nursing education are predicted to grow, budget cuts may threaten these programs. One of the ways to develop a new lab, as well as to keep an existing one on track, is to develop and regularly update a strategic plan. The process of planning not only helps keep the lab faculty and staff apprised of the challenges to be faced, but it also helps to keep senior level management engaged by reason of the need for their input and approval of the plan. The strategic planning documents drafted by those who supervised the development of the new building and Concepts Integration Labs (CILs) helped guide and orient faculty and other personnel hired to implement the plan and fulfill the vision. As the CILs strategic plan was formalized, the draft plans, including the SWOT analysis, were reviewed to provide historical perspective, stimulate discussion, and to make sure old or potential mistakes were not repeated.

  15. Biophysical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussinger, Daniel; Pfohl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Biophysical chemistry at the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, covers the NMR analysis of protein-protein interaction using paramagnetic tags and sophisticated microscopy techniques investigating the dynamics of biological matter.

  16. Thermal Simulation of Biogas Plants Using Mat Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen.M.Sain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The major prerequisite for the optimum production of methane from a biogas plant is the sustenance of digester temperature within the narrow limits (300C-350C. It is experimentally investigated that, the MIT biogas plant is not maintaining optimum temperature, this decreases the efficiency and increases the detention time for charge. To maintain the plant in optimum temperature, it is necessary to find out the heat losses from the biogas plant and the external energy inputs need to operate the plant. Rate of gas yield, and the detention time (time necessary to anaerobically digest organic wastes in a biogas reactor, are favorable functions of the temperature in the digester. A thermal simulation for MIT biogas plant has developed using matlab in order to understand the heat transfer from the slurry and the gas holder to the surrounding earth and air respectively. The computation has been performed when the slurry is maintained at 200C and 300C, optimum temperature of anaerobic fermentation. If the slurry is considered to be at 350C, the optimum temperature of anaerobic fermentation, the total heat loss from the plant is higher than the heat loss when the slurry is maintained at 200C. The heat calculations provide an appraisal for the heat which has to be supplied by external means to compensate for the net heat losses which occur if the slurry is to be maintained at 350C. A solar system with auxiliary electric heater is designed for maintaining the slurry at 350C.In conclusion; the results of thermal analysis are used to define a strategy for operating biogas plant at optimum temperatures. .

  17. Simulator Network project report: a tool for improvement of teaching materials and targeted resource usage in Skills Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanakis, Alexander; Blaum, Wolf E; Stosch, Christoph; Lauener, Hansjörg; Richter, Sabine; Schnabel, Kai P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA) introduced a new project, which aims to improve the flow of information between the Skills Labs and enable a transparent assessment of the simulators via an online database (the Simulator Network).

  18. Molecular dynamics simulations and docking enable to explore the biophysical factors controlling the yields of engineered nanobodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Miguel A.; de Marco, Ario; Fortuna, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Nanobodies (VHHs) have proved to be valuable substitutes of conventional antibodies for molecular recognition. Their small size represents a precious advantage for rational mutagenesis based on modelling. Here we address the problem of predicting how Camelidae nanobody sequences can tolerate mutations by developing a simulation protocol based on all-atom molecular dynamics and whole-molecule docking. The method was tested on two sets of nanobodies characterized experimentally for their biophysical features. One set contained point mutations introduced to humanize a wild type sequence, in the second the CDRs were swapped between single-domain frameworks with Camelidae and human hallmarks. The method resulted in accurate scoring approaches to predict experimental yields and enabled to identify the structural modifications induced by mutations. This work is a promising tool for the in silico development of single-domain antibodies and opens the opportunity to customize single functional domains of larger macromolecules. PMID:27721441

  19. Molecular dynamics simulations and docking enable to explore the biophysical factors controlling the yields of engineered nanobodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Miguel A.; De Marco, Ario; Fortuna, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Nanobodies (VHHs) have proved to be valuable substitutes of conventional antibodies for molecular recognition. Their small size represents a precious advantage for rational mutagenesis based on modelling. Here we address the problem of predicting how Camelidae nanobody sequences can tolerate mutations by developing a simulation protocol based on all-atom molecular dynamics and whole-molecule docking. The method was tested on two sets of nanobodies characterized experimentally for their biophysical features. One set contained point mutations introduced to humanize a wild type sequence, in the second the CDRs were swapped between single-domain frameworks with Camelidae and human hallmarks. The method resulted in accurate scoring approaches to predict experimental yields and enabled to identify the structural modifications induced by mutations. This work is a promising tool for the in silico development of single-domain antibodies and opens the opportunity to customize single functional domains of larger macromolecules.

  20. Development of LabVIEW web-based simulator for RELAP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Luiz A.; Torres, Walmir M.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Belchior Junior, Antonio; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Conti, Thadeu N.; Mesquita, Roberto N. de; Masotti, Paulo H.F.; Angelo, Gabriel, E-mail: lamacedo@ipen.b, E-mail: wmtorres@ipen.b, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.b, E-mail: abelchior@ipen.b, E-mail: umbehaun@ipen.b, E-mail: tnconti@ipen.b, E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.b, E-mail: , E-mail: masotti@ipen.b, E-mail: gabriel.angelo@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the development of a LabVIEW web-based simulator using the output results of the best estimate nuclear system analysis code, RELAP5, for graphical user interfaces and web-casting. A numerical based model designed for natural circulation studies on the thermal hydraulic experimental facility called Natural Circulation Circuit, was developed with RELAP5 code. Specific output results from RELAP5 simulation are displayed in a user friendly graphical format. The temperatures are shown as a function of time in a XY graphic. Temperatures, levels and void fractions are displayed in color-coded scale which change in time on the graphical interface representing the circuit. An alarm is set for the case of onset boiling temperature occurrence at the heater outlet. This simulator allows an easy visual understanding of the thermal hydraulic circuit behavior. It can be shared, via Web, with researchers in any geographical location and, at the same time, it can be used in learning for distance educational purposes. In future work, this LabVIEW simulator will be coupled with RELAP5 code through dll's. Simultaneous graphical displaying and code calculations will be possible. Results are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. The "Virtual ChemLab" Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Andrus, Merritt B.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg; Andersen, Tricia; Miller, Jordan; Simmons, Bryon; Stanger, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations is created for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called 'Virtual ChemLab'. A detailed assessment of student responses is provided and the simulation's pedagogical utility is described using the organic simulation.

  2. Modeling the Biophysical Effects in a Carbon Beam Delivery Line using Monte Carlo Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Ilsung; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Song, Yongkeun; Shin, Jae-ik; Jung, Won-Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) plays an important role in designing a uniform dose response for ion beam therapy. In this study the biological effectiveness of a carbon ion beam delivery system was investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. A carbon ion beam delivery line was designed for the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project. The GEANT4 simulation tool kit was used to simulate carbon beam transporting into media. An incident energy carbon ion beam in the range between 220 MeV/u and 290 MeV/u was chosen to generate secondary particles. The microdosimetric-kinetic (MK) model is applied to describe the RBE of 10% survival in human salivary gland (HSG) cells. The RBE weighted dose was estimated as a function of the penetrating depth of the water phantom along the incident beam direction. A biologically photon-equivalent Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) was designed using the RBE weighted absorbed dose. Finally, the RBE of mixed beams was predicted as a function of the water phantom depth.

  3. Modeling the biophysical effects in a carbon beam delivery line by using Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ilsung; Yoo, SeungHoon; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Song, Yongkeun; Shin, Jae-ik; Jung, Won-Gyun

    2016-09-01

    The Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) plays an important role in designing a uniform dose response for ion-beam therapy. In this study, the biological effectiveness of a carbon-ion beam delivery system was investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. A carbon-ion beam delivery line was designed for the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project. The GEANT4 simulation tool kit was used to simulate carbon-ion beam transport into media. An incident energy carbon-ion beam with energy in the range between 220 MeV/u and 290 MeV/u was chosen to generate secondary particles. The microdosimetric-kinetic (MK) model was applied to describe the RBE of 10% survival in human salivary-gland (HSG) cells. The RBE weighted dose was estimated as a function of the penetration depth in the water phantom along the incident beam's direction. A biologically photon-equivalent Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) was designed using the RBE-weighted absorbed dose. Finally, the RBE of mixed beams was predicted as a function of the depth in the water phantom.

  4. The Virtual ChemLab Project: A Realistic and Sophisticated Simulation of Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Catlin, Heidi R.; Waddoups, Gregory L.; Moore, Melissa S.; Swan, Richard; Allen, Rob; Bodily, Greg

    2004-11-01

    We have created a set of sophisticated and realistic laboratory simulations for use in freshman- and sophomore-level chemistry classes and laboratories called Virtual ChemLab. We have completed simulations for Inorganic Qualitative Analysis, Organic Synthesis and Organic Qualitative Analysis, Experiments in Quantum Chemistry, Gas Properties, Titration Experiments, and Calorimetric and Thermochemical Experiments. The purpose of our simulations is to reinforce concepts taught in the classroom, provide an environment for creative learning, and emphasize the thinking behind instructional laboratory experiments. We have used the inorganic simulation extensively with thousands of students in our department at Brigham Young University. We have learned from our evaluation that: (i) students enjoy using these simulations and find them to be an asset in learning effective problem-solving strategies, (ii) students like the fact that they can both reproduce experimental procedures and explore various topics in ways they choose, and (iii) students naturally divide themselves into two groups: creative learners, who excel in an open-ended environment of virtual laboratories, and structured learners, who struggle in this same environment. In this article, we describe the Inorganic Qualitative Analysis simulation; we also share specific evaluation findings from using the inorganic simulation in classroom and laboratory settings.

  5. Numerical simulation of nonlinear feedback model of saccade generation circuit implemented in the LabView graphical programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M E; Gnadt, J W

    1999-03-01

    The object-oriented graphical programming language LabView was used to implement the numerical solution to a computational model of saccade generation in primates. The computational model simulates the activity and connectivity of anatomical strictures known to be involved in saccadic eye movements. The LabView program provides a graphical user interface to the model that makes it easy to observe and modify the behavior of each element of the model. Essential elements of the source code of the LabView program are presented and explained. A copy of the model is available for download from the internet.

  6. MetLab: An In Silico Experimental Design, Simulation and Analysis Tool for Viral Metagenomics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norling, Martin; Karlsson-Lindsjö, Oskar E; Gourlé, Hadrien; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Hayer, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    Metagenomics, the sequence characterization of all genomes within a sample, is widely used as a virus discovery tool as well as a tool to study viral diversity of animals. Metagenomics can be considered to have three main steps; sample collection and preparation, sequencing and finally bioinformatics. Bioinformatic analysis of metagenomic datasets is in itself a complex process, involving few standardized methodologies, thereby hampering comparison of metagenomics studies between research groups. In this publication the new bioinformatics framework MetLab is presented, aimed at providing scientists with an integrated tool for experimental design and analysis of viral metagenomes. MetLab provides support in designing the metagenomics experiment by estimating the sequencing depth needed for the complete coverage of a species. This is achieved by applying a methodology to calculate the probability of coverage using an adaptation of Stevens' theorem. It also provides scientists with several pipelines aimed at simplifying the analysis of viral metagenomes, including; quality control, assembly and taxonomic binning. We also implement a tool for simulating metagenomics datasets from several sequencing platforms. The overall aim is to provide virologists with an easy to use tool for designing, simulating and analyzing viral metagenomes. The results presented here include a benchmark towards other existing software, with emphasis on detection of viruses as well as speed of applications. This is packaged, as comprehensive software, readily available for Linux and OSX users at https://github.com/norling/metlab.

  7. Lab-On-Chip Clinorotation System for Live-Cell Microscopy Under Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Alvin G.; Atencia, Javier; Chinn, Ben; Hsieh, Adam H.

    2013-01-01

    Cells in microgravity are subject to mechanical unloading and changes to the surrounding chemical environment. How these factors jointly influence cellular function is not well understood. We can investigate their role using ground-based analogues to spaceflight, where mechanical unloading is simulated through the time-averaged nullification of gravity. The prevailing method for cellular microgravity simulation is to use fluid-filled containers called clinostats. However, conventional clinostats are not designed for temporally tracking cell response, nor are they able to establish dynamic fluid environments. To address these needs, we developed a Clinorotation Time-lapse Microscopy (CTM) system that accommodates lab-on- chip cell culture devices for visualizing time-dependent alterations to cellular behavior. For the purpose of demonstrating CTM, we present preliminary results showing time-dependent differences in cell area between human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) under modeled microgravity and normal gravity.

  8. Incorporating Modeling and Simulations in Undergraduate Biophysical Chemistry Course to Promote Understanding of Structure-Dynamics-Function Relationships in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hati, Sanchita; Bhattacharyya, Sudeep

    2016-01-01

    A project-based biophysical chemistry laboratory course, which is offered to the biochemistry and molecular biology majors in their senior year, is described. In this course, the classroom study of the structure-function of biomolecules is integrated with the discovery-guided laboratory study of these molecules using computer modeling and…

  9. Computer-assisted learning and simulation lab with 40 DentSim units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, A; Maggio, M P; Simon, J F; Scarbecz, M; Harrison, J A; Wicks, R A; Gilpatrick, R O

    2008-01-01

    There are an increasing number of studies about the computer-assisted dental patient simulator DentSim (DenX, Israel), by which dental students can acquire cognitive motor skills in a multimedia environment. However, only a very few studies have been published dealing with efficient ways to use and to manage a computer-assisted dental simulation lab with 40 DentSim units. The current approach and optimization steps of the College of Dentistry at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center were evaluated based on theoretical and practical tests and by questionnaires (partial 5-point Likert scale). Half of the D1 (first-year) students (2004/05) already had experience with computer-assisted learning at their undergraduate college and most of the students even expected to be taught via computer-assisted learning systems (83.5%) at the dental school. 87.3% of the students working with DentSim found the experience to be very interesting or interesting. Before the students carried out the preparation exercises, they were trained in the skills they needed to work with the sophisticated technology, eg, system-specific operation skills (66.6% attained maximal reachable points) and information searching skills (79.5% attained maximal reachable points). The indirect knowledge retention rate / incidental learning rate of the preparation exercises in the sense of computer-assisted problem-oriented learning regarding anatomy, preparation procedures, and cavity design was promising. The wide- ranging number of prepared teeth needed to acquire the necessary skills shows the varied individual learning curves of the students. The acceptance of, and response to, additional elective training time in the computer-assisted simulation lab were very high. Integrating the DentSim technology into the existing curriculum is a way to improve dental education, but it is also a challenge for both teachers and the students. It requires a shift in both curriculum and instructional goals that

  10. Validating the simulation of optical reflectance by a vertically resolved canopy biophysics model with MODIS daily observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D. T.; Duveiller, G.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural modeling and yield forecasting are complicated by seasonal variability in traits controlled by factors such as growth stage, nutrient availability and moisture status. While a new generation of vegetation models incorporate ecophysiological details that allow for accurate estimates of carbon uptake, water use and energy exchange, these increases in process-level detail have resulted in the requirement to estimate a broader set of model parameters. Constraining uncertainties in model estimates of productivity and water use requires periodic updates as the structural and physiological status of the vegetation varies over the growing season. Here we explore the utilization of remote sensing reflectance observations in the optical domain collected from the MODIS sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites for constraining key canopy states and reducing the uncertainty in modeled CO2, water and energy exchange with the atmosphere. At the core of this approach is a vertically discretized model (MLCan) that characterizes the ecophysiological functioning of a plant canopy and its biophysical coupling to the ambient environment at a half-hourly timestep. Above-ground vegetation is partially controlled by a root system model that simulates moisture uptake in a multi-layer soil system. MLCan has been rigorously validated for both C3 and C4 crops against field- and leaf-scale observations of canopy CO2 uptake, evapotranspiration and sensible heat exchange across a wide range of meteorological conditions in both ambient and elevated CO2 environments. A widely utilized radiation transfer model (PROSAIL) that accounts for the effects of leaf-level optical properties and foliage distribution and orientation on canopy reflectance is coupled to MLCan. This coupling provides the capability of expanding the spectral resolution of the model to nm-scale over the optical range. The coupled model will provide a system for testing the links between plant canopy biochemical

  11. Radiation and ionization energy loss simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xin-Hu; YE Yun-Xiu; CHEN Jian-Ping; LU Hai-Jiang; ZHU Peng-Jia; JIANG Feng-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The radiation and ionization energy loss are presented for single arm Monte Carlo simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at the Jefferson Lab.Radiation and ionization energy loss are discussed for 12C elastic scattering simulation.The relative momentum ratio-Ap and 12C elastic cross section are compared without and with radiative energy loss and a reasonable shape is obtained by the simulation.The total energy loss distribution is obtained,showing a Landau shape for 12C elastic scattering.This simulation work will give good support for radiation correction analysis of the GDH sum rule experiment.

  12. Projektbericht zum Simulatorennetzwerk: Ein Tool zur Verbesserung der Unterrichtsmaterialien und zum gezielten Einsatz von Ressourcen in Skills Labs [Simulator Network Project Report: A tool for improvement of teaching materials and targeted resource usage in Skills Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnabel, Kai P.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA introduced a new project, which aims to improve the flow of information between the Skills Labs and enable a transparent assessment of the simulators via an online database (the Simulator Network.[german] Die medizinische Ausbildung im deutschsprachigen Raum bemüht sich vermehrt in der letzten Dekade um mehr Praxisbezug. Dieser wird mittlerweile an vielen Fakultäten durch simulations-basierten Unterricht in Skills Labs implementiert. Simulatoren sind damit essentieller Bestandteil für diese Art der medizinischen Ausbildung. Ihre Beschaffung und der Betrieb im Rahmen eines Skills Lab verlangen einen großen Einsatz von Ressourcen. Hier soll daher ein Projekt des Ausschusses für praktische Fertigkeiten der Gesellschaft für medizinische Ausbildung vorgestellt werden, welches eine Online-Datenbank (das Simulatorennetzwerk für einen bessern Informationsfluss zwischen den Skills Labs und für eine transparente Bewertung der Simulatoren ermöglicht.

  13. Thermodynamic Simulation of Steam Power Cycles using GUIMatLab Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. Arce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam power cycles are constituted by a series of thermodynamic processes that aim convert the thermal energy of a fluid in mechanical work, which can then be transformed into electrical energy. There are many types of steam power cycles in the world, using various work fluids that may or may not undergo some change in their thermodynamic state. The Rankine Cycle is a steam power cycle that use usually water as work fluid to move turbines and produce work. Nowadays, this steam power cycle is the most used in thermoelectric plants to produce electricity. This work aims the creation of a program in MatLab software with an interface (Graphical Unit Interface, GUI to simulate many configurations of Rankine cycles, providing to the user the values of the main parameters of these processes, that is: required heat in the boiler; work generated in the turbine; required work in the pumps and the thermal efficiency of the cycle. This program provides good results, showing that it can be used to improve the functions of the equipments in these thermodynamic cycles and to support the teaching disciplines of Applied Thermodynamic.

  14. 基于LabVIEW/Matlab的AUV半实物仿真系统设计%Design of AUV simulation system based on LabVIEW/Matlab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴; 李健; 李一博

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the establishment of actual experimental environment of large AUV(Autono-mous Underwater Vehicle), and for the testing need of different units of AUV control system, a new AUV semi-physical simulation system is designed based on LabVIEW/Matlab under Windows platform. The simulation system realizes the real-time calculation of AUV’s position and posture based on three-dimensional hydrodynamic model; meanwhile, it makes serial port and Ethernet communication with deck system and master control system by imitating Phins, GAPS, fixed high altimeter, obstacle avoidance sonar, and other sensors, which realizes AUV’s motion simulation and also pro-vides evidences for determining motion control strategy. Experimentation shows that the system model is reasonable, and the given software design is feasible. The established simulation system is flexible to be extended or reduced, which is used successfully in testing experiment of AUV’s control system.%为解决大型自主式水下航行器(Autonomous Underwater Vehicle,AUV)实际实验环境搭建的困难,以及AUV控制系统各单元功能测试的需要,设计了一套新的Windows平台下基于LabVIEW/Matlab的AUV半实物仿真系统。该仿真系统基于三维空间的水动力模型,来实时计算AUV的位置和姿态等信息;同时,模仿Phins、GAPS、定高高度计、避障声呐等传感器,和AUV甲板、主控以及运动控制单元进行串行和以太网络通信,实现了AUV的运动仿真,同时也为制定运动控制策略提供相关依据。大量实验表明,该系统模型较合理,软件设计可行,具有灵活的扩展性和伸缩性,在AUV控制系统测试实验中成功应用。

  15. 基于LabVIEW仿真实现TSP问题的模拟退火算法%Simulated annealing based on LabVIEW simulation for solving traveling salesman problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敬和; 谢玲

    2011-01-01

    针对旅行商问题(TSP)具有的易于描述却难以处理的NP完全难题、其可能的路径数目与城市数目是呈指数型增长的、求解困难的特点。本文首次采用LabVIEW仿真实现模拟退火算法来求解该问题。仿真结果表明LabVIEW独有的数组运算规则可有效的实现该算法求解TSP问题,相比较其它方法,该方法更简单、实用、计算精度高、速度快,并且适合任意城市数目的TSP问题。%For the NP-complete hard problem which is easy to be described,but hard to be solved and the possible amounts of path increase exponentially with the amounts of city in Traveling Salesman Problem ,both resulting TSP is difficult to solve,this paper uses Simulated Annealing based on LabVIEW simulation to solve the problem for the first time. LabVIEW simulation results show that its unique array algorithms can effectively implement the Simulated annealing for TSP.Compared to other methods,this method is more simple,more practical and more precise.In addition, it has higher speed and is suitable for the TSP with any number of cities.

  16. 基于LabVIEW的随动系统仿真平台的实现%Realization of a Simulation Platform for the Servo System Based on LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔平; 田作华; 马彦

    2001-01-01

    Based on LabVIEW, a development platform of virtual instrumentsoftware by National Instruments Co., U.S. and Runge Kutta algorithm of ordinary differential equations, this paper proposses a method for developing anexperimental simulation platform for servo systems using the basic library functions of LabVIEW. This method proves inexpensive as it does not require Control and Simulation Toolbox of LabVIEW. Keyword following-up system LabVIEW Runge Kutta algorithm%基于美国NI公司的虚拟仪器软件开发平台LabVIEW及微分方程的龙格库塔算法,本文介绍了利用LabVIEW的基本库函数开发随动系统仿真实验平台的方法。该方法不需要借助LabVIEW昂贵的仿真工具箱,节省了开发费用。

  17. Assessment of the dose distribution inside a cardiac cath lab using TLD measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, M.; Teles, P.; Cardoso, G.; Vaz, P.

    2014-11-01

    Over the last decade, there was a substantial increase in the number of interventional cardiology procedures worldwide, and the corresponding ionizing radiation doses for both the medical staff and patients became a subject of concern. Interventional procedures in cardiology are normally very complex, resulting in long exposure times. Also, these interventions require the operator to work near the patient and, consequently, close to the primary X-ray beam. Moreover, due to the scattered radiation from the patient and the equipment, the medical staff is also exposed to a non-uniform radiation field that can lead to a significant exposure of sensitive body organs and tissues, such as the eye lens, the thyroid and the extremities. In order to better understand the spatial variation of the dose and dose rate distributions during an interventional cardiology procedure, the dose distribution around a C-arm fluoroscopic system, in operation in a cardiac cath lab at Portuguese Hospital, was estimated using both Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and dosimetric measurements. To model and simulate the cardiac cath lab, including the fluoroscopic equipment used to execute interventional procedures, the state-of-the-art MC radiation transport code MCNPX 2.7.0 was used. Subsequently, Thermo-Luminescent Detector (TLD) measurements were performed, in order to validate and support the simulation results obtained for the cath lab model. The preliminary results presented in this study reveal that the cardiac cath lab model was successfully validated, taking into account the good agreement between MC calculations and TLD measurements. The simulated results for the isodose curves related to the C-arm fluoroscopic system are also consistent with the dosimetric information provided by the equipment manufacturer (Siemens). The adequacy of the implemented computational model used to simulate complex procedures and map dose distributions around the operator and the medical staff is discussed, in

  18. Design and implementation progress of multi-purpose simulator for nuclear research reactor using LabVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arafa, Amany Abdel Aziz; Saleh, Hassan Ibrahim [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Radiation Engineering Dept.; Ashoub, Nagieb [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Center

    2015-11-15

    This paper illustrates the neutronic and thermal hydraulic models that were implemented in the nuclear research reactor simulator based on LabVIEW. It also describes the system and transient analysis of the simulator that takes into consideration the temperature effects and poisoning. This simulator is designed to be a multi-purpose in which the operator could understand the effects of the input parameters on the reactor. A designer can study different solutions for virtual reactor accident scenarios. The main features of the simulator are the flexibility to design and maintain the interface and the ability to redesign and remodel the reactor core engine. The developed reactor simulator permits to acquire hands-on the experience of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors including reactivity control, thermodynamics, technology design and safety system design. This simulator can be easily customizable and upgradable and new opportunities for collaboration between academic groups could be conducted.

  19. Design and implementation of laser target simulator in hardware-in-the-loop simulation system based on LabWindows/CVI and RTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qiujie; Wang, Qianqian; Li, Xiaoyang; Shan, Bin; Cui, Xuntai; Li, Chenyu; Peng, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    In order to satisfy the requirements of the real-time and generality, a laser target simulator in semi-physical simulation system based on RTX+LabWindows/CVI platform is proposed in this paper. Compared with the upper-lower computers simulation platform architecture used in the most of the real-time system now, this system has better maintainability and portability. This system runs on the Windows platform, using Windows RTX real-time extension subsystem to ensure the real-time performance of the system combining with the reflective memory network to complete some real-time tasks such as calculating the simulation model, transmitting the simulation data, and keeping real-time communication. The real-time tasks of simulation system run under the RTSS process. At the same time, we use the LabWindows/CVI to compile a graphical interface, and complete some non-real-time tasks in the process of simulation such as man-machine interaction, display and storage of the simulation data, which run under the Win32 process. Through the design of RTX shared memory and task scheduling algorithm, the data interaction between the real-time tasks process of RTSS and non-real-time tasks process of Win32 is completed. The experimental results show that this system has the strongly real-time performance, highly stability, and highly simulation accuracy. At the same time, it also has the good performance of human-computer interaction.

  20. 基于LabVIEW的虚拟示波器仿真实验设计%Simulation Experiment of Oscillograph is Designed Based on LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴志超

    2010-01-01

    该文介绍了虚拟仪器的特点与组成,虚拟仪器软件开发工具LabVIEW.进而介绍了基于LabVIEW的虚拟示渡器的设计,并且通过虚拟示渡器完成了两个相关的仿真实验.

  1. Biophysics of olfaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fabio Marques Simoes de [Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Science Center, Campus Box 6511, PO Box 6511, 12801 East 17th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Antunes, Gabriela [Psychobiology Sector and Department of Chemistry, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2007-03-15

    The majority of the biophysical models of olfaction have been focused on the electrical properties of the system, which is justified by the relative facility of recording the electrical activity of the olfactory cells. However, depending on the level of detail utilized, a biophysical model can explore molecular, cellular and network phenomena. This review presents the state of the art of the biophysical approach to understanding olfaction. The reader is introduced to the principal problems involving the study of olfaction and guided gradually to comprehend why it is important to develop biophysical models to investigate olfaction. A large number of representative biophysical efforts in olfaction, their main contributions, the trends for the next generations of biophysical models and the improvements that may be explored by future biophysicists of olfaction have been reviewed.

  2. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and about 270 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers, and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 3rd edition: Introduces rapid partial protein ladder sequencing - an important...

  3. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and 267 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 2nd edition: • Illustrates the high-resolution methods for ultrashort-living protei...

  4. Treatment of Simulated Shipboard Gray Water in a Lab-Scale Membrane Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    conditions that can cause excessive levels of filamentous bacteria includes low F:M ratio, low DO levels, and completely mixed conditions ( Metcalf and Eddy ...which tends to have F:M of 0.04 to 0.10 day-1 ( Metcalf and Eddy , 2003). The lab system, which alternated between aeration and no aeration for...nitrates recycled into the anaerobic reactor ( Metcalf and Eddy , 2003). As such, one would not expect TP removal in the single tank system used for

  5. Vision Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Vision Lab personnel perform research, development, testing and evaluation of eye protection and vision performance. The lab maintains and continues to develop...

  6. Virtual Simulations as Preparation for Lab Exercises: Assessing Learning of Key Laboratory Skills in Microbiology and Improvement of Essential Non-Cognitive Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Makransky

    Full Text Available To investigate if a virtual laboratory simulation (vLAB could be used to replace a face to face tutorial (demonstration to prepare students for a laboratory exercise in microbiology.A total of 189 students who were participating in an undergraduate biology course were randomly selected into a vLAB or demonstration condition. In the vLAB condition students could use a vLAB at home to 'practice' streaking out bacteria on agar plates in a virtual environment. In the demonstration condition students were given a live demonstration from a lab tutor showing them how to streak out bacteria on agar plates. All students were blindly assessed on their ability to perform the streaking technique in the physical lab, and were administered a pre and post-test to determine their knowledge of microbiology, intrinsic motivation to study microbiology, and self-efficacy in the field of microbiology prior to, and after the experiment.The results showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups on their lab scores, and both groups had similar increases in knowledge of microbiology, intrinsic motivation to study microbiology, as well as self-efficacy in the field of microbiology.Our data show that vLABs function just as well as face to face tutorials in preparing students for a physical lab activity in microbiology. The results imply that vLABs could be used instead of face to face tutorials, and a combination of virtual and physical lab exercises could be the future of science education.

  7. The Virtual Lab System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A virtual lab system is the simulation of real devices and experiments using computer and network tech-nology. It can make users do experiments easily, observe experiment phenomena and results through the remote termi-nal. Consequently, users can get final results to verify relative theory. The article analyses the features of virtual labsystems. A real virtual lab system named "Multimedia Virtual Lab for Digital Circuit Logic Design (MVLDCLD) "which has been developed by the authors and their group is also presented.

  8. Biophysics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Glaser, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Biophysics is the science of physical principles underlying all processes of life, including the dynamics and kinetics of biological systems. This fully revised 2nd English edition is an introductory text that spans all steps of biological organization, from the molecular, to the organism level, as well as influences of environmental factors. In response to the enormous progress recently made, especially in theoretical and molecular biophysics, the author has updated the text, integrating new results and developments concerning protein folding and dynamics, molecular aspects of membrane assembly and transport, noise-enhanced processes, and photo-biophysics. The advances made in theoretical biology in the last decade call for a fully new conception of the corresponding sections. Thus, the book provides the background needed for fundamental training in biophysics and, in addition, offers a great deal of advanced biophysical knowledge.

  9. Development of Gas Turbine Fast Mathematical Model Simulation Module for Software Complex «Electrodin» based on LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Iarmonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast mathematical model simulation module based on LabVIEW graphical programming environment has been developed. The module will be used for gas turbine and electrical power system co-simulation, and for testing automation of gas turbine automatic control systems.

  10. Developing an International Combined Applied Surgical Science and Wet Lab Simulation Course as an Undergraduate Teaching Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Sideris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Essential Skills in the Management of Surgical Cases (ESMSC is an international, animal model-based course. It combines interactive lectures with basic ex vivo stations and more advanced wet lab modules, that is, in vivo dissections and Heart Transplant Surgery on a swine model. Materials and Methods. Forty-nine medical students (male, N=27, female N=22, and mean age = 23.7 years from King’s College London (KCL and Greek Medical Schools attended the course. Participants were assessed with Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS, as well as Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs. Paired t-test associations were used to evaluate whether there was statistically significant improvement in their performance. Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness of a combined applied surgical science and wet lab simulation course as a teaching model for surgical skills at the undergraduate level. Results. The mean MCQ score was improved by 2.33/32 (P<0.005. Surgical skills competences, as defined by DOPS scores, were improved in a statically significant manner (P<0.005 for all paired t-test correlations. Conclusions. ESMSC seems to be an effective teaching model, which improves the understanding of the surgical approach and the basic surgical skills. In vivo models could be used potentially as a step further in the Undergraduate Surgical Education.

  11. Thread Group Multithreading: Accelerating the Computation of an Agent-Based Power System Modeling and Simulation Tool -- C GridLAB-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Chassin, David P.

    2014-01-06

    GridLAB-DTM is an open source next generation agent-based smart-grid simulator that provides unprecedented capability to model the performance of smart grid technologies. Over the past few years, GridLAB-D has been used to conduct important analyses of smart grid concepts, but it is still quite limited by its computational performance. In order to break through the performance bottleneck to meet the need for large scale power grid simulations, we develop a thread group mechanism to implement highly granular multithreaded computation in GridLAB-D. We achieve close to linear speedups on multithreading version compared against the single-thread version of the same code running on general purpose multi-core commodity for a benchmark simple house model. The performance of the multithreading code shows favorable scalability properties and resource utilization, and much shorter execution time for large-scale power grid simulations.

  12. Advanced Techniques in Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrondo, José Luis R

    2006-01-01

    Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

  13. 基于LabVIEW RT的硬件在环仿真%The Simulation of Hardware-in-the-Loop based on LabVIEW RT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海东; 郭孔辉; 卢荡

    2010-01-01

    利用实时仿真环境LabVIEW RT,构建了包括整车转向盘转角、油门、制动物理信号的硬件在环仿真系统.采用实时车辆动力学软件CarSim RT建立了车辆模型,并利用所搭建的试验台架进行了HIL仿真.结果表明,利用LabVIEW RT和CarSim RT能快速搭建面向整车开发的HIL系统,所建系统性价比高,而且有很好的实时性和扩展性.

  14. MF-CAE: A Novel Lab on a Chip Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Mastrangelo, C. H.; Sun, Li

    The design of microfluidic systems with a large number of dynamic 011-chip components poses a challenge because today it is difficult to simulate time dependent transport of solvent and solutes through complex chips inclusive of dispersion and convection with low time-cost. Present approaches based on 3D C'FD tools are inadequate for system-level simulation. To address these needs, we propose a novel general simulation method for the approximate solution of linear and nonlinear, static and time-dependent solute and solvent transport in large chips with no need for analytical solution. Some design, modeling, and simulation features of a computer aided engineering tool for microfluidic systems called MF-CAE (Microfluidic CAE) are presented. The features include: an extensible modeling framework for computationally efficient lumped models; a flexible SPICE-like netlist language for microfluidic system design; a user friendly graphical user interface that allows users to quickly configure complex system; and a compact toolkit integrating design, simulation and data displaying. In this paper MF-CAE's architecture, reduced order modeling technique and design methodology are described. A comparison of behavior of microfluidic dilution networks indicates that the simulation results are in good agreement with the model simulations.

  15. Numerical simulations of lab-scale brine-water mixing experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Imane; Webb, Stephen Walter

    2006-10-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments simulating the injection of fresh water into brine in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern were performed at Sandia National Laboratories for various conditions of injection rate and small and large injection tube diameters. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code FLUENT was used to simulate these experiments to evaluate the predictive capability of FLUENT for brine-water mixing in an SPR cavern. The data-model comparisons show that FLUENT simulations predict the mixing plume depth reasonably well. Predictions of the near-wall brine concentrations compare very well with the experimental data. The simulated time for the mixing plume to reach the vessel wall was underpredicted for the small injection tubes but reasonable for the large injection tubes. The difference in the time to reach the wall is probably due to the three-dimensional nature of the mixing plume as it spreads out at the air-brine or oil-brine interface. The depth of the mixing plume as it spreads out along the interface was within a factor of 2 of the experimental data. The FLUENT simulation results predict the plume mixing accurately, especially the water concentration when the mixing plume reaches the wall. This parameter value is the most significant feature of the mixing process because it will determine the amount of enhanced leaching at the oil-brine interface.

  16. 3D numerical simulation of a lab-on-a-chip--increasing measurement sensitivity of interdigitated capacitors by passivation optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Birnbaumer, Gerald M; Zanghellini, Juergen; Ertl, Peter

    2011-04-07

    Interdigital electrode structures (IDES) play a major role in many technical and analytical applications. In particular, they are a key technology in modern lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. As high sensitivity is a key component of any (bio)analytical method, the presented work is aimed at designing a novel dielectric sensing system, which exhibits maximum sensor sensitivity using passivated dielectric microsensors. Although the implementation of high-ε(r) dielectric passivation materials such as tantalum oxide or titanium oxide showed increased sensor sensitivity by a factor of 5, simulations revealed that sensor sensitivity is ultimately determined by the dielectric properties of the analyte. Ideally, dielectric properties of the passivation material need to be adjusted to the dielectric properties of the material under investigation and any deviations (e.g. higher or lower dielectric constants) will result in significant loss of sensitivity. To address these shortcomings we have developed a novel dielectric sensing concept based on a dual-material passivation geometry. The novel design consists of electric flux barriers that are layered between the finger electrodes, as well as electric flux guides which are located above the electrode structures that direct the entire generated electric flux to the object under investigation. Our 3D numerical results clearly show that the novel design offers two main advantages: firstly, the measurement sensitivity is further increased by more than a factor of two in comparison to a homogeneous passivation material sensing strategy. Secondly, maximum sensitivity for a given set of finger geometries can be achieved using a single sensor design regardless of the frequency-dependent dielectric properties of the measured objects. Hence, the novel approach is capable of reducing design and manufacturing costs of lab-on-a-chip devices.

  17. System-level network simulation for robust centrifugal-microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, I; Zehnle, S; Hutzenlaub, T; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2016-05-10

    Centrifugal microfluidics shows a clear trend towards a higher degree of integration and parallelization. This trend leads to an increase in the number and density of integrated microfluidic unit operations. The fact that all unit operations are processed by the same common spin protocol turns higher integration into higher complexity. To allow for efficient development anyhow, we introduce advanced lumped models for network simulations in centrifugal microfluidics. These models consider the interplay of centrifugal and Euler pressures, viscous dissipation, capillary pressures and pneumatic pressures. The simulations are fast and simple to set up and allow for the precise prediction of flow rates as well as switching and valving events. During development, channel and chamber geometry variations due to manufacturing tolerances can be taken into account as well as pipetting errors, variations of contact angles, compliant chamber walls and temperature variations in the processing device. As an example of considering these parameters during development, we demonstrate simulation based robustness analysis for pneumatic siphon valving in centrifugal microfluidics. Subsequently, the influence of liquid properties on pumping and valving is studied for four liquids relevant for biochemical analysis, namely, water (large surface tension), blood plasma (large contact angle hysteresis), ethanol/water (highly wetting) and glycerine/water (highly viscous). In a second example, we derive a spin protocol to attain a constant flow rate under varying pressure conditions. Both examples show excellent agreement with experimental validations.

  18. Diffusion in Altered Tonalite Sample Using Time Domain Diffusion Simulations in Tomographic Images Combined with Lab-scale Diffusion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, M.; Sardini, P.; Togneri, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Timonen, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this work an effect of rock heterogeneity on diffusion was investigated. Time domain diffusion simulations were used to compare behavior of diffusion in homogeneous and heterogeneous 3D media. Tomographic images were used as heterogeneous rock media. One altered tonalite sample from Sievi, Finland, was chosen as test case for introduced analysis procedure. Effective diffusion coefficient of tonalite sample was determined with lab-scale experiments and the same coefficient was used also for homogeneous media. Somewhat technically complicated mathematical solution for analysis of through diffusion experiment is shortly described. Computed tomography (CT) is already quite widely used in many geological, petrological, and paleontological applications when the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the material is of interest, and is an excellent method for gaining information especially about its heterogeneity, grain size, or porosity. In addition to offering means for quantitative characterization, CT provides a lot of qualitative information [1]. A through -diffusion laboratory experiment using radioactive tracer was fitted using the Time Domain Diffusion (TDD) method. This rapid particle tracking method allows simulation of the heterogeneous diffusion based on pore-scale images and local values of diffusivities [2]. As a result we found out that heterogeneity has only a small effect to diffusion coefficient and in-diffusion profile for used geometry. Also direction dependency was tested and was found to be negligible. Whereas significant difference between generally accepted value and value obtained from simulations for constant m in Archie’s law was found. [1] Voutilainen, M., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Sardini, P., and Timonen, J., (2010). On pore-space characterization of an altered tonalite by X-ray µCT and the 14C-PMMA method (in progress). [2] Sardini, P., Robinet, J., Siitari-Kauppi, M., Delay, F., and Hellmuth, K-H, (2007). On direct simulation of heterogeneous

  19. Application of network communication in simulation systems based on LabVIEW virtual instrument%网络通信在基于LabVIEW虚拟仪器仿真系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳莉; 金文; 陈志敏; 刘宏军; 程泽

    2011-01-01

    The network communication function of virtual Instruments LabVIEW simulation software supplies the experimental teaching with open teaching and learning environment , which is a combination of personalized learning and interactive sharing of resources in practice. With the combination of database technology and software programming techniques and based on LabVIEW, the virtual instrument simulation of electrical and electronic systems can achieve the organization and process management of the groups of students’ experiments in a virtual laboratory, as well as educate innovation and self-design capability of students. At the same time, it can help students solve the practical problems encountered in the experiment through an online interactive features.%虚拟仪器仿真软件LabVIEW所具有的网络通信功能,为实验教学提供了个性化学习与交互式资源共享相结合的开放式实践教学环境.结合数据库技术和软件编程技术所开发的基于LabVIEW"电工电子虚拟仪器仿真系统",在培养学生的创新意识和自主设计能力的同时,可实现虚拟实验室多组学生实验的组织和过程管理,并通过在线交互功能帮助学生解决实验中遇到的实际问题.

  20. Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Potential: Simulation of Lab and Industrial-Scale Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Hamawand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a simulation was carried out using BioWin 3.1 to test the capability of the software to predict the biogas potential for two different anaerobic systems. The two scenarios included: (1 a laboratory-scale batch reactor; and (2 an industrial-scale anaerobic continuous lagoon digester. The measured data related to the operating conditions, the reactor design parameters and the chemical properties of influent wastewater were entered into BioWin. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to identify the sensitivity of the most important default parameters in the software’s models. BioWin was then calibrated by matching the predicted data with measured data and used to simulate other parameters that were unmeasured or deemed uncertain. In addition, statistical analyses were carried out using evaluation indices, such as the coefficient of determination (R-squared, the correlation coefficient (r and its significance (p-value, the general standard deviation (SD and the Willmott index of agreement, to evaluate the agreement between the software prediction and the measured data. The results have shown that after calibration, BioWin can be used reliably to simulate both small-scale batch reactors and industrial-scale digesters with a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of less than 10% and very good values of the indexes. Furthermore, by changing the default parameters in BioWin, which is a way of calibrating the models in the software, as well, this may provide information about the performance of the digester. Furthermore, the results of this study showed there may be an over estimation for biogas generated from industrial-scale digesters. More sophisticated analytical devices may be required for reliable measurements of biogas quality and quantity.

  1. Modeling and simulation of lab-scale anaerobic co-digestion of MEA waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion model No.1 (ADM1 was applied and expanded in this study to model and simulate anaerobic digestion (AD of an industrial carbon capture reclaimer MEA (monoethanolamine waste (MEAw together with easily degradable organics. The general structure of ADM1 was not changed except for introducing state variables of MEA and complex organics (CO in the waste and biochemical reactions of MEA uptake and CO hydrolysis in the model ADM1_MEAw. Experimental batch test results were used for calibrating kinetics variables. The obtained kinetics were employed in the ADM1_MEAw to simulate semi-continuously fed experimental test for 486 days at room temperature (22 +/- 2oC. The validation results show that the ADM1_MEAw was able to predict the process performance with reasonable accuracy, including process pH, biogas generation and inorganic nitrogen concentrations, for a wide range of feed scenarios. Free ammonia inhibition, was observed to be the main inhibitory effects on acetoclastic methanogenesis, leading to volatile fatty acids (VFA accumulation at high loads. Inhibition assumed to be caused by potentially toxic constituents of MEAw appears to be much less important than ammonia, suggesting that such constituents were broken down by AD.

  2. The use of Problem Based Learning in a Simulation Lab. How does it work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sytter

    2013-01-01

    Litterature shows lack of studies on the outcome of simulation using high and low fidelity mannequins and Problem Based Learning as a didactic tool. We have evaluated a course in undergraduate Nursing integrating different aspects of essentials in Nursing by using the Logic Model. The course...... is organized using Problembased Learning and Low Fidelity Mannequins as a didactic strategy. The overall objective is to enhance the students´ ability to critically think and reflect upon action in a clinical setting. Our study took place among 1st year students. To explore the undergraduates´ experiences we....... It also seems that students benefit from facilitators different background and ability to act. Students relate nursing to ethics and communication and not to psycomotoric skills. In general the students´experience of the course is that this is a fun and enjoyable way of learning....

  3. Population heterogeneity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli lab scale cultivations simulating industrial scale bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heins, Anna-Lena

    in different cultivations modes, in steady state at different growth rates and in response to glucose perturbation in continuous culture, simulating the feeding zone of a large scale fed-batch fermentation and in batch culture to characterise the single cell behaviour in a dynamic environment. Furthermore......Today it is well known that a population of cells in a bioreactor is heterogeneous, opposite to traditional belief, and thus exhibiting distributions of single cell properties e.g. cell size, viability and metabolic activity rather than having a set of characteristics that can be described...... by averaged values. Population distributions always exist, but are significantly pronounced due to a combination of metabolic and stress responses of single cells travelling throughout the reactor experiencing gradients of substrate, pH and oxygen caused by non-ideal mixing in industrial scale bioprocesses...

  4. Aeration of the teuftal landfill: Field scale concept and lab scale simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzkowski, Marco; Walker, Beat; Kuchta, Kerstin; Raga, Roberto; Stegmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Long lasting post-closure care (PCC) is often the major financial burden for operators of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Beside costs for the installation and maintenance of technical equipment and barriers, in particular long term treatment of leachate and landfill gas has to be paid from capital surplus. Estimations based on laboratory experiments project time periods of many decades until leachate quality allows for direct discharge (i.e. no need for further purification). Projections based on leachate samples derived from the last 37years for 35 German landfills confirm these assumption. Moreover, the data illustrate that in particular ammonium nitrogen concentrations are likely to fall below limit values only after a period of 300years. In order to avoid long lasting PCC the operator of Teuftal landfill, located in the Swiss canton Bern, decided to biologically stabilize the landfill by means of a combined in situ aeration and moisturization approach. In December 2014 the aeration started at a landfill section containing approximately 30% of the total landfill volume. From summer 2016 onwards the remaining part of the landfill will be aerated. Landfill aeration through horizontal gas and leachate drains is carried out for the first time in field scale in Europe. The technical concept is described in the paper. Parallel to field scale aeration, investigations for the carbon and nitrogen turnover are carried out by means of both simulated aerated landfills and simulated anaerobic landfills. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that aeration is capable to enhance, both carbon mobilization and discharge via the gas phase. This effect comes along with a significant increase in bio-stabilization of the waste organic fraction, which positively affects the landfill emission behavior in the long run. In terms of leachate pollution reduction it could be demonstrated that the organic load decrease fast and widely independent of the adjusted aeration

  5. Simulation and Control Lab Development for Power and Energy Management for NASA Manned Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Beach, Raymond F.; Soeder, James F.; McNelis, Nancy B.; May, Ryan; Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The development of distributed hierarchical and agent-based control systems will allow for reliable autonomous energy management and power distribution for on-orbit missions. Power is one of the most critical systems on board a space vehicle, requiring quick response time when a fault or emergency is identified. As NASAs missions with human presence extend beyond low earth orbit autonomous control of vehicle power systems will be necessary and will need to reliably function for long periods of time. In the design of autonomous electrical power control systems there is a need to dynamically simulate and verify the EPS controller functionality prior to use on-orbit. This paper presents the work at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio where the development of a controls laboratory is being completed that will be utilized to demonstrate advanced prototype EPS controllers for space, aeronautical and terrestrial applications. The control laboratory hardware, software and application of an autonomous controller for demonstration with the ISS electrical power system is the subject of this paper.

  6. Sensor-Augmented Virtual Labs: Using Physical Interactions with Science Simulations to Promote Understanding of Gas Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Chiu, Jennifer L.; DeJaegher, Crystal J.; Pan, Edward A.

    2016-02-01

    Deep learning of science involves integration of existing knowledge and normative science concepts. Past research demonstrates that combining physical and virtual labs sequentially or side by side can take advantage of the unique affordances each provides for helping students learn science concepts. However, providing simultaneously connected physical and virtual experiences has the potential to promote connections among ideas. This paper explores the effect of augmenting a virtual lab with physical controls on high school chemistry students' understanding of gas laws. We compared students using the augmented virtual lab to students using a similar sensor-based physical lab with teacher-led discussions. Results demonstrate that students in the augmented virtual lab condition made significant gains from pretest and posttest and outperformed traditional students on some but not all concepts. Results provide insight into incorporating mixed-reality technologies into authentic classroom settings.

  7. Digital Controller Development Methodology Based on Real-Time Simulations with LabVIEW FPGA Hardware-Software Toolset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caldognetto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we exemplify the use of NI Lab-VIEW FPGA as a rapid prototyping environment for digital controllers. In our power electronics laboratory, it has been successfully employed in the development, debugging, and test of different power converter controllers for microgrid applications.The paper shows how this high level programming language,together with its target hardware platforms, including CompactRIO and Single Board RIO systems, allows researchers and students to develop even complex applications in reasonable times. The availability of efficient drivers for the considered hardware platforms frees the users from the burden of low level programming. At the same time, the high level programming approach facilitates software re-utilization, allowing the laboratory know-how to steadily grow along time. Furthermore, it allows hardware-in-the-loop real-time simulation, that proved to be effective, and safe, in debugging even complex hardware and software co-designed controllers. To illustrate the effectiveness of these hardware-software toolsets and of the methodology based upon them, two case studies are

  8. Biophysics of molecular gastronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael P; Sörensen, Pia M

    2015-03-26

    Chefs and scientists exploring biophysical processes have given rise to molecular gastronomy. In this Commentary, we describe how a scientific understanding of recipes and techniques facilitates the development of new textures and expands the flavor palette. The new dishes that result engage our senses in unexpected ways. PAPERCLIP.

  9. Relating biophysical properties across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenner, Elijah; Marga, Francoise; Neagu, Adrian; Kosztin, Ioan; Forgacs, Gabor

    2008-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of a multicellular living system is that it operates at various scales, from the intracellular to organismal. Genes and molecules set up the conditions for the physical processes to act, in particular to shape the embryo. As development continues the changes brought about by the physical processes lead to changes in gene expression. It is this coordinated interplay between genetic and generic (i.e., physical and chemical) processes that constitutes the modern understanding of early morphogenesis. It is natural to assume that in this multiscale process the smaller defines the larger. In case of biophysical properties, in particular, those at the subcellular level are expected to give rise to those at the tissue level and beyond. Indeed, the physical properties of tissues vary greatly from the liquid to solid. Very little is known at present on how tissue level properties are related to cell and subcellular properties. Modern measurement techniques provide quantitative results at both the intracellular and tissue level, but not on the connection between these. In the present work we outline a framework to address this connection. We specifically concentrate on the morphogenetic process of tissue fusion, by following the coalescence of two contiguous multicellular aggregates. The time evolution of this process can accurately be described by the theory of viscous liquids. We also study fusion by Monte Carlo simulations and a novel Cellular Particle Dynamics (CPD) model, which is similar to the earlier introduced Subcellular Element Model (SEM; Newman, 2005). Using the combination of experiments, theory and modeling we are able to relate the measured tissue level biophysical quantities to subcellular parameters. Our approach has validity beyond the particular morphogenetic process considered here and provides a general way to relate biophysical properties across scales.

  10. Stochastic biophysical modeling of irradiated cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a computational stochastic model of virtual cells irradiation, based on Quasi-Markov Chain Monte Carlo method and using biophysical input. The model is based on a stochastic tree of probabilities for each cell of the entire colony. Biophysics of the cells is described by probabilities and probability distributions provided as the input. The adaptation of nucleation and catastrophe theories, well known in physics, yields sigmoidal relationships for carcinogenic risk as a function of the irradiation. Adaptive response and bystander effect, incorporated into the model, improves its application. The results show that behavior of virtual cells can be successfully modeled, e.g. cancer transformation, creation of mutations, radioadaptation or radiotherapy. The used methodology makes the model universal and practical for simulations of general processes. Potential biophysical curves and relationships are also widely discussed in the paper. However, the presented theoretical model does not describe ...

  11. Fetal Biophysical Profile Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. HaghighatKhah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nFetal biophysical profile scoring is a sonographic-based method of fetal assessment first described by Manning and Platt in 1980. "nThe biophysical profile score was developed as a method to integrate real-time observations of the fetus and his/her intrauterine environment in order to more comprehensively assess the fetal condition. These findings must be evaluated in the context of maternal/fetal history (i.e., chronic hypertension, post-dates, intrauterine growth restriction, etc, fetal structural integrity (presence or absence of congenital anomalies, and the functionality of fetal support structures (placental and umbilical cord. For example, acute asphyxia due to placental abruption may result in an absence of the acute variables of the biophysical profile score (fetal breathing movements, fetal movement, fetal tone, and fetal heart rate reactivity with a normal amniotic fluid volume. With post maturity the asphyxial event may be intermittent and chronic resulting in a decrease in amniotic fluid volume, but with the acute variables remaining normal. "nWhile the 5 components of the biophysical profile score have remained unchanged since 1980 (Manning, 1980, the definitions of a normal and abnormal parameter have evolved with increasing experience. "nIn 1984 the definition of oligohydramnios was increased from < 1cm pocket of fluid to < 2.0 x 1.0 cm pocket. Oligohydramnios is now defined as a pocket of amniotic fluid < 2.0 x 2.0 cm (Manning, 1995a "nIf the four ultrasound variables are normal, the accuracy of the biophysical profile score was not found to be significantly improved by adding the non-stress test. As a result, in 1987 the profile score was modified to incorporate the non-stress test only when one of the ultrasound variables was abnormal (Manning 1987. Table 1 outlines the current definitions for quantifying a variable as present or absent. "nEach of the 5 components of the biophysical profile score does not have equal

  12. From provocative narrative scenarios to quantitative biophysical model results: Simulating plausible futures to 2070 in an urbanizing agricultural watershed in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, E.; Chen, X.; Motew, M.; Qiu, J.; Zipper, S. C.; Carpenter, S. R.; Kucharik, C. J.; Steven, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    Scenario analysis is a powerful tool for envisioning future social-ecological change and its consequences on human well-being. Scenarios that integrate qualitative storylines and quantitative biophysical models can create a vivid picture of these potential futures but the integration process is not straightforward. We present - using the Yahara Watershed in southern Wisconsin (USA) as a case study - a method for developing quantitative inputs (climate, land use/cover, and land management) to drive a biophysical modeling suite based on four provocative and contrasting narrative scenarios that describe plausible futures of the watershed to 2070. The modeling suite consists of an agroecosystem model (AgroIBIS-VSF), hydrologic routing model (THMB), and empirical lake water quality model and estimates several biophysical indicators to evaluate the watershed system under each scenario. These indicators include water supply, lake flooding, agricultural production, and lake water quality. Climate (daily precipitation and air temperature) for each scenario was determined using statistics from 210 different downscaled future climate projections for two 20-year time periods (2046-2065 and 2081-2100) and modified using a stochastic weather generator to allow flexibility for matching specific climate events within the scenario narratives. Land use/cover for each scenario was determined first by quantifying changes in areal extent every decade for 15 categories at the watershed scale to be consistent with the storyline events and theme. Next, these changes were spatially distributed using a rule-based framework based on land suitability metrics that determine transition probabilities. Finally, agricultural inputs including manure and fertilizer application rates were determined for each scenario based on the prevalence of livestock, water quality regulations, and technological innovations. Each scenario is compared using model inputs (maps and time-series of land use/cover and

  13. 基于LabVIEW电动汽车电气性能匹配仿真%Electrical properties matching simulation for an electric vehicle based on the LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 黄称称; 李永利; 陈东; 曾琼

    2015-01-01

    A simulation analyzation was made for electric vehicle (EV) electrical performances to match and adjust the electric parameters in the early stage of EV design. An EV electric model of electric vehicle was built by using virtual workbench LabVIEW without bench veriifcation test. The basic electrical parameters were selected about the power battery, the electric motor, and the other electrical components according to the initial design requirements. Parts of the electrical model were established in StarSim, based on these parameters. The LabVIEW Sub VI and proportional integration (PI) control was combined to simulate the actual operating environments, the transient impact, the steady state driving, and the limiting conditions driving. The results show that the electrical model is reliable and can be used to analyze and verify electric vehicle electric properties, and to ensure electric vehicle electrical safety.%为解决电动汽车(EV)电气安全问题,在EV设计初期就应选择EV的电气参数。该文仿真研究了其匹配反馈和修正。未使用台架测试验证,而是通过虚拟平台LabVIEW,建立EV电气模型。根据初期设计要求,选择动力电池﹑电机等其它电器件基本电气参数。在仿真软件StarSim中,建立电气模型部件。调用LabVIEW的子软件VI,结合比例积分(PI)调节控制,来模拟实际运行环境﹑瞬态冲击﹑稳态行驶和极限工况。结果表明:该电气模型不仅可靠,而且能够对电动汽车的电气性能匹配进行分析,并反馈验证,保证了电动汽车的电气安全性。

  14. Theoretical Molecular Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    "Theoretical Molecular Biophysics" is an advanced study book for students, shortly before or after completing undergraduate studies, in physics, chemistry or biology. It provides the tools for an understanding of elementary processes in biology, such as photosynthesis on a molecular level. A basic knowledge in mechanics, electrostatics, quantum theory and statistical physics is desirable. The reader will be exposed to basic concepts in modern biophysics such as entropic forces, phase separation, potentials of mean force, proton and electron transfer, heterogeneous reactions coherent and incoherent energy transfer as well as molecular motors. Basic concepts such as phase transitions of biopolymers, electrostatics, protonation equilibria, ion transport, radiationless transitions as well as energy- and electron transfer are discussed within the frame of simple models.

  15. Structure and biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    This volume is a collection of articles from the proceedings of the ISSBMR 7th Course: Structure and Biophysics - New Technologies for Current Challenges in Biology and Beyond. This NATO Advanced Institute (ASI) was held in Erice at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture on 22 June through 3 July 2005. The ASI brought together a diverse group of experts in the fields of Structural Biology, Biophysics and Physics. Prominent lecturers, from seven different countries, and students from around the world participated in the NATO ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi (Stanford University, USA) and Alexander Arseniev (Moscow, RU). Advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and x-ray crystallography have allowed the three-dimensional structures of many biological macromolecules and their complexes, including the ribosome and RNA polymerase to be solved. Fundamental principles of NMR spectroscopy and dynamics, x-ray crystallography, computation and experimental dynamics we...

  16. Biophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Cotteril, Rodney

    2002-01-01

    Biophysics: An Introduction, is a concise balanced introduction to this subject. Written in an accessible and readable style, the book takes a fresh, modern approach with the author successfully combining key concepts and theory with relevant applications and examples drawn from the field as a whole. Beginning with a brief introduction to the origins of biophysics, the book takes the reader through successive levels of complexity, from atoms to molecules, structures, systems and ultimately to the behaviour of organisms. The book also includes extensive coverage of biopolymers, biomembranes, biological energy, and nervous systems. The text not only explores basic ideas, but also discusses recent developments, such as protein folding, DNA/RNA conformations, molecular motors, optical tweezers and the biological origins of consciousness and intelligence.

  17. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Radmile Matejčić 2, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Mekterović, Igor [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Ivošević, Tatjana [Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, HR-51000 Rijeka (Croatia)

    2015-11-15

    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster–Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By “running” a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  18. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko; Mekterović, Igor; Ivošević, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster-Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By "running" a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  19. PD Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Bilow, Marcel; Entrop, Bram; Lichtenberg, Jos; Stoutjesdijk, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    PD Lab explores the applications of building sector related product development. PD lab investigates and tests digital production technologies like CNC milled wood connections. It will also act as a platform in its wider meaning to investigate the effects and influences of file to factory production, to explore the potential in the field of sustainability, material use, logistics and the interaction of stakeholders within the chain of the building process.

  20. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of brushless DC motor servo system based on RT-LAB%基于 RT-LAB 的无刷直流电动机伺服系统半实物仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭长欢; 黄建

    2015-01-01

    为了适应机载电气系统结构的日益复杂变化,保证电气系统性能的良好性,降低飞行试验的风险,提出了一种机载电气系统半实物仿真方法。以无刷直流电机(brushless DC motor ,BLCDM )伺服系统为研究对象,按照RT‐LAB建模规则,搭建了系统仿真模型;设计了以DSP(TMS320F28335)为核心的电动机控制电路和信号调理电路;在CCS3.3开发环境下,完成了电机控制软件的设计。在此平台上,对该伺服系统进行了突加负载和突加给定转速的动态性能仿真,并与全数字仿真的结果进行了对比分析,验证了半实物仿真方法的有效性和准确性。%In order to adapt to the increasingly complex changes of the airborne electrical system structure ,ensure that the electrical performance of the system is w ell ,reduce the risk of flight test ,this paper puts forw ard a kind of airborne electrical system hardware‐in‐the‐loop simulation method .This paper uses the semi‐physical simulation platform RT‐LAB to study brushless DC motor (BLDCM ) servo system .According to the RT‐LAB modeling rules ,the model of the motor was put up .The controller of the motor ,which takes DSP TMS320F28335 as the core ,and signal conditioning circuit were implemented .The control program was accomplished in CCS3 .3 Hardware‐in‐the‐loop simulation experi‐ments were carried out to simulate the serve system’s dynamic performances .The dynamic response of the motor could be simulated by changing the load torque and the speed settings .Compared with digital simulation and real‐time simula‐tion ,the validity and accuracy of hardware‐in‐the‐loop simulation were confirmed .

  1. Relating Biophysical Properties Across Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Flenner, Elijah; Neagu, Adrian; Kosztin, Ioan; Forgacs, Gabor

    2007-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of a multicellular living system is that it operates at various scales, from the intracellular to organismal. Very little is known at present on how tissue level properties are related to cell and subcellular properties. Modern measurement techniques provide quantitative results at both the intracellular and tissue level, but not on the connection between these. In the present work we outline a framework to address this connection. We specifically concentrate on the morphogenetic process of tissue fusion, by following the coalescence of two contiguous multicellular aggregates. The time evolution of this process can accurately be described by the theory of viscous liquids. We also study fusion by Monte Carlo simulations and a novel Cellular Particle Dynamics (CPD) model, which is similar to the earlier introduced Subcellular Element Model (Newman, 2005). Using the combination of experiments, theory and modeling we are able to relate the measured tissue level biophysical quantities to s...

  2. 基于LabVIEW搭建光纤SPR虚拟仿真设计平台%To Build the Optic Fiber SPR Virtual Simulation Design Platform Based on LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪余聪; 林鈺城

    2016-01-01

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based optical fiber sensor is a novel sensor, which takes optical fiber core as a substrate to excite SPR effect. This paper demonstrates a virtual simulation platform for design of optical fiber SPR devices on the basis of LabVIEW, and makes theoretical calculations according to material parameters and component architecture, which can change the size and material parameters in situ to understand the impact on SPR effect, and furthermore to find the optimum parameters. Finally, based on side-polished PMMA plastic optical fiber, the simulation shows that 40nm silver-plated thin film on the grinding surface results in a better performance of optic fiber SPR sensor. In terms of the optimum parameters of the sensor, the relationship between the resonance wavelength and the refractive index of sampling solution can be obtained.%光纤表面等离子体共振(Surface plasmon resonance, SPR)传感器是一种将光纤纤芯作为激发SPR效应基体的新型传感器。本篇论文基于 LabVIEW 搭建虚拟仿真设计平台,依照材料参数与组件结构做理论计算,可即时改变尺寸及材料参数,了解SPR组件参数对感测效果的影响,找到最佳参数。以PMMA 塑料光纤虚拟仿真结果显示,镀银薄膜40nm于光纤研磨表面上,能够制造出一个较佳的光纤 SPR传感器;最后,以不同折射率的待测物进行仿真计算,得到共振波长与折射率关系。

  3. Lab-on-a-bird: biophysical monitoring of flying birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Abdurrahman; Lee, Seoho; Ahsan, Syed S; Karlsson, Kolbeinn; Gabrielson, Richard; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Winkler, David W; Erickson, David

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of birds is finely tuned to their activities and environments, and thus research on avian systems can play an important role in understanding organismal responses to environmental changes. At present, however, the physiological monitoring of bird metabolism is limited by the inability to take real-time measurements of key metabolites during flight. In this study, we present an implantable biosensor system that can be used for continuous monitoring of uric acid levels of birds during various activities including flight. The system consists of a needle-type enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of uric acid in interstitial fluids. A lightweight two-electrode potentiostat system drives the biosensor, reads the corresponding output current and wirelessly transfers the data or records to flash memory. We show how the device can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of short-term flight and rest cycles on the uric acid levels of pigeons. In addition, we demonstrate that our device has the ability to measure uric acid level increase in homing pigeons while they fly freely. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new way of studying birds in flight which would lead to a better understanding of the ecology and biology of avian movements.

  4. Sensor-Augmented Virtual Labs: Using Physical Interactions with Science Simulations to Promote Understanding of Gas Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Chiu, Jennifer L.; DeJaegher, Crystal J.; Pan, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning of science involves integration of existing knowledge and normative science concepts. Past research demonstrates that combining physical and virtual labs sequentially or side by side can take advantage of the unique affordances each provides for helping students learn science concepts. However, providing simultaneously connected…

  5. Thermal Manikins & Clothing Biophysics Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Five biophysical evaluation chambers containing fully sensored, articulated, moveable copper manikins, and other metallic models of feet and hands are available for...

  6. TELECOM LAB

    CERN Multimedia

    IT-CS-TEL Section

    2001-01-01

    The Telecom Lab is moving from Building 104 to Building 31 S-026, with its entrance via the ramp on the side facing Restaurant n°2. The help desk will thus be closed to users on Tuesday 8 May. On May 9, the Lab will only be able to deal with problems of a technical nature at the new address and it will not be able to process any new subscription requests throughout the week from 7 to 11 May. We apologise for any inconvenience this may cause and thank you for your understanding.

  7. 基于LabVIEW和DAQ的导弹通用测试平台设计与仿真%Design and Simulation on an Improved Missile Test Platform Based on DAQ and LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄汉桥; 周军; 于晓洲

    2009-01-01

    According to the present state weapon test system for air-to-air missile, an improved test platform based on PC-DAQ and LabⅥEW is designed. The hardware is designed by the method of modularization. The signal conditioning circuit is designed particularly. The designed software mainly solves the problem of how to use CIN to transfer VC++ drives and how to use CLF to actualize the skills that compiling and applying the dynamic link library which is used for LabVIEW. By using it, the virtual graphic user interface, system control,data processing codes and data saving are given out, so the function of long-distance network detection is real-ized. In simulations, it is found that the test platform advancing the automation and general utilization of test e-quipment, and having many advantages that it is easy to operate and upgrade, which is of great importance in fully exerting the combating efficiency of the air-to-air missile.%针对空空导弹检测设备的发展现状,设计了基于LabVIEW和PC-DAQ的机载导弹通用测试平台.硬件采用模块化设计,侧重设计了信号调理电路,主要包括取有效值、过零比较、隔离放大电路和滤波等电路.软件设计主要实现了利用CIN图标调用VC++驱动程序以及利用CLF节点实现可供LabVIEW直接调用的动态库DLL文件的编制与调用等技术,完成了虚拟面板、系统控制、数据采集处理和显示存储等程序的编制,最后还实现了远程网络监控功能,可以方便地进行远程实时测试和故障诊断.仿真实验表明,所设计的测试平台提高了导弹检测设备的模块化、标准化、通用化,具有性价比高、操作简单、易于升级等优点.

  8. Mechanical Implementation and Simulation of MoboLab, A Mobile Robot for Inspection of Power Transmission Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud Saadat Foumani; Mostafa Nayyerloo; Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi Yeganehparast; Alireza Barati

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase in development of a mobile robot that can navigate aerial power transmission lines completely unattended by human operator. Its ultimate purpose is to automate inspection of power transmission lines and their equipments. The authors have developed a scaled functional model of such a mobile robot with a preliminary simple computer based on-off controller. MoboLab (Mobile Laboratory) navigates a power transmission line between two strain towers. It can maneu...

  9. Biophysics and cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolini, Claudio

    1986-01-01

    Since the early times of the Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus, and later of the Roman philosopher Lucretius, a simple, fundamental idea emerged that brought the life sciences into the realm of the physical sciences. Atoms, after various interactions, were assumed to acquire stable configurations that corresponded either to the living or to the inanimate world. This simple and unitary theory, which has evolved in successive steps to our present time, remarkably maintained its validity despite several centuries of alternative vicissitudes, and is the foundation of modern biophysics. Some of the recent developments of this ancient idea are the discovery of the direct relationship between spatial structures and chemical activity of such molecules as methane and benzene, and the later discovery of the three-dimensional structure of double-helical DNA, and of its relationship with biological activity. The relationship between the structure of various macromolecules and the function of living cells was on...

  10. Biophysics of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.

  11. Lab architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-04-01

    There are few more dramatic illustrations of the vicissitudes of laboratory architecturethan the contrast between Building 20 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its replacement, the Ray and Maria Stata Center. Building 20 was built hurriedly in 1943 as temporary housing for MIT's famous Rad Lab, the site of wartime radar research, and it remained a productive laboratory space for over half a century. A decade ago it was demolished to make way for the Stata Center, an architecturally striking building designed by Frank Gehry to house MIT's computer science and artificial intelligence labs (above). But in 2004 - just two years after the Stata Center officially opened - the building was criticized for being unsuitable for research and became the subject of still ongoing lawsuits alleging design and construction failures.

  12. Workspace: LAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Lundsgaard, Christina; Nørskov, Eva-Carina

    2007-01-01

    På mange arbejdspladser viger man tilbage fra at inddrage medarbejderne når der igangsættes større forandringer. Workspace:lab er et bud på en inddragende udviklingsproces hvor dialog og eksperimenter står i centrum. Ved at samle såvel medarbejdere som ledelse og rådgivere på et mindre antal...

  13. Mechanical Implementation and Simulation of MoboLab, A Mobile Robot for Inspection of Power Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Saadat Foumani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first phase in development of a mobile robot that can navigate aerial power transmission lines completely unattended by human operator. Its ultimate purpose is to automate inspection of power transmission lines and their equipments. The authors have developed a scaled functional model of such a mobile robot with a preliminary simple computer based on-off controller. MoboLab (Mobile Laboratory navigates a power transmission line between two strain towers. It can maneuver over obstructions created by line equipments such as insulators, warning spheres, dampers, and spacer dampers. It can also easily negotiate the towers by its three flexible arms. MoboLab has an internal main screw which enables the robot to move itself or its two front and rear arms independently through changing gripped points. When the front arm gets close to an obstacle, the arm detaches from the line and goes down, the robot moves forward, the arm passes the obstacle and grippes the line again. In a same way another arms pass the obstacle.

  14. Spoilage potential of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species: Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum and Lactococcus piscium, on sweet bell pepper (SBP) simulation medium under different gas compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothakos, Vasileios; Nyambi, Clarice; Zhang, Bao-Yu; Papastergiadis, Antonios; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank

    2014-05-16

    Sweet bell peppers are a significant constituent of retail, chilled-stored and packaged food products like fresh salads, marinades and ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Previously, through general screening of the Belgian market and by means of source tracking analysis in a plant manufacturing minimally processed, vegetable salads the susceptibility of fresh-cut sweet bell peppers to lactic acid bacterium (LAB) contamination was substantiated. The determination of the metabolic profiles of Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum and Lactococcus piscium, two major psychrotrophic, spoilage-related LAB species, on sweet bell pepper (SBP) simulation medium under different packaging conditions - 1.) vacuum: 100% N2, 2.) air: 21% O2, 79% N2, 3.) MAP1: 30% CO2, 70% N2 and 4.) MAP2: 50% O2, 50% CO2 - facilitated a better understanding of the spoilage potential of these microbes as well as the presumptive contribution of O2 in the spectrum of produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with poor organoleptic properties of food products. Generally, none of the applied gas compositions inhibited the growth of the 4 L. gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum isolates, however the presence of O2 resulted in buttery off-odors by inducing primarily the accumulation of diacetyl and pungent "vinegar" smell due to acetic acid. The 3 tested isolates of L. piscium varied greatly among their growth dynamics and inhibition at MAP2. They exhibited either weak spoilage profile or very offensive metabolism confirming significant intraspecies diversity.

  15. Innovations in STEM education: the Go-Lab federation of online labs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Ton; Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Gillet, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    The Go-Lab federation of online labs opens up virtual laboratories (simulation), remote laboratories (real equipment accessible at distance) and data sets from physical laboratory experiments (together called “online labs”) for large-scale use in education. In this way, Go-Lab enables inquiry-based

  16. From hadron therapy to cosmic rays: a life in biophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    Christine Sutton

    2014-01-01

    In 1954 – the year CERN was founded – another scientific journey began at what is now the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Beams of protons from a particle accelerator were used for the first time by John Lawrence – a doctor and the brother of Ernest Lawrence, the physicist after whom the Berkeley lab is named – to treat patients with cancer. For many years, Eleanor Blakely has been one of the leaders of that journey. She visited CERN last week and spoke with the Bulletin about her life in biophysics.   Use of the cylcotron beam to mimic "shooting stars" seen by astronauts. Black hood on subject Cornelius Tobias keeps out light during neutron irradiation experiment at the 184-inch accelerator. Helping to position Tobias in the beam line are (left to right) John Lyman of Biomedical Division, and Ralph Thomas of Health Physics. (Photo courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.) Interested in biophysics, which was still a new...

  17. Integrated Molecular and Cellular Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Raicu, Valerica

    2008-01-01

    This book integrates concepts and methods from physics, biology, biochemistry and physical chemistry into a standalone, unitary text of biophysics that aims to provide a quantitative description of structures and processes occurring in living matter. The book introduces graduate physics students and physicists interested in biophysics research to 'classical' as well as emerging areas of biophysics. The advanced undergraduate physics students and the life scientists are also invited to join in, by building on their knowledge of basic physics. Essential notions of biochemistry and biology are introduced, as necessary, throughout the book, while the reader's familiarity with basic knowledge of physics is assumed. Topics covered include interactions between biological molecules, physical chemistry of phospholipids association into bilayer membranes, DNA and protein structure and folding, passive and active electrical properties of the cell membrane, classical as well as fractal aspects of reaction kinetics and di...

  18. Understanding Statistical Mechanics and Biophysics Using Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter

    2009-03-01

    A new approach to teaching statistical mechanics and biophysics is presented using the classic two-box system from statistical mechanics as an example. This approach makes advanced physics concepts accessible to a broad audience including undergraduates with no calculus background. Students develop a simple Excel spreadsheet that implements a kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulation algorithm ``from scratch''. The students discover for themselves the properties of the system by analyzing the simulation output in a directed, activity-based exercise. By changing the number and initial distribution of the particles, students see how the system approaches equilibrium and how system variability changes with system size. A finite difference solution is also implemented in Excel, and students compare its predictions with the kMC results. This approach is quite different from using ``canned'' computer demonstrations, as students design, implement and debug the simulation themselves -- ensuring that they understand the model system intimately.

  19. Airliner cabin air quality: emissions of organophosphates originating from aircraft engine oil. Experimental lab simulation and measurements on flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtzager, M.M.G.; Havermans, J.B.G.A.; Bos, J.G.H.; Makarem Akhlaghi, H.; Hijman, W.C.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D.; Jedynska, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    In our simulation experiments, using e.g., a dedicated emission chamber, the emission of organophosphates as tricresyl phosphate (TCP) was studied using turbine oil. Experiments were carried out at 250°C and 370°C. Subsequently field studies were carried out to detect the presence of TCPs in the coc

  20. Computer Simulations of Quantum Theory of Hydrogen Atom for Natural Science Education Students in a Virtual Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2012-01-01

    The present article is primarily targeted for the advanced college/university undergraduate students of chemistry/physics education, computational physics/chemistry, and computer science. The most recent software system such as MS Visual Studio .NET version 2010 is employed to perform computer simulations for modeling Bohr's quantum theory of…

  1. Numerical Simulation of Beam-Beam Effects in the Proposed Electron-Ion Colider at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsa Terzic, Yuhong Zhang

    2010-05-01

    One key limiting factor to a collider luminosity is beam-beam interactions which usually can cause serious emittance growth of colliding beams and fast reduction of luminosity. Such nonlinear collective beam effect can be a very serious design challenge when the machine parameters are pushed into a new regime. In this paper, we present simulation studies of the beam-beam effect for a medium energy ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF.

  2. A Simulation of Energy Storage System for Improving the Power System Stability with Grid-Connected PV using MCA Analysis and LabVIEW Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindrich Stuchly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large-scale penetration of distributed, Renewable power plants require transfers of large amounts of energy. This, in turn, puts a high strain on the energy delivery infrastructure. In particular, photovoltaic power plants supply energy with high intermittency, possibly affecting the stability of the grid by changing the voltage at the plant connection point. In this contribution, we summarize the main negative effects of selected and real-operated grid connected photovoltaic plant. Thereafter a review of suitable Energy storage systems to mitigate the negative effects has been carried out, compared and evaluated using Multi-criterion analysis. Based on this analysis, data collected at the plant and the grid, are used to design the energy storage systems to support connection of the plant to the grid. The cooperation of these systems is then analysed and evaluated using simulation tools created in LabVIEW for this purpose. The simulation results demonstrate the capability of energy storage system solutions to significantly reduce the negative feedback effects of Photovoltaic Power Plan to the low voltage grid.

  3. Disease Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Jim; Lewis, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Students use transparencies and dry erase markers to simulate the spread of a zombie virus among a fixed population. Students are then challenged to create their own "disease" and develop an ODE model for the resulting data. From this exercise students gain greater understanding of population and SIR models, disease dynamics, parameter estimation and compartment modeling.

  4. Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Jue, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    HANDBOOK OF MODERN BIOPHYSICS Series Editor Thomas Jue, PhD Handbook of Modern Biophysics brings current biophysics topics into focus, so that biology, medical, engineering, mathematics, and physical-science students or researchers can learn fundamental concepts and the application of new techniques in addressing biomedical challenges. Chapters explicate the conceptual framework of the physics formalism and illustrate the biomedical applications. With the addition of problem sets, guides to further study, and references, the interested reader can continue to explore independently the ideas presented. Volume I: Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics Editor Thomas Jue, PhD In Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics, prominent professors have established a foundation for the study of biophysics related to the following topics: Mathematical Methods in Biophysics Quantum Mechanics Basic to Biophysical Methods Computational Modeling of Receptor–Ligand Binding and Cellular Signaling Processes Fluorescence Spectroscopy Elec...

  5. 基于耦合的Vitual Lab Motion & AMESim的下肢外骨骼机电液系统建模及仿真分析%Modeling and Simulation Analysis of Mechanical Electrical and Hydraulic System for Lower Limb Exoskeketon Based on Coupling Vitual Lab Motion & AMESim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莉萍; 马志勇

    2016-01-01

    Virtual lab motion was used to structural modeling for lower limb exoskeleton. Ideal control curve of design system of the hydraulic cylinder was obtained through the inverse kinematics analysis on the basis of the existing clinical gait analysis data which was the relationship of the joint angle with time, which was the relationship of hydraulic cylinder’s displacement with time. Pressure and flow rate of the electric hydraulic system were calculated based on the result of simulation about arm of force and speed of the hydraulic cylinder, and rationality of the system was authenticated by use of coupling simulation of virtual lab motion and AMESim.%利用Virtual Lab Motion对下肢外骨骼进行了结构建模。依据现有的临床步态分析数据———关节角度随时间的变化关系,通过运动学分析逆向得出所设计系统各个液压缸的理想控制曲线,即液压缸位移随时间的变化关系。依据仿真得到的力臂及液压缸速度可对电液系统的压力和流量进行估算,利用Virtual Lab Motion与AMESim的耦合仿真验证了系统的合理性。

  6. Phenomenological vs. biophysical models of thermal stress in aquatic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Benjamin T; Pike, Andrew; John, Sara N; Hamda, Natnael; Roberts, Jason; Lindley, Steven T; Danner, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    Predicting species responses to climate change is a central challenge in ecology. These predictions are often based on lab-derived phenomenological relationships between temperature and fitness metrics. We tested one of these relationships using the embryonic stage of a Chinook salmon population. We parameterised the model with laboratory data, applied it to predict survival in the field, and found that it significantly underestimated field-derived estimates of thermal mortality. We used a biophysical model based on mass transfer theory to show that the discrepancy was due to the differences in water flow velocities between the lab and the field. This mechanistic approach provides testable predictions for how the thermal tolerance of embryos depends on egg size and flow velocity of the surrounding water. We found support for these predictions across more than 180 fish species, suggesting that flow and temperature mediated oxygen limitation is a general mechanism underlying the thermal tolerance of embryos.

  7. Simulation Prediction and Experiment Setup of Vacuum Laser Acceleration at Brookhaven National Lab-Accelerator Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, L; Ding, X; Ho, Y K; Kong, Q; Xu, J J; Pogorelsky, I; Yakimenko, V; Kusche, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the pre-experiment plan and prediction of the first stage of Vacuum Laser Acceleration (VLA) collaborating by UCLA, Fudan University and ATF-BNL. This first stage experiment is a Proof-of-Principle to support our previously posted novel VLA theory. Simulations show that based on ATF's current experimental conditions, the electron beam with initial energy of 15MeV can get net energy gain from intense CO2 laser beam. The difference of electron beam energy spread is observable by ATF beam line diagnostics system. Further this energy spread expansion effect increases along with the laser intensity increasing. The proposal has been approved by ATF committee and experiment will be the next project.

  8. Biotic games and cloud experimentation as novel media for biophysics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar; Blikstein, Paulo

    2014-03-01

    First-hand, open-ended experimentation is key for effective formal and informal biophysics education. We developed, tested and assessed multiple new platforms that enable students and children to directly interact with and learn about microscopic biophysical processes: (1) Biotic games that enable local and online play using galvano- and photo-tactic stimulation of micro-swimmers, illustrating concepts such as biased random walks, Low Reynolds number hydrodynamics, and Brownian motion; (2) an undergraduate course where students learn optics, electronics, micro-fluidics, real time image analysis, and instrument control by building biotic games; and (3) a graduate class on the biophysics of multi-cellular systems that contains a cloud experimentation lab enabling students to execute open-ended chemotaxis experiments on slimemolds online, analyze their data, and build biophysical models. Our work aims to generate the equivalent excitement and educational impact for biophysics as robotics and video games have had for mechatronics and computer science, respectively. We also discuss how scaled-up cloud experimentation systems can support MOOCs with true lab components and life-science research in general.

  9. Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Ted

    2006-12-01

    Virtual Labs and Virtual Worlds Coastline Community College has under development several virtual lab simulations and activities that range from biology, to language labs, to virtual discussion environments. Imagine a virtual world that students enter online, by logging onto their computer from home or anywhere they have web access. Upon entering this world they select a personalized identity represented by a digitized character (avatar) that can freely move about, interact with the environment, and communicate with other characters. In these virtual worlds, buildings, gathering places, conference rooms, labs, science rooms, and a variety of other “real world” elements are evident. When characters move about and encounter other people (players) they may freely communicate. They can examine things, manipulate objects, read signs, watch video clips, hear sounds, and jump to other locations. Goals of critical thinking, social interaction, peer collaboration, group support, and enhanced learning can be achieved in surprising new ways with this innovative approach to peer-to-peer communication in a virtual discussion world. In this presentation, short demos will be given of several online learning environments including a virtual biology lab, a marine science module, a Spanish lab, and a virtual discussion world. Coastline College has been a leader in the development of distance learning and media-based education for nearly 30 years and currently offers courses through PDA, Internet, DVD, CD-ROM, TV, and Videoconferencing technologies. Its distance learning program serves over 20,000 students every year. sponsor Jerry Meisner

  10. Biophysical science in Italy: SIBPA turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomazza, Daniela; Musio, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    This Special Issue of Biophysical Chemistry includes a selection of the papers presented at the XXI Congress of the Italian Society of Pure and Applied Biophysics (i.e., SIBPA, Società Italiana di Biofisica Pura ed Applicata) held on September 2012 at the University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy. Topics cover all biophysical disciplines, from molecular to cellular, to integrative biophysics giving an almost comprehensive view of the interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches, proper of the modern biophysics. SIBPA, which celebrates its 40th anniversary in 2013, has steadily grown and appeals to both specialists and a wider general audience.

  11. Learning Parallel Computations with ParaLab

    OpenAIRE

    Kozinov, E.; Shtanyuk, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the ParaLab teachware system, which can be used for learning the parallel computation methods. ParaLab provides the tools for simulating the multiprocessor computational systems with various network topologies, for carrying out the computational experiments in the simulation mode, and for evaluating the efficiency of the parallel computation methods. The visual presentation of the parallel computations taking place in the computational experiments is the key feature ...

  12. Quantum Nanobiology and Biophysical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    An introduction was provided in the first issue by way of an Editorial to this special two issue volume of Current Physical Chemistry – “Quantum Nanobiology and Biophysical Chemistry” [1]. The Guest Editors would like to thank all the authors and referees who have contributed to this second issue....... demonstrate extremely low detection performance of acyl-homoserine lactone in a biologically relevant system using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Sugihara and Bondar evaluate the influence of methyl-groups and the protein environment on retinal geometries in rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin, two...

  13. Biophysical characterization of GPCR oligomerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Signe

    a quantitative characterization of GPCR oligomerization. The assay provided the first quantification of the association energy of the β2 Adrenergic Receptor (β2AR), a prototypical GPCR. Furthermore we directly observed the time-dependent dimerization of β2AR and Cannabinoid receptor 1 at the single molecule......The biophysical characterization of the fundamental molecular mechanisms behind G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) oligomerization is proposed to be paramount for understanding the pharmacological consequence of receptor self-association. Here we developed an in vitro assay that allowed...

  14. Research on Lab Windows/CVI-based Brushless DC Motor Speed Control Simulation System%基于Lab Windows/CVI的无刷直流电动机转速控制仿真系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚东; 杨冠鲁

    2008-01-01

    基于Lab Windows/CVI强大的图像设计与处理功能,设计了电网波动对无刷直流电动机转速控制的影响的仿真系统,并采用扩充临界比例法进行整定的数字PID控制来减小这种影响.实践表明,该系统能有效地仿真电网波动对无刷直流电动机转速控制的影响,并可用于电网参数的计算.

  15. Evolution and Biophysics of the Escherichia coli lac Operon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. Christian; Igoshin, Oleg; Quan, Selwyn; Monds, Russell; Cooper, Tim; Balázsi, Gábor

    2011-03-01

    To understand, predict, and control the evolution of living organisms, we consider biophysical effects and molecular network architectures. The lactose utilization system of E. coli is among the most well-studied molecular networks in biology, making it an ideal candidate for such studies. Simulations show how the genetic architecture of the wild-type operon attenuates large metabolic intermediate fluctuations that are predicted to occur in an equivalent system with the component genes on separate operons. Quantification of gene expression in the lac operon evolved in growth conditions containing constant lactose, alternating with glucose, or constant glucose, shows characteristic gene expression patterns depending on conditions. We are simulating these conditions to show context-dependent biophysical sources and costs of different lac operon architectures.

  16. Virtual Simulations as Preparation for Lab Exercises: Assessing Learning of Key Laboratory Skills in Microbiology and Improvement of Essential Non-Cognitive Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Warming Thisgaard, Malene; Gadegaard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    bacteria on agar plates. All students were blindly assessed on their ability to perform the streaking technique in the physical lab, and were administered a pre and post-test to determine their knowledge of microbiology, intrinsic motivation to study microbiology, and self-efficacy in the field...... of microbiology prior to, and after the experiment. Results The results showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups on their lab scores, and both groups had similar increases in knowledge of microbiology, intrinsic motivation to study microbiology, as well as self...

  17. The Mechanics and Biophysics of Hearing

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, C; Matthews, John; Ruggero, Mario; Steele, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of a workshop on the physics and biophysics of hearing that brought together experimenters and modelers working on all aspects of audition. Topics covered include: cochlear mechanical measurements, cochlear models, mechanicals and biophysics of hair cells, efferent control, and ultrastructure.

  18. USNA DIGITAL FORENSICS LAB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab MissionEstablish and maintain a Digital...

  19. Magnetic Media Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This lab specializes in tape certification and performance characterization of high density digital tape and isprepared to support the certification of standard size...

  20. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  1. USNA DIGITAL FORENSICS LAB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab Mission Establish and maintain a Digital...

  2. Crystallization Formulation Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Crystallization Formulation Lab fills a critical need in the process development and optimization of current and new explosives and energetic formulations. The...

  3. Are Remote Labs Worth the Cost? Insights From a Study of Student Perceptions of Remote Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Uttal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote online laboratories enable students to conduct scientific investigations using real experimental equipment. However, scaling up remote labs may require significant costs in purchasing and maintaining expensive equipment compared to scaling simulated labs. While these costs are a consequence of using physical equipment, we argue that there are unique educational advantages to remote labs. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study of student perceptions of a remote lab in comparison to an identical lab experience with simulated data. The findings reveal several intriguing themes that highlight the pedagogical value of remote laboratories. In addition, we provide recommendations for the design and pedagogy of online laboratory experiences based on our findings.

  4. Historical and Critical Review on Biophysical Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigüzel, Yekbun

    2016-07-01

    Biophysical economics is initiated with the long history of the relation of economics with ecological basis and biophysical perspectives of the physiocrats. It inherently has social, economic, biological, environmental, natural, physical, and scientific grounds. Biological entities in economy like the resources, consumers, populations, and parts of production systems, etc. could all be dealt by biophysical economics. Considering this wide scope, current work is a “biophysical economics at a glance” rather than a comprehensive review of the full range of topics that may just be adequately covered in a book-length work. However, the sense of its wide range of applications is aimed to be provided to the reader in this work. Here, modern approaches and biophysical growth theory are presented after the long history and an overview of the concepts in biophysical economics. Examples of the recent studies are provided at the end with discussions. This review is also related to the work by Cleveland, “Biophysical Economics: From Physiocracy to Ecological Economics and Industrial Ecology” [C. J. Cleveland, in Advances in Bioeconomics and Sustainability: Essay in Honor of Nicholas Gerogescu-Roegen, eds. J. Gowdy and K. Mayumi (Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, England, 1999), pp. 125-154.]. Relevant parts include critics and comments on the presented concepts in a parallelized fashion with the Cleveland’s work.

  5. Making Real Virtual Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Harry E.; Keller, Edward E.

    2005-01-01

    Francis Bacon began defining scientific methodology in the early 17th century, and secondary school science classes began to implement science labs in the mid-19th century. By the early 20th century, leading educators were suggesting that science labs be used to develop scientific thinking habits in young students, and at the beginning of the 21st…

  6. Biophysics software for interdisciplinary education and research

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsch, J M

    2013-01-01

    Biophysics is a subject that is spread over many disciplines and transcends the skills and knowledge of the individual student. This makes it challenging both to teach and to learn. Educational materials are described to aid in teaching undergraduates biophysics in an interdisciplinary manner. Projects have been devised on topics that range from x-ray diffraction to the Hodgkin Huxley equations. They are team-based and encourage collaboration. The projects make extensive use of software written in Python/Scipy which can be modified to explore a large range of possible phenomena. The software can also be used in lectures and in the teaching of more traditional biophysics courses.

  7. Study on Simulation of Real-Time Resistance Force of Urban Railway Vehicle Based on LabVIEW%基于LabVIEW的城市轨道车辆实时负载阻力仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尧辉明

    2011-01-01

    In the simulation system of Urban railway vehicle traction operation, the running resistance force is simulated usually using constant force or manually alterable force at present. In this paper, the line condition of Shanghai Metro Line 1 is analyzed. The real-time resistance force value at optional position is calculated according to the concrete resistance computational formula and line parameters. The real-time resistance force simulation system of urban railway vehicle is designed and studied in this paper. This system developed by this paper can simulate the traction operation real-time resistance force well.%当前城轨车辆牵引仿真系统的运行阻力仿真方法采用恒负载或手动变负载,不能够完全模拟实际运行线路复杂的负载变化情况.研究并设计了城市轨道车辆实时负载阻力仿真系统,结合对上海轨道交通1号线,介绍了系统的结构框架和设计方法.根据具体的阻力计算公式和线路参数计算列车运行至任意位置时的实时阻力值,并对阻力值进行了分析.结果证明:所开发的系统可以较好地实现车辆牵引的实时阻力模拟.

  8. An introduction to environmental biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Gaylon S

    1977-01-01

    The study of environmental biophysics probably began earlier in man's history than that of any other science. The study of organism-environment interaction provided a key to survival and progress. Systematic study of the science and recording of experimental results goes back many hundreds of years. Ben­ jamin Franklin, the early American statesman, inventor, printer, and scientist studied conduction, evaporation, and radiation. One of his observations is as follows: My desk on which I now write, and the lock of my desk, are both exposed to the same temperature of the air, and have therefore the same degree of heat or cold; yet if I lay my hand successively on the wood and on the metal, the latter feels much the coldest, not that it is really so, but being a better conductor, it more readily than the wood takes away and draws into itself the fire that was in my skin. 1 Franklin probably was not the first to discover this principle, and certainly was not the last. Modem researchers rediscover this principle f...

  9. Black Holes and Biophysical (Mem)-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the effective theory describing the long-wavelength dynamics of black branes is the same effective theory that describes the dynamics of biophysical membranes. We improve the phase structure of higher-dimensional black rings by considering finite thickness corrections in this effective theory, showing a striking agreement between our analytical results and recent numerical constructions while simultaneously drawing a parallel between gravity and the effective theory of biophysical membranes.

  10. OpenLabNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Franz, Michael; Tan, Qihua;

    2015-01-01

    be advantageous if an ELN was Integrated with a laboratory information management system to allow for a comprehensive documentation of experimental work including the location of samples that were used in a particular experiment. Here, we present OpenLabNotes, which adds state-of-the-art ELN capabilities to Open......LabFramework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively Closes the gap between research documentation and sample management...

  11. RoboLab and virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Joseph C.

    1994-01-01

    A useful adjunct to the manned space station would be a self-contained free-flying laboratory (RoboLab). This laboratory would have a robot operated under telepresence from the space station or ground. Long duration experiments aboard RoboLab could be performed by astronauts or scientists using telepresence to operate equipment and perform experiments. Operating the lab by telepresence would eliminate the need for life support such as food, water and air. The robot would be capable of motion in three dimensions, have binocular vision TV cameras, and two arms with manipulators to simulate hands. The robot would move along a two-dimensional grid and have a rotating, telescoping periscope section for extension in the third dimension. The remote operator would wear a virtual reality type headset to allow the superposition of computer displays over the real-time video of the lab. The operators would wear exoskeleton type arms to facilitate the movement of objects and equipment operation. The combination of video displays, motion, and the exoskeleton arms would provide a high degree of telepresence, especially for novice users such as scientists doing short-term experiments. The RoboLab could be resupplied and samples removed on other space shuttle flights. A self-contained RoboLab module would be designed to fit within the cargo bay of the space shuttle. Different modules could be designed for specific applications, i.e., crystal-growing, medicine, life sciences, chemistry, etc. This paper describes a RoboLab simulation using virtual reality (VR). VR provides an ideal simulation of telepresence before the actual robot and laboratory modules are constructed. The easy simulation of different telepresence designs will produce a highly optimum design before construction rather than the more expensive and time consuming hardware changes afterwards.

  12. 基于虚拟仪器LabView的数字相敏检波算法仿真研究%Simulation Study of Digital Phase Sensitive Detector Algorithm Based on LabView Virtual Instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁培艳

    2012-01-01

    Weak signal detection play a crucial role in the development of science and technology.Its detection accuracy affect the astronomical,biochemical,physics and other science development progress directly.This paper introduces weak signal detection of square wave based on virtual instrument technology and digital detection phase sensitive algorithm of subsection accumulating and relating.This method can be used to detect weak dc signal.Through simulation this method can detect the amplitude effectively of weak square wave signal and can be used to detect amplitude of weak dc signal.%微弱信号检测在现在科技发展中起着至关重要的作用,它的检测精度直接影响着天文,生化,物理等科技的发展进度。该文介绍了基于虚拟仪器技术和分段累加相关数字相敏检波算法对于微弱方波信号的检测,用于检测微弱直流信号。通过仿真此方法能有效地检测到微弱方波信号的幅值,进而可以用于检测微弱直流信号的幅值。

  13. Laser Research Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Research lab is thecenter for the development of new laser sources, nonlinear optical materials, frequency conversion processes and laser-based sensors for...

  14. LIDAR Research & Development Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The LIDAR Research and Development labs are used to investigate and improve LIDAR components such as laser sources, optical signal detectors and optical filters. The...

  15. Deciphering Your Lab Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  16. Secure Processing Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Secure Processing Lab is the center of excellence for new and novel processing techniques for the formation, calibration and analysis of radar. In addition, this...

  17. The Udall Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Udall lab is interested in genome evolution and cotton genomics.The cotton genus ( Gossypium) is an extraordinarily diverse group with approximately 50 species...

  18. Clothing Systems Design Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Clothing Systems Design Lab houses facilities for the design and rapid prototyping of military protective apparel.Other focuses include: creation of patterns and...

  19. Biophysical regulation of stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govey, Peter M; Loiselle, Alayna E; Donahue, Henry J

    2013-06-01

    Bone adaptation to its mechanical environment, from embryonic through adult life, is thought to be the product of increased osteoblastic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells. In parallel with tissue-scale loading, these heterogeneous populations of multipotent stem cells are subject to a variety of biophysical cues within their native microenvironments. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-the most broadly studied source of osteoblastic progenitors-undergo osteoblastic differentiation in vitro in response to biophysical signals, including hydrostatic pressure, fluid flow and accompanying shear stress, substrate strain and stiffness, substrate topography, and electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, stem cells may be subject to indirect regulation by mechano-sensing osteocytes positioned to more readily detect these same loading-induced signals within the bone matrix. Such paracrine and juxtacrine regulation of differentiation by osteocytes occurs in vitro. Further studies are needed to confirm both direct and indirect mechanisms of biophysical regulation within the in vivo stem cell niche.

  20. Biophysical Evaluation of SonoSteam®:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan R.;

    and safety evaluations. Our results show that there are no contradictions between data obtained by either approach. However, the biophysical methods draw a much more nuanced picture of the effects and efficiency of the investigated decontamination method, revealing e.g. an exponential dose/response...... relationship between SonoSteam treatment time and changes in collagen I, and a depth dependency in bacterial reduction, which points toward CFU counts overestimating total bacterial reduction. In conclusion the biophysical methods provide a less biased, reproducible and highly detailed system description......In this study we employ a biophysical and molecular approach for the investigation of qualitative and quantitative changes in both food surface and bacteria upon surface decontamination by SonoSteam®. SonoSteam® is a recently developed method of food surface decontamination, which employs steam...

  1. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The ability to grow stem cells in the laboratory and to guide their maturation to functional cells allows us to study the underlying mechanisms that govern vasculature differentiation and assembly in health and disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that early stages of vascular growth are exquisitely tuned by biophysical cues from the microenvironment, yet the scientific understanding of such cellular environments is still in its infancy. Comprehending these processes sufficiently to manipulate them would pave the way to controlling blood vessel growth in therapeutic applications. This book assembles the works and views of experts from various disciplines to provide a unique perspective on how different aspects of its microenvironment regulate the differentiation and assembly of the vasculature. In particular, it describes recent efforts to exploit modern engineering techniques to study and manipulate various biophysical cues. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly provides an inter...

  2. Global energy modeling - A biophysical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Michael

    2010-09-15

    This paper contrasts the standard economic approach to energy modelling with energy models using a biophysical approach. Neither of these approaches includes changing energy-returns-on-investment (EROI) due to declining resource quality or the capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources. Both of these factors will become increasingly important in the future. An extension to the biophysical approach is outlined which encompasses a dynamic EROI function that explicitly incorporates technological learning. The model is used to explore several scenarios of long-term future energy supply especially concerning the global transition to renewable energy sources in the quest for a sustainable energy system.

  3. SmallSat Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-05

    CubeSat. Mr. Alvarez worked with four students on the PCB layout for the solar panels and the construction of the 6U CubeSat mockup . Support for Mr...Hull and Mr. Alvarez was $49k including fringe benefits. !! Purchases: During this time period a license for MatLab software and the Princeton...Satellite ToolBox was purchased using funds from this award. This software adds tremendous capability to the SmallSat Lab by enabling students to analyze

  4. The NOAO Data Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.; Olsen, K.; Stobie, E. B.; Mighell, K. J.; Norris, P.

    2015-09-01

    We describe the NOAO Data Lab to help community users take advantage of current large surveys and prepare them even larger surveys in the era of LSST. The Data Lab will allow users to efficiently utilize catalogs of billions of objects, combine traditional telescope image and spectral data with external archives, share custom results with collaborators, publish data products to other users, and experiment with analysis toolkits. Specific science cases will be used to develop a prototype framework and tools, allowing us to work directly with scientists from survey teams to ensure development remains focused on scientifically productive tasks.

  5. CDC Lab Values

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-02

    More than fifteen hundred scientists fill the lab benches at CDC, logging more than four million hours each year. CDC’s laboratories play a critical role in the agency’s ability to find, stop, and prevent disease outbreaks. This podcast provides a brief overview of what goes on inside CDC’s labs, and why this work makes a difference in American’s health.  Created: 2/2/2015 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC).   Date Released: 2/2/2015.

  6. Biophysical Cueing and Vascular Endothelial Cell Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Wood

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Human vascular endothelial cells (VEC line the vessels of the body and are critical for the maintenance of vessel integrity and trafficking of biochemical cues. They are fundamental structural elements and are central to the signaling environment. Alterations in the normal functioning of the VEC population are associated with a number of vascular disorders among which are some of the leading causes of death in both the United States and abroad. VECs attach to their underlying stromal elements through a specialization of the extracellular matrix, the basement membrane. The basement membrane provides signaling cues to the VEC through its chemical constituents, by serving as a reservoir for cytoactive factors and through its intrinsic biophysical properties. This specialized matrix is composed of a topographically rich 3D felt-like network of fibers and pores on the nano (1–100 nm and submicron (100–1,000 nm size scale. The basement membrane provides biophysical cues to the overlying VECs through its intrinsic topography as well as through its local compliance (relative stiffness. These biophysical cues modulate VEC adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and the cytoskeletal signaling network of the individual cells. This review focuses on the impact of biophysical cues on VEC behaviors and demonstrates the need for their consideration in future vascular studies and the design of improved prosthetics.

  7. The Crime Lab Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Crime Lab Project, which takes an economical, hands-on, interdisciplinary approach to studying the career of forensics in the middle or high school classroom. Includes step-by-step student requirements for the investigative procedure, a sample evidence request form, and an assessment rubric. (KHR)

  8. Elemental Chem Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquin

    2008-01-01

    This educative material uses the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs. This teaching material has been divided into three puzzles according to the type of the laboratory equipment: (i) glassware as reaction vessels or containers; (ii) glassware for measuring, addition or…

  9. Physics lab in spin

    CERN Multimedia

    Hawkes, N

    1999-01-01

    RAL is fostering commerical exploitation of its research and facilities in two main ways : spin-out companies exploit work done at the lab, spin-in companies work on site taking advantage of the facilities and the expertise available (1/2 page).

  10. Lab with Dad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havers, Brenda; Delmotte, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Family science nights are fantastic, but planning one can be overwhelming, especially when one considers the already overloaded schedule of a classroom teacher. To overcome this challenge, the authors--colleagues with a mutual love of science--developed a much simpler annual event called "Lab With Dad." The purpose was for one target age group of…

  11. A Big Bang Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  12. RT-LAB based modeling and simulation analysis of flexible DC distribution network%基于RT-LAB的柔性直流配电网建模与仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于亚男; 金阳忻; 江全元; 徐习东

    2015-01-01

    Based on the real-time digital simulation system RT-LAB, this paper establishes a typical mathematical simulation model of loop flexible DC distribution. The model includes photovoltaic, lithium batteries and AC/DC load. Simulation analysis of different running conditions transient response tests, such as start-stop control, command control, is made. RT-LAB significantly enhances flexible DC distribution simulation timeliness and practicability. Start-up logic design, soft-switching and progressive power upgrade method effectively reduce starting current and access operation over-voltage. It is proved that the model works well to meet the operational requirements, and the study about start-stop control and operation conditions can provide reference for further engineering construction.%基于实时数字仿真系统RT-LAB建立典型"手拉手"拓扑,含分布式能源光伏、锂电池以及交直流负载的直流配电网实时仿真数学模型.利用该模型对柔性直流配电系统的启停控制、指令控制等运行方式进行暂态响应特性仿真分析.RT-LAB实时仿真技术显著增强柔性直流配电网系统仿真的时效性和实用性.配网启动逻辑设计及软开关技术、逐级功率提升法的应用,有效减小了直流配电系统启动电流冲击及接入操作过电压.系统建模满足直流配电系统运行要求,对其启动控制及运行工况的仿真分析,为柔性直流配电工程建设进一步研究提供参考.

  13. Skills Labs: workshop EMERGO toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurvers, Hub; Slootmaker, Aad

    2009-01-01

    Kurvers, H. J., & Slootmaker, A. (2009). Skills Labs: workshop EMERGO toolkit. Presentation given at project members of Skills Labs. March, 31, 2009 and April, 24, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  14. Lidar remote sensing of savanna biophysical attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, David

    plot level biomass into wall-to-wall maps that provide more ecological information. We evaluated the utility of three spatial modeling approaches to address this problem: deterministic methods, geostatistical methods and an image segmentation approach. Overall, the mean pixel biomass estimated by the 3 approaches did not differ significantly but the output maps showed marked differences in the estimation precision and ability of each model to mimic the primary variable's trend across the landscape. The results emphasized the need for future satellite lidar missions to consider increasing the sampling intensity across track so that biomass observations are made and characterized at the scale at which they vary. We used data from the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), an airborne photon counting lidar sensor developed by NASA Goddard to simulate ICESat-2 data. We segmented each transect into different block sizes and calculated canopy top and mean ground elevation based on the structure of the histogram of the block's aggregated photons. Our algorithm was able to compute canopy height and generate visually meaningful vegetation profiles at MABEL's signal and noise levels but a simulation of the expected performance of ICESat-2 by adjusting MABEL data's detected number of signal and noise photons to that predicted using ATLAS instrument model design cases indicated that signal photons will be substantially lower. The lower data resolution reduces canopy height estimation precision especially in areas of low density vegetation cover. Given the clear difficulties in processing simulated ATLAS data, it appears unlikely that it will provide the kind of data required for mapping of the biophysical properties of savanna vegetation. Rather, resources are better concentrated on preparing for the Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) mission, a waveform lidar mission scheduled to launch by the end of this decade. In addition to the full waveform technique

  15. Protein Biophysics Explains Why Highly Abundant Proteins Evolve Slowly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian W.R. Serohijos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The consistent observation across all kingdoms of life that highly abundant proteins evolve slowly demonstrates that cellular abundance is a key determinant of protein evolutionary rate. However, other empirical findings, such as the broad distribution of evolutionary rates, suggest that additional variables determine the rate of protein evolution. Here, we report that under the global selection against the cytotoxic effects of misfolded proteins, folding stability (ΔG, simultaneous with abundance, is a causal variable of evolutionary rate. Using both theoretical analysis and multiscale simulations, we demonstrate that the anticorrelation between the premutation ΔG and the arising mutational effect (ΔΔG, purely biophysical in origin, is a necessary requirement for abundance–evolutionary rate covariation. Additionally, we predict and demonstrate in bacteria that the strength of abundance–evolutionary rate correlation depends on the divergence time separating reference genomes. Altogether, these results highlight the intrinsic role of protein biophysics in the emerging universal patterns of molecular evolution.

  16. Biophysical influence of airborne carbon nanomaterials on natural pulmonary surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Russell P; Wu, Tony; Zuo, Yi Y

    2015-05-26

    Inhalation of nanoparticles (NP), including lightweight airborne carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNM), poses a direct and systemic health threat to those who handle them. Inhaled NP penetrate deep pulmonary structures in which they first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) lining at the alveolar air-water interface. In spite of many research efforts, there is a gap of knowledge between in vitro biophysical study and in vivo inhalation toxicology since all existing biophysical models handle NP-PS interactions in the liquid phase. This technical limitation, inherent in current in vitro methodologies, makes it impossible to simulate how airborne NP deposit at the PS film and interact with it. Existing in vitro NP-PS studies using liquid-suspended particles have been shown to artificially inflate the no-observed adverse effect level of NP exposure when compared to in vivo inhalation studies and international occupational exposure limits (OELs). Here, we developed an in vitro methodology called the constrained drop surfactometer (CDS) to quantitatively study PS inhibition by airborne CNM. We show that airborne multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets induce a concentration-dependent PS inhibition under physiologically relevant conditions. The CNM aerosol concentrations controlled in the CDS are comparable to those defined in international OELs. Development of the CDS has the potential to advance our understanding of how submicron airborne nanomaterials affect the PS lining of the lung.

  17. Commentary on “Biophysical Economics” and Evolving Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flomenbom, Ophir; Coban, Gul Unal; Adigüzel, Yekbun

    2016-07-01

    In this Issue, papers in the area of socio-econo-physics and biophysical economics are presented. We have recently introduced socio-econo-physics and biophysical economics in Biophysical Reviews and Letters (BRL), yet saw 3 to 4 relevant papers just in these most recent three quarters. In this commentary, we therefore would like to elaborate on the topics of socio-econo-physics and biophysical economics and to introduce these concepts to the readers of BRL and the biophysical community of science, with the purpose of supporting many more publications here in BRL, in this evolving area.

  18. Biophysics and the Challenges of Emerging Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, Joseph D

    2009-01-01

    This volume is a collection of articles from the proceedings of the International School of Structural Biology and Magnetic Resonance 8th Course: Biophysics and the Challenges of Emerging Threats. This NATO Advance Study Institute (ASI) was held in Erice at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture on 19 through 30 June 2007. The ASI brought together a diverse group of experts who bridged the fields of virology and biology, biophysics, chemistry and physics. Prominent lecturers and students from around the world representant a total of 24 countries participated in the NATO ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi (Stanford University, USA) and Alexander Arseniev (Moscow, RU). The central hypothesis underlying this ASI was that interdisciplinary research, merging principles of physics, chemistry and biology, can drive new discovery in detecting and fighting bioterrorism agents, lead to cleaner environments, and help propel development in NATO partner countries. The ASI merged the relat...

  19. Handbook of Single-Molecule Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has seen the development of a number of novel biophysical methods that allow the manipulation and study of individual biomolecules. The ability to monitor biological processes at this fundamental level of sensitivity has given rise to an improved understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Through the removal of ensemble averaging, distributions and fluctuations of molecular properties can be characterized, transient intermediates identified, and catalytic mechanisms elucidated. By applying forces on biomolecules while monitoring their activity, important information can be obtained on how proteins couple function to structure. The Handbook of Single-Molecule Biophysics provides an introduction to these techniques and presents an extensive discussion of the new biological insights obtained from them. Coverage includes: Experimental techniques to monitor and manipulate individual biomolecules The use of single-molecule techniques in super-resolution and functional imaging Single-molec...

  20. Biophysics of α-synuclein membrane interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, Candace M; Jiang, Zhiping; Lee, Jennifer C

    2012-02-01

    Membrane proteins participate in nearly all cellular processes; however, because of experimental limitations, their characterization lags far behind that of soluble proteins. Peripheral membrane proteins are particularly challenging to study because of their inherent propensity to adopt multiple and/or transient conformations in solution and upon membrane association. In this review, we summarize useful biophysical techniques for the study of peripheral membrane proteins and their application in the characterization of the membrane interactions of the natively unfolded and Parkinson's disease (PD) related protein, α-synuclein (α-syn). We give particular focus to studies that have led to the current understanding of membrane-bound α-syn structure and the elucidation of specific membrane properties that affect α-syn-membrane binding. Finally, we discuss biophysical evidence supporting a key role for membranes and α-syn in PD pathogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane protein structure and function.

  1. The mathematical biophysics of Nicolas Rashevsky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Paul

    2007-04-01

    N. Rashevsky (1899-1972) was one of the pioneers in the application of mathematics to biology. With the slogan: mathematical biophysics : biology :: mathematical physics ; physics, he proposed the creation of a quantitative theoretical biology. Here, we will give a brief biography, and consider Rashevsky's contributions to mathematical biology including neural nets and relational biology. We conclude that Rashevsky was an important figure in the introduction of quantitative models and methods into biology.

  2. Archimedes Remote Lab for Secondary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Zubia, J.; Angulo Martinez, I.; Martinez Pieper, G.; Lopez de Ipina Gonzalez de Artaza, D.; Hernandez Jayo, U.; Orduna Fernandez, P.; Dziabenko, O.; Rodriguez Gil, L.; Riesen, van S.A.N.; Anjewierden, A.A.; Kamp, E.; Jong, de A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a remote lab designed for teaching the Archimedes’ principle to secondary school students, as well as an online virtual lab on the general domain of buoyancy. The Archimedes remote lab is integrated into WebLab-Deusto. Both labs are promoted for usage in frame of the Go-Lab Europ

  3. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  4. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. A biochemical/biophysical 3D FE intervertebral disc model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Y; Huyghe, J M; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K

    2010-10-01

    Present research focuses on different strategies to preserve the degenerated disc. To assure long-term success of novel approaches, favorable mechanical conditions in the disc tissue are essential. To evaluate these, a model is required that can determine internal mechanical conditions which cannot be directly measured as a function of assessable biophysical characteristics. Therefore, the objective is to evaluate if constitutive and material laws acquired on isolated samples of nucleus and annulus tissue can be used directly in a whole-organ 3D FE model to describe intervertebral disc behavior. The 3D osmo-poro-visco-hyper-elastic disc (OVED) model describes disc behavior as a function of annulus and nucleus tissue biochemical composition, organization and specific constituent properties. The description of the 3D collagen network was enhanced to account for smaller fibril structures. Tissue mechanical behavior tests on isolated nucleus and annulus samples were simulated with models incorporating tissue composition to calculate the constituent parameter values. The obtained constitutive laws were incorporated into the whole-organ model. The overall behavior and disc properties of the model were corroborated against in vitro creep experiments of human L4/L5 discs. The OVED model simulated isolated tissue experiments on confined compression and uniaxial tensile test and whole-organ disc behavior. This was possible, provided that secondary fiber structures were accounted for. The fair agreement (radial bulge, axial creep deformation and intradiscal pressure) between model and experiment was obtained using constitutive properties that are the same for annulus and nucleus. Both tissue models differed in the 3D OVED model only by composition. The composition-based modeling presents the advantage of reducing the numbers of material parameters to a minimum and to use tissue composition directly as input. Hence, this approach provides the possibility to describe internal

  7. e-Learning - Physics Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohottala, Hashini

    2014-03-01

    The general student population enrolled in any college level class is highly diverse. An increasing number of ``nontraditional'' students return to college and most of these students follow distance learning degree programs while engaging in their other commitments, work and family. However, those students tend to avoid taking science courses with labs, mostly because of the incapability of remotely completing the lab components in such courses. In order to address this issue, we have come across a method where introductory level physics labs can be taught remotely. In this process a lab kit with the critical lab components that can be easily accessible are conveniently packed into a box and distributed among students at the beginning of the semester. Once the students are given the apparatus they perform the experiments at home and gather data All communications with reference to the lab was done through an interactive user-friendly webpage - Wikispaces (WikiS). Students who create pages on WikiS can submit their lab write-ups, embed videos of the experiments they perform, post pictures and direct questions to the lab instructor. The students who are enrolled in the same lab can interact with each other through WikiS to discuss labs and even get assistance.

  8. Optical Calibration For Jefferson Lab HKS Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Yuan; L. Tang

    2005-11-04

    In order to accept very forward angle scattering particles, Jefferson Lab HKS experiment uses an on-target zero degree dipole magnet. The usual spectrometer optics calibration procedure has to be modified due to this on-target field. This paper describes a new method to calibrate HKS spectrometer system. The simulation of the calibration procedure shows the required resolution can be achieved from initially inaccurate optical description.

  9. Do frogs have to croak? Comparing academic performance of students in traditional dissection labs on campus with students using virtual simulations via distance education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Susie Annette

    This quantitative study was designed to determine whether there were any significant differences in students and their understanding of animal anatomy and basic physiology in introductory biology and anatomy courses when instructed using self-directed, virtual simulation dissections in a distance-learning format rather than by teacher-directed, hands-on dissections in traditional on-campus classes. Two different courses at Snead State Community College, a small, rural 2-year institution in north Alabama, participated in this study. Principles of Biology II (BIO 104) was a course taken by students not planning a career in a health field, while Human Anatomy and Physiology I (BIO 201) was a course designed for students who plan to pursue a health-related degree. A total of 44 students participated in the online versions of their respective anatomy courses, 11 in BIO 104 and 33 in BIO 201, whereas a total of 132 students participated in the on-campus versions of their anatomy courses, 28 in BIO 104 and 104 in BIO 201. At the outset of their anatomy courses, all participants were given a presurvey to obtain basic demographics and background information used in the final analyses. A pretest/posttest laboratory practicum evaluation was used to determine students' academic performance in their anatomy courses over a semester. The results indicated that for the BIO 104 students there were no significant differences between those students taking the course online and those taking the course on campus. The BIO 201 students, on the other hand, did indicate a significant difference in the overall academic performance on their laboratory practicums, with the on-campus students achieving statistically higher than the online students. However, it is important to note that the BIO 104 students were not taking their exams as a part of their course grade as were the BIO 201 students. It was also ascertained through this study that students with prior online experience and/or with

  10. Inexpensive DAQ based physics labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Benjamin; Clark, Shane

    2015-11-01

    Quality Data Acquisition (DAQ) based physics labs can be designed using microcontrollers and very low cost sensors with minimal lab equipment. A prototype device with several sensors and documentation for a number of DAQ-based labs is showcased. The device connects to a computer through Bluetooth and uses a simple interface to control the DAQ and display real time graphs, storing the data in .txt and .xls formats. A full device including a larger number of sensors combined with software interface and detailed documentation would provide a high quality physics lab education for minimal cost, for instance in high schools lacking lab equipment or students taking online classes. An entire semester’s lab course could be conducted using a single device with a manufacturing cost of under $20.

  11. Unusual biophysics of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-05-01

    Research of a past decade and a half leaves no doubt that complete understanding of protein functionality requires close consideration of the fact that many functional proteins do not have well-folded structures. These intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and proteins with intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) are highly abundant in nature and play a number of crucial roles in a living cell. Their functions, which are typically associated with a wide range of intermolecular interactions where IDPs possess remarkable binding promiscuity, complement functional repertoire of ordered proteins. All this requires a close attention to the peculiarities of biophysics of these proteins. In this review, some key biophysical features of IDPs are covered. In addition to the peculiar sequence characteristics of IDPs these biophysical features include sequential, structural, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity of IDPs; their rough and relatively flat energy landscapes; their ability to undergo both induced folding and induced unfolding; the ability to interact specifically with structurally unrelated partners; the ability to gain different structures at binding to different partners; and the ability to keep essential amount of disorder even in the bound form. IDPs are also characterized by the "turned-out" response to the changes in their environment, where they gain some structure under conditions resulting in denaturation or even unfolding of ordered proteins. It is proposed that the heterogeneous spatiotemporal structure of IDPs/IDPRs can be described as a set of foldons, inducible foldons, semi-foldons, non-foldons, and unfoldons. They may lose their function when folded, and activation of some IDPs is associated with the awaking of the dormant disorder. It is possible that IDPs represent the "edge of chaos" systems which operate in a region between order and complete randomness or chaos, where the complexity is maximal. This article is part of a Special Issue

  12. Aircraft Lighting and Transparency Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Lighting and Transparencies with Night Combat Lab performs radiometric and photometric measurements of cockpit lighting and displays. Evaluates the day,...

  13. Biophysics of Magnetic Orientation: Radical Pairs, Biogenic Magnetite, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, Joe

    2011-03-01

    Two major biophysical mechanisms for magnetoreception in terrestrial animals, one based on biogenic magnetite and another on radical-pair biochemical reactions, have been the subject of experiment and debate for the past 30 years. The magnetite hypothesis has stood the test of time: biogenic magnetite is synthesized biochemically in Bacteria, Protists, and numerous Animal phyla, as well as in some plants. Chains of single-domain crystals have been detected by clean-lab based SQUID magnetometry in animal tissues in all major phyla, followed by high-resolution TEM in selected model organisms, as well as by electrophysiological studies demonstrating the role of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve in the magnetoreceptive process. Pulse-remagnetization - configured to uniquely flip the polarity of single-domain ferromagnets - has dramatic effects on the behavior of many birds, honeybees, mole rats, turtles, and bats, to cite a growing list. Magnetite-containing cells in the vicinity of these neurons in fish are now the subject of intense study by our consortium. The existence of a specialized class of magnetite-containing magnetoreceptor cells in animal tissues is no longer controversial. In contrast, less success has been achieved in gaining experimental support across a range of taxa for the radical-pair hypothesis. Although this mechanism was proposed to explain an early observation that birds would not respond to complete inversion of the magnetic vector, many organisms (even some birds) do indeed respond to the field polarity. We also note that few, if any, of these critical experiments have been done using fully double-blind methods. This is joint work with: M. M. Walker (University of Auckland, New Zealand) and M. Winklhofer (LMU Munich, Germany).

  14. Coupling Biophysical and Socioeconomic Models for Coral Reef Systems in Quintana Roo, Mexican Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Fulton

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transdisciplinary approaches that consider both socioeconomic and biophysical processes are central to understanding and managing rapid change in coral reef systems worldwide. To date, there have been limited attempts to couple the two sets of processes in dynamic models for coral reefs, and these attempts are confined to reef systems in developed countries. We present an approach to coupling existing biophysical and socioeconomic models for coral reef systems in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. The biophysical model is multiscale, using dynamic equations to capture local-scale ecological processes on individual reefs, with reefs connected at regional scales by the ocean transport of larval propagules. The agent-based socioeconomic model simulates changes in tourism, fisheries, and urbanization in the Quintana Roo region. Despite differences in the formulation and currencies of the two models, we were able to successfully modify and integrate them to synchronize and define information flows and feedbacks between them. A preliminary evaluation of the coupled model system indicates that the model gives reasonable predictions for fisheries and ecological variables and can be used to examine scenarios for future social–ecological change in Quintana Roo. We provide recommendations for where efforts might usefully be focused in future attempts to integrate models of biophysical and socioeconomic processes, based on the limitations of our coupled system.

  15. A biophysical index for predicting hydration-mediated microbial diversity in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Or, D.

    2012-04-01

    Exploring the origins of soil microbial diversity represents an immense and uncharted scientific frontier. Progress in resolving mechanisms that promote and sustain the unparalleled soil microbial diversity found in soil requires development of process-based predictive tools that consider dynamic biophysical interactions at highly resolved spatial and temporal scales. We report a novel biophysical metric for hydration-mediated microbial coexistence in soils by integrating key biophysical variables, such as aquatic habitat size and connectivity, nutrient diffusion affecting microbial growth, and aqueous films controlling motility and dispersal, into a predictive index. Results show a surprisingly narrow range of hydration conditions (a few kPa) that mark a sharp transition from suppression (wet) to promotion (dry) of microbial diversity in unsaturated soils in agreement with limited observations and with simulation results based on individual-based models of competing populations. The framework enables systematic hypothesis testing for key factors that regulate microbial populations and affect soil bio-geochemical functions, and represents a step towards deciphering key mechanisms that support soil microbial diversity. New insights into the different roles of biophysical mechanisms in promoting soil microbial diversity enable predictions concerning microbial consortia function and bioremediation activities in soils, and may shape how we quantify microbial diversity within the context of land resources and biogeochemical cycling.

  16. The Jefferson Lab Program

    CERN Document Server

    James-Boyce, M

    2003-01-01

    The kW-class infrared (IR) free electron laser (FEL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) had the capability of producing intra-cavity Thomson scattering of the IR off the electron beam thus producing high average flux, sub-picosecond x-rays. We have measured these x-rays and demonstrated the energy tunability range from 3.5 keV to 18 keV. The corresponding flux and brightness have been estimated and will be discussed. In 2002, the FEL was disassembled and has been reconfigured to produce 10 kW average power IR. We present the estimated x-ray capabilities for the new FEL and discuss potential applications.

  17. The lab of fame

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    For a third time, CERN is organising the Swiss heat of Famelab, the world’s leading science communication competition that has already gathered over 5,000 young and talented scientists and engineers from all across the planet.   Besides their degrees, the scientists who participate in Famelab have another thing in common: their passion for communicating science. Coming from a variety of scientific fields, from medicine to particle physics and microbiology, the contestants have three minutes to present a science, technology, mathematics or engineering-based talk using only the props he or she can carry onto the stage; PowerPoint presentations are not permitted. The contestants are then judged by a panel of three judges who evaluate the content, clarity and charisma of their talks. What's unique about FameLab is the fact that content is an important aspect of the performance. At the end of their presentation, contestants are often questioned about the scientific relevance of...

  18. Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Lab Study Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    The HEMAP (Human Engineering Modeling and Performance) Lab is a joint effort between the Industrial and Human Engineering group and the KAVE (Kennedy Advanced Visualiations Environment) group. The lab consists of sixteen camera system that is used to capture human motions and operational tasks, through te use of a Velcro suit equipped with sensors, and then simulate these tasks in an ergonomic software package know as Jac, The Jack software is able to identify the potential risk hazards.

  19. Biophysical and structural considerations for protein sequence evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahnen Johan A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein sequence evolution is constrained by the biophysics of folding and function, causing interdependence between interacting sites in the sequence. However, current site-independent models of sequence evolutions do not take this into account. Recent attempts to integrate the influence of structure and biophysics into phylogenetic models via statistical/informational approaches have not resulted in expected improvements in model performance. This suggests that further innovations are needed for progress in this field. Results Here we develop a coarse-grained physics-based model of protein folding and binding function, and compare it to a popular informational model. We find that both models violate the assumption of the native sequence being close to a thermodynamic optimum, causing directional selection away from the native state. Sampling and simulation show that the physics-based model is more specific for fold-defining interactions that vary less among residue type. The informational model diffuses further in sequence space with fewer barriers and tends to provide less support for an invariant sites model, although amino acid substitutions are generally conservative. Both approaches produce sequences with natural features like dN/dS Conclusions Simple coarse-grained models of protein folding can describe some natural features of evolving proteins but are currently not accurate enough to use in evolutionary inference. This is partly due to improper packing of the hydrophobic core. We suggest possible improvements on the representation of structure, folding energy, and binding function, as regards both native and non-native conformations, and describe a large number of possible applications for such a model.

  20. GitLab repository management

    CERN Document Server

    Hethey, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A simple, easy to understand tutorial guide on how to build teams and efficiently use version control, using GitLab.If you are a system administrator in a company that writes software or are in charge of an infrastructure, this book will show you the most important features of GitLab, including how to speed up the overall process

  1. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  2. Interactive, Online, Adsorption Lab to Support Discovery of the Scientific Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, K. C.; Ulery, A. L.; Chamberlin, B.; Dettmer, A.

    2014-12-01

    Science students require more than methods practice in lab activities; they must gain an understanding of the application of the scientific process through lab work. Large classes, time constraints, and funding may limit student access to science labs, denying students access to the types of experiential learning needed to motivate and develop new scientists. Interactive, discovery-based computer simulations and virtual labs provide an alternative, low-risk opportunity for learners to engage in lab processes and activities. Students can conduct experiments, collect data, draw conclusions, and even abort a session. We have developed an online virtual lab, through which students can interactively develop as scientists as they learn about scientific concepts, lab equipment, and proper lab techniques. Our first lab topic is adsorption of chemicals to soil, but the methodology is transferrable to other topics. In addition to learning the specific procedures involved in each lab, the online activities will prompt exploration and practice in key scientific and mathematical concepts, such as unit conversion, significant digits, assessing risks, evaluating bias, and assessing quantity and quality of data. These labs are not designed to replace traditional lab instruction, but to supplement instruction on challenging or particularly time-consuming concepts. To complement classroom instruction, students can engage in a lab experience outside the lab and over a shorter time period than often required with real-world adsorption studies. More importantly, students can reflect, discuss, review, and even fail at their lab experience as part of the process to see why natural processes and scientific approaches work the way they do. Our Media Productions team has completed a series of online digital labs available at virtuallabs.nmsu.edu and scienceofsoil.com, and these virtual labs are being integrated into coursework to evaluate changes in student learning.

  3. Thinking Outside the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colter, Tabitha

    2017-01-01

    As an undergraduate physics major who spent 2015 deep in a quantum optics lab at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, I knew my 2016 experience with the House of Representatives Energy and Commerce Committee would be a completely new challenge. I have long had a passion for the bridge of communication between the technical and non-technical worlds but it was only through my AIP Mather internship this summer that I was able to see that passion come to life in the realm of science policy. Suddenly, I went from squeezing political philosophy classes into my packed schedule to witnessing the political process first-hand. I was thrilled to find that the skills of critical thinking and communicating complex issues I have developed throughout my training as a physicist were directly applicable to my work in Congress. Overall, my experience this summer has given me insight into the inner workings of the federal policy process, deepened my appreciation for the work of government employees to keep Congressional members informed on the pressing current issues, and exposed me to a whole range of alternative careers within science. AIP and SPS

  4. What's your lab's strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Important strategic choices cascade throughout a laboratory. Senior management should create a document that answers each of the five key questions explained on page 60. Once this has been detailed in writing, it remains important to disseminate the basics to all employees so they are singing the same tune. A useful way to accomplish this is through a coherent strategy statement that specifies three components: 1) objectives; 2) scope; and 3) advantages. Commercial and hospital outreach labs should be in business to win. It all starts with a definition of what winning looks like. To "participate" in your market contributes to mediocrity-and it's self-defeating. With no clear strategic direction of where-to-play and how-to-win choices that associate with the aspiration, a mission or vision statement can be frustrating rather than inspiring for employees. Articulate it plainly and concisely for everybody. With a care-fully prepared and designed strategy, you will be on your way to winning in the zero-sum game!

  5. Biophysical body-brain-mind unity: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisberg, Y

    2000-03-01

    A novel substance-attributed biophysical theory of brain-mind unity is presented. We separate spiritualism and matters of the soul from the medical sphere. Biophysical principles are responsible for the body's operational regimen (BOR) in the homeostatic state which allows for materialization and emergence of the mind; Excitation and/or inhibition modulate 8 BOR stages. There is automatic (somatic) and non-automatic (biophysical and psychological) Circadian cycle control. Computer-analog input and output occurs in wired neuronal electric pathways. Biotechnological devices located in emotional neurons positively signal homeostatic and negatively signal deranged BOR and biophysical mind operations. Macro and/or micro cerebral lesions which affect homeostasis may cause psychopathology, which can be treated with 'instrumental psychotherapy' (IPT) which enables recovery from homeostatic disorder in Phase 1, refining EGO in Phase 2, and social competence in Phase 3. The theory of brain-mind unity and practice of IPT is geared to medical workers and biophysical psychologists.

  6. [Biophysical Characterization of Biopharmaceuticals, Including Antibody Drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals, including antibody drugs, are now popular because of their high specificity with low adverse effects, especially in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. However, because the active pharmaceutical ingredients of biopharmaceuticals are proteins, biophysical characterization of these therapeutic proteins should be required. In this manuscript, methods of chemical and physical characterization of therapeutic proteins are described. In terms of chemical characterization, analysis of chemical modifications of the constituent amino acids is explained. Physical characterization includes higher order structural analysis and assessment of protein aggregates. Quantification methods of aggregates with different sizes, recently encouraged by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), are introduced. As for the stability of therapeutic proteins, the importance of chemical and physical stability is explained. Finally, the contribution of colloidal and structural stability to the production of an antibody drug less prone to aggregation is introduced.

  7. Biophysical and biological perspective in biosemiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiguzel, Yekbun

    2016-09-01

    The cell and its basic constituents are introduced here through a biophysical and information communication theoretic approach in biology and biosemiotics. With this purpose, the requirements of primordial cellular structures, single binding events, and signalling cascades are first mentioned stepwise, in relation to the model of the cellular sensing mechanism. This is followed by the concepts of cross reactions in sensing and pattern recognitions, wherein an information theoretic approach is addressed and the features of multicellularity are discussed along. Multicellularity is introduced as the path that leads to the loss of the direct causal relations. The loss of true causal relation is considered as a form of translation that enables meaning-encoded communication over the informative processes. In this sense, semiosis may not be exclusive. Synthetic biology is exemplified as a form of artificial selection mechanisms for the generation of 'self-reproducing' systems with information coding and processing machineries. These discussions are summarised at the end.

  8. Biophysical studies of cholesterol effects on chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isabel T G; Fernandes, Vinicius; Souza, Caio; Treptow, Werner; Santos, Guilherme Martins

    2017-03-22

    Changes in chromatin structure regulate gene expression and genome maintenance. Molecules that bind to the nucleosome, the complex of DNA and histone proteins, are key modulators of chromatin structure. Previous work indicated that cholesterol, a ubiquitous cellular lipid, may bind to chromatin in vivo, suggesting a potential function for lipids in modulating chromatin architecture. However, the molecular mechanisms of cholesterol action on chromatin structure have remained unclear. Here, we explored the biophysical impact of cholesterol on nucleosome and chromatin fibers reconstituted in vitro and characterized in silico the cholesterol binding to nucleosome. Our findings support that cholesterol assists 10nm and 30nm chromatin formation and induces folding of long chromatin fibers as a result of direct interaction of the cholesterol to six nucleosomal binding sites.

  9. Application of biophysical technologies in dental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Susan M.; Pender, Neil; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Smith, Philip W.

    2009-05-01

    There is a wealth of evidence to indicate that if dental caries can be recognized at an early stage, it is possible to halt its progression or even reverse it. This has led to an increased interest in the development of diagnostic techniques capable of visualizing caries at an early stage in addition to providing clinicians with an aid to diagnosis. Several techniques are available for research and clinical applications for detecting early demineralization. This manuscript has reviewed some of the techniques currently available to determine their advantages, whether they have any limitations and their applicability to dental research and clinical dentistry. Not one method is the perfect choice in all situations, but what is clear is that the development and application of biophysical technologies have allowed major advances to be made in dental research as well as in clinical dentistry. With continued developments these technologies will play an important role in the future management of dental disease.

  10. GeoLab: A Geological Workstation for Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia; Calaway, Michael; Bell, Mary Sue; Li, Zheng; Tong, Shuo; Zhong, Ye; Dahiwala, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    The GeoLab glovebox was, until November 2012, fully integrated into NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH) Analog Testbed. The conceptual design for GeoLab came from several sources, including current research instruments (Microgravity Science Glovebox) used on the International Space Station, existing Astromaterials Curation Laboratory hardware and clean room procedures, and mission scenarios developed for earlier programs. GeoLab allowed NASA scientists to test science operations related to contained sample examination during simulated exploration missions. The team demonstrated science operations that enhance theThe GeoLab glovebox was, until November 2012, fully integrated into NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH) Analog Testbed. The conceptual design for GeoLab came from several sources, including current research instruments (Microgravity Science Glovebox) used on the International Space Station, existing Astromaterials Curation Laboratory hardware and clean room procedures, and mission scenarios developed for earlier programs. GeoLab allowed NASA scientists to test science operations related to contained sample examination during simulated exploration missions. The team demonstrated science operations that enhance the early scientific returns from future missions and ensure that the best samples are selected for Earth return. The facility was also designed to foster the development of instrument technology. Since 2009, when GeoLab design and construction began, the GeoLab team [a group of scientists from the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office within the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at JSC] has progressively developed and reconfigured the GeoLab hardware and software interfaces and developed test objectives, which were to 1) determine requirements and strategies for sample handling and prioritization for geological operations on other planetary surfaces, 2) assess the scientific contribution of selective in-situ sample

  11. Living Labs – From scientific labs to the smart city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    time is part of the Doll Living Lab setup placed in the area. Lyngby Smart City is a living lab approach facilitated by the City of Knowledge. Together with the labs presented above, we find a direct chain from scientific research labs at DTU over the campus lab, out into the real world living labs...... near Lyngby and from there into the big smart city of Copenhagen to be promoted to the world markets. This way the value chain “from research to invoice” is instantiated into not only an innovation and business strategy, but rather a research strategy that aims at elevating DTU’s research to an even......, but also partners from outside. This proposition can be found under the term “Smart Campus” with it’s own homepage. Here you find the example from the library above, the Smart Avenue that enables communication and IT solutions on the campus, enabled through intelligent street lightning that in the same...

  12. Jefferson Lab Phenomenology: an Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wally Melnitchouk

    2004-03-01

    Experiments at Jefferson Lab are pushing the frontiers of our knowledge about the structure and dynamics of nucleons and nuclei. I will review a selection of recent results and discuss their impact on our understanding of hadron structure.

  13. Pollution hazard closes neutrino lab

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    "A leading astrophysics laboratory in Italy has closed down all but one of its experiments over concerns that toxic polluants could leak form the underground lab into the local water supply" (0.5 page)

  14. Where Lab Tests Are Performed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities ...

  15. Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Common Systems Integration Lab (CSIL)supports the PMA-209 Air Combat Electronics Program Office. CSIL also supports development, test, integration and life cycle...

  16. Generalized Nanosatellite Avionics Testbed Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Chad R.; Sorgenfrei, Matthew C.; Nehrenz, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The Generalized Nanosatellite Avionics Testbed (G-NAT) lab at NASA Ames Research Center provides a flexible, easily accessible platform for developing hardware and software for advanced small spacecraft. A collaboration between the Mission Design Division and the Intelligent Systems Division, the objective of the lab is to provide testing data and general test protocols for advanced sensors, actuators, and processors for CubeSat-class spacecraft. By developing test schemes for advanced components outside of the standard mission lifecycle, the lab is able to help reduce the risk carried by advanced nanosatellite or CubeSat missions. Such missions are often allocated very little time for testing, and too often the test facilities must be custom-built for the needs of the mission at hand. The G-NAT lab helps to eliminate these problems by providing an existing suite of testbeds that combines easily accessible, commercial-offthe- shelf (COTS) processors with a collection of existing sensors and actuators.

  17. Metallurgical Laboratory (MET-LAB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MET-LAB can perform materials characterization for all types of metallic components and systems to any industry-specific or military standard. Capabilities: The...

  18. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  19. A BP Neural Network Programmed by LabVIEW%基于LabVIEW实现的BP神经网络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘姝敏; 刘海龙

    2015-01-01

    图形化编程环境LabVIEW编写图形化语言程序可以有效提高设计者的编程效率。人工智能可以利用计算机模拟人类大脑的思维。基于LabVIEW编写的BP神经网络,可以方便灵活的应用于人类的各种生产经营活动。%The programming efficiency can be improved by using LabVIEW graphical language to program. Artificial intelligence can simulate human brain’s thinking using computer. The BP neural network programmed by LabVIEW can be widely and easily used in human’s various activities.

  20. Vegetation dynamics and climate variability-associated biophysical process in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G.; Xue, Y.; Cox, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    West Africa is a bioclimatic zone of predominantly annual grasses with shrubs and trees with a steep gradient in climate, soils, vegetation, fauna, land use and human utilization. West Africa ecosystem region suffered from the most severe and longest drought in the world during the Twentieth Century since the later 1960s. This study systematically investigates how climate variability and anomalies in West Africa affect the regional terrestrial ecosystem, including plant functional types' (PFT) spatial distribution and temporal variations and vegetation characteristics, through biophysical and photosynthesis processes at different scales. We use the offline Simplified Simple Biosphere Version 4/ Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics Model (SSiB4/TRIFFID), which is a fully coupled biophysical-dynamic vegetation (DVM) model to adequately incorporate the complex non-linear coupling dynamics between ecosystem and climate variability. The biophysical parameters in SSiB4 are adjusted with TRIFFID-produced vegetation parameter values, which ensure adequate biophysical process coupling. A 59-year simulation from 1948 was conducted using the meteorological forcing, which consists of substantial seasonal, interannual, and interdecal variability and long term dry trend. The results show that the simulated PFT's and leaf area index (LAI) correspond well to climate variability and are consistent with satellite derived vegetation conditions. The simulated inter-decadal variability in vegetation conditions is consistent with the Sahel drought in the 1970s and the 1980s and partial recovery in the 1990s and the 2000s (fig1). To further understand the biophysical mechanism of interactions of water, carbon, radiation, and vegetation dynamics, analyses are conducted to find relationships between vegetation variability and environmental conditions. It is found that the vegetation characteristics simulated by SSiB4/TRIFFID responds primarily to five

  1. A Virtual Circuits Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    The University of Colorado's Physics Education Technology (PhET) website offers free, high-quality simulations of many physics experiments that can be used in the classroom. The Circuit Construction Kit, for example, allows students to safely and constructively play with circuit components while learning the mathematics behind many circuit…

  2. Review of FEWS NET Biophysical Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, K. W.; Brown, Molly E.; Verdin, J.; Underwood, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users: it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and; subsequently, beneficial FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world, enabling a robust set of professional perspectives to be gathered and analyzed rapidly. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard: that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand, and that rainfall and vegetation products were valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  3. Biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Highlights of my biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology is presented. Early adventures involved developing state-vector models'' for specific harmful effects (cell killing, life shortening) of exposure to radiation. More recent adventures led to developing hazard-function models'' for predicting biological effects (e.g., cell killing, mutations, tumor induction) of combined exposure to different toxicants. Hazard-function models were also developed for predicting harm to man from exposure to large radiation doses. Major conclusions derived from the modeling adventures are as follows: (1) synergistic effects of different genotoxic agents should not occur at low doses; (2) for exposure of the lung or bone marrow to large doses of photon radiation, low rates of exposure should be better tolerated than high rates; and (3) for some types of radiation (e.g., alpha particles and fission neutrons), moderate doses delivered at a low rate may be more harmful than the same dose given at a high rate. 53 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Biophysically realistic minimal model of dopamine neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprisan, Sorinel

    2008-03-01

    We proposed and studied a new biophysically relevant computational model of dopaminergic neurons. Midbrain dopamine neurons are involved in motivation and the control of movement, and have been implicated in various pathologies such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and drug abuse. The model we developed is a single-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley (HH)-type parallel conductance membrane model. The model captures the essential mechanisms underlying the slow oscillatory potentials and plateau potential oscillations. The main currents involved are: 1) a voltage-dependent fast calcium current, 2) a small conductance potassium current that is modulated by the cytosolic concentration of calcium, and 3) a slow voltage-activated potassium current. We developed multidimensional bifurcation diagrams and extracted the effective domains of sustained oscillations. The model includes a calcium balance due to the fundamental importance of calcium influx as proved by simultaneous electrophysiological and calcium imaging procedure. Although there are significant evidences to suggest a partially electrogenic calcium pump, all previous models considered only elecrtogenic pumps. We investigated the effect of the electrogenic calcium pump on the bifurcation diagram of the model and compared our findings against the experimental results.

  5. Review of FEWS NET biophysical monitoring requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, K W; Underwood, L W [Science Systems and Applications, Incorporated, 411 West Michigan Street, Poplarville, MS 39470 (United States); Brown, M E [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 614.4, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Verdin, J P [United States Geological Survey, National Integrated Drought Information System, NOAA/ESRL, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)], E-mail: kenton_ross@ssaihq.com, E-mail: molly.brown@nasa.gov, E-mail: verdin@usgs.gov, E-mail: lauren_underwood@ssaihq.com

    2009-04-15

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users; it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and, subsequently, to assess whether such data would be beneficial as FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard; that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand; and that rainfall and vegetation products are valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  6. A biophysical understanding of the applications and implications of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitner, Nicholas K.

    The last few decades have seen an explosion in the study and application of nanomaterials that continues to grow at a dizzying pace. Despite exciting applications in nano-enabled electronics, materials, medicine, and environmental remediation, an understanding of the interactions of these materials with natural materials and systems and the resulting implications lags severely behind. The purpose of this dissertation is to illuminate these interactions as well as develop novel environmental applications from a biophysical perspective. Following an introduction and literature review in Chapter 1, Chapters 2-4 will explore the application of dendritic polymers as novel and biocompatible oil dispersants for more environmentally conscious response to catastrophic oil spills. Chapter 2 will serve as a proof-of-concept, exploring the interactions between two model dendritic polymers and two model oil hydrocarbons. Next, the biocompatibility of these nanoscale dispersing agents is addressed in Chapter 3, using a soil amoeba as the primary model organism with emphasis on the mechanisms of any observed toxicity. Finally, in an effort to minimize cationic charge-induced cytotoxicity, the cationic terminal functional groups of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are replaced with either anionic or neutral functional groups. The resulting changes in structure and oil-dispersing function of the original and modified dendrimers are then investigated. Chapter 5 details a study of the applications and implications of graphene derivatives. Specifically, the environmental persistence of graphene and graphene oxide are assessed by studying their interactions with natural amphiphiles using synergistic experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. The application of graphene oxide for the removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from aquatic systems is also investigated and compared to the efficacy of PAMAM dendrimers in the same application. Finally, Chapter 6 explores the interactions

  7. Future{at}Labs.Prosperity Game{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.F.; Boyack, K.W.; Berman, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Innovative Alliances Dept.

    1996-10-01

    Prosperity Games{trademark} are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games, Prosperity Games{trademark} are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education, and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions specific industries. All Prosperity Games{trademark} are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Future{at}Labs.Prosperity Game{trademark} conducted under the sponsorship of the Industry Advisory Boards of the national labs, the national labs, Lockheed Martin Corporation, and the University of California. Players were drawn from all stakeholders involved including government, industry, labs, and academia. The primary objectives of this game were to: (1) explore ways to optimize the role of the multidisciplinary labs in serving national missions and needs; (2) explore ways to increase collaboration and partnerships among government, laboratories, universities, and industry; and (3) create a network of partnership champions to promote findings and policy options. The deliberations and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning the future of the labs.

  8. Brain Mapping Center Opens at Institute of Biophysics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Agroup of world-class scie, ntists in brain imaging came to China's capital to .witness the inauguration of the Beijing MRI Center for Brain Research, which was officially opened on May 25 at the CAS Institute of Biophysics.

  9. Developing spatial biophysical accounting for multiple ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, R.P.; Schroter, M.; Hein, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is receiving increasing interest as a way to systematically monitor the conditions of ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide. A critical element of ecosystem accounting is understanding spatially explicit flows of ecosystem services. We developed spatial biophysical

  10. Final report for Conference Support Grant "From Computational Biophysics to Systems Biology - CBSB12"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, Ulrich H.E.

    2012-07-02

    This report summarizes the outcome of the international workshop From Computational Biophysics to Systems Biology (CBSB12) which was held June 3-5, 2012, at the University of Tennessee Conference Center in Knoxville, TN, and supported by DOE through the Conference Support Grant 120174. The purpose of CBSB12 was to provide a forum for the interaction between a data-mining interested systems biology community and a simulation and first-principle oriented computational biophysics/biochemistry community. CBSB12 was the sixth in a series of workshops of the same name organized in recent years, and the second that has been held in the USA. As in previous years, it gave researchers from physics, biology, and computer science an opportunity to acquaint each other with current trends in computational biophysics and systems biology, to explore venues of cooperation, and to establish together a detailed understanding of cells at a molecular level. The conference grant of $10,000 was used to cover registration fees and provide travel fellowships to selected students and postdoctoral scientists. By educating graduate students and providing a forum for young scientists to perform research into the working of cells at a molecular level, the workshop adds to DOE's mission of paving the way to exploit the abilities of living systems to capture, store and utilize energy.

  11. The relationship between fetal biophysical profile and cord blood PH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valadan M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Biophysical Profile (BPP is a noninvasive test that predicts the presence or absence of fetal asphyxia and, ultimately, the risk of fetal death in the antenatal period. Intervention on the basis of an abnormal biophysical profile result has been reported to yield a significant reduction in prenatal mortality, and an association exists between biophysical profile scoring and a decreased cerebral palsy rate in a given population. The BPP evaluates five characteristics: fetal movement, tone, breathing, heart reactivity, and amniotic fluid (AF volume estimation. The purpose of study was to determine whether there are different degree of acidosis at which the biophysical activity (acute marker are affected. "nMethods: In a prospective study of 140 patients undergoing cesarean section before onset of labor, the fetal biophysical profile was performed 24h before the time of cesarean and was matched with cord arterial PH that was obtained from a cord segment (10-20cm that was double clamped after delivery of newborn. (using cord arterial PH less than 7.20 for the diagnosis of acidosis. "nResults: The fetal biophysical profile was found to have a significant relationship with umbilical blood PH. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of fetal biophysical profile score were: 88.9%, 88.6%, 50%, 98.1%. "nConclusion: The first manifestations of fetal acidosis are nonreactive nonstress testing and fetal breathing loss; in advanced acidemia fetal movements and fetal tone are compromised. A protocol of antepartum fetal evaluation is suggested based upon the individual biophysical components rather than the score alone.

  12. Biophysics of Human Hair Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the biophysics of hair. It deals with the structure of hair, its mechanical properties, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair surface. Another important topic of the book is the health of hair, human hair and skin, hair care, cleaning and conditioning treatments and damaging processes. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

  13. Estimation efficiency of usage satellite derived and modelled biophysical products for yield forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotii, Andrii; Kussul, Nataliia; Skakun, Sergii; Shelestov, Andrii; Ostapenko, Vadim; Oliinyk, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Efficient and timely crop monitoring and yield forecasting are important tasks for ensuring of stability and sustainable economic development [1]. As winter crops pay prominent role in agriculture of Ukraine - the main focus of this study is concentrated on winter wheat. In our previous research [2, 3] it was shown that usage of biophysical parameters of crops such as FAPAR (derived from Geoland-2 portal as for SPOT Vegetation data) is far more efficient for crop yield forecasting to NDVI derived from MODIS data - for available data. In our current work efficiency of usage such biophysical parameters as LAI, FAPAR, FCOVER (derived from SPOT Vegetation and PROBA-V data at resolution of 1 km and simulated within WOFOST model) and NDVI product (derived from MODIS) for winter wheat monitoring and yield forecasting is estimated. As the part of crop monitoring workflow (vegetation anomaly detection, vegetation indexes and products analysis) and yield forecasting SPIRITS tool developed by JRC is used. Statistics extraction is done for landcover maps created in SRI within FP-7 SIGMA project. Efficiency of usage satellite based and modelled with WOFOST model biophysical products is estimated. [1] N. Kussul, S. Skakun, A. Shelestov, O. Kussul, "Sensor Web approach to Flood Monitoring and Risk Assessment", in: IGARSS 2013, 21-26 July 2013, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 815-818. [2] F. Kogan, N. Kussul, T. Adamenko, S. Skakun, O. Kravchenko, O. Kryvobok, A. Shelestov, A. Kolotii, O. Kussul, and A. Lavrenyuk, "Winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine based on Earth observation, meteorological data and biophysical models," International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 23, pp. 192-203, 2013. [3] Kussul O., Kussul N., Skakun S., Kravchenko O., Shelestov A., Kolotii A, "Assessment of relative efficiency of using MODIS data to winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine", in: IGARSS 2013, 21-26 July 2013, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 3235 - 3238.

  14. Advanced Physics Lab at TCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarles, C. A.

    2009-04-01

    The one semester, one credit hour Modern Physics Lab is viewed as a transition between the structured Physics 1 and 2 labs and junior/senior research. The labs focus on a variety of experiments built around a multichannel analyzer, various alpha, beta and gamma ray detectors and weak radioactive sources. Experiments include radiation safety and detection with a Geiger counter and NaI detector, gamma ray spectroscopy with a germanium detector, beta spectrum, alpha energy loss, gamma ray absorption, Compton effect, nuclear and positron annihilation lifetime, speed of gamma rays. Other experiments include using the analog oscilloscope, x-ray diffraction of diamond and using an SEM/EDX. Error analysis is emphasized throughout. The semester ends with an individual project, often an extension of one of the earlier experiments, and students present their results as a paper and an APS style presentation to the department.

  15. Ntal/Lab/Lat2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaki, Shoko; Jensen, Bettina M; Gilfillan, Alasdair M

    2007-01-01

    Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL)/linker for activation of B cells (LAB), now officially termed LAT2 (linker for activation of T cells 2) is a 25-30kDa transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP) associated with glycolipid-enriched membrane fractions (GEMs; lipid rafts) in specific cell types of hemat......Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL)/linker for activation of B cells (LAB), now officially termed LAT2 (linker for activation of T cells 2) is a 25-30kDa transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP) associated with glycolipid-enriched membrane fractions (GEMs; lipid rafts) in specific cell types...

  16. Lab-on-fiber technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cusano, Andrea; Crescitelli, Alessio; Ricciardi, Armando

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on a research field that is rapidly emerging as one of the most promising ones for the global optics and photonics community: the "lab-on-fiber" technology. Inspired by the well-established 'lab on-a-chip' concept, this new technology essentially envisages novel and highly functionalized devices completely integrated into a single optical fiber for both communication and sensing applications.Based on the R&D experience of some of the world's leading authorities in the fields of optics, photonics, nanotechnology, and material science, this book provides a broad and accurate de

  17. A Remote Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Communications Lab Utilising the Emona DATEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmas Mwikirize

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote labs have become popular learning aids due to their versatility and considerable ease of utilisation as compared to their physical counterparts. At Makerere University, the remote labs are based on the standard Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT iLabs Shared Architecture (ISA - a scalable and generic platform. Presented in this paper is such a lab, addressing the key practical aspects of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS communication. The lab is built on the National Instruments Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite (NI ELVIS with the Emona Digital and Analog Telecommunications Experimenter (DATEx add-on board. It also incorporates switching hardware. The lab facilitates real-time control of the equipment, with users able to set, manipulate and observe signal parameters in both the frequency and the time domains. Simulation and data Acquisition modes of the experiment are supported to provide a richer learning experience.

  18. Modelling Biophysical Parameters of Maize Using Landsat 8 Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Thorsten; Seissiger, Sylvia; Conrad, Christopher; Borg, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Open and free access to multi-frequent high-resolution data (e.g. Sentinel - 2) will fortify agricultural applications based on satellite data. The temporal and spatial resolution of these remote sensing datasets directly affects the applicability of remote sensing methods, for instance a robust retrieving of biophysical parameters over the entire growing season with very high geometric resolution. In this study we use machine learning methods to predict biophysical parameters, namely the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic radiation (FPAR), the leaf area index (LAI) and the chlorophyll content, from high resolution remote sensing. 30 Landsat 8 OLI scenes were available in our study region in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. In-situ data were weekly to bi-weekly collected on 18 maize plots throughout the summer season 2015. The study aims at an optimized prediction of biophysical parameters and the identification of the best explaining spectral bands and vegetation indices. For this purpose, we used the entire in-situ dataset from 24.03.2015 to 15.10.2015. Random forest and conditional inference forests were used because of their explicit strong exploratory and predictive character. Variable importance measures allowed for analysing the relation between the biophysical parameters with respect to the spectral response, and the performance of the two approaches over the plant stock evolvement. Classical random forest regression outreached the performance of conditional inference forests, in particular when modelling the biophysical parameters over the entire growing period. For example, modelling biophysical parameters of maize for the entire vegetation period using random forests yielded: FPAR: R² = 0.85; RMSE = 0.11; LAI: R² = 0.64; RMSE = 0.9 and chlorophyll content (SPAD): R² = 0.80; RMSE=4.9. Our results demonstrate the great potential in using machine-learning methods for the interpretation of long-term multi-frequent remote sensing datasets to model

  19. A Simple, Successful Capacitor Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, William

    2011-01-01

    Capacitors are a fundamental component of modern electronics. They appear in myriad devices and in an enormous range of sizes. Although our students are taught the function and analysis of capacitors, few have the opportunity to use them in our labs.

  20. The Telecom Lab is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    As of 2nd March 2009, the Telecom Lab will move to Building 58 R-017. The Telecom Lab is the central point for all support questions regarding CERN mobile phone services (provision of SIM cards, requests for modifications of subscriptions, diagnostics for mobile phone problems, etc.). The opening hours as well as the contact details for the Telecom Lab remain unchanged: New location: Building 58 R-017 Opening hours: Every week day, from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m. Phone number: 72480 Email address: labo.telecom@cern.ch This change has no impact on support requests for mobile services. Users can still submit their requests concerning mobile phone subscriptions using the usual EDH form (https://edh.cern.ch/Document/GSM). The automatic message sent to inform users of their SIM card availability will be updated to indicate the new Telecom Lab location. You can find all information related to CERN mobile phone services at the following link: http://cern.ch/gsm CS Section - IT/CS group

  1. Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) – Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Carrier Analysis Lab (CAL) - Aircraft/Weapons/Ship Compatibility Lab located at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides...

  2. EUSO@TurLab: An experimental replica of ISS orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertaina M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The EUSO@TurLab project is an on-going activity aimed to reproduce atmospheric and luminous conditions that JEM-EUSO will encounter on its orbits around the Earth. The use of the TurLab facility, part of the Department of Physics of the University of Torino, allows the simulation of different surface conditions in a very dark and rotating environment in order to test the response of JEM-EUSO's sensors and sensitivity. The experimental setup currently in operation has been used to check the potential of the TurLab facility for the above purposes, and the acquired data will be used to test the concept of JEM-EUSO's trigger system.

  3. Biogeochemical and biophysical climate regulation services from converting native grassland to bioenergy production in the US Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Abraha, M.; Gelfand, I.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Thomson, A. M.; Hamilton, S. K.; Chen, J.; Robertson, P.; Xu, M.; Liang, X. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Land use conversion to bioenergy crops production not only alters biogeochemical cycles, but also modifies surface biophysics, such as albedo and and leaf area. These biophysical perturbations subsequently change radiation budget at land surface and land-atmosphere exchange in water and energy, and ultimately influence local/regional climate. Here, we combine long-term in situ field measurements, remote sensing observations, and regional earth system modeling to improve our understanding of changes in biophysical climate regulation services from converting native grassland to perennial bioenergy crops. In the US Midwest, albedo change as a result of cultivating native grassland for cellulosic bioenergy feedstocks could enhance the net greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation benefit of cellulosic bioenergy production (116.5 MgCO2 ha-1) by 20% over a time horizon of 50 years. With an integrated climate-agroecosystem model, parameterized with in situ and remote sensing data, we further demonstrate that cultivating native grassland may result in noticeable difference in simulated regional climate (e.g. precipitation, temperature, and radiation budget), highlighting the importance of additionally including biophysical climate services in evaluating land-based climate mitigation activities, such as bioenergy production.

  4. Modelling the influence of land-use changes on biophysical and biochemical interactions at regional and global scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, N; Bala, G; Nemani, R

    2015-09-01

    Land-use changes since the start of the industrial era account for nearly one-third of the cumulative anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In addition to the greenhouse effect of CO2 emissions, changes in land use also affect climate via changes in surface physical properties such as albedo, evapotranspiration and roughness length. Recent modelling studies suggest that these biophysical components may be comparable with biochemical effects. In regard to climate change, the effects of these two distinct processes may counterbalance one another both regionally and, possibly, globally. In this article, through hypothetical large-scale deforestation simulations using a global climate model, we contrast the implications of afforestation on ameliorating or enhancing anthropogenic contributions from previously converted (agricultural) land surfaces. Based on our review of past studies on this subject, we conclude that the sum of both biophysical and biochemical effects should be assessed when large-scale afforestation is used for countering global warming, and the net effect on global mean temperature change depends on the location of deforestation/afforestation. Further, although biochemical effects trigger global climate change, biophysical effects often cause strong local and regional climate change. The implication of the biophysical effects for adaptation and mitigation of climate change in agriculture and agroforestry sectors is discussed.

  5. A PROSPECTIVE TRIAL OF THE FETAL BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE VERSUS MODIFIED BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HIGH RISK PREGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamal

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nThe original biophysical profile is time consuming and costly. This study was performed to compare diagnostic value of the original fetal biophysical profile to the modified biophysical profile. Patients were selected from high risk pregnancies referred for fetal assessment and were randomly assigned to two groups. The measures of outcomes were perinatal mortality, Cesarean section for abnormal test, meconium-stained amniotic fluid and 5-minute Apgar score < 7. Diagnostic values of tests were assessed in terms of the incidence of abnormal outcome. In addition comparisons between the positive and negative predictive values of each of these tests as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the tests were reviewed. A total of 200 patients were entered into the study; 104 pregnancies were managed by the original biophysical profile and 96 pregnancies by the modified biophysical profile. There were 30 abnormal (31.3% in modified biophysical profile and 24 (23.1% abnormal tests in original one. There was significant difference in the incidence of meconium passage between two groups. Cesarean section for abnormal tests was 27 of 30 abnormal test (90% in modified and 22 of 24 (91.6% in original profile that was similar in both groups. There was not significant difference in Apgar score < 7 between two groups. We did not find significant difference with comparison of the sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value of two tests for all measures of outcome except the positive predictive value of meconium passage. Original biophysical profile is more costly and time consuming than modified one.

  6. Biophysical Approaches for Oral Wound Healing: Emphasis on Photobiomodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Arany, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Oral wounds can lead to significant pain and discomfort as well as affect overall general health due to poor diet and inadequate nutrition. Besides many biological and pharmaceutical methods being investigated, there is growing interest in exploring various biophysical devices that utilize electric, magnetic, ultrasound, pressure, and light energy. Recent Advances: Significant insight into mechanisms of these biophysical devices could provide a clear rationale for their clinical use. Preclinical studies are essential precursors in determining physiological mechanisms and elucidation of causal pathways. This will lead to development of safe and effective therapeutic protocols for clinical wound management. Critical Issues: Identification of precise events initiated by biophysical devices, specifically photobiomodulation—the major focus of this review, offers promising avenues in improving oral wound management. The primary phase responses initiated by the interventions that distinctly contribute to the therapeutic response must be clearly delineated from secondary phase responses. The latter events are a consequence of the wound healing process and must not be confused with causal mechanisms. Future Direction: Clinical adoption of these biophysical devices needs robust and efficacious protocols that can be developed by well-designed preclinical and clinical studies. Elucidation of the precise molecular mechanisms of these biophysical approaches could determine optimization of their applications for predictive oral wound care. PMID:26634185

  7. The physical basis of biochemistry the foundations of molecular biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Bergethon, Peter R

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide a unifying approach to the study of biophysical chemistry for the advanced undergraduate who has had a year of physics, organic chem­ istry, calculus, and biology. This book began as a revised edition of Biophysical Chemistry: Molecules to Membranes, which Elizabeth Simons and I coauthored. That short volume was written in an attempt to provide a concise text for a one-semester course in biophysical chemistry at the graduate level. The experience of teaching biophysical chemistry to bi­ ologically oriented students over the last decade has made it clear that the subject requires a more fundamental text that unifies the many threads of modem science: physics, chem­ istry, biology, mathematics, and statistics. This book represents that effort. This volume is not a treatment of modem biophysical chemistry with its rich history and many contro­ versies, although a book on that topic is also needed. The Physical Basis of Biochemistry is an introduction to the philosophy...

  8. Estimation of rice biophysical parameters using multitemporal RADARSAT-2 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Ni, P.; Cui, G.; He, P.; Liu, H.; Li, L.; Liang, Z.

    2016-04-01

    Compared with optical sensors, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has the capability of acquiring images in all-weather conditions. Thus, SAR images are suitable for using in rice growth regions that are characterized by frequent cloud cover and rain. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the probability of rice biophysical parameters estimation using multitemporal RADARSAT-2 images, and to develop the estimation models. Three RADARSTA-2 images were acquired during the rice critical growth stages in 2014 near Meishan, Sichuan province, Southwest China. Leaf area index (LAI), the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR), height, biomass and canopy water content (WC) were observed at 30 experimental plots over 5 periods. The relationship between RADARSAT-2 backscattering coefficients (σ 0) or their ratios and rice biophysical parameters were analysed. These biophysical parameters were significantly and consistently correlated with the VV and VH σ 0 ratio (σ 0 VV/ σ 0 VH) throughout all growth stages. The regression model were developed between biophysical parameters and σ 0 VV/ σ 0 VH. The results suggest that the RADARSAT-2 data has great potential capability for the rice biophysical parameters estimation and the timely rice growth monitoring.

  9. Flexible HVAC System for Lab or Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedan, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an effort to design a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system flexible enough to accommodate an easy conversion of classrooms to laboratories and dry labs to wet labs. The design's energy efficiency and operations and maintenance are examined. (GR)

  10. GeoLab Sample Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop  a robotic sample handling/ manipulator system for the GeoLab glovebox. This work leverages from earlier GeoLab work and a 2012 collaboration with a...

  11. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, N M

    2015-01-01

    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  12. Updated version of an interim connection space LabPQR for spectral color reproduction: LabLab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian; Wan, Xiaoxia; Li, Junfeng; Liang, Jingxing

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new interim connection space (ICS) called LabLab, which is an updated version of LabPQR, to overcome the drawback that the last three dimensions of LabPQR have no definite colorimetric meanings. We extended and improved the method by which the first three dimensions of LabPQR are deduced to obtain an ICS consisting of two sets of CIELAB values under different illuminants, and the reconstructed spectra from LabLab were obtained by minimizing colorimetric errors by means of the computational formula of the CIE-XYZ tristimulus values combined with least-squares best fit. The improvement obtained from the proposed method was tested to compress and reconstruct the reflectance spectra of the 1950 Natural Color System color chips and more than 50,000 ISO SOCS color patches as well as six multispectral images acquired by multispectral image acquisition systems using 1600 glossy Munsell color chips as training samples. The performance was evaluated by the mean values of color differences between the original and reconstructed spectra under the CIE 1931 standard colorimetric observer and the CIE standard illuminants D50, D55, D65, D75, F2, F7, F11, and A as well as five multichip white LED light sources. The mean and maximum values of the root mean square errors between the original and reconstructed spectra were also calculated. The experimental results show that the proposed three LabLab interim connection spaces significantly outperform principal component analysis, LabPQR, XYZLMS, Fairman-Brill, and LabRGB in colorimetric reconstruction accuracy at the cost of slight reduction of spectral reconstruction accuracy and illuminant independence of color differences of the suggested LabLab interim connection spaces outperform other interim connection spaces. In addition, the presented LabLab interim connection spaces could be quite compatible with the extensively used colorimetric management system since each dimension has definite colorimetric

  13. Biophysics in drug discovery: impact, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Jean-Paul; Chung, Chun-Wa; Danielson, U Helena; Egner, Ursula; Hennig, Michael; Hubbard, Roderick E; Nar, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 25 years, biophysical technologies such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry have become key components of drug discovery platforms in many pharmaceutical companies and academic laboratories. There have been great improvements in the speed, sensitivity and range of possible measurements, providing high-resolution mechanistic, kinetic, thermodynamic and structural information on compound-target interactions. This Review provides a framework to understand this evolution by describing the key biophysical methods, the information they can provide and the ways in which they can be applied at different stages of the drug discovery process. We also discuss the challenges for current technologies and future opportunities to use biophysical methods to solve drug discovery problems.

  14. Can biophysical properties of submersed macrophytes be determined by remote sensing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malthus, T.J. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Ciraolo, G.; La Loggia, G. [Univ. of Palermo, Sicily (Italy)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This paper details the development of a computationally efficient Monte Carlo simulation program to model photon transport through submersed plant canopies, with emphasis on Seagrass communities. The model incorporates three components: the transmission of photons through a water column of varying depth and turbidity; the interaction of photons within a submersed plant canopy of varying biomass; and interactions with the bottom substrate. The three components of the model are discussed. Simulations were performed based on measured parameters for Posidonia oceanica and compared to measured subsurface reflectance spectra made over comparable seagrass communities in Sicilian coastal waters. It is shown that the output is realistic. Further simulations are undertaken to investigate the effect of depth and turbidity of the overlying water column. Both sets of results indicate the rapid loss of canopy signal as depth increases and water column phytoplankton concentrations increase. The implications for the development of algorithms for the estimation of submersed canopy biophysical parameters are briefly discussed.

  15. NI新款LabVIEW工具包

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    美国国家仪器有限公司(National Instruments,NI)近日推出新的LabVIEW图形化开发环境的软件工程工具——LabVIEW单元测试工具包和LabVIEW桌面执行追踪工具包。

  16. The Development of MSFC Usability Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yiwei; Richardson, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This conference poster reviews the development of the usability lab at Marshall Space Flight Center. The purpose of the lab was to integrate a fully functioning usability laboratory to provide a resource for future human factor assessments. and to implement preliminary usability testing on a MSFC website to validate the functionality of the lab.

  17. An Approach for WebLabs Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier García Zubia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Engineering of University of Deusto has a WebLab oriented to Microelectronics available since 2001. The first part of this paper shows several requirements that a WebLab should meet and the following sections present the WebLab-Deusto.

  18. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haiyan Gao

    2003-11-01

    Mapping the transition from strongly interacting, non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics, where nucleon–meson degrees of freedom are effective to perturbative QCD of quark and gluon degrees of freedom, is one of the most fundamental, challenging tasks in nuclear and particle physics. Exclusive processes such as proton–proton elastic scattering, meson photoproduction, and deuteron photodisintegration have been pursued extensively at many laboratories over the years in the search for such a transition, particularly at Jefferson Lab in recent years, taking the advantage of the high luminosity capability of the CEBAF facility. In this talk, I review recent results from Jefferson Lab on deuteron photodisintegration and photopion production processes and the future 12 GeV program.

  19. Evaluating landscape health: Integrating societal goals and biophysical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, D.J.; Gaudet, C.; Karr, J.R.; Baron, J. S.; Bohlen, C.; Jackson, W.; Jones, B.; Naiman, R.J.; Norton, B.; Pollock, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating landscape change requires the integration of the social and natural sciences. The social sciences contribute to articulating societal values that govern landscape change, while the natural sciences contribute to understanding the biophysical processes that are influenced by human activity and result in ecological change. Building upon Aldo Leopold's criteria for landscape health, the roles of societal values and biophysical processes in shaping the landscape are explored. A framework is developed for indicators of landscape health and integrity. Indicators of integrity are useful in measuring biological condition relative to the condition in landscapes largely unaffected by human activity, while indicators of health are useful in evaluating changes in highly modified landscapes. Integrating societal goals and biophysical processes requires identification of ecological services to be sustained within a given landscape. It also requires the proper choice of temporal and spatial scales. Societal values are based upon inter-generational concerns at regional scales (e.g. soil and ground water quality). Assessing the health and integrity of the environment at the landscape scale over a period of decades best integrates societal values with underlying biophysical processes. These principles are illustrated in two contrasting case studies: (1) the South Platte River study demonstrates the role of complex biophysical processes acting at a distance; and (2) the Kissimmee River study illustrates the critical importance of social, cultural and economic concerns in the design of remedial action plans. In both studies, however, interactions between the social and the biophysical governed the landscape outcomes. The legacy of evolution and the legacy of culture requires integration for the purpose of effectively coping with environmental change.

  20. The Twilight of Determinism: At Least in Biophysical Novelties

    CERN Document Server

    Gilead, Amihud

    2015-01-01

    In the 1990s, Richard Lewontin referred to what appeared to be the twilight of determinism in biology. He pointed out that DNA determines only a little part of life phenomena, which are very complex. In fact, organisms determine the environment and vice versa in a nonlinear way. Very recently, biophysicists, Shimon Marom and Erez Braun, have demonstrated that controlled biophysical systems have shown a relative autonomy and flexibility in response which could not be predicted. Within the boundaries of some restraints, most of them genetic, this freedom from determinism is well maintained. Marom and Braun have challenged not only biophysical determinism but also reverse-engineering, naive reductionism, mechanism, and systems biology.

  1. A Series of Computational Neuroscience Labs Increases Comfort with MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David F

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations allow for a low-cost, reliable means to demonstrate complex and often times inaccessible concepts to undergraduates. However, students without prior computer programming training may find working with code-based simulations to be intimidating and distracting. A series of computational neuroscience labs involving the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, an Integrate-and-Fire model, and a Hopfield Memory network were used in an undergraduate neuroscience laboratory component of an introductory level course. Using short focused surveys before and after each lab, student comfort levels were shown to increase drastically from a majority of students being uncomfortable or with neutral feelings about working in the MATLAB environment to a vast majority of students being comfortable working in the environment. Though change was reported within each lab, a series of labs was necessary in order to establish a lasting high level of comfort. Comfort working with code is important as a first step in acquiring computational skills that are required to address many questions within neuroscience.

  2. LabVIEW 8 student edition

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    For courses in Measurement and Instrumentation, Electrical Engineering lab, and Physics and Chemistry lab. This revised printing has been updated to include new LabVIEW 8.2 Student Edition. National Instruments' LabVIEW is the defacto industry standard for test, measurement, and automation software solutions. With the Student Edition of LabVIEW, students can design graphical programming solutions to their classroom problems and laboratory experiments with software that delivers the graphical programming capabilites of the LabVIEW professional version. . The Student Edition is also compatible with all National Instruments data acquisition and instrument control hardware. Note: The LabVIEW Student Edition is available to students, faculty, and staff for personal educational use only. It is not intended for research, institutional, or commercial use. For more information about these licensing options, please visit the National Instruments website at (http:www.ni.com/academic/)

  3. Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

  4. Beyond NDVI: Extraction of biophysical variables from remote sensing imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of methods used for the extraction of biophysical vegetation variables from remote sensing imagery. It starts with the description of the main spectral regions in the optical window of the electromagnetic spectrum based on typical spectral signatures of land surface

  5. Skin Biophysical Characteristics in Patients with Keratoconus: A Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza M. Robati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Keratoconus is a relatively common corneal disease causing significant visual disability. Individuals with connective tissue disorders that affect the skin such as Marfan’s syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or patients with atopic dermatitis show an increased prevalence of keratoconus. It seems that there are some concurrent alterations of skin and cornea in patients with keratoconus. Objective. We plan to compare skin biophysical characteristics in patients with keratoconus and healthy controls. Methods. Forty patients with keratoconus (18 females and 22 males with mean (SD age of 33.32 (9.55 years (range 19–56 and 40 healthy controls were recruited to this study. Skin biophysical characteristics including cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT, stratum corneum hydration, and melanin values were measured in patients and controls. Results. The median CRRT, stratum corneum hydration, and melanin measurements were significantly lower in patients with keratoconus in comparison with healthy controls. Conclusion. There are some alterations of skin biophysical properties in patients with keratoconus. Therefore, the assessment of these skin parameters could provide us some clues to the possible common biophysical variations of cornea and skin tissue in diseases such as keratoconus.

  6. Skin Biophysical Characteristics in Patients with Keratoconus: A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, Reza M; Einollahi, Bahram; Einollahi, Hoda; Younespour, Shima; Fadaifard, Shahed

    2016-01-01

    Background. Keratoconus is a relatively common corneal disease causing significant visual disability. Individuals with connective tissue disorders that affect the skin such as Marfan's syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or patients with atopic dermatitis show an increased prevalence of keratoconus. It seems that there are some concurrent alterations of skin and cornea in patients with keratoconus. Objective. We plan to compare skin biophysical characteristics in patients with keratoconus and healthy controls. Methods. Forty patients with keratoconus (18 females and 22 males) with mean (SD) age of 33.32 (9.55) years (range 19-56) and 40 healthy controls were recruited to this study. Skin biophysical characteristics including cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT), stratum corneum hydration, and melanin values were measured in patients and controls. Results. The median CRRT, stratum corneum hydration, and melanin measurements were significantly lower in patients with keratoconus in comparison with healthy controls. Conclusion. There are some alterations of skin biophysical properties in patients with keratoconus. Therefore, the assessment of these skin parameters could provide us some clues to the possible common biophysical variations of cornea and skin tissue in diseases such as keratoconus.

  7. Skin Biophysical Characteristics in Patients with Keratoconus: A Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, Reza M.; Einollahi, Bahram; Einollahi, Hoda; Younespour, Shima; Fadaifard, Shahed

    2016-01-01

    Background. Keratoconus is a relatively common corneal disease causing significant visual disability. Individuals with connective tissue disorders that affect the skin such as Marfan's syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or patients with atopic dermatitis show an increased prevalence of keratoconus. It seems that there are some concurrent alterations of skin and cornea in patients with keratoconus. Objective. We plan to compare skin biophysical characteristics in patients with keratoconus and healthy controls. Methods. Forty patients with keratoconus (18 females and 22 males) with mean (SD) age of 33.32 (9.55) years (range 19–56) and 40 healthy controls were recruited to this study. Skin biophysical characteristics including cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT), stratum corneum hydration, and melanin values were measured in patients and controls. Results. The median CRRT, stratum corneum hydration, and melanin measurements were significantly lower in patients with keratoconus in comparison with healthy controls. Conclusion. There are some alterations of skin biophysical properties in patients with keratoconus. Therefore, the assessment of these skin parameters could provide us some clues to the possible common biophysical variations of cornea and skin tissue in diseases such as keratoconus. PMID:27403376

  8. Delineating Biophysical Environments of the Sunda Banda Seascape, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingshu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sunda Banda Seascape (SBS, located in the center of the Coral Triangle, is a global center of marine biodiversity and a conservation priority. We proposed the first biophysical environmental delineation of the SBS using globally available satellite remote sensing and model-assimilated data to categorize this area into unique and meaningful biophysical classes. Specifically, the SBS was partitioned into eight biophysical classes characterized by similar sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, currents, and salinity patterns. Areas within each class were expected to have similar habitat types and ecosystem functions. Our work supplemented prevailing global marine management schemes by focusing in on a regional scale with finer spatial resolution. It also provided a baseline for academic research, ecological assessments and will facilitate marine spatial planning and conservation activities in the area. In addition, the framework and methods of delineating biophysical environments we presented can be expanded throughout the whole Coral Triangle to support research and conservation activities in this important region.

  9. Biophysical methods in drug discovery from small molecule to pharmaceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Geoffrey; Geschwindner, Stefan; Breeze, Alex; Davies, Gareth; Colclough, Nicola; Temesi, David; Ward, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Biophysical methods have become established in many areas of drug discovery. Application of these methods was once restricted to a relatively small number of scientists using specialized, low throughput technologies and methods. Now, automated high-throughput instruments are to be found in a growing number of laboratories. Many biophysical methods are capable of measuring the equilibrium binding constants between pairs of molecules crucial for molecular recognition processes, encompassing protein-protein, protein-small molecule, and protein-nucleic acid interactions, and several can be used to measure the kinetic or thermodynamic components controlling these biological processes. For a full characterization of a binding process, determinations of stoichiometry, binding mode, and any conformational changes associated with such interactions are also required. The suite of biophysical methods that are now available represents a powerful toolbox of techniques which can effectively deliver this full characterization.The aim of this chapter is to provide the reader with an overview of the drug discovery process and how biophysical methods, such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry (MS), and thermal unfolding methods can answer specific questions in order to influence project progression and outcomes. The selection of these examples is based upon the experiences of the authors at AstraZeneca, and relevant approaches are highlighted where they have utility in a particular drug discovery scenario.

  10. Prostaglandin phospholipid conjugates with unusual biophysical and cytotoxic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Palle Jacob; Adolph, Sidsel K.; Andresen, Thomas Lars;

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of two secretory phospholipase A(2) IIA sensitive 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) phospholipid conjugates is described and their biophysical and biological properties are reported. The conjugates spontaneously form particles in the liposome size region upon dispersion in an...

  11. Polish Academy of Sciences Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics research report 1994-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Scientific interests of Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics Polish Academy of Sciences are focused on DNA replication and repair, gene expression, gene sequencing and molecular biophysics. The work reviews research projects of the Institute in 1994-1995.

  12. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Screening Complements Conventional Biophysical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Xinsheng; Langkilde, Annette Eva; Thorolfsson, Matthias;

    2014-01-01

    introduce small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to characterize antibody solution behavior, which strongly complements conventional biophysical analysis. First, we apply a variety of conventional biophysical techniques for the evaluation of structural, conformational, and colloidal stability and report...

  13. 基于飞思卡尔单片机和LabVIEW的汽车组合仪表功能模拟系统设计%ON THE SIMULATION SYSTEM DESIGN OF AUTOMOTIVE INSTRUMENT BASED ON THE FREESCALE MICROCONTROLLER AND LABVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱峰; 李敏; 庞辉; 胡孝福

    2013-01-01

      At present, the instrument manufacturers or the automobile factory need to carry out the strict test for automobile combined instruments, and the testing method is about testing the system of automobile sensor simulation signal, transmitting through a harness to the instrument and observing the instrument display state. In this paper, based on the signal simulation, the design, based on the LabVIEW software development virtual instrument interface, uses the Freescale xs128 single-chip to achieve the simulation of the automobile instrument tachometer, speedometer, fuel, water temperature signal and switch signal, and the standard of RS-232 in the upper and lower machine communication can also be achieved.%  目前在汽车仪表生产厂和整车厂都需要对汽车组合仪表进行严格测试,测试方法主要是测试系统模拟汽车传感器信号,通过线束传输到仪表上,观察仪表显示状态。模拟系统基于信号模拟思想,使用Lab VIEW平台实现上位机虚拟仪表界面,飞思卡尔XS128单片机作为下位机实现对汽车仪表中的转速、车速、燃油、水温信号以及开关量信号的功能模拟,上、下位机通信标准为RS-232C。

  14. Quality Saving Mechanisms of Mitochondria during Aging in a Fully Time-Dependent Computational Biophysical Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mellem

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are essential for the energy production of eukaryotic cells. During aging mitochondria run through various processes which change their quality in terms of activity, health and metabolic supply. In recent years, many of these processes such as fission and fusion of mitochondria, mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy consumption have been subject of research. Based on numerous experimental insights, it was possible to qualify mitochondrial behaviour in computational simulations. Here, we present a new biophysical model based on the approach of Figge et al. in 2012. We introduce exponential decay and growth laws for each mitochondrial process to derive its time-dependent probability during the aging of cells. All mitochondrial processes of the original model are mathematically and biophysically redefined and additional processes are implemented: Mitochondrial fission and fusion is separated into a metabolic outer-membrane part and a protein-related inner-membrane part, a quality-dependent threshold for mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is introduced and processes for activity-dependent internal oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial repair mechanisms are newly included. Our findings reveal a decrease of mitochondrial quality and a fragmentation of the mitochondrial network during aging. Additionally, the model discloses a quality increasing mechanism due to the interplay of the mitophagy and biogenesis cycle and the fission and fusion cycle of mitochondria. It is revealed that decreased mitochondrial repair can be a quality saving process in aged cells. Furthermore, the model finds strategies to sustain the quality of the mitochondrial network in cells with high production rates of reactive oxygen species due to large energy demands. Hence, the model adds new insights to biophysical mechanisms of mitochondrial aging and provides novel understandings of the interdependency of mitochondrial processes.

  15. Quality Saving Mechanisms of Mitochondria during Aging in a Fully Time-Dependent Computational Biophysical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellem, Daniel; Fischer, Frank; Jaspers, Sören; Wenck, Horst; Rübhausen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for the energy production of eukaryotic cells. During aging mitochondria run through various processes which change their quality in terms of activity, health and metabolic supply. In recent years, many of these processes such as fission and fusion of mitochondria, mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy consumption have been subject of research. Based on numerous experimental insights, it was possible to qualify mitochondrial behaviour in computational simulations. Here, we present a new biophysical model based on the approach of Figge et al. in 2012. We introduce exponential decay and growth laws for each mitochondrial process to derive its time-dependent probability during the aging of cells. All mitochondrial processes of the original model are mathematically and biophysically redefined and additional processes are implemented: Mitochondrial fission and fusion is separated into a metabolic outer-membrane part and a protein-related inner-membrane part, a quality-dependent threshold for mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is introduced and processes for activity-dependent internal oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial repair mechanisms are newly included. Our findings reveal a decrease of mitochondrial quality and a fragmentation of the mitochondrial network during aging. Additionally, the model discloses a quality increasing mechanism due to the interplay of the mitophagy and biogenesis cycle and the fission and fusion cycle of mitochondria. It is revealed that decreased mitochondrial repair can be a quality saving process in aged cells. Furthermore, the model finds strategies to sustain the quality of the mitochondrial network in cells with high production rates of reactive oxygen species due to large energy demands. Hence, the model adds new insights to biophysical mechanisms of mitochondrial aging and provides novel understandings of the interdependency of mitochondrial processes.

  16. Quality Saving Mechanisms of Mitochondria during Aging in a Fully Time-Dependent Computational Biophysical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellem, Daniel; Fischer, Frank; Jaspers, Sören; Wenck, Horst; Rübhausen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for the energy production of eukaryotic cells. During aging mitochondria run through various processes which change their quality in terms of activity, health and metabolic supply. In recent years, many of these processes such as fission and fusion of mitochondria, mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy consumption have been subject of research. Based on numerous experimental insights, it was possible to qualify mitochondrial behaviour in computational simulations. Here, we present a new biophysical model based on the approach of Figge et al. in 2012. We introduce exponential decay and growth laws for each mitochondrial process to derive its time-dependent probability during the aging of cells. All mitochondrial processes of the original model are mathematically and biophysically redefined and additional processes are implemented: Mitochondrial fission and fusion is separated into a metabolic outer-membrane part and a protein-related inner-membrane part, a quality-dependent threshold for mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is introduced and processes for activity-dependent internal oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial repair mechanisms are newly included. Our findings reveal a decrease of mitochondrial quality and a fragmentation of the mitochondrial network during aging. Additionally, the model discloses a quality increasing mechanism due to the interplay of the mitophagy and biogenesis cycle and the fission and fusion cycle of mitochondria. It is revealed that decreased mitochondrial repair can be a quality saving process in aged cells. Furthermore, the model finds strategies to sustain the quality of the mitochondrial network in cells with high production rates of reactive oxygen species due to large energy demands. Hence, the model adds new insights to biophysical mechanisms of mitochondrial aging and provides novel understandings of the interdependency of mitochondrial processes. PMID:26771181

  17. Biophysical Feedbacks in the Tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzeion, Ben; Timmermann, Axel; Murtugudde, Ragu; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the influence of phytoplankton on the tropical Pacific heat budget. A hybrid coupled model for the tropical Pacific that is based on a primitive equation reduced-gravity multilayer ocean model, a dynamic ocean mixed layer, an atmospheric mixed layer, and a statistical atmosphere is used. The statistical atmosphere relates deviations of the sea surface temperature from its mean to wind stress anomalies and allows for the rectification of the annual cycle and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon through the positive Bjerknes feedback. Furthermore, a nine-component ecosystem model is coupled to the physical variables of the ocean. The simulated chlorophyll concentrations can feed back onto the ocean heat budget by their optical properties, which modify solar light absorption in the surface layers. It is shown that both the surface layer concentration as well as the vertical profile of chlorophyll have a significant effect on the simulated mean state, the tropical annual cycle, and ENSO. This study supports a previously suggested hypothesis (Timmermann and Jin) that predicts an influence of phytoplankton concentration of the tropical Pacific climate mean state and its variability. The bioclimate feedback diagnosed here works as follows: Maxima in the subsurface chlorophyll concentrations lead to an enhanced subsurface warming due to the absorption of photosynthetically available shortwave radiation. This warming triggers a deepening of the mixed layer in the eastern equatorial Pacific and eventually a reduction of the surface ocean currents (Murtugudde et al.). The weakened south-equatorial current generates an eastern Pacific surface warming, which is strongly enhanced by the Bjerknes feedback. Because of the deepening of the mixed layer, the strength of the simulated annual cycle is also diminished. This in turn leads to an increase in ENSO variability.

  18. Mapping technological and biophysical capacities of watersheds to regulate floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollon, Beatriz; Villamagna, Amy M.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Angermeier, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Flood regulation is a widely valued and studied service provided by watersheds. Flood regulation benefits people directly by decreasing the socio-economic costs of flooding and indirectly by its positive impacts on cultural (e.g., fishing) and provisioning (e.g., water supply) ecosystem services. Like other regulating ecosystem services (e.g., pollination, water purification), flood regulation is often enhanced or replaced by technology, but the relative efficacy of natural versus technological features in controlling floods has scarcely been examined. In an effort to assess flood regulation capacity for selected urban watersheds in the southeastern United States, we: (1) used long-term flood records to assess relative influence of technological and biophysical indicators on flood magnitude and duration, (2) compared the widely used runoff curve number (RCN) approach for assessing the biophysical capacity to regulate floods to an alternative approach that acknowledges land cover and soil properties separately, and (3) mapped technological and biophysical flood regulation capacities based on indicator importance-values derived for flood magnitude and duration. We found that watersheds with high biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities lengthened the duration and lowered the peak of floods. We found the RCN approach yielded results opposite that expected, possibly because it confounds soil and land cover processes, particularly in urban landscapes, while our alternative approach coherently separates these processes. Mapping biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities revealed great differences among watersheds. Our study improves on previous mapping of flood regulation by (1) incorporating technological capacity, (2) providing high spatial resolution (i.e., 10-m pixel) maps of watershed capacities, and (3) deriving importance-values for selected landscape indicators. By accounting for technology that enhances

  19. Laser safety in the lab

    CERN Document Server

    Barat, Ken L

    2012-01-01

    There is no more challenging setting for laser use than a research environment. In almost every other setting the laser controls count on engineering controls, and human exposure is kept to a minimum. In research, however, the user often manipulates the optical layout and thereby places him or herself in peril, but this does not mean that accidents and injury are unavoidable. On the contrary, laser accidents can be avoided by following a number of simple approaches. [i]Laser Safety in the Lab[/i] provides the laser user and laser safety officer with practical guidelines from housekeeping to ey

  20. Double success for neutrino lab

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    "The Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy is celebrating two key developments in the field of neutrino physics. Number one is the first ever detection, by the OPERA experiement, of possible tau neutrino that has switched its identity from a muon neutrino as it travelled form its origins at CERN in Switzerland to the Italian lab. Number two is the successful start-up of the ICARUS detector, which, like OPERA, is designed to study neutrinos that "oscillate" between types" (0.5 pages)

  1. Digital media labs in libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    Families share stories with each other and veterans reconnect with their comrades, while teens edit music videos and then upload them to the web: all this and more can happen in the digital media lab (DML), a gathering of equipment with which people create digital content or convert content that is in analog formats. Enabling community members to create digital content was identified by The Edge Initiative, a national coalition of leading library and local government organizations, as a library technology benchmark. Surveying academic and public libraries in a variety of settings and sharing a

  2. Biophysical and physicochemical methods differentiate highly ligand-efficient human D-amino acid oxidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jos H M; Venhorst, Jennifer; van Dongen, Maria J P; Frankena, Jurjen; Bassissi, Firas; de Bruin, Natasja M W J; den Besten, Cathaline; de Beer, Stephanie B A; Oostenbrink, Chris; Markova, Natalia; Kruse, Chris G

    2011-10-01

    Many early drug research efforts are too reductionist thereby not delivering key parameters such as kinetics and thermodynamics of target-ligand binding. A set of human D-Amino Acid Oxidase (DAAO) inhibitors 1-6 was applied to demonstrate the impact of key biophysical techniques and physicochemical methods in the differentiation of chemical entities that cannot be adequately distinguished on the basis of their normalized potency (ligand efficiency) values. The resulting biophysical and physicochemical data were related to relevant pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. Surface Plasmon Resonance data indicated prolonged target-ligand residence times for 5 and 6 as compared to 1-4, based on the observed k(off) values. The Isothermal Titration Calorimetry-derived thermodynamic binding profiles of 1-6 to the DAAO enzyme revealed favorable contributions of both ΔH and ΔS to their ΔG values. Surprisingly, the thermodynamic binding profile of 3 elicited a substantially higher favorable contribution of ΔH to ΔG in comparison with the structurally closely related fused bicyclic acid 4. Molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations of 1, 3, and 4 led to novel insights into the thermodynamic properties of the binding process at an atomic level and in the different thermodynamic signatures of 3 and 4. The presented holistic approach is anticipated to facilitate the identification of compounds with best-in-class properties at an early research stage.

  3. Remote Sensing of Grassland Biophysical Parameters in the Context of the Sentinel-2 Satellite Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sakowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of the Sentinel-2 satellite for monitoring the seasonal changes in grassland total canopy chlorophyll content (CCC, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the vegetation canopy (FAPAR, and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed only by its photosynthesizing components (GFAPAR. Reflectance observations were collected on a continuous basis during growing seasons by means of a newly developed ASD-WhiteRef system. Two models using Sentinel-2 simulated data (linear regression-vegetation indices (VIs approach and multiple regression (MR reflectance approach were tested to estimate vegetation biophysical parameters. To assess whether the use of full solar spectrum reflectance data is able to provide an added value in CCC and GFAPAR estimation accuracy, a third model based on partial least squares regression (PLSR and the ASD-WhiteRef reflectance data was tested. The results showed that FAPAR remained quite stable during the reproduction and senescence stages, and no significant relationships between FAPAR and VIs were found. On the other hand, GFAPAR showed clearer seasonal trends. The comparison of the three models revealed no significant differences in the accuracies of CCC and GFAPAR predictions and demonstrated a strong contribution of SWIR bands to the explained variability of investigated parameters. The promising results highlight the potential of the Sentinel-2 satellite for retrieving biophysical parameters from space.

  4. Algorithms and novel applications based on the isokinetic ensemble. I. Biophysical and path integral molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minary, Peter; Martyna, Glenn J.; Tuckerman, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    In this paper (Paper I) and a companion paper (Paper II), novel new algorithms and applications of the isokinetic ensemble as generated by Gauss' principle of least constraint, pioneered for use with molecular dynamics 20 years ago, are presented for biophysical, path integral, and Car-Parrinello based ab initio molecular dynamics. In Paper I, a new "extended system" version of the isokinetic equations of motion that overcomes the ergodicity problems inherent in the standard approach, is developed using a new theory of non-Hamiltonian phase space analysis [M. E. Tuckerman et al., Europhys. Lett. 45, 149 (1999); J. Chem. Phys. 115, 1678 (2001)]. Reversible multiple time step integrations schemes for the isokinetic methods, first presented by Zhang [J. Chem. Phys. 106, 6102 (1997)] are reviewed. Next, holonomic constraints are incorporated into the isokinetic methodology for use in fast efficient biomolecular simulation studies. Model and realistic examples are presented in order to evaluate, critically, the performance of the new isokinetic molecular dynamic schemes. Comparisons are made to the, now standard, canonical dynamics method, Nosé-Hoover chain dynamics [G. J. Martyna et al., J. Chem. Phys. 97, 2635 (1992)]. The new isokinetic techniques are found to yield more efficient sampling than the Nosé-Hoover chain method in both path integral molecular dynamics and biophysical molecular dynamics calculations. In Paper II, the use of isokinetic methods in Car-Parrinello based ab initio molecular dynamics calculations is presented.

  5. Biophysical Neural Spiking, Bursting, and Excitability Dynamics in Reconfigurable Analog VLSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T; Sejnowski, T J; Cauwenberghs, G

    2011-10-01

    We study a range of neural dynamics under variations in biophysical parameters underlying extended Morris-Lecar and Hodgkin-Huxley models in three gating variables. The extended models are implemented in NeuroDyn, a four neuron, twelve synapse continuous-time analog VLSI programmable neural emulation platform with generalized channel kinetics and biophysical membrane dynamics. The dynamics exhibit a wide range of time scales extending beyond 100 ms neglected in typical silicon models of tonic spiking neurons. Circuit simulations and measurements show transition from tonic spiking to tonic bursting dynamics through variation of a single conductance parameter governing calcium recovery. We similarly demonstrate transition from graded to all-or-none neural excitability in the onset of spiking dynamics through the variation of channel kinetic parameters governing the speed of potassium activation. Other combinations of variations in conductance and channel kinetic parameters give rise to phasic spiking and spike frequency adaptation dynamics. The NeuroDyn chip consumes 1.29 mW and occupies 3 mm × 3 mm in 0.5 μm CMOS, supporting emerging developments in neuromorphic silicon-neuron interfaces.

  6. Incorporating Bio-Physical Sciences into a Decision Support Tool for Sustainable Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Mitraka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Deciding upon optimum planning actions in terms of sustainable urban planning involves the consideration of multiple environmental and socio-economic criteria. The transformation of natural landscapes to urban areas affects energy and material fluxes. An important aspect of the urban environment is the urban metabolism, and changes in such metabolism need to be considered for sustainable planning decisions. A spatial Decision Support System (DSS prototyped within the European FP7-funded project BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism, enables accounting for the urban metabolism of planning actions, by exploiting the current knowledge and technology of biophysical sciences. The main aim of the BRIDGE project was to bridge the knowledge and communication gap between urban planners and environmental scientists and to illustrate the advantages of considering detailed environmental information in urban planning processes. The developed DSS prototype integrates biophysical observations and simulation techniques with socio-economic aspects in five European cities, selected as case studies for the pilot application of the tool. This paper describes the design and implementation of the BRIDGE DSS prototype, illustrates some examples of use, and highlights the need for further research and development in the field.

  7. Biophysical responses upon the interaction of nanomaterials with cellular interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Long; Putcha, Nirupama; Ng, Kee Woei; Leong, David Tai; Lim, Chwee Teck; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Chen, Xiaodong

    2013-03-19

    The explosion of study of nanomaterials in biological applications (the nano-bio interface) can be ascribed to nanomaterials' growing importance in diagnostics, therapeutics, theranostics (therapeutic diagnostics), and targeted modulation of cellular processes. However, a growing number of critics have raised concerns over the potential risks of nanomaterials to human health and safety. It is essential to understand nanomaterials' potential toxicity before they are tested in humans. These risks are complicated to unravel, however, because of the complexity of cells and their nanoscale macromolecular components, which enable cells to sense and respond to environmental cues, including nanomaterials. In this Account, we explore these risks from the perspective of the biophysical interactions between nanomaterials and cells. Biophysical responses to the uptake of nanomaterials can include conformational changes in biomolecules like DNA and proteins, and changes to the cellular membrane and the cytoskeleton. Changes to the latter two, in particular, can induce changes in cell elasticity, morphology, motility, adhesion, and invasion. This Account reviews what is known about cells' biophysical responses to the uptake of the most widely studied and used nanoparticles, such as carbon-based, metal, metal-oxide, and semiconductor nanomaterials. We postulate that the biophysical structure impairment induced by nanomaterials is one of the key causes of nanotoxicity. The disruption of cellular structures is affected by the size, shape, and chemical composition of nanomaterials, which are also determining factors of nanotoxicity. Currently, popular nanotoxicity characterizations, such as the MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, only provide end-point results through chemical reactions. Focusing on biophysical structural changes induced by nanomaterials, possibly in real-time, could deepen our understanding of the normal and altered states of subcellular structures and

  8. Application of LabVIEW and Simulink Hybrid Programming in the Microgrid%LabVIEW和Simulink混合编程在微电网中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙瑞松; 吴红斌

    2016-01-01

    To compensate for the deficiencies of poor visualization effect and burdensome parameter modification process of the Matlab/Simulink in simulation of microgrid system, the LabVIEW and Simulink hybrid programming is proposed. On the basis of taking full account of each micro-power’s dynamic model, module library is utilized to build simulation model of mircogrid, and the function library is used to write visual simulation operation interface and operation and control strategy of microgrid, which makes the Simulink and LabVIEW complement with each other to achieve the operational control of microgrid. Through an example system, the effectiveness of hybrid programming in achieving the operational control of microgrid is verified. Analysis of simulation results also proves that Simulink and LabVIEW hybrid programming has some practical value for the operation and control of microgrid.%为了弥补Matlab/Simulink在微电网系统仿真中可视化效果不好、参数修改过程繁冗的不足,提出LabVIEW和Simulink混合编程的方法。在充分考虑各微电源动态模型的基础上,利用Simulink的模块库搭建出微电网仿真模型,凭借LabVIEW的函数库编写出可视化仿真操作界面以及微电网运行控制策略,使LabVIEW和Simulink充分互补,实现微电网的运行控制。通过算例系统验证混合编程实现微电网运行控制的有效性。研究表明,Simulink和LabVIEW的混合编程对微电网的运行控制应用具有一定的实用价值。

  9. MatLab Script and Functional Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    MatLab Script and Functional Programming: MatLab is one of the most widely used very high level programming languages for scientific and engineering computations. It is very user-friendly and needs practically no formal programming knowledge. Presented here are MatLab programming aspects and not just the MatLab commands for scientists and engineers who do not have formal programming training and also have no significant time to spare for learning programming to solve their real world problems. Specifically provided are programs for visualization. The MatLab seminar covers the functional and script programming aspect of MatLab language. Specific expectations are: a) Recognize MatLab commands, script and function. b) Create, and run a MatLab function. c) Read, recognize, and describe MatLab syntax. d) Recognize decisions, loops and matrix operators. e) Evaluate scope among multiple files, and multiple functions within a file. f) Declare, define and use scalar variables, vectors and matrices.

  10. Learning from an Ambient Assisted Living Lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygholm, Ann; Kanstrup, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents methodological lessons learned from an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) lab exploring the use of intelligent beds in a nursing home. The living lab study was conducted over a period of three month. 20 intelligent beds were installed. Data was collected via self-registration, diar......This paper presents methodological lessons learned from an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) lab exploring the use of intelligent beds in a nursing home. The living lab study was conducted over a period of three month. 20 intelligent beds were installed. Data was collected via self...

  11. "Supply Chain-Marketing Shark Tank" Experiential Lab Game in Interdisciplinary Business Education: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, A.; Arora, A. Saxena

    2015-01-01

    This article provides educators in business schools with a new interdisciplinary experiential lab game called Supply Chain-Marketing (SC-Mark) Shark Tank game, which can be implemented in both Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Marketing courses. The SC-Mark experiential lab game is a real-life business environment simulation that explores…

  12. Jefferson Lab: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    The continuous electron beam accelerator facility and associated experimental equipment at Jefferson Lab comprise a unique facility for nuclear physics research whose upgrade is presently underway, with completion expected in 2017. The upgraded facility will accelerate electron beams to 11 GeV for experiments in the existing Halls A, B and C. In addition, a 12 GeV beam can be provided to a new experimental hall, Hall D, to generate a 9 GeV tagged photon beam. This upgrade will enable a new experimental program with substantial discovery potential to address important topics in hadronic, nuclear, and electroweak physics. Further in the future, it is envisioned that the Laboratory will evolve into an electron-ion colliding beam facility.

  13. Famed lab seeks big grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Lillington, K

    2001-01-01

    DUBLIN, Ireland -- CERN, the famed Swiss high-energy particle physics lab, has a problem. It's about to start generating more data than any computer or network anywhere in the world is able to analyze. That prospect has led CERN to drive a major European project to create a vast "grid" research network of computers across Europe. When completed, the 10 million euro, Linux-based endeavor called DataGRID, will become a principal European computing resource for researchers of many disciplines. "I believe grid computing will revolutionize the way we compute, in much the same way as the World Wide Web and Internet changed the way we communicate," said John Ellis, a theoretical physicist and adviser to the director general of CERN.

  14. Biophysical climate impacts of recent changes in global forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkama, Ramdane; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    Changes in forest cover affect the local climate by modulating the land-atmosphere fluxes of energy and water. The magnitude of this biophysical effect is still debated in the scientific community and currently ignored in climate treaties. Here we present an observation-driven assessment of the climate impacts of recent forest losses and gains, based on Earth observations of global forest cover and land surface temperatures. Our results show that forest losses amplify the diurnal temperature variation and increase the mean and maximum air temperature, with the largest signal in arid zones, followed by temperate, tropical, and boreal zones. In the decade 2003-2012, variations of forest cover generated a mean biophysical warming on land corresponding to about 18% of the global biogeochemical signal due to CO2 emission from land-use change.

  15. "The Physics of Life," an undergraduate general education biophysics course

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2014-01-01

    Improving the scientific literacy of non-scientists is an important goal, both because of the ever-increasing impact of science and technology on our lives, and because understanding science enriches our experience of the natural world. One route to improving scientific literacy is via general education undergraduate courses -- i.e. courses intended for students not majoring in the sciences or engineering -- which in many cases provide these students' last formal exposure to science. I describe here a course on biophysics for non-science-major undergraduates recently developed at the University of Oregon (Eugene, OR, USA). Biophysics, I claim, is a particularly useful vehicle for addressing scientific literacy. It involves important and general scientific concepts, demonstrates connections between basic science and tangible, familiar phenomena related to health and disease, and illustrates that scientific insights develop by applying tools and perspectives from disparate fields in creative ways. In addition, ...

  16. Biophysical properties of DNA in hydrated ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumbri, Khairulazhar; Ahmad, Haslina; Abdulmalek, Emilia; Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul

    2016-11-01

    The biophysical properties and behavior of natural calf thymus DNA in hydrated 1-ethyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid ([C2bim]Br) have been studied using spectroscopy technique. The effect of ionic liquid concentration and temperature towards the duplex B-DNA conformation were determined. The presence of ionic liquid causes higher duplex DNA stability with the DNA melting temperature of ˜56°C without any addition of buffer solutions. The electrostatic attraction between ionic liquid's cation and DNA phosphates groups was found play a main role in stabilizing native DNA structure. Understanding of the biophysical properties of DNA in this ionic media could be used as a platform for future development of specific solvent for nucleic acid nanotechnology.

  17. Lab-on-a-chip devices and micro-total analysis systems a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Svendsen, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This book covers all the steps in order to fabricate a lab-on-a-chip device starting from the idea, the design, simulation, fabrication and final evaluation. Additionally, it includes basic theory on microfluidics essential to understand how fluids behave at such reduced scale. Examples of successful histories of lab-on-a-chip systems that made an impact in fields like biomedicine and life sciences are also provided.

  18. Biophysical Study of Archaebacteria Biomembrane and Possible Application in Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-31

    arrangement of the protonated Schiff base , AsP-85, Asp-212 and Arg-82 in agreement with an electron diffraction derived model (3,9,20,27). The disruption of...this active site upon formation of the M intermediate due to protonation of Asp-85 from the Schiff base is believed to cause ejection of a proton...Asp- 96 to the Schiff base (20). 2. Development of new biophysical techniques to study Archaebacteria membrane proteins: An important aspect of the

  19. The Twilight of Determinism: At Least in Biophysical Novelties

    OpenAIRE

    Gilead, Amihud

    2015-01-01

    In the 1990s, Richard Lewontin referred to what appeared to be the twilight of determinism in biology. He pointed out that DNA determines only a little part of life phenomena, which are very complex. In fact, organisms determine the environment and vice versa in a nonlinear way. Very recently, biophysicists, Shimon Marom and Erez Braun, have demonstrated that controlled biophysical systems have shown a relative autonomy and flexibility in response which could not be predicted. Within the boun...

  20. Skin Biophysical Characteristics in Patients with Keratoconus: A Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background. Keratoconus is a relatively common corneal disease causing significant visual disability. Individuals with connective tissue disorders that affect the skin such as Marfan's syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or patients with atopic dermatitis show an increased prevalence of keratoconus. It seems that there are some concurrent alterations of skin and cornea in patients with keratoconus. Objective. We plan to compare skin biophysical characteristics in patients with keratoconus and...

  1. Biophysical methods for the study of microbial surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana eFrases

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in studying the surface architecture of different microbial pathogens is to integrate the most current biochemical, spectroscopic, microscopic and processing techniques. Individually these methods have insufficient sensitivity to reveal complex structures, such as branched, large, viscous polymers with a high structure hydration, size and complexity. However, when used in combination biophysical techniques are our primary source of information for understanding polydisperse molecules and complex microbial surfaces.Biophysical methods seek to explain biological function in terms of the molecular structures and properties of specific molecules. The sizes of the molecules found in microbial surfaces vary greatly from small fatty acids and sugars to macromolecules like proteins, polysaccharides and pigments, such as melanin. These molecules, which comprise the building blocks of living organisms, assemble into cells, tissues, and whole organisms by forming complex individual structures with dimensions from 10 to 10,000 nm and larger. Biophysics is directed to determining the structure of specific biological molecules and of the larger structures into which they assemble. Some of this effort involves developing new methods, adapting old methods and building new instruments for viewing these structures. The description of biophysical properties in an experimental model where, properties such as flexibility, hydrodynamic characteristics and size can be precisely determined is of great relevance to study the affinity of the surfaces with biologically active and inert substrates and the interaction with host molecules. Furthermore, this knowledge could establish the abilities of different molecules and their structures to differentially activate cellular responses.Recent studies in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans have demonstrated that the physical properties of its unique polysaccharide capsule correlate with the biological

  2. Near Space Lab-Rat Experimentation using Stratospheric Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buduru, Suneel Kumar; Reddy Vizapur, Anmi; Rao Tanneeru, Venkateswara; Trivedi, Dharmesh; Devarajan, Anand; Pandit Manikrao Kulkarni, MR..; Ojha, Devendra; Korra, Sakram; Neerudu, Nagendra; Seng, Lim; Godi, Stalin Peter

    2016-07-01

    First ever balloon borne lab-rat experiment up to near space stratospheric altitude levels carried out at TIFR Balloon Facility, Hydeabad using zero pressure balloons for the purpose of validating the life support system. A series of two balloon experiments conducted under joint collaboration with IN.Genius, Singapore in the year 2015. In these experiments, three lab-rats sent to stratosphere in a pressurized capsule designed to reach an altitude of 30 km by keeping constant pressure, temperature and maintained at a precise rate of oxygen supply inside the capsule. The first experiment conducted on 1 ^{st} February, 2015 with a total suspended weight of 225 kg. During the balloon ascent stage at 18 km altitude, sensors inside the capsule reported drastic drop in internal pressure while oxygen and temperatures maintained at correct levels resulted in premature fligt termination at 20.1 km. All the three lab-rats recovered without life due to the collapse of their lungs caused by the depressurization inside the capsule. The second experiment conducted on 14th March, 2015 using a newly developed capsule with rectification of depressurization fault by using improved sealing gaskets and hermitically sealed connectors for sending lab-rats again to stratosphere comprising a total suspended load of 122.3 kg. The balloon flight was terminated after reaching 29.5 km in 110 minutes and succesfully recovered all the three lab-rats alive. This paper focuses on lessons learnt of the development of the life support system as an integral pressurized vessel, flight control instrumentation, flight simulation tests using thermo-vaccum chamber with pre-flight operations.

  3. Historical contingency and its biophysical basis in glucocorticoid receptor evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Michael J; Thornton, Joseph W

    2014-08-14

    Understanding how chance historical events shape evolutionary processes is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Direct insights into the extent and causes of evolutionary contingency have been limited to experimental systems, because it is difficult to know what happened in the deep past and to characterize other paths that evolution could have followed. Here we combine ancestral protein reconstruction, directed evolution and biophysical analysis to explore alternative 'might-have-been' trajectories during the ancient evolution of a novel protein function. We previously found that the evolution of cortisol specificity in the ancestral glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was contingent on permissive substitutions, which had no apparent effect on receptor function but were necessary for GR to tolerate the large-effect mutations that caused the shift in specificity. Here we show that alternative mutations that could have permitted the historical function-switching substitutions are extremely rare in the ensemble of genotypes accessible to the ancestral GR. In a library of thousands of variants of the ancestral protein, we recovered historical permissive substitutions but no alternative permissive genotypes. Using biophysical analysis, we found that permissive mutations must satisfy at least three physical requirements--they must stabilize specific local elements of the protein structure, maintain the correct energetic balance between functional conformations, and be compatible with the ancestral and derived structures--thus revealing why permissive mutations are rare. These findings demonstrate that GR evolution depended strongly on improbable, non-deterministic events, and this contingency arose from intrinsic biophysical properties of the protein.

  4. Effect of glucosylceramide on the biophysical properties of fluid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Ana R P; Gonçalves da Silva, Amélia M P S; Fedorov, Alexander; Futerman, Anthony H; Prieto, Manuel; Silva, Liana C

    2013-03-01

    Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a relevant intermediate in the pathways of glycosphingolipid metabolism, plays key roles in the regulation of cell physiology. The molecular mechanisms by which GlcCer regulates cellular processes are unknown, but might involve changes in membrane biophysical properties and formation of lipid domains. In the present study, fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal microscopy and surface pressure-area (π-A) measurements were used to characterize the effect of GlcCer on the biophysical properties of model membranes. We show that C16:0-GlcCer has a high tendency to segregate into highly ordered gel domains and to increase the order of the fluid phase. Monolayer studies support the aggregation propensity of C16:0-GlcCer. π-A isotherms of single C16:0-GlcCer indicate that bilayer domains, or crystal-like structures, coexist within monolayer domains at the air-water interface. Mixtures with POPC exhibit partial miscibility with expansion of the mean molecular areas relative to the additive behavior of the components. Moreover, C16:0-GlcCer promotes morphological alterations in lipid vesicles leading to formation of flexible tubule-like structures that protrude from the fluid region of the bilayer. These results support the hypothesis that alterations in membrane biophysical properties induced by GlcCer might be involved in its mechanism of action.

  5. Biophysical parameters in a wheat producer region in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; Cruz, Caroline R.

    2014-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the second most produced cereal in the world, and has major importance in the global agricultural economy. Brazil is a large producer of wheat, especially the Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the south of the country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the estimation of biophysical parameters - evapotranspiration (ET), biomass (BIO) and water productivity (WP) - from satellite images of the municipalities with large areas planted with wheat in Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The evapotranspiration rate was obtained using the SAFER Model (Simple Algorithm for Retrieving Evapotranspiration) on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images taken in the agricultural year 2012. In order to obtain biomass and water productivity rates we applied the Monteith model and the ratio between BIO and ET. In the beginning of the cycle (the planting period) we observed low values for ET, BIO and WP. During the development period, we observed an increase in the values of the parameters and decline at the end of the cycle, for the period of the wheat harvest. The SAFER model proved effective for estimating the biophysical parameters evapotranspiration, biomass production and water productivity in areas planted with wheat in Brazilian Southern. The methodology can be used for monitoring the crops' water conditions and biomass using satellite images, assisting in estimates of productivity and crop yield. The results may assist the understanding of biophysical properties of important agro-ecosystems, like wheat crop, and are important to improve the rational use of water resources.

  6. Screening of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsvali, Alireza; Farzaneh, Vahid; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Zare, Zahra; Karami, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel. S.

    2016-10-01

    An understanding of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt is necessary for the appropriate design of equipment for the handling, shipping, dehydration, grading, sorting and warehousing of this strategic crop. Malting is a complex biotechnological process that includes steeping; germination and finally, the dehydration of cereal grains under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In this investigation, the biophysical properties of barley malt were predicted using two models of artificial neural networks as well as response surface methodology. Stepping time and germination time were selected as the independent variables and 1 000 kernel weight, kernel density and terminal velocity were selected as the dependent variables (responses). The obtained outcomes showed that the artificial neural network model, with a logarithmic sigmoid activation function, presents more precise results than the response surface model in the prediction of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of produced barley malt. This model presented the best result with 8 nodes in the hidden layer and significant correlation coefficient values of 0.783, 0.767 and 0.991 were obtained for responses one thousand kernel weight, kernel density, and terminal velocity, respectively. The outcomes indicated that this novel technique could be successfully applied in quantitative and qualitative monitoring within the malting process.

  7. Modelling benthic biophysical drivers of ecosystem structure and biogeochemical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicholas; Bruggeman, Jorn; Lessin, Gennadi; Allen, Icarus

    2016-04-01

    The fate of carbon deposited at the sea floor is ultimately decided by biophysical drivers that control the efficiency of remineralisation and timescale of carbon burial in sediments. Specifically, these drivers include bioturbation through ingestion and movement, burrow-flushing and sediment reworking, which enhance vertical particulate transport and solute diffusion. Unfortunately, these processes are rarely satisfactorily resolved in models. To address this, a benthic model that explicitly describes the vertical position of biology (e.g., habitats) and biogeochemical processes is presented that includes biological functionality and biogeochemical response capturing changes in ecosystem structure, benthic-pelagic fluxes and biodiversity on inter-annual timescales. This is demonstrated by the model's ability to reproduce temporal variability in benthic infauna, vertical pore water nutrients and pelagic-benthic solute fluxes compared to in-situ data. A key advance is the replacement of bulk parameterisation of bioturbation by explicit description of the bio-physical processes responsible. This permits direct comparison with observations and determination of key parameters in experiments. Crucially, the model resolves the two-way interaction between sediment biogeochemistry and ecology, allowing exploration of the benthic response to changing environmental conditions, the importance of infaunal functional traits in shaping benthic ecological structure and the feedback the resulting bio-physical processes exert on pore water nutrient profiles. The model is actively being used to understand shelf sea carbon cycling, the response of the benthos to climatic change, food provision and other societal benefits.

  8. PREFACE: Nanoelectronics, sensors and single molecule biophysics Nanoelectronics, sensors and single molecule biophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Nongjian

    2012-04-01

    This special section of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (JPCM) is dedicated to Professor Stuart M Lindsay on the occasion of his 60th birthday and in recognition of his outstanding contributions to multiple research areas, including light scattering spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, biophysics, solid-liquid interfaces and molecular and nanoelectronics. It contains a collection of 14 papers in some of these areas, including a feature article by Lindsay. Each paper was subject to the normal rigorous review process of JPCM. In Lindsay's paper, he discusses the next generations of hybrid chemical-CMOS devices for low cost and personalized medical diagnosis. The discussion leads to several papers on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. Kawaguchi et al report on the detection of single pollen allergen particles using electrode embedded microchannels. Stern et al describe a structural study of three-dimensional DNA-nanoparticle assemblies. Hihath et al measure the conductance of methylated DNA, and discuss the possibility of electrical detection DNA methylation. Portillo et al study the electrostatic effects on the aggregation of prion proteins and peptides with atomic force microscopy. In an effort to understand the interactions between nanostructures and cells, Lamprecht et al report on the mapping of the intracellular distribution of carbon nanotubes with a confocal Raman imaging technique, and Wang et al focus on the intracellular delivery of gold nanoparticles using fluorescence microscopy. Park and Kristic provide theoretical analysis of micro- and nano-traps and their biological applications. This section also features several papers on the fundamentals of electron transport in single atomic wires and molecular junctions. The papers by Xu et al and by Wandlowksi et al describe new methods to measure conductance and forces in single molecule junctions and metallic atomic wires. Scullion et al report on the conductance of molecules with similar

  9. Integrated lab-on-chip biosensing systems based on magnetic particle actuation--a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reenen, Alexander; de Jong, Arthur M; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Prins, Menno W J

    2014-06-21

    The demand for easy to use and cost effective medical technologies inspires scientists to develop innovative lab-on-chip technologies for point-of-care in vitro diagnostic testing. To fulfill medical needs, the tests should be rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and miniaturizable, and need to integrate all steps from sample-in to result-out. Here, we review the use of magnetic particles actuated by magnetic fields to perform the different process steps that are required for integrated lab-on-chip diagnostic assays. We discuss the use of magnetic particles to mix fluids, to capture specific analytes, to concentrate analytes, to transfer analytes from one solution to another, to label analytes, to perform stringency and washing steps, and to probe biophysical properties of the analytes, distinguishing methodologies with fluid flow and without fluid flow (stationary microfluidics). Our review focuses on efforts to combine and integrate different magnetically actuated assay steps, with the vision that it will become possible in the future to realize integrated lab-on-chip biosensing assays in which all assay process steps are controlled and optimized by magnetic forces.

  10. The DVCS program at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niccolai, Silvia [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay, France

    2014-06-01

    Recent promising results, obtained at Jefferson Lab, on cross sections and asymmetries for DVCS and their link to the Generalized Parton Distributions are the focus of this paper. The extensive experimental program to measure DVCS with the 12-GeV-upgraded CEBAF in three experimental Halls (A, B, C) of Jefferson Lab, will also be presented.

  11. Programming Arduino with LabVIEW

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    If you already have some experience with LabVIEW and want to apply your skills to control physical objects and make measurements using the Arduino sensor, this book is for you. Prior knowledge of Arduino and LabVIEW is essential to fully understand the projects detailed in this book.

  12. Innovation - A view from the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Ag Lab in Peoria helps bridge the gap between agricultural producers and commercial manufacturers. In 2015, the Ag Lab, officially known as the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), is celebrating 75 years of research in Peoria. T...

  13. Hydrogel Beads: The New Slime Lab?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockway, Debra; Libera, Matthew; Welner, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Creating slime fascinates students. Unfortunately, though intrigue is at its peak, the educational aspect of this activity is often minimal. This article describes a chemistry lab that closely relates to the slime lab and allows high school students to explore the concepts of chemical bonding, properties, and replacement reactions. It involves the…

  14. Latest results from FROST at Jefferson Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritchie B.G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of broad and overlapping nucleon excitations can be greatly clarified by use of a polarized photon beam incident on a polarized target in meson photoproduction experiments. At Jefferson Lab, a program of such measurements has made use of the Jefferson Lab FROzen Spin Target (FROST. An overview of preliminary results are presented.

  15. A Probe into Constructing Game-based Virtual Simulated Lab of Computer Assembly and Maintenance%基于游戏模式的计算机组装与维护虚拟仿真实验室建设探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅亮; 任清褒

    2015-01-01

    With the reform and development of higher in China in recent years, constructing labs that can effectively facilitate the development of students' practical ability and better achieve the objective of experiment teaching has become an urgent task for application-oriented universities. Using virtual reality and 3D game technology, a game-based training system for computer assembly and troubleshooting is developed. The virtual simulated lab can enable students to have fun while learning and mastering the knowledge and operating skills of computer assembly and maintenance by making the process of operation much more interesting, and effectively overcome the limitations of traditional labs in cost of construction and maintenance, timely updates of equipment as well as the limitations on time and space for students'learning.%近年来随着我国高校的改革和发展,建设能够有效培养学生实践能力,更好完成专业实践教学目标的实验室,已经成为广大应用型高校的紧迫任务.利用虚拟现实和三维游戏技术,设计开发出一套基于游戏模式进行虚拟组装和故障处理的训练系统来构建计算机组装与维护虚拟仿真实验室,可以为学生提供一个在寓教于乐中学习和掌握计算机组装与维护知识及操作技能的训练平台与实验场所,弥补传统实验室建设和维护费用高,设备更新不能与时俱进,学生学习实验知识受时间、地点限制,操作过程缺乏兴趣等缺陷.

  16. Modeling the effects of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation at the biophysical, network, and cognitive Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Bergmann, Til Ole; Herz, Damian Marc

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) is widely used to elucidate the contribution of different brain regions to various cognitive functions. Here we present three modeling approaches that are informed by functional or structural brain mapping or behavior profiling and discuss how...... these approaches advance the scientific potential of NTBS as an interventional tool in cognitive neuroscience. (i) Leveraging the anatomical information provided by structural imaging, the electric field distribution in the brain can be modeled and simulated. Biophysical modeling approaches generate testable...... predictions regarding the impact of interindividual variations in cortical anatomy on the injected electric fields or the influence of the orientation of current flow on the physiological stimulation effects. (ii) Functional brain mapping of the spatiotemporal neural dynamics during cognitive tasks can...

  17. A dry lab for medical engineers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivi Giulia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We describe a teaching and training method with objective evaluation to improve medical engineering students' knowledge and analysis skills about Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS instrumentation and techniques through hands-on experience. Training has been scheduled during a three-month course. Methods Twenty medical engineering students were trained to perform three times on a pelvic trainer a sequence of standardized drills connected with the selected MIS techniques, in order to improve their dexterity. The time required to perform each dexterity drill was recorded in seconds. Then, the participants were divided into groups and asked to write an essay about an instrument they chose, analyzing and criticizing the instrument itself. Results All the trainees showed steady improvement in skill acquisition on the laparoscopic simulator and discussed their essays, making proposals in order to improve the instrument they tested. Conclusion Significant improvement in performance with increasing skillness has been measured; during the course and during their discussion the participants showed deep knowledge of the instrument, ability to analyze and criticize it and ability to make improvement proposals. Dry lab experience for medical engineering students is useful for teaching and improving analysis and management of laparoscopic devices, allowing identification of problems and developing better devices.

  18. Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gould, Derek A; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J;

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable...... performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used....

  19. Communication Method between LabVIEW and Excel%LabVIEW与Excel的通信方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金平; 王生泽; 吴文英

    2006-01-01

    在虚拟仪器开发过程中,需要将一些多路采集数据存储在Excel表格中.LabVIEW是一种方便灵活的虚拟仪器开发环境,而LabVIEW中的DDE是Windows操作系统中的一种基于消息的协议.利用LabVIEW的DDE功能可以很好地实现LabVIEW与Excel的数据通信.通过具体例子叙述了LabVIEW的DDE功能,这种功能使得LabVIEW与Excel的数据交换方便快捷,实现方法简单明了,实践表明DDE是增强LabVIEW整体功能的一条有效途径.

  20. Lab-on-a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Labs on chips are manufactured in many shapes and sizes and can be used for numerous applications, from medical tests to water quality monitoring to detecting the signatures of life on other planets. The eight holes on this chip are actually ports that can be filled with fluids or chemicals. Tiny valves control the chemical processes by mixing fluids that move in the tiny channels that look like lines, connecting the ports. Scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama designed this chip to grow biological crystals on the International Space Station. Through this research, they discovered that this technology is ideally suited for solving the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. For example, thousands of chips the size of dimes could be loaded on a Martian rover looking for biosignatures of past or present life. Other types of chips could be placed in handheld devices used to monitor microbes in water or to quickly conduct medical tests on astronauts. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)

  1. Designing Viable Business Models for Living Labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard R. Katzy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over 300 regions have integrated the concept of living labs into their economic development strategy since 2006, when the former Finnish Prime Minister Esko Aho launched the living lab innovation policy initiative during his term of European presidency. Despite motivating initial results, however, success cases of turning research into usable new products and services remain few and uncertainty remains on what living labs actually do and contribute. This practitioner-oriented article presents a business excellence model that shows processes of idea creation and team mobilization, new product development, user involvement, and entrepreneurship through which living labs deliver high-potential investment opportunities. Customers of living labs are identified as investors such as venture capitalists or industrial firms because living labs can generate revenue from them to create their own sustainable business model. The article concludes that living labs provide extensive support “lab” infrastructure and that it remains a formidable challenge to finance it, which calls for a more intensive debate.

  2. Projektbericht zum Simulatorennetzwerk: Ein Tool zur Verbesserung der Unterrichtsmaterialien und zum gezielten Einsatz von Ressourcen in Skills Labs

    OpenAIRE

    Schnabel, Kai P.; Richter, Sabine; Stosch, Christoph; Lauener, Hansjörg; Damanakis, Alexander; Blaum, Wolf E.

    2013-01-01

    [english] During the last decade, medical education in the German-speaking world has been striving to become more practice-oriented. This is currently being achieved in many schools through the implementation of simulation-based instruction in Skills Labs. Simulators are thus an essential part of this type of medical training, and their acquisition and operation by a Skills Lab require a large outlay of resources. Therefore, the Practical Skills Committee of the Medical Education Society (GMA...

  3. Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    Ross's Simulation, Fourth Edition introduces aspiring and practicing actuaries, engineers, computer scientists and others to the practical aspects of constructing computerized simulation studies to analyze and interpret real phenomena. Readers learn to apply results of these analyses to problems in a wide variety of fields to obtain effective, accurate solutions and make predictions about future outcomes. This text explains how a computer can be used to generate random numbers, and how to use these random numbers to generate the behavior of a stochastic model over time. It presents the statist

  4. e-REAL: Enhanced Reality Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Salvetti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available e-REAL - enhanced reality lab - is a fully-immersive and multitasking environment, designed to experience challenging situations in a group setting, engaging all participants simultaneously on different levels: with peers, thematic experts and learning facilitators, both on site and remotely. e-REAL is a lab based on visual thinking and knowledge visualization, facilitated by enhanced (or augmented reality tools. It is a highly interactive and face-to-face lab that promotes proactive data and information research (everything is available, but learners have to actively look for it - allowing knowledge sharing with remote teams and integrating training on soft skills with those that are technical and specialized.

  5. Biophysical approach to chronic kidney disease management in older patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Foletti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD and its clinical progression are a critical issue in an aging population. Therefore, strategies aimed at preventing and managing the decline of renal function are warranted. Recent evidence has provided encouraging results for the improvement of renal function achieved through an integrated biophysical approach, but prospective studies on the clinical efficacy of this strategy are still lacking. This was an open-label prospective pilot study to investigate the effect of electromagnetic information transfer through the aqueous system on kidney function of older patients affected by stage 1 or 2 CKD. Patients received biophysical therapy every 3 months over a 1-year period. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR values were calculated using the CKD–Epidemiology Collaboration formula, and were recorded at baseline and at the end of treatment. Overall, 58 patients (mean age 74.8 ± 3.7 years were included in the study. At baseline, mean eGFR was 64.6 ± 15.5 mL/min, and it significantly increased to 69.9 ± 15.8 mL/min after 1 year (+5.2 ± 10 mL/min, p<0.0002. The same trend was observed among men (+5.7 ± 10.2 mL/min, p<0.0064 and women (+4.7 ± 9.9 mL/min, p<0.014. When results were analyzed by sex, no difference was found between the 2 groups. Although further and larger prospective studies are needed, our findings suggest that an integrated biophysical approach may be feasible in the management of older patients with early-stage CKD, to reduce and prevent the decline of renal function due to aging or comorbidities.

  6. Biophysical characteristics reveal neural stem cell differentiation potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima H Labeed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distinguishing human neural stem/progenitor cell (huNSPC populations that will predominantly generate neurons from those that produce glia is currently hampered by a lack of sufficient cell type-specific surface markers predictive of fate potential. This limits investigation of lineage-biased progenitors and their potential use as therapeutic agents. A live-cell biophysical and label-free measure of fate potential would solve this problem by obviating the need for specific cell surface markers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used dielectrophoresis (DEP to analyze the biophysical, specifically electrophysiological, properties of cortical human and mouse NSPCs that vary in differentiation potential. Our data demonstrate that the electrophysiological property membrane capacitance inversely correlates with the neurogenic potential of NSPCs. Furthermore, as huNSPCs are continually passaged they decrease neuron generation and increase membrane capacitance, confirming that this parameter dynamically predicts and negatively correlates with neurogenic potential. In contrast, differences in membrane conductance between NSPCs do not consistently correlate with the ability of the cells to generate neurons. DEP crossover frequency, which is a quantitative measure of cell behavior in DEP, directly correlates with neuron generation of NSPCs, indicating a potential mechanism to separate stem cells biased to particular differentiated cell fates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show here that whole cell membrane capacitance, but not membrane conductance, reflects and predicts the neurogenic potential of human and mouse NSPCs. Stem cell biophysical characteristics therefore provide a completely novel and quantitative measure of stem cell fate potential and a label-free means to identify neuron- or glial-biased progenitors.

  7. Teachers' Perspectives on Online Virtual Labs vs. Hands-On Labs in High School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Teresa M.

    This study of online science teachers' opinions addressed the use of virtual labs in online courses. A growing number of schools use virtual labs that must meet mandated laboratory standards to ensure they provide learning experiences comparable to hands-on labs, which are an integral part of science curricula. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine teachers' perceptions of the quality and effectiveness of high school virtual labs. The theoretical foundation was constructivism, as labs provide student-centered activities for problem solving, inquiry, and exploration of phenomena. The research questions focused on experienced teachers' perceptions of the quality of virtual vs. hands-on labs. Data were collected through survey questions derived from the lab objectives of The Next Generation Science Standards . Eighteen teachers rated the degree of importance of each objective and also rated how they felt virtual labs met these objectives; these ratings were reported using descriptive statistics. Responses to open-ended questions were few and served to illustrate the numerical results. Many teachers stated that virtual labs are valuable supplements but could not completely replace hands-on experiences. Studies on the quality and effectiveness of high school virtual labs are limited despite widespread use. Comprehensive studies will ensure that online students have equal access to quality labs. School districts need to define lab requirements, and colleges need to specify the lab experience they require. This study has potential to inspire positive social change by assisting science educators, including those in the local school district, in evaluating and selecting courseware designed to promote higher order thinking skills, real-world problem solving, and development of strong inquiry skills, thereby improving science instruction for all high school students.

  8. Plant Sucrose Transporters from a Biophysical Point of View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dietmar Geiger

    2011-01-01

    T The majority of higher plants use sucrose as their main mobile carbohydrate. Proton-driven sucrose transporters play a crucial role in cell-to-cell and long-distance distribution of sucrose throughout the plant. A very negative plant membrane potential and the ability of sucrose transporters to accumulate sucrose concentrations of more than 1 M indicate that plants evolved transporters with unique structural and functional features. The knowledge about the transport mechanism and structural/functional domains of these nano-machines is, however, still fragmentary. In this review,the current knowledge about the biophysical properties of plant sucrose transporters is summarized and discussed.

  9. From biophysics to evolutionary genetics: statistical aspects of gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lässig Michael

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is an introductory review on how genes interact to produce biological functions. Transcriptional interactions involve the binding of proteins to regulatory DNA. Specific binding sites can be identified by genomic analysis, and these undergo a stochastic evolution process governed by selection, mutations, and genetic drift. We focus on the links between the biophysical function and the evolution of regulatory elements. In particular, we infer fitness landscapes of binding sites from genomic data, leading to a quantitative evolutionary picture of regulation.

  10. "Bicellar" lipid mixtures as used in biochemical and biophysical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaras, John; Harroun, Thad A; Pencer, Jeremy; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2005-08-01

    Over the past decade "bicellar" lipid mixtures composed of the long-chain dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and the short-chain dihexanoyl PC (DHPC) molecules have emerged as a powerful medium for studying membrane associated, biologically relevant macromolecules and assemblies. Depending on temperature, lipid concentration and composition these lipid mixtures can assume a variety of morphologies, some of them alignable in the presence of a magnetic field. This article will examine the biophysical studies that have elucidated the various morphologies assumed by these lipid mixtures, and their use in the biochemical studies of biomolecules.

  11. ``Bicellar'' Lipid Mixtures as used in Biochemical and Biophysical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaras, John; Harroun, Thad A.; Pencer, Jeremy; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2005-08-01

    Over the past decade “bicellar” lipid mixtures composed of the long-chain dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and the short-chain dihexanoyl PC (DHPC) molecules have emerged as a powerful medium for studying membrane associated, biologically relevant macromolecules and assemblies. Depending on temperature, lipid concentration and composition these lipid mixtures can assume a variety of morphologies, some of them alignable in the presence of a magnetic field. This article will examine the biophysical studies that have elucidated the various morphologies assumed by these lipid mixtures, and their use in the biochemical studies of biomolecules.

  12. Spectromicroscopy in Biophysics with MEPHISTO: Instrumentation Aspects and Technical Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Stasio, Gelsomina; Capozi, Mario; Gilbert, Benjamin; Perfetti, Paolo; Droubay, Tim; Pauli, Brian; Tonner, Giorgio; Margaritondo, Georgio

    1998-03-01

    The synchrotron imaging photoelectron spectromicroscope MEPHISTO recently reached the world record resolution of 50 nm. We will present the design and performance of this novel instrument, which is mainly dedicated to biophysics experiments in neurobiology, but is also used in materials science research. We will also discuss the possibility of using the MEPHISTO in the transmission mode, as opposed to the photoemission mode, and the unique possibility of studying live cells. Elemental analysis of living biological systems in the microscopic domain is not possible with any other instrument to our knowledge.

  13. Large-scale biophysical evaluation of protein PEGylation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernet, Erik; Popa, Gina; Pozdnyakova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    PEGylation is the most widely used method to chemically modify protein biopharmaceuticals, but surprisingly limited public data is available on the biophysical effects of protein PEGylation. Here we report the first large-scale study, with site-specific mono-PEGylation of 15 different proteins...... and characterization of 61 entities in total using a common set of analytical methods. Predictions of molecular size were typically accurate in comparison with actual size determined by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) or dynamic light scattering (DLS). In contrast, there was no universal trend regarding the effect...

  14. Labs not in a lab: A case study of instructor and student perceptions of an online biology lab class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Jessica Boyce

    Distance learning is not a new phenomenon but with the advancement in technology, the different ways of delivering an education have increased. Today, many universities and colleges offer their students the option of taking courses online instead of sitting in a classroom on campus. In general students like online classes because they allow for flexibility, the comfort of sitting at home, and the potential to save money. Even though there are advantages to taking online classes, many students and instructors still debate the effectiveness and quality of education in a distant learning environment. Many universities and colleges are receiving pressure from students to offer more and more classes online. Research argues for both the advantages and disadvantages of online classes and stresses the importance of colleges and universities weighing both sides before deciding to adopt an online class. Certain classes may not be suitable for online instruction and not all instructors are suitable to teach online classes. The literature also reveals that there is a need for more research on online biology lab classes. With the lack of information on online biology labs needed by science educators who face the increasing demand for online biology labs, this case study hopes to provide insight into the use of online biology lab classes and the how students and an instructor at a community college in Virginia perceive their online biology lab experience as well as the effectiveness of the online labs.

  15. Land Surface Biophysical-Climate Impacts of Tropical Deforestation with Time-dependence: Sensitivity to Deforestation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C. G.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    Deforestation perturbs both biophysical and carbon feedbacks on climate. However, biophysical feedbacks operate at more temporally-immediate and spatially-focused scales, and thus may be sensitive to the actual rate at which deforestation occurs rather than just to the total forest cover loss. Most of previous modeling experiments have focused on equilibrium impacts of mass instantaneous replacement of trees; but, anthropogenic deforestation evolves in time and may result in transient climatic changes which holistic assessments of land cover change impacts must be able to characterize for mitigation and adaptation initiatives to be effective. This exploratory work therefore attempts to determine if there exists a time-dependence within biophysical-climate impacts of deforestation; specifically, if indeed the rates of deforestation affect terrestrial biophysics-climate feedbacks during the period of active deforestation as well as the post-deforestation period. Described here is a method for simulating annual tropical deforestation in the fully-coupled Community Climate System Model 3.0 (CCSM3) with the Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) for testing biosphere-climate sensitivity to “preservation pathways.” We test two deforestation curves- one with a 10% annual tree population thinning (DFC10-PT10), and one with 1% (DFC1-PT10) - each with a preservation target of 10% tree cover. During the period of active deforestation, surface albedo, net radiation, latent heat flux and climate variables are compared for time-dependence and sensitivity to total tropical tree foliar projective cover across the tropical band, the Amazon Basin, Central Africa and Southeast Asia. The deforestation rates produce characteristic trends in biophysical variables with DFC10-PT10 resulting in rapid increase/decrease during the initial 10-30 years before a slow leveling off, while DFC1-PT10 exhibits more gradual changes. The deforestation rate is also found to have little effect on

  16. Setting up a veterinary medicine skills lab in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Schaper, Elisabeth; Ehlers, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV) by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO) have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany. Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m(2) under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube. Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare.

  17. Etablierung eines Skills Labs in der Tiermedizin in Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilly, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany.Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m² under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube.Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare.

  18. Electrophysiological Data and the Biophysical Modelling of Local Cortical Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Pinotsis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how recordings of gamma oscillations – under different experimental conditions or from different subjects – can be combined with a class of population models called neural fields and dynamic causal modeling (DCM to distinguish among alternative hypotheses regarding cortical structure and function. This approach exploits inter-subject variability and trial-specific effects associated with modulations in the peak frequency of gamma oscillations. It draws on the computational power of Bayesian model inversion, when applied to neural field models of cortical dynamics. Bayesian model comparison allows one to adjudicate among different mechanistic hypotheses about cortical excitability, synaptic kinetics and the cardinal topographic features of local cortical circuits. It also provides optimal parameter estimates that quantify neuromodulation and the spatial dispersion of axonal connections or summation of receptive fields in the visual cortex. This paper provides an overview of a family of neural field models that have been recently implemented using the DCM toolbox of the academic freeware Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM. The SPM software is a popular platform for analyzing neuroimaging data, used by several neuroscience communities worldwide. DCM allows for a formal (Bayesian statistical analysis of cortical network connectivity, based upon realistic biophysical models of brain responses. It is this particular feature of DCM – the unique combination of generative models with optimization techniques based upon (variational Bayesian principles – that furnishes a novel way to characterize functional brain architectures. In particular, it provides answers to questions about how the brain is wired and how it responds to different experimental manipulations. For a review of the general role of neural fields in SPM the reader can consult e.g. see [1]. Neural fields have a long and illustrious history in mathematical

  19. Mass spectrometry in structural biology and biophysics architecture, dynamics, and interaction of biomolecules

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltashov, Igor A; Desiderio, Dominic M; Nibbering, Nico M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive guide to mass spectrometry techniques in biology and biophysics The use of mass spectrometry (MS) to study the architecture and dynamics of proteins is increasingly common within the biophysical community, and Mass Spectrometry in Structural Biology and Biophysics: Architecture, Dynamics, and Interaction of Biomolecules, Second Edition provides readers with detailed, systematic coverage of the current state of the art. Offering an unrivalled overview of modern MS-based armamentarium that can be used to solve the most challenging problems in biophysics, structural biol

  20. Electro-Optic System Development Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electro-Optic System Development Lab serves as a development facility for electro-optical systems ranging from visible through long wave infrared. Capabilities...

  1. Laboratory Professionals: Who's Who in the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as in clinical chemistry, immunology, molecular pathology, microbiology, or blood bank /transfusion service. MLSs/MTs have ... Many labs are looking for laboratory professionals with advanced degrees and experience. « Prev | Next » Proudly sponsored by ... ...

  2. European labs fight back against cuts

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    1997-01-01

    Germany's 1997 budget contains cuts amounting to 3.7% in funding of domestic research programs and in contributions to international labs. Contributions will be cut to the European Space Agency, the European Synchrotron facility and CERN.

  3. Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility (formerly LOASIS) develops advanced accelerators and radiation sources. High gradient (1-100 GV/m) laser-plasma...

  4. Årsrapport 2007: Knowledge Lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    Denne rapport beskriver Knowledge Labs udvikling og aktiviteter i 2007. Knowledge Lab har været og ikke mindst er et forsknings- og udviklingslaboratorium ved Syd- dansk Universitet. Det blev etableret i 2002 som en del af den jysk-fynske it-satsning. Laboratoriet beskæftiger en lang række forskere...... og projektmedarbejdere, som tilsammen repræsenterer kompetencer inden for fokusområderne: digital kompetenceudvikling, vidensledelse og vidensudvikling. Knowledge Lab arbejder med fokusområderne i et gensidigt betinget samspil mellem forskning, udvikling og anvendelse. Det forskningsmæssige grundlag...... for Knowledge Lab er: Grundlæggende og anvendt vidensteori med særligt henblik på brugen af digitale teknologier til understøttelse af videnstilegnelse, vidensdeling og vidensskabelse. Arbejds- og forskningsmåden er partnerskaber med private og offentlige virksomheder....

  5. Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Photonics and Fiber Optics Processor Lab develops, tests and evaluates high speed fiber optic network components as well as network protocols. In addition, this...

  6. Thanatology for Everyone: Developmental Labs and Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Walter E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to "treat" the growing death concerns of many medical staffs, an experiential death and dying lab was created. Its evolution to meet changing needs is discussed, as well as future potential for work in this area. (Author)

  7. Developing an Advanced Lab course from scratch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Rudi

    2012-10-01

    A few years ago the Alpha group in APS organized faculty with interests in advanced lab courses in physics. At the University of Wyoming, we re-launched an advanced lab course after doing more than 15 years without one. Our majors had to take an electronic course in the Electrical Engineering department to get familiar with any kind of electronic equipment. Now we are in the fourth teaching session of the advanced Modern Physics lab and we will expand the course into a two-term course beginning spring 2013. Forty-five majors have gone through our labs, We developed an oral exam tradition, which is now beginning to lend our department upper level outcome assessment credibility for campus wide assessment.

  8. The extraction of physical quantities of the processor using the LabVIEW software package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Koprda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available he article presents the issues of modelling and simulation in the graphic environment LabVIEW from the firm National Instrument. The possibility to simulate real processes offers many advantages to designers and advance designers from various spheres, such as time saving and costs minimization. The paper deal to create a block diagram in the environment LabVIEW which will show the entry about the temperature of the processor and it will be possible to use it, we had to find an appropriate way wh ich will allow it and will be usable for a great number of computer equipments.

  9. German lab wins linear collider contest

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2004-01-01

    Particle physicists have chosen to base the proposed International Linear Collider on superconducting technology developed by an international collaboration centred on the DESY lab in Germany. The superconducting approach was chosen by an internatinal panel ahead of a rival technology developed at Stanford in the US and the KEK lab in Japan. The eagerly-awaited decision was announced at the International Conference on High Energy Physics in Beijing today (½ page)

  10. Fifteen years experience: Egyptian metabolic lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram M. Fateen

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: This study illustrates the experience of the reference metabolic lab in Egypt over 15 years. The lab began metabolic disorder screening by using simple diagnostic techniques like thin layer chromatography and colored tests in urine which by time updated and upgraded the methods to diagnose a wide range of disorders. This study shows the most common diagnosed inherited inborn errors of metabolism among the Egyptian population.

  11. Euronet Lab : a Cloud Based Laboratory Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Raúl Cordeiro; Fonseca, José Manuel; Donnellan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    A large number of virtual and remote labs connected to the internet is already available nowadays. However, they usually are isolated and independent systems, unable to cooperate and complement each other. This lack of interconnection and interoperability leads, consequently, to the duplication of efforts in order to develop what could be easily shared and reused. Therefore, the integration of different platforms can speed up the development of virtual labs and downsize the barriers of usi...

  12. Quality management system at K-Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosio, J. (K-Lab (NO))

    1990-01-01

    This report describes how a Quality Management System has been organised at Kaarstoe metering and technology laboratory (K-Lab). Implementation of new technologies will become easier to carry through if they have been developed within a Quality Management System according to existing international standards. K-Lab has applied for accreditation to the Norwegian Calibration Service which among other requirements requests a proper Quality Management System. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  13. NASA Glenn Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) Icing Facility Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Queito P.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) was recently upgraded to perform engine inlet ice crystal testing in an altitude environment. The system installed 10 spray bars in the inlet plenum for ice crystal generation using 222 spray nozzles. As an altitude test chamber, PSL is capable of simulation of in-flight icing events in a ground test facility. The system was designed to operate at altitudes from 4,000 ft. to 40,000 ft. at Mach numbers up to 0.8M and inlet total temperatures from -60F to +15F.

  14. Biophysical Changes of Lipid Membranes in the Presence of Ethanol at Varying Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konas, Ryan M; Daristotle, John L; Harbor, Ndubuisi B; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2015-10-15

    Ethanol is widely used as an additive to gasoline, and production of ethanol can come from single-celled organisms such as yeast. We systematically studied the influence of ethanol on common lipids found in yeast plasma membranes, specifically phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Molecular dynamics simulations were used to probe changes to the biophysical properties of membranes with varying equilibrated bulk ethanol concentrations less than 25 mol %. The palmitoyl oleoyl (PO, 18:1/16:0) chain was used for all lipids, and a mixed bilayer of POPE/POPS (7:3 ratio) was also simulated. Ethanol was found to interact strongly with POPC, and thus its surface area per lipid, chain order, and electron density profiles differ the most from the neat bilayer. At 12 mol % ethanol in the bulk, ethanol penetrated into the hydrophobic core for all membranes studied, but POPC had the highest penetration. Although the anionic headgroup of POPS acted as a protectant for membrane structure compared to the zwitterionic lipids, this was not the case for the POPE/POPS mixture that showed more penetration of ethanol into the membrane than the single-component membranes. To fully characterize the impact of ethanol on yeast plasma membranes, our results suggest that experiments and simulations need to consider representative mixtures of lipids that exist in vivo.

  15. Colloquium: Biophysical principles of undulatory self-propulsion in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-07-01

    Biological locomotion, movement within environments through self-deformation, encompasses a range of time and length scales in an organism. These include the electrophysiology of the nervous system, the dynamics of muscle activation, the mechanics of the skeletal system, and the interaction mechanics of such structures within natural environments like water, air, sand, and mud. Unlike the many studies of cellular and molecular scale biophysical processes, movement of entire organisms (like flies, lizards, and snakes) is less explored. Further, while movement in fluids like air and water is also well studied, little is known in detail of the mechanics that organisms use to move on and within flowable terrestrial materials such as granular media, ensembles of small particles that collectively display solid, fluid, and gaslike behaviors. This Colloquium reviews recent progress to understand principles of biomechanics and granular physics responsible for locomotion of the sandfish, a small desert-dwelling lizard that "swims" within sand using undulation of its body. Kinematic and muscle activity measurements of sand swimming using high speed x-ray imaging and electromyography are discussed. This locomotion problem poses an interesting challenge: namely, that equations that govern the interaction of the lizard with its environment do not yet exist. Therefore, complementary modeling approaches are also described: resistive force theory for granular media, multiparticle simulation modeling, and robotic physical modeling. The models reproduce biomechanical and neuromechanical aspects of sand swimming and give insight into how effective locomotion arises from the coupling of the body movement and flow of the granular medium. The argument is given that biophysical study of movement provides exciting opportunities to investigate emergent aspects of living systems that might not depend sensitively on biological details.

  16. Synchrony suppression in complex stimulus responses of a biophysical model of the cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, S A; Morrish, K A

    1987-05-01

    A minimal biophysical model of the cochlea is used to investigate the validity of the hypothesis that a single compressive nonlinearity at the hair cell level can explain some of the suppression phenomena in cochlear responses to complex stimuli. The dependencies of the model responses on the amplitudes and frequencies of two-tone stimuli resemble in many respects the behavior of the experimental data, and can be traced to explicit biophysical parameters in the model. Most discrepancies between theory and experiment stem from simplifications in parameters of the minimal model that play no direct role in the hypothesis. The analysis and simulations predict further results which, pending experimental verification, may provide a more direct test of the influence of the compressive nonlinearity on the relative amplitudes of the synchronous response components, and hence of its role in synchrony suppression. For instance, regardless of the overall absolute levels of a two-tone stimulus applied to this type of model, the ratio of the amplitudes at the input and the ratio of the corresponding responses at the output remain approximately constant and equal (the output ratio changes by at most 6 dB in favor of the stronger tone). Other nonlinear responses to multitonal stimuli can also be reproduced, such as "spectral edge enhancement" [Horst et al., Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms (Springer, Berlin, 1985)] and some aspects of three-tone suppression [Javel et al., Mechanisms of Hearing (Monash U.P., Australia, 1983)]. In contrast to the complex behavior of suppression with increasing sound intensity and the drastic influence of the compressive nonlinearity on the absolute response measures on the auditory nerve (e.g., average rate and synchrony profiles), the percepts of complex sounds are relatively stable. This suggests that the invariant relative response measures are more likely used in the encoding and CNS extraction of the spectrum of complex stimuli such as speech.

  17. Supplemental Guidelines, JCE Lab-Experiment Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    These guidelines supplement the Guide to Submissions (published in J. Chem. Educ. 2000, 77, 29-30 and at http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/Journal/Authors/ Guidelines.html or available on request from the JCE editorial office). Manuscripts that describe laboratory experiments should first follow the Guide to Submissions and then apply these Supplemental Guidelines. Rationale JCE receives many submissions that describe laboratory experiments. The broad range of experiments readers can find each month is one of our most important features. These supplemental guidelines have been designed to make published laboratory experiments as useful as possible to readers. They are based on four fundamental ideas: peer review of a lab-experiment manuscript should be based to a large degree on the written and technology-based materials used by students in the laboratory, not just on a description of those materials; JCE should print the information a reader needs to decide whether to try to use the experiment; this includes information about possible safety hazards; readers who decide to use a lab should be able to adapt it to their circumstances quickly and easily; detailed information, including student materials, should be available to adopters of an experiment in a format that is modifiable and easily adapted for use by faculty, students, and support staff. To support these goals we require that a manuscript that describes a laboratory experiment must consist of a Lab Summary and Lab Documentation. (Each of these is described in detail below.) If, after peer review, a lab-experiment manuscript is published, only the Lab Summary will be printed in JCE. The Abstract, the Lab Summary, and all Lab Documentation will be published via JCE Online. Lab Documentation is placed on the Web as PDF files that can be displayed and printed by Acrobat Reader, and as Word or Word Perfect files that can be edited by those who adopt a lab. Those without Web access can request printed copies of all

  18. LabVIEW Support at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2009, due to the CERN restructuring, LabVIEW support moved from the IT to the EN department, joining the Industrial Controls and Electronics Group (ICE). LabVIEW support has been merged with the Measurement, Test and Analysis (MTA) section which, using LabVIEW, has developed most of the measurement systems to qualify the LHC magnets and components over the past 10 years. The post mortem analysis for the LHC hardware commissioning has also been fully implemented using LabVIEW, customised into a framework, called RADE, for CERN needs. The MTA section has started with a proactive approach sharing its tools and experience with the CERN LabVIEW community. Its framework (RADE) for CERN integrated application development has been made available to the users. Courses on RADE have been integrated into the standard National Instruments training program at CERN. RADE and LabVIEW support were merged together in 2010 on a single email address:labview.support@cern.ch For more information please...

  19. Biophysical aspects of human thermoregulation during heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Matthew N; Jay, Ollie

    2016-04-01

    Humans maintain a relatively constant core temperature through the dynamic balance between endogenous heat production and heat dissipation to the surrounding environment. In response to metabolic or environmental disturbances to heat balance, the autonomic nervous system initiates cutaneous vasodilation and eccrine sweating to facilitate higher rates of dry (primarily convection and radiation) and evaporative transfer from the body surface; however, absolute heat losses are ultimately governed by the properties of the skin and the environment. Over the duration of a heat exposure, the cumulative imbalance between heat production and heat dissipation leads to body heat storage, but the consequent change in core temperature, which has implications for health and safety in occupational and athletic settings particularly among certain clinical populations, involves a complex interaction between changes in body heat content and the body's morphological characteristics (mass, surface area, and tissue composition) that collectively determine the body's thermal inertia. The aim of this review is to highlight the biophysical aspects of human core temperature regulation by outlining the principles of human energy exchange and examining the influence of body morphology during exercise and environmental heat stress. An understanding of the biophysical factors influencing core temperature will enable researchers and practitioners to better identify and treat individuals/populations most vulnerable to heat illness and injury during exercise and extreme heat events. Further, appropriate guidelines may be developed to optimize health, safety, and work performance during heat stress.

  20. Complexation of insecticide chlorantraniliprole with human serum albumin: Biophysical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Fei [Department of Chemistry, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xi Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193 (China); Liu Wei [College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Diao Jianxiong [Department of Chemistry, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xi Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193 (China); Yin Bin [Key Laboratory of Pesticide Chemistry and Application Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Zhang Li, E-mail: zhli.work@gmail.co [Key Laboratory of Pesticide Chemistry and Application Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Sun Ying, E-mail: sunying@cau.edu.c [Department of Chemistry, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xi Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Chlorantraniliprole is a novel insecticide belonging to the diamide class of selective ryanodine receptor agonists. A biophysical study on the binding interaction of a novel diamide insecticide, chlorantraniliprole, with staple in vivo transporter, human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated utilizing a combination of steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and molecular modeling methods. The interaction of chlorantraniliprole with HSA gives rise to fluorescence quenching through static mechanism, this corroborates the fluorescence lifetime outcomes that the ground state complex formation and the predominant forces in the HSA-chlorantraniliprole conjugate are van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds, as derived from thermodynamic analysis. The definite binding site of chlorantraniliprole in HSA has been identified from the denaturation of protein, competitive ligand binding, and molecular modeling, subdomain IIIA (Sudlow's site II) was designated to possess high-affinity binding site for chlorantraniliprole. Moreover, using synchronous fluorescence, CD, and three-dimensional fluorescence we testified some degree of HSA structure unfolding upon chlorantraniliprole binding. - Highlights: {yields} Our study highlights for the first time how binding dynamics can predominate for the new diamide insecticide, chlorantraniliprole. {yields} Chlorantraniliprole is situated within subdomain IIIA, Sudlow's site II, which is the same as that of indole-benzodiazepine site. {yields} Biophysical and molecular modeling approaches are useful to resolve the ligand interaction with biomacromolecule. {yields} It serves as a protective device in binding and in inactivating potential toxic compounds to which the body is exposed.

  1. Biophysical Modeling of Alpha Rhythms During Halothane-Induced Unconsciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Sujith; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L; Brown, Emery N; Kopell, Nancy J

    2013-01-01

    During the induction of general anesthesia there is a shift in power from the posterior regions of the brain to the frontal cortices; this shift in power is called anteriorization. For many anesthetics, a prominent feature of anteriorization is a shift specifically in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) from posterior to frontal cortices. Here we present a biophysical computational model that describes thalamocortical circuit-level dynamics underlying anteriorization of the alpha rhythm in the case of halothane. Halothane potentiates GABAA and increases potassium leak conductances. According to our model, an increase in potassium leak conductances hyperpolarizes and silences the high-threshold thalamocortical (HTC) cells, a specialized subset of thalamocortical cells that fire at the alpha frequency at relatively depolarized membrane potentials (>-60 mV) and are thought to be the generators of quiet awake occipital alpha. At the same time the potentiation of GABAA imposes an alpha time scale on both the cortical and the thalamic component of the frontal portion of our model. The alpha activity in the frontal component is further strengthened by reciprocal thalamocortical feedback. Thus, we argue that the dual molecular targets of halothane induce the anteriorization of the alpha rhythm by increasing potassium leak conductances, which abolishes occipital alpha, and by potentiating GABAA, which induces frontal alpha. These results provide a computational modeling formulation for studying highly detailed biophysical mechanisms of anesthetic action in silico.

  2. Voltage-gated sodium channels: biophysics, pharmacology, and related channelopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora eSavio Galimberti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC are multi-molecular protein complexes expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells. They are primarily formed by a pore-forming multi-spanning integral membrane glycoprotein (α-subunit that can be associated with one or more regulatory β-subunits. The latter are single-span integral membrane proteins that modulate the sodium current (INa and can also function as cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs. In-vitro some of the cell-adhesive functions of the β-subunits may play important physiological roles independently of the α-subunits. Other endogenous regulatory proteins named channel partners or channel interacting proteins (ChiPs like caveolin-3 and calmodulin/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII can also interact and modulate the expression and/or function of VGSC. In addition to their physiological roles in cell excitability and cell adhesion, VGSC are the site of action of toxins (like tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin, and pharmacologic agents (like antiarrhythmic drugs, local anesthetics, antiepileptic drugs, and newly developed analgesics. Mutations in genes that encode α- and/or β-subunits as well as the ChiPs can affect the structure and biophysical properties of VGSC, leading to the development of diseases termed sodium channelopathies. This review will outline the structure, function and biophysical properties of VGSC as well as their pharmacology and associated channelopathies and highlight some of the recent advances in this field

  3. Biophysical basis for noninvasive skin cancer detection using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Moy, Austin J.; Markey, Mia K.; Fox, Matthew C.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) is proving to be a valuable tool for real time noninvasive skin cancer detection via optical fiber probe. However, current methods utilizing RS for skin cancer diagnosis rely on statistically based algorithms to provide tissue classification and do not elucidate the underlying biophysical changes of skin tissue. Therefore, we aim to use RS to explore skin biochemical and structural characteristics and then correlate the Raman spectrum of skin tissue with its disease state. We have built a custom confocal micro-Raman spectrometer system with an 830nm laser light. The high resolution capability of the system allows us to measure spectroscopic features from individual tissue components in situ. Raman images were collected from human skin samples from Mohs surgical biopsy, which were then compared with confocal laser scanning, two-photon fluorescence and hematoxylin and eosin-stained images to develop a linear model of skin tissue Raman spectra. In this model, macroscopic tissue spectra obtained from RS fiber probe were fit into a linear combination of individual basis spectra of primary skin constituents. The fit coefficient of the model explains the biophysical changes spanning a range of normal and various disease states. The model allows for determining parameters similar to that a pathologist is familiar reading and will be a significant guidance in developing RS diagnostic decision schemes.

  4. Constructing Dual Beam Optical Tweezers for Undergraduate Biophysics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudelin, Brian; West-Coates, Devon; Del'Etoile, Jon; Grotzke, Eric; Paramanathan, Thayaparan

    Optical tweezing, or trapping, is a modern physics technique which allows us to use the radiation pressure from laser beams to trap micron sized particles. Optical tweezers are commonly used in graduate level biophysics research but seldom used at the undergraduate level. Our goal is to construct a dual beam optical tweezers for future undergraduate biophysical research. Dual beam optical tweezers use two counter propagating laser beams to provide a stronger trap. In this study we discuss how the assembly of the dual beam optical tweezers is done through three main phases. The first phase was to construct a custom compressed air system to isolate the optical table from the vibrations from its surroundings so that we can measure pico-newton scale forces that are observed in biological systems. In addition, the biomaterial flow system was designed with a flow cell to trap biomolecules by combining several undergraduate semester projects. During the second phase we set up the optics to image and display the inside of the flow cell. Currently we are in the process of aligning the laser to create an effective trap and developing the software to control the data collection. This optical tweezers set up will enable us to study potential cancer drug interactions with DNA at the single molecule level and will be a powerful tool in promoting interdisciplinary research at the undergraduate level.

  5. Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  6. Social and Biophysical Predictors of Public Perceptions of Extreme Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, T. E.; Kooistra, C. M.; Paveglio, T.; Gress, S.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    To date, what constitutes an 'extreme' fire has been approached separately by biophysical and social scientists. Research on the biophysical characteristics of fires has identified potential dimensions of extremity, including fire size and vegetation mortality. On the social side, factors such as the degree of immediate impact to one's life and property or the extent of social disruption in the community contribute to a perception of extremity. However, some biophysical characteristics may also contribute to perceptions of extremity, including number of simultaneous ignitions, rapidity of fire spread, atypical fire behavior, and intensity of smoke. Perceptions of these impacts can vary within and across communities, but no studies to date have investigated such perceptions in a comprehensive way. In this study, we address the question, to what extent is the magnitude of impact of fires on WUI residents' well-being explained by measurable biophysical characteristics of the fire and subjective evaluations of the personal and community-level impacts of the fire? We bring together diverse strands of psychological theory, including landscape perception, mental models, risk perception, and community studies. The majority of social science research on fires has been in the form of qualitative case studies, and our study is methodologically unique by using a nested design (hierarchical modeling) to enable generalizable conclusions across a wide range of fires and human communities. We identified fires that burned in 2011 or 2012 in the northern Rocky Mountain region that were at least 1,000 acres and that intersected (within 15 km) urban clusters or identified Census places. For fires where an adequately large number of households was located in proximity to the fire, we drew random samples of approximately 150 individuals for each fire. We used a hybrid internet (Qualtrics) and mail survey, following the Dillman method, to measure individual perceptions. We developed two

  7. Assessing Usage and Maximizing Finance Lab Impact: A Case Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, Magdy; Budden, Michael Craig; Silva, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to assess students' usage and perceptions of a finance lab. Finance labs differ from simple computer labs as they typically contain data boards, streaming market quotes, terminals and software that allow for real-time financial analyses. Despite the fact that such labs represent significant and…

  8. Validation of Global EO Biophysical Products at JECAM Test Site in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Kravchenko, Oleksiy; Basarab, Ruslan; Ostapenko, Vadym; Yailymov, Bohdan; Shelestov, Andrii; Kolotii, Andrii; Mironov, Andrii

    Efficient global agriculture monitoring requires appropriate validation of Earth observation (EO) products for different regions and cropping system. This problem is addressed within the Joint Experiment of Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) initiative which aims to develop monitoring and reporting protocols and best practices for a variety of global agricultural systems. Ukraine is actively involved into JECAM, and a JECAM Ukraine test site was officially established in 2011. The following problems are being solved within JECAM Ukraine: (i) crop identification and crop area estimation [1]; (ii) crop yield forecasting [2]; (iii) EO products validation. The following case study regions were selected for these purposes: (i) the whole Kyiv oblast (28,000 sq. km) indented for crop mapping and acreage estimation; (ii) intensive observation sub-site in Pshenichne which is a research farm from the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine and indented for crop biophysical parameters estimation; (iii) Lviv region for rape-seed identification and crop rotation control; (iv) Crimea region for crop damage assessment due to droughts, and illegial field detection. In 2013, Ukrainian JECAM test site was selected as one of the “Champion User” for the ESA Sentinel-2 for Agriculture project. The test site was observed with SPOT-4 and RapidEye satellites every 5 days. The collected images are then used to simulate Sentinel-2 images for agriculture purposes. JECAM Ukraine is responsible for collecting ground observation data for validation purposes, and is involved in providing user requirements for Sentinel-2 agriculture related products. In particular, three field campaigns to characterize the vegetation biophysical parameters at the Pshenichne test site were carried out: First campaign - 14th to 17th of May 2013; second campaign - 12th to 15th of June 2013; third campaign - 14th to 17th of July 2013. Digital Hemispheric Photographs (DHP) images were

  9. BOLTS: a BiOphysical Larval Tracking System for Measuring Dispersal Characteristics and Marine Population Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, C. B.; Srinivasan, A.; Kourafalou, V.; Sponaugle, S.; Cowen, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    While metapopulation research with hypothetical dispersal matrices has shown how the scales of larval dispersal, transport processes, local recruitment, and temporal and spatial variability in dispersal influence population persistence, the pattern of demographic connectivity produced by larval dispersal is still a key uncertainty. To address this problem, a coupled bio-physical model has been developed that quantifies the degree of connectivity between populations. Such spatially explicit models, forced by dynamic currents coupled to a realistic seascape and life history traits, produce dispersal kernels for a range of scales over which dispersal is practically unquantifiable by current empirical methods. The BiOphysical Larval Tracking System (BOLTS) presented here allows a Lagrangian stochastic individual-based model (IBM) to be coupled via OPENDAP framework to any 3-dimensional fields of circulation models including to domains of various resolutions through 'Lagrangian nesting'. We demonstrate the capabilities of the software in measuring the characteristics of dispersal and evaluating the variability of larval connectivity through two examples at different scales: 1) Caribbean-scale simulations of BOLTS using the large scale (resolution ~7 km) Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) from the Global Data Assimilative Experiment (GODAE) provide us with expected connectivity patterns of a reef building coral. By seeding the model with a large number of active particles, it is possible to assemble dispersal kernels and migration matrices from the start (spawning) and the end point (settlement) of individual particle trajectories. Any single run is a stochastic realization of a probabilistic process, thus the full probability density function (pdf) of the kernel requires averaging over many dispersal events. The model output is further corroborated with empirical measures of gene flow among coral colonies around the Caribbean. 2) Coastal-scale simulations of BOLTS

  10. Chromosome aberrations and cell death by ionizing radiation: Evolution of a biophysical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Carante, Mario P.

    2016-11-01

    The manuscript summarizes and discusses the various versions of a radiation damage biophysical model, implemented as a Monte Carlo simulation code, originally developed for chromosome aberrations and subsequently extended to cell death. This extended version has been called BIANCA (BIophysical ANalysis of Cell death and chromosome Aberrations). According to the basic assumptions, complex double-strand breaks (called ;Cluster Lesions;, or CLs) produce independent chromosome free-ends, mis-rejoining within a threshold distance d (or un-rejoining) leads to chromosome aberrations, and ;lethal aberrations; (i.e., dicentrics plus rings plus large deletions) lead to clonogenic cell death. The mean number of CLs per Gy and per cell is an adjustable parameter. While in BIANCA the threshold distance d was the second parameter, in a subsequent version, called BIANCA II, d has been fixed as the mean distance between two adjacent interphase chromosome territories, and a new parameter, f, has been introduced to represent the chromosome free-end un-rejoining probability. Simulated dose-response curves for chromosome aberrations and cell survival obtained by the various model versions were compared with literature experimental data. Such comparisons provided indications on some open questions, including the role of energy deposition clustering at the nm and the μm level, the probability for a chromosome free-end to remain un-rejoined, and the relationship between chromosome aberrations and cell death. Although both BIANCA and BIANCA II provided cell survival curves in general agreement with human and hamster fibroblast survival data, BIANCA II allowed for a better reproduction of dicentrics, rings and deletions considered separately. Furthermore, the approach adopted in BIANCA II for d is more consistent with estimates reported in the literature. After testing against aberration and survival data, BIANCA II was applied to investigate the depth-dependence of the radiation

  11. The Design:Lab as platform in participatory design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The notion of laboratory or simply 'lab' has become popular in recent years in areas outside science and technology development. Learning Labs, Innovation Labs, Usability Labs, Media and Communication Labs and even Art Labs designate institutions or fora dedicated to change and experimentation....... Influenced by these currents we use the expression 'Design:Lab' as a shorthand description of open collaborations between many stakeholders sharing a mutual interest in design research in a particular field. Many have reacted to the term 'laboratory' or 'lab' as foreign and awkward to design, and we as well...... as others have frequently used other metaphors like workshop, studio or atelier in design research. In this article we will argue that the laboratory metaphor is particularly suitable and useful for the design:lab, and we will give examples of how we have worked with the design:lab as a platform...

  12. LabVIEW与MATLAB混合编程在盲信号分离中的应用%Application of LabVIEW and MATLAB mixed language programming in the blind signal separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞海强

    2011-01-01

    利用MATLAB强大数值分析能力和LabVIEW图形化编程的优点,通过调用LabVIEW中的MATLABScript节点实现LabVIEW与MATLAB的混合编程,达到信号分离的目的。仿真结果证明,利用LabVIEW和MATLAB混合编程技术,不仅可以提高编程效率,而且能可靠地实现源信号的分离。%Using the powerful numerical analysis of MATLAB and the graphical programming benefits of LabVIEW, by calling the MATLAB Script node in LabVIEW to implement the hybrid programming of LabVIEW with MATLAB, and achieve the purpose of the separation of the signal. Simulation results show that mixed-use LabVIEW and MATLAB programming techniques can not only improve the efficiency of programming, and can achieve a reliable separation of source signals.

  13. eLabEL: technology-supported living labs in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Huygens, M.W.J.; Swinkels, I.; Oude Nijeweme-d'Hollosy, W.; Velsen, L. van; Jansen, Y.; Witte, L.P. de

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— Telecare technologies and eHealth applications can support patients and care professionals. However, these technologies are currently not being implemented in primary care. The eLabEL project aims to contribute to a solution for this problem by establishing Living Labs in which patients, h

  14. eLabEL: technology-supported living labs in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Joan; Huygens, Martine; Witte, de Luc P.; Swinkels, Ilse; Oude Nijeweme-d'Hollosy, Wendy; Velsen, van Lex; Jansen, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Telecare technologies and eHealth applications can support patients and care professionals. However, these technologies are currently not being implemented in primary care. The eLabEL project aims to contribute to a solution for this problem by establishing Living Labs in which patients, healthcare

  15. Engineering and Scientific Applications: Using MatLab(Registered Trademark) for Data Processing and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    MatLab(TradeMark)(MATrix LABoratory) is a numerical computation and simulation tool that is used by thousands Scientists and Engineers in many countries. MatLab does purely numerical calculations, which can be used as a glorified calculator or interpreter programming language; its real strength is in matrix manipulations. Computer algebra functionalities are achieved within the MatLab environment using "symbolic" toolbox. This feature is similar to computer algebra programs, provided by Maple or Mathematica to calculate with mathematical equations using symbolic operations. MatLab in its interpreter programming language form (command interface) is similar with well known programming languages such as C/C++, support data structures and cell arrays to define classes in object oriented programming. As such, MatLab is equipped with most of the essential constructs of a higher programming language. MatLab is packaged with an editor and debugging functionality useful to perform analysis of large MatLab programs and find errors. We believe there are many ways to approach real-world problems; prescribed methods to ensure foregoing solutions are incorporated in design and analysis of data processing and visualization can benefit engineers and scientist in gaining wider insight in actual implementation of their perspective experiments. This presentation will focus on data processing and visualizations aspects of engineering and scientific applications. Specifically, it will discuss methods and techniques to perform intermediate-level data processing covering engineering and scientific problems. MatLab programming techniques including reading various data files formats to produce customized publication-quality graphics, importing engineering and/or scientific data, organizing data in tabular format, exporting data to be used by other software programs such as Microsoft Excel, data presentation and visualization will be discussed.

  16. Are Virtual Labs as Effective as Hands-on Labs for Undergraduate Physics? A Comparative Study at Two Major Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Marjorie; Humbert, Roxann; Finstein, Jeanne; Simon, Marllin; Hopkins, John

    2014-01-01

    Most physics professors would agree that the lab experiences students have in introductory physics are central to the learning of the concepts in the course. It is also true that these physics labs require time and money for upkeep, not to mention the hours spent setting up and taking down labs. Virtual physics lab experiences can provide an…

  17. Biophysics and Thermodynamics: The Scientific Building Blocks of Bio-inspired Drug Delivery Nano Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas

    2015-06-01

    Biophysics and thermodynamics are considered as the scientific milestones for investigating the properties of materials. The relationship between the changes of temperature with the biophysical variables of biomaterials is important in the process of the development of drug delivery systems. Biophysics is a challenge sector of physics and should be used complementary with the biochemistry in order to discover new and promising technological platforms (i.e., drug delivery systems) and to disclose the 'silence functionality' of bio-inspired biological and artificial membranes. Thermal analysis and biophysical approaches in pharmaceuticals present reliable and versatile tools for their characterization and for the successful development of pharmaceutical products. The metastable phases of self-assembled nanostructures such as liposomes should be taken into consideration because they represent the thermal events can affect the functionality of advanced drug delivery nano systems. In conclusion, biophysics and thermodynamics are characterized as the building blocks for design and development of bio-inspired drug delivery systems.

  18. Biophysics and Structure to Counter Threats and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Margaris, Manolia

    2013-01-01

    This ASI brought together a diverse group of experts who span virology, biology, biophysics, chemistry, physics and engineering.  Prominent lecturers representing world renowned scientists from nine (9) different countries, and students from around the world representing eighteen (18) countries, participated in the ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi (Stanford University, USA) and Alexander Arseniev (Moscow, RU).   The central hypothesis underlying this ASI was that interdisciplinary research, merging principles of physics, chemistry and biology, can drive new discovery in detecting and fighting chemical and bioterrorism agents, lead to cleaner environments and improved energy sources, and help propel development in NATO partner countries.  At the end of the ASI students had an appreciation of how to apply each technique to their own particular research problem and to demonstrate that multifaceted approaches and new technologies are needed to solve the biological challenges of our time.  The course...

  19. Biophysics of filament length regulation by molecular motors

    CERN Document Server

    Kuan, Hui-Shun

    2013-01-01

    Regulating physical size is an essential problem that biological organisms must solve from the subcellular to the organismal scales, but it is not well understood what physical principles and mechanisms organisms use to sense and regulate their size. Any biophysical size-regulation scheme operates in a noisy environment and must be robust to other cellular dynamics and fluctuations. This work develops theory of filament length regulation inspired by recent experiments on kinesin-8 motor proteins, which move with directional bias on microtubule filaments and alter microtubule dynamics. Purified kinesin-8 motors can depolymerize chemically-stabilized microtubules. In the length-dependent depolymerization model, the rate of depolymerization tends to increase with filament length, because long filaments accumulate more motors at their tips and therefore shorten more quickly. When balanced with a constant filament growth rate, this mechanism can lead to a fixed polymer length. However, the mechanism by which kines...

  20. Perspective: Quantum mechanical methods in biochemistry and biophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qiang

    2016-10-14

    In this perspective article, I discuss several research topics relevant to quantum mechanical (QM) methods in biophysical and biochemical applications. Due to the immense complexity of biological problems, the key is to develop methods that are able to strike the proper balance of computational efficiency and accuracy for the problem of interest. Therefore, in addition to the development of novel ab initio and density functional theory based QM methods for the study of reactive events that involve complex motifs such as transition metal clusters in metalloenzymes, it is equally important to develop inexpensive QM methods and advanced classical or quantal force fields to describe different physicochemical properties of biomolecules and their behaviors in complex environments. Maintaining a solid connection of these more approximate methods with rigorous QM methods is essential to their transferability and robustness. Comparison to diverse experimental observables helps validate computational models and mechanistic hypotheses as well as driving further development of computational methodologies.

  1. Perspective: Quantum mechanical methods in biochemistry and biophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    In this perspective article, I discuss several research topics relevant to quantum mechanical (QM) methods in biophysical and biochemical applications. Due to the immense complexity of biological problems, the key is to develop methods that are able to strike the proper balance of computational efficiency and accuracy for the problem of interest. Therefore, in addition to the development of novel ab initio and density functional theory based QM methods for the study of reactive events that involve complex motifs such as transition metal clusters in metalloenzymes, it is equally important to develop inexpensive QM methods and advanced classical or quantal force fields to describe different physicochemical properties of biomolecules and their behaviors in complex environments. Maintaining a solid connection of these more approximate methods with rigorous QM methods is essential to their transferability and robustness. Comparison to diverse experimental observables helps validate computational models and mechanistic hypotheses as well as driving further development of computational methodologies.

  2. Control of Stochastic and Induced Switching in Biophysical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Daniel K.; Kath, William L.; Motter, Adilson E.

    2015-01-01

    Noise caused by fluctuations at the molecular level is a fundamental part of intracellular processes. While the response of biological systems to noise has been studied extensively, there has been limited understanding of how to exploit it to induce a desired cell state. Here we present a scalable, quantitative method based on the Freidlin-Wentzell action to predict and control noise-induced switching between different states in genetic networks that, conveniently, can also control transitions between stable states in the absence of noise. We apply this methodology to models of cell differentiation and show how predicted manipulations of tunable factors can induce lineage changes, and further utilize it to identify new candidate strategies for cancer therapy in a cell death pathway model. This framework offers a systems approach to identifying the key factors for rationally manipulating biophysical dynamics, and should also find use in controlling other classes of noisy complex networks. PMID:26451275

  3. 19th International School of Biophysics "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M; Bioelectrochemistry III : Charge Separation across Biomembranes

    1988-01-01

    This book contains aseries of review papers related to the lectures given at the Third Course on Bioelectrochemistry held at Erice in November 1988, in the framework of the International School of Biophysics. The topics covered by this course, "Charge Separation Across Biomembranes, " deal with the electrochemical aspects of some basic phenomena in biological systems, such as transport of ions, ATP synthesis, formation and maintenance of ionic and protonic gradients. In the first part of the course some preliminary lectures introduce the students to the most basic phenomena and technical aspects of membrane bioelectrochemistry. The remaining part of the course is devoted to the description of a selected group of membrane-enzyme systems, capable of promoting, or exploiting, the processes of separation of electrically charged entities (electrons or ions) across the membrane barrier. These systems are systematically discussed both from a structural and functional point of view. The effort of the many dis...

  4. Control of Stochastic and Induced Switching in Biophysical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Daniel K.; Kath, William L.; Motter, Adilson E.

    2015-07-01

    Noise caused by fluctuations at the molecular level is a fundamental part of intracellular processes. While the response of biological systems to noise has been studied extensively, there has been limited understanding of how to exploit it to induce a desired cell state. Here we present a scalable, quantitative method based on the Freidlin-Wentzell action to predict and control noise-induced switching between different states in genetic networks that, conveniently, can also control transitions between stable states in the absence of noise. We apply this methodology to models of cell differentiation and show how predicted manipulations of tunable factors can induce lineage changes, and further utilize it to identify new candidate strategies for cancer therapy in a cell death pathway model. This framework offers a systems approach to identifying the key factors for rationally manipulating biophysical dynamics, and should also find use in controlling other classes of noisy complex networks.

  5. Biophysical Evaluation of Food Decontamination Effects on Tissue and Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, the effects and efficiency of food surface decontamination processes, such as chlorine washing, radiation, or heating, have been evaluated by sensoric analysis and colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of surface swabs or carcass rinses. These methods suffice when determining probable...... consumer responses or meeting legislative contamination limits. However, in the often very costly, optimization process of a new method, more quantitative and unbiased results are invaluable. In this study, we employed a biophysical approach for the investigation of qualitative and quantitative changes...... in both food surface and bacteria upon surface decontamination by SonoSteam®. SonoSteam® is a recently developed method of food surface decontamination, which employs steam and ultrasound for effective heat transfer and short treatment times, resulting in significant reduction in surface bacteria. We...

  6. Optimization of Curvilinear Tracing Applied to Solar Physics and Biophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus J. Aschwanden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed an automated pattern recognition code that is particularly well suited to extract one-dimensional curvilinear features from two-dimensional digital images. A former version of this Oriented Coronal Curved Loop Tracing (OCCULT code was applied to spacecraft images of magnetic loops in the solar corona, recorded with the NASA spacecraft, Transition Region And Coronal Explorer (TRACE, in extreme ultra-violet wavelengths. Here, we apply an advanced version of this code (OCCULT-2, also, to similar images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO, to chromospheric H-α images obtained with the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST and to microscopy images of microtubule filaments in live cells in biophysics. We provide a full analytical description of the code, optimize the control parameters and compare the automated tracing with visual/manual methods. The traced structures differ by up to 16 orders of magnitude in size, which demonstrates the universality of the tracing algorithm.

  7. Functional differentiation of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in a biophysical model of olfactory bulb granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoshi; Linster, Christiane; Cleland, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Olfactory bulb granule cells are modulated by both acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE), but the effects of these neuromodulators have not been clearly distinguished. We used detailed biophysical simulations of granule cells, both alone and embedded in a microcircuit with mitral cells, to measure and distinguish the effects of ACh and NE on cellular and microcircuit function. Cholinergic and noradrenergic modulatory effects on granule cells were based on data obtained from slice experiments; specifically, ACh reduced the conductance densities of the potassium M current and the calcium-dependent potassium current, whereas NE nonmonotonically regulated the conductance density of an ohmic potassium current. We report that the effects of ACh and NE on granule cell physiology are distinct and functionally complementary to one another. ACh strongly regulates granule cell firing rates and afterpotentials, whereas NE bidirectionally regulates subthreshold membrane potentials. When combined, NE can regulate the ACh-induced expression of afterdepolarizing potentials and persistent firing. In a microcircuit simulation developed to investigate the effects of granule cell neuromodulation on mitral cell firing properties, ACh increased spike synchronization among mitral cells, whereas NE modulated the signal-to-noise ratio. Coapplication of ACh and NE both functionally improved the signal-to-noise ratio and enhanced spike synchronization among mitral cells. In summary, our computational results support distinct and complementary roles for ACh and NE in modulating olfactory bulb circuitry and suggest that NE may play a role in the regulation of cholinergic function.

  8. Functional differentiation of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in a biophysical model of olfactory bulb granule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linster, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory bulb granule cells are modulated by both acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE), but the effects of these neuromodulators have not been clearly distinguished. We used detailed biophysical simulations of granule cells, both alone and embedded in a microcircuit with mitral cells, to measure and distinguish the effects of ACh and NE on cellular and microcircuit function. Cholinergic and noradrenergic modulatory effects on granule cells were based on data obtained from slice experiments; specifically, ACh reduced the conductance densities of the potassium M current and the calcium-dependent potassium current, whereas NE nonmonotonically regulated the conductance density of an ohmic potassium current. We report that the effects of ACh and NE on granule cell physiology are distinct and functionally complementary to one another. ACh strongly regulates granule cell firing rates and afterpotentials, whereas NE bidirectionally regulates subthreshold membrane potentials. When combined, NE can regulate the ACh-induced expression of afterdepolarizing potentials and persistent firing. In a microcircuit simulation developed to investigate the effects of granule cell neuromodulation on mitral cell firing properties, ACh increased spike synchronization among mitral cells, whereas NE modulated the signal-to-noise ratio. Coapplication of ACh and NE both functionally improved the signal-to-noise ratio and enhanced spike synchronization among mitral cells. In summary, our computational results support distinct and complementary roles for ACh and NE in modulating olfactory bulb circuitry and suggest that NE may play a role in the regulation of cholinergic function. PMID:26334007

  9. GeneLab: A Systems Biology Platform for Spaceflight Omics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, Sigrid S.; Lai, San-Huei; Chen, Rick; Thompson, Terri; Berrios, Daniel; Fogle, Homer; Marcu, Oana; Timucin, Linda; Chakravarty, Kaushik; Coughlan, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    NASA's mission includes expanding our understanding of biological systems to improve life on Earth and to enable long-duration human exploration of space. Resources to support large numbers of spaceflight investigations are limited. NASA's GeneLab project is maximizing the science output from these experiments by: (1) developing a unique public bioinformatics database that includes space bioscience relevant "omics" data (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and experimental metadata; (2) partnering with NASA-funded flight experiments through bio-sample sharing or sample augmentation to expedite omics data input to the GeneLab database; and (3) developing community-driven reference flight experiments. The first database, GeneLab Data System Version 1.0, went online in April 2015. V1.0 contains numerous flight datasets and has search and download capabilities. Version 2.0 will be released in 2016 and will link to analytic tools. In 2015 Genelab partnered with two Biological Research in Canisters experiments (BBRIC-19 and BRIC-20) which examine responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to spaceflight. GeneLab also partnered with Rodent Research-1 (RR1), the maiden flight to test the newly developed rodent habitat. GeneLab developed protocols for maxiumum yield of RNA, DNA and protein from precious RR-1 tissues harvested and preserved during the SpaceX-4 mission, as well as from tissues from mice that were frozen intact during spaceflight and later dissected. GeneLab is establishing partnerships with at least three planned flights for 2016. Organism-specific nationwide Science Definition Teams (SDTs) will define future GeneLab dedicated missions and ensure the broader scientific impact of the GeneLab missions. GeneLab ensures prompt release and open access to all high-throughput omics data from spaceflight and ground-based simulations of microgravity and radiation. Overall, GeneLab will facilitate the generation and query of parallel multi-omics data, and

  10. Reengineering the Cardiac Catheterization Lab Processes: A Lean Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Raghavan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cross-functional effort in a US community hospital for an overall process improvement in its Cardiac Catheterization Lab (CCL. One of the key system performance metrics identified was the patient turnaround time. The objective of this study was to identify the sources of delays in the system that lead to prolonged patient turnaround time using a structured lean approach. A set of qualitative recommendations were proposed and implemented. Quantification of some of these recommendations and certain additional ‘what-if’ scenarios were evaluated using Discrete Event Simulation (DES. The simulation results showed that significant reduction in patient turnaround time could be achieved if the proposed recommendations were implemented. This study demonstrated the benefits of adopting the lean philosophy in the continuous process improvement journey in the healthcare delivery arena.

  11. Collaborative Creation of a Lab Rubric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Miller-DeBoer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available While there are a number of tested rubrics in circulation, our task was to intervene in a particular situation: the lead professor was concerned because her graduate teaching assistants held negative views about student performance on the lab reports. GTAs found poor products frustrating, and admitted that their grading was thus superficial and provided no feedback to students. Specifically, GTAs did not feel equipped to evaluate writing and, as a result, simply graded on steps completed in the lab process.We have a rubric now for an Introduction to Zoology lab that could be submitted here as a pretty darn good rubric for other instructors to use. But the intent of our “Tips and Tools” is to describe the actual creation of the rubric. We believe the active “real time” development of the rubric carried as much or more value than the finished product.

  12. A Moodle extension to book online labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Cardoso

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The social constructivist philosophy of Moodle makes it an excellent choice to deliver e-learning contents that require collaborative activities, such as those that are associated with online labs. In the case of online labs that enable web access to real devices (remote workbenches, access time should be reserved beforehand. A booking tool will avoid access conflicts and at the same time will help the students to organise their time and activities. This paper presents a Moodle extension that was developed within the Leonardo da Vinci MARVEL project, with the objective of meeting this requirement. The booking tool presented enables resource sharing in general and may be used to organise access to any type of scarce resources, such as to online labs and to the videoconferencing rooms that are needed to support collaborative activities.

  13. Curved spacetimes in the lab

    CERN Document Server

    Szpak, Nikodem

    2014-01-01

    We present some new ideas on how to design analogue models of quantum fields living in curved spacetimes using ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices. We discuss various types of static and dynamical curved spacetimes achievable by simple manipulations of the optical setup. Examples presented here contain two-dimensional spaces of positive and negative curvature as well as homogeneous cosmological models and metric waves. Most of them are extendable to three spatial dimensions. We mention some interesting phenomena of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes which might be simulated in such optical lattices loaded with bosonic or fermionic ultra-cold atoms. We also argue that methods of differential geometry can be used, as an alternative mathematical approach, for dealing with realistic inhomogeneous optical lattices.

  14. A Series of Molecular Dynamics and Homology Modeling Computer Labs for an Undergraduate Molecular Modeling Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Donald E.; Guayasamin, Ryann C.; Kieffer, Madeleine E.

    2010-01-01

    As computational modeling plays an increasingly central role in biochemical research, it is important to provide students with exposure to common modeling methods in their undergraduate curriculum. This article describes a series of computer labs designed to introduce undergraduate students to energy minimization, molecular dynamics simulations,…

  15. Experimental Labs for Start-Ups: The Role of the "Venture-Sitter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricano, Diego; Pietrobon, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Curley and Formica's (2008, 2010) studies of high-expectation entrepreneurship focus on the role of "experimental laboratories" in promoting the start-up and successful development of high-expectation firms. Although it is not difficult to understand the potential usefulness of these experimental labs--business simulators in which skilled partners…

  16. Determination of Enantiomeric Excess of Glutamic Acids by Lab-made Capillary Array Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun WANG; Kai Ying LIU; Li WANG; Ji Ling BAI

    2006-01-01

    Simulated enantiomeric excess of glutamic acid was determined by a lab-made sixteen-channel capillary array electrophoresis with confocal fluorescent rotary scanner. The experimental results indicated that the capillary array electrophoresis method can accurately determine the enantiomeric excess of glutamic acid and can be used for high-throughput screening system for combinatorial asymmetric catalysis.

  17. [Semiotic Studies Lab for Patient Care Interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Dulce Maria; Portella, Jean Cristtus; Bianchi e Silva, Laura

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this experience report is to present the Semiotic Studies Lab for Patient Care Interactions (Laboratório de Estudos Semióticos nas Interações de Cuidado - LESIC). The lab was set up at the Nursing School of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Brazil in 2010. It has the purpose of providing didactic and pedagogical updates, based on the Theory developed by the Paris School of Semiotics, that enable the increase of knowledge and interactive/observational skills regarding the nature and mastery of human care.

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-07-01

    Interest in energetic heavy ions is rapidly increasing in the field of biomedicine. Heavy ions are normally excluded from radiation protection, because they are not normally experienced by humans on Earth. However, knowledge of heavy ion biophysics is necessary in two fields: charged particle cancer therapy (hadrontherapy), and radiation protection in space missions. The possibility to cure tumours using accelerated heavy charged particles was first tested in Berkeley in the sixties, but results were not satisfactory. However, about 15 years ago therapy with carbon ions was resumed first in Japan and then in Europe. Heavy ions are preferable to photons for both physical and biological characteristics: the Bragg peak and limited lateral diffusion ensure a conformal dose distribution, while the high relative biological effectiveness and low oxygen enhancement ration in the Bragg peak region make the beam very effective in treating radioresistant and hypoxic tumours. Recent results coming from the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba (see the paper by Dr Tsujii and co-workers in this issue) and GSI (Germany) provide strong clinical evidence that heavy ions are indeed an extremely effective weapon in the fight against cancer. However, more research is needed in the field, especially on optimization of the treatment planning and risk of late effects in normal tissue, including secondary cancers. On the other hand, high-energy heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic radiation and, although they are rare as compared to protons, they give a major contribution in terms of equivalent dose to the crews of manned space exploratory-class missions. Exploration of the Solar System is now the main goal of the space program, and the risk caused by exposure to galactic cosmic radiation is considered a serious hindrance toward this goal, because of the high uncertainty on late effects of energetic heavy nuclei, and the lack of effective countermeasures. Risks

  19. Computational Labs Using VPython Complement Conventional Labs in Online and Regular Physics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, Martina E.

    2009-03-01

    Fairmont State University has developed online physics classes for the high-school teaching certificate based on the text book Matter and Interaction by Chabay and Sherwood. This lead to using computational VPython labs also in the traditional class room setting to complement conventional labs. The computational modeling process has proven to provide an excellent basis for the subsequent conventional lab and allows for a concrete experience of the difference between behavior according to a model and realistic behavior. Observations in the regular class room setting feed back into the development of the online classes.

  20. Improving the Quality of Lab Reports by Using Them as Lab Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagen-Schuetzenhoefer, Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Lab exercises are quite popular in teaching science. Teachers have numerous goals in mind when teaching science laboratories. Nevertheless, empirical research draws a heterogeneous picture of the benefits of lab work. Research has shown that it does not necessarily contribute to the enhancement of practical abilities or content knowledge. Lab activities are frequently based on recipe-like, step-by-step instructions ("cookbook style"), which do not motivate students to engage cognitively. Consequently, students put the emphasis on "task completion" or "manipulating equipment."2

  1. Go-Lab Deliverable D1.4 Go-Lab classroom scenarios handbook

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This deliverable presents the Go-Lab scenarios handbook. This handbook offers six different scenarios that are meant to help teachers design ILSs. Each scenario represents a specific pedagogical method within the overall Go-Lab inquiry approach. The six Go-Lab inquiry scenarios are labelled as follows:• The basic scenario • The jigsaw approach • Six changing hats • Learning by critiquing • Structured controversy • Find the mistakeIn a later stage, when a suitable modelling tool has been found...

  2. Building biophysics in mid-century China: the University of Science and Technology of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Yi Lai Christine

    2015-01-01

    Biophysics has been either an independent discipline or an element of another discipline in the United States, but it has always been recognized as a stand-alone discipline in the People's Republic of China (PRC) since 1949. To inquire into this apparent divergence, this paper investigates the formational history of biophysics in China by examining the early institutional history of one of the best-known and prestigious science and technology universities in the PRC, the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). By showing how the university and its biophysics program co-evolved with national priorities from the school's founding in 1958 to the eve of the Cultural Revolution in 1966, the purpose of this paper is to assess the development of a scientific discipline in the context of national demands and institutional politics. Specific materials for analysis include the school's admission policies, curricula, students' dissertations, and research program. To further contextualize the institutional setting of Chinese biophysics, this paper begins with a general history of proto-biophysical institutions in China during the Nationalist-Communist transitional years. This paper could be of interest to historians wanting to know more about the origin of the biophysics profession in China, and in particular how research areas that constitute biophysics changed in tandem with socio-political contingencies.

  3. Beam Line Commissioning of a UV/VUV FEL at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Stephen; Blackburn, Keith; Bullard, Daniel; Clavero Perez, Cesar; Coleman, James; Dickover, Cody; Douglas, David; Ellingsworth, Forrest; Evtushenko, Pavel; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Gould, Christopher; Gubeli, Joseph; Hardy, David; Jordan, Kevin; Klopf, John; James, Kortze; Legg, Robert; Marchlik, Matthew; Moore, Steven; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Sexton, Daniel; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher; Walker, Richard; Williams, Gwyn; Wilson, Frederick

    2011-08-01

    Many novel applications in photon sciences require very high brightness and/or short pulses in the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV). Jefferson Lab has commissioned a UV oscillator with high gain and has transported the third harmonic of the UV to a user lab. The experimental performance of the UV FEL is much better than simulated performance in both gain and efficiency. This success is important for efforts to push towards higher gain FELs at short wavelengths where mirrors absorb strongly. We will report on efforts to characterize the UV laser and the VUV coherent harmonics as well as designs to lase directly in the VUV wavelength range.

  4. Surfactant Adsorption: A Revised Physical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Marc R.; Hagen, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Many physical chemistry lab courses include an experiment in which students measure surface tension as a function of surfactant concentration. In the traditional experiment, the data are fit to the Gibbs isotherm to determine the molar area for the surfactant, and the critical micelle concentration is used to calculate the Gibbs energy of micelle…

  5. A Hardware Lab Anywhere At Any Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schubert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific technical courses are an important component in any student's education. These courses are usually characterised by the fact that the students execute experiments in special laboratories. This leads to extremely high costs and a reduction in the maximum number of possible participants. From this traditional point of view, it doesn't seem possible to realise the concepts of a Virtual University in the context of sophisticated technical courses since the students must be "on the spot". In this paper we introduce the so-called Mobile Hardware Lab which makes student participation possible at any time and from any place. This lab nevertheless transfers a feeling of being present in a laboratory. This is accomplished with a special Learning Management System in combination with hardware components which correspond to a fully equipped laboratory workstation that are lent out to the students for the duration of the lab. The experiments are performed and solved at home, then handed in electronically. Judging and marking are also both performed electronically. Since 2003 the Mobile Hardware Lab is now offered in a completely web based form.

  6. Information at a Cost: A Lab Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Robalo (Pedro); R.S. Sayag (Rei)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe supposed irrelevance of historical costs for rational decision making has been the subject of much interest in the economic literature. In this paper we explore whether individual decision making under risk is affected by the cost of the supplied information. Outside of the lab, it i

  7. FameLab - Swiss Semi Finals

    CERN Document Server

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-two young scientists participated in the FameLab semi-final at CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 February, supported by a large audience and by more than 100 fans following via webcast. A panel of judges chose Lemmer and four other candidates to join five other semi-finalists at the national finals in Zurich on 30 March.

  8. Design Lab 2005 : pilk steriilsesse elektrotulevikku

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Design Lab kutsub disainereid ja üliõpilasi üle terve maailma tegelema kaugemale tulevikku suunatud visioonidega. 2005. a. konkurss otsis nutikaid ja säästlikke lahendusi, mis võiksid 2020. a. kodudes olla juba juurdunud, keskenduti kodutehnikale

  9. Apples and Arias in the Language Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamon, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Describes a French teacher's efforts to substitute interactive video/computer technologies for textbook materials. She designed special language-lab events to introduce eighth graders to the vocabulary of animals, colors, simple adjectives, fruits, flowers, and natural landscapes and to cultural artifacts, such as paintings, arias, poems, and…

  10. Carleton to oversee $40 million lab grant

    CERN Multimedia

    Singer, Zev

    2003-01-01

    "Carleton University got a major gift yesterday, as the federal government announced the university will oversee a $40-million grant to run the world's deepest underground lab at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Five other universities are partners in the project" (1/2 page).

  11. Lab-on a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Helen Cole, the project manager for the Lab-on-a-Chip Applications Development program, and Lisa Monaco, the project scientist for the program, insert a lab on a chip into the Caliper 42 which is specialized equipment that controls processes on commercial chips to support development of lab-on-a-chip applications. The system has special microscopes and imaging systems, so scientists can process and study different types of fluid, chemical, and medical tests conducted on chips. For example, researchers have examined fluorescent bacteria as it flows through the chips' fluid channels or microfluidic capillaries. Researchers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have been studying how the lab-on-a-chip technology can be used for microbial detection, water quality monitoring, and detecting biosignatures of past or present life on Mars. The Marshall Center team is also collaborating with scientists at other NASA centers and at universities to develop custom chip designs for not only space applications, but for many Earth applications, such as for detecting deadly microbes in heating and air systems. (NASA/MSFC/D.Stoffer)

  12. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  13. Tap Teens' Curiosity with Lab Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Lab Band project used with 12th grade students at the Westgate Collegiate and Vocational Institute in Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada). Explains that each band student taught a peer how to play their instrument which created versatility in the band. States that all students kept a reflective journal. (CMK)

  14. Lab. X - projektrapport udarbejdet maj 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangshaab, Jette

    2015-01-01

    Nærværende projektrapport for Lab. X projektet (ERDFN-13-0129) fremstiller og vurderer udviklingen af projektforløbet, og hvorledes projektets hovedaktiviteter er gennemført, og i hvilket omfang milepælene er nået. Desuden præsenteres det, hvilke konkrete resultater projektet har nået og, hvordan...

  15. Technology Rich Biology Labs: Effects of Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuech, Robert; Zogg, Gregory; Zeeman, Stephan; Johnson, Mark

    This paper describes a study conducted on the lab sections of the general biology course for non-science majors at the University of New England, and reports findings of student misconceptions about photosynthesis and the mass/carbon uptake during plant growth. The current study placed high technology analytic tools in the hands of introductory…

  16. Electronics Lab Instructors' Approaches to Troubleshooting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    In this exploratory qualitative study, we describe instructors' self-reported practices for teaching and assessing students' ability to troubleshoot in electronics lab courses. We collected audio data from interviews with 20 electronics instructors from 18 institutions that varied by size, selectivity, and other factors. In addition to describing…

  17. Volkswagen Sets up Central Lab in BRICI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On June 2, Volkswagen Corp of Germany settled its Chinese central laboratory in Sinopec Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry (BRICI). This is the top-level lab of Volkswagen in Asia - Pacific region and it marks another close cooperation between Volkswagen Corp of Germany and Sinopec Corp.

  18. Soil functional types: surveying the biophysical dimensions of soil security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a natural capital that can deliver key ecosystem services (ES) to humans through the realization of a series of soil processes controlling ecosystem functioning. Soil is also a diverse and endangered natural resource. A huge pedodiversity has been described at all scales, which is strongly altered by global change. The multidimensional concept soil security, encompassing biophysical, economic, social, policy and legal frameworks of soils has recently been proposed, recognizing the role of soils in global environmental sustainability challenges. The biophysical dimensions of soil security focus on the functionality of a given soil that can be viewed as the combination of its capability and its condition [1]. Indeed, all soils are not equal in term of functionality. They show different processes, provide different ES to humans and respond specifically to global change. Knowledge of soil functionality in space and time is thus a crucial step towards the achievement soil security. All soil classification systems incorporate some functional information, but soil taxonomy alone cannot fully describe the functioning, limitations, resistance and resilience of soils. Droogers and Bouma [2] introduced functional variants (phenoforms) for each soil type (genoform) so as to fit more closely to soil functionality. However, different genoforms can have the same functionality. As stated by McBratney and colleagues [1], there is a great need of an agreed methodology for defining the reference state of soil functionality. Here, we propose soil functional types (SFT) as a relevant classification system for the biophysical dimensions of soil security. Following the definition of plant functional types widely used in ecology, we define a soil functional type as "a set of soil taxons or phenoforms sharing similar processes (e.g. soil respiration), similar effects on ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity) and similar responses to global change (land-use, management or

  19. LabVIEW A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Fairweather, Ian

    2011-01-01

    LabVIEW(t) has become one of the preeminent platforms for the development of data acquisition and data analysis programs. LabVIEW(t): A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration explains how to integrate LabVIEW into real-life applications. Written by experienced LabVIEW developers and engineers, the book describes how LabVIEW has been pivotal in solving real-world challenges. Each chapter is self-contained and demonstrates the power and simplicity of LabVIEW in various applications, from image processing to solar tracking systems. Many of the chapters explore how exciting new technologies c

  20. NASA GeneLab Concept of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Terri; Gibbs, Kristina; Rask, Jon; Coughlan, Joseph; Smith, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    NASA's GeneLab aims to greatly increase the number of scientists that are using data from space biology investigations on board ISS, emphasizing a systems biology approach to the science. When completed, GeneLab will provide the integrated software and hardware infrastructure, analytical tools and reference datasets for an assortment of model organisms. GeneLab will also provide an environment for scientists to collaborate thereby increasing the possibility for data to be reused for future experimentation. To maximize the value of data from life science experiments performed in space and to make the most advantageous use of the remaining ISS research window, GeneLab will apply an open access approach to conducting spaceflight experiments by generating, and sharing the datasets derived from these biological studies in space.Onboard the ISS, a wide variety of model organisms will be studied and returned to Earth for analysis. Laboratories on the ground will analyze these samples and provide genomic, transcriptomic, metabolomic and proteomic data. Upon receipt, NASA will conduct data quality control tasks and format raw data returned from the omics centers into standardized, annotated information sets that can be readily searched and linked to spaceflight metadata. Once prepared, the biological datasets, as well as any analysis completed, will be made public through the GeneLab Space Bioinformatics System webb as edportal. These efforts will support a collaborative research environment for spaceflight studies that will closely resemble environments created by the Department of Energy (DOE), National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), and other institutions in additional areas of study, such as cancer and environmental biology. The results will allow for comparative analyses that will help scientists around the world take a major leap forward in understanding the effect of microgravity, radiation, and other aspects of the space environment on model organisms

  1. Italian biophysics and SIBPA speed-up the pace towards the long and winding road of the interdisciplinary science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomazza, Daniela; Musio, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue of Biophysical Chemistry presents a selection of the contributions presented at the XXII National Congress of the Italian Society of Pure and Applied Biophysics (i.e., SIBPA, Società Italiana di Biofisica Pura ed Applicata) held on September 2014 in Palermo, Italy. Topics cover all biophysical disciplines, from molecular to cellular, to integrative biophysics giving a comprehensive view of the inter- and multi-disciplinary approach of modern biophysics. SIBPA, which turned 40 in 2013, continues to grow and attract interest.

  2. The Transformation of Users in Living Lab Construction: The Case of Eco-City Living Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yuan Lin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To promote the development of user-oriented technology, different approaches are explored, with living labs being one of the most promising. This paper introduces the strategies in making of a community-based living lab with a specific focus on the users. We introduce the practical mechanisms built in a community environment and the methods to facilitate user innovation. We also report a case study of the users’ response to a health care technology, finding out that most of the users did not change their opinion after a year’s use. The major finding is on the dynamics between living lab construction and the transformation of the users. We reflect on the phenomenon of a living lab itself transforming the users and making it difficult for them to provide specific opinions of the technology.

  3. Awakening interest in the natural sciences - BASF's Kids' Labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Cinthia

    2012-01-01

    At BASF's Ludwigshafen headquarters, kids and young adults in grades 1-13 can learn about chemistry in the Kids' Labs. Different programs exist for different levels of knowledge. In the two 'Hands-on Lab H(2)O & Co.' Kids' Labs, students from grades 1-6 explore the secrets of chemistry. BASF Kids' Labs have now been set up in over 30 countries. In Switzerland alone, almost 2,000 students have taken part in the 'Water Loves Chemistry' Kids' Lab since it was started in 2011. In Alsace, 600 students have participated to date. In the Teens' Lab 'Xplore Middle School', middle school students explore five different programs with the themes 'substance labyrinth', 'nutrition', 'coffee, caffeine & co.', 'cosmetics' and 'energy'. Biotechnological methods are the focus of the Teens' Lab 'Xplore Biotech' for students taking basic and advanced biology courses. In the 'Xplore High School' Teens' Lab, chemistry teachers present their own experimental lab instruction for students in basic and advanced chemistry courses. The Virtual Lab has been expanding the offerings of the BASF Kids' Labs since 2011. The online lab was developed by the company for the International Year Of Chemistry and gives kids and young adults the opportunity to do interactive experiments outside of the lab.

  4. Research on expermiental teaching of mobile communication based on LabVIEW%基于LabVIEW的移动通信实验教学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘严

    2013-01-01

    为了提高移动通信实验教学质量,减少实验室建设投入,提出了基于仿真软件LabVIEW的实验教学方法.通过应用LabVIEW图形化工程软件包,开发了多个综合虚拟仪器,用于开展验证性和综合性实验题目教学.控件模板提供了仿真度较高的各种仪器面板、按钮等电路器件,并且还可根据学生的需要自定义模块.实验结果表明基于LabVIEW软件仿真实验内容灵活、设计性强,既与基本理论相互补充,又能与硬件实验相互弥补,并节省了大量的设备资金,具有很好的推广价值.%To improve the teaching quality of the mobile communication experiment, and reduce the laboratory construction investment, an experimental teaching method is proposed based on the simulation software LabVIEW. Through the application of LabVIEW which is a graphical engineering software package, many comprehensive virtual instrument are designed, a lot of confirmatory and comprehensive experiment subjects are carried out . The control templates provide many circuit device such as instrument panel, button. The students can define the module according to their needs. The experimental results show that the software simulation experiment is with a flexible content, and not only combines with the basic theory, but also is complementary to hardware experiments. It saves a lot of equipment funds and has promotional value.

  5. Biophysical functionality in polysaccharides: from Lego-blocks to nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesàro, Attilio; Bellich, Barbara; Borgogna, Massimiliano

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the paper is to show the very important biophysical concepts that have been developed with polysaccharides. In particular, an attempt will be made to relate "a posteriori" the fundamental aspects, both experimental and theoretical, with some industrial applications of polysaccharide-based materials. The overview of chain conformational aspects includes relationships between topological features and local dynamics, exemplified for some naturally occurring carbohydrate polymers. Thus, by using simulation techniques and computational studies, the physicochemical properties of aqueous solutions of polysaccharides are interpreted. The relevance of conformational disorder-order transitions, chain aggregation, and phase separation to the underlying role of the ionic contribution to these processes is discussed. We stress the importance of combining information from analysis of experimental data with that from statistical-thermodynamic models for understanding the conformation, size, and functional stability of industrially important polysaccharides. The peculiar properties of polysaccharides in industrial applications are summarized for the particularly important example of nanoparticles production, a field of growing relevance and scientific interest.

  6. Biophysical modelling of early and delayed radiation damage at chromosome level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, S.; Eidelman, Y.

    Exposure by ionising radiation increases cancer risk in human population Cancer is thought to originate from an altered expression of certain number of specific genes It is now widely recognised that chromosome aberrations CA are involved in stable change in expression of genes by gain or loss of their functions Thus CA can contribute to initiation or progression of cancer Therefore understanding mechanisms of CA formation in the course of cancer development might be valuable tool for quantification and prognosis of different stages of radiation carcinogenesis Early CA are defined as aberrations induced in first post-irradiation mitotic cycle The present work describes the original biophysical technique for early CA modelling It includes the following simulation steps the ionising particle track structure the structural organisation of all chromosomes in G 0 G 1 cell nucleus spatial distribution of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks dsb within chromosomes dsb rejoining and misrejoining modelling cell cycle taking into account mitotic delay which results in complex time dependence of aberrant cells in first mitosis The results on prediction of dose-response curves for simple and complex CA measured in cells undergoing first division cycle are presented in comparison with recent experimental data There is increasing evidence that CA are also observed in descendents of irradiated cells many generations after direct DNA damage These delayed CA or chromosome instability CI are thought to be a manifestation of genome

  7. Folding of multidomain proteins: biophysical consequences of tethering even in apparently independent folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviv, Oshrit; Levy, Yaakov

    2012-12-01

    Most eukaryotic and a substantial fraction of prokaryotic proteins are composed of more than one domain. The tethering of these evolutionary, structural, and functional units raises, among others, questions regarding the folding process of conjugated domains. Studying the folding of multidomain proteins in silico enables one to identify and isolate the tethering-induced biophysical determinants that govern crosstalks generated between neighboring domains. For this purpose, we carried out coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of two two-domain constructs from the immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich fold. Each of these was experimentally shown to behave as the "sum of its parts," that is, the thermodynamic and kinetic folding behavior of the constituent domains of these constructs seems to occur independently, with the folding of each domain uncoupled from the folding of its partner in the two-domain construct. We show that the properties of the individual domains can be significantly affected by conjugation to another domain. The tethering may be accompanied by stabilizing as well as destabilizing factors whose magnitude depends on the size of the interface, the length, and the flexibility of the linker, and the relative stability of the domains. Accordingly, the folding of a multidomain protein should not be viewed as the sum of the folding patterns of each of its parts, but rather, it involves abrogating several effects that lead to this outcome. An imbalance between these effects may result in either stabilization or destabilization owing to the tethering.

  8. Bio-physical evaluation and in vivo delivery of plant proteinase inhibitor immobilized on silica nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Neha; Doke, Dhananjay S; Khandare, Jayant J; Jawale, Priyanka V; Biradar, Ankush V; Giri, Ashok P

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant expression of Capsicum annuum proteinase inhibitors (CanPI-13) and its application via synthetic carrier for the crop protection is the prime objective of our study. Herein, we explored proteinase inhibitor peptide immobilization on silica based nanospheres and rods followed by its pH mediated release in vitro and in vivo. Initial studies suggested silica nanospheres to be a suitable candidate for peptide immobilization. Furthermore, the interactions were characterized biophysically to ascertain their conformational stability and biological activity. Interestingly, bioactive peptide loading at acidic pH on nanospheres was found to be 62% and showed 56% of peptide release at pH 10, simulating gut milieu of the target pest Helicoverpa armigera. Additionally, in vivo study demonstrated significant reduction in insect body mass (158 mg) as compared to the control insects (265 mg) on 8th day after feeding with CanPI-13 based silica nanospheres. The study confirms that peptide immobilized silica nanosphere is capable of affecting overall growth and development of the feeding insects, which is known to hamper fecundity and fertility of the insects. Our study illustrates the utility and development of peptide-nanocarrier based platform in delivering diverse biologically active complexes specific to gut pH of H. armigera.

  9. A simple biophysically plausible model for long time constants in single neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiganj, Zoran; Hasselmo, Michael E; Howard, Marc W

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in computational neuroscience and cognitive psychology suggests that a set of cells that decay exponentially could be used to support memory for the time at which events took place. Analytically and through simulations on a biophysical model of an individual neuron, we demonstrate that exponentially decaying firing with a range of time constants up to minutes could be implemented using a simple combination of well-known neural mechanisms. In particular, we consider firing supported by calcium-controlled cation current. When the amount of calcium leaving the cell during an interspike interval is larger than the calcium influx during a spike, the overall decay in calcium concentration can be exponential, resulting in exponential decay of the firing rate. The time constant of the decay can be several orders of magnitude larger than the time constant of calcium clearance, and it could be controlled externally via a variety of biologically plausible ways. The ability to flexibly and rapidly control time constants could enable working memory of temporal history to be generalized to other variables in computing spatial and ordinal representations.

  10. A biophysical model of S. aurita early life history in the northern Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Vamara; Lett, Christophe; Penven, Pierrick; Bourlès, Bernard; Djakouré, Sandrine

    2017-02-01

    S. aurita is the most abundant small pelagic fish in the northern Gulf of Guinea. Its reproduction and recruitment depend crucially on environmental conditions. We developed a biophysical model of S. aurita early life history by coupling offline an individual-based model with the regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS). We used this model to investigate the main factors driving variability in eggs and larval dispersal and survival in the northern Gulf of Guinea. Precisely, individuals were released from different spawning areas along the coast and tracked for a period of 28 days corresponding to their planktonic phase. Individuals that remained in the coastal recruitment areas at an age more than 7 days, at which they can supposedly actively retain themselves in a favorable area, were considered as recruited. Simulation results show the importance of the spawning areas around Cape Palmas and Cape Three Points where cyclonic eddies trap eggs and larvae along the coast, preventing their advection offshore by the Guinea Current. The spawning period also plays a key role in the recruitment success, with highest coastal retention obtained during the major upwelling period (July-September). We find that a second retention peak can occur during the minor upwelling period (February-March) when larval mortality due to temperature is included in the model. These results are in general agreement with knowledge of S. aurita reproduction in the northern Gulf of Guinea.

  11. Biophysical mechanism for ras-nanocluster formation and signaling in plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gurry

    Full Text Available Ras GTPases are lipid-anchored G proteins, which play a fundamental role in cell signaling processes. Electron micrographs of immunogold-labeled Ras have shown that membrane-bound Ras molecules segregate into nanocluster domains. Several models have been developed in attempts to obtain quantitative descriptions of nanocluster formation, but all have relied on assumptions such as a constant, expression-level independent ratio of Ras in clusters to Ras monomers (cluster/monomer ratio. However, this assumption is inconsistent with the law of mass action. Here, we present a biophysical model of Ras clustering based on short-range attraction and long-range repulsion between Ras molecules in the membrane. To test this model, we performed Monte Carlo simulations and compared statistical clustering properties with experimental data. We find that we can recover the experimentally-observed clustering across a range of Ras expression levels, without assuming a constant cluster/monomer ratio or the existence of lipid rafts. In addition, our model makes predictions about the signaling properties of Ras nanoclusters in support of the idea that Ras nanoclusters act as an analog-digital-analog converter for high fidelity signaling.

  12. New organelles by gene duplication in a biophysical model of eukaryote endomembrane evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadas, Rohini; Thattai, Mukund

    2013-06-04

    Extant eukaryotic cells have a dynamic traffic network that consists of diverse membrane-bound organelles exchanging matter via vesicles. This endomembrane system arose and diversified during a period characterized by massive expansions of gene families involved in trafficking after the acquisition of a mitochondrial endosymbiont by a prokaryotic host cell >1.8 billion years ago. Here we investigate the mechanistic link between gene duplication and the emergence of new nonendosymbiotic organelles, using a minimal biophysical model of traffic. Our model incorporates membrane-bound compartments, coat proteins and adaptors that drive vesicles to bud and segregate cargo from source compartments, and SNARE proteins and associated factors that cause vesicles to fuse into specific destination compartments. In simulations, arbitrary numbers of compartments with heterogeneous initial compositions segregate into a few compositionally distinct subsets that we term organelles. The global structure of the traffic system (i.e., the number, composition, and connectivity of organelles) is determined completely by local molecular interactions. On evolutionary timescales, duplication of the budding and fusion machinery followed by loss of cross-interactions leads to the emergence of new organelles, with increased molecular specificity being necessary to maintain larger organellar repertoires. These results clarify potential modes of early eukaryotic evolution as well as more recent eukaryotic diversification.

  13. Effects of graphene oxide nanosheets on the ultrastructure and biophysical properties of the pulmonary surfactant film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinglin; Jiao, Bao; Shi, Xinghua; Valle, Russell P; Zuo, Yi Y; Hu, Guoqing

    2015-11-21

    Graphene oxide (GO) is the most common derivative of graphene and has been used in a large range of biomedical applications. Despite considerable progress in understanding its cytotoxicity, its potential inhalation toxicity is still largely unknown. As the pulmonary surfactant (PS) film is the first line of host defense, interaction with the PS film determines the fate of the inhaled nanomaterials and their potential toxicity. Using a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model, we reported, for the first time, a novel mechanism of toxicity caused by the inhaled GO nanosheets. Upon deposition, the GO nanosheets induce pores in the PS film and thus have adverse effects on the ultrastructure and biophysical properties of the PS film. Notably, the pores induced by GO nanosheets result in increasing the compressibility of the PS film, which is an important indication of surfactant inhibition. In vitro experiments have also been conducted to study the interactions between GO and animal-derived natural PS films, qualitatively confirming the simulation results.

  14. Biophysical induction of vascular smooth muscle cell podosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Young Kim

    Full Text Available Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration and matrix degradation occurs with intimal hyperplasia associated with atherosclerosis, vascular injury, and restenosis. One proposed mechanism by which VSMCs degrade matrix is through the use of podosomes, transient actin-based structures that are thought to play a role in extracellular matrix degradation by creating localized sites of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP secretion. To date, podosomes in VSMCs have largely been studied by stimulating cells with phorbol esters, such as phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu, however little is known about the physiological cues that drive podosome formation. We present the first evidence that physiological, physical stimuli mimicking cues present within the microenvironment of diseased arteries can induce podosome formation in VSMCs. Both microtopographical cues and imposed pressure mimicking stage II hypertension induce podosome formation in A7R5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Moreover, wounding using a scratch assay induces podosomes at the leading edge of VSMCs. Notably the effect of each of these biophysical stimuli on podosome stimulation can be inhibited using a Src inhibitor. Together, these data indicate that physical cues can induce podosome formation in VSMCs.

  15. Biophysical profile of blood pressure in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M; Chhatwal, J; George, S M

    1995-07-01

    The study was conducted in an industrial and prosperous city of Punjab to evaluate the biophysical profile of blood pressure (BP) in apparently healthy school children. A total of 2560 children between the ages of 5-15 years were enrolled. Their age, religion, dietary and family history were recorded. Weight and height of all children were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. A value of 2.26 or more was taken as obesity. BP measurements were made as per recommendations of the American Heart Association. Systolic as well as diastolic BP increased with age in both sexes, correlation coefficients being 0.59 and 0.6, respectively. A statistically significant linear relationship between BP and weight and height was noted. Children with BMI of > 2.26 had a significantly higher BP (P vegetarians and also non- vegetarians also did not differ. A family history of hypertension was associated significantly with elevated BP (p obesity and a family history of hypertension in children are associated with elevated BP and such children may be at risk for developing hypertension at a later date. They should be followed up and considered for modification of risk factors.

  16. Influence of silybin on biophysical properties of phospholipid bilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga WESO(L)OWSKA; Krystyna MICHALAK; Barbara (L)ANIA-PIETRZAK; Micha(l) KU(Z)D(Z)A(L); Kamila STA(N)CZAK; Daniela MOSI(A)DZ; Piotr DOBRYSZYCKI; Andrzej O(Z)YHAR; Ma(l)gorzata KOMOROWSKA; Andrzej B HENDRICH

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Silybin (silibinin)is major biologically active flavonolignan extracted from milk thistle (Sylibum marianum). Its biological activities include hepato-protection, anticancer properties, and antioxidant- and membrane-stabilizing functions. Al-though membranes are postulated to be one of the cellular targets for silybin, little is known about its interaction with phospholipid bilayers. Methods: In the present work, the interactions of silybin with phosphatidylcholine bilayers were studied in detail using fluorescence spectroscopy, microcalorimetry and electron spin resonance techniques. Results: The results showed that silybin interacted with the surface of lipid bilayers. It affected the generalized polarization of the fluores-cent probe Prodan, while not influencing the more deeplylocated Laurdan. Silybin lowered the main phospholipid phase transition temperature as judged by microcalorimetry, and caused the immobilization of spin probe Tempo-palmitate located on the surface of membranes. The mobility of spin probes 5-and 16-doxylstearic acid was not affected by silybin. Silybin-induced quenching of 1,6-diphe-nyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence indicated that some flavonoid molecules parti-tioned into the hydrophobic region of membranes, which did not change signifi-cantly the biophysical properties of the deeper membrane regions. Conclusion: Such a behavior of silybin in membranes is in accordance with its postulated biological functions and neglectable side effects of therapies using silybin.

  17. Biophysical characterization of gold nanoparticles-loaded liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Mohsen Mahmoud; Fathy, Mohamed Mahmoud; Youssef, Tareq; Khalil, Wafaa Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles were prepared and loaded into the bilayer of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes, named as gold-loaded liposomes. Biophysical characterization of gold-loaded liposomes was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as turbidity and rheological measurements. FTIR measurements showed that gold nanoparticles made significant changes in the frequency of the CH(2) stretching bands, revealing that gold nanoparticles increased the number of gauche conformers and create a conformational change within the acyl chains of phospholipids. The transmission electron micrographs (TEM) revealed that gold nanoparticles were loaded in the liposomal bilayer. The zeta potential of DPPC liposomes had a more negative value after incorporating of Au NPs into liposomal membranes. Turbidity studies revealed that the loading of gold nanoparticles into DPPC liposomes results in shifting the temperature of the main phase transition to a lower value. The membrane fluidity of DPPC bilayer was increased by loading the gold nanoparticles as shown from rheological measurements. Knowledge gained in this study may open the door to pursuing liposomes as a viable strategy for Au NPs delivery in many diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  18. Nanoparticle Density: A Critical Biophysical Regulator of Endothelial Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chor Yong; Setyawati, Magdiel Inggrid; Leong, David Tai

    2017-03-17

    The integrity of the vasculature system is intrinsically sensitive to a short list of biophysical cues spanning from nano to micro scales. We have earlier found that certain nanomaterials could induce endothelial leakiness (nanoparticle induced endothelial leakiness, nanoEL). In this study, we report that the density of the nanomaterial, a basic intrinsic material property not implicated in many nanoparticle-mediated biological effects, predominantly dictates the nanoEL effect. We demonstrated that the impinging force exerted by a library of increasing effective densities but consistently sized silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) could directly increase endothelial permeability. The crossover effective particle density that induced nanoEL was determined to be between 1.57 g/cm(3) to 1.72 g/cm(3). It was also found that a cumulative gravitational-mediated force of around 1.8 nN/μm along the boundaries of the vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cad) adherens junctions appeared to be a critical threshold force required to perturb endothelial cell-cell adhesion. The net result is the "snapping" of the mechanically pretensed VE-cad (Nanosnap), leading to the formation of micron-sized gaps that would dramatically increase endothelial leakiness.

  19. The biophysical bases of will-less behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis ePerez Velazquez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Are there distinctions at the neurophysiological level that correlate with voluntary and involuntary actions? Whereas the wide variety of involuntary behaviours (and here mostly the deviant or pathological ones will be considered will necessarily be represented at some biophysical level in nervous system activity, for after all those cellular activity patterns manifest themselves as behaviours and thus there will be a multiplicity of them, there could be some general tendencies to be discerned amongst that assortment. Collecting observations derived from neurophysiological activity associated with several pathological conditions characterised by presenting will-less actions such as Parkinson’s disease, seizures, alien hand syndrome and tics, it is proposed that a general neurophysiologic tendency of brain activity that correlates with involuntary actions is higher than normal synchrony in specific brain cell networks, depending upon the behaviour in question. Wilful, considered normal behaviour, depends on precise coordination of the collective activity in cell ensembles that may be lost, or diminished, when there are tendencies towards more than normal or aberrant synchronization of cellular activity. Hence, rapid fluctuations in synchrony is associated with normal actions and cognition while less variability in brain recordings particularly with regards to synchronization could be a signature of unconscious and deviant behaviours in general.

  20. Biophysical mechanism of transient retinal phototropism in rod photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Thapa, Damber; Wang, Benquan; Gai, Shaoyan; Yao, Xincheng

    2016-03-01

    Oblique light stimulation evoked transient retinal phototropism (TRP) has been recently detected in frog and mouse retinas. High resolution microscopy of freshly isolated retinas indicated that the TRP is predominated by rod photoreceptors. Comparative confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed that the TRP predominantly occurred from the photoreceptor outer segment (OS). However, biophysical mechanism of rod OS change is still unknown. In this study, frog retinal slices, which open a cross section of retinal photoreceptor and other functional layers, were used to test the effect of light stimulation on rod OS. Near infrared light microscopy was employed to monitor photoreceptor changes in retinal slices stimulated by a rectangular-shaped visible light flash. Rapid rod OS length change was observed after the stimulation delivery. The magnitude and direction of the rod OS change varied with the position of the rods within the stimulated area. In the center of stimulated region the length of the rod OS shrunk, while in the peripheral region the rod OS tip swung towards center region in the plane perpendicular to the incident stimulus light. Our experimental result and theoretical analysis suggest that the observed TRP may reflect unbalanced disc-shape change due to localized pigment bleaching. Further investigation is required to understand biochemical mechanism of the observed rod OS kinetics. Better study of the TRP may provide a noninvasive biomarker to enable early detection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other diseases that are known to produce retinal photoreceptor dysfunctions.

  1. Biophysical principles predict fitness landscapes of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João V; Bershtein, Shimon; Li, Anna; Lozovsky, Elena R; Hartl, Daniel L; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2016-03-15

    Fitness landscapes of drug resistance constitute powerful tools to elucidate mutational pathways of antibiotic escape. Here, we developed a predictive biophysics-based fitness landscape of trimethoprim (TMP) resistance for Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). We investigated the activity, binding, folding stability, and intracellular abundance for a complete set of combinatorial DHFR mutants made out of three key resistance mutations and extended this analysis to DHFR originated from Chlamydia muridarum and Listeria grayi We found that the acquisition of TMP resistance via decreased drug affinity is limited by a trade-off in catalytic efficiency. Protein stability is concurrently affected by the resistant mutants, which precludes a precise description of fitness from a single molecular trait. Application of the kinetic flux theory provided an accurate model to predict resistance phenotypes (IC50) quantitatively from a unique combination of the in vitro protein molecular properties. Further, we found that a controlled modulation of the GroEL/ES chaperonins and Lon protease levels affects the intracellular steady-state concentration of DHFR in a mutation-specific manner, whereas IC50 is changed proportionally, as indeed predicted by the model. This unveils a molecular rationale for the pleiotropic role of the protein quality control machinery on the evolution of antibiotic resistance, which, as we illustrate here, may drastically confound the evolutionary outcome. These results provide a comprehensive quantitative genotype-phenotype map for the essential enzyme that serves as an important target of antibiotic and anticancer therapies.

  2. Thermal shell fragment craniofacial injury: biophysics, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuker, Sabri T

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to bring attention to unique risks and burns by thermal shell fragment craniofacial soft tissue injury. Hot shrapnel may inflict burns to major vessel walls and lead to life-threatening hemorrhaging or death, which adds a new challenge for craniofacial surgeons. Morbidity of thermal deep tissue may lead to deep tissue necrosis and infection.Thermal energy (TE) physics, biophysics, and pathophysiological effects relate directly to the amount of heat generated from shell casing detonation, which transfers to skin, deep tissue, as well as brain and leads to life-threatening burning of organs; this is different from shrapnel kinetic energy injury.The unprecedented increase in using a large range of explosives and high-heat thermobaric weapons contributes to the superfluous and unnecessary suffering caused by thermal injury wounds.Surgeons and medics should recognize that a surprising amount of TE can be found in an explosion or detonation of a steel-encased explosive, resulting in TEs ranging from 400 F up to 1000 F.

  3. Biophysical model of prokaryotic diversity in geothermal hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klales, Anna; Duncan, James; Nett, Elizabeth Janus; Kane, Suzanne Amador

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies of photosynthetic bacteria living in geothermal hot spring environments have revealed surprisingly complex ecosystems with an unexpected level of genetic diversity. One case of particular interest involves the distribution along hot spring thermal gradients of genetically distinct bacterial strains that differ in their preferred temperatures for reproduction and photosynthesis. In such systems, a single variable, temperature, defines the relevant environmental variation. In spite of this, each region along the thermal gradient exhibits multiple strains of photosynthetic bacteria adapted to several distinct thermal optima, rather than a single thermal strain adapted to the local environmental temperature. Here we analyze microbiology data from several ecological studies to show that the thermal distribution data exhibit several universal features independent of location and specific bacterial strain. These include the distribution of optimal temperatures of different thermal strains and the functional dependence of the net population density on temperature. We present a simple population dynamics model of these systems that is highly constrained by biophysical data and by physical features of the environment. This model can explain in detail the observed thermal population distributions, as well as certain features of population dynamics observed in laboratory studies of the same organisms.

  4. Universal buffers for use in biochemistry and biophysical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewey Brooke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of buffers that mimic biological solutions is a foundation of biochemical and biophysical studies. However, buffering agents have both specific and nonspecific interactions with proteins. Buffer molecules can induce changes in conformational equilibria, dynamic behavior, and catalytic properties merely by their presence in solution. This effect is of concern because many of the standard experiments used to investigate protein structure and function involve changing solution conditions such as pH and/or temperature. In experiments in which pH is varied, it is common practice to switch buffering agents so that the pH is within the working range of the weak acid and conjugate base. If multiple buffers are used, it is not always possible to decouple buffer induced change from pH or temperature induced change. We have developed a series of mixed biological buffers for protein analysis that can be used across a broad pH range, are compatible with biologically relevant metal ions, and avoid complications that may arise from changing the small molecule composition of buffers when pH is used as an experimental variable.

  5. Biophysical and biological meanings of healthspan from C. elegans cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hitoshi, E-mail: suda@tsc.u-tokai.ac.jp

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • We focus on a third factor, noise, as well as on genetic and environmental factors. • C. elegans fed a healthy food had an extended healthspan as compared to those fed a conventional diet. • An amplification of ATP noise was clearly evident from around the onset of biodemographic aging. • The extension of timing of noise amplification may contribute to effectively extending the healthspan. • The same mechanism of the mean lifespan extension in C. elegans may be realized in humans. - Abstract: Lifespan among individuals ranges widely in organisms from yeast to mammals, even in an isogenic cohort born in a nearly uniform environment. Needless to say, genetic and environmental factors are essential for aging and lifespan, but in addition, a third factor or the existence of a stochastic element must be reflected in aging and lifespan. An essential point is that lifespan or aging is an unpredictable phenomenon. The present study focuses on elucidating the biophysical and biological meanings of healthspan that latently indwells a stochastic nature. To perform this purpose, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans served as a model animal. C. elegans fed a healthy food had an extended healthspan as compared to those fed a conventional diet. Then, utilizing this phenomenon, we clarified a mechanism of healthspan extension by measuring the single-worm ATP and estimating the ATP noise (or the variability of the ATP content) among individual worms and by quantitatively analyzing biodemographic data with the lifespan equation that was derived from a fluctuation theory.

  6. Symposium on Biophysics and Physiology of Biological Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Capraro, V; Porter, K; Robertson, J

    1967-01-01

    The study of cell membranes began to attract increasing interest before the turn of the present century with the observations of 0 verton. Since that time many investigators have become interested in the broad problem of structure and function of the membrane and today we find ourselVes at a stage in which several branches of research, particularly physical chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, physiology and pharmacology have come together, leading to the possibility of obtaining a better perspective of the overall problems. The purpose of this Symposium was to assemble in an orderly sequence representations of the knowledge of membranes achieved to date in the areas of the various disciplines. It was thought that to bring together many points of view on a problem should allow the conferees to see better what had been accomplished, what has been overlooked and what needs further development. It is to be hoped that efforts of this type have and will fulfill the desired purpose. This volume contains the majorit...

  7. The biophysical bases of will-less behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Velazquez, José L

    2012-01-01

    Are there distinctions at the neurophysiological level that correlate with voluntary and involuntary actions? Whereas the wide variety of involuntary behaviors (and here mostly the deviant or pathological ones will be considered) will necessarily be represented at some biophysical level in nervous system activity-for after all those cellular activity patterns manifest themselves as behaviors and thus there will be a multiplicity of them-there could be some general tendencies to be discerned amongst that assortment. Collecting observations derived from neurophysiological activity associated with several pathological conditions characterized by presenting will-less actions such as Parkinson's disease, seizures, alien hand syndrome and tics, it is proposed that a general neurophysiologic tendency of brain activity that correlates with involuntary actions is higher than normal synchrony in specific brain cell networks, depending upon the behavior in question. Wilful, considered normal behavior, depends on precise coordination of the collective activity in cell ensembles that may be lost, or diminished, when there are tendencies toward more than normal or aberrant synchronization of cellular activity. Hence, rapid fluctuations in synchrony is associated with normal actions and cognition while less variability in brain recordings particularly with regards to synchronization could be a signature of unconscious and deviant behaviors in general.

  8. Energy efficient neural stimulation: coupling circuit design and membrane biophysics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Foutz

    Full Text Available The delivery of therapeutic levels of electrical current to neural tissue is a well-established treatment for numerous indications such as Parkinson's disease and chronic pain. While the neuromodulation medical device industry has experienced steady clinical growth over the last two decades, much of the core technology underlying implanted pulse generators remain unchanged. In this study we propose some new methods for achieving increased energy-efficiency during neural stimulation. The first method exploits the biophysical features of excitable tissue through the use of a centered-triangular stimulation waveform. Neural activation with this waveform is achieved with a statistically significant reduction in energy compared to traditional rectangular waveforms. The second method demonstrates energy savings that could be achieved by advanced circuitry design. We show that the traditional practice of using a fixed compliance voltage for constant-current stimulation results in substantial energy loss. A portion of this energy can be recuperated by adjusting the compliance voltage to real-time requirements. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential impact of axon fiber diameter on defining the energy-optimal pulse-width for stimulation. When designing implantable pulse generators for energy efficiency, we propose that the future combination of a variable compliance system, a centered-triangular stimulus waveform, and an axon diameter specific stimulation pulse-width has great potential to reduce energy consumption and prolong battery life in neuromodulation devices.

  9. Overproduction and biophysical characterization of human HSP70 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell-Casteel, Rebba C; Johnson, Jennifer M; Duggan, Kelli D; Tsutsui, Yuko; Hays, Franklin A

    2015-02-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) perform vital cellular functions and modulate cell response pathways to physical and chemical stressors. A key feature of HSP function is the ability to interact with a broad array of protein binding partners as a means to potentiate downstream response pathways or facilitate protein folding. These binding interactions are driven by ATP-dependent conformational rearrangements in HSP proteins. The HSP70 family is evolutionarily conserved and is associated with diabetes and cancer progression and the etiopathogenesis of hepatic, cardiovascular, and neurological disorders in humans. However, functional characterization of human HSP70s has been stymied by difficulties in obtaining large quantities of purified protein. Studies of purified human HSP70 proteins are essential for downstream investigations of protein-protein interactions and in the rational design of novel family-specific therapeutics. Within this work, we present optimized protocols for the heterologous overexpression and purification of either the nucleotide binding domain (NBD) or the nucleotide and substrate binding domains of human HSPA9, HSPA8, and HSPA5 in either Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also include initial biophysical characterization of HSPA9 and HSPA8. This work provides the basis for future biochemical studies of human HSP70 protein function and structure.

  10. Integrating Economic Models with Biophysical Models in the Willamette Water 2100 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, W. K.; Plantinga, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper highlights the human system modeling components for Willamette Water 2100, a comprehensive, highly integrated study of hydrological, ecological, and human factors affecting water scarcity in the Willamette River Basin (WRB). The project is developing a spatiotemporal simulation model to predict future trajectories of water scarcity, and to evaluate mitigation policies. Economic models of land use and water use are the main human system models in WW2100. Water scarcity depends on both supply and demand for water, and varies greatly across time and space (Jaeger et al., 2013). Thus, the locations of human water use can have enormous influence on where and when water is used, and hence where water scarcity may arise. Modeling the locations of human uses of water (e.g., urban versus agricultural) as well as human values and choices, are the principal quantitative ways that social science can contribute to research of this kind. Our models are empirically-based models of human resource allocation. Each model reflects private behavior (choices by households, farms, firms), institutions (property rights, laws, markets, regulations), public infrastructure (dams, canals, highways), and also 'external drivers' that influence the local economy (migration, population growth, national markets and policies). This paper describes the main model components, emphasizing similarities between human and biophysical components of the overall project, and the model's linkages and feedbacks relevant to our predictions of changes in water scarcity between now and 2100. Results presented include new insights from individual model components as well as available results from the integrated system model. Issues include water scarcity and water quality (temperature) for out-of-stream and instream uses, the impact of urban expansion on water use and potential flood damage. Changes in timing and variability of spring discharge with climate change, as well as changes in human uses of

  11. LabVIEW: a software system for data acquisition, data analysis, and instrument control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkman, C J

    1995-01-01

    Computer-based data acquisition systems play an important role in clinical monitoring and in the development of new monitoring tools. LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX) is a data acquisition and programming environment that allows flexible acquisition and processing of analog and digital data. The main feature that distinguishes LabVIEW from other data acquisition programs is its highly modular graphical programming language, "G," and a large library of mathematical and statistical functions. The advantage of graphical programming is that the code is flexible, reusable, and self-documenting. Subroutines can be saved in a library and reused without modification in other programs. This dramatically reduces development time and enables researchers to develop or modify their own programs. LabVIEW uses a large amount of processing power and computer memory, thus requiring a powerful computer. A large-screen monitor is desirable when developing larger applications. LabVIEW is excellently suited for testing new monitoring paradigms, analysis algorithms, or user interfaces. The typical LabVIEW user is the researcher who wants to develop a new monitoring technique, a set of new (derived) variables by integrating signals from several existing patient monitors, closed-loop control of a physiological variable, or a physiological simulator.

  12. CELSTEC Learning Labs: Mobile App Development for Education and Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Specht, M. (2011). CELSTEC Learning Labs: Mobile App Development for Education and Training. Presentation given in Workshop at CELSTEC Learning Lab for Bluetea. February, 21, 2011, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  13. "Gemeinsam an einem Strang ziehen": Skills-Lab Workshops Marburg-Göttingen – Ein Erfahrungsbericht [Heading in the same direction: The skills-lab workshops Marburg-Goettingen – A field report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiller, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] History: After the initiation of skills-labs in Marburg and Goettingen the peer-teaching students of both institutions saw a need for communication and cooperation. The primary goal of these ’skills-lab workshops’ was the exchange of already existing ideas for extracurricular peer-teaching, the development of new tutorials and long-term cooperation between the institutions.Methods: In January of 2010 the 1 ’skills-lab workshop’ Marburg-Goettingen was held at the ‘Marburg’s Interdisciplinary skills-lab’ (Maris, since 10/2008. The 2 workshop was held at the ‘Student’s trainings center of medical practice and simulation’ (STÄPS, since 10/2009 in Goettingen in October of 2010.Results and conclusion: Especially younger skills-labs can profit from an exchange with a more established Institution. Cooperations like these are the foundation for future exchange of ideas for new peer-teachings and the continuous improvement or a transfer of existing peer-teachings for skills-labs. We recommend bilateral exchanges like this to other and especially to new skills-labs.[german] Zielsetzung: Mit der Gründung von Skills-Labs an den medizinischen Fakultäten der Universitäten Marburg und Göttingen in den letzten drei Jahren entstand das Bedürfnis der in diesen Einrichtungen tätigen studentischen Tutoren nach Austausch. Das primäre Ziel eines gemeinsamen Workshops war der Austausch zur Angebots- und Qualitätsentwicklung und der längerfristigen Kooperation der beiden Standorte zur Ressourcenoptimierung.Methodik: An einem Wochenende im Januar 2010 hat auf studentische Initiative hin der „1. Skills-Lab Workshop Marburg-Göttingen“ in Marburg stattgefunden, veranstaltet vom Marburger interdisziplinären Skills-Lab (Maris, seit 10/2008 in Kooperation mit dem Studentisches Trainingszentrum Ärztlicher Praxis und Simulation (STÄPS, seit 10/2009. Der „2. Skills-Lab Workshop“ fand im Oktober 2010 in Göttingen statt

  14. Utah Virtual Lab: JAVA interactivity for teaching science and statistics on line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, T E; Jensen, G C

    2001-05-01

    The Utah on-line Virtual Lab is a JAVA program run dynamically off a database. It is embedded in StatCenter (www.psych.utah.edu/learn/statsampler.html), an on-line collection of tools and text for teaching and learning statistics. Instructors author a statistical virtual reality that simulates theories and data in a specific research focus area by defining independent, predictor, and dependent variables and the relations among them. Students work in an on-line virtual environment to discover the principles of this simulated reality: They go to a library, read theoretical overviews and scientific puzzles, and then go to a lab, design a study, collect and analyze data, and write a report. Each student's design and data analysis decisions are computer-graded and recorded in a database; the written research report can be read by the instructor or by other students in peer groups simulating scientific conventions.

  15. 基于LabVIEW的虚拟触摸屏控制面板设计%Design on Virtual Touch-screen Control Panel Based on LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威; 周伦; 许美玲

    2011-01-01

    A picture controlled by touch-screen was developed by LabVIEW to achieve a simulation model of the touch-screen control part of the nitrogen and oxygen making cart. The calling of dynamic link library in LabVIEW was analyzed. The display of the inverter control panel was achieved. The experimental result shows that the method is simple and it has no command on hardware.%利用LabVIEW开发一个触摸屏控制画面,以实现某制氮制氧车仿真模型的触摸屏控制部分。分析了LabVIEW 中动态链接库(DLL)的调用,实现了变频器控制盘的显示。实验结果表明:这种方法简单可行,降低了对硬件的要求。

  16. Human Visual System as a Double-Slit Single Photon Interference Sensor: A Comparison between Modellistic and Biophysical Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pizzi

    Full Text Available This paper describes a computational approach to the theoretical problems involved in the Young's single-photon double-slit experiment, focusing on a simulation of this experiment in the absence of measuring devices. Specifically, the human visual system is used in place of a photomultiplier or similar apparatus. Beginning with the assumption that the human eye perceives light in the presence of very few photons, we measure human eye performance as a sensor in a double-slit one-photon-at-a-time experimental setup. To interpret the results, we implement a simulation algorithm and compare its results with those of human subjects under identical experimental conditions. In order to evaluate the perceptive parameters exactly, which vary depending on the light conditions and on the subject's sensitivity, we first review the existing literature on the biophysics of the human eye in the presence of a dim light source, and then use the known values of the experimental variables to set the parameters of the computational simulation. The results of the simulation and their comparison with the experiment involving human subjects are reported and discussed. It is found that, while the computer simulation indicates that the human eye has the capacity to detect the corpuscular nature of photons under these conditions, this was not observed in practice. The possible reasons for the difference between theoretical prediction and experimental results are discussed.

  17. Revising Geology Labs To Explicitly Use the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Kimberly A.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that content- or skill-based labs can be revised to explicitly involve the scientific method by asking students to propose hypotheses before making observations. Students' self-assessment showed they felt that they learned a great deal from this style of labs and found the labs to be fun; however, students felt that they learned little…

  18. The Dynamics and Facilitation of a Living Lab Construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, Louise; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2013-01-01

    and the different actors, processes and methods are therefore interesting to put into perspective as it contains opportunities for staging a well‐functioning Living Lab. This paper contributes to unfolding and discussing some of the main challenges in managing a Living Lab while keeping the different actors engaged...... in the process by drawing upon data from three Living Lab projects....

  19. Cassandra - WP400 - final report of living lab 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engler, M.; Klievink, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This CASSANDRA LL2 final deliverable contains all information regarding the CASSANDRA Living Lab Europe – USA via Bremerhaven including information from two intermediate reports (CASSANDRA D4.21 and D4.22) about the very same Living Lab handed in during runtime of the Living Lab. CASSANDRA Living L

  20. Electronics lab instructors' approaches to troubleshooting instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R

    2016-01-01

    In this exploratory qualitative study, we describe instructors' self-reported practices for teaching and assessing students' ability to troubleshoot in electronics lab courses. We collected audio data from interviews with 20 electronics instructors from 18 institutions that varied by size, selectivity, and other factors. In addition to describing participants' instructional practices, we characterize their perceptions about the role of troubleshooting in electronics, the importance of the ability to troubleshoot more generally, and what it means for students to be competent troubleshooters. One major finding of this work is that, while almost all instructors in our study said that troubleshooting is an important learning outcome for students in electronics lab courses, only half of instructors said they directly assessed students' ability to troubleshoot. Based on our findings, we argue that there is a need for research-based instructional materials that attend to both cognitive and non-cognitive aspects of t...

  1. Technology Roadmap: Lab-on-a-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattharaporn Suntharasaj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With the integration of microfluidic and MEMS technologies, biochips such as the lab-on-a-chip (LOC devices are at the brink of revolutionizing the medical disease diagnostics industries. Remarkable advancements in the biochips industry are making products resembling Star Trek.s "tricorder" and handheld medical scanners a reality. Soon, doctors can screen for cancer at the molecular level without costly and cumbersome equipments, and discuss treatment plans based on immediate lab results. This paper develops a roadmap for a hypothetical company (XI which is seeking to be successful in this market. The roadmapping process starts with gathering data through literature research and expert opinions, and progress through defining the market/product/technology layers, linking and integrating these layers, and finally creating a labon-a-chip for disease diagnostics technology roadmap.

  2. Lab-on-a-Chip Multiplex Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Harald; Wienke, Julia; Bier, Frank F

    2017-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip multiplex assays allow a rapid identification of multiple parameters in an automated manner. Here we describe a lab-based preparation followed by a rapid and fully automated DNA microarray hybridization and readout in less than 10 min using the Fraunhofer in vitro diagnostics (ivD) platform to enable rapid identification of bacterial species and detection of antibiotic resistance. The use of DNA microarrays allows a fast adaptation of new biomarkers enabling the identification of different genes as well as single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes. In this protocol we describe a DNA microarray developed for identification of Staphylococcus aureus and the mecA resistance gene.

  3. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2004-10-01

    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes.

  4. Bipolar Transistor Tester for Physics Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Baddi, Raju

    2012-01-01

    A very simple low cost bipolar transistor tester for physics lab is given. The proposed circuit not only indicates the type of transistor(NPN/PNP) but also indicates the terminals(emitter, base and collector) using simple dual colored(Red/Green) LEDs. Color diagrams of testing procedure have been given for easy following. This article describes the construction of this apparatus in all detail with schematic circuit diagram, circuit layout and constructional illustration.

  5. Setting new sights for standards lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-03-01

    It may be best known as the home of the world's first atomic clock, which led to a new definition of the second. But the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), which develops and maintains the country's measurement standards, was in fact founded in 1900 to promote links between science and commerce. That tradition, which saw staff at the lab also inventing radar, early computers and modern network packet switching, is something that John Pethica - NPL's new chief scientist - is keen to build on.

  6. Berkeley's Advanced Labs for Undergraduate Astronomy Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiles, C.

    1998-12-01

    We currently offer three advanced laboratory courses for undergraduate majors: optical, IR, and radio. These courses contain both intellectual and practical content; in this talk we focus on the radio lab as a representative example. The first half of the semester concentrates on fundamentals of microwave electronics and radio astronomy techniques in four formal laboratory exercises which emphasize hands-on use of microwave devices, laboratory instruments, and computer-controlled data taking. The second half of the course emphasizes astronomy, using a horn with ~ 1 m(2) aperture to map the HI in the Galaxy and a two-element interferometer composed of ~ 1 m diameter dishes on a ~ 10 m baseline to measure accurate positions of radio sources and accurate diameters for the Sun and Moon. These experiments and observations offer ideal opportunities for teaching coordinates, time, rotation matrices, data reduction techniques, least squares, signal processing, image processing, Fourier transforms, and laboratory and astronomical instrumentation. The students can't get along without using computers as actually used by astronomers. We stay away from packaged software such as IRAF, which are ``black boxes''; rather, students learn far more by writing their own software, usually for the first time. They use the IDL language to take and reduce data and prepare them for the lab reports. We insist on quality reports---including tables, postscript graphs and images, correct grammar, spelling, and all the rest---and we strongly urge (successfully!) the students to use LATEX. The other two lab courses have the same emphasis: the guiding spirit is to place the students in a real-life research-like situation. There is too much to do, so students perform the work in small groups of 3 or 4 and groups are encouraged to share their knowledge. Lab reports are written individually. These courses are very demanding, requiring an average of 20 hours per week from the students (and probably

  7. Bacteriocinogenic LAB from cheeses - Application in biopreservation?

    OpenAIRE

    Favaro, Lorenzo; Barretto Penna, Ana Lucia [UNESP; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been an explosion of basic and applied research on lactic acid bacteria bacteriocins, because of their potential as biopreservatives and inhibition of the growth of spoilage bacteria. Although bacteriocins can be produced during cheese production, their titers are much lower than those achieved in vitro fermentations under optimal physical and chemical conditions. Safety and technological traits of the bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to be con...

  8. Jefferson Lab Science, Past and Future

    CERN Document Server

    McKeown, R D

    2014-01-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and associated experimental equipment at Jefferson Lab comprise a unique facility for experimental nuclear physics. This facility is presently being upgraded, which will enable a new experimental program with substantial discovery potential to address important topics in nuclear, hadronic, and electroweak physics. Further in the future, it is envisioned that the Laboratory will evolve into an electron-ion colliding beam facility.

  9. Overview of Nuclear Physics at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, Robert D. [JLAB

    2013-08-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and associated experimental equipment at Jefferson Lab comprise a unique facility for experimental nuclear physics. This facility is presently being upgraded, which will enable a new experimental program with substantial discovery potential to address important topics in nuclear, hadronic, and electroweak physics. Further in the future, it is envisioned that the Laboratory will evolve into an electron-ion colliding beam facility.

  10. Berkeley Lab Computing Sciences: Accelerating Scientific Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hules, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists today rely on advances in computer science, mathematics, and computational science, as well as large-scale computing and networking facilities, to increase our understanding of ourselves, our planet, and our universe. Berkeley Lab's Computing Sciences organization researches, develops, and deploys new tools and technologies to meet these needs and to advance research in such areas as global climate change, combustion, fusion energy, nanotechnology, biology, and astrophysics.

  11. The NASA Langley Isolator Dynamics Research Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Troy F.; Balla, Robert J.; Baurle, Robert A.; Humphreys, William M.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2010-01-01

    The Isolator Dynamics Research Lab (IDRL) is under construction at the NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. A unique test apparatus is being fabricated to support both wall and in-stream measurements for investigating the internal flow of a dual-mode scramjet isolator model. The test section is 24 inches long with a 1-inch by 2-inch cross sectional area and is supplied with unheated, dry air through a Mach 2.5 converging-diverging nozzle. The test section is being fabricated with two sets (glass and metallic) of interchangeable sidewalls to support flow visualization and laser-based measurement techniques as well as static pressure, wall temperature, and high frequency pressure measurements. During 2010, a CFD code validation experiment will be conducted in the lab in support of NASA s Fundamental Aerodynamics Program. This paper describes the mechanical design of the Isolator Dynamics Research Lab test apparatus and presents a summary of the measurement techniques planned for investigating the internal flow field of a scramjet isolator model.

  12. LabVIEW与MATLAB混合编程的实现%Method of Hybird Programming with LabVIEW and MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晖; 郑炜

    2010-01-01

    LabVIEW和MATLAB的混合编程,通过LabVIEW专有程序接口调用MATLAB实现.LabVIEW设计用户图像界面,负责数据采集;MATLAB在后台提供大型算法供LabVIEW调用,其程序的调用方法,可使用MATLAB Script节点或ActiveX函数模板.

  13. Sodium channel biophysics, late sodium current and genetic arrhythmic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadda, Karan R; Jeevaratnam, Kamalan; Lei, Ming; Huang, Christopher L-H

    2017-03-06

    Arrhythmias arise from breakdown of orderly action potential (AP) activation, propagation and recovery driven by interactive opening and closing of successive voltage-gated ion channels, in which one or more Na(+) current components play critical parts. Early peak, Na(+) currents (I Na) reflecting channel activation drive the AP upstroke central to cellular activation and its propagation. Sustained late Na(+) currents (I Na-L) include contributions from a component with a delayed inactivation timecourse influencing AP duration (APD) and refractoriness, potentially causing pro-arrhythmic phenotypes. The magnitude of I Na-L can be analysed through overlaps or otherwise in the overall voltage dependences of the steady-state properties and kinetics of activation and inactivation of the Na(+) conductance. This was useful in analysing repetitive firing associated with paramyotonia congenita in skeletal muscle. Similarly, genetic cardiac Na(+) channel abnormalities increasing I Na-L are implicated in triggering phenomena of automaticity, early and delayed afterdepolarisations and arrhythmic substrate. This review illustrates a wide range of situations that may accentuate I Na-L. These include (1) overlaps between steady-state activation and inactivation increasing window current, (2) kinetic deficiencies in Na(+) channel inactivation leading to bursting phenomena associated with repetitive channel openings and (3) non-equilibrium gating processes causing channel re-opening due to more rapid recoveries from inactivation. All these biophysical possibilities were identified in a selection of abnormal human SCN5A genotypes. The latter presented as a broad range of clinical arrhythmic phenotypes, for which effective therapeutic intervention would require specific identification and targeting of the diverse electrophysiological abnormalities underlying their increased I Na-L.

  14. Biophysical Assessment and Predicted Thermophysiologic Effects of Body Armor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Potter

    Full Text Available Military personnel are often required to wear ballistic protection in order to defend against enemies. However, this added protection increases mass carried and imposes additional thermal burden on the individual. Body armor (BA is known to reduce combat casualties, but the effects of BA mass and insulation on the physical performance of soldiers are less well documented. Until recently, the emphasis has been increasing personal protection, with little consideration of the adverse impacts on human performance.The purpose of this work was to use sweating thermal manikin and mathematical modeling techniques to quantify the tradeoff between increased BA protection, the accompanying mass, and thermal effects on human performance.Using a sweating thermal manikin, total insulation (IT, clo and vapor permeability indexes (im were measured for a baseline clothing ensemble with and without one of seven increasingly protective U.S. Army BA configurations. Using mathematical modeling, predictions were made of thermal impact on humans wearing each configuration while working in hot/dry (desert, hot/humid (jungle, and temperate environmental conditions.In nearly still air (0.4 m/s, IT ranged from 1.57 to 1.63 clo and im from 0.35 to 0.42 for the seven BA conditions, compared to IT and im values of 1.37 clo and 0.45 respectively, for the baseline condition (no BA.Biophysical assessments and predictive modeling show a quantifiable relationship exists among increased protection and increased thermal burden and decreased work capacity. This approach enables quantitative analysis of the tradeoffs between ballistic protection, thermal-work strain, and physical work performance.

  15. Gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: biophysical mechanism of altered growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The biophysical basis for the changes in cell elongation rate during gravitropism was examined in aetiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls. Bulk osmotic pressures on the two sides of the stem and in the epidermal cells were not altered during the early time course of gravitropism. By the pressure-probe technique, a small increase in turgor (0.3 bar, 30 kPa) was detected on the upper (inhibited) side, whereas there was a negligible decrease in turgor on the lower (stimulated) side. These small changes in turgor and water potential appeared to be indirect, passive consequences of the altered growth and the small resistance for water movement from the xylem, and indicated that the change in growth was principally due to changes in wall properties. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductance of the water-transport pathway was large (.25 h-1 bar-1) and the water potential difference supporting cell expansion was no greater than 0.3 bar (30 kPa). From pressure-block experiments, it appeared that upon gravitropic stimulation (1) the yield threshold of the lower half of the stem did not decrease and (2) the wall on the upper side of the stem was not made more rigid by a cross-linking process. Mechanical measurements of the stress/strain properties of the walls showed that the initial development of gravitropism did not involve an alteration of the mechanical behaviour of the isolated walls. Thus, gravitropism in cucumber hypocotyls occurs principally by an alteration of the wall relaxation process, without a necessary change in wall mechanical properties.

  16. Microbial Life in Soil - Linking Biophysical Models with Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Dani; Tecon, Robin; Ebrahimi, Ali; Kleyer, Hannah; Ilie, Olga; Wang, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Microbial life in soil occurs within fragmented aquatic habitats formed in complex pore spaces where motility is restricted to short hydration windows (e.g., following rainfall). The limited range of self-dispersion and physical confinement promote spatial association among trophically interdepended microbial species. Competition and preferences for different nutrient resources and byproducts and their diffusion require high level of spatial organization to sustain the functioning of multispecies communities. We report mechanistic modeling studies of competing multispecies microbial communities grown on hydrated surfaces and within artificial soil aggregates (represented by 3-D pore network). Results show how trophic dependencies and cell-level interactions within patchy diffusion fields promote spatial self-organization of motile microbial cells. The spontaneously forming patterns of segregated, yet coexisting species were robust to spatial heterogeneities and to temporal perturbations (hydration dynamics), and respond primarily to the type of trophic dependencies. Such spatially self-organized consortia may reflect ecological templates that optimize substrate utilization and could form the basic architecture for more permanent surface-attached microbial colonies. Hydration dynamics affect structure and spatial arrangement of aerobic and anaerobic microbial communities and their biogeochemical functions. Experiments with well-characterized artificial soil microbial assemblies grown on porous surfaces provide access to community dynamics during wetting and drying cycles detected through genetic fingerprinting. Experiments for visual observations of spatial associations of tagged bacterial species with known trophic dependencies on model porous surfaces are underway. Biophysical modeling provide a means for predicting hydration-mediated critical separation distances for activation of spatial self-organization. The study provides new modeling and observational tools

  17. Biophysics, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology of Ion Channel Gating Pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eMoreau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Voltage sensor domain (VSDs are a feature of voltage gated ion channel (VGICs and voltage sensitive proteins. They are composed of four transmembrane (TM segments (S1 to S4. Currents leaking through VSDs are called omega or gating pore currents.Gating pores are caused by mutations of the highly conserved positively charged amino acids in the S4 segment that disrupt interactions between the S4 segment and the gating charge transfer center (GCTC. The GCTC separates the intracellular and extracellular water crevices. The disruption of S4–GCTC interactions allows these crevices to communicate and create a fast activating and non-inactivating alternative cation-selective permeation pathway of low conductance, or a gating pore.Gating pore currents have recently been shown to cause periodic paralysis phenotypes. There is also increasing evidence that gating pores are linked to several other familial diseases. For example, gating pores in Nav1.5 and Kv7.2 channels may underlie mixed arrhythmias associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM phenotypes and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH respectively. There is little evidence for the existence of gating pore blockers. Moreover, it is known that a number of toxins bind to the VSD of a specific domain of Na+ channels. These toxins may thus modulate gating pore currents. This focus on the VSD motif opens up a new area of research centered on developing molecules to treat a number of cell excitability disorders such as epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmias, and pain.The purpose of the present review is to summarize existing knowledge of the pathophysiology, biophysics, and pharmacology of gating pore currents and to serve as a guide for future studies aimed at improving our understanding of gating pores and their pathophysiological roles.

  18. Untreatable Pain Resulting from Abdominal Cancer: New Hope from Biophysics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marineo G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Visceral pain characterizing pancreatic cancer is the most difficult symptom of the disease to control and can significantly impair the quality of life which remains and increase the demand for euthanasia. AIM: To investigate a possible new method based on biophysical principles (scrambler therapy to be used in the effective treatment of drug-resistant oncological pain of the visceral/neuropathic type. SETTING: Eleven terminal cancer patients (3 pancreas, 4 colon, 4 gastric suffering from elevated drug resistant visceral pain. DESIGN: The trial program was related to the first ten treatment sessions. Subsequently, each patient continued to receive treatment until death. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pain measures were performed using the visual analogue scale before and after each treatment session and accompanied by diary recordings of the duration of analgesia in the hours following each single application. Any variation in pain-killing drug consumption was also recorded. RESULTS: All patients reacted positively to the treatment throughout the whole reference period. Pain intensity showed a significant decrease (P less than 0.001, accompanied by a gradual rise both in the pain threshold and the duration of analgesia. Nine (81.8% of the patients suspended pain-killers within the first 5 applications, while the remaining two (18.2% considerably reduced the dosage taken prior to scrambler therapy. No undesirable side effects were observed. Compliance was found to be optimal. CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary results obtained using scrambler therapy are extremely encouraging, both in terms of enhanced pain control after each treatment session and in view of the possible maintenance of effectiveness over time.

  19. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  20. Engineering and Scientific Applications: Using MatLab(Registered Trademark) for Data Processing and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    MatLab(R) (MATrix LABoratory) is a numerical computation and simulation tool that is used by thousands Scientists and Engineers in many cou ntries. MatLab does purely numerical calculations, which can be used as a glorified calculator or interpreter programming language; its re al strength is in matrix manipulations. Computer algebra functionalities are achieved within the MatLab environment using "symbolic" toolbo x. This feature is similar to computer algebra programs, provided by Maple or Mathematica to calculate with mathematical equations using s ymbolic operations. MatLab in its interpreter programming language fo rm (command interface) is similar with well known programming languag es such as C/C++, support data structures and cell arrays to define c lasses in object oriented programming. As such, MatLab is equipped with most ofthe essential constructs of a higher programming language. M atLab is packaged with an editor and debugging functionality useful t o perform analysis of large MatLab programs and find errors. We belie ve there are many ways to approach real-world problems; prescribed methods to ensure foregoing solutions are incorporated in design and ana lysis of data processing and visualization can benefit engineers and scientist in gaining wider insight in actual implementation of their perspective experiments. This presentation will focus on data processing and visualizations aspects of engineering and scientific applicati ons. Specifically, it will discuss methods and techniques to perform intermediate-level data processing covering engineering and scientifi c problems. MatLab programming techniques including reading various data files formats to produce customized publication-quality graphics, importing engineering and/or scientific data, organizing data in tabu lar format, exporting data to be used by other software programs such as Microsoft Excel, data presentation and visualization will be discussed. The presentation will emphasize creating

  1. GeoLab in NASA's Pressurized Excursion Module: First Results from the 2010 Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Calaway, Michael; Bell, Mary Sue; Graff, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Before humans explore other planets, NASA must develop advanced techniques for collection, preservation and return of unique extraterrestrial samples. To help evaluate hardware requirements and operational concepts for future sample-return missions, we designed and built GeoLab our first generation lab for geological samples into NASA s Habitat Demonstration Unit in the Pressurized Excursion Module (HDU1-PEM). The center of GeoLab is a glovebox for the examination of samples in a shirt-sleeve environment. As part of a deployable habitat, GeoLab can participate in NASA s analog missions that simulate planetary exploration activities and support the testing of relevant technologies for collecting and handling geological samples. Over time, these tests will evaluate sample handling environments (field and lab), sampling tools and analytical instruments, and different scenarios involving both robotic and human procedures. The GeoLab design supports evolving tests and configurations. The glovebox is mounted on the habitat bulkhead, with three sample pass-though chambers that allow for direct sample transfer into the glovebox from the outside. The glovebox design and construction (low-particle shedding, minimally off-gassing materials) provides a clean environment to reduce sample contamination; in the future, we will integrate a positive pressure, enriched nitrogen atmosphere. The glovebox is equipped with configurable instrument ports. The 2010 test included a mass balance, a stereomicroscope with a HD camera for detailed imaging of samples, and a handheld XRF analyzer for preliminary geochemical characterization of samples. Network cameras provided context imagery and sample handling activities. We present early results from the initial field trial of GeoLab during the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) planetary analog test near Flagstaff AZ. The 2010 D-RATS mission involved two rovers, the habitat with GeoLab, four crew members, and a team of

  2. 基于LabVIEW的测试软件的研制%Test Software Design Based on LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志谭; 辛彦红

    2006-01-01

    简要介绍虚拟仪器和LabVIEW开发系统的功能特点和发展情况,并开发出了在LabVIEW环境下的虚拟测试软件.实践证明,基于LabVIEW的测试软件系统更为高效、易行.

  3. Tele-Lab IT-Security: an Architecture for an online virtual IT Security Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Meinel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Awareness Creation in terms of IT security has become a big thing – not only for enterprises. Campaigns for pupils try to highlight the importance of IT security even in the user’s early years. Common practices in security education – as seen in computer science courses at universities – mainly consist of literature and lecturing. In the best case, the teaching facility offers practical courses in a dedicated isolated computer lab. Additionally, there are some more or less interactive e-learning applications around. Most existing offers can do nothing more than impart theoretical knowledge or basic information. They all lack of possibilities to provide practical experience with security software or even hacker tools in a realistic environment. The only exceptions are the expensive and hard-to-maintain dedicated computer security labs. Those can only be provided by very few organizations. Tele-Lab IT-Security was designed to offer hands-on experience exercises in IT security without the need of additional hardware or maintenance expenses. The existing implementation of Tele-Lab even provides access to the learning environment over the Internet – and thus can be used anytime and anywhere. The present paper describes the extended architecture on which the current version of the Tele-Lab server is built.

  4. Simulation Interoperability (Interoperabilite de la simulation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    solutions arising from the capability to test together different simulators / simulation areas. The innovative value of SimLabs is representing one...common infrastructure for its storage, knowledge reuse can be realised on a larger scale, i.e., the same knowledge can be used in several...the state and behavior of a real-world object or the perception of a real-world object, feature, condition, or chosen standard in a measurable or

  5. Physical-level synthesis for digital lab-on-a-chip considering variation, contamination, and defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen; Hu, Shiyan

    2014-03-01

    Microfluidic lab-on-a-chips have been widely utilized in biochemical analysis and human health studies due to high detection accuracy, high timing efficiency, and low cost. The increasing design complexity of lab-on-a-chips necessitates the computer-aided design (CAD) methodology in contrast to the classical manual design methodology. A key part in lab-on-a-chip CAD is physical-level synthesis. It includes the lab-on-a-chip placement and routing, where placement is to determine the physical location and the starting time of each operation and routing is to transport each droplet from the source to the destination. In the lab-on-a-chip design, variation, contamination, and defect need to be considered. This work designs a physical-level synthesis flow which simultaneously considers variation, contamination, and defect of the lab-on-a-chip design. It proposes a maze routing based, variation, contamination, and defect aware droplet routing technique, which is seamlessly integrated into an existing placement technique. The proposed technique improves the placement solution for routing and achieves the placement and routing co-optimization to handle variation, contamination, and defect. The simulation results demonstrate that our technique does not use any defective/contaminated grids, while the technique without considering contamination and defect uses 17.0% of the defective/contaminated grids on average. In addition, our routing variation aware technique significantly improves the average routing yield by 51.2% with only 3.5% increase in completion time compared to a routing variation unaware technique.

  6. Current status of research on biophysical effects of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, S B; ter Haar, G R; Ziskin, M C; Nyborg, W L; Maeda, K; Bang, J

    1994-01-01

    This overview of bioeffects of ultrasound presents some key aspects of selected papers dealing with biophysical end-points. Its purpose is to establish a basis for exposure and dosimetric standards for medical ultrasonic equipment. It is intended to provide essential background resource material for the medical/scientific community, and more specifically for scientific working groups. This document was prepared by members of the Safety Committee of the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. It was produced as a resource document in response to a request for information by Working Group 12 (Ultrasound exposure parameters) of the International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 87, Ultrasonics. IEC TC 87, WG12 is the working group responsible for generating international standards for the classification of equipment by its acoustic fields based on safety thresholds. Our paper is intended to update and supplement information on the thermal mechanism provided in the publication, "WFUMB Symposium on Safety and Standardisation in Medical Ultrasound: Issues and Recommendations Regarding Thermal Mechanisms for Biological Effects of Ultrasound" (WFUMB 1992). It also provides an overview of trends in research into nonthermal mechanisms as a preliminary to the next WFUMB Symposium on Safety of Medical Ultrasound when this subject will be examined in detail by a select group of international experts. The WFUMB-sponsored workshop will take place in Utsunomiya, Japan during 11-15th July, 1994. The purpose of the meeting is to evaluate the scientific literature and to formulate internationally accepted recommendations on the safe use of diagnostic ultrasound that may be endorsed as official policy of the WFUMB. It should be noted that the current publication is not intended for review or endorsement as an official WFUMB document. It is produced as a scientific paper by individuals who are members of the WFUMB Safety Committee, and it therefore

  7. Biophysics and bioinformatics of transcription regulation in bacteria and bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Marko

    2005-11-01

    Due to rapid accumulation of biological data, bioinformatics has become a very important branch of biological research. In this thesis, we develop novel bioinformatic approaches and aid design of biological experiments by using ideas and methods from statistical physics. Identification of transcription factor binding sites within the regulatory segments of genomic DNA is an important step towards understanding of the regulatory circuits that control expression of genes. We propose a novel, biophysics based algorithm, for the supervised detection of transcription factor (TF) binding sites. The method classifies potential binding sites by explicitly estimating the sequence-specific binding energy and the chemical potential of a given TF. In contrast with the widely used information theory based weight matrix method, our approach correctly incorporates saturation in the transcription factor/DNA binding probability. This results in a significant reduction in the number of expected false positives, and in the explicit appearance---and determination---of a binding threshold. The new method was used to identify likely genomic binding sites for the Escherichia coli TFs, and to examine the relationship between TF binding specificity and degree of pleiotropy (number of regulatory targets). We next address how parameters of protein-DNA interactions can be obtained from data on protein binding to random oligos under controlled conditions (SELEX experiment data). We show that 'robust' generation of an appropriate data set is achieved by a suitable modification of the standard SELEX procedure, and propose a novel bioinformatic algorithm for analysis of such data. Finally, we use quantitative data analysis, bioinformatic methods and kinetic modeling to analyze gene expression strategies of bacterial viruses. We study bacteriophage Xp10 that infects rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae. Xp10 is an unusual bacteriophage, which has morphology and genome organization that most closely

  8. The Multistream Self: Biophysical, Mental, Social, and Existential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod D. Deshmukh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Self is difficult to define because of its multiple, constitutive streams of functional existence. A more comprehensive and expanded definition of self is proposed. The standard bio-psycho-social model of psyche is expanded to biophysical-mental-social and existential self. The total human experience is better understood and explained by adding the existential component. Existential refers to lived human experience, which is firmly rooted in reality. Existential living is the capacity to live fully in the present, and respond freely and flexibly to new experience without fear. Four common fears of isolation, insecurity, insignificance, and death can be overcome by developing a lifestyle of whole-hearted engagement in the present reality, creative problem solving, self-actualization, and altruism. Such integrative living creates a sense of presence with self-awareness, understanding, and existential well-being. Well-being is defined as a life of happiness, contentment, low distress, and good health with positive outlook. Self is a complex, integrative process of living organisms. It organizes, coordinates, and integrates energy-information within and around itself, spontaneously, unconsciously, and consciously. Self-process is understood in terms of synergetics, coordination dynamics, and energy-information–directed self-organization. It is dynamic, composite, ever renewing, and enduring. It can be convergent or divergent, and can function as the source or target of its own behavior-mentation. The experience of self is continuously generated by spontaneous activation of neural networks in the cerebral neocortex by the brainstem-diencephalic arousal system. The multiple constitutive behavioral-mental streams develop concurrently into a unique experience of self, specific for a person at his/her developmental stage. The chronological neuro-behavioral-mental development of self is described in detail from embryonic stage to old age. Self can be

  9. The multistream self: biophysical, mental, social, and existential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Vinod D

    2008-03-25

    Self is difficult to define because of its multiple, constitutive streams of functional existence. A more comprehensive and expanded definition of self is proposed. The standard bio-psycho-social model of psyche is expanded to biophysical-mental-social and existential self. The total human experience is better understood and explained by adding the existential component. Existential refers to lived human experience, which is firmly rooted in reality. Existential living is the capacity to live fully in the present, and respond freely and flexibly to new experience without fear. Four common fears of isolation, insecurity, insignificance, and death can be overcome by developing a lifestyle of whole-hearted engagement in the present reality, creative problem solving, self-actualization, and altruism. Such integrative living creates a sense of presence with self-awareness, understanding, and existential well-being. Well-being is defined as a life of happiness, contentment, low distress, and good health with positive outlook. Self is a complex, integrative process of living organisms. It organizes, coordinates, and integrates energy-information within and around itself, spontaneously, unconsciously, and consciously. Self-process is understood in terms of synergetics, coordination dynamics, and energy-information-directed self-organization. It is dynamic, composite, ever renewing, and enduring. It can be convergent or divergent, and can function as the source or target of its own behavior-mentation. The experience of self is continuously generated by spontaneous activation of neural networks in the cerebral neocortex by the brainstem-diencephalic arousal system. The multiple constitutive behavioral-mental streams develop concurrently into a unique experience of self, specific for a person at his/her developmental stage. The chronological neuro-behavioral-mental development of self is described in detail from embryonic stage to old age. Self can be behaviorally

  10. Energy return on investment: Theory and application to biophysical economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David J.

    This dissertation is comprised of an introduction and five manuscripts split into two main sections: theory and application. Manuscripts one and four have been published, manuscript three has been accepted for publication, and manuscripts two and five are currently in review for publication. The theory sections contains the first two manuscripts. The first manuscript is a review of the literature on Energy Return on Investment (EROI) analysis. I cover five areas in this manuscript, including: (1) EROI and corn ethanol, (2) EROI for most major fuels, (3) alternative EROI applications, (4) EROI and the economy, and (5) the minimum EROI for society. The second manuscript provides a methodological framework for performing EROI analysis. I cover the following areas in this manuscript: (1) boundaries of analysis, (2) energy quality corrections, (3) energy intensity values, and lastly (4) alternative EROI statistics. The applications section contains manuscripts three through five. The third manuscript provides a biophysical model of economic growth indicating that the feedback mechanisms between oil supply and oil price have created a growth paradox: maintaining business as usual economic growth will require the production of new sources of oil, yet the only sources of oil remaining require high oil prices, thus hampering economic growth. The fourth manuscript is a study on the geographic variability of corn ethanol production. The main conclusions of this study were: (1) the statistical error associated with calculating the EROI of corn ethanol was enough to cast doubt as to whether corn ethanol yields net energy, and (2) failure to account for the geographic variation in corn yields and fertilizer inputs artificially inflated previous estimates of the EROI or corn ethanol. In the fifth manuscript I measure the impact of the Urban Heat Island within the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico, on the electricity demand within the city. I calculated that the UHI

  11. E-Labs - Learning with Authentic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardeen, Marjorie G. [Fermilab; Wayne, Mitchell [Notre Dame U.

    2016-01-01

    the success teachers have had providing an opportunity for students to: • Organize and conduct authentic research. • Experience the environment of scientific collaborations. • Possibly make real contributions to a burgeoning scientific field. We've created projects that are problem-based, student driven and technology dependent. Students reach beyond classroom walls to explore data with other students and experts and share results, publishing original work to a worldwide audience. Students can discover and extend the research of other students, modeling the processes of modern, large-scale research projects. From start to finish e-Labs are student-led, teacher-guided projects. Students need only a Web browser to access computing techniques employed by professional researchers. A Project Map with milestones allows students to set the research plan rather than follow a step-by-step process common in other online projects. Most importantly, e-Labs build the learning experience around the students' own questions and let them use the very tools that scientists use. Students contribute to and access shared data, most derived from professional research databases. They use common analysis tools, store their work and use metadata to discover, replicate and confirm the research of others. This is where real scientific collaboration begins. Using online tools, students correspond with other research groups, post comments and questions, prepare summary reports, and in general participate in the part of scientific research that is often left out of classroom experiments. Teaching tools such as student and teacher logbooks, pre- and post-tests and an assessment rubric aligned with learner outcomes help teachers guide student work. Constraints on interface designs and administrative tools such as registration databases give teachers the "one-stop-shopping" they seek for multiple e-Labs. Teaching and administrative tools also allow us to track usage and assess the

  12. Under Ground Cable Sizing Using MAT LAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. R. Uday Kiran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main theme of this paper is to explain the procedure to calculate the cross sectional area of a conductor of an underground cable for a specified power & voltage ratings. This paper will also explain one of the simplest ways to calculate the cross section. In this paper we analyzed various factors that effect in deciding the ampacity of the conductor. We developed a Mat lab code to find the cross sectional area by including some of the parameters and also the voltage drop , maximum permissible voltage drop for that size of the conductor and also the number of runs of the cable that are to be laid.

  13. Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus and other LAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Lukjancenko, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    The genomes of 66 LABs, belonging to five different genera, were compared for genome size and gene content. The analyzed genomes included 37 Lactobacillus genomes of 17 species, six Lactococcus lactis genomes, four Leuconostoc genomes of three species, six Streptococcus genomes of two species...... that of the others, with the two Streptococcus species having the shortest genomes. The widest distribution in genome content was observed for Lactobacillus. The number of tRNA and rRNA gene copies varied considerably, with exceptional high numbers observed for Lb. delbrueckii, while these numbers were relatively...

  14. CompTIA Network+ Lab Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Skandier, Toby

    2012-01-01

    Gain street-smart skills in network administration Think of the most common and challenging tasks that network administrators face, then read this book and find out how to perform those tasks, step by step. CompTIA Network + Lab Manual provides an inside look into the field of network administration as though you were actually on the job. You'll find a variety of scenarios and potential roadblocks, as well as clearly mapped sections to help you prepare for the CompTIA Network+ Exam N10-005. Learn how to design, implement, configure, maintain, secure, and troubleshoot a network with this street

  15. Quark Hadron Duality - Recent Jefferson Lab Results

    CERN Document Server

    Niculescu, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The duality between the partonic and hadronic descriptions of electron--nucleon scattering is a remarkable feature of nuclear interactions. When averaged over appropriate energy intervals the cross section at low energy which is dominated by nucleon resonances resembles the smooth behavior expected from perturbative QCD. Recent Jefferson Lab results indicate that quark-hadron duality is present in a variety of observables, not just the proton F2 structure function. An overview of recent results, especially local quark-hadron duality on the neutron, are presented here.

  16. Magnetic Particle Technique: Lab Case of CAMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ruth Rincón Urbina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the general procedure for the use of the technique of magnetic particles; generally describes the main characteristics of the test and inspection procedure from CAMAN Lab developed at the Graduate School of the Colombian Air Force. The method used in the research and development of the project was documentary, in order to establish the rules and regulations required for certification of the magnetic particles technique in nondestructive testing laboratory by the Aeronautical Authority. Finally, based on the data analysis, an Inspection Procedure Manual was developed in order to certify the magnetic particles technique.

  17. Phoenix Carries Soil to Wet Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Robotic Arm scoop positioned over the Wet Chemistry Lab delivery funnel on Sol 29, the 29th Martian day after landing, or June 24, 2008. The soil will be delivered to the instrument on Sol 30. This image has been enhanced to brighten the scene. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Quark Hadron Duality - Recent Jefferson Lab Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niculescu, Maria Ioana [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The duality between the partonic and hadronic descriptions of electron--nucleon scattering is a remarkable feature of nuclear interactions. When averaged over appropriate energy intervals the cross section at low energy which is dominated by nucleon resonances resembles the smooth behavior expected from perturbative QCD. Recent Jefferson Lab results indicate that quark-hadron duality is present in a variety of observables, not just the proton F2 structure function. An overview of recent results, especially local quark-hadron duality on the neutron, are presented here.

  19. Next generation multi-scale biophysical characterization of high precision cancer particle radiotherapy using clinical proton, helium-, carbon- and oxygen ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Martin; Zimmermann, Ferdinand; Chaudhri, Naved; Krunic, Damir; Tessonnier, Thomas; Ferrari, Alfredo; Parodi, Katia; Jäkel, Oliver; Debus, Jürgen; Haberer, Thomas; Abdollahi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The growing number of particle therapy facilities worldwide landmarks a novel era of precision oncology. Implementation of robust biophysical readouts is urgently needed to assess the efficacy of different radiation qualities. This is the first report on biophysical evaluation of Monte Carlo simulated predictive models of prescribed dose for four particle qualities i.e., proton, helium-, carbon- or oxygen ions using raster-scanning technology and clinical therapy settings at HIT. A high level of agreement was found between the in silico simulations, the physical dosimetry and the clonogenic tumor cell survival. The cell fluorescence ion track hybrid detector (Cell-Fit-HD) technology was employed to detect particle traverse per cell nucleus. Across a panel of radiobiological surrogates studied such as late ROS accumulation and apoptosis (caspase 3/7 activation), the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) chiefly correlated with the radiation species-specific spatio-temporal pattern of DNA double strand break (DSB) formation and repair kinetic. The size and the number of residual nuclear γ-H2AX foci increased as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) and RBE, reminiscent of enhanced DNA-damage complexity and accumulation of non-repairable DSB. These data confirm the high relevance of complex DSB formation as a central determinant of cell fate and reliable biological surrogates for cell survival/RBE. The multi-scale simulation, physical and radiobiological characterization of novel clinical quality beams presented here constitutes a first step towards development of high precision biologically individualized radiotherapy. PMID:27494855

  20. Theoretical Insights into the Biophysics of Protein Bi-stability and Evolutionary Switches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Sikosek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the effects of nonsynonymous mutations on protein structure is central to many areas of biomedical research and is of fundamental importance to the study of molecular evolution. Much of the investigation of protein evolution has focused on mutations that leave a protein's folded structure essentially unchanged. However, to evolve novel folds of proteins, mutations that lead to large conformational modifications have to be involved. Unraveling the basic biophysics of such mutations is a challenge to theory, especially when only one or two amino acid substitutions cause a large-scale conformational switch. Among the few such mutational switches identified experimentally, the one between the GA all-α and GB α+β folds is extensively characterized; but all-atom simulations using fully transferrable potentials have not been able to account for this striking switching behavior. Here we introduce an explicit-chain model that combines structure-based native biases for multiple alternative structures with a general physical atomic force field, and apply this construct to twelve mutants spanning the sequence variation between GA and GB. In agreement with experiment, we observe conformational switching from GA to GB upon a single L45Y substitution in the GA98 mutant. In line with the latent evolutionary potential concept, our model shows a gradual sequence-dependent change in fold preference in the mutants before this switch. Our analysis also indicates that a sharp GA/GB switch may arise from the orientation dependence of aromatic π-interactions. These findings provide physical insights toward rationalizing, predicting and designing evolutionary conformational switches.