WorldWideScience

Sample records for biophysical climate services

  1. The biophysical link between climate, water, and vegetation in bioenergy agro-ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, Justin E.; Davis, Sarah C.; Georgescu, Matei; Hussain, Mir Zaman; Miller, Jesse; Nesbitt, Stephen W.; VanLoocke, Andy; Bernacchi, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Land use change for bioenergy feedstocks is likely to intensify as energy demand rises simultaneously with increased pressure to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Initial assessments of the impact of adopting bioenergy crops as a significant energy source have largely focused on the potential for bioenergy agroecosystems to provide global-scale climate regulating ecosystem services via biogeochemical processes. Such as those processes associated with carbon uptake, conversion, and storage that have the potential to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). However, the expansion of bioenergy crops can also lead to direct biophysical impacts on climate through water regulating services. Perturbations of processes influencing terrestrial energy fluxes can result in impacts on climate and water across a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about biophysical feedbacks between vegetation, water, and climate that would be affected by bioenergy-related land use change. The physical mechanisms involved in biophysical feedbacks are detailed, and interactions at leaf, field, regional, and global spatial scales are described. Locally, impacts on climate of biophysical changes associated with land use change for bioenergy crops can meet or exceed the biogeochemical changes in climate associated with rising GHG's, but these impacts have received far less attention. Realization of the importance of ecosystems in providing services that extend beyond biogeochemical GHG regulation and harvestable yields has led to significant debate regarding the viability of various feedstocks in many locations. The lack of data, and in some cases gaps in knowledge associated with biophysical and biochemical influences on land–atmosphere interactions, can lead to premature policy decisions. - Highlights: • The physical basis for biophysical impacts of expanding bioenergy agroecosystems on climate and water is described. • We

  2. Developing spatial biophysical accounting for multiple ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, R.P.; Schroter, M.; Hein, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is receiving increasing interest as a way to systematically monitor the conditions of ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide. A critical element of ecosystem accounting is understanding spatially explicit flows of ecosystem services. We developed spatial biophysical

  3. Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  4. Climate change effects on agriculture: economic responses to biophysical shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gerald C; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-03-04

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  5. Biophysical climate impacts of recent changes in global forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkama, Ramdane; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    Changes in forest cover affect the local climate by modulating the land-atmosphere fluxes of energy and water. The magnitude of this biophysical effect is still debated in the scientific community and currently ignored in climate treaties. Here we present an observation-driven assessment of the climate impacts of recent forest losses and gains, based on Earth observations of global forest cover and land surface temperatures. Our results show that forest losses amplify the diurnal temperature variation and increase the mean and maximum air temperature, with the largest signal in arid zones, followed by temperate, tropical, and boreal zones. In the decade 2003-2012, variations of forest cover generated a mean biophysical warming on land corresponding to about 18% of the global biogeochemical signal due to CO2 emission from land-use change.

  6. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d’Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2. The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change. PMID:24344285

  7. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Gerald; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d' Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Mueller, C.; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2013-12-16

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and will thus be directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the IPCC’s Representative Concentration Pathway that result in end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 watts per square meter. The mean biophysical impact on crop yield with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17 percent reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11 percent, increase area of major crops by 12 percent, and reduce consumption by 2 percent. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences includes model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  8. Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaser, Roland

    1999-01-01

    The message of this book is that biophysics is the science of physical principles underlying the "phenomenon life" on all levels of organization. Rather than teaching "physics for biologists" or "physical methods applied to biology", it regards its subject as a defined discipline with its own network of ideas and approaches. The book starts by explaining molecular structures of biological systems, various kinds of atomic, molecular and ionic interactions, movements, energy transfer, self organization of supramolecular structures and dynamic properties of biological membranes. It then goes on to introduce the biological organism as a non-equilibrium system, before treating thermodynamic concepts of osmotic and electrolyte equilibria as well as currents and potential profiles. It continues with topics of environmental biophysics and such medical aspects as the influence of electromagnetic fields or radiation on living systems and the biophysics of hearing and noice protection. The book concludes with a discussi...

  9. Ecosystem biophysical memory in the southwestern North America climate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forzieri, G; Feyen, L; Vivoni, E R

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the potential role of vegetation to act as a memory source in the southwestern North America climate system, we explore correlation structures of remotely sensed vegetation dynamics with precipitation, temperature and teleconnection indices over 1982–2006 for six ecoregions. We found that lagged correlations between vegetation dynamics and climate variables are modulated by the dominance of monsoonal or Mediterranean regimes and ecosystem-specific physiological processes. Subtropical and tropical ecosystems exhibit a one month lag positive correlation with precipitation, a zero- to one-month lag negative correlation with temperature, and modest negative effects of sea surface temperature (SST). Mountain forests have a zero month lag negative correlation with precipitation, a zero–one month lag negative correlation with temperature, and no significant correlation with SSTs. Deserts show a strong one–four month lag positive correlation with precipitation, a low zero–two month lag negative correlation with temperature, and a high four–eight month lag positive correlation with SSTs. The ecoregion-specific biophysical memories identified offer an opportunity to improve the predictability of land–atmosphere interactions and vegetation feedbacks onto climate. (letter)

  10. Biophysical impacts of climate-smart agriculture in the Midwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Justin E; Miller, Jesse; Bernacchi, Carl J

    2015-09-01

    The potential impacts of climate change in the Midwest United States present unprecedented challenges to regional agriculture. In response to these challenges, a variety of climate-smart agricultural methodologies have been proposed to retain or improve crop yields, reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, retain soil quality and increase climate resilience of agricultural systems. One component that is commonly neglected when assessing the environmental impacts of climate-smart agriculture is the biophysical impacts, where changes in ecosystem fluxes and storage of moisture and energy lead to perturbations in local climate and water availability. Using a combination of observational data and an agroecosystem model, a series of climate-smart agricultural scenarios were assessed to determine the biophysical impacts these techniques have in the Midwest United States. The first scenario extended the growing season for existing crops using future temperature and CO2 concentrations. The second scenario examined the biophysical impacts of no-till agriculture and the impacts of annually retaining crop debris. Finally, the third scenario evaluated the potential impacts that the adoption of perennial cultivars had on biophysical quantities. Each of these scenarios was found to have significant biophysical impacts. However, the timing and magnitude of the biophysical impacts differed between scenarios. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. From climate assessment to climate services

    OpenAIRE

    Visbeck, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change has convinced the public that climate change is real. To tackle it, the panel needs complementary climate services that provide continuous climate information for all regions and the globe.

  12. Tools for Climate Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, H. C.

    2007-05-01

    Full realization of socio-economic benefits of from public investments in climate services remains incomplete because decision makers have difficulty: 1) interpreting individual products, 2) appropriately judging information credibility, and 3) linking different types of information, both conceptually and practically. Addressing these barriers is as important as improving the science leading to improved information. The challenge is creating flexible climate information products and tools that can accommodate unique user needs; the goal is a systemic change in the nature of information delivery and use. The underlying assumption is not that climate information is good and useful, and simply needs to be communicated effectively. Rather, a number of conditions must be met before decision makers can make informed choices about whether to use particular information in a specific situation. Several case studies, of varying success, illustrate user-centric strategies for developing decision support tools: a forecast evaluation tool, a climate information management system, and a hydrologic alert system. However, tools alone will not bridge the barriers in climate services, with training and other capacity- building activities remaining important activities.

  13. Biophysical and Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Poverty Impacts of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.; Verma, M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper seeks to understand the main sources of uncertainty in assessing the impacts of climate change on agricultural output, international trade, and poverty. We incorporate biophysical uncertainty by sampling from a distribution of global climate model predictions for temperature and precipitation for 2050. The implications of these realizations for crop yields around the globe are estimated using the recently published statistical crop yield functions provided by Lobell, Schlenker and Costa-Roberts (2011). By comparing these yields to those predicted under current climate, we obtain the likely change in crop yields owing to climate change. The economic uncertainty in our analysis relates to the response of the global economic system to these biophysical shocks. We use a modified version of the GTAP model to elicit the impact of the biophysical shocks on global patterns of production, consumption, trade and poverty. Uncertainty in these responses is reflected in the econometrically estimated parameters governing the responsiveness of international trade, consumption, production (and hence the intensive margin of supply response), and factor supplies (which govern the extensive margin of supply response). We sample from the distributions of these parameters as specified by Hertel et al. (2007) and Keeney and Hertel (2009). We find that, even though it is difficult to predict where in the world agricultural crops will be favorably affected by climate change, the responses of economic variables, including output and exports can be far more robust (Table 1). This is due to the fact that supply and demand decisions depend on relative prices, and relative prices depend on productivity changes relative to other crops in a given region, or relative to similar crops in other parts of the world. We also find that uncertainty in poverty impacts of climate change appears to be almost entirely driven by biophysical uncertainty.

  14. Biophysical and sociocultural factors underlying spatial trade-offs of ecosystem services in semiarid watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina García-Llorente

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Biophysical and social systems are linked to form social-ecological systems whose sustainability depends on their capacity to absorb uncertainty and cope with disturbances. In this study, we explored the key biophysical and socio-cultural factors underlying ecosystem service supply in two semiarid watersheds of southern Spain. These included variables associated with the role that freshwater flows and biodiversity play in securing the system's capacity to sustain essential ecosystem services and their relationship with social demand for services, local water governance, and land-use intensification. Our results reveal the importance of considering the invisible dimensions of water and biodiversity, i.e. green freshwater flows and trait-based indicators, because of their relevance to the supply of ecosystem services. Furthermore, they uncover the importance of traditional irrigation canals, a local water governance system, in maintaining the ecosystems' capacity to supply services. The study also highlights the complex trade-offs that occur because of the spatial mismatch between ecosystem service supply (upstream and ecosystem service demand (downstream in watersheds. Finally, we found that land-use intensification generally resulted in losses of the biophysical factors that underpin the supply of some ecosystem services, increases in social demand for less diversified services, and the abandonment of local governance practices. Attempts to manage social-ecological systems toward sustainability at the local scale should identify the key biophysical and socio-cultural factors that are essential for maintaining ecosystem services and should recognize existing interrelationships between them. Land-use management should also take into account ecosystem service trade-offs and the consequences resulting from land-use intensification.

  15. Climate Services for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunby, M.; Bhaskaran, B.; Buontempo, C.; Willett, K.

    2010-09-01

    Working to improve the lives of the poorest people in the world is a huge challenge that has cost 2.3 trillion over the last 50 years. The work is far from done. Now there is also the challenge of adapting to changes in climate that threaten the very land on which the poorest live and work. There can be no simple plan to solve these problems, but those with information, knowledge or skills that could make a difference have a vital role to play. In this presentation we explore recent developments in communications technologies, the use of these technologies in assisting development in poorer countries, and how "open data" is enabling the rapid flow of information to those who need it most. Examples of recent Met Office projects and collaborations illustrate challenges faced and technical approaches already available. We pay particular attention to "feedback" - gathering information from end users throughout the entire lifetime of a service in order to best allocate resources and make rapid improvements in the quality, reach and benefits of climate services.

  16. Competencies Framework for Climate Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Enric

    2016-04-01

    The World Climate Conference-3 (Geneva, 2009) established the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) to enable better management of the risks of climate variability and change and adaptation to climate change at all levels, through development and incorporation of science-based climate information and prediction into planning, policy and practice. The GFCS defines Climate Services as the result of transforming climate data into climate information in a way that responds to user needs and assists decision-making by individuals and organizations. Capacity Development is a cross-cutting pillar of the GFCS to ensure that services are provided by institutions with professionals whom achieved the adequate set of competencies recommended by WMO, which are yet to be fully defined. The WMO-Commission for Climatology Expert Team on Education and Training, ET-ETR, has been working to define a Competencies Framework for Climate Services to help the institutions to deliver high quality climate services in compliance with WMO standards and regulations, specifically those defined by WMO's Commission for Climatology and the GFCS. This framework is based in 5 areas or competence, closely associated to the areas of work of climate services providers: create and manage climate data sets; derive products from climate data; create and/or interpret climate forecasts and model output; ensure the quality of climate information and services; communicate climatological information with users. With this contribution, we intend to introduce to a wider audience the rationale behind these 5 top-level competency statements and the performance criteria associated with them, as well as the plans of the ET-ETR for further developing them into an instrument to support education and training within the WMO members, specially the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services.

  17. Quantification of biophysical adaptation benefits from Climate-Smart Agriculture using a Bayesian Belief Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Patrick J.; Berry, Nicholas J.; Wells, Geoff J.; Reay, Dave S.

    2014-10-01

    The need for smallholder farmers to adapt their practices to a changing climate is well recognised, particularly in Africa. The cost of adapting to climate change in Africa is estimated to be $20 to $30 billion per year, but the total amount pledged to finance adaptation falls significantly short of this requirement. The difficulty of assessing and monitoring when adaptation is achieved is one of the key barriers to the disbursement of performance-based adaptation finance. To demonstrate the potential of Bayesian Belief Networks for describing the impacts of specific activities on climate change resilience, we developed a simple model that incorporates climate projections, local environmental data, information from peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion to account for the adaptation benefits derived from Climate-Smart Agriculture activities in Malawi. This novel approach allows assessment of vulnerability to climate change under different land use activities and can be used to identify appropriate adaptation strategies and to quantify biophysical adaptation benefits from activities that are implemented. We suggest that multiple-indicator Bayesian Belief Network approaches can provide insights into adaptation planning for a wide range of applications and, if further explored, could be part of a set of important catalysts for the expansion of adaptation finance.

  18. Linking biophysical models and public preferences for ecosystem service assessments: a case study for the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Reed, James; Semmens, Darius J.; Sherrouse, Ben C.; Troy, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Through extensive research, ecosystem services have been mapped using both survey-based and biophysical approaches, but comparative mapping of public values and those quantified using models has been lacking. In this paper, we mapped hot and cold spots for perceived and modeled ecosystem services by synthesizing results from a social-values mapping study of residents living near the Pike–San Isabel National Forest (PSI), located in the Southern Rocky Mountains, with corresponding biophysically modeled ecosystem services. Social-value maps for the PSI were developed using the Social Values for Ecosystem Services tool, providing statistically modeled continuous value surfaces for 12 value types, including aesthetic, biodiversity, and life-sustaining values. Biophysically modeled maps of carbon sequestration and storage, scenic viewsheds, sediment regulation, and water yield were generated using the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services tool. Hotspots for both perceived and modeled services were disproportionately located within the PSI’s wilderness areas. Additionally, we used regression analysis to evaluate spatial relationships between perceived biodiversity and cultural ecosystem services and corresponding biophysical model outputs. Our goal was to determine whether publicly valued locations for aesthetic, biodiversity, and life-sustaining values relate meaningfully to results from corresponding biophysical ecosystem service models. We found weak relationships between perceived and biophysically modeled services, indicating that public perception of ecosystem service provisioning regions is limited. We believe that biophysical and social approaches to ecosystem service mapping can serve as methodological complements that can advance ecosystem services-based resource management, benefitting resource managers by showing potential locations of synergy or conflict between areas supplying ecosystem services and those valued by the public.

  19. Satellites reveals the biophysical effects of forest cover change on climate at diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveiller, Gregory; Alkama, Ramdane; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Changing the planet's forest cover can have a profound impact of the climate system by altering its role as a carbon sink. However, deforestation and afforestation also changes the biophysical properties of the surface such as albedo, roughness and root depth, thus altering the energy balance and the resulting surface and air temperature. The result of these competing biophysical processes varies spatially and seasonally, and can lead to either warming or cooling depending on which process dominates. The main tools to characterize such plant-climate interactions for both the past and future are land surface models embedded in larger Earth System models, yet their capacity to model biophysical effects accurately across the globe remains unclear due to the complexity of the phenomena. Alternatively, with appropriate methodologies, the climate impacts of the biophysical effects of forest cover change can be derived from space by satellite measurements of surface temperature and energy fluxes. Here we present the confrontation of two dedicated assessments that have been specifically generated for this scope with contrasting methodologies. The first is based on identifying an actual change in the local climate following an observed forest cover transition. Although it directly measures the desired effect, this method can only be applied to the places where vegetation change has effectively occurred. The second method relies on a 'space-for-time' approximation that identifies the potential impact of a plant cover transition from differences in climate amongst neighboring areas with contrasting vegetation. We show how both approaches reinforce and complement each other to provide a consolidated result across diurnal, seasonal and inter-annual time scales. We anticipate that these evidences derived from satellite records may support the benchmarking and development of Earth system models and support the inclusion of vegetation-driven biophysical processes in climate

  20. Indigenous community health and climate change: integrating biophysical and social science indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatuto, Jamie; Grossman, Eric E.; Konovsky, John; Grossman, Sarah; Campbell, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study evaluating the sensitivity of Indigenous community health to climate change impacts on Salish Sea shorelines (Washington State, United States and British Columbia, Canada). Current climate change assessments omit key community health concerns, which are vital to successful adaptation plans, particularly for Indigenous communities. Descriptive scaling techniques, employed in facilitated workshops with two Indigenous communities, tested the efficacy of ranking six key indicators of community health in relation to projected impacts to shellfish habitat and shoreline archaeological sites stemming from changes in the biophysical environment. Findings demonstrate that: when shellfish habitat and archaeological resources are impacted, so is Indigenous community health; not all community health indicators are equally impacted; and, the community health indicators of highest concern are not necessarily the same indicators most likely to be impacted. Based on the findings and feedback from community participants, exploratory trials were successful; Indigenous-specific health indicators may be useful to Indigenous communities who are assessing climate change sensitivities and creating adaptation plans.

  1. Remote sensing of climate changes effects on urban green biophysical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2016-10-01

    Urban vegetation land cover change is a direct measure of quantitative increase or decrease in sources of urban pollution and the dimension of extreme climate events and changes that determine environment quality. This study addresses climate changes effects and anthropogenic impacts on urban green biophysical variables based on time series satellite data in synergy with in-situ data and new analytical methods. This paper explored the use of time-series MODIS Terra/Aqua Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI/EVI), Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Leaf Area Index (LAI), land surface albedo data to provide vegetation change detection information for Bucharest test area during 2000- 2015 period. Training and validation are based on a reference dataset collected from Landsat ETM remote sensing data. The mean detection accuracy for investigated period was 89%, with a reasonable balance between change commission errors (19.74%), change omission errors (24.72%), and Kappa coefficient of 0.74. Annual change detection rates across the urban/peri-urban green areas over the study period were estimated at 0.77% per annum in the range of 0.45% (2000) to 0.78% (2015).Vegetation dynamics in urban areas at seasonal and longer timescales reflect large-scale interactions between the terrestrial biosphere and the climate system.

  2. Climate mitigation from vegetation biophysical feedbacks during the past three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhenzhong; Piao, Shilong; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Zhou, Liming; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Tao; Li, Yue; Lian, Xu; Wood, Eric F.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Mao, Jiafu; Estes, Lyndon D.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Peng, Shushi; Shi, Xiaoying; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Wang, Yingping

    2017-06-01

    The surface air temperature response to vegetation changes has been studied for the extreme case of land-cover change; yet, it has never been quantified for the slow but persistent increase in leaf area index (LAI) observed over the past 30 years (Earth greening). Here we isolate the fingerprint of increasing LAI on surface air temperature using a coupled land-atmosphere global climate model prescribed with satellite LAI observations. We find that the global greening has slowed down the rise in global land-surface air temperature by 0.09 +/- 0.02 °C since 1982. This net cooling effect is the sum of cooling from increased evapotranspiration (70%), changed atmospheric circulation (44%), decreased shortwave transmissivity (21%), and warming from increased longwave air emissivity (-29%) and decreased albedo (-6%). The global cooling originated from the regions where LAI has increased, including boreal Eurasia, Europe, India, northwest Amazonia, and the Sahel. Increasing LAI did not, however, significantly change surface air temperature in eastern North America and East Asia, where the effects of large-scale atmospheric circulation changes mask local vegetation feedbacks. Overall, the sum of biophysical feedbacks related to the greening of the Earth mitigated 12% of global land-surface warming for the past 30 years.

  3. Climate mitigation from vegetation biophysical feedbacks during the past three decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Zhenzhong [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Piao, Shilong [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Li, Laurent Z. X. [Sorbonne Univ. Paris (France); Zhou, Liming [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Ciais, Philippe [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wang, Tao [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Li, Yue [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Lian, Xu [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Wood, Eric F. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Friedlingstein, Pierre [Univ. of Exeter (United Kingdom); Mao, Jiafu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Estes, Lyndon D. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States); Myneni, Ranga B. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Peng, Shushi [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Shi, Xiaoying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Seneviratne, Sonia I. [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Wang, Yingping [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Aspendale, VIC (Australia)

    2017-05-22

    The surface air temperature response to vegetation changes has been studied for the extreme case of land-cover change; yet, it has never been quantified for the slow but persistent increase in leaf area index (LAI) observed over the past 30 years (Earth greening). We isolate the fingerprint of increasing LAI on surface air temperature using a coupled land–atmosphere global climate model prescribed with satellite LAI observations. Furthermore, we found that the global greening has slowed down the rise in global land-surface air temperature by 0.09 ± 0.02 °C since 1982. This net cooling effect is the sum of cooling from increased evapotranspiration (70%), changed atmospheric circulation (44%), decreased shortwave transmissivity (21%), and warming from increased longwave air emissivity (-29%) and decreased albedo (-6%). The global cooling originated from the regions where LAI has increased, including boreal Eurasia, Europe, India, northwest Amazonia, and the Sahel. Increasing LAI did not, but, significantly change surface air temperature in eastern North America and East Asia, where the effects of large-scale atmospheric circulation changes mask local vegetation feedbacks. Overall, the sum of biophysical feedbacks related to the greening of the Earth mitigated 12% of global land-surface warming for the past 30 years.

  4. Impact of bio-physical feedbacks on the tropical climate in coupled and uncoupled GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kug, Jong-Seong; Seo, Hyodae; Bader, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    The bio-physical feedback process between the marine ecosystem and the tropical climate system is investigated using both an ocean circulation model and a fully-coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation model, which interact with a biogeochemical model. We found that the presence of chlorophyll can have significant impact on the characteristics of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), including its amplitude and asymmetry, as well as on the mean state. That is, chlorophyll generally increases mean sea surface temperature (SST) due to the direct biological heating. However, SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific decreases due to the stronger indirect dynamical response to the biological effects outweighing the direct thermal response. It is demonstrated that this biologically-induced SST cooling is intensified and conveyed to other tropical-ocean basins when atmosphere-ocean coupling is taken into account. It is also found that the presence of chlorophyll affects the magnitude of ENSO by two different mechanisms; one is an amplifying effect by the mean chlorophyll, which is associated with shoaling of the mean thermocline depth, and the other is a damping effect derived from the interactively-varying chlorophyll coupled with the physical model. The atmosphere-ocean coupling reduces the biologically-induced ENSO amplifying effect through the weakening of atmospheric feedback. Lastly, there is also a biological impact on ENSO which enhances the positive skewness. This skewness change is presumably caused by the phase dependency of thermocline feedback which affects the ENSO magnitude.

  5. Climate Analytics as a Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John L.; Duffy, Daniel Q.; McInerney, Mark A.; Webster, W. Phillip; Lee, Tsengdar J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate science is a big data domain that is experiencing unprecedented growth. In our efforts to address the big data challenges of climate science, we are moving toward a notion of Climate Analytics-as-a-Service (CAaaS). CAaaS combines high-performance computing and data-proximal analytics with scalable data management, cloud computing virtualization, the notion of adaptive analytics, and a domain-harmonized API to improve the accessibility and usability of large collections of climate data. MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) provides an example of CAaaS. MERRA/AS enables MapReduce analytics over NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data collection. The MERRA reanalysis integrates observational data with numerical models to produce a global temporally and spatially consistent synthesis of key climate variables. The effectiveness of MERRA/AS has been demonstrated in several applications. In our experience, CAaaS is providing the agility required to meet our customers' increasing and changing data management and data analysis needs.

  6. NASA's Climate Data Services Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, M.; Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; Webster, W. P.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the Earth's processes is based on a combination of observational data records and mathematical models. The size of NASA's space-based observational data sets is growing dramatically as new missions come online. However a potentially bigger data challenge is posed by the work of climate scientists, whose models are regularly producing data sets of hundreds of terabytes or more. It is important to understand that the 'Big Data' challenge of climate science cannot be solved with a single technological approach or an ad hoc assemblage of technologies. It will require a multi-faceted, well-integrated suite of capabilities that include cloud computing, large-scale compute-storage systems, high-performance analytics, scalable data management, and advanced deployment mechanisms in addition to the existing, well-established array of mature information technologies. It will also require a coherent organizational effort that is able to focus on the specific and sometimes unique requirements of climate science. Given that it is the knowledge that is gained from data that is of ultimate benefit to society, data publication and data analytics will play a particularly important role. In an effort to accelerate scientific discovery and innovation through broader use of climate data, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Office of Computational and Information Sciences and Technology has embarked on a determined effort to build a comprehensive, integrated data publication and analysis capability for climate science. The Climate Data Services (CDS) Initiative integrates people, expertise, and technology into a highly-focused, next-generation, one-stop climate science information service. The CDS Initiative is providing the organizational framework, processes, and protocols needed to deploy existing information technologies quickly using a combination of enterprise-level services and an expanding array of cloud services. Crucial to its effectiveness, the CDS

  7. Potential influences of climate and nest structure on spotted owl reproductive success: a biophysical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Rockweit

    Full Text Available Many bird species do not make their own nests; therefore, selection of existing sites that provide adequate microclimates is critical. This is particularly true for owls in north temperate climates that often nest early in the year when inclement weather is common. Spotted owls use three main types of nest structures, each of which are structurally distinct and may provide varying levels of protection to the eggs or young. We tested the hypothesis that spotted owl nest configuration influences nest microclimate using both experimental and observational data. We used a wind tunnel to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficient (h(c of eggs in 25 potential nest configurations that mimicked 2 nest types (top-cavity and platform nests, at 3 different wind speeds. We then used the estimates of h(c in a biophysical heat transfer model to estimate how long it would take unattended eggs to cool from incubation temperature (~36 °C to physiological zero temperature (PZT; ~26 °C under natural environmental conditions. Our results indicated that the structural configuration of nests influences the cooling time of the eggs inside those nests, and hence, influences the nest microclimate. Estimates of time to PZT ranged from 10.6 minutes to 33.3 minutes. Nest configurations that were most similar to platform nests always had the fastest egg cooling times, suggesting that platform nests were the least protective of those nests we tested. Our field data coupled with our experimental results suggested that nest choice is important for the reproductive success of owls during years of inclement weather or in regions characterized by inclement weather during the nesting season.

  8. Climate services: Lessons learned and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, Guy P.; Gallardo, Laura

    2016-03-01

    This perspective paper reviews progress made in the last decades to enhance the communication and use of climate information relevant to the political and economic decision process. It focuses, specifically, on the creation and development of climate services, and highlights a number of difficulties that have limited the success of these services. Among them are the insufficient awareness by societal actors of their vulnerability to climate change, the lack of relevant products and services offered by the scientific community, the inappropriate format in which the information is provided, and the inadequate business model adopted by climate services. The authors suggest that, to be effective, centers should host within the same center a diversity of staff including experts in climate science, specialists in impact, adaptation, and vulnerability, representatives of the corporate world, agents of the public service as well as social managers and communication specialists. The role and importance of environmental engineering is emphasized.

  9. Invertebrates, ecosystem services and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Chelse M; Pelini, Shannon L; Laws, Angela; Rivest, Emily; Woltz, Megan; Bloch, Christopher P; Del Toro, Israel; Ho, Chuan-Kai; Kominoski, John; Newbold, T A Scott; Parsons, Sheena; Joern, A

    2013-05-01

    The sustainability of ecosystem services depends on a firm understanding of both how organisms provide these services to humans and how these organisms will be altered with a changing climate. Unquestionably a dominant feature of most ecosystems, invertebrates affect many ecosystem services and are also highly responsive to climate change. However, there is still a basic lack of understanding of the direct and indirect paths by which invertebrates influence ecosystem services, as well as how climate change will affect those ecosystem services by altering invertebrate populations. This indicates a lack of communication and collaboration among scientists researching ecosystem services and climate change effects on invertebrates, and land managers and researchers from other disciplines, which becomes obvious when systematically reviewing the literature relevant to invertebrates, ecosystem services, and climate change. To address this issue, we review how invertebrates respond to climate change. We then review how invertebrates both positively and negatively influence ecosystem services. Lastly, we provide some critical future directions for research needs, and suggest ways in which managers, scientists and other researchers may collaborate to tackle the complex issue of sustaining invertebrate-mediated services under a changing climate. © 2012 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  10. Toward an Ethical Framework for Climate Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, R.; Adams, P.; Eitland, E.; Hewitson, B.; Shumake, J.; Vaughan, C.; Zebiak, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate services offer information and tools to help stakeholders anticipate and/or manage risks posed by climate change. However, climate services lack a cohesive ethical framework to govern their development and application. This paper describes a prototype, open-ended process to form a set of ethical principles to ensure that climate services are effectively deployed to manage climate risks, realize opportunities, and advance human security.We begin by acknowledging the multiplicity of competing interests and motivations across individuals and institutions. Growing awareness of potential climate impacts has raised interest and investments in climate services and led to the entrance of new providers. User demand for climate services is also rising, as are calls for new types of services. Meanwhile, there is growing pressure from funders to operationalize climate research.Our proposed ethical framework applies reference points founded on diverse experiences in western and developing countries, fundamental and applied climate research, different sectors, gender, and professional practice (academia, private sector, government). We assert that climate service providers should be accountable for both their practices and products by upholding values of integrity, transparency, humility, and collaboration.Principles of practice include: communicating all value judgements; eschewing climate change as a singular threat; engaging in the co-exploration of knowledge; establishing mechanisms for monitoring/evaluating procedures and products; declaring any conflicts of interest. Examples of principles of products include: clear and defensible provenance of information; descriptions of the extent and character of uncertainties using terms that are meaningful to intended users; tools and information that are tailored to the context of the user; and thorough documentation of methods and meta-data.We invite the community to test and refine these points.

  11. Climate Services - Innovation for Smart Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    Living in a changing climate is becoming an increasing challenge for all kinds of human activities. Mitigation of global warming is of utmost importance to avoid further and stronger changes in our climate. At the same time, adaptation to today's and future changes is needed. To address both, a new field of activity developed within the last couple of years: climate services. They develop and deliver easy understandable and useful information for decision makers in public and private business and society as a whole. The German Climate Service Center 2.0 was one of the first institutions worldwide bridging the gap between scientific climate change knowledge and user needs. Developing prototype products and services, the Climate Service Center 2.0 orients its activities toward consultation of climate change topics and adaptation to climate change impacts. It prepares high quality and state of the art information for decision makers. What have we learned and where are we heading to? What are the roles of partners and networks? And how might a new field of expertise like climate services develop and stimulate the job market? These questions will be discussed and examples will be given.

  12. Data records of biophysical products in the Copernicus Global Land Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydekerke, L.; Smets, B.; Swinnen, E.; Lacaze, R. N.; Calvet, J. C.; Baret, F.; camacho De Coca, F.; Roujean, J. L.; Tansey, K.; Coelho, S.; Jann, A.; Paulik, C.; Verger, A.

    2014-12-01

    From 1stJanuary 2013, the Copernicus Global Land service provides continuously a set of bio-geophysical variables describing, over the whole globe, the vegetation dynamic, the energy budget at the continental surface and some components of the water cycle. These generic products serve numerous applications such as agriculture and food security monitoring, weather forecast, climate change impact studies, water, forest and natural resources management. The portfolio contains Essential Climate Variables like Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of PAR absorbed by the vegetation (FAPAR), surface albedo, Land Surface Temperature, soil moisture, burnt areas, areas of water bodies, and additional vegetation indices. They are generated daily on a reliable and automatic basis from Earth Observation satellite data. Beside this timely production, the available historical archives, up to 16 years for SPOT-VEGETATION, have been processed using the same innovative algorithms. For a number of ECVs, the algorithms are adapted to work with NOAA-AVHRR as input to extend the time series up to 1982. The service continuity is provided in two parallel paths. On one hand, the existing retrieval methodologies are adapted to use the new PROBA-V sensor, fully consistent with SPOT-VEGETATION, and as such extends the time-series at 1km spatial resolution. On the other hand, the operation is moving to the finer resolution of PROBA-V (300m), while maintaining consistency with the 1km series. The data records are documented in terms of the physical methodologies, the technical properties, and the results of validation exercises. The service performs a continuous quality monitoring on three levels: technical, scientific and cross-cutting, following where possible the rules of CEOS/LPV and comparing with both in-situ and other datasets, e.g. MODIS. The service is improved through feedback from an independent expert team performing regular independent reviews and providing user feedback. All

  13. Indicators of climate change in Idaho: An assessment framework for coupling biophysical change and social perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is well documented at the global scale, but local and regional changes are not as well understood. Finer, local-to-regional scale information is needed for creating specific, place-based planning and adaption efforts. Here we detail the development of an indicator-focused climate chan...

  14. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  15. Climate Services to Improve Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Jancloes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4–6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data, along with institutional interaction with policy makers.

  16. Climate Services to Improve Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancloes, Michel; Thomson, Madeleine; Costa, María Máñez; Hewitt, Chris; Corvalan, Carlos; Dinku, Tufa; Lowe, Rachel; Hayden, Mary

    2014-01-01

    A high level expert panel discussed how climate and health services could best collaborate to improve public health. This was on the agenda of the recent Third International Climate Services Conference, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica, 4–6 December 2013. Issues and challenges concerning a demand led approach to serve the health sector needs, were identified and analysed. Important recommendations emerged to ensure that innovative collaboration between climate and health services assist decision-making processes and the management of climate-sensitive health risk. Key recommendations included: a move from risk assessment towards risk management; the engagement of the public health community with both the climate sector and development sectors, whose decisions impact on health, particularly the most vulnerable; to increase operational research on the use of policy-relevant climate information to manage climate- sensitive health risks; and to develop in-country capacities to improve local knowledge (including collection of epidemiological, climate and socio-economic data), along with institutional interaction with policy makers. PMID:24776719

  17. Biophysical and Socioeconomic State and Links of Deltaic Areas Vulnerable to Climate Change: Volta (Ghana, Mahanadi (India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Cazcarro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the similarities and differences of specific deltaic areas in parallel, under the project DEltas, vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation (DECCMA. The main reason for studying Deltas is their potential vulnerability to climate change and sea level rise, which generates important challenges for livelihoods. We provide insights into the current socioeconomic and biophysical states of the Volta Delta (Ghana, Mahanadi Delta (India and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (India and Bangladesh. Hybrid methods of input-output (IO construction are used to develop environmentally extended IO models for comparing the economic characteristics of these delta regions with the rest of the country. The main sources of data for regionalization were country level census data, statistics and economic surveys and data on consumption, trade, agricultural production and fishing harvests. The Leontief demand-driven model is used to analyze land use in the agricultural sector of the Delta and to track the links with final demand. In addition, the Hypothetical Extraction Method is used to evaluate the importance of the hypothetical disappearance of a sector (e.g., agriculture. The results show that, in the case of the Indian deltas, more than 60% of the cropland and pasture land is devoted to satisfying demands from regions outside the delta. While in the case of the Bangladeshi and Ghanaian deltas, close to 70% of the area harvested is linked to internal demand. The results also indicate that the services, trade and transportation sectors represent 50% of the GDP in the deltas. Still, agriculture, an activity directly exposed to climate change, plays a relevant role in the deltas’ economies—we have estimated that the complete disappearance of this activity would entail GDP losses ranging from 18 to 32%.

  18. Forests, fire, floods and fish: nonlinear biophysical responses to changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J. L.; Baxter, C.; Yager, E. M.; Fremier, A. K.; Crosby, B. T.; Smith, A. M.; Kennedy, B.; Hicke, J. A.; Feris, K.

    2009-12-01

    One goal of interdisciplinarity is to develop a more holistic understanding of a set of interlinked, complex system processes. Studies rarely couple both a mechanistic understanding of individual processes with their coupled influence on the entire system structure, yet the prospects for climate driven changes in western river systems provide justification for such an effort. We apply such a mechanistic and systems approach to understanding the effects of climate on fire frequency, plant-soil infiltration, sediment transport and stream community and ecosystem dynamics in a large wilderness setting that is likely to experience shifts in the timing or intensity of physical forces if projected climate change scenarios are realized. The Middle Fork Salmon River in central Idaho runs through the Frank Church Wilderness area and is the largest roadless area in the conterminous United States. The relatively southern continental position, complex mountain terrain and wealth of long-term landscape and ecological data in this region make it a tractable system to study the multifaceted and potentially non-linear processes of system change. This presents a unique opportunity to study the effects of climate change in the absence of substantial management effects in a system on the cusp of change. This collection of studies investigates the effects of climate-driven changes in hillslope processes on stream geomorphic and ecologic processes. We investigate 1) how wildfire alters the magnitude, timing and size of sediment delivered to stream channels, 2) how climate-driven changes in the proportion of rain vs. snow dominated basins alter stream hydrology, 3) how wildfire and insect disturbances modify aquatic ecosystems through inputs of nutrients and changes to habitat, 4) how paleo-records of drought, fire, and fire-related debris flows compare with recent data, 5) how fire-related inputs of sediment and wood influence the structure and dynamics of aquatic habitats, and their

  19. Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio, F.

    2012-04-01

    Climate information at global, regional and national levels and in timeframes ranging from the past, present and future climate is fundamental for planning, sustainable development and to help organizations, countries and individuals adopt appropriate strategies to adapt to climate variability and change. Based on this recognition, in 2009, the Heads of States and Governments, Ministers and Heads of Delegation representing more than 150 countries, 34 United Nations Organizations and 36 Governmental and non-Governmental international organizations, and more than 2500 experts present at the Third World Climate Conference (WCC - 3) unanimously agreed to develop the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) to strengthen the production, availability, delivery and application of science-based climate prediction and services. They requested that a taskforce of high-level independent advisors be appointed to prepare a report, including recommendations on the proposed elements of the Framework and the next steps for its implementation. The high-level taskforce produced a report which was endorsed by the Sixteeth World Meteorological Congress XVI in May 2011. A process for the development of the implementation plan and the governance structure of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) is well under way being led by the World Meteorological Organization within the UN system. This process involves consultations that engage a broad range of stakeholders including governments, UN and international agencies, regional organizations and specific communities of practitioners. These consultations are being conducted to facilitate discussions of key issues related to the production, availability, delivery and application of climate services in the four priority sectors of the framework (agriculture, water, health and disaster risk reduction) so that the implementation plan of the Framework is a true reflection of the aspirations of stakeholders. The GFCS is envisaged as

  20. Biophysics demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfarb, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Written in a step-by-step format, this practical guide begins with an introduction to the science of biophysics, covering biophysical techniques and applications. Next, you'll learn the principles of physics, biology, and chemistry required to understand biophysics, including free energy, entropy, and statistical mechanics. Biomolecules and the forces that influence their structure and conformation are also covered, as are protein, nucleic acid, and membrane biophysics. Detailed examples and concise explanations make it easy to understand the material, and end-of-chapter quizzes and a final exam help reinforce key concepts.

  1. Recent progress towards climate services in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deandreis, C.; Lemond, J.; Dandin, P.; Braconnot, P.

    2013-01-01

    Important efforts have been made in recent years to develop climate services in France. Many initiatives have emerged to build an adapted System of information. This development is consistent with legislative and regulatory obligations, with a concern for economic advance, or a citizen questioning related to global change. The web portal 'DRIAS, les futurs du climat' provides an easy access to climate scenarios for France, opened to everyone concerned by impact and adaptation to climate change. This achievement results of a close co-operation between the major French climate modelling groups and the operational services of Meteo-France. It has been benefiting from the support of the Ministry in charge of Sustainable Development namely through its GICC program. The next steps with DRIAS will be defined both by a strong consistency with the scientific community work and by the requirements and expectations of users. In this, it is a real service. Following a different approach more focused on the specific and advanced needs of particular users, the French projects INVULNERABLe and SECIF sought to create a relevant and tailored to the industrial sector. This kind of products requires a support to educate operational users to climate change issue, and then to enhance the interface between climatologists and skilled users within the concerned companies. Both approaches are representative of current efforts of the French national scientific community to provide a useful part of the knowledge developed by the Academia and Meteo-France. The various initiatives are carried out with the wish to share and be consistent with research community work. They are mutually enriching, and with all stakeholders involved, they gradually build a real climate service in France. (authors)

  2. Implementing Climate Services in Peru: CLIMANDES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.

  3. The Climate Data Analytic Services (CDAS) Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. P.; Duffy, D.

    2016-12-01

    Faced with unprecedented growth in climate data volume and demand, NASA has developed the Climate Data Analytic Services (CDAS) framework. This framework enables scientists to execute data processing workflows combining common analysis operations in a high performance environment close to the massive data stores at NASA. The data is accessed in standard (NetCDF, HDF, etc.) formats in a POSIX file system and processed using vetted climate data analysis tools (ESMF, CDAT, NCO, etc.). A dynamic caching architecture enables interactive response times. CDAS utilizes Apache Spark for parallelization and a custom array framework for processing huge datasets within limited memory spaces. CDAS services are accessed via a WPS API being developed in collaboration with the ESGF Compute Working Team to support server-side analytics for ESGF. The API can be accessed using either direct web service calls, a python script, a unix-like shell client, or a javascript-based web application. Client packages in python, scala, or javascript contain everything needed to make CDAS requests. The CDAS architecture brings together the tools, data storage, and high-performance computing required for timely analysis of large-scale data sets, where the data resides, to ultimately produce societal benefits. It is is currently deployed at NASA in support of the Collaborative REAnalysis Technical Environment (CREATE) project, which centralizes numerous global reanalysis datasets onto a single advanced data analytics platform. This service permits decision makers to investigate climate changes around the globe, inspect model trends and variability, and compare multiple reanalysis datasets.

  4. More than carbon sequestration: Biophysical climate benefits of restored savanna woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syktus, Jozef I.; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2016-07-01

    Deforestation and climate change are interconnected and represent major environmental challenges. Here, we explore the capacity of regional-scale restoration of marginal agricultural lands to savanna woodlands in Australia to reduce warming and drying resulting from increased concentration of greenhouse gases. We show that restoration triggers a positive feedback loop between the land surface and the atmosphere, characterised by increased evaporative fraction, eddy dissipation and turbulent mixing in the boundary-layer resulting in enhanced cloud formation and precipitation over the restored regions. The increased evapotranspiration results from the capacity deep-rooted woody vegetation to access soil moisture. As a consequence, the increase in precipitation provides additional moisture to soil and trees, thus reinforcing the positive feedback loop. Restoration reduced the rate of warming and drying under the transient increase in the radiative forcing of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP8.5). At the continental scale, average summer warming for all land areas was reduced by 0.18 oC from 4.1 oC for the period 2056-2075 compared to 1986-2005. For the restored regions (representing 20% of Australia), the averaged surface temperature increase was 3.2 °C which is 0.82 °C cooler compared to agricultural landscapes. Further, there was reduction of 12% in the summer drying of the near-surface soil for the restored regions.

  5. Prototype development of user specific climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Systematic consultations in the last years with representatives from sectors particularly affected by climate change have helped the Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS) to identify the most pressing needs of stakeholders from public and private sectors. Besides the development of innovative climate service products and methods, areas are also identified, for which intensive research activities have to be initiated. An example is the demand of decision makers for high-resolution climate change information needed at regional to local levels for their activities towards climate change adaptation. For questions concerning adaptation to climate change, no standard solutions can be provided. Different from mitigation measures, adaptation measures must be framed in accordance with the specific circumstances prevailing in the local situation. Here, individual solutions, which satisfy the individual requirements and needs, are necessary. They have to be developed in close co-operation with the customers and users. For example, the implications of climate change on strategic and operative decisions, e.g. in enterprises and urban planning, are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, high-quality consultancy for businesses and public administration is needed, in order to support decision makers in identifying associated risks and opportunities. For the development of prototype products, GERICS has framed a general methodological approach, including the idea generation, the iterative development, and the prototype testing in co-development with the user. High process transparency and high product quality are prerequisite for the success of a product. The co-development process ensures the best possible communication of user tailored climate change information for different target groups.

  6. Biophysical controls on carbon and water vapor fluxes across a grassland climatic gradient in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagle, Pradeep; Xiao, Xiangming; Scott, Russell L.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Cook, David R.; Brunsell, Nathaniel; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Basara, Jeffrey; Matamala, Roser; Zhou, Yuting; Bajgain, Rajen

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of the underlying causes of spatial variation in exchange of carbon and water vapor fluxes between grasslands and the atmosphere is crucial for accurate estimates of regional and global carbon and water budgets, and for predicting the impact of climate change on biosphere–atmosphere feedbacks of grasslands. We used ground-based eddy flux and meteorological data, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from 12 grasslands across the United States to examine the spatial variability in carbon and water vapor fluxes and to evaluate the biophysical controls on the spatial patterns of fluxes. Precipitation was strongly associated with spatial and temporal variability in carbon and water vapor fluxes and vegetation productivity. Grasslands with annual average precipitation <600 mm generally had neutral annual carbon balance or emitted small amount of carbon to the atmosphere. Despite strong coupling between gross primary production (GPP)and evapotranspiration (ET) across study sites, GPP showed larger spatial variation than ET, and EVI had a greater effect on GPP than on ET. Consequently, large spatial variation in ecosystem water use efficiency (EWUE = annual GPP/ET; varying from 0.67 ± 0.55 to 2.52 ± 0.52 g C mm⁻¹ET) was observed. Greater reduction in GPP than ET at high air temperature and vapor pressure deficit caused a reduction in EWUE in dry years, indicating a response which is opposite than what has been reported for forests. Our results show that spatial and temporal variations in ecosystem carbon uptake, ET, and water use efficiency of grasslands were strongly associated with canopy greenness and coverage, as indicated by EVI.

  7. Climate Analytics as a Service. Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Exascale computing, big data, and cloud computing are driving the evolution of large-scale information systems toward a model of data-proximal analysis. In response, we are developing a concept of climate analytics as a service (CAaaS) that represents a convergence of data analytics and archive management. With this approach, high-performance compute-storage implemented as an analytic system is part of a dynamic archive comprising both static and computationally realized objects. It is a system whose capabilities are framed as behaviors over a static data collection, but where queries cause results to be created, not found and retrieved. Those results can be the product of a complex analysis, but, importantly, they also can be tailored responses to the simplest of requests. NASA's MERRA Analytic Service and associated Climate Data Services API provide a real-world example of climate analytics delivered as a service in this way. Our experiences reveal several advantages to this approach, not the least of which is orders-of-magnitude time reduction in the data assembly task common to many scientific workflows.

  8. Biophysical Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pregnancy High-risk pregnancy Biophysical profile About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  9. Improving user engagement and uptake of climate services in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Golding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The needs of decision makers in China are being used to develop climate science and climate services through the Climate Science for Services Partnership. Focusing on examples of work for the energy and urban sectors, this paper outlines the approach taken and gives case studies of climate service development. We find that there is great opportunity for climate service development within the existing China Framework for Climate Services, and for enhancing the science that underpins such services. We also find challenges unique to the socio-economic and cultural environment in China, which must be taken into account when developing climate services here, as well as challenges common to all climate service development.

  10. What have we learnt from EUPORIAS climate service prototypes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Buontempo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The international effort toward climate services, epitomised by the development of the Global Framework for Climate Services and, more recently the launch of Copernicus Climate Change Service has renewed interest in the users and the role they can play in shaping the services they will eventually use. Here we critically analyse the results of the five climate service prototypes that were developed as part of the EU funded project EUPORIAS.Starting from the experience acquired in each of the projects we attempt to distil a few key lessons which, we believe, will be relevant to the wider community of climate service developers.

  11. Climate Science Service Learning: Learning In Deed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Many schools require community service yet students work at a food bank or stream clean-up without understanding causes or solutions for the issues they encounter. Since students learn best when they make connections between scientific concepts and real-world issues that interest them, integrated science service learning is an effective and engaging way to teach. My fifth grade students at National Presbyterian School in Washington, DC learned about climate change through a service learning project to help the environment on campus. The curriculum was aligned with science and climate literacy frameworks, "Benchmarks for Science Literacy," from the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and "The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences," from the U.S. Global Change Research Program / U.S. Climate Change Science Program, and was supported through partnership with NOAA's Climate Stewards Education Program. The service learning project was implemented according to seven best practices of service learning: the students initiated the project, researched the issue, developed a plan, worked with the community, shared their results, reflected on the project, and celebrated their accomplishment. My class of 28 fifth-graders researched and experimented with several environmental variables affecting our campus. They brainstormed service projects they could do to help the environment and decided to focus on reducing idling in the school carpool lane. Students researched how automobile exhaust contributes to climate change, causes acid rain, and harms human health. Students designed a system to measure and eventually minimize the exhaust released by cars idling in the carpool line. They crafted a tally sheet to record the number and size of cars and their idling times. They measured temperature and CO2 data, although they did not find that the number of idling cars affected these variables. Students concluded that over an average week with pleasant weather, 35 of

  12. Advancing place-based transboundary climate services: Lessons from the 2016 North American drought, wildfire, and climate services forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2016, nearly 50 climate science and services experts representing the North American Climate Services Partnership, North American Drought Monitor Forum, and North American Fire Forecasting Workshop joined together for an integrated workshop on drought, wildfire, and climate services across N...

  13. Assessing customer satisfaction for improving NOAA's climate products and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J. C.; Hawkins, M. D.; Timofeyeva, M. M.

    2009-12-01

    NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) is developing a comprehensive climate user requirements process with the ultimate goal of producing climate services that meet the needs of NWS climate information users. An important part of this effort includes engaging users through periodical surveys conducted by the Claes Fornell International (CFI) Group using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The CFI Group conducted a Climate Services Satisfaction (CSS) Survey in May of 2009 to measure customer satisfaction with current products and services and to gain insight on areas for improvement. The CSS Survey rates customer satisfaction on a range of NWS climate services data and products, including Climate Prediction Center (CPC) outlooks, drought monitoring, and ENSO monitoring and forecasts, as well as NWS local climate data services. In addition, the survey assesses the users of the products to give the NWS insight into its climate customer base. The survey also addresses specific topics such as NWS forecast category names, probabilistic nature of climate products, and interpretation issues. The survey results identify user requirements for improving existing NWS climate services and introducing new ones. CSD will merge the survey recommendations with available scientific methodologies and operational capabilities to develop requirements for improved climate products and services. An overview of the 2009 survey results will be presented, such as users' satisfaction with the accuracy, reliability, display and functionality of products and services.

  14. Sea Level Change and Coastal Climate Services: The Way Forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Cozannet, G.; Nicholls, R.J.; Hinkel, J.; Sweet, W.V.; McInnes, K.L.; Van de Wal, R.S.E.; Slangen, A.B.A.; Lowe, J.A.; White, K.D.

    2017-01-01

    For many climate change impacts such as drought and heat waves, global and nationalframeworks for climate services are providing ever more critical support to adaptation activities.Coastal zones are especially in need of climate services for adaptation, as they are increasinglythreatened by sea

  15. Outstanding challenges limiting the development of climate services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buontempo, Carlo; Soares, Marta Bruno; Liggins, Felicity

    2016-04-01

    Climate services attempt to make the available (or forthcoming) climate knowledge more usable by decision and policy makers in the development of a climate smart society. Since the launch of the Global Framework for Climate Services in 2009 there has been an exponential increase in investment in the development and delivery of climate services, leading to an array of projects and initiatives across Europe. However, to date little attention has been given to understanding the different ways in which climate services are defined, implemented, and evaluated in Europe. In addition, other aspects such as how to pursue the necessary processes of co-production, which business models to apply, and the implications for the careers of scientists and others involved in the development of climate services are also crucial elements that need to be further examined and discussed. Such aspects are critical to the future development of climate services as they have the potential to significantly constrain the growth of climate services in Europe. Starting from a set of questions that have arisen within some of the most prominent climate services projects and initiatives in Europe, our paper highlights and expands on the outstanding challenges that need to be resolved by both the scientific community and the funders in order to ensure climate services can prosper and grow in Europe.

  16. Advances of NOAA Training Program in Climate Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Since 2002, NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) has offered numerous training opportunities to NWS staff. After eight-years of development, the training program offers three instructor-led courses and roughly 25 online (distance learning) modules covering various climate topics, such as: climate data and observations, climate variability and change, and NWS national / local climate products (tools, skill, and interpretation). Leveraging climate information and expertise available at all NOAA line offices and partners allows for the delivery of the most advanced knowledge and is a very critical aspect of the training program. The emerging NOAA Climate Service (NCS) requires a well-trained, climate-literate workforce at the local level capable of delivering NOAA's climate products and services as well as providing climate-sensitive decision support. NWS Weather Forecast Offices and River Forecast Centers presently serve as local outlets for the NCS climate services. Trained NWS climate service personnel use proactive and reactive approaches and professional education methods in communicating climate variability and change information to local users. Both scientifically-sound messages and amiable communication techniques are important in developing an engaged dialog between the climate service providers and users. Several pilot projects have been conducted by the NWS CSD this past year that apply the program's training lessons and expertise to specialized external user group training. The technical user groups included natural resources managers, engineers, hydrologists, and planners for transportation infrastructure. Training of professional user groups required tailoring instructions to the potential applications for each group of users. Training technical users identified the following critical issues: (1) knowledge of target audience expectations, initial knowledge status, and potential use of climate information; (2) leveraging

  17. Mathematical biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This book presents concise descriptions and analysis of the classical and modern models used in mathematical biophysics. The authors ask the question "what new information can be provided by the models that cannot be obtained directly from experimental data?" Actively developing fields such as regulatory mechanisms in cells and subcellular systems and electron transport and energy transport in membranes are addressed together with more classical topics such as metabolic processes, nerve conduction and heart activity, chemical kinetics, population dynamics, and photosynthesis. The main approach is to describe biological processes using different mathematical approaches necessary to reveal characteristic features and properties of simulated systems. With the emergence of powerful mathematics software packages such as MAPLE, Mathematica, Mathcad, and MatLab, these methodologies are now accessible to a wide audience. Provides succinct but authoritative coverage of a broad array of biophysical topics and models Wr...

  18. Strengthening Climate Services Capabilities and Regional Engagement at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, E.

    2008-12-01

    The demand for sector-based climate information is rapidly expanding. In order to support this demand, it is crucial that climate information is managed in an effective, efficient, and user-conscious manner. NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is working closely with numerous partners to develop a comprehensive interface that is authoritative, accessible, and responsive to a variety of sectors, stakeholders, and other users. This talk will explore these dynamics and activities, with additional perspectives on climate services derived from the regional and global experiences of the NOAA Integrated Data and Environmental Applications (IDEA) Center in the Pacific. The author will explore the importance of engaging partners and customers in the development, implementation and emergence of a national climate service program. The presentation will draw on the author's experience in climate science and risk management programs in the Pacific, development of regional and national climate services programs and insights emerging from climate services development efforts in NCDC. In this context, the author will briefly discuss some of guiding principles for effective climate services and applications including: - Early and continuous dialogue, partnership and collaboration with users/customers; - Establishing and sustaining trust and credibility through a program of shared learning and joint problem- solving; - Understanding the societal context for climate risk management and using a problem-focused approach to the development of products and services; - Addressing information needs along a continuum of timescales from extreme events to long-term change; and - Embedding education, outreach and communications activities as critical program elements in effective climate services. By way of examples, the author will reference lessons learned from: early Pacific Island climate forecast applications and climate assessment activities; the implementation of the Pacific Climate

  19. Evaluating impacts of climate change on future water scarcity in an intensively managed semi-arid region using a coupled model of biophysical processes and water rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    In semiarid and arid regions where water supply is intensively managed, future water scarcity is a product of complex interactions between climate change and human activities. Evaluating future water scarcity under alternative scenarios of climate change, therefore, necessitates modeling approaches that explicitly represent the coupled biophysical and social processes responsible for the redistribution of water in these regions. At regional scales a particular challenge lies in adequately capturing not only the central tendencies of change in projections of climate change, but also the associated plausible range of variability in those projections. This study develops a framework that combines a stochastic weather generator, historical climate observations, and statistically downscaled General Circulation Model (GCM) projections. The method generates a large ensemble of daily climate realizations, avoiding deficiencies of using a few or mean values of individual GCM realizations. Three climate change scenario groups reflecting the historical, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 future projections are developed. Importantly, the model explicitly captures the spatiotemporally varying irrigation activities as constrained by local water rights in a rapidly growing, semi-arid human-environment system in southwest Idaho. We use this modeling framework to project water use and scarcity patterns under the three future climate change scenarios. The model is built using the Envision alternative futures modeling framework. Climate projections for the region show future increases in both precipitation and temperature, especially under the RCP8.5 scenario. The increase of temperature has a direct influence on the increase of the irrigation water use and water scarcity, while the influence of increased precipitation on water use is less clear. The predicted changes are potentially useful in identifying areas in the watershed particularly sensitive to water scarcity, the relative importance of

  20. Climate services within a regional climate adaptation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Heidenreich, Majana; Franke, Johannes; Riedel, Kathrin; Matschullat, Jörg; Bernhofer, Christian

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the demand for adapting to climate variability and change became more and more obvious. Thus a multitude of projects dealing with climate adaptation strategies and concrete measures was launched. Commonly, developing adaptation options is based on downscaled climate model outputs. These outputs have to be provided within the projects, but just providing the data is far from being sufficient. Obstacles connected with using climate projections for climate adaptation include uncertainties and bandwidths of climate projections and the inability of models to describe parameters such as extreme weather events, which are particularly relevant for many climate adaptation decisions. Climate scientists know that model outputs are no climate data and cannot be treated as observational data were treated in the past. Still, many practitioners demand precise values for future climate to replace past CLINO-values and to run their applications. Thus, climate adaptation involves adapting the instruments and processes used in deriving climate-related decisions. Communicating the challenges arising from this need in rethinking common procedures is of outstanding significance for any successful adaptation practice. Dealing with uncertainties of climate projections is a constant necessity, since they are always based on several simplifications, parameterisations and assumptions, e.g., on the future socioeconomic development or on climate sensitivity. Future climate should thus be communicated in bandwidths. Working with just one scenario, one climate model, or even working with ensemble means is risky as it evokes a higher than appropriate perceived confidence in the results. It encourages using familiar tools in processing climate information, rather than caution. Consequences are suboptimal adaption and misallocation of finances. We encourage working with bandwidths and testing climate adaptation options against a broad range of possible future climates. Climate

  1. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a cloud-enabled web-service system that empowers physics-based, multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks. The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the observational datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation, (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs, and (3) ECMWF reanalysis outputs for several environmental variables in order to supplement observational datasets. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, (4) the calculation of difference between two variables, and (5) the conditional sampling of one physical variable with respect to another variable. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use, avoiding the hassle of local software installation and environment incompatibility. CMDA will be used as an educational tool for the summer school organized by JPL's Center for Climate Science in 2014. In order to support 30+ simultaneous users during the school, we have deployed CMDA to the Amazon cloud environment. The cloud-enabled CMDA will provide each student with a virtual machine while the user interaction with the system will remain the same

  2. The Human Appropriation of Ecosystem Service Values (HAESV) in the Sundarban Biosphere Region Using Biophysical Quantification Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannigrahi, S.; Paul, S. K.; Sen, S.

    2017-12-01

    Human appropriation, especially unusual changes in land-use and land cover, significantly affects ecosystem services and functions. Driven by the growth of the population and the economy, human demands on earth's land surface have increased dramatically in the past 50 - 100 years. The area studied was divided into six major categories; cropland, mangrove forest, sparse vegetation, built-up urban area, water bodies and sandy coast, and the land coverage was calculated for the years 1973, 1988, 2002 and 2013. The spatial explicit value of the primary regulatory and supporting ecosystem services (climate regulation, raw material production, water regulation) were quantified through the indirect market valuation approach. A light use efficiency based ecosystem model, i.e. Carnegie- Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) was employed to estimate the carbon sequestration and oxygen production services of the ecosystem. The ArcGIS matrix transform approach calculated LULC dynamics among the classes. Investigation revealed that the built-up urban area increased from 42.9 km2 in 1973 to 308 km2 in 2013 with a 6.6 km2 yr-1 expansion rate. Similarly, water bodies (especially inland water bodies increased dramatically in the north central region) increased from 3392.1 sq.km in 1973 to 5420 sq.km in 2013 at the expense of semi-natural and natural land resulting in significant changes of ecological and ecosystem services. However, the area occupied by dense mangrove forest decreased substantially during the 40 years (1973 -2013); it was recorded to cover 2294 km2 in 1973 and 1820 km2 in 2013. The results showed that the estimated regulatory and supporting ecosystem services respond quite differently to human appropriation across the regions in both the economic and ecological dimensions. While evaluating the trade-of between human appropriation and ecosystem service changes, it has been estimated that the ecosystem service value of organic matter provision services decreased from 755 US

  3. Structural biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. The structural biophysics group explores the high-resolution structure of biological macromolecules and cell organelles. Specific subject areas include: the basic characteristics of photosynthesis in plants; the chemical composition of individual fly ash particles at the site of their damaging action in tissues; direct analysis of frozen-hydrated biological samples by scanning electron microscopy; yeast genetics; the optical activity of DNA aggregates; measurement and characterization of lipoproteins; function of lipoproteins; and the effect of radiation and pollutants on mammalian cells

  4. Regional climate services: A regional partnership between NOAA and USDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate services in the Midwest and Northern Plains regions have been enhanced by a recent addition of the USDA Climate Hubs to NOAA’s existing network of partners. This new partnership stems from the intrinsic variability of intra and inter-annual climatic conditions, which makes decision-making fo...

  5. Strong biotic influences on regional patterns of climate regulation services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serna-Chavez, H.M.; Swenson, N.G.; Weiser, M.D.; van Loon, E.E.; Bouten, W.; Davidson, M.D.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate regulation services from forests are an important leverage in global-change mitigation treaties. Like most ecosystem services, climate regulation is the product of various ecological phenomena with unique spatial features. Elucidating which abiotic and biotic factors relate to spatial

  6. Strong biotic influences on regional patterns of climate regulation services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Chavez, H. M.; Swenson, N. G.; Weiser, M. D.; van Loon, E. E.; Bouten, W.; Davidson, M. D.; van Bodegom, P. M.

    2017-05-01

    Climate regulation services from forests are an important leverage in global-change mitigation treaties. Like most ecosystem services, climate regulation is the product of various ecological phenomena with unique spatial features. Elucidating which abiotic and biotic factors relate to spatial patterns of climate regulation services advances our understanding of what underlies climate-mitigation potential and its variation within and across ecosystems. Here we quantify and contrast the statistical relations between climate regulation services (albedo and evapotranspiration, primary productivity, and soil carbon) and abiotic and biotic factors. We focus on 16,955 forest plots in a regional extent across the eastern United States. We find the statistical effects of forest litter and understory carbon on climate regulation services to be as strong as those of temperature-precipitation interactions. These biotic factors likely influence climate regulation through changes in vegetation and canopy density, radiance scattering, and decomposition rates. We also find a moderate relation between leaf nitrogen traits and primary productivity at this regional scale. The statistical relation between climate regulation and temperature-precipitation ranges, seasonality, and climatic thresholds highlights a strong feedback with global climate change. Our assessment suggests the expression of strong biotic influences on climate regulation services at a regional, temperate extent. Biotic homogenization and management practices manipulating forest structure and succession will likely strongly impact climate-mitigation potential. The identity, strength, and direction of primary influences differed for each process involved in climate regulation. Hence, different abiotic and biotic factors are needed to monitor and quantify the full climate-mitigation potential of temperate forest ecosystems.

  7. The relationship between perceptions of wilderness character and attitudes toward management intervention to adapt biophysical resources to a changing climate and nature restoration at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Watson; Steve Martin; Neal Christensen; Gregg Fauth; Dan Williams

    2015-01-01

    In a recent national survey of federal wilderness managers, respondents identified the high priority need for scientific information about public attitudes toward biophysical intervention to adapt to climate change and attitudes of the public toward restoration of natural conditions. In a survey of visitors to one National Park wilderness in California, visitors...

  8. Climate change adaptation planning for the Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada: A combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, J. R.; Kaplan, J. O.; Matthews, R.; Sydneysmith, R.; Tesluk, J.; Piggot, G.; Robinson, D. C.; Brinkman, D.; Marmorek, D.; Cohen, S.; McPherson, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada is among the world's most important commercial forest production areas, a key transportation corridor, and provides critical habitat for salmon and other wildlife. Climate change compounds threats to the region from other local environmental and social challenges. To aid local communities in adaptive planning for future climate change impacts, our project combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement in a participatory approach to build regional capacity to prepare and respond to climate change. The sociological aspect of our study interviewed local leaders and resource managers (both First Nations and settlers groups in three communities) to examine how perceptions of environmental and socioeconomic issues have changed in the recent past, and the values placed on diverse natural resources at the present. The three communities differed in their perception of the relative value and condition of community resources, such as small business, natural resource trade, education and local government. However, all three communities regarded salmon as their most important and threatened resource. The most important future drivers of change in the study region were perceived to be: "aboriginal rights, title and treaty settlements", "availability of natural resources", "natural resource policies", and the "global economy". Climate change, as a potential driver of change in the region, was perceived as less important than other socio-economic factors; even though climate records for the region already demonstrate warmer winters, decreased snowfall, and decreased spring precipitation over the last half century. The natural science component of our project applies a regional-scale dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) to simulate the potential future of forest ecosystems, with a focus on how climate change and management strategy interact to influence forest productivity, disturbance frequency, species

  9. Radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. The overall thrust of the research is aimed at understanding the effects of radiation on organisms. Specific subject areas include: the effects of heavy-particle beam nuclear interactions in tissue on dosimetry; tracer studies with radioactive fragments of heavy-ion beams; the effects of heavy/ions on human kidney cells and Chinese hamster cells; the response of a rhabdomyosarcoma tumor system in rats to heavy-ion beams; the use of heavy charged particles in radiotherapy of human cancer; heavy-ion radiography; the biological effects of high magnetic fields; central nervous system neurotoxicity; and biophysical studies on cell membranes

  10. Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS): status of implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Filipe

    2014-05-01

    The GFCS is a global partnership of governments and UN and international agencies that produce and use climate information and services. WMO, which is leading the initiative in collaboration with UN ISDR, WHO, WFP, FAO, UNESCO, UNDP and other UN and international partners are pooling their expertise and resources in order to co-design and co-produce knowledge, information and services to support effective decision making in response to climate variability and change in four priority areas (agriculture and fod security, water, health and disaster risk reduction). To address the entire value chain for the effective production and application of climate services the GFCS main components or pillars are being implemented, namely: • User Interface Platform — to provide ways for climate service users and providers to interact to identify needs and capacities and improve the effectiveness of the Framework and its climate services; • Climate Services Information System — to produce and distribute climate data, products and information according to the needs of users and to agreed standards; • Observations and Monitoring - to generate the necessary data for climate services according to agreed standards; • Research, Modelling and Prediction — to harness science capabilities and results and develop appropriate tools to meet the needs of climate services; • Capacity Building — to support the systematic development of the institutions, infrastructure and human resources needed for effective climate services. Activities are being implemented in various countries in Africa, the Caribbean and South pacific Islands. This paper will provide details on the status of implementation of the GFCS worldwider.

  11. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  12. Nonlinear ecosystem services response to groundwater availability under climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, J.; Zipper, S. C.; Motew, M.; Booth, E.; Kucharik, C. J.; Steven, L. I.

    2017-12-01

    Depletion of groundwater has been accelerating at regional to global scales. Besides serving domestic, industrial and agricultural needs, in situ groundwater is also a key control on biological, physical and chemical processes across the critical zone, all of which underpin supply of ecosystem services essential for humanity. While there is a rich history of research on groundwater effects on subsurface and surface processes, understanding interactions, nonlinearity and feedbacks between groundwater and ecosystem services remain limited, and almost absent in the ecosystem service literature. Moreover, how climate extremes may alter groundwater effects on services is underexplored. In this research, we used a process-based ecosystem model (Agro-IBIS) to quantify groundwater effects on eight ecosystem services related to food, water and biogeochemical processes in an urbanizing agricultural watershed in the Midwest, USA. We asked: (1) Which ecosystem services are more susceptible to shallow groundwater influences? (2) Do effects of groundwater on ecosystem services vary under contrasting climate conditions (i.e., dry, wet and average)? (3) Where on the landscape are groundwater effects on ecosystem services most pronounced? (4) How do groundwater effects depend on water table depth? Overall, groundwater significantly impacted all services studied, with the largest effects on food production, water quality and quantity, and flood regulation services. Climate also mediated groundwater effects with the strongest effects occurring under dry climatic conditions. There was substantial spatial heterogeneity in groundwater effects across the landscape that is driven in part by spatial variations in water table depth. Most ecosystem services responded nonlinearly to groundwater availability, with most apparent groundwater effects occurring when the water table is shallower than a critical depth of 2.5-m. Our findings provide compelling evidence that groundwater plays a vital

  13. Overview of climate change adaptation platforms/services in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Street, Roger; Sanderson, Hans; Clare, Downing

    2015-01-01

    information on the nature and scope of the links between adaptation services, and climate services and disaster risk management services. The information provided covers the status and drivers for these links, how respective roles can be defined and relationships established, and how to enhance the quality...

  14. Introducing design in the development of effective climate services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isadora Christel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal to decadal climate predictions have the potential to inform different sectors in adapting their short to medium term practices and plans to climate variability and change. The data these predictions generate, however, is still not readily usable, nor widely used in decision-making. This paper addresses two key challenges: a domain challenge pertaining to an emerging climate services market, where users, tasks and data may be unknown; and an informational challenge pertaining to the interpretation, use and adoption of novel and complex scientific data.The paper provides insights into the contributions design can offer to the development of climate services. We illustrate the key steps and share the main lessons learnt from our experience in the creation of Project Ukko (http://project-ukko.net, a fully working climate services prototype developed within the European project EUPORIAS. To address the domain challenge in climate services, extensive engagement with science and industry stakeholders was required. To address the informational challenge, we applied visualisation techniques that can help users to interpret and utilise the information as simply and quickly as possible. Fostering interdisciplinary teams of design researchers, climate scientists and communication specialists brought a wide range of expertise and competences in all stages of climate services development. Specifically, the project recognised the role of users in co-designing the product. This helped to improve the usability of climate predictions, tailor climate information to answer actual needs of users, better communicate uncertainty, and bridge the gap between state-of-the-art climate predictions and users’ readiness to apply this novel information. Keywords: Visualisation, Human-centred design, User engagement, Wind energy, Climate predictions, Prototype

  15. Experimental climate information services in support of risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R. S.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Davidson, M. A.; Shea, E. E.; Nierenberg, C.; Dole, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Climate variability and change impact national and local economies and environments. Developing and communicating climate and climate impacts information to inform decision making requires an understanding of context, societal objectives, and identification of factors important to the management of risk. Information sensitive to changing baselines or extremes is a critical emergent need. Meeting this need requires timely production and delivery of useful climate data, information and knowledge within familiar pathways. We identify key attributes for a climate service , and the network and infrastructure to develop and coordinate the resulting services based on lessons learned in experimental implementations of climate services. "Service-type" activities already exist in many settings within federal, state, academic, and private sectors. The challenge for a climate service is to find effective implementation strategies for improving decision quality (not just meeting user needs). These strategies include upfront infrastructure investments, learning from event to event, coordinated innovation and diffusion, and highlighting common adaptation interests. Common to these strategies is the production of reliable and accessible data, analyses of emergent conditions and needs, and deliberative processes to identify appropriate entry points and uses for improved knowledge. Experimental climate services show that the development of well-structured paths among observations, projections, risk assessments and usable information requires sustained participation in “knowledge management systems” for early warning across temporal and spatial scales. Central to these systems is a collaborative framework between research and management to ensure anticipatory coordination between decision makers and information providers, allowing for emerging research findings and their attendant uncertainties to be considered. Early warnings in this context are not simply forecasts or

  16. Biophysical radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladescu, C.; Apetroae, M.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental studies on normal and tumor-bearing rats revealed that chronic treatment with hydroquinone (5 mg/kg/day) inhibited catalase activity in liver, spleen, blood, and H 18R tumor. 3 H-hydroquinone (1.5 μCi/g body weight) showed tumor specificity, with maximum radioactivity in the tumor at 1 h after administration. The biological half-time of 3 H-hydroquinone in the tumor was 2 h, but there seems to exist a longer component, since 24 h after administration, some 30% of the maximum radioactivity could be detected in the tumor. Hydroquinone treatment produces a specific inhibition of catalase in the tumor and a higher degree of oxygenation at this level. These findings support the assumption that the mechanism of action of hydroquinone as an anticancer agent is achieved mainly via peroxide production. The oxygenation of the hypoxic tumoral tissue is done at non-toxic levels of hydroquinone, through a natural and specific biophysical pathway, recommanding hydroquinone for combined anticancer treatment (radiotherapy and chemotherapy). (orig.)

  17. OpenClimateGIS - A Web Service Providing Climate Model Data in Commonly Used Geospatial Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, T. A.; Koziol, B. W.; Rood, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the OpenClimateGIS project is to make climate model datasets readily available in commonly used, modern geospatial formats used by GIS software, browser-based mapping tools, and virtual globes.The climate modeling community typically stores climate data in multidimensional gridded formats capable of efficiently storing large volumes of data (such as netCDF, grib) while the geospatial community typically uses flexible vector and raster formats that are capable of storing small volumes of data (relative to the multidimensional gridded formats). OpenClimateGIS seeks to address this difference in data formats by clipping climate data to user-specified vector geometries (i.e. areas of interest) and translating the gridded data on-the-fly into multiple vector formats. The OpenClimateGIS system does not store climate data archives locally, but rather works in conjunction with external climate archives that expose climate data via the OPeNDAP protocol. OpenClimateGIS provides a RESTful API web service for accessing climate data resources via HTTP, allowing a wide range of applications to access the climate data.The OpenClimateGIS system has been developed using open source development practices and the source code is publicly available. The project integrates libraries from several other open source projects (including Django, PostGIS, numpy, Shapely, and netcdf4-python).OpenClimateGIS development is supported by a grant from NOAA's Climate Program Office.

  18. Long-term plant responses to climate are moderated by biophysical attributes in a North American desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Housman, David C.; Veblen, Kari E.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Beever, Erik A.; Hartney, Kristine B.; Miriti, Maria N.; Phillips, Susan L.; Fulton, Robert E.; Tallent, Nita G.

    2015-01-01

    Recent elevated temperatures and prolonged droughts in many already water-limited regions throughout the world, including the southwestern U.S., are likely to intensify according to future climate-model projections. This warming and drying can negatively affect perennial vegetation and lead to the degradation of ecosystem properties.

  19. Organizational Climate, Services, and Outcomes in Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association of organizational climate, casework services, and youth outcomes in child welfare systems. Building on preliminary findings linking organizational climate to youth outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period, the current study extends the follow-up period to 7 years and tests main, moderating and…

  20. European scale climate information services for water use sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Donnelly, Chantal; Strömbäck, Lena; Capell, René; Ludwig, Fulco

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a climate information service for pan-European water use sectors that are vulnerable to climate change induced hydrological changes, including risk and safety (disaster preparedness), agriculture, energy (hydropower and cooling water use for thermoelectric power) and

  1. Production and use of regional climate model projections - A Swedish perspective on building climate services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellström, Erik; Bärring, Lars; Nikulin, Grigory; Nilsson, Carin; Persson, Gunn; Strandberg, Gustav

    2016-09-01

    We describe the process of building a climate service centred on regional climate model results from the Rossby Centre regional climate model RCA4. The climate service has as its central facility a web service provided by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute where users can get an idea of various aspects of climate change from a suite of maps, diagrams, explaining texts and user guides. Here we present the contents of the web service and how this has been designed and developed in collaboration with users of the service in a dialogue reaching over more than a decade. We also present the ensemble of climate projections with RCA4 that provides the fundamental climate information presented at the web service. In this context, RCA4 has been used to downscale nine different coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to 0.44° (c. 50 km) horizontal resolution over Europe. Further, we investigate how this ensemble relates to the CMIP5 ensemble. We find that the iterative approach involving the users of the climate service has been successful as the service is widely used and is an important source of information for work on climate adaptation in Sweden. The RCA4 ensemble samples a large degree of the spread in the CMIP5 ensemble implying that it can be used to illustrate uncertainties and robustness in future climate change in Sweden. The results also show that RCA4 changes results compared to the underlying AOGCMs, sometimes in a systematic way.

  2. Discovering NOAA Climate Data and Product Services (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R.; Ansari, S.; Reid, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) archives climate data for the US and the world. These data are provided through traditional web systems as well as web services. The web service implementation follows standards set by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Simple object access protocol (SOAP) and representational state transfer (REST) are the two types of services provided. Provision of many data and product services from multiple organizations presents consumers with the difficulty of discovery. Standards based collection level metadata describe these data and products. This information delivered using a catalog service (CSW) in combination with an ontology service provides a robust mechanism for data discovery. Service endpoints or clients that use service endpoints are embedded within the metadata providing customers with tools to access and interrogate the fine details of the data. These technologies are demonstrated in current NCDC projects such as NOAA Climate Services Portal (NCSP), National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS), Pacific Climate Information System (PaCIS) and work with the Consortium of Universities for Advancement of Hydrologic Science (CUAHSI).

  3. Informing Decisions with a Climate Synthesis Product: Implications for Regional Climate Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Z.; Hill, D.; Crimmins, M.; Ferguson, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    The demand for regional climate information is increasing and spurring efforts to provide a broad slate of climate services that inform policy and resource management and elevate general knowledge. Routine syntheses of existing climate-related information may be an effective strategy for connecting climate information to decision making, but few studies have formally assessed their contribution to informing decisions. During the 2010-2011 winter, drought conditions expanded and intensified in Arizona and New Mexico, creating an opportunity to develop and evaluate a pithy, monthly regional climate communication product—La Niña Drought Tracker—that synthesized and interpreted drought and climate information. Six issues were published and subsequently evaluated through an online survey. On average, 417 people consulted the publication each month. Many of the survey respondents indicated that they made at least one drought-related decision, and the product at least moderately influenced the majority of those decisions, some of which helped mitigate economic losses and reduce climate vulnerability. The product also improved understanding of climate and drought for more than 90 percent of the respondents and helped the majority of them better prepare for drought. These, and other results demonstrate that routine interpretation and synthesis of existing climate information can help enhance access to and understanding and use of climate information in decision-making. Moreover, developing regional, contextual knowledge within climate service programs can facilitate the implementation of activities like the Tracker that enhance the use of climate information without engaging in time-consuming collaborative processes that can prevent the timely production of the services. We present results from the case study of the Tracker and place it within the context of the challenges and opportunities associated with providing climate services, particularly those services that

  4. The foundation for climate services in Belgium: CORDEX.be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; Termonia, Piet; De Ridder, Koen; Fettweis, Xavier; Gobin, Anne; Luyten, Patrick; Marbaix, Philippe; Pottiaux, Eric; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Van Lipzig, Nicole; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal; Willems, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    According to the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) there are four pillars required to build climate services. As the first step towards the realization of a climate center in Belgium, the national project CORDEX.be focused on one pillar: research modelling and projection. By bringing together the Belgian climate and impact modeling research of nine groups a data-driven capacity development and community building in Belgium based on interactions with users. The project is based on the international CORDEX ("COordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment") project where ".be" indicates it will go beyond for Belgium. Our national effort links to the regional climate initiatives through the contribution of multiple high-resolution climate simulations over Europe following the EURO-CORDEX guidelines. Additionally the same climate simulations were repeated at convection-permitting resolutions over Belgium (3 to 5 km). These were used to drive different local impact models to investigate the impact of climate change on urban effects, storm surges and waves, crop production and changes in emissions from vegetation. Akin to international frameworks such as CMIP and CORDEX a multi-model approach is adopted allowing for uncertainty estimation, a crucial aspect of climate projections for policy-making purposes. However, due to the lack of a large set of high resolution model runs, a combination of all available climate information is supplemented with the statistical downscaling approach. The organization of the project, together with its main results will be outlined. The proposed coordination framework could serve as a demonstration case for regions or countries where the climate-research capacity is present but a structure is required to assemble it coherently. Based on interactions and feedback with stakeholders different applications are planned, demonstrating the use of the climate data.

  5. Sensitivity of a carbon and productivity model to climatic, water, terrain, and biophysical parameters in a Rocky Mountain watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.; Peddle, D.R.; Coburn, C.A.; Kienzle, S.

    2008-01-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key component of the terrestrial carbon cycle and is important in ecological, watershed, and forest management studies, and more broadly in global climate change research. Determining the relative importance and magnitude of uncertainty of NPP model inputs is important for proper carbon reporting over larger areas and time periods. This paper presents a systematic evaluation of the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model in mountainous terrain using an established montane forest test site in Kananaskis, Alberta, in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Model runs were based on forest (land cover, leaf area index (LAI), biomass) and climate-water inputs (solar radiation, temperature, precipitation, humidity, soil water holding capacity) derived from digital elevation model (DEM) derivatives, climate data, geographical information system (GIS) functions, and topographically corrected satellite imagery. Four sensitivity analyses were conducted as a controlled series of experiments involving (i) NPP individual parameter sensitivity for a full growing season, (ii) NPP independent variation tests (parameter μ ± 1σ), (iii) factorial analyses to assess more complex multiple-factor interactions, and (iv) topographic correction. The results, validated against field measurements, showed that modeled NPP was sensitive to most inputs measured in the study area, with LAI and forest type the most important forest input, and solar radiation the most important climate input. Soil available water holding capacity expressed as a function of wetness index was only significant in conjunction with precipitation when both parameters represented a moisture-deficit situation. NPP uncertainty resulting from topographic influence was equivalent to 140 kg C ha -1 ·year -1 . This suggested that topographic correction of model inputs is important for accurate NPP estimation. The BEPS model, designed originally for flat boreal forests, was shown to be

  6. Sensitivity of a carbon and productivity model to climatic, water, terrain, and biophysical parameters in a Rocky Mountain watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Peddle, D.R.; Coburn, C.A.; Kienzle, S. [Univ. of Lethbridge, Dept. of Geography, Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key component of the terrestrial carbon cycle and is important in ecological, watershed, and forest management studies, and more broadly in global climate change research. Determining the relative importance and magnitude of uncertainty of NPP model inputs is important for proper carbon reporting over larger areas and time periods. This paper presents a systematic evaluation of the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model in mountainous terrain using an established montane forest test site in Kananaskis, Alberta, in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Model runs were based on forest (land cover, leaf area index (LAI), biomass) and climate-water inputs (solar radiation, temperature, precipitation, humidity, soil water holding capacity) derived from digital elevation model (DEM) derivatives, climate data, geographical information system (GIS) functions, and topographically corrected satellite imagery. Four sensitivity analyses were conducted as a controlled series of experiments involving (i) NPP individual parameter sensitivity for a full growing season, (ii) NPP independent variation tests (parameter {mu} {+-} 1{sigma}), (iii) factorial analyses to assess more complex multiple-factor interactions, and (iv) topographic correction. The results, validated against field measurements, showed that modeled NPP was sensitive to most inputs measured in the study area, with LAI and forest type the most important forest input, and solar radiation the most important climate input. Soil available water holding capacity expressed as a function of wetness index was only significant in conjunction with precipitation when both parameters represented a moisture-deficit situation. NPP uncertainty resulting from topographic influence was equivalent to 140 kg C ha{sup -1}{center_dot}year{sup -1}. This suggested that topographic correction of model inputs is important for accurate NPP estimation. The BEPS model, designed originally for flat

  7. Tales from the Jungle: The Evolving Climate Services Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    In 2001 the NRC Report "A Climate Services Vision: First Steps Toward the Future" examined the state and trends of climate services. That report included a definition of this term that has lost no relevance: "The timely production and delivery of useful climate data, information, and knowledge to decision makers." The original entities delivering such services, at the state level, are represented by the American Association of State Climatologists (AASC). In 1986 the NOAA Regional Climate Center program was initiated, followed in 1994 by the NOAA Regional Climate Sciences and Assessments. Since 2010 we have seen the establishment of the USDI Climate Science Centers and the Landscape Conservation Cooperatives, the NOAA Regional Climate Service Directors, and the USDA Regional Climate Hubs. The recent expansion of formal programs has essentially filled out the agency "niche space." Other non-governmental and private entities are also expanding into this space. The present profusion runs a risk of creating a perception of excessive duplication in some quarters, including those funding these enterprises. Collectively these activities form what can be thought of as an ecosystem of climate services. A certain amount of replication is desirable, healthy, and necessary, but beyond some point can be excessive unless the total capacity remains insufficient. Each component has come into existence for a different set of reasons. Since these components were invented by human beings, their subsequent evolution can in theory be guided by humans. The history and purpose of each component needs to be borne in mind, with capsule descriptions suitable for rapid delivery to the decision-makers who approve the support for the various components. Good communication among the components is therefore essential for a healthy and functional overall system. This in turn calls for the ability to adequately represent the role of each of those components, a purpose best informed through actual

  8. Pre-Service Teachers and Climate Change: A Stalemate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from the second phase of a study of pre-service teachers' attitudes to environmental education and knowledge of climate change are reported in this paper. A sample of 87 pre-service teachers participated in a survey study in the last year of their Bachelor of Education degree to examine developments to their attitudes to environmental…

  9. Employees as Customers: Exploring Service Climate, Employee Patronage, and Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abston, Kristie A.; Kupritz, Virginia W.

    2011-01-01

    The role of retail employees as customers was explored by quantitatively examining the influence of service climate and employee patronage on employee turnover intentions. Employees representing all shifts in two stores of a national retailer participated. Results indicated that employee patronage partially mediates the effects of service climate…

  10. Climate adaptation services for the Netherlands: An operational approach to support spatial adaptation planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, H.; Groot, de M.A.M.; Masselink, L.; Koekoek, A.; Swart, R.J.; Bessembinder, J.; Witte, J.M.P.; Stuyt, L.C.M.; Blom-Zandstra, G.; Immerzeel, W.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing availability of climate change information, offered to scientists and policy makers through climate services. However, climate services are not well taken up by the policy-making and planning community. Climate services focus on primary impacts of climate change, e.g., the

  11. Climate Adaptation Services for the Netherlands : An operational approach to support spatial adaptation planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, H.; de Groot-Reichwein, M. A M; Masselink, L.; Koekoek, A.; Swart, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Witte, J. M P; Stuyt, L.; Blom-Zandstra, G.; Immerzeel, W.

    There is a growing availability of climate change information, offered to scientists and policy makers through climate services. However, climate services are not well taken up by the policy-making and planning community. Climate services focus on primary impacts of climate change, e.g., the

  12. The Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S): Open Access to a Climate Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepaut, Jean-Noel; Dee, Dick

    2016-04-01

    In November 2014, The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) signed an agreement with the European Commission to deliver two of the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme Services on the Commission's behalf. The ECMWF delivered services - the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) - will bring a consistent standard to how we monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and climate change. They will maximise the potential of past, current and future earth observations - ground, ocean, airborne, satellite - and analyse these to monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and in the future, climate change. With the wealth of free and open data that the services provide, they will help business users to assess the impact of their business decisions and make informed choices, delivering a more energy efficient and climate aware economy. These sound investment decisions now will not only stimulate growth in the short term, but reduce the impact of climate change on the economy and society in the future. C3S is in its proof of concept phase and through its Climate Data Store will provide • global and regional climate data reanalyses; • multi-model seasonal forecasts; • customisable visual data to enable examination of wide range of scenarios and model the impact of changes; • access to all the underlying data, including climate data records from various satellite and in-situ observations. In addition, C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers (such as carbon dioxide) and impacts (such as reducing glaciers). The aim of these indicators will be to support European adaptation and mitigation policies in a number of economic sectors. At the heart of the Service is the provision of open access to a one stop shop (the Climate Data Store) of climate data and modelling, analysing more than 20 Essential Climate Variables to build a global picture of our past, present and future climate and developing

  13. Spatially enabling the Global Framework for Climate Services: Reviewing geospatial solutions to efficiently share and integrate climate data & information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Giuliani

    2017-12-01

    Considering that climate data is part of the broader Earth observation and geospatial data domain, the aim of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art geospatial technologies that can support the delivery of efficient and effective climate services, and enhancing the value chain of climate data in support of the objectives of the Global Framework for Climate Services. The major benefit of spatially-enabling climate services is that it brings interoperability along the entire climate data value chain. It facilitates storing, visualizing, accessing, processing/analyzing, and integrating climate data and information and enables users to create value-added products and services.

  14. Dissemination of Climate and Environmental Information: Successes and Failures of Climate Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade, different countries have established climate services with the purpose of providing authoritative information to stakeholders affected by climate and environmental changes. Lessons learned from these initial activities will be presented with the objective of providing advise to the new initiatives currently under discussion in different parts of the world.

  15. Service climate as a mediator of organizational empowerment in customer-service employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Sierra, Maria Isabel; Orgambídez-Ramos, Alejandro; Carrasco-González, Ana María; León-Jariego, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of the service climate between organizational empowerment (i.e., dynamic structural framework, control of workplace decisions, fluidity in information sharing) and service quality (functional and relational). 428 contact employees from 46 hotels participated in the survey. Correlations demonstrated that dynamic structural framework, control decisions, and fluidity in information sharing are related to both functional and relational service quality. Regression analyses and Sobel tests revealed that service climate totally mediated the relationship between all three dimensions of organizational empowerment and relational service quality. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  16. Seasonal and decadal information towards climate services: EUPORIAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buontempo, Carlo; Hewitt, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Societies have always faced challenges and opportunities arising from variations in climate, and have often flourished or collapsed depending on their ability to adapt to such changes. Recent advances in our understanding and ability to forecast climate variability and climate change have meant that skilful predictions are beginning to be routinely made on seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. Such forecasts have the potential to be of great value to a wide range of decision-making, where outcomes are strongly influenced by variations in the climate. The European Commission have recently commissioned a major four year long project (EUPORIAS) to develop prototype end-to-end climate impact prediction services operating on a seasonal to decadal timescale, and assess their value in informing decision-making. EUPORIAS commenced on 1 November 2012, coordinated by the UK Met Office leading a consortium of 24 organisations representing world-class European climate research and climate service centres, expertise in impacts assessments and seasonal predictions, two United Nations agencies, specialists in new media, and commercial companies in climate-vulnerable sectors such as energy, water and tourism. The paper describes the setup of the project, its main outcome and some of the very preliminary results.

  17. Sea Level Change and Coastal Climate Services: The Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonéri Le Cozannet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For many climate change impacts such as drought and heat waves, global and national frameworks for climate services are providing ever more critical support to adaptation activities. Coastal zones are especially in need of climate services for adaptation, as they are increasingly threatened by sea level rise and its impacts, such as submergence, flooding, shoreline erosion, salinization and wetland change. In this paper, we examine how annual to multi-decadal sea level projections can be used within coastal climate services (CCS. To this end, we review the current state-of-the art of coastal climate services in the US, Australia and France, and identify lessons learned. More broadly, we also review current barriers in the development of CCS, and identify research and development efforts for overcoming barriers and facilitating their continued growth. The latter includes: (1 research in the field of sea level, coastal and adaptation science and (2 cross-cutting research in the area of user interactions, decision making, propagation of uncertainties and overall service architecture design. We suggest that standard approaches are required to translate relative sea level information into the forms required to inform the wide range of relevant decisions across coastal management, including coastal adaptation.

  18. Climate services in the tourism sector - examples and market research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Andrea; Köberl, Judith; Prettenthaler, Franz; Kortschak, Dominik; Hofer, Marianne; Winkler, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Tourism is one of the most weather-sensitive sectors. Hence, dealing with weather and climate risks is an important part of operational risk management. WEDDA® (WEather Driven Demand Analysis), developed by Joanneum Research, represents a comprehensive and flexible toolbox for managing weather and climate risks. Modelling the demand for products or services of a particular economic sector or company and its weather and climate sensitivity usually forms the starting and central point of WEDDA®. Coupling the calibrated demand models to either long-term climate scenarios or short-term weather forecasts enables the use of WEDDA® for the following areas of application: (i) implementing short-term forecasting systems for the prediction of the considered indicator; (ii) quantifying the weather risk of a particular economic sector or company using parameters from finance (e.g. Value-at-Risk); (iii) assessing the potential impacts of changing climatic conditions on a particular economic sector or company. WEDDA® for short-term forecasts on the demand for products or services is currently used by various tourism businesses, such as open-air swimming pools, ski areas, and restaurants. It supports tourism and recreation facilities to better cope with (increasing) weather variability by optimizing the disposability of staff, resources and merchandise according to expected demand. Since coping with increasing weather variability forms one of the challenges with respect to climate change, WEDDA® may become an important component within a whole pool of weather and climate services designed to support tourism and recreation facilities to adapt to climate change. Climate change impact assessments at European scale, as conducted in the EU-FP7 project IMPACT2C, provide basic information of climate change impacts on tourism demand not only for individual tourism businesses, but also for regional and national tourism planners and policy makers interested in benchmarks for the

  19. Climate services as practised in the southeast USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J.

    2012-04-01

    The SOUTHEAST CLIMATE CONSORTIUM has developed a useful CLIMATE SERVICES model for all agriculture and forestry in the Southeast USA since 1995. Eight universities, primarily land grant schools, develop productive delivery methods of timely climate information for our users by partnering with Ag Extension Services and state climatologists in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and the Carolinas. Decision points of the user are fundamental to the usefulness. Tercile forecasts have not been found to be useable. In order to be useful, the climate forecast must be available before the decision deadline. It must be in variables that the user understands. And usually related to past events. In the SE USA, the ENSO signal is very dominant and AGW is minimum. Therefore many good and money saving forecasts can be delivered. A decision support website has been delivered: http://agroclimate.org/

  20. Representing climate change on public service television: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrett, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Publicly funded broadcasters with a track record in science programming would appear ideally placed to represent climate change to the lay public. Free from the constraints of vested interests and the economic imperative, public service providers are better equipped to represent the scientific, social and economic aspects of climate change than commercial media, where ownership conglomeration, corporate lobbyists and online competition have driven increasingly tabloid coverage with an emphasis on controversy. This prime-time snapshot of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's main television channel explores how the structural/rhetorical conventions of three established public service genres - a science programme, a documentary and a live public affairs talk show - impact on the representation of anthropogenic climate change. The study findings note implications for public trust, and discuss possibilities for innovation in the interests of better public understanding of climate change.

  1. Climate Analytics-As-a-Service (CAaas), Advanced Information Systems, and Services to Accelerate the Climate Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, M.; Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D.; Tamkin, G.; Nadeau, D.; Strong, S.; Thompson, J. H.; Sinno, S.; Lazar, D.

    2014-12-01

    The climate sciences represent a big data domain that is experiencing unprecedented growth. In our efforts to address the big data challenges of climate science, we are moving toward a notion of Climate Analytics-as-a-Service (CAaaS). We focus on analytics, because it is the knowledge gained from our interactions with big data that ultimately product societal benefits. We focus on CAaaS because we believe it provides a useful way of thinking about the problem: a specialization of the concept of business process-as-a-service, which is an evolving extension of IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS enabled by cloud computing. Within this framework, cloud computing plays an important role; however, we see it as only one element in a constellation of capabilities that are essential to delivering climate analytics-as-a-service. These elements are essential because in the aggregate they lead to generativity, a capacity for self-assembly that we feel is the key to solving many of the big data challenges in this domain. This poster will highlight specific examples of CAaaS using climate reanalysis data, high-performance cloud computing, map reduce, and the Climate Data Services API.

  2. Innovative financing in the service of climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buba, Johanne; Fichen, Anne; Ben-Jelloul, Mahdi; Schaff, Clement

    2011-11-01

    By 2020, nearly 100 billion dollars a year that developed countries have pledged to finance action against climate change in developing countries (DCs). Given the current economic situation, they will nevertheless find it difficult to collect the money in their budgets: new sources of funding will be needed. If revenue from the auction of emission allowances within the EU will be primarily used for national or European, a party may nevertheless be redirected to developing countries. Impose on international aviation and maritime sectors to pay the price of carbon will take several years but will provide revenue of tens of billions. The tax on financial transactions, including foreign exchange transactions, could generate significant revenue. Beyond these resources, a large part of the solution will come from the complementarity between private and public funds. The Cancun agreement opens a new path by providing that promised 100 billion may come in part from the private sector - yet he will provide the latter with the right incentives. Public funds should promote private investment and seek to find the maximum leverage. Properly used, new sources of funding to the tune of 30 to 40 billion by 2020 would be enough then to keep the promise made at Cancun to developing countries. Contents: - In search of public funding; - Public funds to guide private investment to action against climate change

  3. 2. biophysical work meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The report comprises 18 papers held at the 2nd Biophysical Work Meeting, 11 - 13 September 1991 in Schlema, Germany. The history of biophysics in Germany particularly of radiation biophysics and radon research, measurements of the radiation effects of radon and the derivation of limits, radon balneotherapy and consequences of uranium ore mining are dealt with. (orig.) [de

  4. Biophysics conference 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The main subject on the biophysics meeting was the biophysics of membranes with practical subjects from photosynthesis and the transfer processes on membranes. In radiation biophysics, problems of radiation sensitisation, immunological problems after radiation exposure, the oxygen effect and inhibitory processes in RNS synthesis after radiation exposure were discussed with a view to tumour therapy. (AJ) [de

  5. Economic instruments in the service of climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buba, Johanne; Ben-Jelloul, Mahdi; Schaff, Clement

    2011-11-01

    Within the perspective of new international agreements after those signed in Kyoto (1997), in Cancun (2010) and in Durban (2011), this document recalls the frameworks defined during these summits, outline the challenges regarding climate change and makes five propositions. The first one is to prepare the conditions for and experimentation of a CO 2 emission trading scheme between the European market and the one of other countries. The second one is to re-establish competitive neutrality in the most emitting industrial sectors which are the most exposed to international competition and more easily subjected to off-shoring practices. The third one is the possibility for a country to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions while financing reductions in other countries. The fourth one is to harmonise emission measurement and accounting standards. The last one is to create a European institute for research and education on economic mechanisms of struggle against global warming

  6. Health and climate related ecosystem services provided by street trees in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmond, Jennifer A; Tadaki, Marc; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Arbuthnott, Katherine; Coutts, Andrew; Demuzere, Matthias; Dirks, Kim N; Heaviside, Clare; Lim, Shanon; Macintyre, Helen; McInnes, Rachel N; Wheeler, Benedict W

    2016-03-08

    Urban tree planting initiatives are being actively promoted as a planning tool to enable urban areas to adapt to and mitigate against climate change, enhance urban sustainability and improve human health and well-being. However, opportunities for creating new areas of green space within cities are often limited and tree planting initiatives may be constrained to kerbside locations. At this scale, the net impact of trees on human health and the local environment is less clear, and generalised approaches for evaluating their impact are not well developed.In this review, we use an urban ecosystems services framework to evaluate the direct, and locally-generated, ecosystems services and disservices provided by street trees. We focus our review on the services of major importance to human health and well-being which include 'climate regulation', 'air quality regulation' and 'aesthetics and cultural services'. These are themes that are commonly used to justify new street tree or street tree retention initiatives. We argue that current scientific understanding of the impact of street trees on human health and the urban environment has been limited by predominantly regional-scale reductionist approaches which consider vegetation generally and/or single out individual services or impacts without considering the wider synergistic impacts of street trees on urban ecosystems. This can lead planners and policymakers towards decision making based on single parameter optimisation strategies which may be problematic when a single intervention offers different outcomes and has multiple effects and potential trade-offs in different places.We suggest that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the services and disservices provided by street trees at different scales. We provide information to guide decision makers and planners in their attempts to evaluate the value of vegetation in their local setting. We show that by ensuring that the specific aim of the intervention, the

  7. Effects of Drought and Water Resource Management on Biophysical and Sociocultural Ecosystem Services in South-Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, J.; Castro, A.; Vaughn, C.; Atkinson, C.

    2014-12-01

    South-Central United States is one of the fastest growing regions in the nation; however, it is experiencing water supply limitations. In response, multiple interests have focused on the Kiamichi River watershed in southeast Oklahoma as a future inter-basin water supply. The Kiamichi River provides many ecosystem services, including freshwater provision to 19 cities/towns, outdoor recreation hub for the South-Central U.S., cultural capital of the Choctaw Indian Nation, and a national biodiversity hotspot. With multiple recent stressors, these ecosystem services are highly threatened. Here we present how drought and water management have impacted these benefits over the past 20 years. First, we assessed the river's sensitivity to drought (which is cyclical) and water regulation (which has increased over the past three decades). Second, we analyzed how these hydrologic changes have impacted freshwater habitat, focusing on mussels because of their sensitivity to flow alterations and because they provide additional ecosystem services such as biofiltration, nutrient recycling/storage, and cultural resources. Third, we performed a sociocultural valuation for a suite of ecosystem services provided by the Kiamichi River watershed, including 505 interviews of five different ecosystem services beneficiary (ESB) groups. We obtained ESB perceptions on how ecosystem services changed with different flow conditions and water management strategies. Analyses revealed that increased regulation (fewer dam releases) has caused the Kiamichi River to have long no flow periods during droughts (e.g. 176 days with no flow in 2006). These long dry periods have been the main culprit for a 60% decline in mussel biomass over the past 20 years, and subsequent large losses in biofiltration and nutrient recycling. Interestingly, ESBs perceived similar losses of ecosystem services. Without being provided any information on flow, more than half of the ESBs believed that water supply, freshwater

  8. Rural health service managers' perspectives on preparing rural health services for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rachael; McGirr, Joe

    2018-02-01

    To determine health service managers' (HSMs) recommendations on strengthening the health service response to climate change. Self-administered survey in paper or electronic format. Rural south-west of New South Wales. Health service managers working in rural remote metropolitan areas 3-7. Proportion of respondents identifying preferred strategies for preparation of rural health services for climate change. There were 43 participants (53% response rate). Most respondents agreed that there is scepticism regarding climate change among health professionals (70%, n = 30) and community members (72%, n = 31). Over 90% thought that climate change would impact the health of rural populations in the future with regard to heat-related illnesses, mental health, skin cancer and water security. Health professionals and government were identified as having key leadership roles on climate change and health in rural communities. Over 90% of the respondents believed that staff and community in local health districts (LHDs) should be educated about the health impacts of climate change. Public health education facilitated by State or Federal Government was the preferred method of educating community members, and education facilitated by the LHD was the preferred method for educating health professionals. Health service managers hold important health leadership roles within rural communities and their health services. The study highlights the scepticism towards climate change among health professionals and community members in rural Australia. It identifies the important role of rural health services in education and advocacy on the health impacts of climate change and identifies recommended methods of public health education for community members and health professionals. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  9. Assessing Effects of Climate Change on Access to Ecosystem Services in Rural Alaska: Enhancing the Science through Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, T. J.; Cold, H.; Brown, D. N.; Brown, C.; Hollingsworth, T. N.; Verbyla, D.

    2017-12-01

    In Arctic-Boreal regions, studies quantifying the characteristics and prevalence of environmental disruptions to access to ecosystem services are lacking. Empirical investigations are needed to assess the vulnerability of rural communities to climate change. We integrated community-based local observation (9 Interior Alaska Communities), field-based ground measurements, and remote sensing data to: 1) identify and prioritize the relative importance of different environmental changes affecting access, 2) characterize the biophysical causes and mechanisms related to access, and 3) evaluate long-term (30 year) trends in the environment that are challenging access. Dynamic winter ice and snow conditions (e.g., dangerous ice travel; n =147) were the most commonly reported cause of disturbance to access, followed by changes in summer hydrology (e.g., river navigability; n = 77) and seasonal shifts in freeze/thaw cycles (n = 31). Supporting local observations, our remote-sensing analysis indicated a trend toward environmental conditions that hinder or disrupt traditional uses of ecosystem services. For example, we found that the window of safe travel on ice has narrowed by approximately 2 weeks since the 1980s. Shifts in travel have implications on the effectiveness of subsistence activities, such as winter trapping and spring waterfowl hunting. From a methods perspective, we implemented a study design that generated novel science while also addressing locally relevant issues. Our approach and findings highlight opportunities for connecting biophysical science with societal concerns.

  10. Climate regulation services by urban lakes in Bucharest city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioja, Cristian; Cheval, Sorin; Vanau, Gabriel; Sandric, Ionut; Onose, Diana; Carstea, Elfrida

    2017-04-01

    Urban ecosystems services assessment is an important challenge for practitioners, due to the high complexity of relations between urban systems components, high vulnerability to climate change, and consequences in social-economical systems. Urban lakes represent a significant component in more European cities (average 5% of total surface). Adequate urban management supports diverse benefits of urban lakes: clean water availability, mediation of waste, toxics and other nuisance, air quality and climate regulation, support for physical, intelectual or spiritual interactions. Due to underestimation of climate change and misfit urban planning decision, these benefits may be lost or chaged into diservices. The aim of the paper is to assess the changes in terms of the urban lakes contribution role to regulate urban climate, using the Bucharest as case study. Using sensors and Modis, Sentinel and Landsat images, the paper experiments the evolution of climate regulation services of urban lakes under the pressure of urbanisation and climate change between 2008 and 2015. Urban lakes management has to include specific measures in order to help the cities to become more sustainable, resilient, liveable and healthly.

  11. Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS): status of implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Filipe

    2015-04-01

    The World Climate Conference-3 (Geneva 2009) unanimously decided to establish the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS), a UN-led initiative spearheaded by WMO to guide the development and application of science-based climate information and services in support of decision-making in climate sensitive sectors. By promoting science-based decision-making, the GFCS is empowering governments, communities and companies to build climate resilience, reduce vulnerabilities and adapt to impacts. The initial priority areas of GFCS are Agriculture and Food Security; Disaster Risk Reduction; Health; and Water Resources. The implementation of GFCS is well underway with a governance structure now fully established. The governance structure of GFCS includes the Partner Advisory Committee (PAC), which is GFCS's stakeholder engagement mechanism. The membership of the PAC allows for a broad participation of stakeholders. The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), the European Commission (EC), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO), the Global Water Partnership (GWP), the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), the World Food Programme (WFP) and WMO have already joined the PAC. Activities are being implemented in various countries in Africa, the Caribbean, Asia and Pacific Small Islands Developing States through flagship projects and activities in the four priority areas of GFCS to enable the development of a Proof of Concept. The focus at national level is on strengthening institutional capacities needed for development of capacities for co-design and co-production of climate services and their application in support of decision-making in climate sensitive

  12. Providing Western Regional Climate Services - Perspectives from the Western Regional Climate Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. J.; Redmond, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The western United States faces distinct challenges such as persistent drought, dwindling water resources amidst an expanding population, and climate-sensitive alpine environments. The complex terrain of the region compounds these challenges. The Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC), one of six National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) university-based regional climate centers, has been providing climate services since 1986 that support the unique needs of stakeholders in the mountainous region of the western U.S. This includes meteorological data, tools, and products for thousands of stations across the West, and gridded data products, such as based on PRISM for example, that are used for drought assessment among other needs. WRCC and partners have developed numerous web-based tools and products to support decision-making and research pertinent to the West. Changing climate and variability along with the diverse physical and human geographies of the western U.S. require continuous advancements in climate knowledge and applications development. Examples include the need for tools and model downscaling that support and inform adaptation, mitigation and resiliency planning; web-based analytics that would allow users to interact and explore temporal and spatial data and relationships, and products from new satellite sensors that can provide higher resolution information on soil moisture and vegetation health given the sparseness of in-situ observations for the vastness of the West. This presentation provides an overview of some insights, opportunities and challenges of providing current and future climate services in the West.

  13. Developing collective customer knowledge and service climate: The interaction between service-oriented high-performance work systems and service leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kaifeng; Chuang, Chih-Hsun; Chiao, Yu-Ching

    2015-07-01

    This study theorized and examined the influence of the interaction between Service-Oriented high-performance work systems (HPWSs) and service leadership on collective customer knowledge and service climate. Using a sample of 569 employees and 142 managers in footwear retail stores, we found that Service-Oriented HPWSs and service leadership reduced the influences of one another on collective customer knowledge and service climate, such that the positive influence of service leadership on collective customer knowledge and service climate was stronger when Service-Oriented HPWSs were lower than when they were higher or the positive influence of Service-Oriented HPWSs on collective customer knowledge and service climate was stronger when service leadership was lower than when it was higher. We further proposed and found that collective customer knowledge and service climate were positively related to objective financial outcomes through service performance. Implications for the literature and managerial practices are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Applying climate service in "The Future Okavango" (TFO) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Torsten; Haensler, Andreas; Kriegsmann, Arne; Jacob, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    The Okavango River Basin with the world's largest inland delta is a hotspot of future climate change. The river originates in the rainy Bié Plateau in Angola, touches the north-western part of Namibia with its savanna woodlands and terminates in a delta situated in the Kalahari Desert in Botswana. Accordingly, the basins climate is characterized by changing environmental conditions along the river and by relatively high temperatures leading to pronounced evaporation fluxes. The annual hydrological cycle of the area shows two extremes: seasonal flooding alternates with dry periods influencing water levels of the Okavango River in downstream regions. As the region strongly depends on the water resource of the Okavango River, possible changes of the climate are of uppermost importance and interest, because they affect all components of the hydrological cycle and thus the lives of the people living in a region of such unique natural characteristics. The project "The Future Okavango" (TFO), which covers Angola, Botswana and Namibia, aims at an improvement of knowledge based land use management within the Okavango River Basin. An important aspect of TFO is the application of a trans-disciplinary approach by involving relevant regional stakeholders on different scales from the three countries and the support of the already well established communication between science and decision makers in the region. In order to develop strategies for sustainable land management in the Okavango River Basin, decision makers need high resolution climate change information for the future. To generate regional climate change projections, regional climate models are used to downscale simulations created by global circulation models. Climate projections, however, contain various uncertainties which have to be considered and estimated. In the framework of TFO, the Climate Service Center (CSC) delivers dynamically downscaled climate data sets and climate change information on a high spatial

  15. Preparing health services for climate change in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashki, Grant; Armstrong, Greg; Berry, Helen Louise; Weaver, Haylee J; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Bi, Peng; Harley, David; Spickett, Jeffery Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Although the implications of climate change for public health continue to be elucidated, we still require much work to guide the development of a comprehensive strategy to underpin the adaptation of the health system. Adaptation will be an evolving process as impacts emerge. The authors aim is to focus on the responses of the Australian health system to health risks from climate change, and in particular how best to prepare health services for predicted health risks from heat waves, bushfires, infectious diseases, diminished air quality, and the mental health impacts of climate change. In addition, the authors aim to provide some general principles for health system adaptation to climate change that may be applicable beyond the Australian setting. They present some guiding principles for preparing health systems and also overview some specific preparatory activities in relation to personnel, infrastructure, and coordination. Increases in extreme weather-related events superimposed on health effects arising from a gradually changing climate will place additional burdens on the health system and challenge existing capacity. Key characteristics of a climate change-prepared health system are that it should be flexible, strategically allocated, and robust. Long-term planning will also require close collaboration with the nonhealth sectors as part of a nationwide adaptive response.

  16. Biophysics of olfaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fabio Marques Simoes de [Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Science Center, Campus Box 6511, PO Box 6511, 12801 East 17th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Antunes, Gabriela [Psychobiology Sector and Department of Chemistry, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2007-03-15

    The majority of the biophysical models of olfaction have been focused on the electrical properties of the system, which is justified by the relative facility of recording the electrical activity of the olfactory cells. However, depending on the level of detail utilized, a biophysical model can explore molecular, cellular and network phenomena. This review presents the state of the art of the biophysical approach to understanding olfaction. The reader is introduced to the principal problems involving the study of olfaction and guided gradually to comprehend why it is important to develop biophysical models to investigate olfaction. A large number of representative biophysical efforts in olfaction, their main contributions, the trends for the next generations of biophysical models and the improvements that may be explored by future biophysicists of olfaction have been reviewed.

  17. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and about 270 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers, and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 3rd edition: Introduces rapid partial protein ladder sequencing - an important...

  18. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and 267 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 2nd edition: • Illustrates the high-resolution methods for ultrashort-living protei...

  19. The Relationship Between Perceptions of Wilderness Character and Attitudes Toward Management Intervention to Adapt Biophysical Resources to a Changing Climate and Nature Restoration at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan; Martin, Steve; Christensen, Neal; Fauth, Gregg; Williams, Dan

    2015-09-01

    In a recent national survey of federal wilderness managers, respondents identified the high priority need for scientific information about public attitudes toward biophysical intervention to adapt to climate change and attitudes of the public toward restoration of natural conditions. In a survey of visitors to one National Park wilderness in California, visitors revealed that they largely do not support biophysical intervention in wilderness to mitigate the effects of climate change, but broad support for activities that restore natural conditions exists. In an attempt to understand how these attitudes vary among visitors, it was found that those visitors who most value naturalness aspects of wilderness character also most positively support restoration and are most negative toward climate change intervention practices. More information about visitor-defined wilderness character attributes is needed and strategic planning to guide intervention decisions and restoration should be a priority. In this study, it was found that wilderness character is largely defined by visitors based on its wildness attributes, which include natural sounds, low density of people, pure water, clean air, and the presence of humans substantially unnoticeable.

  20. Climate services for society: origins, institutional arrangements, and design elements for an evaluation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Catherine; Dessai, Suraje

    2014-01-01

    Climate services involve the generation, provision, and contextualization of information and knowledge derived from climate research for decision making at all levels of society. These services are mainly targeted at informing adaptation to climate variability and change, widely recognized as an important challenge for sustainable development. This paper reviews the development of climate services, beginning with a historical overview, a short summary of improvements in climate information, and a description of the recent surge of interest in climate service development including, for example, the Global Framework for Climate Services, implemented by the World Meteorological Organization in October 2012. It also reviews institutional arrangements of selected emerging climate services across local, national, regional, and international scales. By synthesizing existing literature, the paper proposes four design elements of a climate services evaluation framework. These design elements include: problem identification and the decision-making context; the characteristics, tailoring, and dissemination of the climate information; the governance and structure of the service, including the process by which it is developed; and the socioeconomic value of the service. The design elements are intended to serve as a guide to organize future work regarding the evaluation of when and whether climate services are more or less successful. The paper concludes by identifying future research questions regarding the institutional arrangements that support climate services and nascent efforts to evaluate them. PMID:25798197

  1. Climate services for society: origins, institutional arrangements, and design elements for an evaluation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Catherine; Dessai, Suraje

    2014-09-01

    Climate services involve the generation, provision, and contextualization of information and knowledge derived from climate research for decision making at all levels of society. These services are mainly targeted at informing adaptation to climate variability and change, widely recognized as an important challenge for sustainable development. This paper reviews the development of climate services, beginning with a historical overview, a short summary of improvements in climate information, and a description of the recent surge of interest in climate service development including, for example, the Global Framework for Climate Services, implemented by the World Meteorological Organization in October 2012. It also reviews institutional arrangements of selected emerging climate services across local, national, regional, and international scales. By synthesizing existing literature, the paper proposes four design elements of a climate services evaluation framework. These design elements include: problem identification and the decision-making context; the characteristics, tailoring, and dissemination of the climate information; the governance and structure of the service, including the process by which it is developed; and the socioeconomic value of the service. The design elements are intended to serve as a guide to organize future work regarding the evaluation of when and whether climate services are more or less successful. The paper concludes by identifying future research questions regarding the institutional arrangements that support climate services and nascent efforts to evaluate them.

  2. Biophysics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Glaser, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Biophysics is the science of physical principles underlying all processes of life, including the dynamics and kinetics of biological systems. This fully revised 2nd English edition is an introductory text that spans all steps of biological organization, from the molecular, to the organism level, as well as influences of environmental factors. In response to the enormous progress recently made, especially in theoretical and molecular biophysics, the author has updated the text, integrating new results and developments concerning protein folding and dynamics, molecular aspects of membrane assembly and transport, noise-enhanced processes, and photo-biophysics. The advances made in theoretical biology in the last decade call for a fully new conception of the corresponding sections. Thus, the book provides the background needed for fundamental training in biophysics and, in addition, offers a great deal of advanced biophysical knowledge.

  3. Regional services in a research context: USDA climate hubs in the agricultural research service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten USDA Climate Hubs were created in 2014 to develop and deliver science-based, region-specific information and technologies to better enable agricultural decision-making and management. Of these ten Hubs, half are administered by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS), an agency with historica...

  4. Regional services in a research context: USDA Climate Hubs in the USDA Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten USDA Climate Hubs were created in 2014 to develop and deliver science-based, region-specific information and technologies to better enable agricultural decision-making and management. Of these ten Hubs, half are administered by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS), an agency with historica...

  5. Mommy, Where Do Climate Service Products Come From?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    Since the middle 20th Century -- and earlier-- a large variety of climate services have become available to existing and potential users needing climate information to inform a decision of interest to them. Climate may play a minor to major role in such decisions. Originally, most such information was delivered in the form of products, which could range in complexity from the simplest possible form, the original or edited data themselves, to more highly developed and manipulated information in the form of summaries, typically in fixed forms. These were intended to serve a need for widely, routinely, and frequently requested basic statistical information about climate, in the form of tables, graphics and sometimes narratives. With the rise of the internet this approach has given way to applications that can generate tailored summaries on demand, with the user able to control date intervals, statistical thresholds, formats, and a variety of other issues of both substance and style. A much richer environment for the creation of such information now exists. This tradition arose largely through the combined efforts of NOAA and predecessor agencies via the National Weather Records Center, renamed the National Climate Center, renamed the National Climatic Data Center, now combined with geophysical and oceanographic counterparts into the National Centers for Environmental Information, in analogy with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. A steady partner during this history has been the membership of the American Association of State Climatologists. The first efforts were intended to address to most common questions and to assist with reduction in workload in answering multiple repeated requests for the same information. Over time users and uses have become increasingly sophisticated, specialized, and diverse. Increasing efforts are directed to a more systematic approach, involving explicit engagement of stakeholders, to learn which applications to develop or

  6. An interoperable research data infrastructure to support climate service development

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Tiziana; Rocchi, Leandro; Rapisardi, Elena

    2018-02-01

    Accessibility, availability, re-use and re-distribution of scientific data are prerequisites to build climate services across Europe. From this perspective the Institute of Biometeorology of the National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR), aiming at contributing to the sharing and integration of research data, has developed a research data infrastructure to support the scientific activities conducted in several national and international research projects. The proposed architecture uses open-source tools to ensure sustainability in the development and deployment of Web applications with geographic features and data analysis functionalities. The spatial data infrastructure components are organized in typical client-server architecture and interact from the data provider download data process to representation of the results to end users. The availability of structured raw data as customized information paves the way for building climate service purveyors to support adaptation, mitigation and risk management at different scales.This work is a bottom-up collaborative initiative between different IBIMET-CNR research units (e.g. geomatics and information and communication technology - ICT; agricultural sustainability; international cooperation in least developed countries - LDCs) that embrace the same approach for sharing and re-use of research data and informatics solutions based on co-design, co-development and co-evaluation among different actors to support the production and application of climate services. During the development phase of Web applications, different users (internal and external) were involved in the whole process so as to better define user needs and suggest the implementation of specific custom functionalities. Indeed, the services are addressed to researchers, academics, public institutions and agencies - practitioners who can access data and findings from recent research in the field of applied meteorology and climatology.

  7. An interoperable research data infrastructure to support climate service development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. De Filippis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility, availability, re-use and re-distribution of scientific data are prerequisites to build climate services across Europe. From this perspective the Institute of Biometeorology of the National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR, aiming at contributing to the sharing and integration of research data, has developed a research data infrastructure to support the scientific activities conducted in several national and international research projects. The proposed architecture uses open-source tools to ensure sustainability in the development and deployment of Web applications with geographic features and data analysis functionalities. The spatial data infrastructure components are organized in typical client–server architecture and interact from the data provider download data process to representation of the results to end users. The availability of structured raw data as customized information paves the way for building climate service purveyors to support adaptation, mitigation and risk management at different scales.This work is a bottom-up collaborative initiative between different IBIMET-CNR research units (e.g. geomatics and information and communication technology – ICT; agricultural sustainability; international cooperation in least developed countries – LDCs that embrace the same approach for sharing and re-use of research data and informatics solutions based on co-design, co-development and co-evaluation among different actors to support the production and application of climate services. During the development phase of Web applications, different users (internal and external were involved in the whole process so as to better define user needs and suggest the implementation of specific custom functionalities. Indeed, the services are addressed to researchers, academics, public institutions and agencies – practitioners who can access data and findings from recent research in the field of applied meteorology and climatology.

  8. Adaptation services of floodplains and wetlands under transformational climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloff, Matthew; Lavorel, Sandra; Wise, Russell M; Dunlop, Michael; Overton, Ian C; Williams, Kristen J

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation services are the ecosystem processes and services that benefit people by increasing their ability to adapt to change. Benefits may accrue from existing but newly used services where ecosystems persist or from novel services supplied following ecosystem transformation. Ecosystem properties that enable persistence or transformation are important adaptation services because they support future options. The adaptation services approach can be applied to decisions on trade-offs between currently valued services and benefits from maintaining future options. For example, ecosystem functions and services of floodplains depend on river flows. In those regions of the world where climate change projections are for hotter, drier conditions, floods will be less frequent and floodplains will either persist, though with modified structure and function, or transform to terrestrial (flood-independent) ecosystems. Many currently valued ecosystem services will reduce in supply or become unavailable, but new options are provided by adaptation services. We present a case study from the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, for operationalizing the adaptation services concept for floodplains and wetlands. We found large changes in flow and flood regimes are likely under a scenario of +1.6°C by 2030, even with additional water restored to rivers under the proposed Murray-Darling Basin Plan. We predict major changes to floodplain ecosystems, including contraction of riparian forests and woodlands and expansion of terrestrial, drought-tolerant vegetation communities. Examples of adaptation services under this scenario include substitution of irrigated agriculture with dryland cropping and floodplain grazing; mitigation of damage from rarer, extreme floods; and increased tourism, recreational, and cultural values derived from fewer, smaller wetlands that can be maintained with environmental flows. Management for adaptation services will require decisions on where intervention can

  9. Climate simulations and services on HPC, Cloud and Grid infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofino, Antonio S.; Blanco, Carlos; Minondo Tshuma, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Cloud, Grid and High Performance Computing have changed the accessibility and availability of computing resources for Earth Science research communities, specially for Climate community. These paradigms are modifying the way how climate applications are being executed. By using these technologies the number, variety and complexity of experiments and resources are increasing substantially. But, although computational capacity is increasing, traditional applications and tools used by the community are not good enough to manage this large volume and variety of experiments and computing resources. In this contribution, we evaluate the challenges to run climate simulations and services on Grid, Cloud and HPC infrestructures and how to tackle them. The Grid and Cloud infrastructures provided by EGI's VOs ( esr , earth.vo.ibergrid and fedcloud.egi.eu) will be evaluated, as well as HPC resources from PRACE infrastructure and institutional clusters. To solve those challenges, solutions using DRM4G framework will be shown. DRM4G provides a good framework to manage big volume and variety of computing resources for climate experiments. This work has been supported by the Spanish National R&D Plan under projects WRF4G (CGL2011-28864), INSIGNIA (CGL2016-79210-R) and MULTI-SDM (CGL2015-66583-R) ; the IS-ENES2 project from the 7FP of the European Commission (grant agreement no. 312979); the European Regional Development Fund—ERDF and the Programa de Personal Investigador en Formación Predoctoral from Universidad de Cantabria and Government of Cantabria.

  10. Servant leadership, procedural justice climate, service climate, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior: a cross-level investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walumbwa, Fred O; Hartnell, Chad A; Oke, Adegoke

    2010-05-01

    This study tests the influence of servant leadership on 2 group climates, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior. Results from a sample of 815 employees and 123 immediate supervisors revealed that commitment to the supervisor, self-efficacy, procedural justice climate, and service climate partially mediated the relationship between servant leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. Cross-level interaction results revealed that procedural justice climate and positive service climate amplified the influence of commitment to the supervisor on organizational citizenship behavior. Implications of these results for theory and practice and directions for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Advanced Techniques in Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrondo, José Luis R

    2006-01-01

    Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

  12. Aerosol climate change effects on land ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, N; Yue, X; Harper, K L

    2017-08-24

    A coupled global aerosol-carbon-climate model is applied to assess the impacts of aerosol physical climate change on the land ecosystem services gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) in the 1996-2005 period. Aerosol impacts are quantified on an annual mean basis relative to the hypothetical aerosol-free world in 1996-2005, the global climate state in the absence of the historical rise in aerosol pollution. We examine the separate and combined roles of fast feedbacks associated with the land and slow feedbacks associated with the ocean. We consider all fossil fuel, biofuel and biomass burning aerosol emission sources as anthropogenic. The effective radiative forcing for aerosol-radiation interactions is -0.44 W m -2 and aerosol-cloud interactions is -1.64 W m -2 . Aerosols cool and dry the global climate system by -0.8 °C and -0.08 mm per day relative to the aerosol-free world. Without aerosol pollution, human-induced global warming since the preindustrial would have already exceeded the 1.5 °C aspirational limit set in the Paris Agreement by the 1996-2005 decade. Aerosol climate impacts on the global average land ecosystem services are small due to large opposite sign effects in the tropical and boreal biomes. Aerosol slow feedbacks associated with the ocean strongly dominate impacts in the Amazon and North American Boreal. Aerosol cooling of the Amazon by -1.2 °C drives NPP increases of 8% or +0.76 ± 0.61 PgC per year, a 5-10 times larger impact than estimates of diffuse radiation fertilization by biomass burning aerosol in this region. The North American Boreal suffers GPP and NPP decreases of 35% due to aerosol-induced cooling and drying (-1.6 °C, -0.14 mm per day). Aerosol-land feedbacks play a larger role in the eastern US and Central Africa. Our study identifies an eco-climate teleconnection in the polluted earth system: the rise of the northern hemisphere mid-latitude reflective aerosol pollution layer causes long range

  13. QUALITY AND WELL-BEING IN SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS: THE ROLE OF SERVICE CLIMATE AND ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martínez-Tur

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the progress in the line of research on Service Organizations at IDOCAL (Research Institute on Personnel Psychology, Organizational Development, and Quality of Working Life, University of Valencia, and its integration with international research efforts. The investigation we have carried out has as a common general objective the compatibility of the well-being and performance of workers (the latter in terms of service quality to users, in accordance with the strategy of the European Union to end the crisis. The main topics covered are service quality, service climate, well-being, and organizational justice. In general, our indings indicate the existence of positive synergies between well-being and performance in the service sector.

  14. Climate change on arctic environment, ecosystem services and society (CLICHE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckström, J.; Korhola, A.; Väliranta, M.; Seppä, H.; Luoto, M.; Tuittila, E.-S.; Leppäranta, M.; Kahilainen, K.; Saarinen, J.; Heikkinen, H.

    2012-04-01

    The predicted climate warming has raised many questions and concerns about its impacts on the environment and society. As a respond to the need of holistic studies comprising both of these areas, The Academy of Finland launched The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (FICCA 2011-2014) in spring 2010 with the main aim to focus on the interaction between the environment and society. Ultimately 11 national consortium projects were funded (total budget 12 million EUR). Here we shortly present the main objectives of the largest consortium project "Climate change on arctic environment, ecosystem services and society" (CLICHE). The CLICHE consortium comprises eight interrelated work packages (treeline, diversity, peatlands, snow, lakes, fish, tourism, and traditional livelihoods), each led by a prominent research group and a team leader. The research consortium has three main overall objectives: 1) Investigate, map and model the past, present and future climate change-induced changes in central ecosystems of the European Arctic with unprecedented precision 2) Deepen our understanding of the basic principles of ecosystem and social resilience and dynamics; identify key taxa, structures or processes that clearly indicate impending or realised global change through their loss, occurrence or behaviour, using analogues from the past (e.g. Holocene Thermal Maximum, Medieval Warm Period), experiments, observations and models 3) Develop adaptation and mitigation strategies to minimize the adverse effects of climate change on local communities, traditional livelihoods, fisheries, and tourism industry, and promote sustainable development of local community structures and enhance the quality of life of local human populations. As the project has started only recently no final results are available yet. However, the fieldwork as well as the co-operation between the research teams has thus far been very successful. Thus, the expectations for the final outcome of the project

  15. Investment in Watershed Services projects: the ClimateWIse project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauman, K. A.; Ponette-González, A.; Bremer, L.; Hamel, P.; Floerke, M.; Rocha, H.; Schneider, C.

    2016-12-01

    Millions of people depend on water supplied from páramo grasslands and Andean and Atlantic forests in montane tropical South America. It is thus critical to ensure clean, secure water through climate-resilient source water protection. Through a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional, and multi-country (U.S., Germany, Brazil) partnership, our newly funded project `ClimateWIse' will collaborate with a network of Investment in Watershed Services (IWS) projects to assess the effects of land use and climate change on water resources in this region. In IWS projects, downstream water users support upstream land stewards in undertaking source watershed protection activities. These projects are often sited at high-elevations in data-poor regions, and there is little evidence of their immediate or long-term impact on water quantity or quality. In recent years, many IWS projects have initiated formal monitoring programs. One key goal of ClimateWIse is to compile and analyze this IWS monitoring data, focusing on three sites in Brazil and three in Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Using preliminary data from three IWS programs in Brazil - Extrema, Camboriu, and Guandu - we demonstrate how the monitoring design of IWS programs can be combined with regional-scale weather and land use data to quantify land-use change and climate change impacts on water resources in this region. The challenges of ongoing data cleaning and assimilation will be discussed, as will the challenges of comparing data from programs where different types of monitoring programs have been implemented.

  16. Economic instruments in the service of climate; Les instruments economiques au service du climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buba, Johanne [Departement Developpement durable, Centre d' analyse strategique - 18, rue de Martignac - 75700 Paris SP 07 (France); Ben-Jelloul, Mahdi; Schaff, Clement [Departement Economie-Finances, Centre d' analyse strategique - 18, rue de Martignac - 75700 Paris SP 07 (France)

    2011-11-15

    Within the perspective of new international agreements after those signed in Kyoto (1997), in Cancun (2010) and in Durban (2011), this document recalls the frameworks defined during these summits, outline the challenges regarding climate change and makes five propositions. The first one is to prepare the conditions for and experimentation of a CO{sub 2} emission trading scheme between the European market and the one of other countries. The second one is to re-establish competitive neutrality in the most emitting industrial sectors which are the most exposed to international competition and more easily subjected to off-shoring practices. The third one is the possibility for a country to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions while financing reductions in other countries. The fourth one is to harmonise emission measurement and accounting standards. The last one is to create a European institute for research and education on economic mechanisms of struggle against global warming

  17. Why Interfaces are the Key for Developing Climate Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortekar, Jörg; Bender, Steffen; Groth, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Responding to climate change today involves both mitigation to address the cause and adaptation as a response to already on-going and expected changes. But to what exactly do we have to adapt? And what happens, when environmental, economical or administrative boundary conditions changes? In recent years the concept of climate services has evolved to provide user tailored information to meet individual adaptation needs. According to the Global Framework for Climate Services, climate services involve high-quality data e.g. on temperature, rainfall, wind, etc., as well as maps, risk and vulnerability analyses, assessments, and long-term projections and scenarios. Depending on specific user's needs, these data and information products may be combined with non-meteorological sector-specific data, such as agricultural production, flood risk maps or health trends, and other socio-economic variables to support decision-making of stakeholders who are affected by climate change. This, still non-exhaustive list already indicates that many different scientific disciplines are involved in the development and provision of climate services. Integrating different and equally important scientific approaches to contribute to the solution of one specific problem is challenging. In economics, for instance, many different and promising methods and tools such as cost-benefit-analyses are available which play a key role in providing policy makers and other stakeholders with data and information in order to create a robust decision-making basis for efficiently using scarce budgets. Cost-benefit-analysis is a well-established method in economic theory, its application in the field of climate change adaptation, however, is still new. The bulk of cost and benefit assessments currently pursues a top-down-approach. That is, the required data is generated by downscaling cost and benefit estimations of global impact assessment models to a specific region. In many cases global information are not

  18. Forest Biophysical Parameters (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Biophysical parameters (DBH, NPP, biomass, bark area index, LAI, subcanopy LAI) by study site for Aspen and Spruce in the Superior National Forest, MN (SNF)

  19. Encyclopedia of biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Biophysics is envisioned both as an easily accessible source of information and as an introductory guide to the scientific literature. It includes entries describing both Techniques and Systems.  In the Techniques entries, each of the wide range of methods which fall under the heading of Biophysics are explained in detail, together with the value and the limitations of the information each provides. Techniques covered range from diffraction (X-ray, electron and neutron) through a wide range of spectroscopic methods (X-ray, optical, EPR, NMR) to imaging (from electron microscopy to live cell imaging and MRI), as well as computational and simulation approaches. In the Systems entries, biophysical approaches to specific biological systems or problems – from protein and nucleic acid structure to membranes, ion channels and receptors – are described. These sections, which place emphasis on the integration of the different techniques, therefore provide an inroad into Biophysics from a biolo...

  20. Development of a Work Climate Scale in Emergency Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sanduvete-Chaves

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An adequate work climate fosters productivity in organizations and increases employee satisfaction. Workers in emergency health services (EHS have an extremely high degree of responsibility and consequent stress. Therefore, it is essential to foster a good work climate in this context. Despite this, scales with a full study of their psychometric properties (i.e., validity evidence based on test content, internal structure and relations to other variables, and reliability are not available to measure work climate in EHS specifically. For this reason, our objective was to develop a scale to measure the quality of work climates in EHS. We carried out three studies. In Study 1, we used a mixed-method approach to identify the latent conceptual structure of the construct work climate. Thus, we integrated the results found in (a a previous study, where a content analysis of seven in-depth interviews obtained from EHS professionals in two hospitals in Gibraltar Countryside County was carried out; and (b the factor analysis of the responses given by 113 EHS professionals from these same centers to 18 items that measured the work climate in health organizations. As a result, we obtained 56 items grouped into four factors (work satisfaction, productivity/achievement of aims, interpersonal relationships, and performance at work. In Study 2, we presented validity evidence based on test content through experts' judgment. Fourteen experts from the methodology and health fields evaluated the representativeness, utility, and feasibility of each of the 56 items with respect to their factor (theoretical dimension. Forty items met the inclusion criterion, which was to obtain an Osterlind index value greater than or equal to 0.5 in the three aspects assessed. In Study 3, 201 EHS professionals from the same centers completed the resulting 40-item scale. This new instrument produced validity evidence based on the internal structure in a second-order factor model with

  1. Development of a Work Climate Scale in Emergency Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Lozano-Lozano, José A; Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P

    2018-01-01

    An adequate work climate fosters productivity in organizations and increases employee satisfaction. Workers in emergency health services (EHS) have an extremely high degree of responsibility and consequent stress. Therefore, it is essential to foster a good work climate in this context. Despite this, scales with a full study of their psychometric properties (i.e., validity evidence based on test content, internal structure and relations to other variables, and reliability) are not available to measure work climate in EHS specifically. For this reason, our objective was to develop a scale to measure the quality of work climates in EHS. We carried out three studies. In Study 1, we used a mixed-method approach to identify the latent conceptual structure of the construct work climate . Thus, we integrated the results found in (a) a previous study, where a content analysis of seven in-depth interviews obtained from EHS professionals in two hospitals in Gibraltar Countryside County was carried out; and (b) the factor analysis of the responses given by 113 EHS professionals from these same centers to 18 items that measured the work climate in health organizations. As a result, we obtained 56 items grouped into four factors (work satisfaction, productivity/achievement of aims, interpersonal relationships, and performance at work). In Study 2, we presented validity evidence based on test content through experts' judgment. Fourteen experts from the methodology and health fields evaluated the representativeness, utility, and feasibility of each of the 56 items with respect to their factor (theoretical dimension). Forty items met the inclusion criterion, which was to obtain an Osterlind index value greater than or equal to 0.5 in the three aspects assessed. In Study 3, 201 EHS professionals from the same centers completed the resulting 40-item scale. This new instrument produced validity evidence based on the internal structure in a second-order factor model with four

  2. Readying health services for climate change: a policy framework for regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Erica

    2011-05-01

    Climate change presents the biggest threat to human health in the 21st century. However, many public health leaders feel ill equipped to face the challenges of climate change and have been unable to make climate change a priority in service development. I explore how to achieve a regionally responsive whole-of-systems approach to climate change in the key operational areas of a health service: service governance and culture, service delivery, workforce development, asset management, and financing. The relative neglect of implementation science means that policymakers need to be proactive about sourcing and developing models and processes to make health services ready for climate change. Health research funding agencies should urgently prioritize applied, regionally responsive health services research for a future of climate change.

  3. Readying Health Services for Climate Change: A Policy Framework for Regional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Climate change presents the biggest threat to human health in the 21st century. However, many public health leaders feel ill equipped to face the challenges of climate change and have been unable to make climate change a priority in service development. I explore how to achieve a regionally responsive whole-of-systems approach to climate change in the key operational areas of a health service: service governance and culture, service delivery, workforce development, asset management, and financing. The relative neglect of implementation science means that policymakers need to be proactive about sourcing and developing models and processes to make health services ready for climate change. Health research funding agencies should urgently prioritize applied, regionally responsive health services research for a future of climate change. PMID:21421953

  4. The need for non-climate services – Empirical evidence from Finnish municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Jurgilevich, Alexandra; Haanpää, Simo; Heikkinen, Milja; Groundstroem, Fanny; Juhola, Sirkku

    2017-01-01

    There is a call for climate services to facilitate climate risk assessment and management. Local governments are major actors in managing climate risk but there is less research on what kind of information is needed and used by municipalities. With the help of a quantitative survey and a post-survey workshop, we analyze the status of climate risk assessment and management in Finnish municipalities, evaluating key information sources and assessing the main barriers to climate risk work. Our re...

  5. State-of-the-Art Climate Predictions for Energy Climate Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba-Fernandez, Veronica; Davis, Melanie; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Gonzalez-Reviriego, Nube

    2015-04-01

    for climate services, this comes at a price in terms of forecast quality.

  6. Climate change impacts on selected global rangeland ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Randall B; Conant, Richard T; Sircely, Jason; Thornton, Philip K; Herrero, Mario

    2018-03-01

    Rangelands are Earth's dominant land cover and are important providers of ecosystem services. Reliance on rangelands is projected to grow, thus understanding the sensitivity of rangelands to future climates is essential. We used a new ecosystem model of moderate complexity that allows, for the first time, to quantify global changes expected in rangelands under future climates. The mean global annual net primary production (NPP) may decline by 10 g C m -2  year -1 in 2050 under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, but herbaceous NPP is projected to increase slightly (i.e., average of 3 g C m -2  year -1 ). Responses vary substantially from place-to-place, with large increases in annual productivity projected in northern regions (e.g., a 21% increase in productivity in the US and Canada) and large declines in western Africa (-46% in sub-Saharan western Africa) and Australia (-17%). Soil organic carbon is projected to increase in Australia (9%), the Middle East (14%), and central Asia (16%) and decline in many African savannas (e.g., -18% in sub-Saharan western Africa). Livestock are projected to decline 7.5 to 9.6%, an economic loss of from $9.7 to $12.6 billion. Our results suggest that forage production in Africa is sensitive to changes in climate, which will have substantial impacts on the livelihoods of the more than 180 million people who raise livestock on those rangelands. Our approach and the simulation tool presented here offer considerable potential for forecasting future conditions, highlight regions of concern, and support analyses where costs and benefits of adaptations and policies may be quantified. Otherwise, the technical options and policy and enabling environment that are needed to facilitate widespread adaptation may be very difficult to elucidate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. NOAA's Regional Climate Services Program: Building Relationships with Partners and Customers to Deliver Trusted Climate Information at Usable Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecray, E. L.; Dissen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Federal agencies across multiple sectors from transportation to health, emergency management and agriculture, are now requiring their key stakeholders to identify and plan for climate-related impacts. Responding to the drumbeat for climate services at the regional and local scale, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) formed its Regional Climate Services (RCS) program to include Regional Climate Services Directors (RCSD), Regional Climate Centers, and state climatologists in a partnership. Since 2010, the RCS program has engaged customers across the country and amongst many of the nation's key economic sectors to compile information requirements, deliver climate-related products and services, and build partnerships among federal agencies and their regional climate entities. The talk will include a sketch from the Eastern Region that may shed light on the interaction of the multiple entities working at the regional scale. Additionally, we will show examples of our interagency work with the Department of Interior, the Department of Agriculture, and others in NOAA to deliver usable and trusted climate information and resources. These include webinars, print material, and face-to-face customer engagements to gather and respond to information requirements. NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Information's RCSDs work on-the-ground to learn from customers about their information needs and their use of existing tools and resources. As regional leads, the RCSDs work within NOAA and with our regional partners to ensure the customer receives a broad picture of the tools and information from across the nation.

  8. Monitoring Users' Satisfactions of the NOAA NWS Climate Products and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfall, F. M.; Timofeyeva, M. M.; Dixon, S.; Meyers, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) ensures the relevance of NWS climate products and services. There are several ongoing efforts to identify the level of user satisfaction. One of these efforts includes periodical surveys conducted by Claes Fornell International (CFI) Group using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), which is "the only uniform, national, cross-industry measure of satisfaction with the quality of goods and services available in the United States" (http://www.cfigroup.com/acsi/overview.asp). The CFI Group conducted NWS Climate Products and Services surveys in 2004 and 2009. In 2010, a prominent routine was established for a periodical assessment of the customer satisfaction. From 2010 onward, yearly surveys will cover major climate services products and services. An expanded suite of climate products will be surveyed every other year. Each survey evaluated customer satisfaction with a range of NWS climate services, data, and products, including Climate Prediction Center (CPC) outlooks, drought monitoring, and ENSO monitoring and forecasts, as well as NWS local climate data and forecast products and services. The survey results provide insight into the NWS climate customer base and their requirements for climate services. They also evaluate whether we are meeting the needs of customers and the ease of their understanding for routine climate services, forecasts, and outlooks. In addition, the evaluation of specific topics, such as NWS forecast product category names, probabilistic nature of climate products, interpretation issues, etc., were addressed to assess how our users interpret prediction terminology. This paper provides an analysis of the following products: hazards, extended-range, long-lead and drought outlooks, El Nino Southern Oscillation monitoring and predictions as well as local climate data products. Two key issues make comparing the different surveys challenging, including the

  9. Transforming Service Employees and Climate: A Multilevel, Multisource Examination of Transformational Leadership in Building Long-Term Service Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hui; Chuang, Aichia

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal field study integrates the theories of transformational leadership (TFL) and relationship marketing to examine how TFL influences employee service performance and customer relationship outcomes by transforming both (at the micro level) the service employees' attitudes and (at the macro level) the work unit's service climate.…

  10. Information Needs Assessment for Coastal and Marine Management and Policy: Ecosystem Services Under Changing Climatic, Land Use, and Demographic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kaitlin A.; Granek, Elise F.; Lubitow, Amy

    2015-12-01

    Changing climatic, demographic, and land use conditions are projected to alter the provisioning of ecosystem services in estuarine, coastal, and nearshore marine ecosystems, necessitating mitigation and adaptation policies and management. The current paradigm of research efforts occurring in parallel to, rather than in collaboration with, decision makers will be insufficient for the rapid responses required to adapt to and mitigate for projected changing conditions. Here, we suggest a different paradigm: one where research begins by engaging decision makers in the identification of priority data needs (biophysical, economic, and social). This paper uses synthesized interview data to provide insight into the varied demands for scientific research as described by decision makers working on coastal issues in Oregon, USA. The findings highlight the need to recognize (1) the differing framing of ecosystem services by decision makers versus scientists; and (2) the differing data priorities relevant to inland versus coastal decision makers. The findings further serve to highlight the need for decision makers, scientists, and funders to engage in increased communication. This research is an important first step in advancing efforts toward evidence-based decision making in Oregon and provides a template for further research across the US.

  11. Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers' Awareness, Beliefs, Values, and Behaviours Pertinent to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higde, Emrah; Oztekin, Ceren; Sahin, Elvan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined Turkish pre-service science teachers' awareness, uncertainty beliefs, values, and behaviours pertinent to climate change. It aimed to determine significant predictors of climate change-related behaviours and uncertainty beliefs about the reality of climate change. A Turkish-adapted survey was administered to 1277 pre-service…

  12. Biophysics of molecular gastronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael P; Sörensen, Pia M

    2015-03-26

    Chefs and scientists exploring biophysical processes have given rise to molecular gastronomy. In this Commentary, we describe how a scientific understanding of recipes and techniques facilitates the development of new textures and expands the flavor palette. The new dishes that result engage our senses in unexpected ways. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent progress in Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemski, G.

    1980-03-01

    Recent progress in biophysics is reviewed, and three examples of the use of physical techniques and ideas in biological research are given. The first one deals with the oxygen transporting protein-hemoglobin, the second one with photosynthesis, and the third one with image formation, using nuclear magnetic resonance. (Author) [pt

  14. Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning program: supporting climate science and enhancing climate services in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; Jones, David; Hendon, Harry; Charles, Andrew; Shelton, Kay; de Wit, Roald; Cottrill, Andrew; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Atalifo, Terry; Prakash, Bipendra; Seuseu, Sunny; Kaniaha, Salesa

    2013-04-01

    Over the past few years, significant progress in developing climate science for the Pacific has been achieved through a number of research projects undertaken under the Australian government International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative (ICCAI). Climate change has major impact on Pacific Island Countries and advancement in understanding past, present and futures climate in the region is vital for island nation to develop adaptation strategies to their rapidly changing environment. This new science is now supporting new services for a wide range of stakeholders in the Pacific through the National Meteorological Agencies of the region. Seasonal climate prediction is particularly important for planning in agriculture, tourism and other weather-sensitive industries, with operational services provided by all National Meteorological Services in the region. The interaction between climate variability and climate change, for example during droughts or very warm seasons, means that much of the early impacts of climate change are being felt through seasonal variability. A means to reduce these impacts is to improve forecasts to support decision making. Historically, seasonal climate prediction has been developed based on statistical past relationship. Statistical methods relate meteorological variables (e.g. temperature and rainfall) to indices which describe large-scale environment (e.g. ENSO indices) using historical data. However, with observed climate change, statistical approaches based on historical data are getting less accurate and less reliable. Recognising the value of seasonal forecasts, we have used outputs of a dynamical model POAMA (Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia), to develop web-based information tools (http://poama.bom.gov.au/experimental/pasap/index.shtml) which are now used by climate services in 15 partner countries in the Pacific for preparing seasonal climate outlooks. Initial comparison conducted during 2012 has shown that the

  15. The Copernicus programme and its Climate Change Service (C3S): a European answer to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinty, Bernard; Thepaut, Jean-Noel; Dee, Dick

    2016-07-01

    In November 2014, The European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) signed an agreement with the European Commission to deliver two of the Copernicus Earth Observation Programme Services on the Commission's behalf. The ECMWF delivered services - the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) and Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) - will bring a consistent standard to how we measure and predict atmospheric conditions and climate change. They will maximise the potential of past, current and future earth observations - ground, ocean, airborne, satellite - and analyse these to monitor and predict atmospheric conditions and in the future, climate change. With the wealth of free and open data that the services provide, they will help business users to assess the impact of their business decisions and make informed choices, delivering a more energy efficient and climate aware economy. These sound investment decisions now will not only stimulate growth in the short term, but reduce the impact of climate change on the economy and society in the future. C3S is in its proof of concept phase and through its climate data store will provide global and regional climate data reanalyses; multi-model seasonal forecasts; customisable visual data to enable examination of wide range of scenarios and model the impact of changes; access to all the underlying data, including climate data records from various satellite and in-situ observations. In addition, C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers (such as carbon dioxide) and impacts (such as reducing glaciers). The aim of these indicators will be to support European adaptation and mitigation policies in a number of economic sectors. The presentation will provide an overview of this newly created Service, its various components and activities, and a roadmap towards achieving a fully operational European Climate Service at the horizon 2019-2020. It will focus on the requirements for quality-assured Observation

  16. The Perceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers and Science Teachers About Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Meilinda, M; Rustaman, N. Y; Tjasyono, B

    2017-01-01

    The global climate phenomenon in the context of climate change is the impact of both the dynamic complex climate system and human behaviors that affect environmental sustainability. Human is an important component that should be considered in science teaching that is believed to improve human attitudes towards the environmental sustainability. The research aims to investigate the perceptions of pre-service science teachers and science teachers in South Sumatra who teach climate change and glo...

  17. Leadership, organizational climate, and working alliance in a children's mental health service system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Albanese, Brian J; Cafri, Guy; Aarons, Gregory A

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationships of transformational leadership and organizational climate with working alliance, in a children's mental health service system. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, the effect of leadership on working alliance was mediated by organizational climate. These results suggest that supervisors may be able to impact quality of care through improving workplace climate. Organizational factors should be considered in efforts to improve public sector services. Understanding these issues is important for program leaders, mental health service providers, and consumers because they can affect both the way services are delivered and ultimately, clinical outcomes.

  18. Amazon Web Services: Downscaled Climate Projections (NEX-DCP30)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Downscaled Climate Projections (NEX-DCP30) dataset is comprised of downscaled climate scenarios for the conterminous United States that...

  19. Effects of climate change on Forest Service strategic goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    2010-01-01

    Climate change affects forests and grasslands in many ways. Changes in temperature and precipitation affect plant productivity as well as some species' habitat. Changes in key climate variables affect the length of the fire season and the seasonality of National Forest hydrological regimes. Also, invasive species tend to adapt to climate change more easily and...

  20. Climate-related trends in sapwood biophysical properties in two conifers: avoidance of hydraulic dysfunction through coordinated adjustments in xylem efficiency, safety and capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Barnard; Frederick C. Meinzer; Barbara Lachenbruch; Katherine A. McCulloh; Daniel M. Johnson; David R. Woodruff

    2011-01-01

    In the Pacific north-west, the Cascade Mountain Range blocks much of the precipitation and maritime influence of the Pacific Ocean, resulting in distinct climates east and west of the mountains. The current study aimed to investigate relationships between water storage and transport properties in populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)...

  1. "I get by with a little help from my friends": A case study in Holy Cross and Grayling using geographic, ethnographic, and biophysical data to tell the story of climate change effects in the lower-middle Yukon River region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, T. N.; Brown, C.; Cold, H.; Brinkman, T. J.; Brown, D. N.; Verbyla, D.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last century, Alaska has warmed more than twice as rapidly as the contiguous US. Climate change in boreal Alaska has created new and undocumented vulnerabilities for rural communities. In rural areas, subsistence harvesters rely on established travel networks to access traditional hunting, fishing, and gathering areas. These routes are being affected by ecosystem disturbances, such as thermokarst and increased wildfire severity, linked to climate change. Understanding these changes requires a collaborative effort, using many different forms of data to tell a complete story. Here, we present a case study from Holy Cross and Grayling, Alaska to demonstrate the importance of cross-discipline data integration. Local subsistence users documented GPS coordinates of encountered sites of ecosystem disturbances influencing their access to subsistence areas. These knowledge holders provided the ethnographic, historical and experiential descriptions of the effects of these changes. Then, remote-sensing imagery allows us to look at how these sites change over time. Finally, we returned to collaborate with subsistence users to visit specific sites and quantify the biophysical mechanisms that describe these disturbances. In Holy Cross, we visited areas that recently burned and are undergoing rapid changes in vegetation. We describe the fire regime characteristics such as fire severity, age of site when it burned, pre-fire composition, and post-fire successional trajectory. In Grayling, we visited areas with drying water bodies and associated vegetation change. We describe the current vegetation structure and composition, looked at potential shifts in soil moisture and used repeat imagery to quantify change in water. Our case study exemplifies the power of participatory research, collaboration, and a cross-disciplinary methodology to expand our collective understanding of landscape-level climate-related changes in boreal Alaska.

  2. Structure and biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    This volume is a collection of articles from the proceedings of the ISSBMR 7th Course: Structure and Biophysics - New Technologies for Current Challenges in Biology and Beyond. This NATO Advanced Institute (ASI) was held in Erice at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture on 22 June through 3 July 2005. The ASI brought together a diverse group of experts in the fields of Structural Biology, Biophysics and Physics. Prominent lecturers, from seven different countries, and students from around the world participated in the NATO ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi (Stanford University, USA) and Alexander Arseniev (Moscow, RU). Advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and x-ray crystallography have allowed the three-dimensional structures of many biological macromolecules and their complexes, including the ribosome and RNA polymerase to be solved. Fundamental principles of NMR spectroscopy and dynamics, x-ray crystallography, computation and experimental dynamics we...

  3. Biophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Cotteril, Rodney

    2002-01-01

    Biophysics: An Introduction, is a concise balanced introduction to this subject. Written in an accessible and readable style, the book takes a fresh, modern approach with the author successfully combining key concepts and theory with relevant applications and examples drawn from the field as a whole. Beginning with a brief introduction to the origins of biophysics, the book takes the reader through successive levels of complexity, from atoms to molecules, structures, systems and ultimately to the behaviour of organisms. The book also includes extensive coverage of biopolymers, biomembranes, biological energy, and nervous systems. The text not only explores basic ideas, but also discusses recent developments, such as protein folding, DNA/RNA conformations, molecular motors, optical tweezers and the biological origins of consciousness and intelligence.

  4. Theoretical Molecular Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    "Theoretical Molecular Biophysics" is an advanced study book for students, shortly before or after completing undergraduate studies, in physics, chemistry or biology. It provides the tools for an understanding of elementary processes in biology, such as photosynthesis on a molecular level. A basic knowledge in mechanics, electrostatics, quantum theory and statistical physics is desirable. The reader will be exposed to basic concepts in modern biophysics such as entropic forces, phase separation, potentials of mean force, proton and electron transfer, heterogeneous reactions coherent and incoherent energy transfer as well as molecular motors. Basic concepts such as phase transitions of biopolymers, electrostatics, protonation equilibria, ion transport, radiationless transitions as well as energy- and electron transfer are discussed within the frame of simple models.

  5. The Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Program, Climate Services, and Meeting the National Climate Change Adaptation Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Udall, B.; Miles, E.; Dow, K.; Anderson, C.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Hartmann, H.; Jones, J.; Mote, P.; Ray, A.; Shafer, M.; White, D.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA-led RISA Program has grown steadily to nine regions and a focus that includes both natural climate variability and human-driven climate change. The RISAs are, at their core, university-based and heavily invested in partnerships, particularly with stakeholders, NOAA, and other federal agencies. RISA research, assessment and partnerships have led to new operational climate services within NOAA and other agencies, and have become important foundations in the development of local, state and regional climate change adaptation initiatives. The RISA experience indicates that a national climate service is needed, and must include: (1) services prioritized based on stakeholder needs; (2) sustained, ongoing regional interactions with users, (3) a commitment to improve climate literacy; (4) support for assessment as an ongoing, iterative process; (5) full recognition that stakeholder decisions are seldom made using climate information alone; (6) strong interagency partnership; (7) national implementation and regional in focus; (8) capability spanning local, state, tribal, regional, national and international space scales, and weeks to millennia time scales; and (9) institutional design and scientific support flexible enough to assure the effort is nimble enough to respond to rapidly-changing stakeholder needs. The RISA experience also highlights the central role that universities must play in national climate change adaptation programs. Universities have a tradition of trusted regional stakeholder partnerships, as well as the interdisciplinary expertise - including social science, ecosystem science, law, and economics - required to meet stakeholder climate-related needs; project workforce can also shift rapidly in universities. Universities have a proven ability to build and sustain interagency partnerships. Universities excel in most forms of education and training. And universities often have proven entrepreneurship, technology transfer and private sector

  6. System and Method for Providing a Climate Data Analytic Services Application Programming Interface Distribution Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John L. (Inventor); Duffy, Daniel Q. (Inventor); Tamkin, Glenn S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system, method and computer-readable storage devices for providing a climate data analytic services application programming interface distribution package. The example system can provide various components. The system provides a climate data analytic services application programming interface library that enables software applications running on a client device to invoke the capabilities of a climate data analytic service. The system provides a command-line interface that provides a means of interacting with a climate data analytic service by issuing commands directly to the system's server interface. The system provides sample programs that call on the capabilities of the application programming interface library and can be used as templates for the construction of new client applications. The system can also provide test utilities, build utilities, service integration utilities, and documentation.

  7. Impacts of climate change on biodiversity, ecosystems, and ecosystem services: technical input to the 2013 National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, Michelle D.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Staudt, Amanda; Carter, Shawn L.; Stuart, F. Stuart; Kareiva, Peter; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Stein, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems, and the biodiversity and services they support, are intrinsically dependent on climate. During the twentieth century, climate change has had documented impacts on ecological systems, and impacts are expected to increase as climate change continues and perhaps even accelerates. This technical input to the National Climate Assessment synthesizes our scientific understanding of the way climate change is affecting biodiversity, ecosystems, ecosystem services, and what strategies might be employed to decrease current and future risks. Building on past assessments of how climate change and other stressors are affecting ecosystems in the United States and around the world, we approach the subject from several different perspectives. First, we review the observed and projected impacts on biodiversity, with a focus on genes, species, and assemblages of species. Next, we examine how climate change is affecting ecosystem structural elements—such as biomass, architecture, and heterogeneity—and functions—specifically, as related to the fluxes of energy and matter. People experience climate change impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems as changes in ecosystem services; people depend on ecosystems for resources that are harvested, their role in regulating the movement of materials and disturbances, and their recreational, cultural, and aesthetic value. Thus, we review newly emerging research to determine how human activities and a changing climate are likely to alter the delivery of these ecosystem services. This technical input also examines two cross-cutting topics. First, we recognize that climate change is happening against the backdrop of a wide range of other environmental and anthropogenic stressors, many of which have caused dramatic ecosystem degradation already. This broader range of stressors interacts with climate change, and complicates our abilities to predict and manage the impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems, and the services they support. The

  8. Conditions for a market uptake of climate services for adaptation in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Cavelier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This perspective paper reports the results of a collaborative survey of French research institutes concerned with environmental issues, which examined the potential for a market uptake of climate services for adaptation in France. The study is based on a review of existing reports on the market of climate services, and on interviews of 68 climate service providers and users in public and private organizations. Although the study does not allow to provide quantified estimations regarding the present and future size of the market, its results offer new perspectives with implications extending far beyond the sole case of France: first, while the market is still in its infancy, significant opportunities exist in sectors such as flooding risks, and, to a slightly lesser extent, hydro and nuclear energy and viticulture. In addition, the study identifies critical conditions for the uptake in climate services: (1 a coordinated delivery of data, information, expertise and training by public research institutes concerned with climate change and its impacts; (2 the inclusion of adaptation in the regulation and in public and private tenders. Finally, (3 uncertainties in climate projections appear as a major barrier to the uptake of climate services. However, ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction as planned by the COP-21 Paris Agreement contribute to reducing this uncertainties by allowing users to select a subset of climate change projections, avoiding those for which adaptation is most problematic.

  9. Climate variability effects on agriculture land use and soil services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is occurring around the world and impacts the ability to produce agricultural crops because of changing land use patterns and variation in production among years. Temperature and precipitation are the two climatic variables exerting the largest impact on agriculture production because...

  10. Climate-change driven range shifts of anchovy biomass projected by bio-physical coupling individual based model in the marginal seas of East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sukgeun; Pang, Ig-Chan; Lee, Joon-ho; Lee, Kyunghwan

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies in the western North Pacific reported a declining standing stock biomass of anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) in the Yellow Sea and a climate-driven southward shift of anchovy catch in Korean waters. We investigated the effects of a warming ocean on the latitudinal shift of anchovy catch by developing and applying individual-based models (IBMs) based on a regional ocean circulation model and an IPCC climate change scenario. Despite the greater uncertainty, our two IBMs projected that, by the 2030s, the strengthened Tsushima warm current in the Korea Strait and the East Sea, driven by global warming, and the subsequent confinement of the relatively cold water masses within the Yellow Sea will decrease larval anchovy biomass in the Yellow Sea, but will increase it in the Korea Strait and the East Sea. The decreasing trend of anchovy biomass in the Yellow Sea was reproduced by our models, but further validation and enhancement of the models is required together with extended ichthyoplankton surveys to understand and reliably project range shifts of anchovy and the impacts such range shifts will have on the marine ecosystems and fisheries in the region.

  11. Using Rain Gardens to Promote Service Learning and Climate Science Education with Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Sharon B.; Haberland, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The Jersey Roots, Global Reach 4-H Climate Science Program conducted in Camden, New Jersey introduces middle school students to the evidence, impacts, and potential solutions to climate change. For their service learning project, students installed two rain gardens at the school. Rain gardens are shallow landscaped depressions in the soil that can…

  12. Adaptation approaches for conserving ecosystems services and biodiversity in dynamic landscapes caused by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald J. Schmitz; Anne M. Trainor

    2014-01-01

    Climate change stands to cause animal species to shift their geographic ranges. This will cause ecosystems to become reorganized across landscapes as species migrate into and out of specific locations with attendant impacts on values and services that ecosystems provide to humans. Conservation in an era of climate change needs to ensure that landscapes are resilient by...

  13. Understanding Climate Change Perceptions, Attitudes, and Needs of Forest Service Resource Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Franco; Tara J. Haan

    2015-01-01

    Surveys were collected to assess Forest Service (FS) resource managers' perceptions, attitudes, and informational needs related to climate change and its potential impacts on forests and grasslands. Resource managers with three background types were surveyed. All participants generally considered themselves to be well-informed on climate change issues, although...

  14. Complementary or competing climates? Examining the interactive effect of service and ethical climates on company-level financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Adam T; Thoroughgood, Christian N; Mohammed, Susan

    2016-08-01

    By bending rules to please their customers, companies with high service climates may be less ethical but ultimately more profitable. In this article, we pose the question of whether being ethical comes at a cost to profits in customer-oriented firms. Despite the organizational reality that multiple climates coexist at a given time, research has largely ignored these types of questions, and the simultaneous analysis of multiple climate dimensions has received little empirical attention to date. Given their scientific and practical importance, this study tested complementary and conflicting perspectives regarding interactions between service (outcome-focused) and ethical (process-focused) climates on company-level financial performance. Drawing on a sample of 16,862 medical sales representatives spread across 77 subsidiary companies of a large multinational corporation in the health care product industry, we found support for a complementary view. More precisely, results revealed that profitability was enhanced, not diminished, in service-oriented firms that also stressed the importance of ethics. Results suggest studying the interactive effects of multiple climates is a more fruitful approach than examining main effects alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Improving the climate data management in the meteorological service of Angola: experience from SASSCAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Rafael; Nascimento, Domingos; Neto, Francisco Osvaldo S.; Riede, Jens; Kaspar, Frank

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge on climate variability in parts of Southern Africa is limited because of the low availability of historic and present-day ground-based observations (Niang et al., 2014). However, there is an increased need of climate information for research, climate adaptation measures and climate services. To respond to the challenges of climate change and related issues, Angola, Botswana, Germany, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia have initiated the interdisciplinary regional competence centre SASSCAL, the "Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management". As part of the initiative, Germany's national meteorological service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) cooperates with the meteorological services of Angola, Botswana and Zambia in order to improve the management and availability of historical and present-day climate data in these countries. The first results of the cooperation between the German and the Angolan Meteorological Services are presented here. International assessments have shown that improvements of the data management concepts are needed in several countries. The experience of this cooperation can therefore provide hints for comparable activities in other regions.

  16. Global disparity in the supply of commercial weather and climate information services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgeson, Lucien; Maslin, Mark; Poessinouw, Martyn

    2017-05-01

    Information about weather and climate is vital for many areas of decision-making, particularly under conditions of increasing vulnerability and uncertainty related to climate change. We have quantified the global commercial supply of weather and climate information services. Although government data are sometimes freely available, the interpretation and analysis of those data, alongside additional data collection, are required to formulate responses to specific challenges in areas such as health, agriculture, and the built environment. Using transactional data, we analyzed annual spending by private and public organizations on commercial weather and climate information in more than 180 countries by industrial sector, region, per capita, and percentage of GDP (gross domestic product) and against the country's climate and extreme weather risk. There are major imbalances regarding access to these essential services between different countries based on region and development status. There is also no relationship between the level of climate and weather risks that a country faces and the level of per capita spending on commercial weather and climate information in that country. At the international level, action is being taken to improve access to information services. With a better understanding of the flows of commercial weather and climate information, as explored in this study, it will be possible to tackle these regional and development-related disparities and thus to increase resilience to climate and weather risks.

  17. Thermal Manikins & Clothing Biophysics Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Five biophysical evaluation chambers containing fully sensored, articulated, moveable copper manikins, and other metallic models of feet and hands are available for...

  18. New Strategies in the New Millennium: Servant Leadership As Enhancer of Service Climate and Customer Service Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linuesa-Langreo, Jorge; Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo; Elche-Hortelano, Dioni

    2017-01-01

    In a world in which customers are increasingly looking for solutions to their own concerns on how to make a better globalized world, new organizational strategies are emerging to approach the customer in the current third millennium. Servant leadership, which involves putting employees’ needs first and serving the broader society, is emerging as a new strategic mechanism to approach the customer in line with the new social values-driven Marketing 3.0 era. Yet research has ignored the role and the various mechanisms servant leadership might utilize to improve customer service performance of their service units. Spanning 185 hotels located in Spain, a sample of 247 service units –in close contact with customers– was used to investigate whether servant leadership enhances customer service performance through shaping a service climate within the service unit. Results revealed that service climate mediates the positive influence of servant leadership on customer service performance. Managers can use these findings to note the value of leading the service unit in a servant friendly direction, which is better aligned with the new aspirations of customers today. PMID:28559873

  19. New Strategies in the New Millennium: Servant Leadership As Enhancer of Service Climate and Customer Service Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linuesa-Langreo, Jorge; Ruiz-Palomino, Pablo; Elche-Hortelano, Dioni

    2017-01-01

    In a world in which customers are increasingly looking for solutions to their own concerns on how to make a better globalized world, new organizational strategies are emerging to approach the customer in the current third millennium. Servant leadership, which involves putting employees' needs first and serving the broader society, is emerging as a new strategic mechanism to approach the customer in line with the new social values-driven Marketing 3.0 era. Yet research has ignored the role and the various mechanisms servant leadership might utilize to improve customer service performance of their service units. Spanning 185 hotels located in Spain, a sample of 247 service units -in close contact with customers- was used to investigate whether servant leadership enhances customer service performance through shaping a service climate within the service unit. Results revealed that service climate mediates the positive influence of servant leadership on customer service performance. Managers can use these findings to note the value of leading the service unit in a servant friendly direction, which is better aligned with the new aspirations of customers today.

  20. New Strategies in the New Millennium: Servant Leadership As Enhancer of Service Climate and Customer Service Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Linuesa-Langreo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a world in which customers are increasingly looking for solutions to their own concerns on how to make a better globalized world, new organizational strategies are emerging to approach the customer in the current third millennium. Servant leadership, which involves putting employees’ needs first and serving the broader society, is emerging as a new strategic mechanism to approach the customer in line with the new social values-driven Marketing 3.0 era. Yet research has ignored the role and the various mechanisms servant leadership might utilize to improve customer service performance of their service units. Spanning 185 hotels located in Spain, a sample of 247 service units –in close contact with customers– was used to investigate whether servant leadership enhances customer service performance through shaping a service climate within the service unit. Results revealed that service climate mediates the positive influence of servant leadership on customer service performance. Managers can use these findings to note the value of leading the service unit in a servant friendly direction, which is better aligned with the new aspirations of customers today.

  1. Is enough attention given to climate change in health service planning? An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Anthony J; Bambrick, Hilary J; Friel, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Within an Australian context, the medium to long-term health impacts of climate change are likely to be wide, varied and amplify many existing disorders and health inequities. How the health system responds to these challenges will be best considered in the context of existing health facilities and services. This paper provides a snapshot of the understanding that Australian health planners have of the potential health impacts of climate change. The first author interviewed (n=16) health service planners from five Australian states and territories using an interpretivist paradigm. All interviews were digitally recorded, key components transcribed and thematically analysed. Results indicate that the majority of participants were aware of climate change but not of its potential health impacts. Despite this, most planners were of the opinion that they would need to plan for the health impacts of climate change on the community. With the best available evidence pointing towards there being significant health impacts as a result of climate change, now is the time to undertake proactive service planning that address market failures within the health system. If considered planning is not undertaken then Australian health system can only deal with climate change in an expensive ad hoc, crisis management manner. Without meeting the challenges of climate change to the health system head on, Australia will remain unprepared for the health impacts of climate change with negative consequences for the health of the Australian population.

  2. Is enough attention given to climate change in health service planning? An Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Anthony J.; Bambrick, Hilary J.; Friel, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Background Within an Australian context, the medium to long-term health impacts of climate change are likely to be wide, varied and amplify many existing disorders and health inequities. How the health system responds to these challenges will be best considered in the context of existing health facilities and services. This paper provides a snapshot of the understanding that Australian health planners have of the potential health impacts of climate change. Methods The first author interviewed (n=16) health service planners from five Australian states and territories using an interpretivist paradigm. All interviews were digitally recorded, key components transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Results indicate that the majority of participants were aware of climate change but not of its potential health impacts. Despite this, most planners were of the opinion that they would need to plan for the health impacts of climate change on the community. Conclusion With the best available evidence pointing towards there being significant health impacts as a result of climate change, now is the time to undertake proactive service planning that address market failures within the health system. If considered planning is not undertaken then Australian health system can only deal with climate change in an expensive ad hoc, crisis management manner. Without meeting the challenges of climate change to the health system head on, Australia will remain unprepared for the health impacts of climate change with negative consequences for the health of the Australian population. PMID:24947804

  3. Biophysical pathology in cancer transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Pokorný, Jan

    S1, Nov (2013), s. 1-9 ISSN 2324-9110 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0649 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : cancer biophysics * Warburg effect * reverse Warburg effect * biological electrodynamics * coherent states Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  4. Ecosystem service impacts of future changes in CO2, climate, and land use as simulated by a coupled vegetation/land-use model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, S. S.; Alexander, P.; Henry, R.; Anthoni, P.; Pugh, T.; Rounsevell, M.; Arneth, A.

    2017-12-01

    In a future of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, changing climate, increasing human populations, and changing socioeconomic dynamics, the global agricultural system will need to adapt in order to feed the world. Global modeling can help to explore what these adaptations will look like, and their potential impacts on ecosystem services. To do so, however, the complex interconnections among the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, and society mean that these various parts of the Earth system must be examined as an interconnected whole. With the goal of answering these questions, a model system has been developed that couples a biologically-representative global vegetation model, LPJ-GUESS, with the PLUMv2 land use model. LPJ-GUESS first simulates—at 0.5º resolution across the world—the potential yield of various crops and pasture under a range of management intensities for a time step given its atmospheric CO2 level and climatic forcings. These potential yield simulations are fed into PLUMv2, which uses them in conjunction with endogenous agricultural commodity demand and prices to produce land use and management inputs (fertilizer and irrigation water) at a sub-national level for the next time step. This process is performed through 2100 for a range of future climate and societal scenarios—the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), respectively—providing a thorough exploration of possible trajectories of land use and land cover change. The land use projections produced by PLUMv2 are fed back into LPJ-GUESS to simulate the future impacts of land use change, along with increasing CO2 and climate change, on terrestrial ecosystems. This integrated analysis examines the resulting impacts on regulating and provisioning ecosystem services affecting biophysics (albedo); carbon, nitrogen, and water cycling; and the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs).

  5. Theoretical molecular biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Philipp O J

    2017-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to molecular biophysics. It starts from material properties at equilibrium related to polymers, dielectrics and membranes. Electronic spectra are developed for the understanding of elementary dynamic processes in photosynthesis including proton transfer and dynamics of molecular motors. Since the molecular structures of functional groups of bio-systems were resolved, it has become feasible to develop a theory based on the quantum theory and statistical physics with emphasis on the specifics of the high complexity of bio-systems. This introduction to molecular aspects of the field focuses on solvable models. Elementary biological processes provide as special challenge the presence of partial disorder in the structure which does not destroy the basic reproducibility of the processes. Apparently the elementary molecular processes are organized in a way to optimize the efficiency. Learning from nature by means exploring the relation between structure and function may even help to b...

  6. Biophysics of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.

  7. Biophysics of radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dertinger, H.

    1984-01-01

    Understanding the cellular response to ionizing radiation is not only necessary to meet the requirements of radioprotection, but also for medical application of radiation in cancer treatment. In terms of radiobiology, cancer therapy means the selective inactivation of malignant cells without affecting the normal healthy tissue. However, for several physical and biological reasons, this ideal situation is normally not attained. The elaboration of biophysical parameters that could be used to improve the selective sterilization of tumor cells has become one of the main activities of cellular radiobiology during the last two decades. Progress in this field has been facilitated by the development of tissue culture techniques allowing to grow and analyze cells in a synthetic nutrient medium. This chapter describes the physical and biological factors which determine cellular radiosensitivity and which are important to know for better understanding the cellular radiation action, in particular with reference to cancer treatment

  8. Biophysics and cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolini, Claudio

    1986-01-01

    Since the early times of the Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus, and later of the Roman philosopher Lucretius, a simple, fundamental idea emerged that brought the life sciences into the realm of the physical sciences. Atoms, after various interactions, were assumed to acquire stable configurations that corresponded either to the living or to the inanimate world. This simple and unitary theory, which has evolved in successive steps to our present time, remarkably maintained its validity despite several centuries of alternative vicissitudes, and is the foundation of modern biophysics. Some of the recent developments of this ancient idea are the discovery of the direct relationship between spatial structures and chemical activity of such molecules as methane and benzene, and the later discovery of the three-dimensional structure of double-helical DNA, and of its relationship with biological activity. The relationship between the structure of various macromolecules and the function of living cells was on...

  9. Review of Malaria Epidemics in Ethiopia using Enhanced Climate Services (ENACTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a disease directly linked to temperature and rainfall. In Ethiopia, the influence of climate variables on malaria transmission and the subsequent role of ENSO in the rise of malaria incidence are becoming more recognized. Numerous publications attest to the extreme sensitivity of malaria to climate in Ethiopia. The majority of large-scale epidemics in the past were associated with climatic factors such as temperature and rainfall. However, there is limited information on climate variability and ENSO at the district level to aid in public health decision-making. Since 2008, the National Meteorogy Agency (NMA) and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) have been collaborating on improving climate services in Ethiopia. This collaboration spurred the implementation of the Enhancing National Climate Services (ENACTS) initiative and the creation of the IRI Data Library (DL) NMA Ethiopia Maproom. ENACTS provides reliable and readily accessible climate data at high resolutions and the Maproom uses ENACTS to build a collection of maps and other figures that monitor climate and societal conditions at present and in the recent past (1981-2010). A recent analysis exploring the relationship of rainfall and temperature ENACTS products to malaria epidemics in proceeding rainy seasons within 12 woredas found above normal temperature anomalies to be more readily associated with epidemics when compared to above normal rainfall anomalies, regardless of the ENSO phase (Figure 1-2).

  10. Addressing Pre-service Teachers Ideas About Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, R. V.; Lambert, J. L.; Bleicher, R. E.; Lindgren, J.; Edwards, A.; Soden, B.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the scientific consensus about global climate change (GCC) and the potential risk, the media often portrays the science as controversial and as a debate (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011). According to a recent report, young adults are divided on the issue of global warming (Feldman, Nisbet, Leiserowitz, & Maibach, 2010). Understanding both the science and the nature of this issue is especially important for future teachers. Also, given that K-12 students have numerous alternative conceptions or lack of prior knowledge, it is critical that teachers have an understanding of the fundamental science underlying climate change. This study examines undergraduate science methods students' views of GCC, the relationship between students' views and their knowledge of GCC, and the impact of the course instructional approach. Students' views of GCC were assessed using the Views of Global Climate Change instrument (VGCC), a survey developed by the authors of this study (Lambert et al., 2010). The survey was developed to specifically measure students' views on: 1) their knowledge of GCC, 2) causes of GCC, 3) evidence (or indicators) of GCC, 4) impacts of GCC, 5) actions or solutions, 6) influence of politics on the issue of GCC, 7) scientific consensus, 8) trust of sources of information, and 9) concern about GCC. The Knowledge of Global Climate Change instrument (KGCC) (Lambert, Bleicher, & Lindgren, 2011) was employed to measure students' understanding of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, causes, and consequences of GCC. Pre-surveys indicated that 49% of the students felt that human activity was the main cause of climate change. At the conclusion of the course, 72% of the students thought that humans were causing climate change, and students' overall views about global warming significantly shifted toward being more concerned. Students' knowledge of the greenhouse effect, carbon cycle, causes, and impacts also increased significantly

  11. How Students Rate the Quality Service Climate on Campus. National Research Report, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2011

    2011-01-01

    How satisfied are students with the service they receive--and how important is it to them? This report documents significant strides that colleges and universities have made in recent years to improve service quality and their overall campus climate, yet also finds that campuses still have room for improvement. A few highlights: (1) While progress…

  12. How Students Rate the Quality Service Climate on Campus. National Research Report, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

    2012-01-01

    How satisfied are students with the service they receive--and how important is it to them? This report documents significant strides that colleges and universities have made in recent years to improve service quality and their overall campus climate, yet also finds that campuses still have room for improvement. A few highlights: (1) While progress…

  13. Climate Change and Ecosystem Services Output Efficiency in Southern Loblolly Pine Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susaeta, Andres; Adams, Damian C; Carter, Douglas R; Dwivedi, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    Forests provide myriad ecosystem services that are vital to humanity. With climate change, we expect to see significant changes to forests that will alter the supply of these critical services and affect human well-being. To better understand the impacts of climate change on forest-based ecosystem services, we applied a data envelopment analysis method to assess plot-level efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services in Florida natural loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests. Using field data for n = 16 loblolly pine forest plots, including inputs such as site index, tree density, age, precipitation, and temperatures for each forest plot, we assessed the relative plot-level production of three ecosystem services: timber, carbon sequestered, and species richness. The results suggested that loblolly pine forests in Florida were largely inefficient in the provision of these ecosystem services under current climatic conditions. Climate change had a small negative impact on the loblolly pine forests efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services. In this context, we discussed the reduction of tree density that may not improve ecosystem services production.

  14. Emotional Climate of a Pre-Service Science Teacher Education Class in Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinchen, Sonam; Ritchie, Stephen M.; Bellocchi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study explored pre-service secondary science teachers' perceptions of classroom emotional climate in the context of the Bhutanese macro-social policy of Gross National Happiness. Drawing upon sociological perspectives of human emotions and using Interaction Ritual Theory this study investigated how pre-service science teachers may be…

  15. Balancing trade-offs between ecosystem services in Germany’s forests under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsch, Martin; Lasch-Born, Petra; Kollas, Chris; Suckow, Felicitas; Reyer, Christopher P. O.

    2018-04-01

    Germany’s forests provide a variety of ecosystem services. Sustainable forest management aims to optimize the provision of these services at regional level. However, climate change will impact forest ecosystems and subsequently ecosystem services. The objective of this study is to quantify the effects of two alternative management scenarios and climate impacts on forest variables indicative of ecosystem services related to timber, habitat, water, and carbon. The ecosystem services are represented through nine model output variables (timber harvest, above and belowground biomass, net ecosystem production, soil carbon, percolation, nitrogen leaching, deadwood, tree dimension, broadleaf tree proportion) from the process-based forest model 4C. We simulated forest growth, carbon and water cycling until 2045 with 4C set-up for the whole German forest area based on National Forest Inventory data and driven by three management strategies (nature protection, biomass production and a baseline management) and an ensemble of regional climate scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 8.5). We provide results as relative changes compared to the baseline management and observed climate. Forest management measures have the strongest effects on ecosystem services inducing positive or negative changes of up to 40% depending on the ecosystem service in question, whereas climate change only slightly alters ecosystem services averaged over the whole forest area. The ecosystem services ‘carbon’ and ‘timber’ benefit from climate change, while ‘water’ and ‘habitat’ lose. We detect clear trade-offs between ‘timber’ and all other ecosystem services, as well as synergies between ‘habitat’ and ‘carbon’. When evaluating all ecosystem services simultaneously, our results reveal certain interrelations between climate and management scenarios. North-eastern and western forest regions are more suitable to provide timber (while minimizing the negative impacts on remaining

  16. Access to climate change information and support services by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 70% of both women and the elderly perceived change in rainfall, drought, floods, human and livestock diseases to have been “severe” to “very severe” over the last five years. Majority of women (68.8.5%) most preferred radio while the elderly (83%) most preferred indigenous knowledge to access climate information ...

  17. Climate change, soil health, and ecosystem goods and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, climate change is predicted to alter precipitation regimes, annual temperatures, and occurrence of severe weather events. These changes have important implications for soil health-- defined as the capacity of a soil to contribute to ecosystem function and sustain producers and consumers--...

  18. Cooperation on Climate Services in the Binational Rio Grande/Bravo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.; Shafer, M. A.; Brown, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Rio Grande/Bravo River Basin (RGB) of the United States and México is exposed to tornadoes, severe storms, hurricanes, winter storms, wildfire, and drought. The combination of these weather and climate-related hazards has resulted in impacts, such as wildfire, crop loss, water supply reduction, and flooding, with exceedingly high economic costs ($13 billion in 2011). In order to contribute to increased binational information flow and knowledge exchange in the region, we have developed a prototype quarterly bilingual RGB Climate Outlook, in PDF, supplemented by Twitter messages and Facebook posts. The goal of the project is to improve coordination between institutions in the U.S. and Mexico, increase awareness about climate variations, their impacts and costs to society, and build capacity for enhanced hazard preparedness. The RGB Outlook features a synthesis of climate products, impact data and analysis, is expressed in user-friendly language, and relies substantially on visual communication in contrast to text. The RGB Outlook is co-produced with colleagues in the U.S. and Mexico, in conjunction with the North American Climate Services Partnership (NACSP) and NOAA's regional climate services program. NACSP is a tri-national initiative to develop and deliver drought-based climate services in order to assist water resource managers, agricultural interests, and other constituents as they prepare for future drought events and build capacity to respond to other climate extremes. The RGB Climate Outlook builds on lessons learned from the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS) Southwest Climate Outlook (PDF, html), La Niña Drought Tracker (PDF, html), the Southern Climate Impacts Policy Program (SCIPP) Managing Drought in the Southern Plains webinar series, the Border Climate Summary (PDF), and Transborder Climate newsletter (PDF) and webinar series. The latter two have been the only regularly occurring bilingual climate information products in the U

  19. Extending Climate Analytics as a Service to the Earth System Grid Federation Progress Report on the Reanalysis Ensemble Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkin, G.; Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D.; Li, J.; Strong, S.; Thompson, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    We are extending climate analytics-as-a-service, including: (1) A high-performance Virtual Real-Time Analytics Testbed supporting six major reanalysis data sets using advanced technologies like the Cloudera Impala-based SQL and Hadoop-based MapReduce analytics over native NetCDF files. (2) A Reanalysis Ensemble Service (RES) that offers a basic set of commonly used operations over the reanalysis collections that are accessible through NASA's climate data analytics Web services and our client-side Climate Data Services Python library, CDSlib. (3) An Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) WPS-compliant Web service interface to CDSLib to accommodate ESGF's Web service endpoints. This presentation will report on the overall progress of this effort, with special attention to recent enhancements that have been made to the Reanalysis Ensemble Service, including the following: - An CDSlib Python library that supports full temporal, spatial, and grid-based resolution services - A new reanalysis collections reference model to enable operator design and implementation - An enhanced library of sample queries to demonstrate and develop use case scenarios - Extended operators that enable single- and multiple reanalysis area average, vertical average, re-gridding, and trend, climatology, and anomaly computations - Full support for the MERRA-2 reanalysis and the initial integration of two additional reanalyses - A prototype Jupyter notebook-based distribution mechanism that combines CDSlib documentation with interactive use case scenarios and personalized project management - Prototyped uncertainty quantification services that combine ensemble products with comparative observational products - Convenient, one-stop shopping for commonly used data products from multiple reanalyses, including basic subsetting and arithmetic operations over the data and extractions of trends, climatologies, and anomalies - The ability to compute and visualize multiple reanalysis intercomparisons

  20. Climate change, fire management, and ecological services in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D.; Bradford, John B.; Fulé, Peter Z.; Taylor, Alan H.; Martin, Katherine L.

    2014-01-01

    The diverse forest types of the southwestern US are inseparable from fire. Across climate zones in California, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico, fire suppression has left many forest types out of sync with their historic fire regimes. As a result, high fuel loads place them at risk of severe fire, particularly as fire activity increases due to climate change. A legacy of fire exclusion coupled with a warming climate has led to increasingly large and severe wildfires in many southwest forest types. Climate change projections include an extended fire season length due to earlier snowmelt and a general drying trend due to rising temperatures. This suggests the future will be warmer and drier regardless of changes in precipitation. Hotter, drier conditions are likely to increase forest flammability, at least initially. Changes in climate alone have the potential to alter the distribution of vegetation types within the region, and climate-driven shifts in vegetation distribution are likely to be accelerated when coupled with stand-replacing fire. Regardless of the rate of change, the interaction of climate and fire and their effects on Southwest ecosystems will alter the provisioning of ecosystem services, including carbon storage and biodiversity. Interactions between climate, fire, and vegetation growth provide a source of great uncertainty in projecting future fire activity in the region, as post-fire forest recovery is strongly influenced by climate and subsequent fire frequency. Severe fire can be mitigated with fuels management including prescribed fire, thinning, and wildfire management, but new strategies are needed to ensure the effectiveness of treatments across landscapes. We review the current understanding of the relationship between fire and climate in the Southwest, both historical and projected. We then discuss the potential implications of climate change for fire management and examine the potential effects of climate change and fire on ecosystem

  1. Risk management perspective for climate service development - Results from a study on Finnish organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjanne, Atte; Haavisto, Riina; Tuomenvirta, Heikki; Gregow, Hilppa

    2017-10-01

    Weather, climate and climate change can cause significant risks to businesses and public administration. However, understanding these processes can also create opportunities. Information can help to manage these risks and opportunities, but in order to do so, it must be in line with how risk management and decision making works. To better understand how climate risks and opportunities are reflected in different organizational processes and what types of information is needed and used, we conducted a study on the perceptions and management of weather and climate risks in Finnish organizations and on their use of weather and climate information. In addition, we collected feedback on how the existing climate information tools should be developed. Data on climate risk management was collected in an online survey and in one full-day workshop. The survey was aimed to the Finnish public and private organizations who use weather and climate data and altogether 118 responses were collected. The workshop consisted of two parts: weather and climate risk management processes in general and the development of the current information tools to further address user needs.We found that climate risk management in organizations is quite diverse and often de-centralized and that external experts are considered the most useful sources of information. Consequently, users emphasize the need for networks of expertise and sector-specific information tools. Creating such services requires input and information sharing from the user side as well. Better temporal and spatial accuracy is naturally asked for, but users also stressed the need for transparency when it comes to communicating uncertainties, and the availability and up-to-datedness of information. Our results illustrate that weather and climate risks compete and blend in with other risks and changes perceived by the organizations and supporting information is sought from different types of sources. Thus the design and evaluation of

  2. Risk management perspective for climate service development – Results from a study on Finnish organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Harjanne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Weather, climate and climate change can cause significant risks to businesses and public administration. However, understanding these processes can also create opportunities. Information can help to manage these risks and opportunities, but in order to do so, it must be in line with how risk management and decision making works. To better understand how climate risks and opportunities are reflected in different organizational processes and what types of information is needed and used, we conducted a study on the perceptions and management of weather and climate risks in Finnish organizations and on their use of weather and climate information. In addition, we collected feedback on how the existing climate information tools should be developed. Data on climate risk management was collected in an online survey and in one full-day workshop. The survey was aimed to the Finnish public and private organizations who use weather and climate data and altogether 118 responses were collected. The workshop consisted of two parts: weather and climate risk management processes in general and the development of the current information tools to further address user needs.We found that climate risk management in organizations is quite diverse and often de-centralized and that external experts are considered the most useful sources of information. Consequently, users emphasize the need for networks of expertise and sector-specific information tools. Creating such services requires input and information sharing from the user side as well. Better temporal and spatial accuracy is naturally asked for, but users also stressed the need for transparency when it comes to communicating uncertainties, and the availability and up-to-datedness of information. Our results illustrate that weather and climate risks compete and blend in with other risks and changes perceived by the organizations and supporting information is sought from different types of sources. Thus the

  3. Perspectives on Meeting the Worldwide Observational Needs of Climate Services (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    There is growing recognition of the need for climate services to cope with the extremes of climate variability and to adapt to climate change. Indeed, in July 2013, an international board convened by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) agreed on an operational plan for implementation of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). Priority sectors of the GFCS are agriculture and food security, disaster risk reduction, health, and water. Climate services encompass a range of information products to inform climate-sensitive decision making and reduce human vulnerability to climatic hazards, from IPCC Assessment Reports to sub-national, season-specific outlooks and monitoring. All such information products must be underpinned by climate observations that are as timely, consistent, and spatially/temporally complete as possible. Experience supporting food security monitoring points up a number of priority needs that are within the technological grasp of national meteorological and hydrological services (NMHS), but which remain to be implemented. Particularly in chronically food-insecure countries, there is a need for increased frequency of reporting by stations on the WMO Global Telecommunications System (GTS) network, and for an expansion of the number of stations contributing observations via GTS. Presently, only a subset of active NMHS stations report, with significant gaps in the daily time-series. Even with such improvements, there will inevitably be gaps in station network coverage. Consequently, there is a need for gridded data products at daily time steps, available in near real time with global coverage, and accessible without charge or intellectual property encumbrances. By complementing station data with satellite observations, and assimilating these into atmospheric and land surface models, such gridded time-series can be produced. However, existing gridded products are not ideal for operational climate services because they are produced either

  4. Building the Capacity for Climate Services: Thoughts on Training Next Generation Climate Science Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.; Brugger, J.; Gordon, E. S.; Barsugli, J. J.; Rangwala, I.; Travis, W.

    2015-12-01

    For more than a decade, stakeholder needs assessments and reports, including the recent National Climate Assessment, have pointed out the need for climate "science translators" or "science integrators" who can help bridge the gap between the cultures and contexts of researchers and decision-makers. Integration is important for exchanging and enhancing knowledge, building capacity to use climate information in decision making, and fostering more robust planning for decision-making in the context of climate change. This talk will report on the characteristics of successful climate science integrators, and a variety of models for training the upcoming generation of climate science integrators. Science integration characteristics identified by an experienced vanguard in the U.S. include maintaining credibility in both the scientific and stakeholder communities, a basic respect for stakeholders demonstrated through active listening, and a deep understanding of the decision-making context. Drawing upon the lessons of training programs for Cooperative Extension, public health professionals, and natural resource managers, we offer ideas about training next generation climate science integrators. Our model combines training and development of skills in interpersonal relations, communication of science, project implementation, education techniques and practices - integrated with a strong foundation in disciplinary knowledge.

  5. MERRA Analytic Services: Meeting the Big Data Challenges of Climate Science through Cloud-Enabled Climate Analytics-as-a-Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, J. L.; Duffy, D.; Tamkin, G. S.; Nadeau, D.; Thompson, J. H.; Grieg, C. M.; McInerney, M.; Webster, W. P.

    2013-12-01

    Climate science is a Big Data domain that is experiencing unprecedented growth. In our efforts to address the Big Data challenges of climate science, we are moving toward a notion of Climate Analytics-as-a-Service (CAaaS). We focus on analytics, because it is the knowledge gained from our interactions with Big Data that ultimately produce societal benefits. We focus on CAaaS because we believe it provides a useful way of thinking about the problem: a specialization of the concept of business process-as-a-service, which is an evolving extension of IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS enabled by Cloud Computing. Within this framework, Cloud Computing plays an important role; however, we see it as only one element in a constellation of capabilities that are essential to delivering climate analytics as a service. These elements are essential because in the aggregate they lead to generativity, a capacity for self-assembly that we feel is the key to solving many of the Big Data challenges in this domain. MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) is an example of cloud-enabled CAaaS built on this principle. MERRA/AS enables MapReduce analytics over NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data collection. The MERRA reanalysis integrates observational data with numerical models to produce a global temporally and spatially consistent synthesis of 26 key climate variables. It represents a type of data product that is of growing importance to scientists doing climate change research and a wide range of decision support applications. MERRA/AS brings together the following generative elements in a full, end-to-end demonstration of CAaaS capabilities: (1) high-performance, data proximal analytics, (2) scalable data management, (3) software appliance virtualization, (4) adaptive analytics, and (5) a domain-harmonized API. The effectiveness of MERRA/AS has been demonstrated in several applications. In our experience, Cloud Computing lowers the barriers and risk to

  6. MERRA Analytic Services: Meeting the Big Data Challenges of Climate Science Through Cloud-enabled Climate Analytics-as-a-service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John L.; Duffy, Daniel Quinn; Tamkin, Glenn S.; Nadeau, Denis; Thompson, John H.; Grieg, Christina M.; McInerney, Mark A.; Webster, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Climate science is a Big Data domain that is experiencing unprecedented growth. In our efforts to address the Big Data challenges of climate science, we are moving toward a notion of Climate Analytics-as-a-Service (CAaaS). We focus on analytics, because it is the knowledge gained from our interactions with Big Data that ultimately produce societal benefits. We focus on CAaaS because we believe it provides a useful way of thinking about the problem: a specialization of the concept of business process-as-a-service, which is an evolving extension of IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS enabled by Cloud Computing. Within this framework, Cloud Computing plays an important role; however, we it see it as only one element in a constellation of capabilities that are essential to delivering climate analytics as a service. These elements are essential because in the aggregate they lead to generativity, a capacity for self-assembly that we feel is the key to solving many of the Big Data challenges in this domain. MERRA Analytic Services (MERRAAS) is an example of cloud-enabled CAaaS built on this principle. MERRAAS enables MapReduce analytics over NASAs Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data collection. The MERRA reanalysis integrates observational data with numerical models to produce a global temporally and spatially consistent synthesis of 26 key climate variables. It represents a type of data product that is of growing importance to scientists doing climate change research and a wide range of decision support applications. MERRAAS brings together the following generative elements in a full, end-to-end demonstration of CAaaS capabilities: (1) high-performance, data proximal analytics, (2) scalable data management, (3) software appliance virtualization, (4) adaptive analytics, and (5) a domain-harmonized API. The effectiveness of MERRAAS has been demonstrated in several applications. In our experience, Cloud Computing lowers the barriers and risk to

  7. Emotional climate of a pre-service science teacher education class in Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinchen, Sonam; Ritchie, Stephen M.; Bellocchi, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    This study explored pre-service secondary science teachers' perceptions of classroom emotional climate in the context of the Bhutanese macro-social policy of Gross National Happiness. Drawing upon sociological perspectives of human emotions and using Interaction Ritual Theory this study investigated how pre-service science teachers may be supported in their professional development. It was a multi-method study involving video and audio recordings of teaching episodes supported by interviews and the researcher's diary. Students also registered their perceptions of the emotional climate of their classroom at 3-minute intervals using audience response technology. In this way, emotional events were identified for video analysis. The findings of this study highlighted that the activities pre-service teachers engaged in matter to them. Positive emotional climate was identified in activities involving students' presentations using video clips and models, coteaching, and interactive whole class discussions. Decreases in emotional climate were identified during formal lectures and when unprepared presenters led presentations. Emotions such as frustration and disappointment characterized classes with negative emotional climate. The enabling conditions to sustain a positive emotional climate are identified. Implications for sustaining macro-social policy about Gross National Happiness are considered in light of the climate that develops in science teacher education classes.

  8. Towards a next generation of climate services scientists : The EUPORIAS Masterclass experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aquila, Alessandro; Buontempo, Carlo; Liggins, Felicity; Soares, Marta Bruno; De Felice, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    Climate service development require a new framework for the interaction between users and provider of climate information subverting the standard top down approach from academia to application. In the framework of EUPORIAS project two summer schools have been organized with the ambition to be a first step in the direction of co-production where new prototypes could be developed but, more importantly , where new protocol for interactions could be explain and presented in a hands-on fashion In this perspective, in May 2015 and May 2016 two climate service masterclass of EUPORIAS took place at EURAC's headquarters in Bolzano, Italy. The schools , aimed at professional and early career climate scientists, hosted students from 15 different countries. This first masterclass of the project focused on three key sectors: agriculture, tourism and energy, while the second one focused on health, water and food security. Alongside lectures delivered by speakers on disciplines as diverse as climate modelling, data visualisation and psychology from across Europe, Africa and Australia, the students were tasked with creating prototype climate services, in answer to real-life end-user requirements. The teams worked on case-studies from real end-users who were also at the school. It was tough going for some of the groups but we feel there is nothing more instructive than real end-user interactions to fully understand the complexity of climate service development. The quality of the students and by the insightful questions they asked has been really impressive. Whilst some mirrored discussions already active within the climate service community others were novel and revealed an interesting junior perspective to the field. Such a hands-on a formula worked well and suggests some possible new methodologies potentially transportable to other similar events.

  9. Incorporating climate change into ecosystem service assessments and decisions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runting, Rebecca K; Bryan, Brett A; Dee, Laura E; Maseyk, Fleur J F; Mandle, Lisa; Hamel, Perrine; Wilson, Kerrie A; Yetka, Kathleen; Possingham, Hugh P; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is having a significant impact on ecosystem services and is likely to become increasingly important as this phenomenon intensifies. Future impacts can be difficult to assess as they often involve long timescales, dynamic systems with high uncertainties, and are typically confounded by other drivers of change. Despite a growing literature on climate change impacts on ecosystem services, no quantitative syntheses exist. Hence, we lack an overarching understanding of the impacts of climate change, how they are being assessed, and the extent to which other drivers, uncertainties, and decision making are incorporated. To address this, we systematically reviewed the peer-reviewed literature that assesses climate change impacts on ecosystem services at subglobal scales. We found that the impact of climate change on most types of services was predominantly negative (59% negative, 24% mixed, 4% neutral, 13% positive), but varied across services, drivers, and assessment methods. Although uncertainty was usually incorporated, there were substantial gaps in the sources of uncertainty included, along with the methods used to incorporate them. We found that relatively few studies integrated decision making, and even fewer studies aimed to identify solutions that were robust to uncertainty. For management or policy to ensure the delivery of ecosystem services, integrated approaches that incorporate multiple drivers of change and account for multiple sources of uncertainty are needed. This is undoubtedly a challenging task, but ignoring these complexities can result in misleading assessments of the impacts of climate change, suboptimal management outcomes, and the inefficient allocation of resources for climate adaptation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Multi-agent agro-economic simulation of irrigation water demand with climate services for climate change adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Balbi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ irrigation practices play a crucial role in the sustainability of crop production and water consumption, and in the way they deal with the current and future effects of climate change. In this study, a system dynamic multi-agent model adopting the soil water balance provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56 was developed to explore how farmers’ decision making may affect future water needs and use with a focus on the role of climate services, i.e. forecasts and insurance. A climatic projection record representing the down-scaled A1B market scenario (a balance across all sources of the assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC is used to produce future daily data about relative humidity, precipitation, temperature and wind speed. Two types of meteorological services are made available: i a bi-weekly bulletin; and ii seasonal forecasts. The precision of these services was altered to represent different conditions, from perfect knowledge to poor forecasts. Using the available forecasts, farming agents take adaptation decisions concerning crop allocation and irrigation management on the basis of their own risk attitudes. Farmers’ attitudes are characterized by fuzzy classifications depending on age, relative income and crop profitability. Farming agents’ adaptation decisions directly affect the crop and irrigation parameters, which in turn affect future water needs on a territorial level. By incorporating available and future meteorological services, the model allows the farmer’s decision making-process to be explored together with the consequent future irrigation water demand for the period 2015 to 2030. The model prototype is applied to a data set of the Venice Lagoon Watershed, an area of 2038 km2 in north-east Italy, for a preliminary test of its performance and to design future development objectives.

  11. Physically-based Canopy Reflectance Model Inversion of Vegetation Biophysical-Structural Information from Terra-MODIS Imagery in Boreal and Mountainous Terrain for Ecosystem, Climate and Carbon Models using the BIOPHYS-MFM Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddle, D. R.; Hall, F.

    2009-12-01

    The BIOPHYS algorithm provides innovative and flexible methods for the inversion of canopy reflectance models (CRM) to derive essential biophysical structural information (BSI) for quantifying vegetation state and disturbance, and for input to ecosystem, climate and carbon models. Based on spectral, angular, temporal and scene geometry inputs that can be provided or automatically derived, the BIOPHYS Multiple-Forward Mode (MFM) approach generates look-up tables (LUTs) that comprise reflectance data, structural inputs over specified or computed ranges, and the associated CRM output from forward mode runs. Image pixel and model LUT spectral values are then matched. The corresponding BSI retrieved from the LUT matches is output as the BSI results. BIOPHYS-MFM has been extensively used with agencies in Canada and the USA over the past decade (Peddle et al 2000-09; Soenen et al 2005-09; Gamon et al 2004; Cihlar et al 2003), such as CCRS, CFS, AICWR, NASA LEDAPS, BOREAS and MODIS Science Teams, and for the North American Carbon Program. The algorithm generates BSI products such as land cover, biomass, stand volume, stem density, height, crown closure, leaf area index (LAI) and branch area, crown dimension, productivity, topographic correction, structural change from harvest, forest fires and mountain pine beetle damage, and water / hydrology applications. BIOPHYS-MFM has been applied in different locations in Canada (six provinces from Newfoundland to British Columbia) and USA (NASA COVER, MODIS and LEDAPS sites) using 7 different CRM models and a variety of imagery (e.g. MODIS, Landsat, SPOT, IKONOS, airborne MSV, MMR, casi, Probe-1, AISA). In this paper we summarise the BIOPHYS-MFM algorithm and results from Terra-MODIS imagery from MODIS validation sites at Kananaskis Alberta in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, and from the Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) in Saskatchewan Canada. At the montane Rocky Mountain site, BIOPHYS-MFM density estimates were within

  12. Biophysical models in hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, M.; Elsaesser, T.

    One major rationale for the application of ion beams in tumor therapy is their increased relative biological effectiveness RBE in the Bragg peak region For dose prescription the increased effectiveness has to be taken into account in treatment planning Hence the complex dependencies of RBE on the dose level biological endpoint position in the field etc require biophysical models which have to fulfill two important criteria simplicity and quantitative precision Simplicity means that the number of free parameters should be kept at a minimum Due to the lack of precise quantitative data at least at present this requirement is incompatible with approaches aiming at the molecular modeling of the whole chain of production processing and repair of biological damages Quantitative precision is required since steep gradients in the dose response curves are observed for most tumor and normal tissues thus even small uncertainties in the estimation of the biologically effective dose can transform into large uncertainties in the clinical outcome The paper will give a general introduction into the field followed by a brief description of a specific model the so called Local Effect Model LEM This model has been successfully applied within treatment planning in the GSI pilot project for carbon ion tumor therapy over almost 10 years now The model is based on the knowledge of charged particle track structure in combination with the response of the biological objects to conventional photon radiation The model will be critically discussed with respect to other

  13. Biophysics of protein evolution and evolutionary protein biophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikosek, Tobias; Chan, Hue Sun

    2014-01-01

    The study of molecular evolution at the level of protein-coding genes often entails comparing large datasets of sequences to infer their evolutionary relationships. Despite the importance of a protein's structure and conformational dynamics to its function and thus its fitness, common phylogenetic methods embody minimal biophysical knowledge of proteins. To underscore the biophysical constraints on natural selection, we survey effects of protein mutations, highlighting the physical basis for marginal stability of natural globular proteins and how requirement for kinetic stability and avoidance of misfolding and misinteractions might have affected protein evolution. The biophysical underpinnings of these effects have been addressed by models with an explicit coarse-grained spatial representation of the polypeptide chain. Sequence–structure mappings based on such models are powerful conceptual tools that rationalize mutational robustness, evolvability, epistasis, promiscuous function performed by ‘hidden’ conformational states, resolution of adaptive conflicts and conformational switches in the evolution from one protein fold to another. Recently, protein biophysics has been applied to derive more accurate evolutionary accounts of sequence data. Methods have also been developed to exploit sequence-based evolutionary information to predict biophysical behaviours of proteins. The success of these approaches demonstrates a deep synergy between the fields of protein biophysics and protein evolution. PMID:25165599

  14. Soil functional types: surveying the biophysical dimensions of soil security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécillon, Lauric; Barré, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a natural capital that can deliver key ecosystem services (ES) to humans through the realization of a series of soil processes controlling ecosystem functioning. Soil is also a diverse and endangered natural resource. A huge pedodiversity has been described at all scales, which is strongly altered by global change. The multidimensional concept soil security, encompassing biophysical, economic, social, policy and legal frameworks of soils has recently been proposed, recognizing the role of soils in global environmental sustainability challenges. The biophysical dimensions of soil security focus on the functionality of a given soil that can be viewed as the combination of its capability and its condition [1]. Indeed, all soils are not equal in term of functionality. They show different processes, provide different ES to humans and respond specifically to global change. Knowledge of soil functionality in space and time is thus a crucial step towards the achievement soil security. All soil classification systems incorporate some functional information, but soil taxonomy alone cannot fully describe the functioning, limitations, resistance and resilience of soils. Droogers and Bouma [2] introduced functional variants (phenoforms) for each soil type (genoform) so as to fit more closely to soil functionality. However, different genoforms can have the same functionality. As stated by McBratney and colleagues [1], there is a great need of an agreed methodology for defining the reference state of soil functionality. Here, we propose soil functional types (SFT) as a relevant classification system for the biophysical dimensions of soil security. Following the definition of plant functional types widely used in ecology, we define a soil functional type as "a set of soil taxons or phenoforms sharing similar processes (e.g. soil respiration), similar effects on ecosystem functioning (e.g. primary productivity) and similar responses to global change (land-use, management or

  15. Lessons learnt regarding climate service needs for local government

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, Miriam D

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available in the province; Droughts Strong winds Flash floods Thunderstorms Disease outbreaks e.g. diarrhoea Hailstorm High temperatures Drying Changes in land cover Shifts in rainfall season resulting in late rains Frost Increased health risks area – mosquitos, malaria... in workshops and courses • Political buy in to avoid climate change and environmental falling off the agenda • Being able to contribute to research and not just have information “dumped at us” • GIS technical support to help map vulnerable areas...

  16. Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystem Services in High Mountain Areas: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Palomo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High mountain areas are experiencing some of the earliest and greatest impacts of climate change. However, knowledge on how climate change impacts multiple ecosystem services that benefit different stakeholder groups remains scattered in the literature. This article presents a review of the literature on climate change impacts on ecosystem services benefiting local communities and tourists in high mountain areas. Results show a lack of studies focused on the global South, especially where there are tropical glaciers, which are likely to be the first to disappear. Climate change impacts can be classified as impacts on food and feed, water availability, natural hazards regulation, spirituality and cultural identity, aesthetics, and recreation. In turn, climate change impacts on infrastructure and accessibility also affect ecosystem services. Several of these impacts are a direct threat to the lives of mountain peoples, their livelihoods and their culture. Mountain tourism is experiencing abrupt changes too. The magnitude of impacts make it necessary to strengthen measures to adapt to climate change in high mountain areas.

  17. Towards a Local-Scale Climate Service for Colombian Agriculture: Findings and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Prager, S.; Llanos, L.; Agudelo, D.; Esquivel, A.; Sotelo, S.; Guevara, E.; Howland, F. C.; Munoz, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Ordonez, L.; Fernandes, K.

    2017-12-01

    Globally, interannual climate variability explains roughly a third of the yield variation for major crops. In Colombia, interannual climate variations and specially those driven by ENSO can disrupt production, lower farmers' incomes and increase market prices for both urban and rural consumers alike. Farmers in Colombia, however, often plan for the cropping season based on the immediately prior year's experience, which is unlikely to result in successful crops under high climate variability events. Critical decisions for avoiding total investment loss or to ensure successful harvests, including issues related to planting date, what variety to plant, or whether to plant, are made, at best, intuitively. Here, we demonstrate that the combination of better data, skillful seasonal climate forecasts, calibrated crop models, and a web-based climate services platform tailored to users' needs can prove successful in establishing a sustained climate service for agriculture. Rainfall predictability analyses indicate that statistical seasonal climate forecasts are skillful enough for issuing forecasts reliably in virtually all areas, with dry periods generally showing greater predictability than wet periods. Importantly, we find that a better specification of predictor regions significantly enhances seasonal forecast skill. Rice and maize crop models capture well the growth and development of rice and maize crops in experimental settings, and ably simulate historical (1980-2014) variations in productivity. With skillful climate and crop models, we developed a climate services platform that produces seasonal climate forecasts, and connects these with crop models. A usability study of the forecast platform revealed that, from a population of ca. 200 farmers and professionals, roughly two thirds correctly interpreted information and felt both confident and encouraged to use the platform. Nevertheless, capacity strengthening on key agro-climatology concepts was highlighted by

  18. Challenges to the Transdisciplinarity of Climate Services: A Coffee Farming Case from Jamaica's Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Climate information is heralded as helping to build adaptive capacity, improve resource management, and contribute to more effective risk management. However, decision makers often find it challenging to use climate information for reasons attributed to a disconnect between technical experts who produce the information and end users. Consequently, many climate service projects are now applying an end-to-end approach that links information users and producers in the design, development, and delivery of services. This collaboration confronts obstacles that can undermine the objectives of the project. Despite this, few studies in the burgeoning field of climate services have assessed the challenges. To address this gap, I provide a reflective account and analysis of the collaborative challenges experienced in an ongoing, complex four-year project developing climate services for small-scale coffee producers in Jamaica. The project has involved diverse activities, including social data collection, research and development of information tools, periodic engagement with coffee sector representatives, and community-based trainings. Contributions to the project were made routinely by 18 individuals who represent 9 institutions located in three countries. These individuals work for academic and governmental organizations and bring expertise in anthropology, plant pathology, and climatology, among others. In spanning diverse disciplines, large geographic distances, and different cultures, the project team has navigated challenges in communication, problem framing, organizational agendas, disciplinary integration, and project management. I contextualize these experiences within research on transdisciplinary and team science, and share some perspectives on strategies to lessen their impact.

  19. Integrated web system of geospatial data services for climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okladnikov, Igor; Gordov, Evgeny; Titov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Georeferenced datasets are currently actively used for modeling, interpretation and forecasting of climatic and ecosystem changes on different spatial and temporal scales. Due to inherent heterogeneity of environmental datasets as well as their huge size (up to tens terabytes for a single dataset) a special software supporting studies in the climate and environmental change areas is required. An approach for integrated analysis of georefernced climatological data sets based on combination of web and GIS technologies in the framework of spatial data infrastructure paradigm is presented. According to this approach a dedicated data-processing web system for integrated analysis of heterogeneous georeferenced climatological and meteorological data is being developed. It is based on Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards and involves many modern solutions such as object-oriented programming model, modular composition, and JavaScript libraries based on GeoExt library, ExtJS Framework and OpenLayers software. This work is supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Agreement #14.613.21.0037.

  20. Effects of land use and climate change on ecosystem services in Central Asia's arid regions: A case study in Altay Prefecture, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Li, Bo; Hou, Ying; Bi, Xu; Zhang, Xinshi

    2017-12-31

    The sustainable use of ecosystem services (ES) can contribute to enhancing human well-being. Understanding the effects of land use and climate change on ES can provide scientific and targeted guidance for the sustainable use of ES. The objective of this study was to reveal the way in which land use and climate change influence the spatial and temporal variations of ES in the mountain-oasis-desert system (MODS). In this study, we assessed water yield, soil conservation, crop production, and sand fixation in 1990, 2000, and 2010 in Altay Prefecture, which is representative of the MODS, based on widely used biophysical models. Moreover, we analyzed the effects of different land use and climate change conditions on ES. The results show that the area of forest and bare land decreased in Altay Prefecture. In contrast, the area of grassland with low coverage and cropland increased. The climate of this area presented an overall warming-wetting trend, with warming-drying and cooling-wetting phenomena in some areas. Soil conservation in the mountain zone, water yield in the oasis zone, and sand fixation in the desert zone all decreased under the influence of land use change alone. The warming-drying trend led to decreased water yield in the oasis zone and increased wind erosion in the desert zone. Based on the results, we recommend that local governments achieve sustainable use of ES by planting grasslands with high coverage in the oasis zone, increasing investment in agricultural science and technology, and establishing protected areas in the mountain and desert zones. The methodology in our study can also be applied to other regions with a MODS structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementing climate change mitigation in health services: the importance of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Sharon

    2016-10-01

    Academic interest in strategies to reduce the impact of health services on climate change is quickening. Research has largely focused on local innovations with little consideration of the contextual and systemic elements that influence sustainable development across health systems. A realistic framework specifically to guide decision-making by health care providers is still needed. To address this deficit, the literature is explored in relation to health services and climate change mitigation strategies, and the contextual factors that influence efforts to mitigate climate effects in health service delivery environments are highlighted. A conceptual framework is proposed that offers a model for the pursuit of sustainable development practice in health services. A set of propositions is advanced to provide a systems approach to assist decision-making by decoding the challenges faced in implementing sustainable health services. This has important implications for health care providers, funders and legislators since the financial, policy and regulatory environment of health care, along with its leadership and models of care generally conflict with carbon literacy and climate change mitigation strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Weather, Climate, and Society: New Demands on Science and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A new algorithm has been constructed to estimate the path length of lightning channels for the purpose of improving the model predictions of lightning NOx in both regional air quality and global chemistry/climate models. This algorithm was tested and applied to VHF signals detected by the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The accuracy of the algorithm was characterized by comparing algorithm output to the plots of individual discharges whose lengths were computed by hand. Several thousands of lightning flashes within 120 km of the NALMA network centroid were gathered from all four seasons, and were analyzed by the algorithm. The mean, standard deviation, and median statistics were obtained for all the flashes, the ground flashes, and the cloud flashes. Channel length distributions were also obtained for the different seasons.

  3. How pre-service elementary teachers express emotions about climate change and related disciplinary ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Elizabeth J.

    As we face the challenges of serious environmental issues, science education has made a commitment to improving environmental literacy, in particular climate literacy (NRC, 2012; 2013). With an increased focus on climate change education in the United States, more research on the teaching and learning of this problem in science classrooms is occurring (e.g. Arslan, Cigdemoglu, & Moseley, 2012; Svihla & Linn, 2012). However, even though people experience a range of emotions about global problems like climate change (Hicks & Holden, 2007; Ojala, 2012; Rickinson, 2001), little attention is given to their emotions about the problem in science classrooms. Because emotions are evaluative (Boler, 1999; Keltner & Gross, 1999), they provided a lens for understanding how students engage personally with climate change. In this study, I drew from sociolinguistics, social psychology, and the sociology of emotions to examine a) the social interactions that allowed for emotional expressions to be constructed and b) the ways in which pre-service elementary teachers constructed emotional expressions about climate change in a science course. Three overall findings emerged: 1) emotions provided a means of understanding how students' conceptualized climate to be relevant to their lives, 2) emotional expressions and the aboutness of these expressions indicated that the students conceptualized climate change as distanced, both temporally and spatially, and 3) although most emotional constructions were distanced, there were multiple instances of emotional expressions in which students took climate change personally. Following a discussion of the findings, implications, limitations, and directions for future research are also described.

  4. [Emotional climate and internal communication in a clinical management unit compared with two traditional hospital services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E; Rubio, A; March, J C; Danet, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the emotional climate, quality of communication and performance indicators in a clinical management unit and two traditional hospital services. Quantitative study. questionnaire of 94 questions. 83 health professionals (63 responders) from the clinical management unit of breast pathology and the hospital services of medical oncology and radiation oncology. descriptive statistics, comparison of means, correlation and linear regression models. The clinical management unit reaches higher values compared with the hospital services about: performance indicators, emotional climate, internal communication and evaluation of the leadership. An important gap between existing and desired sources, channels, media and subjects of communication appear, in both clinical management unit and traditional services. The clinical management organization promotes better internal communication and interpersonal relations, leading to improved performance indicators. Copyright © 2011 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmhagen, Bodil; Destouni, Georgia; Angerbjörn, Anders; Borgström, Sara; Boyd, Emily; Cousins, Sara A.O.; Dalén, Love; Ehrlén, Johan; Ermold, Matti; Hambäck, Peter A.; Hedlund, Johanna; Hylander, Kristoffer; Jaramillo, Fernando; Lagerholm, Vendela K.; Lyon, Steve W.; Moor, Helen; Nykvist, Björn; Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne; Plue, Jan; Prieto, Carmen; van der Velde, Ype; Lindborg, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Human population growth and resource use, mediated by changes in climate, land use, and water use, increasingly impact biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. However, impacts of these drivers on biodiversity and ecosystem services are rarely analyzed simultaneously and remain largely

  6. eSACP - a new Nordic initiative towards developing statistical climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorarinsdottir, Thordis; Thejll, Peter; Drews, Martin; Guttorp, Peter; Venälainen, Ari; Uotila, Petteri; Benestad, Rasmus; Mesquita, Michel d. S.; Madsen, Henrik; Fox Maule, Cathrine

    2015-04-01

    The Nordic research council NordForsk has recently announced its support for a new 3-year research initiative on "statistical analysis of climate projections" (eSACP). eSACP will focus on developing e-science tools and services based on statistical analysis of climate projections for the purpose of helping decision-makers and planners in the face of expected future challenges in regional climate change. The motivation behind the project is the growing recognition in our society that forecasts of future climate change is associated with various sources of uncertainty, and that any long-term planning and decision-making dependent on a changing climate must account for this. At the same time there is an obvious gap between scientists from different fields and between practitioners in terms of understanding how climate information relates to different parts of the "uncertainty cascade". In eSACP we will develop generic e-science tools and statistical climate services to facilitate the use of climate projections by decision-makers and scientists from all fields for climate impact analyses and for the development of robust adaptation strategies, which properly (in a statistical sense) account for the inherent uncertainty. The new tool will be publically available and include functionality to utilize the extensive and dynamically growing repositories of data and use state-of-the-art statistical techniques to quantify the uncertainty and innovative approaches to visualize the results. Such a tool will not only be valuable for future assessments and underpin the development of dedicated climate services, but will also assist the scientific community in making more clearly its case on the consequences of our changing climate to policy makers and the general public. The eSACP project is led by Thordis Thorarinsdottir, Norwegian Computing Center, and also includes the Finnish Meteorological Institute, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, the Technical University of Denmark

  7. Supporting UK adaptation: building services for the next set of UK climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Fai; Lowe, Jason

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government sets out a national adaptation programme to address the risks and opportunities identified in a national climate change risk assessment (CCRA) every five years. The last risk assessment in 2012 was based on the probabilistic projections for the UK published in 2009 (UKCP09). The second risk assessment will also use information from UKCP09 alongside other evidence on climate projections. However, developments in the science of climate projeciton, and evolving user needs (based partly on what has been learnt about the diverse user requirements of the UK adaptation community from the seven years of delivering and managing UKCP09 products, market research and the peer-reviewed literature) suggest now is an appropriate time to update the projections and how they are delivered. A new set of UK climate projections are now being produced to upgrade UKCP09 to reflect the latest developments in climate science, the first phase of which will be delivered in 2018 to support the third CCRA. A major component of the work is the building of a tailored service to support users of the new projections during their development and to involve users in key decisions so that the projections are of most use. We will set out the plan for the new climate projections that seek to address the evolving user need. We will also present a framework which aims to (i) facilitate the dialogue between users, boundary organisations and producers, reflecting their different decision-making roles (ii) produce scientifically robust, user-relevant climate information (iii) provide the building blocks for developing further climate services to support adaptation activities in the UK.

  8. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  9. Vulnerability assessment and risk level of ecosystem services for climate change impacts and adaptation in the High-Atlas mountain of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messouli, Mohammed; Bounoua, Lahouari; Babqiqi, Abdelaziz; Ben Salem, Abdelkrim; Yacoubi-Khebiza, Mohammed

    2010-05-01

    Moroccan mountain biomes are considered endangered due to climate change that affects directly or indirectly different key features (biodiversity, snow cover, run-off processes, and water availability). The present article describes the strategy for achieving collaboration between natural and social scientists, stakeholders, decision-makers, and other societal groups, in order to carry out an integrated assessment of climate change in the High-Atlas Mountains of Morocco, with an emphasis on vulnerability and adaptation. We will use a robust statistical technique to dynamically downscale outputs from the IPCC climates models to the regional study area. Statistical downscaling provides a powerful method for deriving local-to-regional scale information on climate variables from large-scale climate model outputs. The SDSM will be used to produce the high resolution climate change scenarios from climate model outputs at low resolution. These data will be combined with socio-economic attributes such as the amount of water used for irrigation of agricultural lands, agricultural practices and phenology, cost of water delivery and non-market values of produced goods and services. This study, also analyzed spatial and temporal in land use/land cover changes (LUCC) in a typical watershed covering an area of 203 km2 by comparing classified satellite images from 1976, 1989 and 2000 coupled by GIS analyses and also investigated changes in the shape of land use patches over the period. The GIS-platform, which compiles gridded spatial and temporal information of environmental, socio-economic and biophysical data is used to map vulnerability assessment and risk levels over a wide region of Southern High-Atlas. For each scenario, we will derive and analyze near future (10-15 years) key climate indicators strongly related to sustainable management of ecosystem goods and services. Forest cover declined at an average rate of 0.35 ha per year due to timber extraction, cultivation

  10. Architecture of a spatial data service system for statistical analysis and visualization of regional climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, A. G.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Gordov, E. P.

    2017-11-01

    The use of large geospatial datasets in climate change studies requires the development of a set of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) elements, including geoprocessing and cartographical visualization web services. This paper presents the architecture of a geospatial OGC web service system as an integral part of a virtual research environment (VRE) general architecture for statistical processing and visualization of meteorological and climatic data. The architecture is a set of interconnected standalone SDI nodes with corresponding data storage systems. Each node runs a specialized software, such as a geoportal, cartographical web services (WMS/WFS), a metadata catalog, and a MySQL database of technical metadata describing geospatial datasets available for the node. It also contains geospatial data processing services (WPS) based on a modular computing backend realizing statistical processing functionality and, thus, providing analysis of large datasets with the results of visualization and export into files of standard formats (XML, binary, etc.). Some cartographical web services have been developed in a system’s prototype to provide capabilities to work with raster and vector geospatial data based on OGC web services. The distributed architecture presented allows easy addition of new nodes, computing and data storage systems, and provides a solid computational infrastructure for regional climate change studies based on modern Web and GIS technologies.

  11. Developing a robust methodology for assessing the value of weather/climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijnen, Justin; Golding, Nicola; Buontempo, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Increasingly, scientists involved in providing weather and climate services are expected to demonstrate the value of their work for end users in order to justify the costs of developing and delivering these services. This talk will outline different approaches that can be used to assess the socio-economic benefits of weather and climate services, including, among others, willingness to pay and avoided costs. The advantages and limitations of these methods will be discussed and relevant case-studies will be used to illustrate each approach. The choice of valuation method may be influenced by different factors, such as resource and time constraints and the end purposes of the study. In addition, there are important methodological differences which will affect the value assessed. For instance the ultimate value of a weather/climate forecast to a decision-maker will not only depend on forecast accuracy but also on other factors, such as how the forecast is communicated to and consequently interpreted by the end-user. Thus, excluding these additional factors may result in inaccurate socio-economic value estimates. In order to reduce the inaccuracies in this valuation process we propose an approach that assesses how the initial weather/climate forecast information can be incorporated within the value chain of a given sector, taking into account value gains and losses at each stage of the delivery process. By this we aim to more accurately depict the socio-economic benefits of a weather/climate forecast to decision-makers.

  12. Divergence of ecosystem services in U.S. National Forests and Grasslands under a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai; Sun, Ge; Sun, Shanlei; Caldwell, Peter V; Cohen, Erika C; McNulty, Steven G; Aldridge, Heather D; Zhang, Yang

    2016-04-21

    The 170 National Forests and Grasslands (NFs) in the conterminous United States are public lands that provide important ecosystem services such as clean water and timber supply to the American people. This study investigates the potential impacts of climate change on two key ecosystem functions (i.e., water yield and ecosystem productivity) using the most recent climate projections derived from 20 Global Climate Models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that future climate change may result in a significant reduction in water yield but an increase in ecosystem productivity in NFs. On average, gross ecosystem productivity is projected to increase by 76 ~ 229 g C m(-2) yr(-1) (8% ~ 24%) while water yield is projected to decrease by 18 ~ 31 mm yr(-1) (4% ~ 7%) by 2100 as a result of the combination of increased air temperature (+1.8 ~ +5.2 °C) and precipitation (+17 ~ +51 mm yr(-1)). The notable divergence in ecosystem services of water supply and carbon sequestration is expected to intensify under higher greenhouse gas emission and associated climate change in the future, posing greater challenges to managing NFs for both ecosystem services.

  13. Social justice in climate services: Engaging African American farmers in the American South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Furman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to efforts to develop more inclusive climate services, understood as institutional arrangements and processes that generate and disseminate science-based climate information to promote improved preparedness to climate impacts. Discussion on equity in climate services tends to focus on the specific challenges of women and the poor in developing countries. We seek to broaden this scope by considering a farming population in the southern United States, whose particular circumstances are shaped by rural poverty as well as by racial discrimination, namely African American farmers. The research is based on a phone survey, in-depth interviews, and a workshop, and was conducted in collaboration with a civil right organization that helped the research team gain trust and entry to this community. The findings show that farmers in this study are vulnerable to drought given their relatively limited access to resources and risk management mechanisms. Climate forecasts can help these farmers move from coping strategies to deal with the effects of climate anomalies to proactive planning to anticipate and mitigate those effects. Research participants were able to identify a range of options for using such information in risk management decisions. Provision of climate services to African American farmers, however, must be consistent with existing patterns of knowledge management. These patterns are shaped by major trends stemming from the transformation of rural Southern life. Social networks of mutual assistance and knowledge transmission have been eroded by the outmigration of African American farmers from rural areas. Additionally, their relationship with public agencies is marred by a legacy of racial inequities, which makes it difficult for well-meaning projects involving the same agencies to establish legitimacy in this community. We discuss how insights from research findings and research process have guided programmatic efforts

  14. The USA-National Phenology Network Biophysical Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losleben, M. V.; Crimmins, T. M.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    On January 1, 2009, the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) launched the USA-NPN Biophysical Program. The overarching goal of the Biophysical Program (BP) is to link phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, with climate through the integration of phenology observations, meteorological, and spectral remote sensing measurements at sites across a broad a spectrum of environments. Phenology is critical for understanding a changing world. Many of the recurring plant and animal life cycle stages such as leafing and flowering of plants, maturation of agricultural crops, emergence of insects, and migration of birds are sensitive to climatic variation and change, and are simple to observe and record. Such changes can effect, for example, timing mismatches between the emergence of food sources and the arrival of migrating populations, or create new disease and invasive species vectors via increasingly suitable growing seasons relative to the climatic life cycle requirements of hosts or the organisms themselves. New vectors or crashing populations can have major repercussions on entire ecosystems and regional economics. Thus, to track phenology and build a national database, the USA-NPN is providing standard phenology monitoring protocols. Further, the integration of weather stations with phenological data provides an opportunity to understand how a changing climate is altering phenology. Thus, the USA-NPN Biophysical Program is developing an integrative biology-climate site template for widespread dissemination, in collaboration with the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (RMBL, http://rmbl.org/rockymountainbiolab/). This poster presents the USA-NPN Biophysical Program, and the results of the collaboration with RMBL during the summer of 2009, including the installation of an elevational network of climate stations. The National Science Foundation’s Major Research Instrumentation (NSF’s MRI) program provides funding

  15. Measurement of social climate within neurobehavioural rehabilitation services using the EssenCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Nick; Groucott, Les

    2012-01-01

    In forensic mental health settings, quality of social climates is associated with a range of therapeutic assets. An essential characteristic of neurobehavioural rehabilitation services is provision of an enriched environment which reverses contingencies that maintain challenging behaviour. The concept of social climate is therefore equally important to these services. Criticisms of existing measures of social climate led to development of the EssenCES. This was initially validated in German forensic mental hospitals, and subsequently an English translation in equivalent UK services. To determine if EssenCES can be used to measure social climate in neurobehavioural rehabilitation units, responses from 114 staff and patients were analysed using statistical methods from classical test theory. Results were similar to those obtained previously. Rasch analysis was also used to test the assumption that EssenCES comprises a true interval-scale measurement tool. Item-person misfit, erratic responding, redundant response categories and disordered thresholds undermined this assumption. Rating scale recalibration, item reduction, and removing respondents who continued to demonstrate poor fit resulted in a measure with good internal construct validity but questionable external construct validity. Relative merits of modifying EssenCES for use with patients with cognitive impairment versus designing a measure conceptualised for use in neurobehavioural rehabilitation services are discussed.

  16. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC): Linking Climate Literacy, Resilience Thinking and Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, B. F.; Fano, E.; Adams, J.; Shon, L.; Zimmermann, A.; Sioux, H.; Gillis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Public schools and youth voices are largely absent from climate resilience planning and projects in New York City. Additionally, research shows that U.S. science teachers' understanding of climate science is lacking, hence there is not only an urgent need to train and support teachers on both the science and pedagogy of climate change, but to link climate literacy, resilience thinking and service learning in K-12 education. However, research on participation of students and teachers in authentic, civic-oriented experiences points to increased engagement and learning outcomes in science. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC) Project will address all these needs through an afterschool program in six coastal Brooklyn schools that engages teachers and urban youth (grades 6-12), in school and community climate resilience assessment and project design. The RiSC climate curriculum, co-designed by New York City school teachers with Brooklyn College, the National Wildlife Federation, New York Sea Grant and the Science and Resilience Institute at Jamaica Bay, will begin by helping students to understand the difference between climate and weather. The curriculum makes extensive use of existing resources such as NOAA's Digital Coast and the Coastal Resilience Mapping Portal. Through a series of four modules over two school years, the six RiSC teams will; 1. explore and understand the human-induced drivers of climate change and, particularly, the significant climate and extreme weather related risks to their schools and surrounding communities; 2. complete a climate vulnerability assessment within the school and the community that is aligned to OneNYC - the city's resilience planning document; 3. design and execute a school-based resilience project; and 4. propose resilience guidelines for NYC Department of Education schools. At the end of each school year, the six RiSC teams will convene a RiSC summit with city officials and resilience practitioners to share ideas and

  17. Preparing rural general practitioners and health services for climate change and extreme weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rachael; McGirr, Joe

    2014-02-01

    To determine the knowledge and recommendations of rural general practitioners (GPs) in regard to climate change and the preparedness of rural health services for its health impacts. A quantitative descriptive survey distributed in paper-based or electronic form. Rural Southwest of New South Wales. GPs and GP registrars working in Rural Remote Metropolitan Areas (RRMA) 3-7. Questionnaire responses analysed with descriptive statistics and inferential tests. While the majority of respondents agreed with statements supporting climate science and the impact of climate change on health, between 24% and 34% of respondents were unsure or did not agree. Furthermore, between 33% and 44% of GP respondents working in RRMA 5-7 were unsure or did not agree that their health service had the capacity to provide an initial response to an extreme weather event (P = 0.01). Strengthening health service acute disaster capacity response was a preferred adaptation strategy for improving health service preparedness of 61% of participants. A greater proportion of GPs were supportive of their role as advocates on general health issues (80%) compared with extreme weather events (60%) or climate change and health (63.5%) (P ≤ 0.01). For professional development and education, 71% preferred a locally based workshop or seminar. The study highlights the need to consider closely the views of GPs when preparing rural communities for the possible health effects of climate change. Findings indicate concern for health service preparedness, particularly in smaller rural communities. Further development of disaster response planning and communication is needed. © 2014 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  18. Integrated Molecular and Cellular Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Raicu, Valerica

    2008-01-01

    This book integrates concepts and methods from physics, biology, biochemistry and physical chemistry into a standalone, unitary text of biophysics that aims to provide a quantitative description of structures and processes occurring in living matter. The book introduces graduate physics students and physicists interested in biophysics research to 'classical' as well as emerging areas of biophysics. The advanced undergraduate physics students and the life scientists are also invited to join in, by building on their knowledge of basic physics. Essential notions of biochemistry and biology are introduced, as necessary, throughout the book, while the reader's familiarity with basic knowledge of physics is assumed. Topics covered include interactions between biological molecules, physical chemistry of phospholipids association into bilayer membranes, DNA and protein structure and folding, passive and active electrical properties of the cell membrane, classical as well as fractal aspects of reaction kinetics and di...

  19. Web processing service for climate impact and extreme weather event analyses. Flyingpigeon (Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Nils; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Alvarez-Castro, Carmen; Brockmann, Patrick; Falk, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Jörg; Kindermann, Stephan; Koziol, Ben; Nangini, Cathy; Radanovics, Sabine; Vautard, Robert; Yiou, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Analyses of extreme weather events and their impacts often requires big data processing of ensembles of climate model simulations. Researchers generally proceed by downloading the data from the providers and processing the data files ;at home; with their own analysis processes. However, the growing amount of available climate model and observation data makes this procedure quite awkward. In addition, data processing knowledge is kept local, instead of being consolidated into a common resource of reusable code. These drawbacks can be mitigated by using a web processing service (WPS). A WPS hosts services such as data analysis processes that are accessible over the web, and can be installed close to the data archives. We developed a WPS named 'flyingpigeon' that communicates over an HTTP network protocol based on standards defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), to be used by climatologists and impact modelers as a tool for analyzing large datasets remotely. Here, we present the current processes we developed in flyingpigeon relating to commonly-used processes (preprocessing steps, spatial subsets at continent, country or region level, and climate indices) as well as methods for specific climate data analysis (weather regimes, analogues of circulation, segetal flora distribution, and species distribution models). We also developed a novel, browser-based interactive data visualization for circulation analogues, illustrating the flexibility of WPS in designing custom outputs. Bringing the software to the data instead of transferring the data to the code is becoming increasingly necessary, especially with the upcoming massive climate datasets.

  20. In Pursuit of a Multi-lateral Dialogue - the Swiss National Centre for Climate Services (NCCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiko Hama, Angela; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Liniger, Mark; Schwierz, Cornelia; Stöckli, Reto; Fischer, Andreas; Gubler, Stefanie; Kotlarski, Sven; Rossa, Andrea; Zubler, Elias; Appenzeller, Christof

    2017-04-01

    Kick-starting, fostering and maintaining a dialogue between primarily public and academic actors involved in the co-design, co-delivery and use of climate services is at the core of Switzerland's National Centre for Climate Services (NCCS), which was founded in late 2015 in recognition of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). This coordination and innovation mechanism is a concerted national effort comprised of seven Federal Agencies and Institutes and further partners from academia committed to implementing the Framework at national to subnational level and creating synergies the world over. The NCCS is to be regarded as vital alongside the Swiss National Adaptation Strategy, and it also contributes to putting words into action with respect to the UN's Sustainable Development Goals, the UNFCCC and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. The services of the Centre provide information to support policy-makers from national to local level as well as the private sector and society at large in minimising their risks, maximising opportunities and optimising costs in the context of climate change and variability. They are indispensable for setting effective mitigation and adaptation measures and for instigating societal transformation. Hence, the goals of the NCCS are to bundle the existing climate services of the Swiss Federation, co-create new tailored solutions with users, act as a network agent and knowledge broker - to boost climate literacy and enable climate-sensitive decision-making leading to increased resilience. The services reflect the specificities and requirements of the Alpine region and its particular challenges and vulnerabilities. Pursuing a participatory approach, the NCCS has brought together essential key players, acted as a sounding board for governmental stakeholders and their needs, and accordingly defined and populated six priority themes in line with the priority areas of the GFCS. These themes are: natural hazards, health

  1. The economic value of the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil Costa, Marcos; Pires, Gabrielle; Fontes, Vitor; Brumatti, Livia

    2017-04-01

    The rainy Amazon climate allowed important activities to develop in the region as large rainfed agricultural lands and hydropower plants. The Amazon rainforest is an important source of moisture to the regional atmosphere and helps regulate the local climate. The replacement of forest by agricultural lands decreases the flux of water vapor into the atmosphere and changes the precipitation patterns, which may severely affect such economic activities. Assign an economic value to this ecosystem service may emphasize the significance to preserve the Amazon rainforest. In this work, we provide a first approximation of the quantification of the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by the Amazon rainforest using the marginal production method. We use climate scenarios derived from Amazon deforestation scenarios as input to crop and runoff models to assess how land use change would affect agriculture and hydropower generation. The effects of forest removal on soybean production and on cattle beef production can both be as high as US 16 per year per ha deforested, and the effects on hydropower generation can be as high as US 8 per year per ha deforested. We consider this as a conservative estimate of a permanent service provided by the rainforest. Policy makers and other Amazon agriculture and energy businesses must be aware of these numbers, and consider them while planning their activities.

  2. Payments for Ecosystem Services in the Context of Adaptation to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel van de Sand

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of payments for ecosystem services (PES has recently emerged as a promising tool for enhancing or safeguarding the provision of ecosystem services (ES. Although the concept has been extensively scrutinized in terms of its potential positive and negative impacts on the poor in developing countries, less attention has been paid to examining the role of PES in the context of adaptation to climate change. PES has some potential to contribute to adaptation to climate change, but there are also risks that it could undermine adaptation efforts. In order to maximize synergies and minimize trade-offs between PES and adaptation, it is important that the conceptual links between both are made explicit. The present article presents the main conceptual links between PES and adaptation to climate change and suggests ways of making PES pro-poor and pro-adaptation. Drawing upon the concepts of vulnerability, adaptive capacity, and socioecological systems, it is suggested that PES can potentially contribute to adaptation in three main ways: through enhancements in the provision of ecosystem services, by enhancing adaptive capacity in the way PES is designed and implemented, and by providing an incentive mechanism to adopt specific measures for adaptation to climate change. Reflecting on the lessons from the PES and poverty literature, the article suggests ways to make PES pro-poor and pro-adaptation and concludes with further research needs in this area.

  3. The Vulnerability, Impacts, Adaptation and Climate Services Advisory Board (VIACS AB V1.0) Contribution to CMIP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Teichmann, Claas; Arnell, Nigel W.; Carter, Timothy R.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Frieler, Katja; Goodess, Clare M.; Hewitson, Bruce; Horton, Radley; Kovats, R. Sari; hide

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the motivation for the creation of the Vulnerability, Impacts, Adaptation and Climate Services (VIACS) Advisory Board for the Sixth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6), its initial activities, and its plans to serve as a bridge between climate change applications experts and climate modelers. The climate change application community comprises researchers and other specialists who use climate information (alongside socioeconomic and other environmental information) to analyze vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation of natural systems and society in relation to past, ongoing, and projected future climate change. Much of this activity is directed toward the co-development of information needed by decisionmakers for managing projected risks. CMIP6 provides a unique opportunity to facilitate a two-way dialog between climate modelers and VIACS experts who are looking to apply CMIP6 results for a wide array of research and climate services objectives. The VIACS Advisory Board convenes leaders of major impact sectors, international programs, and climate services to solicit community feedback that increases the applications relevance of the CMIP6-Endorsed Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs). As an illustration of its potential, the VIACS community provided CMIP6 leadership with a list of prioritized climate model variables and MIP experiments of the greatest interest to the climate model applications community, indicating the applicability and societal relevance of climate model simulation outputs. The VIACS Advisory Board also recommended an impacts version of Obs4MIPs (observational datasets) and indicated user needs for the gridding and processing of model output.

  4. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with the design and measurement of physical parameters used in theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and uses the theoretical developments for experimental design, and provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  5. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with design and measurement of those physical parameters used in the theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and makes use of the theoretical developments for experimental design. Also, this program provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  6. The biophysics of neuronal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franze, Kristian; Guck, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    For a long time, neuroscience has focused on biochemical, molecular biological and electrophysiological aspects of neuronal physiology and pathology. However, there is a growing body of evidence indicating the importance of physical stimuli for neuronal growth and development. In this review we briefly summarize the historical background of neurobiophysics and give an overview over the current understanding of neuronal growth from a physics perspective. We show how biophysics has so far contributed to a better understanding of neuronal growth and discuss current inconsistencies. Finally, we speculate how biophysics may contribute to the successful treatment of lesions to the central nervous system, which have been considered incurable until very recently.

  7. Pre-service teacher professional development on climate change: Assessment of workshop success and influence of prior knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, D. E.; Ad-Marbach, G.; Fox-Lykens, R.; Ozbay, G.; Sezen-Barrie, A.; Wolfson, J.

    2017-12-01

    As states move to adopt the next generation science standards, in-service teachers are being provided with professional development that introduces climate change content and best practices for teaching climate change in the classroom. However, research has shown that it is challenging to bring this information into the higher education curriculum in education courses for pre-service teachers due to curricular and programming constraints. Over two years, the Maryland and Delaware Climate Change Assessment and Research (MADE-CLEAR) project explored a professional development approach for pre-service teachers which employed paired workshops that resulted in participant-developed lesson plans based on climate change content. The workshops were designed to provide pre-service teachers with climate change content related to the carbon cycle and to model a variety of techniques and activities for presenting this information in the classroom. Lesson plans were developed between the first and second workshop, presented at the second workshop and discussed with peers and in-service teachers, and then revised in response to feedback from the second workshop. Participant climate change content knowledge was assessed before the first workshop, and after the final revision of the lesson plan was submitted to the MADE-CLEAR team. Climate content knowledge was also assessed using the same survey for additional pre-service teacher groups who did not participate in the professional development. Results show that while the paired workshop approach increased climate content knowledge, the amount of improvement varied depending on the participants' prior knowledge in climate change content. In addition, some alternate conceptions of climate change were not altered by participant involvement in the professional development approach. Revised lesson plans showed understanding of underlying climate change impacts and demonstrated awareness of appropriate techniques for introducing this

  8. Challenges for Ecosystem Services Provided by Coral Reefs In the Face of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, R. K.; Elliff, C. I.

    2014-12-01

    Coral reefs provide many ecosystem services of which coastal populations are especially dependent upon, both in cases of extreme events and in daily life. However, adaptation to climate change is still relatively unknown territory regarding the ecosystem services provided by coastal environments, such as coral reefs. Management strategies usually consider climate change as a distant issue and rarely include ecosystem services in decision-making. Coral reefs are among the most vulnerable environments to climate change, considering the impact that increased ocean temperature and acidity have on the organisms that compose this ecosystem. If no actions are taken, the most likely scenario to occur will be of extreme decline in the ecosystem services provided by coral reefs. Loss of biodiversity due to the pressures of ocean warming and acidification will lead to increased price of seafood products, negative impact on food security, and ecological imbalances. Also, sea-level rise and fragile structures due to carbonate dissolution will increase vulnerability to storms, which can lead to shoreline erosion and ultimately threaten coastal communities. Both these conditions will undoubtedly affect recreation and tourism, which are often the most important use values in the case of coral reef systems. Adaptation strategies to climate change must take on an ecosystem-based approach with continuous monitoring programs, so that multiple ecosystem services are considered and not only retrospective trends are analyzed. Brazilian coral reefs have been monitored on a regular basis since 2000 and, considering that these marginal coral reefs of the eastern Atlantic are naturally under stressful conditions (e.g. high sedimentation rates), inshore reefs of Brazil, such as those in Tinharé-Boipeba, have shown lower vitality rates due to greater impacts from the proximity to the coastal area (e.g. pollution, overfishing, sediment run-off). This chronic negative impact must be addressed

  9. Climate-dependence of ecosystem services in a nature reserve in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiaohui; Song, Huali; Zhang, Yiran; Li, Yanran; Liu, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of ecosystem services has become a hotspot in terms of research focus, but uncertainties over appropriate methods remain. Evaluation can be based on the unit price of services (services value method) or the unit price of the area (area value method). The former takes meteorological factors into account, while the latter does not. This study uses Kunyu Mountain Nature Reserve as a study site at which to test the effects of climate on the ecosystem services. Measured data and remote sensing imagery processed in a geographic information system were combined to evaluate gas regulation and soil conservation, and the influence of meteorological factors on ecosystem services. Results were used to analyze the appropriateness of the area value method. Our results show that the value of ecosystem services is significantly affected by meteorological factors, especially precipitation. Use of the area value method (which ignores the impacts of meteorological factors) could considerably impede the accuracy of ecosystem services evaluation. Results were also compared with the valuation obtained using the modified equivalent value factor (MEVF) method, which is a modified area value method that considers changes in meteorological conditions. We found that MEVF still underestimates the value of ecosystem services, although it can reflect to some extent the annual variation in meteorological factors. Our findings contribute to increasing the accuracy of evaluation of ecosystem services.

  10. Biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hanes, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Including an introduction and historical overview of the field, this comprehensive synthesis of the major biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing includes in-depth discussion of satellite-sourced biophysical metrics such as leaf area index.

  11. Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Jue, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    HANDBOOK OF MODERN BIOPHYSICS Series Editor Thomas Jue, PhD Handbook of Modern Biophysics brings current biophysics topics into focus, so that biology, medical, engineering, mathematics, and physical-science students or researchers can learn fundamental concepts and the application of new techniques in addressing biomedical challenges. Chapters explicate the conceptual framework of the physics formalism and illustrate the biomedical applications. With the addition of problem sets, guides to further study, and references, the interested reader can continue to explore independently the ideas presented. Volume I: Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics Editor Thomas Jue, PhD In Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics, prominent professors have established a foundation for the study of biophysics related to the following topics: Mathematical Methods in Biophysics Quantum Mechanics Basic to Biophysical Methods Computational Modeling of Receptor–Ligand Binding and Cellular Signaling Processes Fluorescence Spectroscopy Elec...

  12. Towards the Goal of Modular Climate Data Services: An Overview of NCPP Applications and Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, B. W.; Cinquini, L.; Treshansky, A.; Murphy, S.; DeLuca, C.

    2013-12-01

    In August 2013, the National Climate Predictions and Projections Platform (NCPP) organized a workshop focusing on the quantitative evaluation of downscaled climate data products (QED-2013). The QED-2013 workshop focused on real-world application problems drawn from several sectors (e.g. hydrology, ecology, environmental health, agriculture), and required that downscaled downscaled data products be dynamically accessed, generated, manipulated, annotated, and evaluated. The cyberinfrastructure elements that were integrated to support the workshop included (1) a wiki-based project hosting environment (Earth System CoG) with an interface to data services provided by an Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) data node; (2) metadata tools provided by the Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) collaboration; and (3) a Python-based library OpenClimateGIS (OCGIS) for subsetting and converting NetCDF-based climate data to GIS and tabular formats. Collectively, this toolset represents a first deployment of a 'ClimateTranslator' that enables users to access, interpret, and apply climate information at local and regional scales. This presentation will provide an overview of these components above, how they were used in the workshop, and discussion of current and potential integration. The long-term strategy for this software stack is to offer the suite of services described on a customizable, per-project basis. Additional detail on the three components is below. (1) Earth System CoG is a web-based collaboration environment that integrates data discovery and access services with tools for supporting governance and the organization of information. QED-2013 utilized these capabilities to share with workshop participants a suite of downscaled datasets, associated images derived from those datasets, and metadata files describing the downscaling techniques involved. The collaboration side of CoG was used for workshop organization, discussion, and results. (2) The ES-DOC Questionnaire

  13. Understanding and Managing the Effects of Climate Change on Ecosystem Services in the Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Halofsky

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Public lands in the US Rocky Mountains provide critical ecosystem services, especially to rural communities that rely on these lands for fuel, food, water, and recreation. Climate change will likely affect the ability of these lands to provide ecosystem services. We describe 2 efforts to assess climate change vulnerabilities and develop adaptation options on federal lands in the Rocky Mountains. We specifically focus on aspects that affect community economic security and livelihood security, including water quality and quantity, timber, livestock grazing, and recreation. Headwaters of the Rocky Mountains serve as the primary source of water for large populations, and these headwaters are located primarily on public land. Thus, federal agencies will play a key role in helping to protect water quantity and quality by promoting watershed function and water conservation. Although increased temperatures and atmospheric concentration of CO2 have the potential to increase timber and forage production in the Rocky Mountains, those gains may be offset by wildfires, droughts, insect outbreaks, non-native species, and altered species composition. Our assessment identified ways in which federal land managers can help sustain forest and range productivity, primarily by increasing ecosystem resilience and minimizing current stressors, such as invasive species. Climate change will likely increase recreation participation. However, recreation managers will need more flexibility to adjust practices, provide recreation opportunities, and sustain economic benefits to communities. Federal agencies are now transitioning from the planning phase of climate change adaptation to implementation to ensure that ecosystem services will continue to be provided from federal lands in a changing climate.

  14. Sensor Observation Service API for Providing Gridded Climate Data to Agricultural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassarin Chinnachodteeranun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We developed a mechanism for seamlessly providing weather data and long-term historical climate data from a gridded data source through an international standard web API, which was the Sensor Observation Service (SOS defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC. The National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO Japan has been providing gridded climate data consisting of nine daily meteorological variables, which are average, minimum, maximum of air temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, solar radiant exposure, downward longwave radiation, precipitation and wind speed for 35 years covering Japan. The gridded data structure is quite useful for spatial analysis, such as developing crop suitability maps and monitoring regional crop development. Individual farmers, however, make decisions using historical climate information and forecasts for an incoming cropping season of their farms. In this regard, climate data at a point-based structure are convenient for application development to support farmers’ decisions. Through the proposed mechanism in this paper, the agricultural applications and analysis can request point-based climate data from a gridded data source through the standard API with no need to deal with the complicated hierarchical data structure of the gridded climate data source. Clients can easily obtain data and metadata by only accessing the service endpoint. The mechanism also provides several web bindings and data encodings for the clients’ convenience. Caching, including the pre-caching mechanism, was developed and evaluated to secure an effective response time. The mechanism enhances the accessibility and usability of the gridded weather data source, as well as SOS API for agricultural applications.

  15. The Virtual Climate Data Server (vCDS): An iRODS-Based Data Management Software Appliance Supporting Climate Data Services and Virtualization-as-a-Service in the NASA Center for Climate Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John L.; Tamkin, Glenn S.; Ripley, W. David III; Stong, Savannah; Gill, Roger; Duffy, Daniel Q.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific data services are becoming an important part of the NASA Center for Climate Simulation's mission. Our technological response to this expanding role is built around the concept of a Virtual Climate Data Server (vCDS), repetitive provisioning, image-based deployment and distribution, and virtualization-as-a-service. The vCDS is an iRODS-based data server specialized to the needs of a particular data-centric application. We use RPM scripts to build vCDS images in our local computing environment, our local Virtual Machine Environment, NASA s Nebula Cloud Services, and Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud. Once provisioned into one or more of these virtualized resource classes, vCDSs can use iRODS s federation capabilities to create an integrated ecosystem of managed collections that is scalable and adaptable to changing resource requirements. This approach enables platform- or software-asa- service deployment of vCDS and allows the NCCS to offer virtualization-as-a-service: a capacity to respond in an agile way to new customer requests for data services.

  16. Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: the mediation of service climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova, Marisa; Agut, Sonia; Peiró, José María

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the mediating role of service climate in the prediction of employee performance and customer loyalty. Contact employees (N=342) from 114 service units (58 hotel front desks and 56 restaurants) provided information about organizational resources, engagement, and service climate. Furthermore, customers (N=1,140) from these units provided information on employee performance and customer loyalty. Structural equation modeling analyses were consistent with a full mediation model in which organizational resources and work engagement predict service climate, which in turn predicts employee performance and then customer loyalty. Further analyses revealed a potential reciprocal effect between service climate and customer loyalty. Implications of the study are discussed, together with limitations and suggestions for future research. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Assessing ecosystem service provision under climate change to support conservation and development planning in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Stacie; Bhagabati, Nirmal; Helsingen, Hanna; Hamel, Perrine; Bartlett, Ryan; Dixon, Adam; Horton, Radley; Lesk, Corey; Manley, Danielle; De Mel, Manishka; Bader, Daniel; Nay Won Myint, Sai; Myint, Win; Su Mon, Myat

    2017-01-01

    Inclusion of ecosystem services (ES) information into national-scale development and climate adaptation planning has yet to become common practice, despite demand from decision makers. Identifying where ES originate and to whom the benefits flow–under current and future climate conditions–is especially critical in rapidly developing countries, where the risk of ES loss is high. Here, using Myanmar as a case study, we assess where and how ecosystems provide key benefits to the country’s people and infrastructure. We model the supply of and demand for sediment retention, dry-season baseflows, flood risk reduction and coastal storm protection from multiple beneficiaries. We find that locations currently providing the greatest amount of services are likely to remain important under the range of climate conditions considered, demonstrating their importance in planning for climate resilience. Overlap between priority areas for ES provision and biodiversity conservation is higher than expected by chance overall, but the areas important for multiple ES are underrepresented in currently designated protected areas and Key Biodiversity Areas. Our results are contributing to development planning in Myanmar, and our approach could be extended to other contexts where there is demand for national-scale natural capital information to shape development plans and policies. PMID:28934282

  18. Assessing Ecosystem Service Provision Under Climate Change to Support Conservation and Development Planning in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandle, Lisa; Wolny, Stacie; Bhagabati, Nirmal; Helsingen, Hanna; Hamel, Perrine; Bartlett, Ryan; Dixon, Adam; Horton, Radley M.; Lesk, Corey; Manley, Danielle; hide

    2017-01-01

    Inclusion of ecosystem services (ES) information into national-scale development and climate adaptation planning has yet to become common practice, despite demand from decision makers. Identifying where ES originate and to whom the benefits flowunder current and future climate conditionsis especially critical in rapidly developing countries, where the risk of ES loss is high. Here, using Myanmar as a case study, we assess where and how ecosystems provide key benefits to the countrys people and infrastructure. We model the supply of and demand for sediment retention, dry-season baseflows, flood risk reduction and coastal storm protection from multiple beneficiaries. We find that locations currently providing the greatest amount of services are likely to remain important under the range of climate conditions considered, demonstrating their importance in planning for climate resilience. Overlap between priority areas for ES provision and biodiversity conservation is higher than expected by chance overall, but the areas important for multiple ES are underrepresented in currently designated protected areas and Key Biodiversity Areas. Our results are contributing to development planning in Myanmar, and our approach could be extended to other contexts where there is demand for national-scale natural capital information to shape development plans and policies

  19. Resilience of urban ambulance services under future climate, meteorology and air pollution scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Francis; Chapman, Lee; Fisher, Paul; Mahmood, Marliyyah; Sangkharat, Kamolrat; Thomas, Neil; Thornes, John

    2017-04-01

    Ambulances are an integral part of a country's infrastructure ensuring its citizens and visitors are kept healthy. The impact of weather, climate and climate change on ambulance services around the world has received increasing attention in recent years but most studies have been area specific and there is a need to establish basic relationships between ambulance data (both response and illness data) and meteorological parameters. In this presentation, the effects of temperature, other meteorological and air pollution variables on ambulance call out rates for different medical categories will be investigated. We use ambulance call out obtained from various ambulance services worldwide which have significantly different meteorologies, climatologies and pollution conditions. A time-series analysis is utilized to understand the relation between meteorological conditions, air pollutants and different call out categories. We will present findings that support the opinion that ambulance attendance call outs records are an effective and well-timed source of data and can be used for health early warning systems. Furthermore the presented results can much improve our understanding of the relationships between meteorology, climate, air pollution and human health thereby allowing for better prediction of ambulance use through the application of long and short-term weather, climate and pollution forecasts.

  20. Operational Production of the Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable as Part of the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerot, C.; Danckaert, T.; van Gent, J.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Loyola, D. G.; Errera, Q.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Garane, K.; Koukouli, M.; Balis, D.; Verhoelst, T.; Granville, J.; Lambert, J. C.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2017-12-01

    Total ozone is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) operationally produced within the European Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S), which aims at providing the geophysical information needed to monitor and study our climate system. The C3S total ozone processing chain relies on algorithmic developments realized for the last six years as part of the ESA's Ozone Climate Change Initiative (Ozone_cci) project. The C3S Climate Data Store currently contains a total ozone record based on observations from the nadir UV-Vis hyperspectral spectrometers GOME/ERS-2, SCIAMACHY/Envisat, GOME-2/Metop-A, GOME-2/Metop-B and OMI/Aura, spanning more than 23 years.Individual level-2 datasets were generated with the retrieval algorithm GODFIT (GOME-type Direct FITting). The retrievals are based on a non-linear least squares adjustment of reflectances simulated with radiative transfer tools from the LIDORT suite, to the measured spectra in the Huggins bands (325-335 nm). The inter-sensor consistency and the time stability of those data sets is significantly enhanced with the application of a soft-calibration procedure to the level-1 reflectances, in which GOME and OMI are used together as a long-term reference. Level-2 data sets are then combined to produce the level-3 GOME-type Total Ozone (GTO-ECV) record consisting of homogenized 1°x1° monthly mean grids. The merging procedure corrects for subsisting inter-satellite biases and temporal drifts. Some developments for minimizing sampling errors have also been recently investigated and will be discussed. Total ozone level-2 and level-3 data sets are regularly verified and validated by independent measurements both from space (independent algorithms and/or instruments) and ground (Brewer/Dobson/SAOZ) and their excellent quality and stability, as well as their consistency with other long-term total ozone data sets will be illustrated here. In future, in addition to be continuously extended in time, the C3S total ozone record

  1. Protecting climate with forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Robert B; Randerson, James T; Anderson, Ray G; Pataki, Diane E; Canadell, Josep G; Avissar, Roni; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Bonan, Gordon B; Caldeira, Ken; Field, Christopher B; Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Hungate, Bruce A; Jobbagy, Esteban G; Nosetto, Marcelo D; Kueppers, Lara M

    2008-01-01

    Policies for climate mitigation on land rarely acknowledge biophysical factors, such as reflectivity, evaporation, and surface roughness. Yet such factors can alter temperatures much more than carbon sequestration does, and often in a conflicting way. We outline a framework for examining biophysical factors in mitigation policies and provide some best-practice recommendations based on that framework. Tropical projects-avoided deforestation, forest restoration, and afforestation-provide the greatest climate value, because carbon storage and biophysics align to cool the Earth. In contrast, the climate benefits of carbon storage are often counteracted in boreal and other snow-covered regions, where darker trees trap more heat than snow does. Managers can increase the climate benefit of some forest projects by using more reflective and deciduous species and through urban forestry projects that reduce energy use. Ignoring biophysical interactions could result in millions of dollars being invested in some mitigation projects that provide little climate benefit or, worse, are counter-productive.

  2. Ecosystem services and climate change: Understanding the differences and identifying opportunities for forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Crystal Raymond; David L. Peterson; Cindy. Glick

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of misunderstandings about “ecosystem services” and “climate change” and these terms are often used incorrectly to describe different concepts. These concepts address different issues and objectives but have some important integrating themes relating to carbon and carbon sequestration. In this paper, we provide definitions and distinctions between...

  3. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: The case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesc Baró; Lydia Chaparro; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Johannes Langemeyer; David J. Nowak; Jaume. Terradas

    2014-01-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change...

  4. A Kaleidoscope of Understanding: Pre-service Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Climate Change Concepts and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhoe, D.; Bullock, S.; Hayhoe, K.

    2010-12-01

    Teachers are at the forefront of efforts to increase climate literacy; however, even teachers’ understanding can contain significant misconceptions. Probes aimed at capturing these misconceptions have been used with pre-service teachers in several countries. Here, we report on a unique 59-item questionnaire useful as a pre-post diagnostic for teacher training. Topics include Earth’s climate system, long-range climatic changes, recent changes, various gases and types of radiation involved in the greenhouse effect, future impacts of climate change, and mitigation options This questionnaire is unique in three ways: 1. the topics include climate change concepts not usually probed, 2. the questions have a binary-choice format that avoided both the “positive statement bias” of agree-disagree questions and the superfluous distractors of multiple-choice tests, and 3. the questionnaire was piloted with pre-service elementary teachers in Toronto, one of the most multicultural cities in the world. The questionnaire items were written for the Ontario curriculum (K-10); however, they also address almost all of the principles identified in Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. The questionnaire was completed by 89 volunteers from a pool of 280. Most had a substantial knowledge of climate change concepts, with 34 of the 59 questions being answered correctly by more than 60% of the subjects. The item discrimination of most questions was relatively low, however, and only a very few item pairs showed a significant correlation. This suggests that subjects’ knowledge consisted of a “kaleidoscope of understanding,” rather than a coherent picture. Significant misconceptions were also identified, with 18 of the 59 items being answered incorrectly by more than 60% of the subjects. Of these, 11 correspond to misconceptions previously noted, while 7 suggest new misconceptions not yet identified in studies done with students or teachers, such as the

  5. Refresher Course on Advances in Biophysics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Biophysics today uses concepts and methods from physics and chemistry to elucidate the workings of biological processes at molecular, cellular, and organismal level. This course will introduce teachers of biophysics in postgraduate courses to some of the recent advances in biophysical theory and techniques. The aim is ...

  6. Learning to love the rain in Bergen (Norway) and other lessons from a Climate Services neophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Wakker, Joyce

    2014-05-01

    A question that is often asked of regional climate modelers generally, and Climate Service providers specifically, is: "What is the added-value of regional climate simulations and how can I use this information?" The answer is, unsurprisingly, not straightforward and depends greatly on what one needs to know. In particular it is important for scientist to communicate directly with the users of this information to determine what kind of information is important for them to do their jobs. This study is part of the ECLISE project (Enabling Climate Information Services for Europe) and involves a user at the municipality of Bergen's (Norway) water and drainage administration and a provider from Uni Research and the Bjerknes Center for Climate Research. The water and drain administration is responsible for communicating potential future changes in extreme precipitation, particularly short-term high-intensity rainfall, which is common in Bergen and making recommendations to the engineering department for changes in design criteria. Thus, information that enables better decision-making is crucial. This study then actually has two relevant components for climate services: 1) is a scientific exercise to evaluate the performance of high resolution regional climate simulations and their ability to reproduce high intensity short duration precipitation and 2) an exercise in communication between a provider community and user community with different concerns, mandates, methodological approaches and even vocabularies. A set of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations was run at high resolution (8km) over a large domain covering much of Scandinavia and Northern Europe. One simulation was driven by so-called "perfect" boundary conditions taken from reanalysis data (ERA-interim, 1989-2010) the second and third simulations used Norway's global climate model as boundary forcing (NorESM) and were run for a historical period (1950-2005) and a 30yr. end of the century time

  7. Localizing drought monitoring products to support agricultural climate service advisories in South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamer, F. M.; Matin, M. A.; Yadav, N. K.; Bajracharya, B.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Krupnik, T. J.; Hussain, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change identifies drought as one of the major climate risks in South Asia. During past two decades, a large amount of climate data have been made available by the scientific community, but the deployment of climate information for local level and agricultural decision making remains less than optimal. The provisioning of locally calibrated, easily accessible, decision-relevant and user-oriented information, in the form of drought advisory service could help to prepare communities to reduce climate vulnerability and increase resilience. A collaborative effort is now underway to strengthen existing and/or establish new drought monitoring and early warning systems in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan by incorporating standard ground-based observations, earth observation datasets, and numerical forecast models. ICT-based agriculture drought monitoring platforms, hosted at national agricultural and meteorological institutions, are being developed and coupled with communications and information deployment strategies to enable the rapid and efficient deployment of information that farmers can understand, interpret, and act on to adapt to anticipated droughts. Particular emphasis is being placed on the calibration and validation of data products through retrospective analysis of time series data, in addition to the installation of automatic weather station networks. In order to contextualize monitoring products to that they may be relevant for farmers' primary cropping systems, district level farming practices calendars are being compiled and validated through focus groups and surveys to identify the most important times and situations during which farmers can adapt to drought. High-resolution satellite crop distribution maps are under development and validation to add value to these efforts. This programme also aims to enhance capacity of agricultural extension staff to better understand

  8. Creating an enabling environment for investment in climate services: The case of Uruguay’s National Agricultural Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Vaughan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly challenged by climate variability and change, many of the world’s governments have turned to climate services as a means to improve decision making and mitigate climate-related risk. While there have been some efforts to evaluate the economic impact of climate services, little is known about the contexts in which investments in climate services have taken place. An understanding of the factors that enable climate service investment is important for the development of climate services at local, national and international levels. This paper addresses this gap by investigating the context in which Uruguay’s Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries invested in and developed its National System of Agriculture Information (SNIA, a national-level climate service for the agriculture sector. Using qualitative research methods, the paper uses key documents and 43 interviews to identify six factors that have shaped the decision to invest in the SNIA: (1 Uruguay’s focus on sustainable agricultural intensification; (2 previous work on climate change adaptation; (3 the modernization of the meteorological service; (4 the country’s open data policy; (5 the government’s decision to focus the SNIA on near-term (e.g., seasonal rather than long-term climate risk; and (6 the participation of key individuals. While the context in which these enablers emerged is unique to Uruguay, it is likely that some factors are generalizable to other countries. Social science research needed to confirm the wider applicability of innovation systems, groundwork, data access and champion is discussed.

  9. The CAMI Project - Weather and Climate Services for Caribbean Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Adrian; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Food security is major focus of Caribbean governments, with production being of particular concern. For the past three decades, Caribbean agriculture has been declining in relative importance, both in terms of its contribution to GDP and its share of the labour force. One of the problems Caribbean agriculture faces is the destructive impacts from weather and climate extremes. These include flood, drought, extreme temperatures, and strong winds from tropical cyclones. Other potential disasters, such as from pests and diseases attacks, are also weather and climate driven. These make weather and climate information critically important to decision-making in agriculture in the Caribbean region. In an effort to help reduce weather and climate related risks to the food security sector, The Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology, along with its partners the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and ten National Meteorological Services from within the Caribbean Community launched and implemented the Caribbean Agrometeorological Initiative (CAMI). From 2010 to 2013, CAMI set out to provide relevant information to farmers, and the industry in general, for decision and policy making. The project is funded by the European Union through the Science and Technology Programme of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of Countries' (ACP). The overarching objective of CAMI was to increase and sustain agricultural productivity at the farm level in the Caribbean region through improved applications of weather and climate information, using an integrated and coordinated approach. Currently, this is done through (i) provision of relevant climate information appropriately disseminated, (ii) predictions on seasonal rainfall and temperature, (iii) support for improved irrigation management, (iv) the development of strategically selected weather-driven pest and disease models, (v) use of crop simulation models

  10. Promoting patient care: work engagement as a mediator between ward service climate and patient-centred care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhadi, Nasra; Drach-Zahavy, Anat

    2012-06-01

      To test a model that suggests the ward's climate of service facilitates nurses' patient-centred care behaviours through its effect on nurses' work engagement.   Organizational efforts to promote patient-centred care focused on interventions aimed to improve nurses' communication skills, or to improve patient's participation in the decision-making process. These interventions have been only partially successful, as they do not take the ward context into account; so caring professionals who attend workshops can rarely apply their newly acquired skills due to the daily pressures of the ward.   A nested cross-sectional research design (nursing staff within wards) was adopted, with three measures of the care behaviour of nurses. Data were collected in 2009, from 158 nurses working in 40 wards of retirement homes in northern Israel. Nurses' work engagement, ward's climate for service and control variables were measured via validated questionnaires. Patient-centred care behaviours were assessed by structured observations.   The findings supported our model: service climate proved a link to nurses' work engagement and patient-centred care behaviours. Nurses' work engagement mediated the service-climate patient-centred care behaviours.   The research is pioneering in demonstrating a close relation between ward service climate and patient-centred care. In practice, to improve patient-centred care managers should invest in facilitating ward service climate, highlighting the importance of service to the organization through appropriate rewards, guidance and administrative practices. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  12. Decision Support for the Provision of Ecosystem Services under Climate Change: An Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Vacik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Special Issue “Providing Ecosystem Services under Climate Change: Community of Practice of Forest Decision Support Systems” is based on the presentations given at the 24th World Congress of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations and provides an overview on Forest Management Decision Support Systems currently designed and applied for the sustained provision of ecosystem services within the context of climate change. The contributions provide an overview on models, methods, techniques used in decision support and the proposed frameworks to support decision making. With populations and economies growing worldwide, the demands on forest resources increase, and sustaining the supply of ecosystem services becomes crucial. Through growing public participation in decisions regarding the management of natural resources, new demands have emerged for tools that support our understanding of environmental issues, and for the development and evaluation of alternative management options; there is a desire to project the consequences of different courses of action. Decision Support Systems (DSS have been proven to solve such ill-structured decision problems by integrating database management systems with analytical and operational research models, thus providing various reporting capabilities. Several case studies focus on decision problems, the development and evaluation of alternative management options, and on projecting the consequences of different courses of action in the provision of ecosystem services. Conclusions on the state-of-the-art in decision support and the needed advances in research are drawn.

  13. Ecosystem services in Mediterranean river basin: climate change impact on water provisioning and erosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Rubab F; Passuello, Ana; Sanchez-Canales, María; Terrado, Marta; López, Alfredo; Elorza, F Javier; Ziv, Guy; Acuña, Vicenç; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2013-08-01

    The Mediterranean basin is considered one of the most vulnerable regions of the world to climate change and such changes impact the capacity of ecosystems to provide goods and services to human society. The predicted future scenarios for this region present an increased frequency of floods and extended droughts, especially at the Iberian Peninsula. This paper evaluates the impacts of climate change on the water provisioning and erosion control services in the densely populated Mediterranean Llobregat river basin of. The assessment of ecosystem services and their mapping at the basin scale identify the current pressures on the river basin including the source area in the Pyrenees Mountains. Drinking water provisioning is expected to decrease between 3 and 49%, while total hydropower production will decrease between 5 and 43%. Erosion control will be reduced by up to 23%, indicating that costs for dredging the reservoirs as well as for treating drinking water will also increase. Based on these data, the concept for an appropriate quantification and related spatial visualization of ecosystem service is elaborated and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An estimated cost of lost climate regulation services caused by thawing of the Arctic cryosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Goodstein, Eban S; Huntington, Henry P

    2013-12-01

    Recent and expected changes in Arctic sea ice cover, snow cover, and methane emissions from permafrost thaw are likely to result in large positive feedbacks to climate warming. There is little recognition of the significant loss in economic value that the disappearance of Arctic sea ice, snow, and permafrost will impose on humans. Here, we examine how sea ice and snow cover, as well as methane emissions due to changes in permafrost, may potentially change in the future, to year 2100, and how these changes may feed back to influence the climate. Between 2010 and 2100, the annual costs from the extra warming due to a decline in albedo related to losses of sea ice and snow, plus each year's methane emissions, cumulate to a present value cost to society ranging from US$7.5 trillion to US$91.3 trillion. The estimated range reflects uncertainty associated with (1) the extent of warming-driven positive climate feedbacks from the thawing cryosphere and (2) the expected economic damages per metric ton of CO2 equivalents that will be imposed by added warming, which depend, especially, on the choice of discount rate. The economic uncertainty is much larger than the uncertainty in possible future feedback effects. Nonetheless, the frozen Arctic provides immense services to all nations by cooling the earth's temperature: the cryosphere is an air conditioner for the planet. As the Arctic thaws, this critical, climate-stabilizing ecosystem service is being lost. This paper provides a first attempt to monetize the cost of some of those lost services.

  15. Climate Data Service in the FP7 EarthServer Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Simone; Natali, Stefano; Barboni, Damiano; Grazia Veratelli, Maria

    2013-04-01

    EarthServer is a European Framework Program project that aims at developing and demonstrating the usability of open standards (OGC and W3C) in the management of multi-source, any-size, multi-dimensional spatio-temporal data - in short: "Big Earth Data Analytics". In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, six thematic Lighthouse Applications (Cryospheric Science, Airborne Science, Atmospheric/ Climate Science, Geology, Oceanography, and Planetary Science), each with 100+ TB, are implemented. Scope of the Atmospheric/Climate lighthouse application (Climate Data Service) is to implement the system containing global to regional 2D / 3D / 4D datasets retrieved either from satellite observations, from numerical modelling and in-situ observations. Data contained in the Climate Data Service regard atmospheric profiles of temperature / humidity, aerosol content, AOT, and cloud properties provided by entities such as the European Centre for Mesoscale Weather Forecast (ECMWF), the Austrian Meteorological Service (Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik - ZAMG), the Italian National Agency for new technologies, energies and sustainable development (ENEA), and the Sweden's Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (Sveriges Meteorologiska och Hydrologiska Institut -- SMHI). The system, through an easy-to-use web application permits to browse the loaded data, visualize their temporal evolution on a specific point with the creation of 2D graphs of a single field, or compare different fields on the same point (e.g. temperatures from different models and satellite observations), and visualize maps of specific fields superimposed with high resolution background maps. All data access operations and display are performed by means of OGC standard operations namely WMS, WCS and WCPS. The EarthServer project has just started its second year over a 3-years development plan: the present status the system contains subsets of the final database, with the scope of

  16. Open access to Water Indicators for Climate Change Adaptation: proof-of-concept for the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottle, Lorna; Arheimer, Berit; Gyllensvärd, Frida; Dejong, Fokke; Ludwig, Fulco; Hutjes, Ronald; Martinez, Bernat

    2017-04-01

    Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) is still in the development phase and will combine observations of the climate system with the latest science to develop authoritative, quality-assured information about the past, current and future states of the climate and climate dependent sectors in Europe and worldwide. C3S will provide key indicators on climate change drivers and selected sectorial impacts. The aim of these indicators will be to support adaptation and mitigation. This presentation will show one service already operational as a proof-of-concept of this future climate service. The project "Service for Water Indicators in Climate Change Adaptation" (SWICCA) has developed a sectorial information service for water management. It offers readily available climate-impact data, for open access from the web-site http://swicca.climate.copernicus.eu/. The development is user-driven with the overall goal to speed up the workflow in climate-change adaptation of water management across Europe. The service is co-designed by consultant engineers and agencies in 15 case-studies spread out over the continent. SWICCA has an interactive user-interface, which shows maps and graphs, and facilitates data download in user-friendly formats. In total, more than 900 open dataset are given for various hydrometeorological (and a few socioeconomical) variables, model ensembles, resolutions, time-periods and RCPs. The service offers more than 40 precomputed climate impact indicators (CIIs) and transient time-series of 4 essential climate variables ECVs) with high spatial and temporal resolution. To facilitate both near future and far future assessments, SWICCA provides the indicators for different time ranges; normally, absolute values are given for a reference period (e.g. 1971-2000) and the expected future changes for different 30-year periods, such as early century (2011-2040), mid-century (2041-2070) and end-century (2071-2100). An ensemble of model results is always given to

  17. CEMS: Building a Cloud-Based Infrastructure to Support Climate and Environmental Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, P. J.; Curtis, M.; Pechorro, E.

    2012-04-01

    CEMS, the facility for Climate and Environmental Monitoring from Space, is a new joint collaboration between academia and industry to bring together their collective expertise to support research into climate change and provide a catalyst for growth in related Earth Observation (EO) technologies and services in the commercial sector. A recent major investment by the UK Space Agency has made possible the development of a dedicated facility at ISIC, the International Space Innovation Centre at Harwell in the UK. CEMS has a number of key elements: the provision of access to large-volume EO and climate datasets co-located with high performance computing facilities; a flexible infrastructure to support the needs of research projects in the academic community and new business opportunities for commercial companies. Expertise and tools for scientific data quality and integrity are another essential component, giving users confidence and transparency in its data, services and products. Central to the development of this infrastructure is the utilisation of cloud-based technology: multi-tenancy and the dynamic provision of resources are key characteristics to exploit in order to support the range of organisations using the facilities and the varied use cases. The hosting of processing services and applications next to the data within the CEMS facility is another important capability. With the expected exponential increase in data volumes within the climate science and EO domains it is becoming increasingly impracticable for organisations to retrieve this data over networks and provide the necessary storage. Consider for example, the factor of o20 increase in data volumes expected for the ESA Sentinel missions over the equivalent Envisat instruments. We explore the options for the provision of a hybrid community/private cloud looking at offerings from the commercial sector and developments in the Open Source community. Building on this virtualisation layer, a further core

  18. Contextualizing Emotional Exhaustion and Positive Emotional Display : The Signaling Effects of Supervisors' Emotional Exhaustion and Service Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Catherine K.; Huang, Xu; Janssen, Onne; Lam, K.C.

    In this study, we investigated how supervisors' emotional exhaustion and service climate jointly influence the relationship between subordinates' emotional exhaustion and their display of positive emotions at work. Using data from frontline sales employees and their immediate supervisors in a

  19. Employees' perception of the organizational climate: Its effect on service quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Govender

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available From a survey of a matched sample of bank employees and customers, it was ascertained that the employees' perception of the organizational climate [OCLIM] is positively associated with the customers' perception of the overall service quality [SQUAL] but not with the customers' perception of the employee service quality [EQUAL]. This implies that service firm managers should regularly survey their employees to determine their perceptions of the organization, and take necessary remedial measures to correct any misperceptions. Opsomming 'n Steekproef onder bankamptenare en kliente toon dat amptenare se persepsie van die organisatoriese klimaat (OCLIM positief korreleer met kliente se persepsie van algehele diensgehalte (SQUAL, maar me met kliente se persepsie van die amptenare se diensgehalte (EQUAL nie. Dit impliseer dat diensfirma-bestuurders hul amptenare se persepsies van organisasie gereeld moot monitor, en die nodige regstellende stappe meet neem om wanpersepsies reg te stel.

  20. Predicting climate change effects on wetland ecosystem services using species distribution modeling and plant functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Helen; Hylander, Kristoffer; Norberg, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services, the sustainable use of which requires knowledge of the underlying ecological mechanisms. Functional traits, particularly the community-weighted mean trait (CWMT), provide a strong link between species communities and ecosystem functioning. We here combine species distribution modeling and plant functional traits to estimate the direction of change of ecosystem processes under climate change. We model changes in CWMT values for traits relevant to three key services, focusing on the regional species pool in the Norrström area (central Sweden) and three main wetland types. Our method predicts proportional shifts toward faster growing, more productive and taller species, which tend to increase CWMT values of specific leaf area and canopy height, whereas changes in root depth vary. The predicted changes in CWMT values suggest a potential increase in flood attenuation services, a potential increase in short (but not long)-term nutrient retention, and ambiguous outcomes for carbon sequestration.

  1. Projecting climate change in the United States: A technical document supporting the Forest Service RPA 2010 Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; David T. Price; David P. Coulson; Daniel W. McKenney; R. Martin Siltanen; Pia Papadopol; Kevin. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    A set of climate change projections for the United States was developed for use in the 2010 USDA Forest Service RPA Assessment. These climate projections, along with projections for population dynamics, economic growth, and land use change in the United States, comprise the RPA scenarios and are used in the RPA Assessment to project future renewable resource conditions...

  2. Promoting Climate Literacy and Conceptual Understanding among In-service Secondary Science Teachers requires an Epistemological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Forbes, C.; Roehrig, G.; Chandler, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Promoting climate literacy among in-service science teachers necessitates an understanding of fundamental concepts about the Earth's climate System (USGCRP, 2009). Very few teachers report having any formal instruction in climate science (Plutzer et al., 2016), therefore, rather simple conceptions of climate systems and their variability exist, which has implications for students' science learning (Francies et al., 1993; Libarkin, 2005; Rebich, 2005). This study uses the inferences from a NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) teacher professional development program (CYCLES) to establish the necessity for developing an epistemological perspective among teachers. In CYCLES, 19 middle and high school (male=8, female=11) teachers were assessed for their understanding of global climate change (GCC). A qualitative analysis of their concept maps and an alignment of their conceptions with the Essential Principles of Climate Literacy (NOAA, 2009) demonstrated that participants emphasized on EPCL 1, 3, 6, 7 focusing on the Earth system, atmospheric, social and ecological impacts of GCC. However, EPCL 4 (variability in climate) and 5 (data-based observations and modeling) were least represented and emphasized upon. Thus, participants' descriptions about global climatic patterns were often factual rather than incorporating causation (why the temperatures are increasing) and/or correlation (describing what other factors might influence global temperatures). Therefore, engaging with epistemic dimensions of climate science to understand the processes, tools, and norms through which climate scientists study the Earth's climate system (Huxter et al., 2013) is critical for developing an in-depth conceptual understanding of climate. CLiMES (Climate Modeling and Epistemology of Science), a NSF initiative proposes to use EzGCM (EzGlobal Climate Model) to engage students and teachers in designing and running simulations, performing data processing activities, and analyzing

  3. Mapping technological and biophysical capacities of watersheds to regulate floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollón, Beatriz; Villamagna, Amy M.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Angermeier, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Flood regulation is a widely valued and studied service provided by watersheds. Flood regulation benefits people directly by decreasing the socio-economic costs of flooding and indirectly by its positive impacts on cultural (e.g., fishing) and provisioning (e.g., water supply) ecosystem services. Like other regulating ecosystem services (e.g., pollination, water purification), flood regulation is often enhanced or replaced by technology, but the relative efficacy of natural versus technological features in controlling floods has scarcely been examined. In an effort to assess flood regulation capacity for selected urban watersheds in the southeastern United States, we: (1) used long-term flood records to assess relative influence of technological and biophysical indicators on flood magnitude and duration, (2) compared the widely used runoff curve number (RCN) approach for assessing the biophysical capacity to regulate floods to an alternative approach that acknowledges land cover and soil properties separately, and (3) mapped technological and biophysical flood regulation capacities based on indicator importance-values derived for flood magnitude and duration. We found that watersheds with high biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities lengthened the duration and lowered the peak of floods. We found the RCN approach yielded results opposite that expected, possibly because it confounds soil and land cover processes, particularly in urban landscapes, while our alternative approach coherently separates these processes. Mapping biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities revealed great differences among watersheds. Our study improves on previous mapping of flood regulation by (1) incorporating technological capacity, (2) providing high spatial resolution (i.e., 10-m pixel) maps of watershed capacities, and (3) deriving importance-values for selected landscape indicators. By accounting for technology that enhances

  4. Organizational Climate Partially Mediates the Effect of Culture on Work Attitudes and Staff Turnover in Mental Health Services

    OpenAIRE

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Sawitzky, Angelina C.

    2006-01-01

    Staff turnover in mental health service organizations is an ongoing problem with implications for staff morale, productivity, organizational effectiveness, and implementation of innovation. Recent studies in public sector services have examined the impact of organizational culture and climate on work attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and, ultimately, staff turnover. However, mediational models of the impact of culture and climate on work attitudes have not been ...

  5. Evaluating landscape health: Integrating societal goals and biophysical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, D.J.; Gaudet, C.; Karr, J.R.; Baron, Jill S.; Bohlen, C.; Jackson, W.; Jones, B.; Naiman, R.J.; Norton, B.; Pollock, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating landscape change requires the integration of the social and natural sciences. The social sciences contribute to articulating societal values that govern landscape change, while the natural sciences contribute to understanding the biophysical processes that are influenced by human activity and result in ecological change. Building upon Aldo Leopold's criteria for landscape health, the roles of societal values and biophysical processes in shaping the landscape are explored. A framework is developed for indicators of landscape health and integrity. Indicators of integrity are useful in measuring biological condition relative to the condition in landscapes largely unaffected by human activity, while indicators of health are useful in evaluating changes in highly modified landscapes. Integrating societal goals and biophysical processes requires identification of ecological services to be sustained within a given landscape. It also requires the proper choice of temporal and spatial scales. Societal values are based upon inter-generational concerns at regional scales (e.g. soil and ground water quality). Assessing the health and integrity of the environment at the landscape scale over a period of decades best integrates societal values with underlying biophysical processes. These principles are illustrated in two contrasting case studies: (1) the South Platte River study demonstrates the role of complex biophysical processes acting at a distance; and (2) the Kissimmee River study illustrates the critical importance of social, cultural and economic concerns in the design of remedial action plans. In both studies, however, interactions between the social and the biophysical governed the landscape outcomes. The legacy of evolution and the legacy of culture requires integration for the purpose of effectively coping with environmental change.

  6. Space Biophysics: Accomplishments, Trends, Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Physics and biology are inextricably linked. All the chemical and biological processes of life are dutifully bound to follow the rules and laws of physics. In space, these physical laws seem to turn on their head and biological systems, from microbes to humans, adapt and evolve in myriad ways to cope with the changed physical influences of the space environment. Gravity is the most prominent change in space that influences biology. In microgravity, the physical processes of sedimentation, density-driven convective flow, influence of surface tension and fluid pressure profoundly influence biology at the molecular and cellular level as well as at the whole-body level. Gravity sensing mechanisms are altered, structural and functional components of biology (such as bone and muscle) are reduced and changes in the way fluids and gasses behave also drive the way microbial systems and biofilms grow as well as the way plants and animals adapt. The radiation environment also effects life in space. Solar particle events and high energy cosmic radiation can cause serious damage to DNA and other biomolecules. The results can cause mutation, cellular damage or death, leading to health consequences of acute radiation damage or long-term health consequences such as increased cancer risk. Space Biophysics is the study and utilization of physical changes in space that cause changes in biological systems. The unique physical environment in space has been used successfully to grow high-quality protein crystals and 3D tissue cultures that could not be grown in the presence of unidirectional gravitational acceleration here on Earth. All biological processes that change in space have their root in a biophysical alteration due to microgravity and/or the radiation environment of space. In order to fully-understand the risks to human health in space and to fully-understand how humans, plants, animals and microbes can safely and effectively travel and eventually live for long periods beyond

  7. Climate change's impact on key ecosystem services and the human well-being they support in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J.; Kareiva, Peter; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Arkema, Katie; Geller, Gary; Girvetz, Evan; Goodrich, Dave; Matzek, Virginia; Pinsky, Malin; Reid, Walt; Saunders, Martin; Semmens, Darius J.; Tallis, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Climate change alters the functions of ecological systems. As a result, the provision of ecosystem services and the well-being of people that rely on these services are being modified. Climate models portend continued warming and more frequent extreme weather events across the US. Such weather-related disturbances will place a premium on the ecosystem services that people rely on. We discuss some of the observed and anticipated impacts of climate change on ecosystem service provision and livelihoods in the US. We also highlight promising adaptive measures. The challenge will be choosing which adaptive strategies to implement, given limited resources and time. We suggest using dynamic balance sheets or accounts of natural capital and natural assets to prioritize and evaluate national and regional adaptation strategies that involve ecosystem services.

  8. An assessment of the impact of climate adaptation measures to reduce flood risk on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Peter H; Koomen, Eric; Hilferink, Maarten; Pérez-Soba, Marta; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    Measures of climate change adaptation often involve modification of land use and land use planning practices. Such changes in land use affect the provision of various ecosystem goods and services. Therefore, it is likely that adaptation measures may result in synergies and trade-offs between a range of ecosystems goods and services. An integrative land use modelling approach is presented to assess such impacts for the European Union. A reference scenario accounts for current trends in global drivers and includes a number of important policy developments that correspond to on-going changes in European policies. The reference scenario is compared to a policy scenario in which a range of measures is implemented to regulate flood risk and protect soils under conditions of climate change. The impacts of the simulated land use dynamics are assessed for four key indicators of ecosystem service provision: flood risk, carbon sequestration, habitat connectivity and biodiversity. The results indicate a large spatial variation in the consequences of the adaptation measures on the provisioning of ecosystem services. Synergies are frequently observed at the location of the measures itself, whereas trade-offs are found at other locations. Reducing land use intensity in specific parts of the catchment may lead to increased pressure in other regions, resulting in trade-offs. Consequently, when aggregating the results to larger spatial scales the positive and negative impacts may be off-set, indicating the need for detailed spatial assessments. The modelled results indicate that for a careful planning and evaluation of adaptation measures it is needed to consider the trade-offs accounting for the negative effects of a measure at locations distant from the actual measure. Integrated land use modelling can help land use planning in such complex trade-off evaluation by providing evidence on synergies and trade-offs between ecosystem services, different policy fields and societal

  9. Small changes in climate can profoundly alter the dynamics and ecosystem services of tropical crater lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émilie Saulnier-Talbot

    Full Text Available African tropical lakes provide vital ecosystem services including food and water to some of the fastest growing human populations, yet they are among the most understudied ecosystems in the world. The consequences of climate change and other stressors on the tropical lakes of Africa have been informed by long-term analyses, but these studies have largely focused on the massive Great Rift Valley lakes. Our objective was to evaluate how recent climate change has altered the functioning and services of smaller tropical lakes, which are far more abundant on the landscape. Based on a paired analysis of 20 years of high-resolution water column data and a paleolimnological record from a small crater lake in western Uganda, we present evidence that even a modest warming of the air (∼0.9°C increase over 20 years and changes in the timing and intensity of rainfall can have significant consequences on the dynamics of this common tropical lake type. For example, we observed a significant nonlinear increase (R(2 adj  = 0.23, e.d.f. = 7, p<0.0001 in thermal stability over the past 20 years. This resulted in the expansion of anoxic waters and consequent deterioration of fish habitat and appears to have abated primary production; processes that may impair ecosystem services for a vulnerable human population. This study on a system representative of small tropical crater lakes highlights the far-reaching effects of global climatic change on tropical waters. Increased research efforts into tropical aquatic ecosystem health and the development of sound management practices are necessary in order to strengthen adaptive capabilities in tropical regions.

  10. Small changes in climate can profoundly alter the dynamics and ecosystem services of tropical crater lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Simpson, Kyle G; Efitre, Jackson; Nowlan, Tobias E; Taranu, Zofia E; Chapman, Lauren J

    2014-01-01

    African tropical lakes provide vital ecosystem services including food and water to some of the fastest growing human populations, yet they are among the most understudied ecosystems in the world. The consequences of climate change and other stressors on the tropical lakes of Africa have been informed by long-term analyses, but these studies have largely focused on the massive Great Rift Valley lakes. Our objective was to evaluate how recent climate change has altered the functioning and services of smaller tropical lakes, which are far more abundant on the landscape. Based on a paired analysis of 20 years of high-resolution water column data and a paleolimnological record from a small crater lake in western Uganda, we present evidence that even a modest warming of the air (∼0.9°C increase over 20 years) and changes in the timing and intensity of rainfall can have significant consequences on the dynamics of this common tropical lake type. For example, we observed a significant nonlinear increase (R(2) adj  = 0.23, e.d.f. = 7, pdeterioration of fish habitat and appears to have abated primary production; processes that may impair ecosystem services for a vulnerable human population. This study on a system representative of small tropical crater lakes highlights the far-reaching effects of global climatic change on tropical waters. Increased research efforts into tropical aquatic ecosystem health and the development of sound management practices are necessary in order to strengthen adaptive capabilities in tropical regions.

  11. A protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services based on the experiences of the CLIM-RUN case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodess, Clare; Ruti, Paolo; Rousset, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    During the closing stages of the CLIM-RUN EU FP7 project on Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean region Responding to User Needs, the real-world experiences encountered by the case-study teams are being assessed and synthesised to identify examples of good practice and, in particular, to produce the CLIM-RUN protocol for the development of Mediterranean climate services. The specific case studies have focused on renewable energy (Morocco, Spain, Croatia, Cyprus), tourism (Savoie, Tunisia, Croatia, Cyprus) and wild fires (Greece) as well as one cross-cutting case study (Veneto region). They have been implemented following a common programme of local workshops, questionnaires and interviews, with Climate Expert Team and Stakeholder Expert Team members collaborating to identify and translate user needs and subsequently develop climate products and information. Feedback from stakeholders has been essential in assessing and refining these products. The protocol covers the following issues: the overall process and methodological key stages; identification and selection of stakeholders; communication with stakeholders; identification of user needs; translation of needs; producing products; assessing and refining products; methodologies for evaluating the economic value of climate services; and beyond CLIM-RUN - the lessons learnt. Particular emphasis is given to stakeholder analysis in the context of the participatory, bottom-up approach promoted by CLIM-RUN and to the iterative approach taken in the development of climate products. Recommendations are also made for an envisioned three-tier business model for the development of climate services involving climate, intermediary and stakeholder tiers.

  12. Exploring Student Service Members/Veterans Social Support and Campus Climate in the Context of Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Love

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Now that the financial needs of post 9/11 student service members/veterans have begun to be addressed, the attention has shifted to disabilities and recovery strategies of student service members/veterans. Therefore, in a cross sectional design, this study electronically surveyed 189 enrolled student service members/veterans attending a large urban state university about their experiences of returning to school. Specifically, this study described the students’ rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and alcohol abuse, perceived stress, adaptive and non-adaptive coping strategies, social support, participation in campus activities, and perceived campus climate. Moreover, correlates of recovery were examined. Although the majority of the returning students were doing well, 36.1% reported a high level of stress, 15.1% reported a high level of anger, 17.3% reported active symptoms of PTSD, and 27.1% screened positive for alcohol problems. Social networks were found to be the most salient factor in recovery. The study’s limitations are discussed and specific support strategies are presented that can be employed by disability services, counseling services and college administrators.

  13. Organizational climate partially mediates the effect of culture on work attitudes and staff turnover in mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Sawitzky, Angelina C

    2006-05-01

    Staff turnover in mental health service organizations is an ongoing problem with implications for staff morale, productivity, organizational effectiveness, and implementation of innovation. Recent studies in public sector services have examined the impact of organizational culture and climate on work attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment) and, ultimately, staff turnover. However, mediational models of the impact of culture and climate on work attitudes have not been examined. The present study examined full and partial mediation models of the effects of culture and climate on work attitudes and the subsequent impact of work attitudes on staff turnover. Multilevel structural equation models supported a partial mediation model in which organizational culture had both direct influence on work attitudes and indirect influence through organizational climate. Work attitudes significantly predicted one-year staff turnover rates. These findings support the contention that both culture and climate impact work attitudes and subsequent staff turnover.

  14. Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danyluk, S.S.

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on magnetic resonance spectroscopy of biological molecules, development of clinical applications of stable isotopes, circadian cybernetics, and X-ray crystallography of immunoglobulins. Biological processes occur in fluid media, and ultimately our knowledge of their mechanisms requires detailed information for chemical and molecular structural properties in biological fluids. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy has unique advantages over other approaches in this area that are being exploited in studies currently underway in the group. The program continues to develop along three interrelated lines, measurement and analysis of high resolution spectra for biological molecules (especially nucleic acid constituents and drugs), synthesis of selectively labeled nucleic acid fragments essential for complete spectral assignments, and computation of conformational properties from NMR parameters. This coordinated approach enabled the first complete conformation analysis for a dinucleoside monophosphate, ApA, in aqueous solution. It was found that the conformation is actually a time-average of right helical, loop, and extended conformations, the interchange being extremely rapid on an NMR time scale. Spectral analyses were also completed for all possible ribonucleotide dimers, the assignments again relying heavily on synthesis of appropriate deuterated counterparts. Studies of conformational flexibility in nucleic acid fragments showed that changes in hydrogen ion concentration and temperature produce correlated conformational changes specific for each nucleotidyl unit. Studies were also initiated in three new projects dealing with the effect of hapten binding on antibody structure, counter ion influence on nucleic acid free radicals, and membrane differences between normal and sickled erythrocytes

  15. A WPS Based Architecture for Climate Data Analytic Services (CDAS) at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. P.; McInerney, M.; Duffy, D.; Carriere, L.; Potter, G. L.; Doutriaux, C.

    2015-12-01

    Faced with unprecedented growth in the Big Data domain of climate science, NASA has developed the Climate Data Analytic Services (CDAS) framework. This framework enables scientists to execute trusted and tested analysis operations in a high performance environment close to the massive data stores at NASA. The data is accessed in standard (NetCDF, HDF, etc.) formats in a POSIX file system and processed using trusted climate data analysis tools (ESMF, CDAT, NCO, etc.). The framework is structured as a set of interacting modules allowing maximal flexibility in deployment choices. The current set of module managers include: Staging Manager: Runs the computation locally on the WPS server or remotely using tools such as celery or SLURM. Compute Engine Manager: Runs the computation serially or distributed over nodes using a parallelization framework such as celery or spark. Decomposition Manger: Manages strategies for distributing the data over nodes. Data Manager: Handles the import of domain data from long term storage and manages the in-memory and disk-based caching architectures. Kernel manager: A kernel is an encapsulated computational unit which executes a processor's compute task. Each kernel is implemented in python exploiting existing analysis packages (e.g. CDAT) and is compatible with all CDAS compute engines and decompositions. CDAS services are accessed via a WPS API being developed in collaboration with the ESGF Compute Working Team to support server-side analytics for ESGF. The API can be executed using either direct web service calls, a python script or application, or a javascript-based web application. Client packages in python or javascript contain everything needed to make CDAS requests. The CDAS architecture brings together the tools, data storage, and high-performance computing required for timely analysis of large-scale data sets, where the data resides, to ultimately produce societal benefits. It is is currently deployed at NASA in support of the

  16. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Climate Information Services: Evidence from Cowpea and Sesame Producers in Northern Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Ouédraogo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate information is recognized as a powerful tool to reduce the effect of climate risk and uncertainty on crop production and increase the resilience and the adaptive capacity of farmers in semi-arid zones. This paper estimates farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP for climate information within cowpea and sesame value chains in Northern Burkina Faso. The study used the contingent valuation method for a monetary valuation of farmers’ preferences for climate information. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from 170 farmers. The study found that 63% of respondents were willing to pay for climate information services (CIS such as seasonal climate forecast (SCF, decadal climate information (10-DCI, daily climate information (1-DCI and agro-advisories. The predicted value for the WTP was XOF 3496 for SCF, XOF 1066 for 10-DCI, XOF 1985 for 1-DCI and XOF 1628 for agro-advisories. The study also showed that several socioeconomic and motivation factors have greater influence on farmers’ WTP for CIS. These included the gender, age, education of the farm head and the awareness of farm head to climate information. The outcomes of this paper should support policy makers to better design an efficient mechanism for the dissemination of climate information to improve the adaptive capacity of farmers to climate risks in Burkina Faso.

  17. Interagency collaboration in the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains: Federal-university climate service networks for producing actionable information for climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A. J.; McNie, E.; Averyt, K.; Morisette, J. T.; Derner, J. D.; Ojima, D. S.; Dilling, L.; Barsugli, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Several federal agencies in north-central United States are each working to develop and disseminate useful climate information to enhance resilience to climate change. This talk will discuss how the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) the North Central Climate Science Center, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Western Water Assessment RISA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Climate Hub, are building and managing a collaborative research and climate-service network in the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. This presentation will describe the evolution of the interagency collaboration and the partnership with universities to build a climate service network. Such collaboration takes time and intention and must include the right people and organizations to effectively bridge the gap between use-inspired research and application. In particular, we will discuss a focus on the Upper Missouri Basin, developing research to meet needs in a basin that has had relatively less attention on risks of climate change and adaptation to those risks. Each organization has its own mission, stakeholders, and priorities, but there are many commonalities and potential synergies. Together, these organizations, and their agency scientists and university partners, are fostering cross-agency collaboration at the regional scale to optimize efficient allocation of resources while simultaneously enabling information to be generated at a scale that is relevant to decision makers. By each organization knowing the others needs and priorities, there are opportunities to craft research agendas and strategies for providing services that take advantage of the strengths and skills of the different organizations. University partners are key components of each organization, and of the collaboration, who bring in expertise beyond that in the agencies, in particular connections to social scientists, extension services.

  18. Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmhagen, Bodil; Destouni, Georgia; Angerbjörn, Anders; Velde, van der Ype

    2015-01-01

    Human population growth and resource use, mediated by changes in climate, land use, and water use, increasingly impact biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. However, impacts of these drivers on biodiversity and ecosystem services are rarely analyzed simultaneously and remain largely

  19. Quantum Nanobiology and Biophysical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    An introduction was provided in the first issue by way of an Editorial to this special two issue volume of Current Physical Chemistry – “Quantum Nanobiology and Biophysical Chemistry” [1]. The Guest Editors would like to thank all the authors and referees who have contributed to this second issue...... protypical photoactive proteins. The two contributions mentioned in the previous editorial where Jalkanen et al. provide a theoretical analysis of a model histidine bearing peptide, including integrated structure, solvation, and vibrational absorption and vibrational circular dichroism treatments...

  20. Potential impacts of climate change on ecosystem services in Europe: The case of pest control by vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Civantos, Emilio; Thuiller, Wilfried; Maiorano, Luigi; Guisan, Antoine; Araújo, Miguel B.

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental changes threaten ecosystems and cause significant alterations to the supply of ecosystem services that are vital for human well-being. We provide an assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on the European diversity of vertebrates and their associated pest-control services. We modeled the distributions of the species that provide these services using forecasts from bioclimatic envelope models and then used the results to generate maps of potential species ric...

  1. Understanding the role of extreme weather event attribution as a climate service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, P.

    2016-12-01

    Any robust, fit for purpose climate service needs to start with the needs of the people who are going to be using the science. However, experience suggests that this is not a simple process taking time, and periods of discussion to identify issues such as what is needed, how it can used, how can it be used in conjunction with other tools etc. As a relatively new science within the field of climate change, attribution of extreme weather events is still exploring how the science can be applied and how best to support decision-makers in using it. This paper reports on the experiences of a 3-year project that looked to identify what an event attribution service for Europe could look like. Key sectors including insurance, local planners, national policy and law were engaged to better understand their needs for the science, and how the science could be best communicated. Whilst many lessons have been learned about stakeholder needs in terms of accessing information, there is still more that needs developing with regards to what the science can say and how this impacts on the decision-making process.

  2. Psychosocial safety climate: a multilevel theory of work stress in the health and community service sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, M F; McTernan, W

    2011-12-01

    Work stress is widely thought to be a significant problem in the health and community services sector. We reviewed evidence from a range of different data sources that confirms this belief. High levels of psychosocial risk factors, psychological health problems and workers compensation claims for stress are found in the sector. We propose a multilevel theoretical model of work stress to account for the results. Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) refers to a climate for psychological health and safety. It reflects the balance of concern by management about psychological health v. productivity. By extending the health erosion and motivational paths of the Job Demands-Resources model we propose that PSC within work organisations predicts work conditions and in turn psychological health and engagement. Over and above this, however, we expect that the external environment of the sector particularly government policies, driven by economic rationalist ideology, is increasing work pressure and exhaustion. These conditions are likely to lead to a reduced quality of service, errors and mistakes.

  3. Biophysical characterization of GPCR oligomerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Signe

    The biophysical characterization of the fundamental molecular mechanisms behind G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) oligomerization is proposed to be paramount for understanding the pharmacological consequence of receptor self-association. Here we developed an in vitro assay that allowed a quanti......The biophysical characterization of the fundamental molecular mechanisms behind G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) oligomerization is proposed to be paramount for understanding the pharmacological consequence of receptor self-association. Here we developed an in vitro assay that allowed...... a quantitative characterization of GPCR oligomerization. The assay provided the first quantification of the association energy of the β2 Adrenergic Receptor (β2AR), a prototypical GPCR. Furthermore we directly observed the time-dependent dimerization of β2AR and Cannabinoid receptor 1 at the single molecule...... level, and revealed the existence of several dimerization interfaces, each with specific kinetics. Finally we investigated how a property of the membrane solubilizing GPCRs affected oligomerization. We observed a dramatic decrease in oligomer stability with increasing geometrical membrane curvature. We...

  4. Research Institute for Medical Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchank, S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ionising and non-ionising radiation on rodent tumours and normal tissue were studied in terms of cellular repair and the relevant biochemical and biophysical changes following radiation. Rodent tumours investigated in vivo were the CaNT adenocarcinoma and a chemically induced transplantable rhabdomyosarcoma. Radiations used were 100KVp of X-Rays, neutron beams, various magnetic fields, and microwave radiation of 2450MHz. The biochemical parameters measured were, inter alia, levels of adenosine-5'-triphoshate (ATP) and the specific activity of hexokinase (HK). Metabolic changes in ATP levels and the activity of HK were observed in tumour and normal tissues following ionising and non-ionising radiation in normoxia and hypoxia. The observation that the effect of radiation and chemotherapeutic treatment of some tumours may be size dependent can possibly now be explained by the variation of ATP content with tumour size. The enhanced tumour HK specific activity implies increased metabolism, possibly a consequence of cellular requirements to maintain homeostasis during repair processes. Other research projects of the Research Institute for Medical Biophysics involved, inter alia, gastroesophageal scintigraphies to evaluate the results of new forms of therapy. 1 ill

  5. Biophysical aspects of photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Nielsen, Kristian Pagh; Moan, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Over the last three decades photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed to a useful clinical tool, a viable alternative in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Several disciplines have contributed to this development: chemistry in the development of new photosensitizing agents, biology in the elucidation of cellular processes involved in PDT, pharmacology and physiology in identifying the mechanisms of distribution of photosensitizers in an organism, and, last but not least, physics in the development of better light sources, dosimetric concepts and construction of imaging devices, optical sensors and spectroscopic methods for determining sensitizer concentrations in different tissues. Physics and biophysics have also helped to focus on the role of pH for sensitizer accumulation, dose rate effects, oxygen depletion, temperature, and optical penetration of light of different wavelengths into various types of tissue. These are all important parameters for optimally effective PDT. The present review will give a brief, physically based, overview of PDT and then discuss some of the main biophysical aspects of this therapeutic modality.

  6. Mainstreaming Ecosystem Services Based Climate Change Adaptation (EbA in Bangladesh: Status, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Huq

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the extent of Ecosystem Service (ESS based Adaptation (EbA to climate change in the policy-making process of Bangladesh. The paper is based on a three stage hybrid policy-making cycle: (i agenda setting; (ii policy formulation; and (iii policy implementation stage, where the contributions of EbA can horizontally (on the ground or vertically (strategic stage be mainstreamed and integrated. A total of nine national and sectoral development and climate change policies, and 329 climate change adaptation projects are examined belonging to different policy-making stages. The major findings include that the role of ESS is marginally considered as an adaptation component in most of the reviewed policies, especially at the top strategic level (vertical mainstreaming. However, at the policy formulation and implementation stage (horizontal mainstreaming, they are largely ignored and priority is given to structural adaptation policies and projects, e.g., large scale concrete dams and embankments. For example, ESS’s roles to adapt sectors such as urban planning, biodiversity management and disaster risk reduction are left unchecked, and the implementation stage receives overwhelming priorities and investments to undertake hard adaptation measures such that only 38 projects are related to EbA. The paper argues that: (i dominant structural adaptation ideologies; (ii the expert and bureaucracy dependent policy making process; and (iii the lack of adaptive and integration capacities at institutional level are considerably offsetting the EbA mainstreaming process that need to be adequately addressed for climate change adaptation.

  7. Investigating the Impact of Climate Change on Hydroelectric Generation and Ancillary Services in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, K.; Tarroja, B.; AghaKouchak, A.; Chiang, F.; Samuelsen, S.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial and temporal shifts in hydrological regimes predicted under climate change conditions have implications for the management of reservoirs and hydropower contributions to generation and ancillary services. California relies on large hydropower plants to provide flexible electricity generation, which will be increasingly important for supporting renewable resources. This study examines the impact of climate change on large hydropower generation in California. Four climate models for Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 are utilized to evaluate the impact of the climate change conditions on (1) the magnitude and profile of hydropower generation and (2) the ability of hydropower to provide spinning reserve. Under both RCP scenarios, impacts are regionally dependent, with precipitation projected to increase in northern California and decrease in southern California for the ten-year period investigated (2046-2055). The overall result is a net increase in inflow into large hydropower units as a majority of the hydropower plants studied are located in the northern part of the state. Increased inflow is primarily driven by increased runoff during the winter and does not necessarily result in increased generation, as extreme events yield greater overall spillage, up to 45% of total inflow. Increased winter hydropower generation paired with increased reservoir constraints in summer result in an 11 to 18% decrease in spinning reserve potential across the year. Under high inflow conditions there is a decreased flexibility for choosing generation versus spinning reserve as water needs to be released, regardless. During summer, hydropower units providing spinning reserve experienced decreased inflow and lower reservoir levels compared to the historical baseline, resulting in decreased spinning reserve bidding potential. Decreased bidding, especially during summer periods at peak electricity demand, can result in greater demand for other dispatchable

  8. Namibia specific climate smart agricultural land use practices: Challenges and opportunities for enhancing ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Talamondjila Naanda, Martha; Bloemertz, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture is a backbone for many African economies, with an estimated 70% of Africans active in agricultural production. The sector often does not only directly contribute to, but sustains food security and poverty reduction efforts. Sustaining this productivity poses many challenges, particularly to small scale subsistence farmers (SSF) in dry land areas and semi-arid countries like Namibia. SSF in northern central Namibia mix crop and livestock production on degraded semi-arid lands and nutrient-poor sandy soils. They are fully dependent on agricultural production with limited alternative sources of income. Mostly, their agricultural harvests and outputs are low, not meeting their livelihood needs. At the same time, the land use is often not sustainable, leading to degradation. The Namibia case reveals that addressing underlying economic, social and environmental challenges requires a combination of farm level-soil management practices with a shift towards integrated landscape management. This forms the basis for SSF to adopt sustainable land management practices while building institutional foundations, like establishing SSF cooperatives. One way in which this has been tested is through the concept of incentive-based motivation, i.e. payment for ecosystem services (PES), in which some of the beneficiaries pay, for instance for farmers or land users, who provide the services. The farmers provide these services by substituting their unsustainable land and soil management and adopting new (climate smart agricultural) land use practices. Climate Smart Agricultural land use practices (CSA-LUP) are one way of providing ecosystem services, which could be fundamental to long-term sustainable soil and land management solutions in Africa. There are few PES cases which have been systematically studied from an institutional development structure perspective. This study presents lessons evolving from the notion that direct participation and involvement of local people

  9. Operationalizing ecosystem-based adaptation: harnessing ecosystem services to buffer communities against climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wamsler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-based approaches for climate change adaptation are promoted at international, national, and local levels by both scholars and practitioners. However, local planning practices that support these approaches are scattered, and measures are neither systematically implemented nor comprehensively reviewed. Against this background, this paper advances the operationalization of ecosystem-based adaptation by improving our knowledge of how ecosystem-based approaches can be considered in local planning (operational governance level. We review current research on ecosystem services in urban areas and examine four Swedish coastal municipalities to identify the key characteristics of both implemented and planned measures that support ecosystem-based adaptation. The results show that many of the measures that have been implemented focus on biodiversity rather than climate change adaptation, which is an important factor in only around half of all measures. Furthermore, existing measures are limited in their focus regarding the ecological structures and the ecosystem services they support, and the hazards and risk factors they address. We conclude that a more comprehensive approach to sustainable ecosystem-based adaptation planning and its systematic mainstreaming is required. Our framework for the analysis of ecosystem-based adaptation measures proved to be useful in identifying how ecosystem-related matters are addressed in current practice and strategic planning, and in providing knowledge on how ecosystem-based adaptation can further be considered in urban planning practice. Such a systematic analysis framework can reveal the ecological structures, related ecosystem services, and risk-reducing approaches that are missing and why. This informs the discussion about why specific measures are not considered and provides pathways for alternate measures/designs, related operations, and policy processes at different scales that can foster sustainable

  10. Relationship between organizational climate and burnout syndrome in the emergency service of a hospital Category III-2. Lima, Peru 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenaida Solís Chuquiyaur

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between organizational climate and Burnout Syndrome among nursing professionals of the Emergency Service in a Hospital Category III-2. Material and methods: quantitative, prospective, correlational cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 43 nurses, using a non-probability sampling for convenience. For analysis and study of the variables, Rensis Likert scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used. Results: The organizational climate was average level (81.4% followed by a high level (18.6% and the Burnout Syndrome corresponds to low level (86% and medium (14% level. The relationship between organizational climate and Burnout Syndrome was low (rho = -0.11. Conclusions: In the Emergency Service, the level of organizational climate was fairly favorable with absence of Burnout Syndrome among nursing professionals. There is not significant relationship between the two variables.

  11. Therapist turnover and new program sustainability in mental health clinics as a function of organizational culture, climate, and service structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Schoenwald, Sonja K; Kelleher, Kelly; Landsverk, John; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Mayberg, Stephen; Green, Philip

    2008-03-01

    The present study incorporates organizational theory and organizational characteristics in examining issues related to the successful implementation of mental health services. Following the theoretical foundations of socio-technical and cultural models of organizational effectiveness, organizational climate, culture, legal and service structures, and workforce characteristics are examined as correlates of therapist turnover and new program sustainability in a nationwide sample of mental health clinics. Results of General Linear Modeling (GLM) with the organization as the unit of analysis revealed that organizations with the best climates as measured by the Organizational Social Context (OSC) profiling system, had annual turnover rates (10%) that were less than half the rates found in organizations with the worst climates (22%). In addition, organizations with the best culture profiles sustained new treatment or service programs over twice as long (50 vs. 24 months) as organizations with the worst cultures. Finally, clinics with separate children's services units had higher turnover rates than clinics that served adults and children within the same unit. The findings suggest that strategies to support the implementation of new mental health treatments and services should attend to organizational culture and climate, and to the compatibility of organizational service structures with the demand characteristics of treatments.

  12. Are You Being Served? The Relationship between School Climate for Service and Teachers' Engagement, Satisfaction, and Intention to Leave: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldor, Liat; Shoshani, Anat

    2017-05-19

    The notion of service has been receiving increasing attention in organizational psychology literature in recent years, due to the client-oriented managerial movement. Yet, little to no attention has been paid to the service notion in educational psychology despite its high relevance to educational settings, given the pressure to be more service-oriented and possess a client-focused state of mind. The present study explores the notion of service in school domains by examining the joint effects of climate for service and the internal service in schools on teachers' work attitudes: work engagement, job satisfaction, and intention to leave their work. The notion of climate for service emphasizes the school's attitude of teachers as service providers to its clients (students and their parents); internal climate emphasizes the school's attitude of providing service to its teaching staff. The study was conducted via a sample of 423 teachers from 30 different schools in Israel. We hypothesized that the indirect relationship between the climate for service and teachers' job satisfaction and intention to leave work would be mediated by teacher work engagement. Our findings supported this hypothesis. Moreover, this indirect relationship via teacher work engagement was demonstrated most strongly when the internal service quality received was high, providing teachers with the capability to deliver what the service climate motivates them to do. Therefore, service-oriented resources-both climate for service and internal service-may be crucial in affecting teachers work attitudes and should be specifically targeted by principals and other educational decision makers.

  13. The Mechanics and Biophysics of Hearing

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, C; Matthews, John; Ruggero, Mario; Steele, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of a workshop on the physics and biophysics of hearing that brought together experimenters and modelers working on all aspects of audition. Topics covered include: cochlear mechanical measurements, cochlear models, mechanicals and biophysics of hair cells, efferent control, and ultrastructure.

  14. Climate change impacts on ecosystems and ecosystem services in the United States: Process and prospects for sustained assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Nancy B.; Groffman, Peter M; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Tallis, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The third United States National Climate Assessment emphasized an evaluation of not just the impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems, but also the impacts of climate change on the benefits that people derive from nature, known as ecosystem services. The ecosystems, biodiversity, and ecosystem services component of the assessment largely drew upon the findings of a transdisciplinary workshop aimed at developing technical input for the assessment, involving participants from diverse sectors. A small author team distilled and synthesized this and hundreds of other technical input to develop the key findings of the assessment. The process of developing and ranking key findings hinged on identifying impacts that had particular, demonstrable effects on the U.S. public via changes in national ecosystem services. Findings showed that ecosystem services are threatened by the impacts of climate change on water supplies, species distributions and phenology, as well as multiple assaults on ecosystem integrity that, when compounded by climate change, reduce the capacity of ecosystems to buffer against extreme events. As ecosystems change, such benefits as water sustainability and protection from storms that are afforded by intact ecosystems are projected to decline across the continent due to climate change. An ongoing, sustained assessment that focuses on the co-production of actionable climate science will allow scientists from a range of disciplines to ascertain the capability of their forecasting models to project environmental and ecological change and link it to ecosystem services; additionally, an iterative process of evaluation, development of management strategies, monitoring, and reevaluation will increase the applicability and usability of the science by the U.S. public.

  15. Seasonal changes in activity levels among nursing care insurance service users in areas with different climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Masaya; Someya, Fujiko

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] To clarify seasonal changes in activity levels among nursing care insurance service users in areas with different climates using the Life Space Assessment. [Subjects] A total of 72 nursing care insurance service users aged ≥65 years, who were from areas along the Sea of Japan or those around the Inland Sea. [Methods] The subjects were divided into 2 groups according to their home prefecture, and each survey was conducted over two successive seasons (Survey I: fall and winter, n=48, Survey II: winter and spring, n=24). We investigated the subjects' basic information, and determined their FIM, the Life Space Assessment, and Modified Falls Efficacy Scale scores. These scores were subjected to between-group and -season comparisons. [Results] In Survey I, there were no significant differences in any investigation item between the 2 groups, but the Japan Sea group showed decreases in the Life Space Assessment, Independent Life space, and Minimal Life space scores in winter. In Survey II, we did not note any between-group or -season differences. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that the Life Space Assessment, whose scores are influenced by outdoor environments, may be used as a tool to clarify seasonal changes in activity levels of nursing care insurance service users.

  16. Nanoscale biophysics of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Macroscopic cellular structures and functions are generally investigated using biological and biochemical approaches. But these methods are no longer adequate when one needs to penetrate deep into the small-scale structures and understand their functions. The cell is found to hold various physical structures, molecular machines, and processes that require physical and mathematical approaches to understand and indeed manipulate them. Disorders in general cellular compartments, perturbations in single molecular structures, drug distribution therein, and target specific drug-binding, etc. are mostly physical phenomena. This book will show how biophysics has revolutionized our way of addressing the science and technology of nanoscale structures of cells, and also describes the potential for manipulating the events that occur in them.

  17. A Model for Pre-Service Teachers' Climate Change Awareness and Willingness to Act for Pro-Climate Change Friendly Behavior: Adaptation of Awareness to Climate Change Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal, Burçkin; Alper, Umut; Özdem-Yilmaz, Yasemin; Öztürk, Nilay; Sönmez, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Public awareness of the negative effects of climate change is vital since it leads to collective action for prevention and adaptation. However, investigations on to what extent people are aware of the climate change issue are rare in the literature. The present study reported the adaptation process of awareness to climate change questionnaire into…

  18. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the institution of social services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakhtar Valentina Vizitorіvna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the concepts “socio-psychological climate”, “climate” and “organizational culture”. The author analyses approaches to understanding the socio-psychological climate: the socio-psychological phenomenon, the general emotional and psychological mood, the style of people's relationships with direct contact with each other, the social and psychological compatibility of the members of the group. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the establishment of the social service, factors affecting the state of the socio-psychological climate in the team are considered.

  19. Plant trait-based models identify direct and indirect effects of climate change on bundles of grassland ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarque, Pénélope; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouchet, Maud; Quétier, Fabien

    2014-09-23

    Land use and climate change are primary causes of changes in the supply of ecosystem services (ESs). Although the consequences of climate change on ecosystem properties and associated services are well documented, the cascading impacts of climate change on ESs through changes in land use are largely overlooked. We present a trait-based framework based on an empirical model to elucidate how climate change affects tradeoffs among ESs. Using alternative scenarios for mountain grasslands, we predicted how direct effects of climate change on ecosystems and indirect effects through farmers' adaptations are likely to affect ES bundles through changes in plant functional properties. ES supply was overall more sensitive to climate than to induced management change, and ES bundles remained stable across scenarios. These responses largely reflected the restricted extent of management change in this constrained system, which was incorporated when scaling up plot level climate and management effects on ecosystem properties to the entire landscape. The trait-based approach revealed how the combination of common driving traits and common responses to changed fertility determined interactions and tradeoffs among ESs.

  20. Biophysical research requirements for Beaufort Sea hydrocarbon development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    This review identified biophysical research requirements and data gaps for the development of hydrocarbon resources in the Beaufort Sea. The potential major effects of critical activities during each phase of the offshore oil and gas development cycle were identified in order to assess the impacts on local communities and traditional harvesting methods. Baseline environmental conditions were established. Information needs were ranked using 3 criteria: (1) the current understanding of the biophysical component in terms of present status and long-term sustainability, (2) the potential impact of the oil and gas development on the long-term sustainability of the biophysical component, and (3) the timeline for completion of the research relative to the expected development for the Beaufort Sea region. Mitigation and environmental management plans were outlined, and key research, data collection, and data analyses required to address data gaps were identified. Previous gap analyses for the region were reviewed. Data from a series of workshops conducted with various stakeholders were also included in the study. High research priorities include the assessment of the effects of climatic change on the physical oceanography of the region, studies on deepwater plankton, benthos, and fish. It was concluded that studies are needed to determine the effects of development on marine mammals, avifauna, and macroalgae. 207 refs., 49 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Modelling benthic biophysical drivers of ecosystem structure and biogeochemical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicholas; Bruggeman, Jorn; Lessin, Gennadi; Allen, Icarus

    2016-04-01

    The fate of carbon deposited at the sea floor is ultimately decided by biophysical drivers that control the efficiency of remineralisation and timescale of carbon burial in sediments. Specifically, these drivers include bioturbation through ingestion and movement, burrow-flushing and sediment reworking, which enhance vertical particulate transport and solute diffusion. Unfortunately, these processes are rarely satisfactorily resolved in models. To address this, a benthic model that explicitly describes the vertical position of biology (e.g., habitats) and biogeochemical processes is presented that includes biological functionality and biogeochemical response capturing changes in ecosystem structure, benthic-pelagic fluxes and biodiversity on inter-annual timescales. This is demonstrated by the model's ability to reproduce temporal variability in benthic infauna, vertical pore water nutrients and pelagic-benthic solute fluxes compared to in-situ data. A key advance is the replacement of bulk parameterisation of bioturbation by explicit description of the bio-physical processes responsible. This permits direct comparison with observations and determination of key parameters in experiments. Crucially, the model resolves the two-way interaction between sediment biogeochemistry and ecology, allowing exploration of the benthic response to changing environmental conditions, the importance of infaunal functional traits in shaping benthic ecological structure and the feedback the resulting bio-physical processes exert on pore water nutrient profiles. The model is actively being used to understand shelf sea carbon cycling, the response of the benthos to climatic change, food provision and other societal benefits.

  2. A synthesized biophysical and social vulnerability assessment for Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan

    2017-11-01

    Taiwan, located in the Western Pacific, is a country that is one of the most vulnerable to disasters that are associated with the changing climate; it is located within the Ring of Fire, which is the most geologically active region in the world. The environmental and geological conditions in Taiwan are sensitive and vulnerable to such disasters. Owing to increasing urbanization in Taiwan, floods and climate-related disasters have taken an increasing toll on human lives. As global warming accelerates the rising of sea levels and increasing of the frequency of extreme weather events, disasters will continue to affect socioeconomic development and human conditions. Under such circumstances, researchers and policymakers alike must recognize the importance of providing useful knowledge concerning vulnerability, disaster recovery and resilience. Strategies for reducing vulnerability and climate-related disaster risks and for increasing resilience involve preparedness, mitigation and adaptation. In the last two decades, extreme climate events have caused severe flash floods, debris flows, landslides, and other disasters and have had negative effects of many sectors, including agriculture, infrastructure and health. Since climate change is expected to have a continued impact on socio-economic development, this work develops a vulnerability assessment framework that integrates both biophysical and social vulnerability and supports synthesized vulnerability analyses to identify vulnerable areas in Taiwan. Owing to its geographical, geological and climatic features, Taiwan is susceptible to earthquakes, typhoons, droughts and various induced disasters. Therefore, Taiwan has the urgent task of establishing a framework for assessing vulnerability as a planning and policy tool that can be used to identify not only the regions that require special attention but also hotspots in which efforts should be made to reduce vulnerability and the risk of climate-related disaster. To

  3. Adaptation and promotion of emergency medical service transportation for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chih-Long; Chiu, Chun-Wen; Wen, Jet-Chau

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to find a proper prehospital transportation scenario planning of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for possible burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. This project focuses on one of the worst natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, the 88 Wind-caused Disasters, caused by the Typhoon Morakot; the case of the EMS transportation in the Xiaolin village is reviewed and analyzed. The sequential-conveyance method is designed to promote the efficiency of all the ambulance services related to transportation time and distance. Initially, a proposed mobile emergency medical center (MEMC) is constructed in a safe location near the area of the disaster. The ambulances are classified into 2 categories: the first-line ambulances, which reciprocate between the MEMC and the disaster area to save time and shorten the working distances and the second-line ambulances, which transfer patients in critical condition from the MEMC to the requested hospitals for further treatment. According to the results, the sequential-conveyance method is more efficient than the conventional method for EMS transportation in a mass-casualty incident (MCI). This method improves the time efficiency by 52.15% and the distance efficiency by 56.02%. This case study concentrates on Xiaolin, a mountain village, which was heavily destroyed by a devastating mudslide during the Typhoon Morakot. The sequential-conveyance method for the EMS transportation in this research is not only more advantageous but also more rational in adaptation to climate change. Therefore, the findings are also important to all the decision-making with respect to a promoted EMS transportation, especially in an MCI.

  4. Lake and wetland ecosystem services measuring water storage and local climate regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina P.; Jiang, Bo; Bohn, Theodore J.; Lee, Kai N.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Ma, Dongchun; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2017-04-01

    Developing interdisciplinary methods to measure ecosystem services is a scientific priority, however, progress remains slow in part because we lack ecological production functions (EPFs) to quantitatively link ecohydrological processes to human benefits. In this study, we tested a new approach, combining a process-based model with regression models, to create EPFs to evaluate water storage and local climate regulation from a green infrastructure project on the Yongding River in Beijing, China. Seven artificial lakes and wetlands were established to improve local water storage and human comfort; evapotranspiration (ET) regulates both services. Managers want to minimize the trade-off between water losses and cooling to sustain water supplies while lowering the heat index (HI) to improve human comfort. We selected human benefit indicators using water storage targets and Beijing's HI, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity model to determine the change in ET from the new ecosystems. We created EPFs to quantify the ecosystem services as marginal values [Δfinal ecosystem service/Δecohydrological process]: (1) Δwater loss (lake evaporation/volume)/Δdepth and (2) Δsummer HI/ΔET. We estimate the new ecosystems increased local ET by 0.7 mm/d (20.3 W/m2) on the Yongding River. However, ET rates are causing water storage shortfalls while producing no improvements in human comfort. The shallow lakes/wetlands are vulnerable to drying when inflow rates fluctuate, low depths lead to higher evaporative losses, causing water storage shortfalls with minimal cooling effects. We recommend managers make the lakes deeper to increase water storage, and plant shade trees to improve human comfort in the parks.

  5. NASA's Global Change Master Directory: Discover and Access Earth Science Data Sets, Related Data Services, and Climate Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Alicia; Olsen, Lola; Ritz, Scott; Morahan, Michael; Cepero, Laurel; Stevens, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory provides the scientific community with the ability to discover, access, and use Earth science data, data-related services, and climate diagnostics worldwide. The GCMD offers descriptions of Earth science data sets using the Directory Interchange Format (DIF) metadata standard; Earth science related data services are described using the Service Entry Resource Format (SERF); and climate visualizations are described using the Climate Diagnostic (CD) standard. The DIF, SERF and CD standards each capture data attributes used to determine whether a data set, service, or climate visualization is relevant to a user's needs. Metadata fields include: title, summary, science keywords, service keywords, data center, data set citation, personnel, instrument, platform, quality, related URL, temporal and spatial coverage, data resolution and distribution information. In addition, nine valuable sets of controlled vocabularies have been developed to assist users in normalizing the search for data descriptions. An update to the GCMD's search functionality is planned to further capitalize on the controlled vocabularies during database queries. By implementing a dynamic keyword "tree", users will have the ability to search for data sets by combining keywords in new ways. This will allow users to conduct more relevant and efficient database searches to support the free exchange and re-use of Earth science data. http://gcmd.nasa.gov/

  6. Scenario Planning Provides a Framework for Climate Change Adaptation in the National Park Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Resource management decisions must be based on future expectations. Abundant evidence suggests climate change will have highly consequential effects on the Nation's natural and cultural resources, but specific impacts are difficult to accurately predict. This situation of too much information but not enough specificity can often lead to either paralysis or denial for decision makers. Scenario planning is an emerging tool for climate change adaptation that provides a structured framework for identifying and exploring critical drivers of change and their uncertain outcomes. Since 2007, the National Park Service (NPS) has been working with its partners to develop and apply a scenario-based approach for adaptation planning that integrates quantitative, model-driven, climate change projections with qualitative, participatory exercises to explore management and policy options under a range of future conditions. Major outcomes of this work are (1) increased understanding of key scientific results and uncertainties, (2) incorporation of alternative perspectives into park and landscape level planning, (3) identification of "no brainer" and "no gainer" actions, (4) strengthening of regional science-management partnerships, and (5) overall improved capacity for flexible decision making. The basic approach employed by NPS for scenario planning follows a typical adaptive management process: define the focal question, assess the relevant science, explore plausible futures, identify effective strategies, prioritize and implement actions, and monitor results. Many science and management partners contributed to the process, including NOAA Regional Integrated Science and Assessment teams (RISAs) and Regional Climate Centers (RCCs), USGS Research Centers, and other university and government scientists. The Global Business Network, an internationally recognized leader in scenario development, provided expert facilitation and training techniques. Climate science input is provided

  7. Beyond Knowledge: Service Learning and Local Climate Change Research Engagement Activities that Foster Action and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; Mandryk, C.; Gosselin, D. C.; Haney, C.

    2013-12-01

    environment and support teachers in the creation of lessons and units that promote both inquiry science and service learning in the community. Course participants connect the dots from their newly acquired theoretical science knowledge to concrete examples of change taking place locally, and see the value of promoting awareness as well as behavioral changes that contribute to adaptation and mitigation of local climate change impacts. We describe the assessments used and the research outcomes associated with NRES 832, Human Dimensions of Climate Change, where participants conduct archival research to create a climate change chronicle for their community, and NRES 830 Climate Research Applications, where teachers lead and evaluate the impacts of student-designed service learning activities as a capstone project for a unit on climate change. We also showcase community-based initiatives resulting from this work that seed the behavioral changes we need to live sustainably in our communities and on our planet.

  8. Biophysical effects on temperature and precipitation due to land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Lucia; Caporaso, Luca; Marconi, Sergio; Cescatti, Alessandro; Quesada, Benjamin; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; House, Johanna I.; Arneth, Almut

    2017-05-01

    Anthropogenic land cover changes (LCC) affect regional and global climate through biophysical variations of the surface energy budget mediated by albedo, evapotranspiration, and roughness. This change in surface energy budget may exacerbate or counteract biogeochemical greenhouse gas effects of LCC, with a large body of emerging assessments being produced, sometimes apparently contradictory. We reviewed the existing scientific literature with the objective to provide an overview of the state-of-the-knowledge of the biophysical LCC climate effects, in support of the assessment of mitigation/adaptation land policies. Out of the published studies that were analyzed, 28 papers fulfilled the eligibility criteria, providing surface air temperature and/or precipitation change with respect to LCC regionally and/or globally. We provide a synthesis of the signal, magnitude and uncertainty of temperature and precipitation changes in response to LCC biophysical effects by climate region (boreal/temperate/tropical) and by key land cover transitions. Model results indicate that a modification of biophysical processes at the land surface has a strong regional climate effect, and non-negligible global impact on temperature. Simulations experiments of large-scale (i.e. complete) regional deforestation lead to a mean reduction in precipitation in all regions, while air surface temperature increases in the tropics and decreases in boreal regions. The net global climate effects of regional deforestation are less certain. There is an overall consensus in the model experiments that the average global biophysical climate response to complete global deforestation is atmospheric cooling and drying. Observed estimates of temperature change following deforestation indicate a smaller effect than model-based regional estimates in boreal regions, comparable results in the tropics, and contrasting results in temperate regions. Regional/local biophysical effects following LCC are important for

  9. Climate change adaptation via targeted ecosystem service provision: a sustainable land management strategy for the Segura catchment (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagaria, Cecilia; de Vente, Joris; Perez-Cutillas, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Topical research investigating climate, land-use and management scenarios in the Segura catchment (SE Spain), depicts a landscape at high-risk of, quite literally, deserting agriculture. Land degradation in the semi-arid region of SE Spain is characterized by water shortage, high erosion rates and salinization, increasingly exacerbated by climatic changes, scarce vegetation cover and detrimental farming practices. Future climate scenarios predict increases in aridity, variability and intensity of rainfall events, leading to increasing pressure on scarce soil and water resources. This study conceptualized the impending crisis of agro-ecological systems of the Segura basin (18800 km2) as a crisis of ecosystem service deterioration. In light of existing land degradation drivers and future climate scenarios, the potential of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies was evaluated to target three priority ecosystem services (water provision, sediment retention and carbon sequestration) as a means to achieve climate change adaptation and mitigation. A preceding thorough process of stakeholder engagement (as part of the EU funded DESIRE project) indicated five SLM technologies for potential implementation, all with a focus upon reducing soil erosion, increasing soil water holding capacity and soil organic matter content. These technologies have been tested for over four years in local experimental field plots, and have provided results on the local effects upon individual environmental parameters. Despite the growing emphasis witnessed in literature upon the context-specificity which characterizes adaptation solutions, the frequent analysis at the field scale is limited in both scope and utility. There is a need to investigate the effects of adaptive SLM solutions at wider, regional scales. Thus, this study modeled the cumulative effect of each of the five selected SLM technologies with InVEST, a spatial analyst tool designed for ecosystem service quantification and

  10. Doing the right thing without being told: joint effects of initiative climate and general self-efficacy on employee proactive customer service performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, Steffen; Liao, Hui

    2012-05-01

    We developed and tested a cross-level model of the antecedents and outcomes of proactive customer service performance. Results from a field study of 900 frontline service employees and their supervisors in 74 establishments of a multinational hotel chain located in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia demonstrated measurement equivalence and suggested that, after controlling for service climate, initiative climate at the establishment level and general self-efficacy at the individual level predicted employee proactive customer service performance and interacted in a synergistic way. Results also showed that at the establishment level, controlling for service climate and collective general service performance, initiative climate was positively and indirectly associated with customer service satisfaction through the mediation of aggregated proactive customer service performance. We discuss important theoretical and practical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Climate change and ecosystem services: The contribution of and impacts on federal public lands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerie Esposito; Spencer Phillips; Roelof Boumans; Azur Moulaert; Jennifer Boggs

    2011-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007) reports a likely 2 °C to 4.5 °C temperature rise in the upcoming decades. This warming is likely to affect ecosystems and their ability to provide services that benefit human well-being. Ecosystem services valuation (ESV), meanwhile, has emerged as a way to recognize the economic value embodied in these...

  12. Historical and Critical Review on Biophysical Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigüzel, Yekbun

    2016-07-01

    Biophysical economics is initiated with the long history of the relation of economics with ecological basis and biophysical perspectives of the physiocrats. It inherently has social, economic, biological, environmental, natural, physical, and scientific grounds. Biological entities in economy like the resources, consumers, populations, and parts of production systems, etc. could all be dealt by biophysical economics. Considering this wide scope, current work is a “biophysical economics at a glance” rather than a comprehensive review of the full range of topics that may just be adequately covered in a book-length work. However, the sense of its wide range of applications is aimed to be provided to the reader in this work. Here, modern approaches and biophysical growth theory are presented after the long history and an overview of the concepts in biophysical economics. Examples of the recent studies are provided at the end with discussions. This review is also related to the work by Cleveland, “Biophysical Economics: From Physiocracy to Ecological Economics and Industrial Ecology” [C. J. Cleveland, in Advances in Bioeconomics and Sustainability: Essay in Honor of Nicholas Gerogescu-Roegen, eds. J. Gowdy and K. Mayumi (Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, England, 1999), pp. 125-154.]. Relevant parts include critics and comments on the presented concepts in a parallelized fashion with the Cleveland’s work.

  13. Biophysical landscape interactions: Bridging disciplines and scale with connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Baartman, Jantiene; Robinson, David

    2017-04-01

    concepts of biophysical landscape interactions are needed to evaluate soil water availability in relation to the stability of natural vegetation, especially in the perspective of soil threats, population growth, climate change, and global water scarcity. An integrated concept can only be established by bridging the gap between several disciplines, but needs to be appealing to those disciplines at the same time. As evidence suggests interdisciplinary work is more challenging to get funded [6]. The key aspect of the connectivity concept is that it can create pathways for feedbacks which are so often missing in soil and water models. Connectivity could thus play an important role in bridging disciplines and scales. [1] Schwilch G, Bernet L. Fleskens L, Giannakis E, Leventon J, Marañón T, Mills J, Short C, Stolte J, van Delden H, Verzandvoort S. 2016. Operationalizing ecosystem services for the mitigation of soil threats: A proposed framework. Ecological Indicators 67: 586-597,doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.03.016 [2] Pelletier JD, DeLong SB, Orem CA, Becerra P, Compton K, Gressett K, Lyons-Baral J, McGuire LA, Molaro JL, Spinler JCCF. 2012. How do vegetation bands form in dry lands? Insights from numerical modeling and field studies in southern Nevada, USA. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 117: F04026,doi:10.1029/2012JF002465 [3] Liu J, Dietz T, Carpenter SR, Alberti M, Folke C, Moran E, ..., Ostrom E. 2007. Complexity of coupled human and natural systems. Science 317.5844: 1513-1516,doi:10.1126/science.1144004 [4] Cook BJ, Hauer FR. 2007. Effects of hydrologic connectivity on water chemistry, soils, and vegetation structure and function in an intermontane depressional wetland landscape. Wetlands 27.3: 719-738,doi:10.1672/0277-5212(2007)27 [5] Roth K. 2008. Scaling of water flow through porous media and soils. European journal of soil science, 59(1), 125-130, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.2007.00986.x [6] Bromham, L, Dinnage R, Hua X. 2016. Interdisciplinary research

  14. Regional Approach for Linking Ecosystem Services and Livelihood Strategies Under Climate Change of Pastoral Communities in the Mongolian Steppe Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Galvin, K.; Togtohyn, C.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatic changes due to climate and land use dynamics in the Mongolian Plateau affecting ecosystem services and agro-pastoral systems in Mongolia. Recently, market forces and development strategies are affecting land and water resources of the pastoral communities which are being further stressed due to climatic changes. Evaluation of pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock and grassland ecosystem services, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to climate change. Current social-ecological changes in ecosystem services are affecting land productivity and carrying capacity, land-atmosphere interactions, water resources, and livelihood strategies. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the social-economic forces. The analysis incorporates information about the social-economic transitions taking place in the region which affect land-use, food security, and ecosystem dynamics. The region of study extends from the Mongolian plateau in Mongolia. Our research indicate that sustainability of pastoral systems in the region needs to integrate the impact of climate change on ecosystem services with socio-economic changes shaping the livelihood strategies of pastoral systems in the region. Adaptation strategies which incorporate integrated analysis of landscape management and livelihood strategies provides a framework which links ecosystem services to critical resource assets. Analysis of the available livelihood assets provides insights to the adaptive capacity of various agents in a region or in a community. Sustainable development pathways which enable the development of these adaptive capacity elements will lead to more effective adaptive management strategies for pastoral land use and herder's living standards. Pastoralists will have the

  15. JRC Copernicus Climate Change Service Fitness-for-Purpose Benchmark Platform: Gamma Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappucci, Fabrizio; Gobron, Nadine

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a methodology to infer the physical consistency of different remote sensing satellite-based products using the gamma index metrics [1]. In this work the capabilities of the gamma index as a suitable consistency indicator of different satellite products are shown. The method is used in order to support the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) Fitness for Purpose (F4P) benchmarking component [2]. The method is applied to the GlobAlbedo albedo products [3] with similar products generated from MODIS Collection-5 [4] and Copernicus Global Land Service [5] at the global scale. The analysis is conducted in terms of white-sky surface albedo in the visible, near- infrared and shortwave broadband, over the period 2000-2011. Spatial resolution at 0.05° and monthly aggregation of products are considered. The obtained results indicate the need to perform better space-based surface albedo retrievals over snow and ice and more generally during winter.

  16. A dataset mapping the potential biophysical effects of vegetation cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duveiller, Gregory; Hooker, Josh; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2018-02-01

    Changing the vegetation cover of the Earth has impacts on the biophysical properties of the surface and ultimately on the local climate. Depending on the specific type of vegetation change and on the background climate, the resulting competing biophysical processes can have a net warming or cooling effect, which can further vary both spatially and seasonally. Due to uncertain climate impacts and the lack of robust observations, biophysical effects are not yet considered in land-based climate policies. Here we present a dataset based on satellite remote sensing observations that provides the potential changes i) of the full surface energy balance, ii) at global scale, and iii) for multiple vegetation transitions, as would now be required for the comprehensive evaluation of land based mitigation plans. We anticipate that this dataset will provide valuable information to benchmark Earth system models, to assess future scenarios of land cover change and to develop the monitoring, reporting and verification guidelines required for the implementation of mitigation plans that account for biophysical land processes.

  17. Canopy-scale biophysical controls of transpiration and evaporation in the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Trebs, Ivonne; Boegh, Eva; Giustarini, Laura; Schlerf, Martin; Drewry, Darren T.; Hoffmann, Lucien; Randow, Von Celso; Kruijt, Bart; Araùjo, Alessandro; Saleska, Scott; Ehleringer, James R.; Domingues, Tomas F.; Ometto, Jean Pierre H.B.; Nobre, Antonio D.; Luiz Leal De Moraes, Osvaldo; Hayek, Matthew; William Munger, J.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Canopy and aerodynamic conductances (gC and gA) are two of the key land surface biophysical variables that control the land surface response of land surface schemes in climate models. Their representation is crucial for predicting transpiration (λET) and

  18. Simulated Local and Remote Biophysical Effects of Afforestation over the Southeast United States in Boreal Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang-Shan Chen; Michael Notaro; Zhengyu Liu; Yongqiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Afforestation has been proposed as a climate change mitigation strategy by sequestrating atmospheric carbon dioxide. With the goal of increasing carbon sequestration, a Congressional project has been planned to afforest about 18 million acres by 2020 in the Southeast United States (SEUS), the Great Lake states, and the Corn Belt states. However, biophysical feedbacks...

  19. Can Payments for Ecosystem Services Contribute to Adaptation to Climate Change? Insights from a Watershed in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel van de Sand

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change presents new challenges for the management of social-ecological systems and the ecosystem services they provide. Although the instrument of payments for ecosystem services (PES has emerged as a promising tool to safeguard or enhance the provision of ecosystem services (ES, little attention has been paid to the potential role of PES in climate change adaptation. As an external stressor climate change has an impact on the social-ecological system in which PES takes place, including the various actors taking part in the PES scheme. Following a short description of the conceptual link between PES and adaptation to climate change, we provide practical insights into the relationship between PES and adaptation to climate change by presenting results from a case study of a rural watershed in Kenya. Drawing upon the results of a participatory vulnerability assessment among potential ecosystem service providers in Sasumua watershed north of Nairobi, we show that PES can play a role in enhancing adaptation to climate change by influencing certain elements of adaptive capacity and incentivizing adaptation measures. In addition, trade-offs and synergies between proposed measures under PES and adaptation to climate change are identified. Results show that although it may not be possible to establish PES schemes based on water utilities as the sole source of financing, embedding PES in a wider adaptation framework creates an opportunity for the development of watershed PES schemes in Africa and ensures their sustainability. We conclude that there is a need to embed PES in a wider institutional framework and that extra financial resources are needed to foster greater integration between PES and adaptation to climate change. This can be achieved through scaling up PES by bringing in other buyers and additional ecosystem services. PES can achieve important coadaptation benefits, but for more effective adaptation outcomes it needs to be combined

  20. Climate change trends and environmental impacts in the Makonde Communal Lands, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishumael Sango

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last century, climate has increasingly become variable and changeable, with significant deviations from the observed normal averages, which often leads to disruptive consequences to ecosystems and livelihoods. Climate change induced environmental challenges are viewed to be particularly severe to economically challenged tropical societies including the Zimbabwean rural communities. We sought to determine local level climate change trends and associated biophysical implications in the Makonde Communal Lands of Zimbabwe. Our findings suggest that there has been significant climate change in the Makonde Communal Lands since 1962. The climate change observed has induced the deterioration of ecosystem productivity, diversity and services, to the detriment of human livelihoods. We provide insights into how to better understand local level dynamics between climate change and local ecosystem goods and services as the basis of livelihood in marginalised rural communities. Among the key reasons for concern about impacts of anthropogenic activities on climate is the fact that changing climate has direct impacts on the biophysical world, which in turn is a vital asset for human livelihoods, economies and general well-being.

  1. Predicting effects of climate and land use change on human well-being via changes in ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landuse and climate change have affected biological systems in many parts of the world, and are projected to further adversely affect associated ecosystem goods and services, including provisioning of clean air, clean water, food, and biodiversity. Such adverse effects on ecosyst...

  2. Can forest management be used to sustain water-based ecosystem service in the face of climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy Ford; Stephanie Laseter; Wayne Swank; James Vose

    2011-01-01

    Forested watersheds, an important provider of ecosystems services related to water supply, can have their structure, function, and resulting streamflow substantially altered by land use and land cover. Using a retrospective analysis and synthesis of long-term climate and streamflow data (75 years) from six watersheds differing in management histories we explored...

  3. Past and future impacts of land use and climate change on agricultural ecosystem services in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorencová, E.; Frélichová, J.; Nelson, E.; Vačkář, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, JUL (2013), s. 183-194 ISSN 0264-8377 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * scenarios * land use change * ecosystem services * agriculture * assessment Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.134, year: 2013

  4. An introduction to environmental biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Gaylon S

    1977-01-01

    The study of environmental biophysics probably began earlier in man's history than that of any other science. The study of organism-environment interaction provided a key to survival and progress. Systematic study of the science and recording of experimental results goes back many hundreds of years. Ben­ jamin Franklin, the early American statesman, inventor, printer, and scientist studied conduction, evaporation, and radiation. One of his observations is as follows: My desk on which I now write, and the lock of my desk, are both exposed to the same temperature of the air, and have therefore the same degree of heat or cold; yet if I lay my hand successively on the wood and on the metal, the latter feels much the coldest, not that it is really so, but being a better conductor, it more readily than the wood takes away and draws into itself the fire that was in my skin. 1 Franklin probably was not the first to discover this principle, and certainly was not the last. Modem researchers rediscover this principle f...

  5. Safeguarding Ecosystem Services: A Methodological Framework to Buffer the Joint Effect of Habitat Configuration and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Tereza C; Tambosi, Leandro R; Acosta, André L; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Saraiva, Antonio M; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by mobile agents are increasingly threatened by the loss and modification of natural habitats and by climate change, risking the maintenance of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, and human welfare. Research oriented towards a better understanding of the joint effects of land use and climate change over the provision of specific ecosystem services is therefore essential to safeguard such services. Here we propose a methodological framework, which integrates species distribution forecasts and graph theory to identify key conservation areas, which if protected or restored could improve habitat connectivity and safeguard ecosystem services. We applied the proposed framework to the provision of pollination services by a tropical stingless bee (Melipona quadrifasciata), a key pollinator of native flora from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and important agricultural crops. Based on the current distribution of this bee and that of the plant species used to feed and nest, we projected the joint distribution of bees and plants in the future, considering a moderate climate change scenario (following IPPC). We then used this information, the bee's flight range, and the current mapping of Atlantic Forest remnants to infer habitat suitability and quantify local and regional habitat connectivity for 2030, 2050 and 2080. Our results revealed north to south and coastal to inland shifts in the pollinator distribution during the next 70 years. Current and future connectivity maps unraveled the most important corridors, which if protected or restored, could facilitate the dispersal and establishment of bees during distribution shifts. Our results also suggest that coffee plantations from eastern São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais States could suffer a pollinator deficit in the future, whereas pollination services seem to be secured in southern Brazil. Landowners and governmental agencies could use this information to implement new land use schemes. Overall

  6. Increasing Knowledge and Self-Efficacy through a Pre-Service Course on Promoting Positive School Climate: The Crucial Role of Reducing Moral Disengagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V.; Jaffe, Peter G.; Rodriguez, Arely

    2017-01-01

    Teachers play an important role in promoting a positive school climate, which in turns supports academic achievement and positive mental health among students. This study evaluated the impact of a pre-service teacher education course addressing a range of contributors to school climate. Participants included a cohort of 212 pre-service teachers…

  7. Applications of synchrotron radiation in Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemski, G.

    1983-01-01

    A short introduction to the generation of the synchrotron radiation is made. Following, the applications of such a radiation in biophysics with emphasis to the study of the hemoglobin molecule are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Urban Green Infrastructure Impacts on Climate Regulation Services in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda B. Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, urban planning has a renewed focus on addressing the multiple challenges associated with population growth and climate change. Focused on local needs and priorities, these planning processes are raising tensions between more compact and dense urban form to reduce energy use and associated emissions and the provision of urban green infrastructure for ecosystem services and climate adaptation. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of green infrastructure at the neighbourhood scale in Sydney, Australia and examined how a mix of landscape types (pavement, bare soil/dry grass, green grass, and tree cover affect temperature variation in three important locations for urban residents—around the home, in the roads and footpaths where people walk, and in parkland areas. Considering that residential and parkland areas contribute to the majority of green space in Sydney, it is important to understand how changes in landscape mix within these three neighbourhood areas will affect local temperature for urban residents. For residential houses, it was found that the percentage of tree canopy cover around the house had a significant negative relationship (p = 0.002 with surface temperatures of rooftops where greater tree cover led to lower rooftop temperatures. In streetscapes, both the percentage of tree cover (p < 0.0001 and the percentage of green grass (p < 0.0001 within the road segment had a significant negative relationship with the surface temperature of the road pavement. In the parks, the percentage of pavement (p < 0.0001 and the percentage of bare soil/dry grass (p < 0.0001 showed a significantly positive trend with land surface temperatures where greater land cover in the form of pavement and bare soil/dry grass led to higher temperatures. Collectively, these findings highlight the importance of promoting or reducing certain landscape covers depending on the land use type in order to maximise the

  9. Nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services in the Brazilian La Plata Basin: anthropogenic influence and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Watanabe

    Full Text Available The increasing human demand for food, raw material and energy has radically modified both the landscape and biogeochemical cycles in many river basins in the world. The interference of human activities on the Biosphere is so significant that it has doubled the amount of reactive nitrogen due to industrial fertiliser production (Haber-Bosch, fossil fuel burning and land-use change over the last century. In this context, the Brazilian La Plata Basin contributes to the alteration of the nitrogen cycle in South America because of its huge agricultural and grazing area that meets the demands of its large urban centres - Sao Paulo, for instance - and also external markets abroad. In this paper, we estimate the current inputs and outputs of anthropogenic nitrogen (in kg N.km-2.yr-1 in the basin. In the results, we observe that soybean plays a very important role in the Brazilian La Plata, since it contributes with an annual entrance of about 1.8 TgN due to biological nitrogen fixation. Moreover, our estimate indicates that the export of soybean products accounts for roughly 1.0 TgN which is greater than the annual nitrogen riverine exports from Brazilian Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers together. Complimentarily, we built future scenarios representing changes in the nitrogen cycle profile considering two scenarios of climate change for 2070-2100 (based on IPCC's A2 and B2 that will affect land-use, nitrogen inputs, and loss of such nutrients in the basin. Finally, we discuss how both scenarios will affect human well-being since there is a connection between nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services that affect local and global populations, such as food and fibre production and climate regulation.

  10. Nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services in the Brazilian La Plata Basin: anthropogenic influence and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M; Ortega, E; Bergier, I; Silva, J S V

    2012-08-01

    The increasing human demand for food, raw material and energy has radically modified both the landscape and biogeochemical cycles in many river basins in the world. The interference of human activities on the Biosphere is so significant that it has doubled the amount of reactive nitrogen due to industrial fertiliser production (Haber-Bosch), fossil fuel burning and land-use change over the last century. In this context, the Brazilian La Plata Basin contributes to the alteration of the nitrogen cycle in South America because of its huge agricultural and grazing area that meets the demands of its large urban centres - Sao Paulo, for instance - and also external markets abroad. In this paper, we estimate the current inputs and outputs of anthropogenic nitrogen (in kg N.km(-2).yr(-1)) in the basin. In the results, we observe that soybean plays a very important role in the Brazilian La Plata, since it contributes with an annual entrance of about 1.8 TgN due to biological nitrogen fixation. Moreover, our estimate indicates that the export of soybean products accounts for roughly 1.0 TgN which is greater than the annual nitrogen riverine exports from Brazilian Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers together. Complimentarily, we built future scenarios representing changes in the nitrogen cycle profile considering two scenarios of climate change for 2070-2100 (based on IPCC's A2 and B2) that will affect land-use, nitrogen inputs, and loss of such nutrients in the basin. Finally, we discuss how both scenarios will affect human well-being since there is a connection between nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services that affect local and global populations, such as food and fibre production and climate regulation.

  11. Research highlights: modelling to assess climate change impacts and promote development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E; Lin, Vivian S

    2015-08-01

    We highlight four recent articles on biophysical modelling for the Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) Deltas project in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta system. These publications are part of a themed collection in Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts and contribute to a larger body of collaborative work that aims to assess the impacts of changing climate, policy, and development efforts on vulnerable populations in the GBM delta.

  12. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  13. How does a servant leader fuel the service fire? A multilevel model of servant leadership, individual self identity, group competition climate, and customer service performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Zhu, Jing; Zhou, Mingjian

    2015-03-01

    Building on a social identity framework, our cross-level process model explains how a manager's servant leadership affects frontline employees' service performance, measured as service quality, customer-focused citizenship behavior, and customer-oriented prosocial behavior. Among a sample of 238 hairstylists in 30 salons and 470 of their customers, we found that hair stylists' self-identity embedded in the group, namely, self-efficacy and group identification, partially mediated the positive effect of salon managers' servant leadership on stylists' service performance as rated by the customers, after taking into account the positive influence of transformational leadership. Moreover, group competition climate strengthened the positive relationship between self-efficacy and service performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. How to Climate Proof Water Sanitation Services for the Urban Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, Tom; Parker, Alison; Weatherhead, E. K.

    2010-01-01

    This report is based upon a 10 month project assessing the vulnerability of WSUP (Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor) projects to climate change, converting climate change predictions into recommended adaptations. The findings are based on a literature review and field work in Kenya, Madagascar and Zambia, undertaking focus groups, stakeholder interviews and observations. This report synthesises the science of climate change, the impacts of climate change on drinking water and sanitation...

  15. Managing fish and wildlife habitat in the face of climate change: USDA Forest Service perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward; Curtis H. Flather; Erin Uloth; Hugh D. Safford; David A. Cleaves

    2009-01-01

    The spatial and temporal scope of environmental change anticipated during the next century as a result of climate change presents unprecedented challenges for fish and wildlife management. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC 2007) suggested impacts from climate change on natural systems will be more grave than earlier...

  16. Developing a Climate Service: Using Hydroclimate Monitoring and Forecasting to Aid Decision Making in Africa and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. F.; Sheffield, J.; Fisher, C. K.; Chaney, N.; Wanders, N.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrological and water scarcity predictions have the potential to provide vital information for a variety of needs including water resources management, agricultural and urban water supply, and flood mitigation. In particular, seasonal forecasts of drought risk can enable farmers to make adaptive choices on crop varieties, labor usage, and technology investments. Forecast skill is generally derived from teleconnections with ocean variability specifically sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and, equally important persistence in the state of the land in terms of soil moisture, snowpack, or streamflow conditions. Short term precipitation forecasts are critical in flood prediction by extending flood prediction lead times beyond the basin travel time, and thus allows for extended warnings. The Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) is a UN-wide initiative in which WMO Members and inter- and non- governmental, regional, national and local stakeholders work in partnership to develop targeted climate services. Thus, GFCS offers the potential for hydroclimatologists to develop products (hydroclimatic forecasts) and information services (i.e. product dissemination) to users with the expectation that GFCS will increase the resilience of the society to weather and climate events and to reduce operational costs for economic sectors and regions dependent on water. This presentation will discuss the development of a nascent climate service system focused on hydroclimatic monitoring and forecasting, and initially developed by the authors for Africa and Latin America. Central to this system is the use of satellite remote sensing and hydroclimate forecasts (from days to seasons) in the development of weather and climate information useful for water management in sectors such as flood protection (precipitation and streamflow forecasting) and agriculture (drought and crop forecasting). The elements of this system will be discussed, including the challenges of monitoring and

  17. Tropical and Highland Temperate Forest Plantations in Mexico: Pathways for Climate Change Mitigation and Ecosystem Services Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Guerra-De la Cruz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations are a possible way of increasing forest productivity in temperate and tropical forests, and therefore also increasing above- and belowground carbon pools. In the context of climate change, monospecific plantations might become an alternative to mitigate global warming; however, their contribution to the structural complexity, complementarity, and biodiversity of forests has not been addressed. Mixed forest plantations can ensure that objectives of climate change mitigation are met through carbon sequestration, while also delivering anticipated ecosystem services (e.g., nutrient cycling, erosion control, and wildlife habitat. However, mixed forest plantations pose considerable operational challenges and research opportunities. For example, it is essential to know how many species or functional traits are necessary to deliver a set of benefits, or what mixture of species and densities are key to maintaining productive plantations and delivering multiple ecosystem services. At the same time, the establishment of forest plantations in Mexico should not be motivated solely by timber production. Forest plantations should also increase carbon sequestration, maintain biodiversity, and provide other ecosystem services. This article analyzes some matters that affect the development of planted forests in the Mexican national context, and presents alternatives for forest resources management through the recommendation of mixed forest plantations as a means of contributing to climate change mitigation and the delivery of ecosystem services.

  18. Conservation of soil organic carbon, biodiversity and the provision of other ecosystem services along climatic gradients in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marks

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial carbon resources are major drivers of development in West Africa. The distribution of these resources co-varies with ecosystem type and rainfall along a strong Northeast-Southwest climatic gradient. Soil organic carbon, a strong indicator of soil quality, has been severely depleted in some areas by human activities, which leads to issues of soil erosion and desertification, but this trend can be altered with appropriate management. There is significant potential to enhance existing soil carbon stores in West Africa, with benefits at the global and local scale, for atmospheric CO2 mitigation as well as supporting and provisioning ecosystem services. Three key factors impacting carbon stocks are addressed in this review: climate, biotic factors, and human activities. Climate risks must be considered in a framework of global change, especially in West Africa, where landscape managers have few resources available to adapt to climatic perturbations. Among biotic factors, biodiversity conservation paired with carbon conservation may provide a pathway to sustainable development, and biodiversity conservation is also a global priority with local benefits for ecosystem resilience, biomass productivity, and provisioning services such as foodstuffs. Finally, human management has largely been responsible for reduced carbon stocks, but this trend can be reversed through the implementation of appropriate carbon conservation strategies in the agricultural sector, as shown by multiple studies. Owing to the strong regional climatic gradient, country-level initiatives will need to consider carbon sequestration approaches for multiple ecosystem types. Given the diversity of environments, global policies must be adapted and strategies developed at the national or sub-national levels to improve carbon storage above and belowground. Initiatives of this sort must act locally at farmer scale, and focus on ecosystem services rather than on carbon

  19. Talk to the Hand: U.S. Army Biophysical Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santee, William R; Potter, Adam W; Friedl, Karl E

    2017-07-01

    Many people are unaware of the science underlying the biophysical properties of Soldier clothing and personal protective equipment, yet there is a well-refined biomedical methodology initiated by Army physiologists in World War II. This involves a methodical progression of systematic material testing technologies, computer modeling, and human testing that enables more efficient development and rapid evaluation of new concepts for Soldier health and performance. Sophisticated manikins that sweat and move are a central part of this testing continuum. This report briefly summarizes the evolution and use of one specialized form of the manikin technologies, the thermal hand model, and its use in research on Soldier hand-wear items that sustain dexterity and protect the hand in extreme environments. Thermal manikin testing methodologies were developed to provide an efficient and consistent analytical tool for the rapid evaluation of new clothing concepts. These methods have been upgraded since the original World War II and Korean War eras to include articulation and sweating capabilities, as characterized and illustrated in this article. The earlier "retired" versions of thermal hand models have now been transferred to the National Museum of Health and Science. The biophysical values from manikin testing are critical inputs to the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine mathematical models that provide predictions of soldier comfort, duration of exposure before loss of manual dexterity, and time to significant risk of freezing (skin temperature Army has been on the forefront of the biophysical analysis of clothing including gloves since environmental research was established at the Armored Medical Research Laboratory and Climatic Research Laboratory during World War II. U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine does not make the equipment but works with their Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center partners to make the

  20. Relationship between organizational climate and burnout syndrome in the emergency service of a hospital Category III-2. Lima, Peru 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Zenaida Solís Chuquiyaur; Luisa Zamudio Eslava; Juan Matzumura Kasano; Hugo Gutiérrez Crespo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between organizational climate and Burnout Syndrome among nursing professionals of the Emergency Service in a Hospital Category III-2. Material and methods: quantitative, prospective, correlational cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 43 nurses, using a non-probability sampling for convenience. For analysis and study of the variables, Rensis Likert scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory were used. Results: The organizational clima...

  1. Mangrove and seagrass beds provide different biogeochemical services for corals threatened by climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F Camp

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are driving acidification in parallel with warming of the oceans. Future ocean acidification scenarios have the potential to impact coral growth and associated reef function, although reports suggest such affects could be reduced in adjacent seagrass habitats as a result of physio-chemical buffering. To-date, it remains unknown whether these habitats can actually support the metabolic function of a diverse range of corals. Similarly, whether mangroves provide the same ecological buffering service remains unclear. We examine whether reef-associated habitat sites (seagrass and mangroves can act as potential refugia to future climate change by maintaining favorable chemical conditions (elevated pH and aragonite saturation state relative to the open-ocean, but by also assessing whether the metabolic function (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification of important reef-building corals are sustained. We investigated three sites in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans and consistently observed that seagrass beds experience an overall elevation in mean pH (8.15 ± 0.01 relative to the adjacent outer-reef (8.12 ± 0.03, but with periods of high and low pH. Corals in the seagrass habitats either sustained calcification or experienced an average reduction of 17.0 ± 6.1 % relative to the outer-reef. In contrast, mangrove habitats were characterized by a low mean pH (8.04 ± 0.01 and a relatively moderate pH range. Corals within mangrove-dominated habitats were thus pre-conditioned to low pH but with significant suppression to calcification (70.0 ± 7.3 % reduction relative to the outer-reef. Both habitats also experienced more variable temperatures (diel range up to 2.5°C relative to the outer-reef (diel range less than 0.7°C, which did not correspond with changes in calcification rates. Here we report, for the first time, the biological costs for corals living in reef-associated habitats and

  2. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The ability to grow stem cells in the laboratory and to guide their maturation to functional cells allows us to study the underlying mechanisms that govern vasculature differentiation and assembly in health and disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that early stages of vascular growth are exquisitely tuned by biophysical cues from the microenvironment, yet the scientific understanding of such cellular environments is still in its infancy. Comprehending these processes sufficiently to manipulate them would pave the way to controlling blood vessel growth in therapeutic applications. This book assembles the works and views of experts from various disciplines to provide a unique perspective on how different aspects of its microenvironment regulate the differentiation and assembly of the vasculature. In particular, it describes recent efforts to exploit modern engineering techniques to study and manipulate various biophysical cues. Biophysical Regulation of Vascular Differentiation and Assembly provides an inter...

  3. Biophysical Modeling of Respiratory Organ Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, René

    Methods to estimate respiratory organ motion can be divided into two groups: biophysical modeling and image registration. In image registration, motion fields are directly extracted from 4D ({D}+{t}) image sequences, often without concerning knowledge about anatomy and physiology in detail. In contrast, biophysical approaches aim at identification of anatomical and physiological aspects of breathing dynamics that are to be modeled. In the context of radiation therapy, biophysical modeling of respiratory organ motion commonly refers to the framework of continuum mechanics and elasticity theory, respectively. Underlying ideas and corresponding boundary value problems of those approaches are described in this chapter, along with a brief comparison to image registration-based motion field estimation.

  4. Measuring (bio)physical tree properties using accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Hut, Rolf; Gentine, Pierre; Selker, John; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Trees play a crucial role in the water, carbon and nitrogen cycle on local, regional and global scales. Understanding the exchange of heat, water, and CO2 between trees and the atmosphere is important to assess the impact of drought, deforestation and climate change. Unfortunately, ground measurements of tree dynamics are often expensive, or difficult due to challenging environments. We demonstrate the potential of measuring (bio)physical properties of trees using robust and affordable acceleration sensors. Tree sway is dependent on e.g. mass and wind energy absorption of the tree. By measuring tree acceleration we can relate the tree motion to external loads (e.g. precipitation), and tree (bio)physical properties (e.g. mass). Using five months of acceleration data of 19 trees in the Brazilian Amazon, we show that the frequency spectrum of tree sway is related to mass, precipitation, and canopy drag. This presentation aims to show the concept of using accelerometers to measure tree dynamics, and we acknowledge that the presented example applications is not an exhaustive list. Further analyses are the scope of current research, and we hope to inspire others to explore additional applications.

  5. Biophysical shunt theory for neuropsychopathology: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisberg, Y; Avnon, M; Weizman, A

    1995-11-01

    We present a new model of the origin of schizophrenia based on biophysical ionic shunts in neuronal (electrical) pathways. Microstructural and molecular evidence is presented for the way in which changes in the neuronal membrane ionic channels may facilitate membrane property rearrangement, leading to a change in the density and composition of the ion channel charge which in turn causes a change in ionic flow orientation and distribution. We suggest that, under abnormal conditions, ionic flow shunts are created which redirect the biophysical collateral neuronal (electrical) pathways, resulting in psychiatric signs and symptoms. This model is complementary to the biological basis of schizophrenia.

  6. Global energy modeling - A biophysical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Michael

    2010-09-15

    This paper contrasts the standard economic approach to energy modelling with energy models using a biophysical approach. Neither of these approaches includes changing energy-returns-on-investment (EROI) due to declining resource quality or the capital intensive nature of renewable energy sources. Both of these factors will become increasingly important in the future. An extension to the biophysical approach is outlined which encompasses a dynamic EROI function that explicitly incorporates technological learning. The model is used to explore several scenarios of long-term future energy supply especially concerning the global transition to renewable energy sources in the quest for a sustainable energy system.

  7. EnviroAtlas: A Spatially Explicit Tool Combining Climate Change Scenarios and Ecosystem ServicesIndicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    While discussions of global climate change tend to center on greenhouse gases and sea level rise, other factors, such as technological developments, land and energy use, economics, and population growth all play a critical role in understanding climate change. There is increasin...

  8. EnviroAtlas: A Spatially Explicit Tool Combining Climate Change Scenarios with Ecosystem Services Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    While discussions of global climate change tend to center on greenhouse gases and seal level rise, other factors, such as technological developments, land and energy use, economics, and population growth all play a critical role in understanding climate change. There is increasi...

  9. Leadership, Organizational Climate, and Perceived Burden of Evidence-Based Practice in Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, Kim C; Fenwick, Karissa; Farahnak, Lauren R; Hurlburt, Michael S; Roesch, Scott C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    The use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is associated with favorable client outcomes, yet perceived burden of using EBPs may affect the adoption and implementation of such practices. Multilevel path analysis was used to examine the associations of transformational leadership with organizational climate, and their associations with perceived burden of using EBPs. Results indicated significant relationships between transformational leadership and empowering and demoralizing climates, and between demoralizing climate and perceived burden of EBPs. We found significant indirect associations of leadership and perceived burden through organizational climate. Findings suggest that further research is needed to examine the extent to which improving leadership and organizational climate may reduce perceived burden and use of EBPs with the ultimate goal of enhancing quality of care.

  10. Leadership, Organizational Climate, and Perceived Burden of Evidence-Based Practice in Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, Kim C.; Fenwick, Karissa; Farahnak, Lauren R.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    The use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is associated with favorable client outcomes, yet perceived burden of using EBPs may affect the adoption and implementation of such practices. Multilevel path analysis was used to examine the associations of transformational leadership with organizational climate, and their associations with perceived burden of using EBPs. Results indicated significant relationships between transformational leadership and empowering and demoralizing climates, and between demoralizing climate and perceived burden of EBPs. We found significant indirect associations of leadership and perceived burden through organizational climate. Findings suggest that further research is needed to examine the extent to which improving leadership and organizational climate may reduce perceived burden and use of EBPs with the ultimate goal of enhancing quality of care. PMID:26152770

  11. Evaluating the contribution of Sustainable Land Management to climate change adaptation and mitigation, and its impacts on Mediterranean ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vente, Joris; Zagaria, Cecilia; Pérez-Cutillas, Pedro; Almagro, Maria; Martínez-Mena, Maria; Baartman, Jantiene; Boix-Fayos, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    Changing climate and land management have strong implications for soil and water resources and for many essential ecosystem services (ES), such as provision of drinking and irrigation water, soil erosion control, and carbon sequestration. Large impacts of climate change are expected in the Mediterranean, characterized by a high dependence on scarce soil and water resources. On the other hand, well designed Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies can reduce the risks associated with climate change, but their design requires knowledge of their multiple effects on ecosystem services under present and future climate scenarios and of possible tradeoffs. Moreover, strategies are only viable if suited to local environmental, socio-economic and cultural conditions, so stakeholder engagement is crucial during their selection, evaluation and implementation. We present preliminary results of a catchment wide assessment of the expected impacts of climate change on water availability in the Segura basin (18800 km2) southeastern Spain. Furthermore, we evaluated the impacts of past land use changes and the benefits of catchment wide implementation of SLM practices to protect soil and water resources, prevent sedimentation of reservoirs and increase carbon sequestration in soil and vegetation. We used the InVEST modeling framework to simulate the water availability and sediment export under different climate, land use and land management scenarios, and quantified carbon stocks in soil and vegetation. Realistic scenarios of implementation of SLM practices were prepared based on an extensive process of stakeholder engagement and using latest climate change predictions from Regional Climate Models for different emission scenarios. Results indicate a strong decrease in water availability in the Segura catchment under expected climate change, with average reductions of upto 60% and large spatial variability. Land use changes (1990 - 2006) resulted in a slight increase in water

  12. Replacing natural wetlands with stormwater management facilities: Biophysical and perceived social values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, R C; Foote, L; Krogman, N; Pattison, J K; Wilson, M J; Bayley, S E

    2015-04-15

    Urban expansion replaces wetlands of natural origin with artificial stormwater management facilities. The literature suggests that efforts to mimic natural wetlands in the design of stormwater facilities can expand the provision of ecosystem services. Policy developments seek to capitalize on these improvements, encouraging developers to build stormwater wetlands in place of stormwater ponds; however, few have compared the biophysical values and social perceptions of these created wetlands to those of the natural wetlands they are replacing. We compared four types of wetlands: natural references sites, natural wetlands impacted by agriculture, created stormwater wetlands, and created stormwater ponds. We anticipated that they would exhibit a gradient in biodiversity, ecological integrity, chemical and hydrologic stress. We further anticipated that perceived values would mirror measured biophysical values. We found higher biophysical values associated with wetlands of natural origin (both reference and agriculturally impacted). The biophysical values of stormwater wetlands and stormwater ponds were lower and indistinguishable from one another. The perceived wetland values assessed by the public differed from the observed biophysical values. This has important policy implications, as the public are not likely to perceive the loss of values associated with the replacement of natural wetlands with created stormwater management facilities. We conclude that 1) agriculturally impacted wetlands provide biophysical values equivalent to those of natural wetlands, meaning that land use alone is not a great predictor of wetland value; 2) stormwater wetlands are not a substantive improvement over stormwater ponds, relative to wetlands of natural origin; 3) stormwater wetlands are poor mimics of natural wetlands, likely due to fundamental distinctions in terms of basin morphology, temporal variation in hydrology, ground water connectivity, and landscape position; 4) these

  13. Assessing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers knowledge base about global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Roehrig, G. H.; Karahan, E.; Liu, S.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is a crucial environmental issue that is challenging all Americans. With an effective collaboration between researchers, scientists and teachers, conceptual frameworks and methods can be developed for creating climate change content for classroom implementation. In this paper, we describe how teachers' conceptualize and understand global climate change. The information generated by this study can further be used to develop theme based, structured curricula to enhance teachers' understanding of the phenomenon of global climate change. Recent national documents concerning science education have focused on an Earth System approach and concentrate on the fundamental concepts and big ideas in earth science and climate change (e.g., The Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) (National Science Foundation (NSF), 2009) and Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), 2009)). Unfortunately, research related to teachers' earth science content knowledge has not focused on an earth systems approach rather researchers have examined teachers' misconceptions about isolated earth science concepts, such as moon phases and plate tectonics. While such research implies teachers' lack of knowledge and awareness of earth as a system, it does not provide direct information about teachers' earth system knowledge. Similarly, research on teachers' and students' knowledge of climate change has focused on isolated topics, such as the greenhouse effect and global warming. Our study focused on eliciting secondary school science teachers' understanding of global climate change using a multifaceted and integrated approach. We do so in the context of a 3-year teacher professional development program where the climate science content provided to the teachers was aligned with essential principles of climate science (EPCS-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), 2009). Our study was guided

  14. Effects of climate change on the delivery of soil-mediated ecosystem services within the primary sector in temperate ecosystems: a review and New Zealand case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwin, Kate H; Stevenson, Bryan A; Smaill, Simeon J; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Dickie, Ian A; Clothier, Brent E; Garrett, Loretta G; van der Weerden, Tony J; Beare, Michael H; Curtin, Denis; de Klein, Cecile A M; Dodd, Michael B; Gentile, Roberta; Hedley, Carolyn; Mullan, Brett; Shepherd, Mark; Wakelin, Steven A; Bell, Nigel; Bowatte, Saman; Davis, Murray R; Dominati, Estelle; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Parfitt, Roger L; Thomas, Steve M

    2015-08-01

    Future human well-being under climate change depends on the ongoing delivery of food, fibre and wood from the land-based primary sector. The ability to deliver these provisioning services depends on soil-based ecosystem services (e.g. carbon, nutrient and water cycling and storage), yet we lack an in-depth understanding of the likely response of soil-based ecosystem services to climate change. We review the current knowledge on this topic for temperate ecosystems, focusing on mechanisms that are likely to underpin differences in climate change responses between four primary sector systems: cropping, intensive grazing, extensive grazing and plantation forestry. We then illustrate how our findings can be applied to assess service delivery under climate change in a specific region, using New Zealand as an example system. Differences in the climate change responses of carbon and nutrient-related services between systems will largely be driven by whether they are reliant on externally added or internally cycled nutrients, the extent to which plant communities could influence responses, and variation in vulnerability to erosion. The ability of soils to regulate water under climate change will mostly be driven by changes in rainfall, but can be influenced by different primary sector systems' vulnerability to soil water repellency and differences in evapotranspiration rates. These changes in regulating services resulted in different potentials for increased biomass production across systems, with intensively managed systems being the most likely to benefit from climate change. Quantitative prediction of net effects of climate change on soil ecosystem services remains a challenge, in part due to knowledge gaps, but also due to the complex interactions between different aspects of climate change. Despite this challenge, it is critical to gain the information required to make such predictions as robust as possible given the fundamental role of soils in supporting human well

  15. Biophysics of Hair Cell Sensory Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, Hendrikus; Horst, Johannes; van Dijk, Pim; van Netten, Sietse

    1993-01-01

    The last decade revealed to auditory researchers that hair cells can not only detect and process mechanical energy, but are also able to produce it. Thanks to the active hair cell, ears can produce otoacoustic emissions. This book gives the newest insights into the biophysics and physiology of

  16. Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Ecosystem Services and Interactions with other Pollutants and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Leach, A.; Adams, M.; Vries, de W.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are defined as the ecological and socio-economic value of goods and services provided by natural and semi-natural ecosystems. Ecosystem services are being impacted by many human induced stresses, one of them being nitrogen (N) deposition and its interactions with other pollutants

  17. Assessment of bio-physical drought hazards. A case study of Karkheh River basin in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Bahareh; Abbaspour, Karim; Houshmand Kouchi, Delaram; Yang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Iran has been affected by frequent droughts. Climate change is expected to intensify the situation in the future. Extreme drought events have had serious impacts on hydrological and agricultural sector. Thus, identification of bio-physical drought hazard is critically important for formulating effective adaptive measures to improve water and food security. This study aims to investigate temporal and spatial pattern of drought hazards in meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural (inclusively biophysical) sectors in the Karkheh River Basin of Iran in the historical and future climate change context. To do so, drought hazard indices were built based on the severity and frequency of standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized runoff index (SRI), and standardized soil moisture index (SSMI), which represent the three aspects of drought hazards. Variables required for calculating these indices were obtained from SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model constructed for the basin. The model was calibrated based on monthly runoff using the Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) algorithm in SWAT-CUP. Based on the climate variability and drought analysis, three drought hazard classes, namely low, medium and high, were defined. This help identify how agricultural and hydrological sectors are related to meteorological droughts. Additionally, the bio-physical drivers of drought hazards were identified for each class. Comparing the results during historic and future scenarios revealed that the frequency of high- severity hazards will increase, whereas the same is not predicted for the area with medium hazard intensity. Inferred from findings of this study, the combined application of the SWAT model with bio-physical drought hazard concept helps better understanding of climate risks to water and food security. The developed approach is replicable at different scales to provide a robust planning tool for policy makers.

  18. Combined effects of climate and land-use change on the provision of ecosystem services in rice agro-ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerwisch, Fanny; Václavík, Tomáš; von Bloh, Werner; Vetter, Tobias; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    Irrigated rice croplands are among the world’s most important agro-ecosystems. They provide food for more than 3.5 billion people and a range of other ecosystem services (ESS). However, the sustainability of rice agro-ecosystems is threatened by continuing climate and land-use changes. To estimate their combined effects on a bundle of ESS, we applied the vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL to seven study areas in the Philippines and Vietnam. We quantified future changes in the provision of four essential ESS (carbon storage, carbon sequestration, provision of irrigation water and rice production) under two climate scenarios (until 2100) and three site-specific land-use scenarios (until 2030), and examined the synergies and trade-offs in ESS responses to these drivers. Our results show that not all services can be provided in the same amounts in the future. In the Philippines and Vietnam the projections estimated a decrease in rice yields (by approximately 30%) and in carbon storage (by 15%) and sequestration (by 12%) towards the end of the century under the current land-use pattern. In contrast, the amount of available irrigation water was projected to increase in all scenarios by 10%-20%. However, the results also indicate that land-use change may partially offset the negative climate impacts in regions where cropland expansion is possible, although only at the expense of natural vegetation. When analysing the interactions between ESS, we found consistent synergies between rice production and carbon storage and trade-offs between carbon storage and provision of irrigation water under most scenarios. Our results show that not only the effects of climate and land-use change alone but also the interaction between ESS have to be considered to allow sustainable management of rice agro-ecosystems under global change.

  19. Conceptualizing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers' Knowledge Base for Climate Change Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K. M.; Roehrig, G.; Dalbotten, D. M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Nam, Y.; Varma, K.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    The need to deepen teachers' knowledge of the science of climate change is crucial under a global climate change (GCC) scenario. With effective collaboration between researchers, scientists and teachers, conceptual frameworks can be developed for creating climate change content for classroom implementation. Here, we discuss how teachers' conceptualized content knowledge about GCC changes over the course of a professional development program in which they are provided with place-based and culturally congruent content. The NASA-funded Global Climate Change Education (GCCE) project, "CYCLES: Teachers Discovering Climate Change from a Native Perspective", is a 3-year teacher professional development program designed to develop culturally-sensitive approaches for GCCE in Native American communities using traditional knowledge, data and tools. As a part of this program, we assessed the progression in the content knowledge of participating teachers about GCC. Teachers were provided thematic GCC content focused on the elements of the medicine wheel-Earth, Fire, Air, Water, and Life -during a one week summer workshop. Content was organized to emphasize explanations of the natural world as interconnected and cyclical processes and to align with the Climate and Earth Science Literacy Principles and NASA resources. Year 1 workshop content was focused on the theme of "Earth" and teacher knowledge was progressively increased by providing content under the themes of 1) understanding of timescale, 2) understanding of local and global perspectives, 3) understanding of proxy data and 4) ecosystem connectivity. We used a phenomenographical approach for data analysis to qualitatively investigate different ways in which the teachers experienced and conceptualized GCC. We analyzed categories of teachers' climate change knowledge using information generated by tools such as photo elicitation interviews, concept maps and reflective journal perceptions. Preliminary findings from the pre

  20. Integrated climate/land use/hydrological change scenarios for assessing threats to ecosystem services on California rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Flint, L. E.; Casey, C. F.; Alvarez, P.; Sleeter, B. M.; Sohl, T.

    2013-12-01

    In California there are over 18 million acres of rangelands in the Central Valley and the interior Coast Range, most of which are privately owned and managed for livestock production. Ranches provide extensive wildlife habitat and generate multiple ecosystem services that carry considerable market and non-market values. These rangelands are under pressure from urbanization and conversion to intensive agriculture, as well as from climate change that can alter the flow of these services. To understand the coupled and isolated impacts of land use and climate change on rangeland ecosystem services, we developed six spatially explicit (250 m) coupled climate/land use/hydrological change scenarios for the Central Valley and oak woodland regions of California consistent with three IPCC emission scenarios - A2, A1B and B1. Three land use land cover (LULC) change scenarios were each integrated with two downscaled global climate models (GCMs) (a warm, wet future and a hot, dry future) and related hydrologic data. We used these scenarios to quantify wildlife habitat, water supply (recharge potential and streamflow) and carbon sequestration on rangelands and to conduct an economic analysis associated with changes in these benefits. The USGS FOREcasting SCEnarios of land-use change model (FORE-SCE), which runs dynamically with downscaled GCM outputs, was used to generate maps of yearly LULC change for each scenario from 2006 to 2100. We used the USGS Basin Characterization Model (BCM), a regional water balance model, to generate change in runoff, recharge, and stream discharge based on land use change and climate change. Metrics derived from model outputs were generated at the landscape scale and for six case-study watersheds. At the landscape scale, over a quarter of the million acres set aside for conservation in the B1 scenario would otherwise be converted to agriculture in the A2 scenario, where temperatures increase by up to 4.5 °C compared to 1.3 °C in the B1 scenario

  1. Using Amazon Web Services (AWS) to enable real-time, remote sensing of biophysical and anthropogenic conditions in green infrastructure systems in Philadelphia, an ultra-urban application of the Internet of Things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalto, F. A.; Yu, Z.; Soldner, K.; Israel, A.; Fritch, M.; Kim, Y.; White, S.

    2017-12-01

    Urban stormwater utilities are increasingly using decentralized "green" infrastructure (GI) systems to capture stormwater and achieve compliance with regulations. Because environmental conditions, and design varies by GSI facility, monitoring of GSI systems under a range of conditions is essential. Conventional monitoring efforts can be costly because in-field data logging requires intense data transmission rates. The Internet of Things (IoT) can be used to more cost-effectively collect, store, and publish GSI monitoring data. Using 3G mobile networks, a cloud-based database was built on an Amazon Web Services (AWS) EC2 virtual machine to store and publish data collected with environmental sensors deployed in the field. This database can store multi-dimensional time series data, as well as photos and other observations logged by citizen scientists through a public engagement mobile app through a new Application Programming Interface (API). Also on the AWS EC2 virtual machine, a real-time QAQC flagging algorithm was developed to validate the sensor data streams.

  2. Teaching wave phenomena via biophysical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Daniel; Robbins, Mark; Leheny, Robert; Wonnell, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Over the past several years we have developed a two-semester second-year physics course sequence for students in the biosciences, tailored in part to the needs of undergraduate biophysics majors. One semester, ``Biological Physics,'' is based on the book of that name by P. Nelson. This talk will focus largely on the other semester, ``Wave Phenomena with Biophysical Applications,'' where we provide a novel introduction to the physics of waves, primarily through the study of experimental probes used in the biosciences that depend on the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Topic covered include: Fourier analysis, sound and hearing, diffraction - culminating in an analysis of x-ray fiber diffraction and its use in the determination of the structure of DNA - geometrical and physical optics, the physics of modern light microscopy, NMR and MRI. Laboratory exercises tailored to this course will also be described.

  3. Biophysical Evaluation of SonoSteam®:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    /response relationship between SonoSteam treatment time and changes in collagen I, and a depth dependency in bacterial reduction, which points toward CFU counts overestimating total bacterial reduction. In conclusion the biophysical methods provide a less biased, reproducible and highly detailed system description......In this study we employ a biophysical and molecular approach for the investigation of qualitative and quantitative changes in both food surface and bacteria upon surface decontamination by SonoSteam®. SonoSteam® is a recently developed method of food surface decontamination, which employs steam...... and ultrasound for effective heat transfer and short treatment times, resulting in significant reduction in surface bacteria. An efficient decontamination method should be cheap and fast, while eliminating harmful microorganism without decreasing the quality of the food. However, all known methods represent...

  4. Biophysics and the Challenges of Emerging Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, Joseph D

    2009-01-01

    This volume is a collection of articles from the proceedings of the International School of Structural Biology and Magnetic Resonance 8th Course: Biophysics and the Challenges of Emerging Threats. This NATO Advance Study Institute (ASI) was held in Erice at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture on 19 through 30 June 2007. The ASI brought together a diverse group of experts who bridged the fields of virology and biology, biophysics, chemistry and physics. Prominent lecturers and students from around the world representant a total of 24 countries participated in the NATO ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi (Stanford University, USA) and Alexander Arseniev (Moscow, RU). The central hypothesis underlying this ASI was that interdisciplinary research, merging principles of physics, chemistry and biology, can drive new discovery in detecting and fighting bioterrorism agents, lead to cleaner environments, and help propel development in NATO partner countries. The ASI merged the relat...

  5. Handbook of Single-Molecule Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has seen the development of a number of novel biophysical methods that allow the manipulation and study of individual biomolecules. The ability to monitor biological processes at this fundamental level of sensitivity has given rise to an improved understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Through the removal of ensemble averaging, distributions and fluctuations of molecular properties can be characterized, transient intermediates identified, and catalytic mechanisms elucidated. By applying forces on biomolecules while monitoring their activity, important information can be obtained on how proteins couple function to structure. The Handbook of Single-Molecule Biophysics provides an introduction to these techniques and presents an extensive discussion of the new biological insights obtained from them. Coverage includes: Experimental techniques to monitor and manipulate individual biomolecules The use of single-molecule techniques in super-resolution and functional imaging Single-molec...

  6. On the comparability of knowledge transfer activities - a case study at the German Baltic Sea Coast focusing regional climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Insa

    2017-06-01

    In this article the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is discussed by accounting for external impacts. It is shown that factors which are neither part of the knowledge transfer activity nor part of the participating institution may have significant impact on the potential usefulness of knowledge transfer activities. Differences in the potential usefulness are leading to different initial conditions of the knowledge transfer activities. This needs to be taken into account when comparing different knowledge transfer activities, e.g., in program evaluations. This study is focusing on regional climate services at the German Baltic Sea coast. It is based on two surveys and experiences with two identical web tools applied on two regions with different spatial coverage. The results show that comparability among science based knowledge transfer activities is strongly limited through several external impacts. The potential usefulness and thus the initial condition of a particular knowledge transfer activity strongly depends on (1) the perceived priority of the focused topic, (2) the used information channels, (3) the conformity between the research agenda of service providing institutions and information demands in the public, as well as (4) on the spatial coverage of a service. It is suggested to account for the described external impacts for evaluations of knowledge transfer activities. The results show that the comparability of knowledge transfer activities is limited and challenge the adequacy of quantitative measures in this context. Moreover, as shown in this case study, in particular regional climate services should be individually evaluated on a long term perspective, by potential user groups and/or by its real users. It is further suggested that evaluation criteria should be co-developed with these stakeholder groups.

  7. Motivated recall in the service of the economic system: The case of anthropogenic climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, Erin P; Ruisch, Benjamin C; Feygina, Irina; Monteiro, Christopher A; Jost, John T

    2016-06-01

    The contemporary political landscape is characterized by numerous divisive issues. Unlike many other issues, however, much of the disagreement about climate change centers not on how best to take action to address the problem, but on whether the problem exists at all. Psychological studies indicate that, to the extent that sustainability initiatives are seen as threatening to the socioeconomic system, individuals may downplay environmental problems in order to defend and protect the status quo. In the current research, participants were presented with scientific information about climate change and later asked to recall details of what they had learned. Individuals who were experimentally induced (Study 1) or dispositionally inclined (Studies 2 and 3) to justify the economic system misremembered the evidence to be less serious, and this was associated with increased skepticism. However, when high system justifiers were led to believe that the economy was in a recovery, they recalled climate change information to be more serious than did those assigned to a control condition. When low system justifiers were led to believe that the economy was in recession, they recalled the information to be less serious (Study 3). These findings suggest that because system justification can impact information processing, simply providing the public with scientific evidence may be insufficient to inspire action to mitigate climate change. However, linking environmental information to statements about the strength of the economic system may satiate system justification needs and break the psychological link between proenvironmental initiatives and economic risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Climate change impacts on freshwater fish, coral reefs, and related ecosystem services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed the potential physical and economic impacts of climate change on freshwater fisheries and coral reefs in the United States, examining a reference scenario and two policy scenarios that limit global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We modeled shifts in suitable habitat ...

  9. Editorial. Introduction to the regional assessments: Climate change, wildfire, and forest ecosystem services in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monique E. Rocca; Chelcy Ford Miniat; Robert J. Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Fires have influenced and shaped vegetation ever since the climate evolved to provide both ignition sources and oxygen (Bowman et al., 2009). Fire has been one of the most frequent and impactful disturbances to ecosystems globally, and thus one of the major regulators of forest composition, function and dynamics (Spurr and Barnes, 1973 and Bond and Keeley, 2005). Any...

  10. Basin-wide impacts of climate change on ecosystem services in the Lower Mekong Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water resources support more than 60 million people in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) and are important for food security—especially rice production—and economic security. This study aims to quantify water yield under near- and long-term climate scenarios and assess the...

  11. Effects of climate change on ecosystem services in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis Warziniack; Megan Lawson; S. Karen Dante-Wood

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the ecosystem services provided to people who visit, live adjacent to, or otherwise benefit from natural resources on public lands. Communities in the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) Northern Region and the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA), hereafter called the Northern Rockies region, are highly dependent on ecosystem...

  12. A biophysical analysis of latitudinal tree line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, S. J.; Loranty, M. M.; Berner, L.; Jin, Y.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Northern latitudinal tree line represents the interface between boreal forests and tundra ecosystems, and is the ecophysiological limit of tree recruitment and persistence. The transition between tundra and forest is typically gradual, occurring over tens to hundreds of kilometers. This gradient represents a substantial change in the biophysical properties of the earth surface, one that is particularly important in ecosystems that are snow covered for much of the year. Tree line is, however, commonly delineated by the point of the northern most tree, with no gradient between forested and non-forested ecosystems. As a consequence crisp delineations of tree line incorporated into models introduce error in surface radiation budgets due to inaccurate albedo representations. Errors in modeled carbon and water fluxes are likely as well. Here we use satellite observations to quantify several key biophysical properties across latitudinal tree line for a series of sites throughout the pan-boreal region We find decreases in NDVI and increases in albedo across the transition from boreal forest to tundra, as expected. However, in the absence of topographical barriers we find that these transitions can occur over upwards of 100 km, and that biophysical properties characteristic of tundra ecosystems can occur as far as 100 km south of tree line. This suggests that land surface models likely overestimate surface radiation budgets and carbon fluxes in the boreal biome. We discuss our results in the context of land surface models, noting specific examples from archived model runs.

  13. Sharing Skills and Needs between Providers and Users of Climate Information to Create Climate Services: Lessons from the Northern Adriatic Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, Valentina; Bellucci, Alessio; Torresan, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The need to cope with the expected impacts of climate change on socio-ecological systems calls for a closer dialogue between climate scientists and the community of climate information users. We describe an interactive process designed to bridge this gap by establishing a two-way communication, based on mutual learning. We analyse the need of climate information for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts on the coastal zone of the Northern Adriatic Sea, which is consider...

  14. Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Elmhagen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human population growth and resource use, mediated by changes in climate, land use, and water use, increasingly impact biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. However, impacts of these drivers on biodiversity and ecosystem services are rarely analyzed simultaneously and remain largely unknown. An emerging question is how science can improve the understanding of change in biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery and of potential feedback mechanisms of adaptive governance. We analyzed past and future change in drivers in south-central Sweden. We used the analysis to identify main research challenges and outline important research tasks. Since the 19th century, our study area has experienced substantial and interlinked changes; a 1.6°C temperature increase, rapid population growth, urbanization, and massive changes in land use and water use. Considerable future changes are also projected until the mid-21st century. However, little is known about the impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services so far, and this in turn hampers future projections of such effects. Therefore, we urge scientists to explore interdisciplinary approaches designed to investigate change in multiple drivers, underlying mechanisms, and interactions over time, including assessment and analysis of matching-scale data from several disciplines. Such a perspective is needed for science to contribute to adaptive governance by constantly improving the understanding of linked change complexities and their impacts.

  15. The role of energy-service demand reduction in global climate change mitigation: Combining energy modelling and decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesicki, Fabian; Anandarajah, Gabrial

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce energy-related CO 2 emissions different options have been considered: energy efficiency improvements, structural changes to low carbon or zero carbon fuel/technologies, carbon sequestration, and reduction in energy-service demands (useful energy). While efficiency and technology options have been extensively studied within the context of climate change mitigation, this paper addresses the possible role of price-related energy-service demand reduction. For this analysis, the elastic demand version of the TIAM-UCL global energy system model is used in combination with decomposition analysis. The results of the CO 2 emission decomposition indicate that a reduction in energy-service demand can play a limited role, contributing around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. A look at the sectoral level reveals that the demand reduction can play a greater role in selected sectors like transport contributing around 16% at a global level. The societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. - Highlights: → A reduction in global energy-service demand can contribute around 5% to global emission reduction in the 21st century. → The role of demand is a lot higher in transport than in the residential sector. → Contribution of demand reduction is higher in early periods of the 21st century. → Societal welfare loss is found to be high when the price elasticity of demand is low. → Regional shares in residual emissions vary under different elasticity scenarios.

  16. Linkages between organization climate and work outcomes: perceptual differences among health service professionals as a function of customer contact intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Dennis J; Harmon, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The delivery of high-quality service, rendered by health service professionals who interact with customers (patients), increases the likelihood that customers will form positive evaluations of the quality of their service encounters as well as high levels of customer satisfaction. Using linkage theory to develop our conceptual framework, we identify four clusters of variables which contribute to a chain of sequential events that connect organization climate to personal and operational work outcomes. We then examine the perceptual differences of service professionals, grouped by intensity of customer contact, with respect to these variables. National data for this project were obtained from multiple sources made available by the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA). Cross-group differences were tested using a series of variance analyses. The results indicate that level of customer-contact intensity plays a significant role in explaining variation in perceptions of support staff, clinical practitioners, and nurses at the multivariate and univariate levels of analysis. Contact intensity appears to be a core determinant of the nature of work performed by health service professionals as well as their psychological responses to organizational and customer-related dynamics. Health service professionals are important resources because of their specialized knowledge, labor expense, and scarcity. Based on findings from our research, managers are advised to survey employees' perceptions of their organizational environment and design practices that respond to the unique viewpoints of each of the professional groups identified in this study. Such tailoring should help executives maximize the value of investments in human resources by underwriting patient satisfaction and financial sustainability.

  17. Utilizing the NASA Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education Resource for Elementary Pre-service Teachers in a Technology Integration Education Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, E. M.; Moore, T.; Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.

    2014-12-01

    The preservice teachers enrolled in the EDUC 203 Introduction to Computer Instructional Technology course, primarily for elementary-level had created climate change educational lessons based upon their use of the NASA Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE). NASA climate education datasets and tools were introduced to faculty of Minority Serving Institutions through a grant from the NASA Innovations in Climate Education program. These lessons were developed to study various ocean processes involving phytoplankton's chlorophyll production over time for specific geographic areas using the Giovanni NASA software tool. The pre-service teachers had designed the climate change content that will assist K-4 learners to identify and predict phytoplankton sources attributed to sea surface temperatures, nutrient levels, sunlight, and atmospheric carbon dioxide associated with annual chlorophyll production. From the EDUC 203 course content, the preservice teachers applied the three phases of the technology integration planning (TIP) model in developing their lessons. The Zunal website (http://www.zunal.com) served as a hypermedia tool for online instructional delivery in presenting the climate change content, the NASA climate datasets, and the visualization tools used for the production of elementary learning units. A rubric was developed to assess students' development of their webquests to meet the overall learning objectives and specific climate education objectives. Accompanying each webquest is a rubric with a defined table of criteria, for a teacher to assess students completing each of the required tasks for each lesson. Two primary challenges of technology integration for elementary pre-service teachers were 1) motivating pre-service teachers to be interested in climate education and 2) aligning elementary learning objectives with the Next Generation science standards of climate education that are non-existent in the Common Core State

  18. How seasonal forecast could help a decision maker: an example of climate service for water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Christian; Beaulant, Anne-Lise; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Céron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The FP7 project EUPORIAS was a great opportunity for the climate community to co-design with stakeholders some original and innovative climate services at seasonal time scales. In this framework, Météo-France proposed a prototype that aimed to provide to water resource managers some tailored information to better anticipate the coming season. It is based on a forecasting system, built on a refined hydrological suite, forced by a coupled seasonal forecast model. It particularly delivers probabilistic river flow prediction on river basins all over the French territory. This paper presents the work we have done with "EPTB Seine Grands Lacs" (EPTB SGL), an institutional stakeholder in charge of the management of 4 great reservoirs on the upper Seine Basin. First, we present the co-design phase, which means the translation of classical climate outputs into several indices, relevant to influence the stakeholder's decision making process (DMP). And second, we detail the evaluation of the impact of the forecast on the DMP. This evaluation is based on an experiment realised in collaboration with the stakeholder. Concretely EPTB SGL has replayed some past decisions, in three different contexts: without any forecast, with a forecast A and with a forecast B. One of forecast A and B really contained seasonal forecast, the other only contained random forecasts taken from past climate. This placebo experiment, realised in a blind test, allowed us to calculate promising skill scores of the DMP based on seasonal forecast in comparison to a classical approach based on climatology, and to EPTG SGL current practice.

  19. Using Photo Elicitation Interview to Conceptualize In-Service Secondary School Science Teachers' Knowledge Base For Teaching Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Roehrig, G.; Karahan, E.; Liu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Photo Elicitation Interviews (PEI) were used for assessing in-service secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding about global climate change (GCC). We selected PEI over attitude surveys, multiple-choice content assessments and interviews because we believe that evaluating knowledge about GCC requires an understanding of the system as a whole (Papadimitriou, 2004). Hence we conducted interviews with ten teachers using visual representations of GCC. The 8 images used in this approach were obtained from NASA image collection and local climatology websites. Questions associated with these images were developed, aligned with Essential Principles for Climate Literacy (NOAA, 2009) and interviews were conducted following a weeklong, summer professional development workshop based on propagating climate literacy. Image1 elicited teachers' understanding about global warming. Almost all said that they were intrigued but they needed for more evidence to fully understand the issue. Image 2 was designed to elicit teachers' understandings of weather vs. climate. All ten teachers were able to distinguish between weather and climate but were aware of how many years of weather data was needed to make climate predictions. Their answers varied from 10 years to 100 years. Image 3 showed the Greenhouse effect, which most of the teachers were able to describe but they were not able, describe 'enhanced green house effect'. Gaps in knowledge about 'earth as a radiating body' and 'long wave and short wave radiations' also became evident during the process. Similar to Grima et al., 2010, Gautier, 2006 and Kempton, 1991, three participants attributed the increase in global temperatures to the size of the ozone hole, which is a commonly held misconception. Image 4 showed an image of the Keeling curve, which was well explained by most, but only five teachers were able to identify the cause of seasonal fluctuations in the amount of carbon dioxide gas released in the atmosphere. Image 5

  20. Assessment of the biophysical impacts of utility-scale photovoltaics through observations and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, A. M.; Georgescu, M.; Krayenhoff, E. S.; Sailor, D.

    2017-12-01

    Utility-scale solar power plants are a rapidly growing component of the solar energy sector. Utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) solar power generation in the United States has increased by 867% since 2012 (EIA, 2016). This expansion is likely to continue as the cost PV technologies decrease. While most agree that solar power can decrease greenhouse gas emissions, the biophysical effects of PV systems on surface energy balance (SEB), and implications for surface climate, are not well understood. To our knowledge, there has never been a detailed observational study of SEB at a utility-scale solar array. This study presents data from an eddy covariance observational tower, temporarily placed above a utility-scale PV array in Southern Arizona. Comparison of PV SEB with a reference (unmodified) site, shows that solar panels can alter the SEB and near surface climate. SEB observations are used to develop and validate a new and more complete SEB PV model. In addition, the PV model is compared to simpler PV modelling methods. The simpler PV models produce differing results to our newly developed model and cannot capture the more complex processes that influence PV SEB. Finally, hypothetical scenarios of PV expansion across the continental United States (CONUS) were developed using various spatial mapping criteria. CONUS simulations of PV expansion reveal regional variability in biophysical effects of PV expansion. The study presents the first rigorous and validated simulations of the biophysical effects of utility-scale PV arrays.

  1. Age of oil palm plantations causes a strong change in surface biophysical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabajo, Clifton; le Maire, Guerric; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, Indonesia has experienced dramatic land transformations with an expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests. As vegetation is a modifier of the climate near the ground these large-scale land transformations are expected to have major impacts on the surface biophysical variables i.e. surface temperature, albedo, and vegetation indices, e.g. the NDVI. Remote sensing data are needed to assess such changes at regional scale. We used 2 Landsat images from Jambi Province in Sumatra/Indonesia covering a chronosequence of oil palm plantations to study the 20 - 25 years life cycle of oil palm plantations and its relation with biophysical variables. Our results show large differences between the surface temperature of young oil palm plantations and forest (up to 9.5 ± 1.5 °C) indicating that the surface temperature is raised substantially after the establishment of oil palm plantations following the removal of forests. During the oil palm plantation lifecycle the surface temperature differences gradually decreases and approaches zero around an oil palm plantation age of 10 years. Similarly, NDVI increases and the albedo decreases approaching typical values of forests. Our results show that in order to assess the full climate effects of oil palm expansion biophysical processes play an important role and the full life cycle of oil palm plantations need to be considered.

  2. Past and Present Biophysical Redundancy of Countries as a Buffer to Changes in Food Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Carr, Joel; Dell' Angelo, Jampel; D' Odorico, Paolo; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Prell, Christina; hide

    2016-01-01

    Spatially diverse trends in population growth, climate change, industrialization, urbanization and economic development are expected to change future food supply and demand. These changes may affect the suitability of land for food production, implying elevated risks especially for resource constrained, food-importing countries. We present the evolution of biophysical redundancy for agricultural production at country level, from 1992 to 2012. Biophysical redundancy, defined as unused biotic and abiotic environmental resources, is represented by the potential food production of 'spare land', available water resources (i.e., not already used for human activities), as well as production increases through yield gap closure on cultivated areas and potential agricultural areas. In 2012, the biophysical redundancy of 75 (48) countries, mainly in North Africa, Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia, was insufficient to produce the caloric nutritional needs for at least 50% (25%) of their population during a year. Biophysical redundancy has decreased in the last two decades in 102 out of 155 countries, 11 of these went from high to limited redundancy, and nine of these from limited to very low redundancy. Although the variability of the drivers of change across different countries is high, improvements in yield and population growth have a clear impact on the decreases of redundancy towards the very low redundancy category. We took a more detailed look at countries classified as 'Low Income Economies (LIEs)' since they are particularly vulnerable to domestic or external food supply changes, due to their limited capacity to offset for food supply decreases with higher purchasing power on the international market. Currently, nine LIEs have limited or very low biophysical redundancy. Many of these showed a decrease in redundancy over the last two decades, which is not always linked with improvements in per capita food availability.

  3. Past and present biophysical redundancy of countries as a buffer to changes in food supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Carr, Joel; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; D'Odorico, Paolo; Gephart, Jessica A.; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Prell, Christina; Puma, Michael J.; Ratajczak, Zak; Seekell, David A.; Suweis, Samir; Tavoni, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Spatially diverse trends in population growth, climate change, industrialization, urbanization and economic development are expected to change future food supply and demand. These changes may affect the suitability of land for food production, implying elevated risks especially for resource-constrained, food-importing countries. We present the evolution of biophysical redundancy for agricultural production at country level, from 1992 to 2012. Biophysical redundancy, defined as unused biotic and abiotic environmental resources, is represented by the potential food production of ‘spare land’, available water resources (i.e., not already used for human activities), as well as production increases through yield gap closure on cultivated areas and potential agricultural areas. In 2012, the biophysical redundancy of 75 (48) countries, mainly in North Africa, Western Europe, the Middle East and Asia, was insufficient to produce the caloric nutritional needs for at least 50% (25%) of their population during a year. Biophysical redundancy has decreased in the last two decades in 102 out of 155 countries, 11 of these went from high to limited redundancy, and nine of these from limited to very low redundancy. Although the variability of the drivers of change across different countries is high, improvements in yield and population growth have a clear impact on the decreases of redundancy towards the very low redundancy category. We took a more detailed look at countries classified as ‘Low Income Economies (LIEs)’ since they are particularly vulnerable to domestic or external food supply changes, due to their limited capacity to offset for food supply decreases with higher purchasing power on the international market. Currently, nine LIEs have limited or very low biophysical redundancy. Many of these showed a decrease in redundancy over the last two decades, which is not always linked with improvements in per capita food availability.

  4. Assessing impact of land use and climate change on regulating ecosystem services in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorencová, Eliška; Harmáčková, Veronika Zuzana; Landová, L.; Pártl, Adam; Vačkář, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2016), č. článku e01210. ISSN 2332-8878 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Czech Republic * drivers * ecosystem services * InVEST * modeling * scenarios * Special Feature: Ecosystem Management in Transition in Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Livestock and Ecosystem Services: An Exploratory Approach to Assess Agri-Environment-Climate Payments of RDP in Trentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra La Notte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of an appropriate justification for Agri-Environment-Climate (AEC payments is a crucial issue in the new Rural Development Programme (RDP. Given the environmental importance of grasslands in Trentino (Italy, the Management Authority in charge of the RDP decided to integrate an approach based on Ecosystem Services (ES into the calculation of AEC payments. The paper presents the methodology used for this approach as well as the preliminary results. The first step entails building a probabilistic model for the ES, named Sustainable Fodder Production. Model outputs are then integrated with the accounting results based on the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN database (2009–2012 with the aim of calculating the additional costs and income waived due to the environmental commitments deriving from the sustainable management of permanent grassland in livestock farming. Sustainability measures imply more extensive management practices that maintain meadows in a healthy state.

  6. Consistency across missions of long time series of global biophysical variables: challenges and lessons learnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Roselyne; Smets, Bruno; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Camacho, Fernando; Swinnen, Else; Verger, Aleixandre

    2017-04-01

    The Global component of the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service (CGLS) provides continuously a set of bio-geophysical variables describing the dynamics of vegetation, the energy budget at the continental surface, the water cycle and the cryosphere. Products are generated on a reliable and automatic basis from Earth Observation satellite data, at a frequency ranging from one hour to 10 days. They are accessible free of charge through the GCLS website (http://land.copernicus.eu/global/), associated with documentation describing the physical methodologies, the technical properties of products, and the quality of variables based on the results of validation exercises. The portfolio of the CGLS contains some Essential Climate Variables (ECV) like the Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of PAR absorbed by the vegetation (FAPAR), the surface albedo, and additional vegetation indices. These products were derived from SPOT/VEGETATION sensor data till December 2013, are currently derived from PROBA-V sensor data, and will be derived in the future from Sentinel-3 data. This talk will show how challenging is the transition between sensors to ensure the sustainability of the production while keeping the consistency of the time series. We will discuss the various sources of differences from input data, the impact of these differences on the biophysical variables and, in turn, on some final users' applications as such those based upon anomalies or assimilation of time series. We will present the mitigation measures taken to reduce as much as possible this impact. We will conclude with the lessons learnt and how this experience will be exploited to manage the transition towards Sentinel-3.

  7. Replacing natural wetlands with stormwater management facilities: biophysical and perceived social values

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, R.C.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Pattison, J.K.; Wilson, M.J.; Bayley, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Urban expansion replaces wetlands of natural origin with artificial stormwater management facilities. The literature suggests that efforts to mimic natural wetlands in the design of stormwater facilities can expand the provision of ecosystem services. Policy developments seek to capitalize on these improvements, encouraging developers to build stormwater wetlands in place of stormwater ponds; however, few have compared the biophysical values and social perceptions of these created wetlands to...

  8. Extreme climatic conditions and health service utilisation across rural and metropolitan New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegasothy, Edward; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Nairn, John; Fawcett, Robert; Scalley, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Periods of successive extreme heat and cold temperature have major effects on human health and increase rates of health service utilisation. The severity of these events varies between geographic locations and populations. This study aimed to estimate the effects of heat waves and cold waves on health service utilisation across urban, regional and remote areas in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during the 10-year study period 2005-2015. We divided the state into three regions and used 24 over-dispersed or zero-inflated Poisson time-series regression models to estimate the effect of heat waves and cold waves, of three levels of severity, on the rates of ambulance call-outs, emergency department (ED) presentations and mortality. We defined heat waves and cold waves using excess heat factor (EHF) and excess cold factor (ECF) metrics, respectively. Heat waves generally resulted in increased rates of ambulance call-outs, ED presentations and mortality across the three regions and the entire state. For all of NSW, very intense heat waves resulted in an increase of 10.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5, 17.4%) in mortality, 3.4% (95% CI 0.8, 7.8%) in ED presentations and 10.9% (95% CI 7.7, 14.2%) in ambulance call-outs. Cold waves were shown to have significant effects on ED presentations (9.3% increase for intense events, 95% CI 8.0-10.6%) and mortality (8.8% increase for intense events, 95% CI 2.1-15.9%) in outer regional and remote areas. There was little evidence for an effect from cold waves on health service utilisation in major cities and inner regional areas. Heat waves have a large impact on health service utilisation in NSW in both urban and rural settings. Cold waves also have significant effects in outer regional and remote areas. EHF is a good predictor of health service utilisation for heat waves, although service needs may differ between urban and rural areas.

  9. Extreme climatic conditions and health service utilisation across rural and metropolitan New South Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegasothy, Edward; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Nairn, John; Fawcett, Robert; Scalley, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Periods of successive extreme heat and cold temperature have major effects on human health and increase rates of health service utilisation. The severity of these events varies between geographic locations and populations. This study aimed to estimate the effects of heat waves and cold waves on health service utilisation across urban, regional and remote areas in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during the 10-year study period 2005-2015. We divided the state into three regions and used 24 over-dispersed or zero-inflated Poisson time-series regression models to estimate the effect of heat waves and cold waves, of three levels of severity, on the rates of ambulance call-outs, emergency department (ED) presentations and mortality. We defined heat waves and cold waves using excess heat factor (EHF) and excess cold factor (ECF) metrics, respectively. Heat waves generally resulted in increased rates of ambulance call-outs, ED presentations and mortality across the three regions and the entire state. For all of NSW, very intense heat waves resulted in an increase of 10.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5, 17.4%) in mortality, 3.4% (95% CI 0.8, 7.8%) in ED presentations and 10.9% (95% CI 7.7, 14.2%) in ambulance call-outs. Cold waves were shown to have significant effects on ED presentations (9.3% increase for intense events, 95% CI 8.0-10.6%) and mortality (8.8% increase for intense events, 95% CI 2.1-15.9%) in outer regional and remote areas. There was little evidence for an effect from cold waves on health service utilisation in major cities and inner regional areas. Heat waves have a large impact on health service utilisation in NSW in both urban and rural settings. Cold waves also have significant effects in outer regional and remote areas. EHF is a good predictor of health service utilisation for heat waves, although service needs may differ between urban and rural areas.

  10. Perception of climate change and its impact by smallholders in pastoral/agropastoral systems of Borana, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debela, Nega; Mohammed, Caroline; Bridle, Kerry; Corkrey, Ross; McNeil, David

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the perception of historic changes in climate and associated impact on local agriculture among smallholders in pastoral/agropastoral systems of Borana in southern Ethiopia. We drew on empirical data obtained from farm household surveys conducted in 5 districts, 20 pastoral/agropastoral associations and 480 farm households. Using this data, this study analyses smallholders' perception of climate change and its associated impact on local agriculture, and the effect of various household and farm attributes on perception. Results suggest that most participants perceived climatic change and its negative impact on agricultural and considered climate change as a salient risk to their future livelihoods and economic development. Different levels of perception were expressed in terms of climate change and the impact on traditional rain-fed agriculture. Age, education level, livestock holding, access to climate information and extension services significantly affected perception levels. Household size, production system, farm and non-farm incomes did not significantly affect perception levels of smallholders. Smallholders attributed climate change to a range of biophysical, deistic and anthropogenic causes. Increased access to agricultural support services, which improves the availability and the quality of relevant climate information will further enhance awareness of climate change within of the rural community and result in better management of climate-induced risks in these vulnerable agricultural systems.

  11. A coupled human-natural system to assess the operational value of weather and climate services for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in weather and climate (W&C) services are showing increasing forecast skills over seasonal and longer timescales, potentially providing valuable support in informing decisions in a variety of economic sectors. Quantifying this value, however, might not be straightforward as better forecast quality does not necessarily imply better decisions by the end users, especially when forecasts do not reach their final users, when providers are not trusted, or when forecasts are not appropriately understood. In this study, we contribute an assessment framework to evaluate the operational value of W&C services for informing agricultural practices by complementing traditional forecast quality assessments with a coupled human-natural system behavioural model which reproduces farmers' decisions. This allows a more critical assessment of the forecast value mediated by the end users' perspective, including farmers' risk attitudes and behavioural factors. The application to an agricultural area in northern Italy shows that the quality of state-of-the-art W&C services is still limited in predicting the weather and the crop yield of the incoming agricultural season, with ECMWF annual products simulated by the IFS/HOPE model resulting in the most skillful product in the study area. However, we also show that the accuracy of estimating crop yield and the probability of making optimal decisions are not necessarily linearly correlated, with the overall assessment procedure being strongly impacted by the behavioural attitudes of farmers, which can produce rank reversals in the quantification of the W&C services operational value depending on the different perceptions of risk and uncertainty.

  12. Radiobiology, biochemistry and radiation biophysics at CYLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ftacnikova, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Cyclotron Laboratory (CYLAB) should fill the gap in the field of nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, basic research, metrology of ionizing radiation, education and implications of accelerator technology existing today in Slovak Republic. The main planned activities of this facility are in the fields of nuclear medicine (production of radioisotopes for Positron Emission Tomography - PET and for oncology) and radiotherapy (neutron capture therapy, fast neutron therapy and proton therapy). The radiobiological and biophysical research will be closely connected with medical applications, particularly with radiotherapy. Problems to be addressed include the determination of the values of Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) for different types of ionizing radiation involved in the therapy, microdosimetric measurements and calculations, which are indispensable in the calculation of the absorbed dose (lineal and specific energy spectra) at the cellular and macromolecular level. Radiation biophysics and medical physics help in creating therapeutic plans for radiotherapy (NCT and fast neutron therapy). In nuclear medicine, in diagnostic and therapeutical procedures it is necessary to assess the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals and to calculate doses in target and critical organs and to determine whole body burden - effective equivalent dose for newly developed radiopharmaceuticals

  13. Modeling disordered protein interactions from biophysical principles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenna X Peterson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Disordered protein-protein interactions (PPIs, those involving a folded protein and an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP, are prevalent in the cell, including important signaling and regulatory pathways. IDPs do not adopt a single dominant structure in isolation but often become ordered upon binding. To aid understanding of the molecular mechanisms of disordered PPIs, it is crucial to obtain the tertiary structure of the PPIs. However, experimental methods have difficulty in solving disordered PPIs and existing protein-protein and protein-peptide docking methods are not able to model them. Here we present a novel computational method, IDP-LZerD, which models the conformation of a disordered PPI by considering the biophysical binding mechanism of an IDP to a structured protein, whereby a local segment of the IDP initiates the interaction and subsequently the remaining IDP regions explore and coalesce around the initial binding site. On a dataset of 22 disordered PPIs with IDPs up to 69 amino acids, successful predictions were made for 21 bound and 18 unbound receptors. The successful modeling provides additional support for biophysical principles. Moreover, the new technique significantly expands the capability of protein structure modeling and provides crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms of disordered PPIs.

  14. A mathematical approach to protein biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, L Ridgway

    2017-01-01

    This book explores quantitative aspects of protein biophysics and attempts to delineate certain rules of molecular behavior that make atomic scale objects behave in a digital way.  This book will help readers to understand how certain biological systems involving proteins function as digital information systems despite the fact that underlying processes are analog in nature. The in-depth explanation of proteins from a quantitative point of view and the variety of level of exercises (including physical experiments) at the end of each chapter will appeal to graduate and senior undergraduate students in mathematics, computer science, mechanical engineering, and physics, wanting to learn about the biophysics of proteins.  L. Ridgway Scott has been Professor of Computer Science and of Mathematics at the University of Chicago since 1998, and the Louis Block Professor since 2001.  He obtained a B.S. degree (Magna Cum Laude) from Tulane University in 1969 and a PhD degree in Mathematics from the Massachusetts Ins...

  15. Ecosystem services provided by agricultural terraces in semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Díaz, Asunción; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; de Vente, Joris

    2016-04-01

    Since ancient times, agricultural terraces are common features throughout the world, especially on steep slope gradients. Nowadays many terraces have been abandoned or removed and few new terraces are build due to increased mechanisation and intensification of agriculture. However, terraces are amongst the most effective soil conservation practices, reducing the slope gradient and slope length, as well as runoff rate and soil erosion, and without terraces, it would be impossible to cultivate on many hillslopes. Moreover, their scenic interest is undeniable, as in some cases, terraced slopes have even become part of UNESCO World Heritage. In order to highlight the potential benefits, requirements and limitations of terraces, we reviewed different types of sustainable land management practices related to terraces and characterised their implications for provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services. We centred our review on terraces in semi-arid environments worldwide, as were documented in the WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) database. Our results show that the most important ecosystem services provided by terraces relate to regulation of the on-site and off-site effects of runoff and erosion, and maintenance of soil fertility and vegetation cover. The presence of terraces also favours the provision of food, fiber, and clean water. In short, our results stress the crucial environmental, geomorphological and hydrological functions of terraces that directly relate to improving the quality of life of the people that use them. These results highlight the need for renewed recognition of the value of terraces for society, their preservation and maintenance.

  16. What is the future of the ecosystem services of the Alpine forest against a backdrop of climate change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Courbaud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain forests produce a large number of ecosystem services that are going to be affected by climate change. We are expecting an increase in high altitude species that could result in the decrease in resinous and subalpine species. These changes in species could adversely affect biodiversity and timber production. However, we also observe an increase in productivity that favours the production of energy wood and, at least temporarily, timber, as well as carbon storage. Given the possible rise in extreme climatic events, changes in vegetation could be marked by periods of decline, which will be very detrimental to the economic system, protection against natural hazards and biodiversity. Climate change will also have an indirect effect on the forest by increasing the demand for renewable energy and carbon storage. There is a lot of uncertainty about vegetation change predictions and this makes it difficult to define forest management adaptation strategies. Effective crisis management, monitoring of natural transformations of the forest based on the interaction between research and management (adaptive management and the explicit factoring in of the concept of uncertainty appear to be essential to the maintenance of the ecosystem services provided by the forest.La forêt de montagne produit de nombreux services écosystémiques qui vont être affectés par les changements climatiques. On attend une remontée des essences en altitude qui pourrait conduire à une diminution des résineux et des espèces du subalpin. Ces changements d’essences pourraient avoir un impact négatif sur la biodiversité et sur la production de bois d’œuvre. On observe cependant également une augmentation de la productivité favorable à la production de bois énergie et au moins temporairement de bois d’œuvre, ainsi qu’au stockage de carbone. Face à une augmentation possible des évènements climatiques extrêmes, les changements de végétation pourront

  17. The Iowa K-12 Climate Science Education Initiative: a comprehensive approach to meeting in-service teachers' stated needs for teaching climate literacy with NGSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanier, C. O.; Spak, S.; Neal, T. A.; Herder, S.; Malek, A.; Miller, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The Iowa Board of Education voted unanimously in 2015 to adopt NGSS performance standards. The CGRER - College of Education Iowa K-12 Climate Science Education Initiative was established in 2016 to work directly with Iowa inservice teachers to provide what teachers need most to teach climate literacy and climate science content through investigational learning aligned with NGSS. Here we present teachers' requests for teaching climate with NGSS, and an approach to provide resources for place-based authentic inquiry on climate, developed, tested, and refined in partnership with inservice and preservice teachers. A survey of inservice middle school and high school science teachers was conducted at the 2016 Iowa Council of Teachers of Mathematics/Iowa Academy of Sciences - Iowa Science Teaching Section Fall Conference and online in fall 2016. Participants (n=383) were asked about their prior experience and education, the resources they use and need, their level of comfort in teaching climate science, perceived barriers, and how they address potential controversy. Teachers indicated preference for professional development on climate content and complete curricula packaged with lessons and interactive models aligned to Iowa standards, as well as training on instructional strategies to enhance students' ability to interpret scientific evidence. We identify trends in responses by teaching experience, climate content knowledge and its source, grade level, and urban and rural districts. Less than 20% of respondents reported controversy or negativity in teaching climate to date, and a majority were comfortable teaching climate science and climate change, with equal confidence in teaching climate and other STEM content through investigational activities. We present an approach and materials to meet these stated needs, created and tested in collaboration with Iowa teachers. We combine professional development and modular curricula with bundled standards, concepts, models, data

  18. Facilitating a stakeholder-led approach to the development of Mediterranean climate services: co-ordinating the CLIM-RUN case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodess, C. M.

    2012-04-01

    The CLIM-RUN case studies provide a real-world context for bringing together experts on the demand and supply side of climate services. They are essential to the CLIM-RUN objective of using iterative and bottom-up (i.e., stakeholder led) approaches for optimizing the two-way information transfer between climate experts and stakeholders. The region of interest for CLIM-RUN is the Mediterranean, which is a recognised climate change hotspot (i.e., a region particularly sensitive and vulnerable to global warming) and which does not currently have developed climate service networks such as exist in a number of Central and Northern European countries. The case studies focus on the energy and tourism sectors, but also include a cross-cutting study on wild fires (an issue of increasing concern in the Mediterranean) as well as a cross-sectorial integrated case study for the Venice lagoon. They span coastal (e.g., Tunisia and Croatia), island (e.g., Cyprus) and mountain (e.g., Savoie) environments, the eastern (e.g., Greece) to western (e.g., Spain, Morocco) Mediterranean regions, and regional to local foci. Stakeholder involvement has been critical from the start of the project in March 2011, with a series of targeted workshops helping to define the framework for each case study. Two specific workshop objectives were to (i) better understand who are the climate services stakeholders and (ii) what they need/want from climate services (both in terms of data products and broader knowledge). Many of the workshops were held in local languages to maximise stakeholder participation, with expert knowledge provided by the CLIM-RUN climate and stakeholder expert teams (the CET and SET). Following the workshops, CET members are 'translating' the user needs into specific requirements from climate observations and models and identifying areas where additional modelling and analysis are required. As part of the central co-ordination of the case studies, a perception and data needs

  19. Single-molecule experiments in biophysics: Exploring the thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cules contributes to our understanding of the nonequilibrium thermal behavior of small systems. Keywords. Biophysics; single-molecule experiments; fluctuation theorems. PACS Nos 05.70.Ln; 82.37.Rs; 87.10.+e; 87.15.Ya. 1. Biomolecules, molecular demons and statistical physics. Biophysics is a relatively young discipline ...

  20. Evaluating the suitability of coupled biophysical models for fishery management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Huret, M.; Peck, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The potential role of coupled biophysical models in enhancing the conservation, management, and recovery of fish stocks is assessed, with emphasis on anchovy, cod, herring, and sprat in European waters. The assessment indicates that coupled biophysical models are currently capable of simulating

  1. Developing User-Driven Climate Information Services to Build Resilience Amongst Groups at Risk of Drought and Flood in Arid and Semi-Arid Land Counties in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githungo, W. N.; Shaka, A.; Kniveton, D.; Muithya, L.; Powell, R.; Visman, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL) counties of Kitui and Makueni in Kenya are experiencing increasing climate variability in seasonal rainfall, including changes in the onset, cessation and distribution of the two principal rains upon which the majority of the population's small-holder farmers and livestock keepers depend. Food insecurity is prevalent with significant numbers also affected by flooding during periods of intense rainfall. As part of a multi-partner Adaptation Consortium, Kenya Meteorological Services (KMS) are developing Climate Information Services (CIS) which can better support decision making amongst the counties' principal livelihoods groups and across County Government ministries. Building on earlier pilots and stakeholder discussion, the system combines the production of climate information tailored for transmission via regional and local radio stations with the establishment of a new SMS service. SMS are provided through a network of CIS intermediaries drawn from across key government ministries, religious networks, non-governmental and community groups, aiming to achieve one SMS recipient per 3-500 people. It also introduces a demand-led, premium-rate SMS weather information service which is designed to be self-financing in the long term. Supporting the ongoing process of devolution, KMS is downscaling national forecasts for each county, and providing seasonal, monthly, weekly and daily forecasts, as well as warnings of weather-related hazards. Through collaboration with relevant ministries, government bodies and research institutions, including livestock, agriculture, drought management and health, technical advisories are developed to provide guidance on application of the climate information. The system seeks to provide timely, relevant information which can enable people to use weather and climate information to support decisions which protect life and property and build resilience to ongoing climate variability and future change.

  2. Microwave Tissue Ablation: Biophysics, Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an emerging treatment option for many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. During treatment, microwaves are applied directly to tissues to produce rapid temperature elevations sufficient to produce immediate coagulative necrosis. The engineering design criteria for each application differ, with individual consideration for factors such as desired ablation zone size, treatment duration, and procedural invasiveness. Recent technological developments in applicator cooling, power control and system optimization for specific applications promise to increase the utilization of microwave ablation in the future. This article will review the basic biophysics of microwave tissue heating, provide an overview of the design and operation of current equipment, and outline areas for future research for microwave ablation. PMID:21175404

  3. Biophysics of NASA radiation quality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-09-01

    NASA has implemented new radiation quality factors (QFs) for projecting cancer risks from space radiation exposures to astronauts. The NASA QFs are based on particle track structure concepts with parameters derived from available radiobiology data, and NASA introduces distinct QFs for solid cancer and leukaemia risk estimates. The NASA model was reviewed by the US National Research Council and approved for use by NASA for risk assessment for International Space Station missions and trade studies of future exploration missions to Mars and other destinations. A key feature of the NASA QFs is to represent the uncertainty in the QF assessments and evaluate the importance of the QF uncertainty to overall uncertainties in cancer risk projections. In this article, the biophysical basis for the probability distribution functions representing QF uncertainties was reviewed, and approaches needed to reduce uncertainties were discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Scientific knowledge at the service of the COP21. A collection of research projects 2008-2015 from the 'Management and impacts of Climate Change' programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljean-Dubois, Sandrine; Quenol, Herve; Glachant, Matthieu; Haurie, Alain; Braconnot, Pascal; Dandin, Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Salles, Denis; Le Hir, Pierre; Bossini, Serge; Imbard, Maurice; Tabau, Anne-Sophie

    2015-11-01

    After a presentation of the GICC research programme (a programme on the Management and Impacts of Climate Change), presentations of various researches are proposed. They deal with climate change mitigation as an aid to decision (a legal interpretation of major stakes; study of the industrial economy of sector-based agreements, ETEM-AR or modelling mitigation and adaptation of the energy system in a local climate plan), with climate services as support to decision (INVULNERABLE, a study of the vulnerability of enterprises; DRIAS to give access to French regionalized climate simulations and scenarios), and with the adaptation to climate change to the service of the territory (R2D2 2050, study of risk, water resource and sustainable management of the Durance river in 2050; C3E2, study of the consequences of climate change on the eco-morphology of estuaries; TERADCLIM, study of the adaptation to climate change at the scale of wine growing territories)

  5. Climateurope: a network to support Europe's research and innovation activities in the fields of Earth-System modeling and climate services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessembinder, Janette; Kotova, Lola; Manez, Maria; Jacob, Daniela; Hewitt, Chris; Garrett, Natalie; Monfray, Patrick; Doescher, Ralf; Doblas Reyes, Francisco; Joussaume, Sylvie; Toumi, Ralf; Buonocore, Mauro; Gualdi, Silvio; Nickovic, Slobodan

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the climate are affecting many sectors but the audience of decision- and policy-makers is so wide and varied that the requirements from each application can be quite different. There are a growing number of initiatives at the international and European level, from research networks of data providers, operational services, impact assessments, to coordination of government initiatives and provision of policy relevant recommendations; all provided on a wide range of timescales. The landscape of activities is very diverse. Users and providers of climate information currently face significant challenges in understanding this complex landscape. If we are to maximize the benefits of the investments and provide European citizens with the information and technology to develop a climate-smart society, then a mechanism is needed to coordinate the impressive and varied research and innovation effort. The overall concept behind the EU-project Climateurope is to create and manage a framework to coordinate, integrate and support Europe's research and innovation activities in the fields of Earth-System modeling and climate services. The purpose of this concept is to create greater social and economic value for Europe through improved preparation for, and management of, climate-related risks and opportunities arising from making European world-class knowledge more useable and thus more applicable to policy- and decision-making. This value will be felt by a range of actors including the public sector, governments, business and industry. Climateurope will provide a comprehensive overview of all the relevant activities to ensure the society at large can take full advantage of the investment Europe is making in research and innovation and associated development of services. The Climateurope network will facilitate dialog among climate science communities, funding bodies, climate service providers and users. Through the communication and dissemination activities, Climateurope

  6. Risks of adverse impacts from climate change in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vincent, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter, the terms hazard exposure, sensitivity (or biophysical vulnerability), adaptive capacity (or its opposite - social vulnerability) and risk are introduced (see Box 4.1 for key definitions). Whether or not climate change is likely...

  7. Socio-economic vulnerability, adaptation to agro-climatic risk and the potential of user-tailored climate services for the Andean Highlands: The case of quinoa production in the region of Puno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flubacher, Moritz; Sedlmeier, Katrin; Lechthaler, Filippo; Rohrer, Mario; Cristobal, Lizet; Vinogradova, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    In the semi-arid Altiplano in Peru, smallholder farmers are extremely exposed to climatic hazards like drought, frost and hail. These unfavorable weather and climate events can lead to significant crop losses and thereby provoke periods of food insecurity for subsistence farmers. The use of specific climate information can serve as an adaptation strategy to reduce the impact of these natural hazards. In this context, the Climandes project (a project of the Global Framework for Climate Services led by WMO) aims at developing user-tailored seasonal forecast products for the agricultural sector in the Peruvian Andes such as indices on increased frost risk, the occurrence of long dry periods, or the start of the rainy season. In order to develop such user-tailored climate information and link it efficiently to the existing implementation context, it is important to understand the complex interrelation between climate variability and change, socio-economic vulnerability and adaptation limits. Moreover, as it has been widely shown, the process of making climate information useful for end-users, in particular for smallholder farmers in developing countries, remains a considerable challenge due to existing cognitive, cultural and institutional constraints. In this sense, it is necessary to identify these constraints and formulate strategies to overcome them. While there exist different studies about climate change and anomalies in Puno, there is no consolidated evidence on the corresponding socio-economic vulnerabilities in the specific agricultural context of Puno. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a field survey collecting primary data in the Andean highlands based on a representative sample of 726 smallholder farmers in the region of Puno (Peru). The assessment primarily focused on exploring smallholders' agro-climatic risk exposure, socio-economic profiles, existing coping strategies as well as prevailing barriers to utilization of science-based climate

  8. Climate change and developing country interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Chinowsky, Paul; Fant, Charles

    We consider the interplay of climate change impacts, global mitigation policies, and the interests of developing countries to 2050. Focusing on Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia, we employ a structural approach to biophysical and economic modeling that incorporates climate uncertainty and allows for...

  9. Resilience of sewage services to climate change uncertainty: analysis of the management of sewer overflows in two Parisian suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioust, E.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Barroca, B.; Bonierbale, T.; de Gouvello, B.; Deutsch, J. C.; Hubert, G.

    2009-04-01

    This paper considers the resilience perspective as an approach for understanding social and political vulnerabilities of urban services. The authors examine to what extend uncertainty due to climate change may affect the resilience of these urban services. The resilience perspective is increasingly used for analysing social groups' capacities to adapt to and live with disturbances. A lot of work on resilience has focused on the capacity to absorb shocks and still maintain functions. But there is also another aspect of resilience, which leads to take into account systems vulnerabilities and to aim at understanding their equilibrium and re-organization capacity. The purpose with this paper is to assess sewage systems capacities to adapt to climate change. Indeed, climate change could cause an increase of extreme rain events and, as a matter of consequence, an increase of sewer overflows and flooding of urbanised areas. Sewer systems have to cope with this change that may gravely affect urban planning. In recent studies of political science, risk management has been considered as a public policy involving and resulting from complex social, political and technical processes (Gilbert et al. 2003). From this point of view, the management of wastewaters and storm waters has to be considered not only as a technical but also as a political and a social system. Therefore, political science can be a fruitful perspective to understand the stakeholders perceptions of uncertainty and the way they are going to integrate this issue in their practices. The authors analyse the adaptive capacities of two sewer systems located in the Parisian suburban area. The chosen areas are highly populated. Each network is managed within a political and administrative unit called "Département". Both authorities of these "Départements" implement a public sewage service. Nonetheless these networks are connected and part of the greater Paris sewage policy. In both areas a real time control of

  10. Green spaces are not all the same for the provision of air purification and climate regulation services: The case of urban parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana; Matos, Paula; Mexia, Teresa; Silva, Patrícia; Lopes, Nuno; Freitas, Catarina; Correia, Otília; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Branquinho, Cristina; Pinho, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    The growing human population concentrated in urban areas lead to the increase of road traffic and artificial areas, consequently enhancing air pollution and urban heat island effects, among others. These environmental changes affect citizen's health, causing a high number of premature deaths, with considerable social and economic costs. Nature-based solutions are essential to ameliorate those impacts in urban areas. While the mere presence of urban green spaces is pointed as an overarching solution, the relative importance of specific vegetation structure, composition and management to improve the ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation are overlooked. This avoids the establishment of optimized planning and management procedures for urban green spaces with high spatial resolution and detail. Our aim was to understand the relative contribution of vegetation structure, composition and management for the provision of ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation in urban green spaces, in particular the case of urban parks. This work was done in a large urban park with different types of vegetation surrounded by urban areas. As indicators of microclimatic effects and of air pollution levels we selected different metrics: lichen diversity and pollutants accumulation in lichens. Among lichen diversity, functional traits related to nutrient and water requirements were used as surrogates of the capacity of vegetation to filter air pollution and to regulate climate, and provide air purification and climate regulation ecosystem services, respectively. This was also obtained with very high spatial resolution which allows detailed spatial planning for optimization of ecosystem services. We found that vegetation type characterized by a more complex structure (trees, shrubs and herbaceous layers) and by the absence of management (pruning, irrigation and fertilization) had a higher capacity to provide the ecosystems services of air

  11. Sharing skills and needs between providers and users of climate information to create climate services: lessons from the Northern Adriatic case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Giannini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The need to cope with the expected impacts of climate change on socio-ecological systems calls for a closer dialogue between climate scientists and the community of climate information users. We describe an interactive process designed to bridge this gap by establishing a two-way communication, based on mutual learning. We analyse the need of climate information for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts on the coastal zone of the Northern Adriatic Sea, which is considered to be particularly vulnerable to several climate-related phenomena, e.g. heavy rainfall events, pluvial flood, and sea level rise, causing potentially high damage to coastal ecosystems and urban areas (e.g. acqua alta in the Venice Lagoon. A participatory process was designed engaging representatives from both the scientific and local stakeholders communities, and facilitated by a boundary organization, embodied by the Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change. End-users of climate information (e.g. decision makers belonging to public institutions were selected among representatives of those public institutions having a specific mandate for Integrated Coastal Zone Management, and engaged to identify their needs. During the early stages of the interaction process, several priorities were identified, including: (1 data to support land-use planning, (2 data with greater resolution and longer time series, (3 data on climate impacts and risks, (4 precipitation patterns to improve irrigation, (5 sea level rise and tides, (6 climate variations and extreme events, (7 seasonal trend for tidal waves, and (8 hydraulic risk. Three climate products were developed to address these needs: (1 short-term projections of sea level rise; (2 seasonal predictions of extreme rainfall events; (3 long-term regional projections of climate extremes (including heat waves, dry spells and heavy rainfall events. Additionally, two risk products were developed: 4 sea level rise

  12. The ECOMS User Data Gateway: Towards seasonal forecast data provision and research reproducibility in the era of Climate Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Cofiño

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sectorial applications of seasonal forecasting require data for a reduced number of variables from different datasets, mainly (gridded observations, reanalysis, and predictions from state-of-the-art seasonal forecast systems (such as NCEP/CFSv2, ECMWF/System4 or UKMO/GloSea5. Whilst this information can be obtained directly from the data providers, the resulting formats, temporal aggregations, and vocabularies may not be homogeneous across datasets. Moreover, different data policies hold for the different databases, being only some of them publicly available. Therefore, obtaining and harmonizing multi-model seasonal forecast data for sector-specific applications is an error-prone, time consuming task.In order to facilitate this, the ECOMS User Data Gateway (ECOMS-UDG was developed in the framework of the ECOMS initiative as a one-stop-service for climate data. To this aim, the variables required by end users were identified, downloaded from the data providers and locally stored as virtual datasets in a THREDDS Data Server (TDS, implementing fine-grained user management and authorization via the THREDDS Access Portal (TAP. As a result, users can retrieve the subsets best suited to their particular research needs in a user-friendly manner using the standard TDS data services. Moreover, an open source, R-based interface for data access and postprocessing was developed in the form of a bundle of packages implementing harmonized data access (one single vocabulary, data collocation, bias adjustment and downscaling, and forecast visualization and validation. This provides a unique comprehensive framework for end-to-end applications of seasonal predictions, hence favoring the reproducibility of the ECOMS scientific outcomes, extensible to the whole scientific community. Keywords: Seasonal forecasting, Open science, THREDDS, Reproducibility, R software, Bias adjustment, Downscaling, Validation

  13. How do climatic and management factors affect agricultural ecosystem services? A case study in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianmin; Yu, Deyong; Wu, Jianguo

    2018-02-01

    Agricultural ecosystem management needs to ensure food production and minimize soil erosion and nitrogen (N) leaching under climate change and increasingly intensive human activity. Thus, the mechanisms through which climatic and management factors affect crop production, soil erosion, and N leaching must be understood in order to ensure food security and sustainable agricultural development. In this study, we adopted the GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model to simulate crop production, soil erosion, and N leaching, and used a partial least squares regression model to evaluate the contributions of climate variables (solar radiation, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, and maximum and minimum temperature) and management factors (irrigation, fertilization, and crop cultivation area) on agricultural ecosystem services (AES) in the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) of northern China. The results indicated that crop production and N leaching markedly increased, whereas soil erosion declined from 1980 to 2010 in the APTZ. Management factors had larger effects on the AES than climate change. Among the climatic variables, daily minimum temperature was the most important contributor to the variations in ecosystem services of wheat, maize, and rice. Spatial changes in the cultivated area most affected crop production, soil erosion, and N leaching for majority of the cultivated areas of the three crops, except for the wheat-cultivated area, where the dominant factor for N leaching was fertilization. Although a tradeoff existed between crop production and negative environmental effects, compromises were possible. These findings provide new insights into the effects of climatic and management factors on AES, and have practical implications for improving crop production while minimizing negative environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. VT Biodiversity Project - Biophysical Regions polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset divides Vermont into eight sub-regions on the basis of bedrock geology, gross physiography, climate, and broad-scale patterns of...

  15. Quantify the Biophysical and Socioeconomic Drivers of Changes in Forest and Agricultural Land in South and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Jain, A. K.; Calvin, K. V.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the rapid socioeconomic development and biophysical factors, South and Southeast Asia (SSEA) has become a hotspot region of land use and land cover changes (LULCCs) in past few decades. Uncovering the drivers of LULCC is crucial for improving the understanding of LULCC processes. Due to the differences from spatiotemporal scales, methods and data sources in previous studies, the quantitative relationships between the LULCC activities and biophysical and socioeconomic drivers at the regional scale of SSEA have not been established. Here we present a comprehensive estimation of the biophysical and socioeconomic drivers of the major LULCC activities in SSEA: changes in forest and agricultural land. We used the Climate Change Initiative land cover data developed by European Space Agency to reveal the dynamics of forest and agricultural land from 1992 to 2015. Then we synthesized 200 publications about LULCC drivers at different spatial scales in SSEA to identify the major drivers of these LULCC activities. Corresponding representative variables of the major drivers were collected. The geographically weighted regression was employed to assess the spatiotemporally heterogeneous drivers of LULCC. Moreover, we validated our results with some national level case studies in SSEA. The results showed that both biophysical conditions such as terrain, soil, and climate, and socioeconomic factors such as migration, poverty, and economy played important roles in driving the changes of forest and agricultural land. The major drivers varied in different locations and periods. Our study integrated the bottom-up knowledge from local scale case studies with the top-down estimation of LULCC drivers, therefore generated more accurate and credible results. The identified biophysical and socioeconomic components could be used to improve the LULCC modelling and projection.

  16. Studies of land-cover, land-use, and biophysical properties of vegetation in the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar A. Robertsa; Michael Keller; Joao Vianei Soares

    2003-01-01

    We summarize early research on land-cover, land-use, and biophysical properties of vegetation from the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere (LBA) experiment in Amazoˆnia. LBA is an international research program developed to evaluate regional function and to determine how land-use and climate modify biological, chemical and physical processes there. Remote sensing has...

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing of biochemical and biophysical parameters: the derivate red-edge "double-peak feature", a nuisance or an opportunity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Improved quantification and monitoring of biophysical and biochemical attributes is required to predict the response of ecosystems to climate change and acquire deeper understanding of the carbon cycle. Remote sensing is widely viewed as a time- and cost-efficient way to proceed with large-scale

  18. Rhizosphere biophysics and root water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, Andrea; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Ahmed, Mutez A.; Passioura, John

    2016-04-01

    The flow of water into the roots and the (putative) presence of a large resistance at the root-soil interface have attracted the attention of plant and soil scientists for decades. Such resistance has been attributed to a partial contact between roots and soil, large gradients in soil matric potential around the roots, or accumulation of solutes at the root surface creating a negative osmotic potential. Our hypothesis is that roots are capable of altering the biophysical properties of the soil around the roots, the rhizosphere, facilitating root water uptake in dry soils. In particular, we expect that root hairs and mucilage optimally connect the roots to the soil maintaining the hydraulic continuity across the rhizosphere. Using a pressure chamber apparatus we measured the relation between transpiration rate and the water potential difference between soil and leaf xylem during drying cycles in barley mutants with and without root hairs. The samples were grown in well structured soils. At low soil moistures and high transpiration rates, large drops in water potential developed around the roots. These drops in water potential recovered very slowly, even after transpiration was severely decreased. The drops in water potential were much bigger in barley mutants without root hairs. These mutants failed to sustain high transpiration rates in dry conditions. To explain the nature of such drops in water potential across the rhizosphere we performed high resolution neutron tomography of the rhizosphere of the barleys with and without root hairs growing in the same soil described above. The tomograms suggested that the hydraulic contact between the soil structures was the highest resistance for the water flow in dry conditions. The tomograms also indicate that root hairs and mucilage improved the hydraulic contact between roots and soil structures. At high transpiration rates and low water contents, roots extracted water from the rhizosphere, while the bulk soil, due its

  19. Exposing Underrepresented Groups to Climate Change and Atmospheric Science Through Service Learning and Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, D.

    2016-12-01

    Tennessee State University (TSU) is among seven partner institutions in the NASA-funded project "Mission Earth: Fusing Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) with NASA Assets to Build Systemic Innovation in STEM Education." The primary objective at the TSU site is to expose high school students from racial and ethnic groups traditionally underrepresented in STEM to atmospheric science and physical systems associated with climate change. Currently, undergraduate students enrolled in TSU's urban and physical courses develop lessons for high school students focused upon the analysis of global warming phenomena and related extreme weather events. The GLOBE Atmosphere Protocols are emphasized in exercises focused upon the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon and air quality measurements. Pre-service teachers at TSU, and in-service teachers at four local high schools are being certified in the Atmosphere Protocols. Precipitation, ambient air temperature, surface temperature and other data are collected at the schools through a collaborative learning effort among the high school students, TSU undergraduates, and high school teachers. Data collected and recorded manually in the field are compared to each school's automated Weatherbug station measurements. Students and teachers engage in analysis of NASA imagery as part of the GLOBE Surface Temperature Protocol. At off-campus locations, US Clean Air Act (CAA) criteria air pollutant and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) air pollutant sampling is being conducted in community-based participatory research (CBPR) format. Students partner with non-profit environmental organizations. Data collected using low-cost air sampling devices is being compared with readings from government air monitors. The GLOBE Aerosols Protocol is used in comparative assessments with air sampling results. Project deliverables include four new GLOBE schools, the enrollment of which is nearly entirely comprised of students

  20. Harnessing the climate mitigation, conservation and poverty alleviation potential of seagrasses: prospects for developing blue carbon initiatives and payment for ecosystem service programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Peter Hejnowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass ecosystems provide numerous ecosystem services that support coastal communities around the world. They sustain abundant marine life as well as commercial and artisanal fisheries, and help protect shorelines from coastal erosion. Additionally, seagrass meadows are a globally significant sink for carbon and represent a key ecosystem for combating climate change. However, seagrass habitats are suffering rapid global decline. Despite recognition of the importance of ‘Blue Carbon’, no functioning seagrass restoration or conservation projects supported by carbon finance currently operate, and the policies and frameworks to achieve this have not been developed. Yet, seagrass ecosystems could play a central role in addessing important international research questions regarding the natural mechanisms through which the ocean and the seabed can mitigate climate change, and how ecosystem structure links to service provision. The relative inattention that seagrass ecosystems have received represents both a serious oversight and a major missed opportunity. In this paper we review the prospects of further inclusion of seagrass ecosystems in climate policy frameworks, with a particular focus on carbon storage and sequestration, as well as the potential for developing payment for ecosystem service (PES schemes that are complementary to carbon management. Prospects for the inclusion of seagrass Blue Carbon in regulatory compliance markets are currently limited; yet despite the risks the voluntary carbon sector offers the most immediately attractive avenue for the development of carbon credits. Given the array of ecosystem services seagrass ecosystems provide the most viable route to combat climate change, ensure seagrass conservation and improve livelihoods may be to complement any carbon payments with seagrass PES schemes based on the provision of additional ecosystem services.

  1. Using EPA Tools and Data Services to Inform Changes to Design Storm Definitions for Wastewater Utilities based on Climate Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryby, M.; Fries, J. S.; Baranowski, C.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events can cause significant impacts to drinking water and wastewater utilities, including facility damage, water quality impacts, service interruptions and potential risks to human health and the environment due to localized flooding and combined sewer overflows (CSOs). These impacts will become more pronounced with the projected increases in frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events due to climate change. To model the impacts of extreme precipitation events, wastewater utilities often develop Intensity, Duration, and Frequency (IDF) rainfall curves and "design storms" for use in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Wastewater utilities use SWMM for planning, analysis, and facility design related to stormwater runoff, combined and sanitary sewers, and other drainage systems in urban and non-urban areas. SWMM tracks (1) the quantity and quality of runoff made within each sub-catchment; and (2) the flow rate, flow depth, and quality of water in each pipe and channel during a simulation period made up of multiple time steps. In its current format, EPA SWMM does not consider climate change projection data. Climate change may affect the relationship between intensity, duration, and frequency described by past rainfall events. Therefore, EPA is integrating climate projection data available in the Climate Resilience Evaluation and Awareness Tool (CREAT) into SWMM. CREAT is a climate risk assessment tool for utilities that provides downscaled climate change projection data for changes in the amount of rainfall in a 24-hour period for various extreme precipitation events (e.g., from 5-year to 100-year storm events). Incorporating climate change projections into SWMM will provide wastewater utilities with more comprehensive data they can use in planning for future storm events, thereby reducing the impacts to the utility and customers served from flooding and stormwater issues.

  2. Biophysical Profiling of Tumor Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Coffman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant differences in genetic profiles, cancer cells share common phenotypic properties, including membrane-associated changes that facilitate invasion and metastasis. The Corning Epic® optical biosensor was used to monitor dynamic mass rearrangements within and proximal to the cell membrane in tumor cell lines derived from cancers of the colon, bone, cervix, lung and breast. Data was collected in real time and required no exogenously added signaling moiety (signal-free technology. Cell lines displayed unique profiles over the time-courses: the time-courses all displayed initial signal increases to maximal values, but the rate of increase to those maxima and the value of those maxima were distinct for each cell line. The rate of decline following the maxima also differed among cell lines. There were correlations between the signal maxima and the observed metastatic behavior of the cells in xenograft experiments; for most cell types the cells that were more highly metastatic in mice had lower time-course maxima values, however the reverse was seen in breast cancer cells. The unique profiles of these cell lines and the correlation of at least one profile characteristic with metastatic behavior demonstrate the potential utility of biophysical tumor cell profiling in the study of cancer biology.

  3. Biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Highlights of my biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology is presented. Early adventures involved developing state-vector models'' for specific harmful effects (cell killing, life shortening) of exposure to radiation. More recent adventures led to developing hazard-function models'' for predicting biological effects (e.g., cell killing, mutations, tumor induction) of combined exposure to different toxicants. Hazard-function models were also developed for predicting harm to man from exposure to large radiation doses. Major conclusions derived from the modeling adventures are as follows: (1) synergistic effects of different genotoxic agents should not occur at low doses; (2) for exposure of the lung or bone marrow to large doses of photon radiation, low rates of exposure should be better tolerated than high rates; and (3) for some types of radiation (e.g., alpha particles and fission neutrons), moderate doses delivered at a low rate may be more harmful than the same dose given at a high rate. 53 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Contribution to researches in biophysics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccioni, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    In this accreditation to supervise research, the author indicates its curriculum and scientific works which mainly dealt with the different agents used in chemotherapy. Scientific works addressed anti-carcinogenic pharmacology, applied biophysics, and researches in oncology and radiobiology. Current research projects deal with mechanisms of cellular transformation and the implication of the anti-oxidising metabolism and of nucleotide metabolism in cell radio-sensitivity. Teaching and research supervising activities are also indicated. Several articles are proposed in appendix: Average quality factor and dose equivalent meter based on microdosimetry techniques; Activity of thymidylate synthetase, thymidine kinase and galactokinase in primary and xenografted human colorectal cancers in relation to their chromosomal patterns; Nucleotide metabolism in human gliomas, relation to the chromosomal profile; Pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism in human colon carcinomas: comparison of normal tissues, primary tumors and xenografts; Modifications of the antioxidant metabolism during proliferation and differentiation of colon tumours cell lines; Modulation of the antioxidant enzymes, p21 and p53 expression during proliferation and differentiation of human melanoma cell lines; Purine metabolism in 2 human melanoma cell lines, relation with proliferation and differentiation; Radiation-induced changes in nucleotide metabolism of 2 colon cancer cell lines with different radio-sensitivities

  5. Review of FEWS NET Biophysical Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, K. W.; Brown, Molly E.; Verdin, J.; Underwood, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) provides monitoring and early warning support to decision makers responsible for responding to famine and food insecurity. FEWS NET transforms satellite remote sensing data into rainfall and vegetation information that can be used by these decision makers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently funded activities to enhance remote sensing inputs to FEWS NET. To elicit Earth observation requirements, a professional review questionnaire was disseminated to FEWS NET expert end-users: it focused upon operational requirements to determine additional useful remote sensing data and; subsequently, beneficial FEWS NET biophysical supplementary inputs. The review was completed by over 40 experts from around the world, enabling a robust set of professional perspectives to be gathered and analyzed rapidly. Reviewers were asked to evaluate the relative importance of environmental variables and spatio-temporal requirements for Earth science data products, in particular for rainfall and vegetation products. The results showed that spatio-temporal resolution requirements are complex and need to vary according to place, time, and hazard: that high resolution remote sensing products continue to be in demand, and that rainfall and vegetation products were valued as data that provide actionable food security information.

  6. Biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Highlights of my biophysical and biomathematical adventures in radiobiology is presented. Early adventures involved developing ''state-vector models'' for specific harmful effects (cell killing, life shortening) of exposure to radiation. More recent adventures led to developing ''hazard-function models'' for predicting biological effects (e.g., cell killing, mutations, tumor induction) of combined exposure to different toxicants. Hazard-function models were also developed for predicting harm to man from exposure to large radiation doses. Major conclusions derived from the modeling adventures are as follows: (1) synergistic effects of different genotoxic agents should not occur at low doses; (2) for exposure of the lung or bone marrow to large doses of photon radiation, low rates of exposure should be better tolerated than high rates; and (3) for some types of radiation (e.g., alpha particles and fission neutrons), moderate doses delivered at a low rate may be more harmful than the same dose given at a high rate. 53 refs., 7 figs

  7. Mitigating and adapting to climate change: multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuzere, M; Orru, K; Heidrich, O; Olazabal, E; Geneletti, D; Orru, H; Bhave, A G; Mittal, N; Feliu, E; Faehnle, M

    2014-12-15

    In order to develop climate resilient urban areas and reduce emissions, several opportunities exist starting from conscious planning and design of green (and blue) spaces in these landscapes. Green urban infrastructure has been regarded as beneficial, e.g. by balancing water flows, providing thermal comfort. This article explores the existing evidence on the contribution of green spaces to climate change mitigation and adaptation services. We suggest a framework of ecosystem services for systematizing the evidence on the provision of bio-physical benefits (e.g. CO2 sequestration) as well as social and psychological benefits (e.g. improved health) that enable coping with (adaptation) or reducing the adverse effects (mitigation) of climate change. The multi-functional and multi-scale nature of green urban infrastructure complicates the categorization of services and benefits, since in reality the interactions between various benefits are manifold and appear on different scales. We will show the relevance of the benefits from green urban infrastructures on three spatial scales (i.e. city, neighborhood and site specific scales). We will further report on co-benefits and trade-offs between the various services indicating that a benefit could in turn be detrimental in relation to other functions. The manuscript identifies avenues for further research on the role of green urban infrastructure, in different types of cities, climates and social contexts. Our systematic understanding of the bio-physical and social processes defining various services allows targeting stressors that may hamper the provision of green urban infrastructure services in individual behavior as well as in wider planning and environmental management in urban areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Climate science information needs among natural resource decision-makers in the Northwest US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Allen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing water resources, air quality, forests, rangelands and agricultural systems in the context of climate change requires a new level of integrated knowledge. In order to articulate a role for university-based research teams as providers of climate services, this paper analyzes environmental change concerns and expectations about climate models among natural resources decision-makers in the Northwest US. Data were collected during a series of workshops organized by researchers from BioEarth, a regional earth systems modeling initiative. Eighty-three stakeholders from industry, government agencies and non-governmental organizations engaged with a team of academic researchers developing integrated biophysical and economic climate modeling tools. Analysis of transcripts of workshop discussions, surveys, and questionnaires reveals diverse attitudes among stakeholders about: 1 preferred modes of engaging in climate science research, 2 specific concerns and questions about climate change impacts, and 3 the most relevant and usable scope and scale of climate change impacts projections. Diverse concerns and information needs among natural resource decision-makers highlight the need for research teams to define clear and precise goals for stakeholder engagement. Utilizing the skills of research team members who have communication and extension expertise is pivotally important. We suggest impactful opportunities for research teams and natural resource decision-makers to interface and learn from one another. Effective approaches include structuring group discussions to identify gaps in existing climate change impacts information, explicitly considering changing policies, technologies and management practices, and exploring possible unintended consequences of decisions.

  9. Mechanisms of Soil Aggregation: a biophysical modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.; Or, D.

    2016-12-01

    Soil aggregation is one of the main crosscutting concepts in all sub-disciplines and applications of soil science from agriculture to climate regulation. The concept generally refers to adhesion of primary soil particles into distinct units that remain stable when subjected to disruptive forces. It is one of the most sensitive soil qualities that readily respond to disturbances such as cultivation, fire, drought, flooding, and changes in vegetation. These changes are commonly quantified and incorporated in soil models indirectly as alterations in carbon content and type, bulk density, aeration, permeability, as well as water retention characteristics. Soil aggregation that is primarily controlled by organic matter generally exhibits hierarchical organization of soil constituents into stable units that range in size from a few microns to centimeters. However, this conceptual model of soil aggregation as the key unifying mechanism remains poorly quantified and is rarely included in predictive soil models. Here we provide a biophysical framework for quantitative and predictive modeling of soil aggregation and its attendant soil characteristics. The framework treats aggregates as hotspots of biological, chemical and physical processes centered around roots and root residue. We keep track of the life cycle of an individual aggregate from it genesis in the rhizosphere, fueled by rhizodeposition and mediated by vigorous microbial activity, until its disappearance when the root-derived resources are depleted. The framework synthesizes current understanding of microbial life in porous media; water holding and soil binding capacity of biopolymers; and environmental controls on soil organic matter dynamics. The framework paves a way for integration of processes that are presently modeled as disparate or poorly coupled processes, including storage and protection of carbon, microbial activity, greenhouse gas fluxes, movement and storage of water, resistance of soils against

  10. Simulating and mapping the spatial and seasonal effects of future climate and land -use changes on ecosystem services in the Yanhe watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengshuai; Li, Jing; Zhou, Zixiang; Liu, Yan; Li, Ting; Liu, Jingya

    2018-01-01

    Effective information about ecosystem services is essential to help optimize and prioritize activities that support conservation planning in the face of land use and climate changes. This study shows an approach that integrates several dissimilar models for assessing water-related ecosystem services to predict values in 2050 under three land use scenarios in the Yanhe watershed. The simulated output variables pertaining to water yield and sediment yield were used as indicators for two ecosystem-regulating services, i.e., water flow regulation and erosion regulation, which were quantified using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model. The model results were translated into a relative ecosystem service valuation scale, which facilitated the analysis of spatial and seasonal changes and served as the basis for the applied mapping approach. The simulated results indicate that higher water-related regulation services were concentrated in the middle and lower reaches of rivers with high water yield and low sediment erosion. The highest water flow regulation services occurred in summer; nevertheless, this was when erosion regulation services were the lowest compared to other periods in 2050. A comparison of the three land use scenarios showed differences in the water-related regulation services. Scenario 1, with high forest coverage, had the highest erosion regulation services, but the water flow regulation services were the lowest. Scenario 3 showed the reverse pattern. Scenario 2 had intermediate water flow regulation and erosion regulation. Increasing vegetation cover in the watershed is conducive to controlling water and soil erosion but could lead to a decline in available water resources. Spatial mapping is a powerful tool for displaying the spatiotemporal differences in the water-related regulation services delivered by ecosystems and can help decision makers optimize land use in the future, with the goal of maximizing the benefits offered by ecological

  11. Single Particle Orientation and Rotational Tracking (SPORT) in biophysical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan; Ha, Ji Won; Augspurger, Ashley E.; Chen, Kuangcai; Zhu, Shaobin; Fang, Ning

    2013-10-01

    The single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) techniques have seen rapid development in the past 5 years. Recent technical advances have greatly expanded the applicability of SPORT in biophysical studies. In this feature article, we survey the current development of SPORT and discuss its potential applications in biophysics, including cellular membrane processes and intracellular transport.The single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) techniques have seen rapid development in the past 5 years. Recent technical advances have greatly expanded the applicability of SPORT in biophysical studies. In this feature article, we survey the current development of SPORT and discuss its potential applications in biophysics, including cellular membrane processes and intracellular transport. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Three supplementary movies and an experimental section. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02254d

  12. Biophysical approach to low back pain: a pilot report

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foletti, A.; Pokorný, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2015), s. 156-159 ISSN 1536-8378 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Bioelectromagnetic medicine * Biophysical therapy * Coherence domains Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2015

  13. Benchmarking sensitivity of biophysical processes to leaf area changes in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Duveiller, Gregory; Georgievski, Goran; Li, Wei; Robestson, Eddy; Kautz, Markus; Lawrence, Peter; Ciais, Philippe; Pongratz, Julia; Sitch, Stephen; Wiltshire, Andy; Arneth, Almut; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Land surface models (LSM) are widely applied as supporting tools for policy-relevant assessment of climate change and its impact on terrestrial ecosystems, yet knowledge of their performance skills in representing the sensitivity of biophysical processes to changes in vegetation density is still limited. This is particularly relevant in light of the substantial impacts on regional climate associated with the changes in leaf area index (LAI) following the observed global greening. Benchmarking LSMs on the sensitivity of the simulated processes to vegetation density is essential to reduce their uncertainty and improve the representation of these effects. Here we present a novel benchmark system to assess model capacity in reproducing land surface-atmosphere energy exchanges modulated by vegetation density. Through a collaborative effort of different modeling groups, a consistent set of land surface energy fluxes and LAI dynamics has been generated from multiple LSMs, including JSBACH, JULES, ORCHIDEE, CLM4.5 and LPJ-GUESS. Relationships of interannual variations of modeled surface fluxes to LAI changes have been analyzed at global scale across different climatological gradients and compared with satellite-based products. A set of scoring metrics has been used to assess the overall model performances and a detailed analysis in the climate space has been provided to diagnose possible model errors associated to background conditions. Results have enabled us to identify model-specific strengths and deficiencies. An overall best performing model does not emerge from the analyses. However, the comparison with other models that work better under certain metrics and conditions indicates that improvements are expected to be potentially achievable. A general amplification of the biophysical processes mediated by vegetation is found across the different land surface schemes. Grasslands are characterized by an underestimated year-to-year variability of LAI in cold climates

  14. Forest ecosystem services in the context of climate change: A new concept for forestry in the Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Trudić, Branislav; Orlović, Saša; Stojnić, Srđan; Pilipo